WorldWideScience

Sample records for mice show altered

  1. Period2 gene mutant mice show compromised insulin-mediated endothelial nitric oxide release and altered glucose homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Miguel Carvas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Period2 (Per2 is an important component of the circadian clock. Mutation of this gene is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction and altered glucose metabolism. The aim of this study is to further characterize whole body glucose homeostasis and endothelial NO production in response to insulin in the mPer2Brdm1 mice. We show that mPer2Brdm1 mice exhibit compromised insulin receptor activation and Akt signaling in various tissues including liver, fat, heart, and aortas with a tissue-specific heterogeneous diurnal pattern, and decreased insulin-stimulated endothelial NO release in the aortas in both active and inactive phases of the animals. As compared to wild type mice, the mPer2Brdm1 mice reveal hyperinsulinemia, hypoglycemia with lower fasting hepatic glycogen content and glycogen synthase level, no difference in glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. The mPer2Brdm1 mice do not show increased predisposition to obesity either on normal chow or high fat diet compared to wild type controls. Thus, mice with Per2 gene mutation show altered glucose homeostasis and compromised insulin-stimulated endothelial NO release, independently of obesity.

  2. Shank3-mutant mice lacking exon 9 show altered excitation/inhibition balance, enhanced rearing, and spatial memory deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiseok eLee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shank3 is a postsynaptic scaffolding protein implicated in synapse development and autism spectrum disorders. The Shank3 gene is known to produce diverse splice variants whose functions have not been fully explored. In the present study, we generated mice lacking Shank3 exon 9 (Shank3∆9 mice, and thus missing 5 out of 10 known Shank3 splice variants containing the N-terminal ankyrin repeat region, including the longest splice variant, Shank3a. Our X-gal staining results revealed that Shank3 proteins encoded by exon 9-containing splice variants are abundant in upper cortical layers, striatum, hippocampus, and thalamus, but not in the olfactory bulb or cerebellum, despite the significant Shank3 mRNA levels in these regions. The hippocampal CA1 region of Shank3∆9 mice exhibited reduced excitatory transmission at Schaffer collateral synapses and increased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory synaptic events in pyramidal neurons. In contrast, prelimbic layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex displayed decreased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory synaptic events, indicating alterations in the ratio of excitation/inhibition (E/I ratio in the Shank3∆9 brain. These mice displayed a mild increase in rearing in a novel environment and mildly impaired spatial memory, but showed normal social interaction and repetitive behavior. These results suggest that ankyrin repeat-containing Shank3 splice variants are important for E/I balance, rearing behavior, and spatial memory.

  3. Fmr1 knockout mice show reduced anxiety and alterations in neurogenesis that are specific to the ventral dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, B D; Zhang, W N; Boehme, F; Gil-Mohapel, J; Kainer, L; Simpson, J M; Christie, B R

    2009-11-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by the selective loss of the expression of the Fmr1 gene. Key symptoms in FXS include intellectual impairment and abnormal anxiety-related behaviors. Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited reduced anxiety on two behavioral tests as well as a blunted corticosterone response to acute stress. Spatial learning and memory was not impaired when tested with both the classic Morris water and Plus-shaped mazes. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been associated with spatial learning and memory and emotions such as anxiety and depression. The process of neurogenesis appears abnormal in young adult Fmr1 KO mice, with significantly fewer bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells surviving for at least 4 weeks in the ventral subregion of the dentate gyrus (DG), a hippocampal subregion more closely associated with emotion than the dorsal DG. Within this smaller pool of surviving cells, we observed a concomitant increase in the proportion of surviving cells that acquire a neuronal phenotype. We did not observe a clear difference in cell proliferation using both endogenous and exogenous markers. This work indicates that loss of Fmr1 expression can alter anxiety-related behaviors in mice as well as produce region-specific alterations in hippocampal adult neurogenesis.

  4. Colitic scid mice fed Lactobacillus spp. show an ameliorated gut histopathology and an altered cytokine profile by local T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter Lange; Pærregaard, Anders; Gad, Monika;

    2005-01-01

    Scid mice transplanted with CD4 T blast cells develop colitis. We investigated if the disease was influenced in colitic mice treated with antibiotic and fed Lactobacillus spp.......Scid mice transplanted with CD4 T blast cells develop colitis. We investigated if the disease was influenced in colitic mice treated with antibiotic and fed Lactobacillus spp....

  5. Prion protein (PrP knock-out mice show altered iron metabolism: a functional role for PrP in iron uptake and transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Singh

    Full Text Available Despite overwhelming evidence implicating the prion protein (PrP in prion disease pathogenesis, the normal function of this cell surface glycoprotein remains unclear. In previous reports we demonstrated that PrP mediates cellular iron uptake and transport, and aggregation of PrP to the disease causing PrP-scrapie (PrP(Sc form results in imbalance of iron homeostasis in prion disease affected human and animal brains. Here, we show that selective deletion of PrP in transgenic mice (PrP(KO alters systemic iron homeostasis as reflected in hematological parameters and levels of total iron and iron regulatory proteins in the plasma, liver, spleen, and brain of PrP(KO mice relative to matched wild type controls. Introduction of radiolabeled iron ((59FeCl(3 to Wt and PrP(KO mice by gastric gavage reveals inefficient transport of (59Fe from the duodenum to the blood stream, an early abortive spike of erythropoiesis in the long bones and spleen, and eventual decreased (59Fe content in red blood cells and all major organs of PrP(KO mice relative to Wt controls. The iron deficient phenotype of PrP(KO mice is reversed by expressing Wt PrP in the PrP(KO background, demonstrating a functional role for PrP in iron uptake and transport. Since iron is required for essential metabolic processes and is also potentially toxic if mismanaged, these results suggest that loss of normal function of PrP due to aggregation to the PrP(Sc form induces imbalance of brain iron homeostasis, resulting in disease associated neurotoxicity.

  6. Quercetin alters energy metabolism in swimming mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianquan; Gao, Weina; Wei, Jingyu; Yang, Jijun; Pu, Lingling; Guo, Changjiang

    2012-10-01

    Quercetin has been demonstrated to be effective in increasing physical endurance in mice and humans. However, the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, male Kunming mice were fed a diet containing 0.1% quercetin for 14 days before swimming for 60 min. The overall serum metabolic profile was investigated by a ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomic approach. Serum glucose, lactate, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and nonprotein nitrogen (NPN), as well as hepatic and muscular glycogen were measured biochemically. The results of metabolomic analysis showed that swimming induced a significant change in serum metabolic profile. Relative increases in the levels of lactate, alanine, low-density lipoprotein-very low-density lipoprotein, and unsaturated fatty acids, and decreases in choline, phosphocholine, and glucose were observed after swimming. With quercetin supplementation, these changes were attenuated. The results of biochemical assays were consistent with the data obtained from metabolomic analysis, in that serum NEFA was increased while lactate and NPN decreased after exposed to quercetin in swimming mice. Similar change in NEFA was also found in liver and gastrocnemius muscle tissues. Our current findings suggest that quercetin alters energy metabolism in swimming mice and increased lipolysis may contribute to the actions of quercetin on physical endurance.

  7. Mice lacking neuropeptide Y show increased sensitivity to cocaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Woldbye, David Paul Drucker

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing data implicating neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the neurobiology of addiction. This study explored the possible role of NPY in cocaine-induced behavior using NPY knockout mice. The transgenic mice showed a hypersensitive response to cocaine in three animal models of cocaine addiction...

  8. Altered food consumption in mice lacking lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusaulcy, R; Daviaud, D; Pradère, J P; Grès, S; Valet, Ph; Saulnier-Blache, J S

    2009-12-01

    The release of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) by adipocytes has previously been proposed to play a role in obesity and associated pathologies such as insulin resistance and diabetes. In the present work, the sensitivity to diet-induced obesity was studied in mice lacking one of the LPA receptor subtype (LPA1R). Conversely to what was observed in wild type (WT) mice, LPA1R-KO-mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) showed no significant increase in body weight or fat mass when compared to low fat diet (LFD). In addition, in contrast to what was observed in WT mice, LPA1R-KO mice did not exhibit over-consumption of food associated with HFD. Surprisingly, when fed a LFD, LPA1R-KO mice exhibited significant higher plasma leptin concentration and higher level of adipocyte leptin mRNA than WT mice. In conclusion, LPA1R-KO mice were found to be resistant to diet-induced obesity consecutive to a resistance to fat-induced over-consumption of food that may result at least in part from alterations in leptin expression and production.

  9. Hypogonadism alters cecal and fecal microbiota in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Hanada, Kazuki; Izawa, Takeshi; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-11-01

    Low testosterone levels increase the risk for cardiovascular disease in men and lead to shorter life spans. Our recent study showed that androgen deprivation via castration altered fecal microbiota and exacerbated risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including obesity, impaired fasting glucose, excess hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and thigh muscle weight loss only in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed male mice. However, when mice were administered antibiotics that disrupted the gut microbiota, castration did not increase cardiovascular risks or decrease the ratio of dried feces to food intake. Here, we show that changes in cecal microbiota (e.g., an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and number of Lactobacillus species) were consistent with changes in feces and that there was a decreased cecal content secondary to castration in HFD mice. Castration increased rectal body temperature and plasma adiponectin, irrespective of diet. Changes in the gut microbiome may provide novel insight into hypogonadism-induced cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Croton grewioides Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) Shows Antidiarrheal Activity in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Anne Dayse Soares; de Melo e Silva, Karoline; Neto, José Clementino; Costa, Vicente Carlos de Oliveira; Pessôa, Hilzeth de Luna F.; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Based on chemotaxonomy, we decided to investigate the possible antidiarrheal activity in mice of a crude ethanolic extract obtained from aerial parts of Croton grewioides (CG-EtOH). We tested for any possible toxicity in rat erythrocytes and acute toxicity in mice. Antidiarrheal activity was assessed by determining the effect of CG-EtOH on defecation frequency, liquid stool, intestinal motility and intestinal fluid accumulation. CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females. CG-EtOH produced a significant and equipotent antidiarrheal activity, both in defecation frequency (ED50 = 106.0 ± 8.1 mg/kg) and liquid stools (ED50 = 105.0 ± 9.2 mg/kg). However, CG-EtOH (125 mg/kg) decreased intestinal motility by only 22.7% ± 4.4%. Moreover, extract markedly inhibited the castor oil-induced intestinal contents (ED50 = 34.6 ± 5.4 mg/kg). We thus conclude that CG-EtOH is not orally lethal and contains active principles with antidiarrheal activity, and this effect seems to involve mostly changes in intestinal secretion. SUMMARY CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females.CG-EtOH probably contains active metabolites with antidiarrheal activity.CG-EtOH reduced the frequency and number of liquid stools.Metabolites presents in the CG-EtOH act mainly by reducing intestinal fluid and, to a lesser extent, reducing intestinal motility. Abbreviations Used: CG-EtOH: crude ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of C. grewioides; WHO: World Health Organization; ED50: dose of a drug that produces 50% of its maximum effect; Emax: maximum effect PMID:27365990

  11. A duplex kidney with dromedary hump showing altered hilar anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tallapaneni S

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive knowledge of the wide range of variations of renal vasculature and renal pelvis is mandatory to the anatomists for a better understanding of the embryology. It remains as the key issue in determining the technical feasibility of various endourologic procedures and innumerable intervention techniques besides kidney retrievals for transplantation. In the present case the duplex kidney showed lobulations on the anterior surface just adjacent to the hilar region. The midlateral portion of the convex lateral border of the kidney showed a small focal bulge –dromedary hump. At the hilum reversed anterio-posterior disposition of renal vasculature with anteriorly placed renal artery which bifurcated into two upper and lower anterior segmental branches. The renal vein formed by large tributaries arising from the hilum running towards the inferior vena cava. The renal pelvis was most posteriorly placed which showed a double pelvis. The upper pelvis was seen arising behind the renal vein and the lower pelvis arising inferomedial to the lower anterior segmental artery.Both the pelvises were seen uniting medial to the lower part of hilum and continued as a single ureter which opened into the bladder. The thorough knowledge of these anatomical variations is necessary to avoid iatrogenic injuries and enable the surgeon and radiologists approach unusual situations with confidence rather than surprise.

  12. Obese mice exhibit an altered behavioural and inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine B. Lawrence

    2012-09-01

    Obesity is associated with an increase in the prevalence and severity of infections. Genetic animal models of obesity (ob/ob and db/db mice display altered centrally-mediated sickness behaviour in response to acute inflammatory stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS. However, the effect of diet-induced obesity (DIO on the anorectic and febrile response to LPS in mice is unknown. This study therefore determined how DIO and ob/ob mice respond to a systemic inflammatory challenge. C57BL/6 DIO and ob/ob mice, and their respective controls, were given an intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of LPS. Compared with controls, DIO and ob/ob mice exhibited an altered febrile response to LPS (100 μg/kg over 8 hours. LPS caused a greater and more prolonged anorexic effect in DIO compared with control mice and, in ob/ob mice, LPS induced a reduction in food intake and body weight earlier than it did in controls. These effects of LPS in obese mice were also seen after a fixed dose of LPS (5 μg. LPS (100 μg/kg induced Fos protein expression in several brain nuclei of control mice, with fewer Fos-positive cells observed in the brains of obese mice. An altered inflammatory response to LPS was also observed in obese mice compared with controls: changes in cytokine expression and release were detected in the plasma, spleen, liver and peritoneal macrophages in obese mice. In summary, DIO and ob/ob mice displayed an altered behavioural response and cytokine release to systemic inflammatory challenge. These findings could help explain why obese humans show increased sensitivity to infections.

  13. Aged mice receiving caffeine since adulthood show distinct patterns of anxiety-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botton, Paulo Henrique S; Pochmann, Daniela; Rocha, Andreia S; Nunes, Fernanda; Almeida, Amanda S; Marques, Daniela M; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2017-03-01

    Caffeine is the psychostimulant most consumed worldwide. Anxiogenic effects of caffeine have been described in adult animals with controversial findings about its anxiogenic potential. Besides, the effects of caffeine on anxiety with aging are still poorly known. In this study, adult mice (6months old) started to receive caffeine (0.3 and 1.0mg/mL, drinking water) during 12-14months only in the light cycle and at weekdays. The open field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) testing were used to determine the effects of caffeine on anxiety-related behavior in adult and aged mice (18-20months old). Because aging alters synaptic proteins, we also evaluated SNAP-25 (as a nerve terminals marker), GFAP (as an astrocyte marker) and adenosine A1 and A2A receptors levels in the cortex. According to the OF analysis, caffeine did not change both hypolocomotion and anxiety with aging. However, aged mice showed less anxiety behavior in the EPM, but after receiving caffeine (0.3mg/mL) during adulthood they were anxious as adult mice. While SNAP-25 and adenosine A2A receptors increased with aging, both GFAP and adenosine A1 receptors were not affected. Caffeine at moderate dose prevented the age-related increase of the SNAP-25, with no effect on adenosine A2A receptors. The absence of effect for the highest dose suggests that tolerance to caffeine may have developed over time. Aged mice showed high responsiveness to the OF, being difficult to achieve any effect of caffeine. On the other hand this substance sustained the adult anxious behavior over time in a less stressful paradigm, and this effect was coincident with changes in the SNAP-25, suggesting the involvement of this synaptic protein in the ability of caffeine to preserve changes related to emotionality with aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain mitochondria from DJ-1 knockout mice show increased respiration-dependent hydrogen peroxide consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Lopert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the DJ-1 gene have been shown to cause a rare autosomal-recessive genetic form of Parkinson’s disease (PD. The function of DJ-1 and its role in PD development has been linked to multiple pathways, however its exact role in the development of PD has remained elusive. It is thought that DJ-1 may play a role in regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS formation and overall oxidative stress in cells through directly scavenging ROS itself, or through the regulation of ROS scavenging systems such as glutathione (GSH or thioredoxin (Trx or ROS producing complexes such as complex I of the electron transport chain. Previous work in this laboratory has demonstrated that isolated brain mitochondria consume H2O2 predominantly by the Trx/Thioredoxin Reductase (TrxR/Peroxiredoxin (Prx system in a respiration dependent manner (Drechsel et al., Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2010. Therefore we wanted to determine if mitochondrial H2O2 consumption was altered in brains from DJ-1 deficient mice (DJ-1−/−. Surprisingly, DJ-1−/− mice showed an increase in mitochondrial respiration-dependent H2O2 consumption compared to controls. To determine the basis of the increased H2O2 consumption in DJ1−/− mice, the activities of Trx, Thioredoxin Reductase (TrxR, GSH, glutathione disulfide (GSSG and glutathione reductase (GR were measured. Compared to control mice, brains from DJ-1−/− mice showed an increase in (1 mitochondrial Trx activity, (2 GSH and GSSG levels and (3 mitochondrial glutaredoxin (GRX activity. Brains from DJ-1−/− mice showed a decrease in mitochondrial GR activity compared to controls. The increase in the enzymatic activities of mitochondrial Trx and total GSH levels may account for the increased H2O2 consumption observed in the brain mitochondria in DJ-1−/− mice perhaps as an adaptive response to chronic DJ-1 deficiency.

  15. Impaired sense of smell and altered olfactory system in RAG-1-/- immunodeficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza eRattazzi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Immune deficiencies are often associated with a number of physical manifestations including loss of sense of smell and an increased level of anxiety. We have previously shown that T and B cell-deficient recombinase activating gene (RAG-1-/- knockout mice have an increased level of anxiety-like behavior and altered gene expression involved in olfaction. In this study, we expanded these findings by testing the structure and functional development of the olfactory system in RAG-1-/- mice. Our results show that these mice have a reduced engagement in different types of odors and this phenotype is associated with disorganized architecture of glomerular tissue and atrophy of the main olfactory epithelium. Most intriguingly this defect manifests specifically in adult age and is not due to impairment in the patterning of the olfactory neuron staining at the embryo stage. Together these findings provide a formerly unreported biological evidence for an altered function of the olfactory system in RAG-1-/- mice.

  16. Impaired sense of smell and altered olfactory system in RAG-1(-∕-) immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattazzi, Lorenza; Cariboni, Anna; Poojara, Ridhika; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; D'Acquisto, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Immune deficiencies are often associated with a number of physical manifestations including loss of sense of smell and an increased level of anxiety. We have previously shown that T and B cell-deficient recombinase activating gene (RAG-1)(-∕-) knockout mice have an increased level of anxiety-like behavior and altered gene expression involved in olfaction. In this study, we expanded these findings by testing the structure and functional development of the olfactory system in RAG-1 (-∕-) mice. Our results show that these mice have a reduced engagement in different types of odors and this phenotype is associated with disorganized architecture of glomerular tissue and atrophy of the main olfactory epithelium. Most intriguingly this defect manifests specifically in adult age and is not due to impairment in the patterning of the olfactory neuron staining at the embryo stage. Together these findings provide a formerly unreported biological evidence for an altered function of the olfactory system in RAG-1 (-∕-) mice.

  17. Narp knockout mice show normal reactivity to novelty but attenuated recovery from neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Ashley M; Lee, Jongah J; Tao, Bo; Smith, Dani R; Johnson, Alexander W; Baraban, Jay M; Reti, Irving M

    2013-11-15

    Narp knockout (KO) mice demonstrate cognitive inflexibility and addictive behavior, which are associated with abnormal reactivity to a novel stimulus. To assess reactivity to novelty, we tested Narp KO and wild-type (WT) mice on a neophobia procedure. Both Narp KO and WT mice showed a similar decrease in consumption upon initial exposure to a novel flavor, but Narp KO mice did not increase consumption with subsequent exposures to the novel flavor like the WT mice. Therefore, Narp KO mice do not have abnormal reactivity to novelty but show deficits in adapting behavior to reflect the updated value of a stimulus.

  18. IL-1 receptor-antagonist (IL-1Ra) knockout mice show anxiety-like behavior by aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Chisato; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Odaka, Haruki; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Kiyama, Yuji; Manabe, Toshiya; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Iwakura, Yoichiro

    2015-07-10

    Interleukin 1 (IL-1) plays a critical role in stress responses, and its mRNA is induced in the brain by restraint stress. Previously, we reported that IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) knockout (KO) mice, which lacked IL-1Ra molecules that antagonize the IL-1 receptor, showed anti-depression-like behavior via adrenergic modulation at the age of 8 weeks. Here, we report that IL-1Ra KO mice display an anxiety-like phenotype that is induced spontaneously by aging in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. This anxiety-like phenotype was improved by the administration of diazepam. The expression of the anxiety-related molecule glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was significantly reduced in 20-week-old but not in 11-week-old IL-1Ra KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. The expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) was not altered between IL-1Ra KO mice and WT littermates at either 11 or 20 weeks old. Analysis of monoamine concentration in the hippocampus revealed that tryptophan, the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), and the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) were significantly increased in 20-week-old IL-1Ra KO mice compared to littermate WT mice. These findings strongly suggest that the anxiety-like behavior observed in older mice was caused by the complicated alteration of monoamine metabolism and/or GR expression in the hippocampus.

  19. Mice lacking brain-type creatine kinase activity show defective thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streijger, Femke; Pluk, Helma; Oerlemans, Frank; Beckers, Gaby; Bianco, Antonio C.; Ribeiro, Miriam O.; Wieringa, Bé; Van der Zee, Catharina E.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The cytosolic brain-type creatine kinase and mitochondrial ubiquitous creatine kinase (CK-B and UbCKmit) are expressed during the prepubescent and adult period of mammalian life. These creatine kinase (CK) isoforms are present in neural cell types throughout the central and peripheral nervous system and in smooth muscle containing tissues, where they have an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. Here, we report on the coupling of CK activity to body temperature rhythm and adaptive thermoregulation in mice. With both brain-type CK isoforms being absent, the body temperature reproducibly drops ~1.0°C below normal during every morning (inactive) period in the daily cycle. Facultative non-shivering thermogenesis is also impaired, since CK−−/−− mice develop severe hypothermia during 24 h cold exposure. A relationship with fat metabolism was suggested because comparison of CK−−/−− mice with wildtype controls revealed decreased weight gain associated with less white and brown fat accumulation and smaller brown adipocytes. Also, circulating levels of glucose, triglycerides and leptin are reduced. Extensive physiological testing and uncoupling protein1 analysis showed, however, that the thermogenic problems are not due to abnormal responsiveness of brown adipocytes, since noradrenaline infusion produced a normal increase of body temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that the cyclic drop in morning temperature is also not related to altered rhythmicity with reduced locomotion, diminished food intake or increased torpor sensitivity. Although several integral functions appear altered when CK is absent in the brain, combined findings point into the direction of inefficient neuronal transmission as the dominant factor in the thermoregulatory defect. PMID:19419668

  20. Altered Allogeneic Immune Responses in Middle-Aged Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yimin Sun; Hanhan Li; Alan N. Langnas; Yong Zhao

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that leukocyte composition, T cell phenotypes and immune function change in aged mice and humans. However, limited and conflicting results on the age-related immune changes in middle-aged mice were reported. Identification of the characteristics of allogeneic immune responses in aging mice may offer important information for transplantation immunology. The major age-related changes in the immune cell phenotypes and function of 12 months old mice include: 1) the significantly decreased CD4+ cell population in the peripheral blood, the major peripheral CD4+ cells is CD45RBlowCD62Llow memory phenotype; 2) the in vitro responses to alloantigens and Con A of splenocytes markedly reduced; 3) the in vivo secondary humoral immune responses to alloantigens significantly declined; 4) the age-related alteration in the thymus mainly occurred in CD4/CD8 double positive (DP) stage; and 5) increased CD80+ and MHC class Ⅱ+ cell population in spleens. Thus, the major age-related immune changes in 12 months old mice occurred in CD4+ T cells in the periphery and DP stage in the thymus, which may subsequently lead to the decreased allogeneic immune responses and the different sensitivity to immunosuppressive drugs and treatments. Further studies on the characteristics of allogeneic immunity in aging individuals may help to determine the appropriated treatment for transplant aging individuals. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004; 1(6) :440-446.

  1. Altered Allogeneic Immune Responses in Middle-Aged Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YiminSun; HanhanLi; AlanN.Langnas

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that leukocyte composition, T cell phenotypes and immune function change in aged mice and humans. However, limited and conflicting results on the age-related immune changes in middle-aged mice were reported. Identification of the characteristics of allogeneic immune responses in aging mice may offer important information for transplantation immunology. The major age-related changes in the immune cell phenotypes and function of 12 months old mice include: 1) the significantly decreased CD4+ cell population in the peripheral blood, the major peripheral CD4+ cells is CD45RBlowCD62Llow memory phenotype; 2) the in vitro responses to alloantigens and Con A of splenocytes markedly reduced; 3) the in vivo secondary humoral immune responses to alloantigens significantly declined; 4) the age-related alteration in the thymus mainly occurred in CD4/CD8 double positive (DP) stage; and 5) increased CD80+ and MHC class II+ cell population in spleens. Thus, the major age-related immune changes in 12 months old mice occurred in CD4+ T cells in the periphery and DP stage in the thymus, which may subsequently lead to the decreased allogeneic immune responses and the different sensitivity to immunosuppressive drugs and treatments. Further studies on the characteristics of allogeneic immunity in aging individuals may help to determine the appropriated treatment for transplant aging individuals. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(6):440-446.

  2. Gene expression alterations in brains of mice infected with three strains of scrapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Race Richard E

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders which occur in humans and various animal species. Examples include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in cattle, chronic wasting disease (CWD in deer and elk, and scrapie in sheep, and experimental mice. To gain insights into TSE pathogenesis, we made and used cDNA microarrays to identify disease-associated alterations in gene expression. Brain gene expression in scrapie-infected mice was compared to mock-infected mice at pre-symptomatic and symptomatic time points. Three strains of mouse scrapie that show striking differences in neuropathology were studied: ME7, 22L, and Chandler/RML. Results In symptomatic mice, over 400 significant gene expression alterations were identified. In contrast, only 22 genes showed significant alteration in the pre-symptomatic animals. We also identified genes that showed significant differences in alterations in gene expression between strains. Genes identified in this study encode proteins that are involved in many cellular processes including protein folding, endosome/lysosome function, immunity, synapse function, metal ion binding, calcium regulation and cytoskeletal function. Conclusion These studies shed light on the complex molecular events that occur during prion disease, and identify genes whose further study may yield new insights into strain specific neuropathogenesis and ante-mortem tests for TSEs.

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling is altered in the forebrain of Engrailed-2 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, G; Messina, A; Sgadò, P; Baj, G; Casarosa, S; Bozzi, Y

    2016-06-02

    Engrailed-2 (En2), a homeodomain transcription factor involved in regionalization and patterning of the midbrain and hindbrain regions has been associated to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). En2 knockout (En2(-/-)) mice show ASD-like features accompanied by a significant loss of GABAergic subpopulations in the hippocampus and neocortex. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a crucial factor for the postnatal development of forebrain GABAergic neurons, and altered GABA signaling has been hypothesized to underlie the symptoms of ASD. Here we sought to determine whether interneuron loss in the En2(-/-) forebrain might be related to altered expression of BDNF and its signaling receptors. We first evaluated the expression of different BDNF mRNA isoforms in the neocortex and hippocampus of wild-type (WT) and En2(-/-) mice. Quantitative RT-PCR showed a marked down-regulation of several splicing variants of BDNF mRNA in the neocortex but not hippocampus of adult En2(-/-) mice, as compared to WT controls. Accordingly, levels of mature BDNF protein were lower in the neocortex but not hippocampus of En2(-/-) mice, as compared to WT. Increased levels of phosphorylated TrkB and decreased levels of p75 receptor were also detected in the neocortex of mutant mice. Accordingly, the expression of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and RhoA, two genes regulated via p75 was significantly altered in forebrain areas of mutant mice. These data indicate that BDNF signaling alterations might be involved in the anatomical changes observed in the En2(-/-) forebrain and suggest a pathogenic role of altered BDNF signaling in this mouse model of ASD.

  4. NCAM-deficient mice show prominent abnormalities in serotonergic and BDNF systems in brain - Restoration by chronic amitriptyline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aonurm-Helm, Anu; Anier, Kaili; Zharkovsky, Tamara; Castrén, Eero; Rantamäki, Tomi; Stepanov, Vladimir; Järv, Jaak; Zharkovsky, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Mood disorders are associated with alterations in serotonergic system, deficient BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) signaling and abnormal synaptic plasticity. Increased degradation and reduced functions of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) have recently been associated with depression and NCAM deficient mice show depression-related behavior and impaired learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential changes in serotonergic and BDNF systems in NCAM knock-out mice. Serotonergic nerve fiber density and SERT (serotonin transporter) protein levels were robustly reduced in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala of adult NCAM(-)(/-) mice. This SERT reduction was already evident during early postnatal development. [(3)H]MADAM binding experiments further demonstrated reduced availability of SERT in cell membranes of NCAM(-)(/-) mice. Moreover, the levels of serotonin and its major metabolite 5-HIAA were down regulated in the brains of NCAM(-)(/-) mice. NCAM(-)(/-) mice also showed a dramatic reduction in the BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. This BDNF deficiency was associated with reduced phosphorylation of its receptor TrkB. Importantly, chronic administration of antidepressant amitriptyline partially or completely restored these changes in serotonergic and BDNF systems, respectively. In conclusion, NCAM deficiency lead to prominent and persistent abnormalities in brain serotonergic and BDNF systems, which likely contributes to the behavioral and neurobiological phenotype of NCAM(-/-) mice.

  5. Female preproenkephalin-knockout mice display altered emotional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnauth, A; Schuller, A; Morgan, M; Chan, J; Ogawa, S; Pintar, J; Bodnar, R J; Pfaff, D W

    2001-02-13

    The endogenous opioid system has been implicated in sexual behavior, palatable intake, fear, and anxiety. The present study examined whether ovariectomized female transgenic preproenkephalin-knockout (PPEKO) mice and their wild-type and heterozygous controls displayed alterations in fear and anxiety paradigms, sucrose intake, and lordotic behavior. To examine stability of responding, three squads of the genotypes were tested across seasons over a 20-month period. In a fear-conditioning paradigm, PPEKO mice significantly increased freezing to both fear and fear + shock stimuli relative to controls. In the open field, PPEKO mice spent significantly less time and traversed significantly less distance in the center of an open field than wild-type controls. Further, PPEKO mice spent significantly less time and tended to be less active on the light side of a dark-light chamber than controls, indicating that deletion of the enkephalin gene resulted in exaggerated responses to fear or anxiety-provoking environments. These selective deficits were observed consistently across testing squads spanning 20 months and different seasons. In contrast, PPEKO mice failed to differ from corresponding controls in sucrose, chow, or water intake across a range (0.0001-20%) of sucrose concentrations and failed to differ in either lordotic or female approach to male behaviors when primed with estradiol and progesterone, thereby arguing strongly for the selectivity of a fear and anxiety deficit which was not caused by generalized and nonspecific debilitation. These transgenic data strongly suggest that opioids, and particularly enkephalin gene products, are acting naturally to inhibit fear and anxiety.

  6. Altered social cognition in male BDNF heterozygous mice and following chronic methamphetamine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Elizabeth E; van den Buuse, Maarten

    2016-05-15

    Growing clinical evidence suggests that persistent psychosis which occurs in methamphetamine users is closely related to schizophrenia. However, preclinical studies in animal models have focussed on psychosis-related behaviours following methamphetamine, and less work has been done to assess endophenotypes relevant to other deficits observed in schizophrenia. Altered social behaviour is a feature of both the negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, and significantly impacts patient functioning. We recently found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) heterozygous mice show disrupted sensitization to methamphetamine, supporting other work suggesting an important role of this neurotrophin in the pathophysiology of psychosis and the neuronal response to stimulant drugs. In the current study, we assessed social and cognitive behaviours in methamphetamine-treated BDNF heterozygous mice and wildtype littermate controls. Following chronic methamphetamine exposure male wildtype mice showed a 50% reduction in social novelty preference. Vehicle-treated male BDNF heterozygous mice showed a similar impairment in social novelty preference, with a trend for no further disruption by methamphetamine exposure. Female mice were unaffected in this task, and no groups showed any changes in sociability or short-term spatial memory. These findings suggest that chronic methamphetamine alters behaviour relevant to disruption of social cognition in schizophrenia, supporting other studies which demonstrate a close resemblance between persistent methamphetamine psychosis and schizophrenia. Together these findings suggest that dynamic regulation of BDNF signalling is necessary to mediate the effects of methamphetamine on behaviours relevant to schizophrenia.

  7. Exacerbation of diabetic renal alterations in mice lacking vasohibin-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norikazu Hinamoto

    Full Text Available Vasohibin-1 (VASH1 is a unique endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis that is induced in endothelial cells by pro-angiogenic factors. We previously reported renoprotective effect of adenoviral delivery of VASH1 in diabetic nephropathy model, and herein investigated the potential protective role of endogenous VASH1 by using VASH1-deficient mice. Streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic VASH1 heterozygous knockout mice (VASH1(+/- or wild-type diabetic mice were sacrificed 16 weeks after inducing diabetes. In the diabetic VASH1(+/- mice, albuminuria were significantly exacerbated compared with the diabetic wild-type littermates, in association with the dysregulated distribution of glomerular slit diaphragm related proteins, nephrin and ZO-1, glomerular basement membrane thickening and reduction of slit diaphragm density. Glomerular monocyte/macrophage infiltration and glomerular nuclear translocation of phosphorylated NF-κB p65 were significantly exacerbated in the diabetic VASH1(+/- mice compared with the diabetic wild-type littermates, accompanied by the augmentation of VEGF-A, M1 macrophage-derived MCP-1 and phosphorylation of IκBα, and the decrease of angiopoietin-1/2 ratio and M2 macrophage-derived Arginase-1. The glomerular CD31(+ endothelial area was also increased in the diabetic VASH1(+/- mice compared with the diabetic-wild type littermates. Furthermore, the renal and glomerular hypertrophy, glomerular accumulation of mesangial matrix and type IV collagen and activation of renal TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling, a key mediator of renal fibrosis, were exacerbated in the diabetic VASH1(+/- mice compared with the diabetic wild-type littermates. In conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes cultured under high glucose condition, transfection of VASH1 small interfering RNA (siRNA resulted in the reduction of nephrin, angiopoietin-1 and ZO-1, and the augmentation of VEGF-A compared with control siRNA. These results suggest that endogenous VASH1 may

  8. Phlebotomy-induced anemia alters hippocampal neurochemistry in neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Diana J; Tkac, Ivan; Stucker, Sara; Ennis, Kathleen M; Sola-Visner, Martha; Rao, Raghavendra; Georgieff, Michael K

    2015-06-01

    Phlebotomy-induced anemia (PIA) is common in preterm infants. The hippocampus undergoes rapid differentiation during late fetal/early neonatal life and relies on adequate oxygen and iron to support oxidative metabolism necessary for development. Anemia shortchanges these two critical substrates, potentially altering hippocampal development and function. PIA (hematocrit neonatal mice pups from postnatal day (P)3 to P14. Neurochemical concentrations in the hippocampus were determined using in vivo (1)H NMR spectroscopy at 9.4T and compared with control animals at P14. Gene expression was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). PIA decreased brain iron concentration, increased hippocampal lactate and creatine concentrations, and decreased phosphoethanolamine (PE) concentration and the phosphocreatine/creatine ratio. Hippocampal transferrin receptor (Tfrc) gene expression was increased, while the expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IIα (CamKIIα) was decreased in PIA mice. This clinically relevant model of neonatal anemia alters hippocampal energy and phospholipid metabolism and gene expression during a critical developmental period. Low target hematocrits for preterm neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) may have potential adverse neural implications.

  9. BACE1-Deficient Mice Exhibit Alterations in Immune System Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stertz, L; Contreras-Shannon, V; Monroy-Jaramillo, N; Sun, J; Walss-Bass, C

    2016-12-21

    BACE1 encodes for the beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 or β-secretase. Genetic deletion of Bace1 leads to behavioral alterations and affects midbrain dopaminergic signaling and memory processes. In order to further understand the role of BACE1 in brain function and behavior, we performed microarray transcriptome profiling and gene pathway analysis in the hippocampus of BACE1-deficient mice compared to wild type. We identified a total of 91 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), mostly enriched in pathways related to the immune and inflammation systems, particularly IL-9 and NF-κB activation pathways. Serum levels of IL-9 were elevated in BACE1-deficient mice. Our network analysis supports an intimate connection between immune response via NF-κB and BACE1 signaling through the NRG1/Akt1 pathway. Our findings warrant future mechanistic studies to determine if BACE1 signaling and the IL-9 pathway interact to alter behavior and brain function. This study opens new avenues in the investigation of hippocampus-related neuroimmunological and neuroinflammation-associated disorders.

  10. Altered energy homeostasis and resistance to diet-induced obesity in KRAP-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Fujimoto

    Full Text Available Obesity and related metabolic disorders have become leading causes of adult morbidity and mortality. KRAP (Ki-ras-induced actin-interacting protein is a cytoskeleton-associated protein and a ubiquitous protein among tissues, originally identified as a cancer-related molecule, however, its physiological roles remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that KRAP-deficient (KRAP(-/- mice show enhanced metabolic rate, decreased adiposity, improved glucose tolerance, hypoinsulinemia and hypoleptinemia. KRAP(-/- mice are also protected against high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance despite of hyperphagia. Notably, glucose uptake in the brown adipose tissue (BAT in KRAP(-/- mice is enhanced in an insulin-independent manner, suggesting that BAT is involved in altered energy homeostasis in KRAP(-/- mice, although UCP (Uncoupling protein expressions are not altered. Of interest is the down-regulation of fatty acid metabolism-related molecules, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC-1, ACC-2 and fatty acid synthase in the liver of KRAP(-/- mice, which could in part account for the metabolic phenotype in KRAP(-/- mice. Thus, KRAP is a novel regulator in whole-body energy homeostasis and may be a therapeutic target in obesity and related diseases.

  11. Altered nociception in mice with genetically induced hypoglutamatergic tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, V; Viguier, F; Melfort, M; Bourgoin, S; Hamon, M; Masson, J

    2015-05-07

    Extensive pharmacological evidence supports the idea that glutamate plays a key role in both acute and chronic pain. In the present study, we investigated the implication of the excitatory amino acid in physiological nociception by using mutant mice deficient in phosphate-activated glutaminase type 1 (GLS1), the enzyme that synthesizes glutamate in central glutamatergic neurons. Because homozygous GLS1-/- mutants die shortly after birth, assays for assessing mechanical, thermal and chemical (formalin) nociception were performed on heterozygous GLS1+/- mutants, which present a clear-cut decrease in glutamate synthesis in central neurons. As compared to paired wild-type mice, adult male GLS1+/- mutants showed decreased responsiveness to mechanical (von Frey filament and tail-pressure, but not tail-clip, tests) and thermal (Hargreaves' plantar, tail-immersion and hot-plate tests) nociceptive stimuli. Genotype-related differences were also found in the formalin test for which GLS1+/- mice exhibited marked decreases in the nociceptive responses (hindlimb lift, lick and flinch) during both phase 1 (0-5 min) and phase 2 (16-45 min) after formalin injection. On the other hand, acute treatment with memantine (1mg/kg i.p.), an uncompetitive antagonist at NMDA glutamate receptors, reduced nociception responses in wild-type but not GLS1+/- mice. Conversely, antinociceptive response to acute administration of a low dose (1mg/kg s.c.) of morphine was significantly larger in GLS1+/- mutants versus wild-type mice. Our findings indicate that genetically driven hypoactivity of central glutamatergic neurotransmission renders mice hyposensitive to nociceptive stimulations, and promotes morphine antinociception, further emphasizing the critical role of glutamate in physiological nociception and its opioid-mediated control.

  12. Mice with early retinal degeneration show differences in neuropeptide expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown R Lane

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In mammals, the brain clock responsible for generating circadian rhythms is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN of the hypothalamus. Light entrainment of the clock occurs through intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs whose axons project to the SCN via the retinohypothalamic tract. Although ipRGCs are sufficient for photoentrainment, rod and cone photoreceptors also contribute. Adult CBA/J mice, which exhibit loss of rod and cone photoreceptors during early postnatal development, have greater numbers of ipRGCs compared to CBA/N control mice. A greater number of photosensitive cells might argue for enhanced light responses, however, these mice exhibit attenuated phase shifting behaviors. To reconcile these findings, we looked for potential differences in SCN neurons of CBA/J mice that might underly the altered circadian behaviors. We hypothesized that CBA/J mice have differences in the expression of neuropeptides in the SCN, where ipRGCs synapse. The neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP and vasopressin (VP are expressed by many SCN neurons and play an important role in the generation of circadian rhythms and photic entrainment. Methods Using immunohistochemistry, we looked for differences in the expression of VIP and VP in the SCN of CBA/J mice, and using a light-induced FOS assay, we also examined the degree of retinal innervation of the SCN by ipRGCs. Results Our data demonstrate greater numbers of VIP-and VP-positive cells in the SCN of CBA/J mice and a greater degree of light-induced FOS expression. Conclusions These results implicate changes in neuropeptide expression in the SCN which may underlie the altered circadian responses to light in these animals.

  13. Epigenetic alterations in hippocampus of SAMP8 senescent mice and modulation by voluntary physical exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosín-Tomás, Marta; Alvarez-López, María J.; Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Lalanza, Jaume F.; Bayod, Sergi; Sanfeliu, Coral; Pallàs, Merce; Escorihuela, Rosa M.; Kaliman, Perla

    2014-01-01

    The senescence-accelerated SAMP8 mouse model displays features of cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. With the purpose of identifying potential epigenetic markers involved in aging and neurodegeneration, here we analyzed the expression of 84 mature miRNAs, the expression of histone-acetylation regulatory genes and the global histone acetylation in the hippocampus of 8-month-old SAMP8 mice, using SAMR1 mice as control. We also examined the modulation of these parameters by 8 weeks of voluntary exercise. Twenty-one miRNAs were differentially expressed between sedentary SAMP8 and SAMR1 mice and seven miRNAs were responsive to exercise in both strains. SAMP8 mice showed alterations in genes involved in protein acetylation homeostasis such as Sirt1 and Hdac6 and modulation of Hdac3 and Hdac5 gene expression by exercise. Global histone H3 acetylation levels were reduced in SAMP8 compared with SAMR1 mice and reached control levels in response to exercise. In sum, data presented here provide new candidate epigenetic markers for aging and neurodegeneration and suggest that exercise training may prevent or delay some epigenetic alterations associated with accelerated aging. PMID:24688469

  14. Mice deficient in transmembrane prostatic acid phosphatase display increased GABAergic transmission and neurological alterations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi O Nousiainen

    Full Text Available Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, the first diagnostic marker and present therapeutic target for prostate cancer, modulates nociception at the dorsal root ganglia (DRG, but its function in the central nervous system has remained unknown. We studied expression and function of TMPAP (the transmembrane isoform of PAP in the brain by utilizing mice deficient in TMPAP (PAP-/- mice. Here we report that TMPAP is expressed in a subpopulation of cerebral GABAergic neurons, and mice deficient in TMPAP show multiple behavioral and neurochemical features linked to hyperdopaminergic dysregulation and altered GABAergic transmission. In addition to increased anxiety, disturbed prepulse inhibition, increased synthesis of striatal dopamine, and augmented response to amphetamine, PAP-deficient mice have enlarged lateral ventricles, reduced diazepam-induced loss of righting reflex, and increased GABAergic tone in the hippocampus. TMPAP in the mouse brain is localized presynaptically, and colocalized with SNARE-associated protein snapin, a protein involved in synaptic vesicle docking and fusion, and PAP-deficient mice display altered subcellular distribution of snapin. We have previously shown TMPAP to reside in prostatic exosomes and we propose that TMPAP is involved in the control of GABAergic tone in the brain also through exocytosis, and that PAP deficiency produces a distinct neurological phenotype.

  15. Hyperoxia exposure alters hepatic eicosanoid metabolism in newborn mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Lynette K; Tipple, Trent E; Britt, Rodney D; Welty, Stephen E

    2010-02-01

    Prematurely born infants are often treated with supraphysiologic amounts of oxygen, which is associated with lung injury and the development of diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Complimentary responses between the lung and liver during the course of hyperoxic lung injury have been studied in adult animals, but little is known about this relationship in neonates. These studies tested the hypothesis that oxidant stress occurs in the livers of newborn mice in response to continuous hyperoxia exposure. Greater levels of glutathione disulfide and nitrotyrosine were detected in lung tissues but not liver tissues from newborn mice exposed to hyperoxia than in room air-exposed controls. However, early increases in 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenases-2 protein levels and increases in total hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and prostaglandin levels were observed in the liver tissues of hyperoxia-exposed pups. These studies indicate that free radical oxidation occurs in the lungs of newborn pups exposed to hyperoxia, and alterations in lipid metabolism could be a primary response in the liver tissues. The findings of this study identify possible new mechanisms associated with hyperoxic lung injury in a newborn model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and thus open opportunities for research.

  16. Hyperoxia Exposure Alters Hepatic Eicosanoid Metabolism in Newborn Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROGERS, LYNETTE K.; TIPPLE, TRENT E.; BRITT, RODNEY D.; WELTY, STEPHEN E.

    2013-01-01

    Prematurely born infants are often treated with supraphysiologic amounts of oxygen, which is associated with lung injury and the development of diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Complimentary responses between the lung and liver during the course of hyperoxic lung injury have been studied in adult animals, but little is known about this relationship in neonates. These studies tested the hypothesis that oxidant stress occurs in the livers of newborn mice in response to continuous hyperoxia exposure. Greater levels of glutathione disulfide and nitrotyrosine were detected in lung tissues but not liver tissues from newborn mice exposed to hyperoxia than in room air-exposed controls. However, early increases in 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenases-2 protein levels and increases in total hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and prostaglandin levels were observed in the liver tissues of hyperoxia-exposed pups. These studies indicate that free radical oxidation occurs in the lungs of newborn pups exposed to hyperoxia, and alterations in lipid metabolism could be a primary response in the liver tissues. The findings of this study identify possible new mechanisms associated with hyperoxic lung injury in a newborn model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and thus open opportunities for research. PMID:19809377

  17. High-fat diet alters gut microbiota physiology in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Hannelore; Gholami, Amin Moghaddas; Berry, David; Desmarchelier, Charles; Hahne, Hannes; Loh, Gunnar; Mondot, Stanislas; Lepage, Patricia; Rothballer, Michael; Walker, Alesia; Böhm, Christoph; Wenning, Mareike; Wagner, Michael; Blaut, Michael; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Kuster, Bernhard; Haller, Dirk; Clavel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    The intestinal microbiota is known to regulate host energy homeostasis and can be influenced by high-calorie diets. However, changes affecting the ecosystem at the functional level are still not well characterized. We measured shifts in cecal bacterial communities in mice fed a carbohydrate or high-fat (HF) diet for 12 weeks at the level of the following: (i) diversity and taxa distribution by high-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing; (ii) bulk and single-cell chemical composition by Fourier-transform infrared- (FT-IR) and Raman micro-spectroscopy and (iii) metaproteome and metabolome via high-resolution mass spectrometry. High-fat diet caused shifts in the diversity of dominant gut bacteria and altered the proportion of Ruminococcaceae (decrease) and Rikenellaceae (increase). FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that the impact of the diet on cecal chemical fingerprints is greater than the impact of microbiota composition. Diet-driven changes in biochemical fingerprints of members of the Bacteroidales and Lachnospiraceae were also observed at the level of single cells, indicating that there were distinct differences in cellular composition of dominant phylotypes under different diets. Metaproteome and metabolome analyses based on the occurrence of 1760 bacterial proteins and 86 annotated metabolites revealed distinct HF diet-specific profiles. Alteration of hormonal and anti-microbial networks, bile acid and bilirubin metabolism and shifts towards amino acid and simple sugars metabolism were observed. We conclude that a HF diet markedly affects the gut bacterial ecosystem at the functional level.

  18. Altered heart rate and blood pressure variability in mice lacking the Mas protooncogene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Walther

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability is a relevant predictor of cardiovascular risk in humans. A significant genetic influence on heart rate variability is suggested, although the genes involved are ill-defined. The Mas-protooncogene encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor with seven transmembrane domains highly expressed in testis and brain. Since this receptor is supposed to interact with the signaling of angiotensin II, which is an important regulator of cardiovascular homeostasis, heart rate and blood pressure were analyzed in Mas-deficient mice. Using a femoral catheter the blood pressure of mice was measured for a period of 30 min and 250 data values per second were recorded. The mean values and range of heart rate and blood pressure were then calculated. Neither heart rate nor blood pressure were significantly different between knockout mice and controls. However, high resolution recording of these parameters and analysis of the data by non-linear dynamics revealed significant alterations in cardiovascular variability in Mas-deficient animals. In particular, females showed a strong reduction of heart rate variability. Furthermore, the data showed an increased sympathetic tone in knockout animals of both genders. The marked alterations detected in Mas-deficient mice of both genders suggest that the Mas-protooncogene is an important determinant of heart rate and blood pressure variability.

  19. PCR-DGGE analysis of the bacterial composition of a kaolin slurry showing altered rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Ildikó; Balázs, Margit; Tombácz, Etelka; Babcsán, Norbert; Kesserű, Péter; Kiss, István; Szvetnik, Attila

    2012-04-01

    Kaolin is an important industrial raw material and a basis of a range of different products. Microbial spoilage is a detrimental process observed especially in kaolin slurries, leading to low quality products and economic loss. Although the alteration of kaolin slurries in ceramic industry was observed, the process and the microbial background have not been analyzed in details. This study provides the first data using a cultivation independent molecular biological approach (PCR-DGGE) regarding the bacterial composition of an altered kaolin slurry. The results show that potential exopolymer (EPS) producer bacteria (e.g. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas) appear in the altered kaolin slurry, which may have an important role in the modification of kaolin slurries.

  20. Mechanisms linking obesity to altered metabolism in mice colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimri, Lili; Saadi, Janan; Peri, Irena; Yehuda-Shnaidman, Einav; Schwartz, Betty

    2015-11-10

    There are an increasing number of reports on obesity being a key risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Our goal in this study was to explore the metabolic networks and molecular signaling pathways linking obesity, adipose tissue and colon cancer. Using in-vivo experiments, we found that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and injected with MC38 colon cancer cells develop significantly larger tumors than their counterparts fed a control diet. In ex-vivo experiments, MC38 and CT26 colon cancer cells exposed to conditioned media (CM) from the adipose tissue of HFD-fed mice demonstrated significantly lower oxygen consumption rate as well as lower maximal oxygen consumption rate after carbonyl cyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenylhydrazone treatment. In addition, in-vitro assays showed downregulated expression of mitochondrial genes in colon cancer cells exposed to CM prepared from the visceral fat of HFD-fed mice or to leptin. Interestingly, leptin levels detected in the media of adipose tissue explants co-cultured with MC38 cancer cells were higher than in adipose tissue explants cultures, indicating cross talk between the adipose tissue and the cancer cells. Salient findings of the present study demonstrate that this crosstalk is mediated at least partially by the JNK/STAT3-signaling pathway.

  1. Liver cell adenoma showing sequential alteration of radiological findings suggestive of well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayuki Kogure; Yoshiyuki Ueno; Satoshi Sekiguchi; Kazuyuki Ishida; Takehiko Igarashi; Yuta Wakui; Takao Iwasaki; Tooru Shimosegawa

    2009-01-01

    A liver tumor 35 mm in diameter was found incidentally in a 40-year-old woman who had no history of liver diseases or the use of oral contraceptives. Radiological diagnostics showed the typical findings of liver cell adenoma (LCA). Dynamic computed tomography revealed that the tumor showed a homogenous enhancement in the arterial phase and almost the same enhancement as the surrounding liver parenchyma in the delayed phase. The tumor was found to contain fat on magnetic resonance imaging. A benign fat containing liver tumor was suggested. However, radiological findings altered, which caused us to suspect that a welldifferentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) containing fat was becoming dedifferentiated. Partial hepatectomy was performed and the pathological findings showed the typical findings of LCA. This case was an extremely rare LCA, which had no background of risk for LCA and developed the sequential alteration of the radiological findings to suspect well-differentiated HCC.

  2. Pioglitazone administration alters ovarian gene expression in aging obese lethal yellow mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Mitch

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS are often treated with insulin-sensitizing agents, e.g. thiazolidinediones (TZD, which have been shown to reduce androgen levels and improved ovulatory function. Acting via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR gamma, TZD alter the expression of a large variety of genes. Lethal yellow (LY; C57BL/6J Ay/a mice, possessing a mutation (Ay in the agouti gene locus, exhibit progressive obesity, reproductive dysfunction, and altered metabolic regulation similar to women with PCOS. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that prolonged treatment of aging LY mice with the TZD, pioglitazone, alters the ovarian expression of genes that may impact reproduction. Methods Female LY mice received daily oral doses of either 0.01 mg pioglitazone (n = 4 or an equal volume of vehicle (DMSO; n = 4 for 8 weeks. At the end of treatment, ovaries were removed and DNA microarrays were used to analyze differential gene expression. Results Twenty-seven genes showed at least a two-fold difference in ovarian expression with pioglitazone treatment. These included leptin, angiopoietin, angiopoietin-like 4, Foxa3, PGE1 receptor, resistin-like molecule-alpha (RELM, and actin-related protein 6 homolog (ARP6. For most altered genes, pioglitazone changed levels of expression to those seen in untreated C57BL/6J(a/a non-mutant lean mice. Conclusion TZD administration may influence ovarian function via numerous diverse mechanisms that may or may not be directly related to insulin/IGF signaling.

  3. Doublecortin knockout mice show normal hippocampal-dependent memory despite CA3 lamination defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Germain

    Full Text Available Mutations in the human X-linked doublecortin gene (DCX cause major neocortical disorganization associated with severe intellectual disability and intractable epilepsy. Although Dcx knockout (KO mice exhibit normal isocortical development and architecture, they show lamination defects of the hippocampal pyramidal cell layer largely restricted to the CA3 region. Dcx-KO mice also exhibit interneuron abnormalities. As well as the interest of testing their general neurocognitive profile, Dcx-KO mice also provide a relatively unique model to assess the effects of a disorganized CA3 region on learning and memory. Based on its prominent anatomical and physiological features, the CA3 region is believed to contribute to rapid encoding of novel information, formation and storage of arbitrary associations, novelty detection, and short-term memory. We report here that Dcx-KO adult males exhibit remarkably preserved hippocampal- and CA3-dependant cognitive processes using a large battery of classical hippocampus related tests such as the Barnes maze, contextual fear conditioning, paired associate learning and object recognition. In addition, we show that hippocampal adult neurogenesis, in terms of proliferation, survival and differentiation of granule cells, is also remarkably preserved in Dcx-KO mice. In contrast, following social deprivation, Dcx-KO mice exhibit impaired social interaction and reduced aggressive behaviors. In addition, Dcx-KO mice show reduced behavioral lateralization. The Dcx-KO model thus reinforces the association of neuropsychiatric behavioral impairments with mouse models of intellectual disability.

  4. CD38 Knockout Mice Show Significant Protection Against Ischemic Brain Damage Despite High Level Poly-ADP-Ribosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Aaron; Park, Ji H; Klimova, Nina; Fowler, Carol; Loane, David J; Kristian, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    Several enzymes in cellular bioenergetics metabolism require NAD(+) as an essential cofactor for their activity. NAD(+) depletion following ischemic insult can result in cell death and has been associated with over-activation of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase PARP1 as well as an increase in NAD(+) consuming enzyme CD38. CD38 is an NAD(+) glycohydrolase that plays an important role in inflammatory responses. To determine the contribution of CD38 activity to the mechanisms of post-ischemic brain damage we subjected CD38 knockout (CD38KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice to transient forebrain ischemia. The CD38KO mice showed a significant amelioration in both histological and neurologic outcome following ischemic insult. Decrease of hippocampal NAD(+) levels detected during reperfusion in WT mice was only transient in CD38KO animals, suggesting that CD38 contributes to post-ischemic NAD(+) catabolism. Surprisingly, pre-ischemic poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) levels were dramatically higher in CD38KO animals compared to WT animals and exhibited reduction post-ischemia in contrast to the increased levels in WT animals. The high PAR levels in CD38 mice were due to reduced expression levels of poly-ADP-ribose glycohydrolase (PARG). Thus, the absence of CD38 activity can not only directly affect inflammatory response, but also result in unpredicted alterations in the expression levels of enzymes participating in NAD(+) metabolism. Although the CD38KO mice showed significant protection against ischemic brain injury, the changes in enzyme activity related to NAD(+) metabolism makes the determination of the role of CD38 in mechanisms of ischemic brain damage more complex.

  5. Developmental alterations in motor coordination and medium spiny neuron markers in mice lacking pgc-1α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K Lucas

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence implicates the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α in the pathophysiology of Huntington Disease (HD. Adult PGC-1α (-/- mice exhibit striatal neurodegeneration, and reductions in the expression of PGC-1α have been observed in striatum and muscle of HD patients as well as in animal models of the disease. However, it is unknown whether decreased expression of PGC-1α alone is sufficient to lead to the motor phenotype and striatal pathology characteristic of HD. For the first time, we show that young PGC-1α (-/- mice exhibit severe rotarod deficits, decreased rearing behavior, and increased occurrence of tremor in addition to the previously described hindlimb clasping. Motor impairment and striatal vacuolation are apparent in PGC-1α (-/- mice by four weeks of age and do not improve or decline by twelve weeks of age. The behavioral and pathological phenotype of PGC-1α (-/- mice can be completely recapitulated by conditional nervous system deletion of PGC-1α, indicating that peripheral effects are not responsible for the observed abnormalities. Evaluation of the transcriptional profile of PGC-1α (-/- striatal neuron populations and comparison to striatal neuron profiles of R6/2 HD mice revealed that PGC-1α deficiency alone is not sufficient to cause the transcriptional changes observed in this HD mouse model. In contrast to R6/2 HD mice, PGC-1α (-/- mice show increases in the expression of medium spiny neuron (MSN markers with age, suggesting that the observed behavioral and structural abnormalities are not primarily due to MSN loss, the defining pathological feature of HD. These results indicate that PGC-1α is required for the proper development of motor circuitry and transcriptional homeostasis in MSNs and that developmental disruption of PGC-1α leads to long-term alterations in motor functioning.

  6. Chronic alterations in monoaminergic cells in the locus coeruleus in orexin neuron-ablated narcoleptic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuko Tsujino

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy patients often suffer from insomnia in addition to excessive daytime sleepiness. Narcoleptic animals also show behavioral instability characterized by frequent transitions between all vigilance states, exhibiting very short bouts of NREM sleep as well as wakefulness. The instability of wakefulness states in narcolepsy is thought to be due to deficiency of orexins, neuropeptides produced in the lateral hypothalamic neurons, which play a highly important role in maintaining wakefulness. However, the mechanism responsible for sleep instability in this disorder remains to be elucidated. Because firing of orexin neurons ceases during sleep in healthy animals, deficiency of orexins does not explain the abnormality of sleep. We hypothesized that chronic compensatory changes in the neurophysiologica activity of the locus coeruleus (LC and dorsal raphe (DR nucleus in response to the progressive loss of endogenous orexin tone underlie the pathological regulation of sleep/wake states. To evaluate this hypothesis, we examined firing patterns of serotonergic (5-HT neurons and noradrenergic (NA neurons in the brain stem, two important neuronal populations in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness states. We recorded single-unit activities of 5-HT neurons and NA neurons in the DR nucleus and LC of orexin neuron-ablated narcoleptic mice. We found that while the firing pattern of 5-HT neurons in narcoleptic mice was similar to that in wildtype mice, that of NA neurons was significantly different from that in wildtype mice. In narcoleptic mice, NA neurons showed a higher firing frequency during both wakefulness and NREM sleep as compared with wildtype mice. In vitro patch-clamp study of NA neurons of narcoleptic mice suggested a functional decrease of GABAergic input to these neurons. These alterations might play roles in the sleep abnormality in narcolepsy.

  7. Altered heart rate control in transgenic mice carrying the KCNJ6 gene of the human chromosome 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignon, Jacques M; Bichler, Zoë; Hivert, Bruno; Gannier, François E; Cosnay, Pierre; del Rio, José A; Migliore-Samour, Danièle; Malécot, Claire O

    2008-04-22

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are common in Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21). Recently, cardiac sympathetic-parasympathetic imbalance has also been documented in DS adults free of any CHD. The KCNJ6 gene located on human chromosome 21 encodes for the Kir3.2/GIRK2 protein subunits of G protein-regulated K(+) (K(G)) channels and could contribute to this altered cardiac regulation. To elucidate the role of its overexpression, we used homozygous transgenic (Tg(+/+)) mice carrying copies of human KCNJ6. These mice showed human Kir3.2 mRNA expression in the heart and a 2.5-fold increased translation in the atria. Phenotypic alterations were assessed by recording electrocardiogram of urethane anesthetized mice. Chronotropic responses to direct (carbachol) and indirect (methoxamine) muscarinic stimulation were enhanced in Tg(+/+) mice with respect to wild-type (WT) mice. Alternating periods of slow and fast rhythm induced by CCPA (2-chloro-N-cyclopentyl-adenosine) were amplified in Tg(+/+) mice, resulting in a reduced negative chronotropic effect. These drugs reduced the atrial P wave amplitude and area. P wave variations induced by methoxamine and CCPA were respectively increased and reduced in the Tg(+/+) mice, while PR interval and ventricular wave showed no difference between Tg(+/+) and WT. These results indicate that Tg(+/+) mice incorporating the human KCNJ6 exhibit altered Kir3.2 expression and responses to drugs that would activate K(G) channels. Moreover, these altered expression and responses are limited to sino-atrial node and atria that normally express large amounts of K(G) channels. These data suggest that KCNJ6 could play an important role in altered cardiac regulation in DS patients.

  8. Bromodomain inhibition shows antitumoral activity in mice and human luminal breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Salvia, Montserrat; Simó-Riudalbas, Laia; Llinàs-Arias, Pere; Roa, Laura; Setien, Fernando; Soler, Marta; de Moura, Manuel Castro; Bradner, James E.; Gonzalez-Suarez, Eva; Moutinho, Catia; Esteller, Manel

    2017-01-01

    BET bromodomain inhibitors, which have an antitumoral effect against various solid cancer tumor types, have not been studied in detail in luminal breast cancer, despite the prevalence of this subtype of mammary malignancy. Here we demonstrate that the BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 exerts growth-inhibitory activity in human luminal breast cancer cell lines associated with a depletion of the C-MYC oncogene, but does not alter the expression levels of the BRD4 bromodomain protein. Interestingly, expression microarray analyses indicate that, upon JQ1 administration, the antitumoral phenotype also involves downregulation of relevant breast cancer oncogenes such as the Breast Carcinoma-Amplified Sequence 1 (BCAS1) and the PDZ Domain-Containing 1 (PDZK1). We have also applied these in vitro findings in an in vivo model by studying a transgenic mouse model representing the luminal B subtype of breast cancer, the MMTV-PyMT, in which the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter is used to drive the expression of the polyoma virus middle T-antigen to the mammary gland. We have observed that the use of the BET bromodomain inhibitor for the treatment of established breast neoplasms developed in the MMTV-PyMT model shows antitumor potential. Most importantly, if JQ1 is given before the expected time of tumor detection in the MMTV-PyMT mice, it retards the onset of the disease and increases the survival of these animals. Thus, our findings indicate that the use of bromodomain inhibitors is of great potential in the treatment of luminal breast cancer and merits further investigation. PMID:28881673

  9. Hearts of dystonia musculorum mice display normal morphological and histological features but show signs of cardiac stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin G Boyer

    Full Text Available Dystonin is a giant cytoskeletal protein belonging to the plakin protein family and is believed to crosslink the major filament systems in contractile cells. Previous work has demonstrated skeletal muscle defects in dystonin-deficient dystonia musculorum (dt mice. In this study, we show that the dystonin muscle isoform is localized at the Z-disc, the H zone, the sarcolemma and intercalated discs in cardiac tissue. Based on this localization pattern, we tested whether dystonin-deficiency leads to structural defects in cardiac muscle. Desmin intermediate filament, microfilament, and microtubule subcellular organization appeared normal in dt hearts. Nevertheless, increased transcript levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF, 66% beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC, 95% and decreased levels of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump isoform 2A (SERCA2a, 26%, all signs of cardiac muscle stress, were noted in dt hearts. Hearts from two-week old dt mice were assessed for the presence of morphological and histological alterations. Heart to body weight ratios as well as left ventricular wall thickness and left chamber volume measurements were similar between dt and wild-type control mice. Hearts from dt mice also displayed no signs of fibrosis or calcification. Taken together, our data provide new insights into the intricate structure of the sarcomere by situating dystonin in cardiac muscle fibers and suggest that dystonin does not significantly influence the structural organization of cardiac muscle fibers during early postnatal development.

  10. High percentage of New Zealand white mice show anti-DNA antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, M.J.; Voss, E.W. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    Autoimmune anti-nDNA activity was detected in sera of 57% of New Zealand White (NZW) mice tested. This percentage was established for anti-DNA positive females as a percent of total female NZW tested, and was identical for male NZW. Anti-DNA positive mice ranged in age from 137 days to 619 days, compared to an age range for anti-DNA negative NZW of 137 days to 523 days. Total NZW mice tested was 40. This compared to 40% anti-DNA positive sera of 59 (NZB x NZW) F/sub 1/ mice (BW), ranging in age from 218 to 345 days which were predominantly male (95%). Only 65% of NZW tested were male. Positive sera were established as those sera at a 1:10 dilution, that showed 6X or greater the background activity of sera of non-autoimmune Balb/cV mice at any concentration. All sera were assayed by a solid phase radioimmunoassay using /sup 125/I radiolabelled protein A, and therefore, reflect protein A binding isotypes only. These data implicate NZW mice significantly in the anti-DNA activity exhibited by their autoimmune BW progeny.

  11. In vivo high-resolution 7 Tesla MRI shows early and diffuse cortical alterations in CADASIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guio, François; Reyes, Sonia; Vignaud, Alexandre; Duering, Marco; Ropele, Stefan; Duchesnay, Edouard; Chabriat, Hugues; Jouvent, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Recent data suggest that early symptoms may be related to cortex alterations in CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy), a monogenic model of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). The aim of this study was to investigate cortical alterations using both high-resolution T2* acquisitions obtained with 7 Tesla MRI and structural T1 images with 3 Tesla MRI in CADASIL patients with no or only mild symptomatology (modified Rankin's scale ≤1 and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) ≥24). Complete reconstructions of the cortex using 7 Tesla T2* acquisitions with 0.7 mm isotropic resolution were obtained in 11 patients (52.1±13.2 years, 36% male) and 24 controls (54.8±11.0 years, 42% male). Seven Tesla T2* within the cortex and cortical thickness and morphology obtained from 3 Tesla images were compared between CADASIL and control subjects using general linear models. MMSE, brain volume, cortical thickness and global sulcal morphology did not differ between groups. By contrast, T2* measured by 7 Tesla MRI was significantly increased in frontal, parietal, occipital and cingulate cortices in patients after correction for multiple testing. These changes were not related to white matter lesions, lacunes or microhemorrhages in patients having no brain atrophy compared to controls. Seven Tesla MRI, by contrast to state of the art post-processing of 3 Tesla acquisitions, shows diffuse T2* alterations within the cortical mantle in CADASIL whose origin remains to be determined.

  12. Adiponectin in mice with altered growth hormone action: links to insulin sensitivity and longevity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Ellen R.; List, Edward O.; Jara, Adam; Sackman-Sala, Lucila; Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Gahete, Manuel D.; Kineman, Rhonda D.; Boparai, Ravneet; Bartke, Andrzej; Kopchick, John J.; Berryman, Darlene E.

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is positively correlated with longevity and negatively correlated with many obesity-related diseases. While there are several circulating forms of adiponectin, the high molecular weight (HMW) version has been suggested to have the predominant bioactivity. Adiponectin gene expression and cognate serum protein levels are of particular interest in mice with altered growth hormone (GH) signaling as these mice exhibit extremes in obesity that are positively associated with insulin sensitivity and lifespan as opposed to the typical negative association of these factors. While a few studies have reported total adiponectin levels in young adult mice with altered GH signaling, much remains unresolved, including changes in adiponectin levels with advancing age, proportion of total adiponectin in the HMW form, adipose depot of origin, and differential effects of GH versus IGF1. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to address these issues using assorted mouse lines with altered GH signaling. Our results show that adiponectin is generally negatively associated with GH activity, regardless of age. Further, the amount of HMW adiponectin is consistently linked with the level of total adiponectin and not necessarily with previously reported lifespan or insulin sensitivity of these mice. Interestingly, circulating adiponectin levels correlated strongly with inguinal fat mass, implying the effects of GH on adiponectin are depot-specific. Interestingly rbGH, but not IGF1, decreased circulating total and HMW adiponectin levels. Taken together, these results fill important gaps in the literature related to GH and adiponectin and question the frequently reported associations of total and HMW adiponectin with insulin sensitivity and longevity. PMID:23261955

  13. Heterozygous Che-1 KO mice show deficiencies in object recognition memory persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalcman, Gisela; Corbi, Nicoletta; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Mattei, Elisabetta; Federman, Noel; Romano, Arturo

    2016-10-06

    Transcriptional regulation is a key process in the formation of long-term memories. Che-1 is a protein involved in the regulation of gene transcription that has recently been proved to bind the transcription factor NF-κB, which is known to be involved in many memory-related molecular events. This evidence prompted us to investigate the putative role of Che-1 in memory processes. For this study we newly generated a line of Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mice. Che-1 homozygous KO mouse is lethal during development, but Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mouse is normal in its general anatomical and physiological characteristics. We analyzed the behavioral characteristic and memory performance of Che-1(+/-) mice in two NF-κB dependent types of memory. We found that Che-1(+/-) mice show similar locomotor activity and thigmotactic behavior than wild type (WT) mice in an open field. In a similar way, no differences were found in anxiety-like behavior between Che-1(+/-) and WT mice in an elevated plus maze as well as in fear response in a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and object exploration in a novel object recognition (NOR) task. No differences were found between WT and Che-1(+/-) mice performance in CFC training and when tested at 24h or 7days after training. Similar performance was found between groups in NOR task, both in training and 24h testing performance. However, we found that object recognition memory persistence at 7days was impaired in Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mice. This is the first evidence showing that Che-1 is involved in memory processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alterations of Retinal Vasculature in Cystathionine-Beta-Synthase Mutant Mice, a Model of Hyperhomocysteinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Amany; Al-Shabrawey, Mohamed; Roon, Penny; Sonne, Srinivas; Covar, Jason A.; Matragoon, Surapoon; Ganapathy, Preethi S.; Atherton, Sally S.; El-Remessy, Azza; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Smith, Sylvia B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Mice with moderate/severe hyperhomocysteinemia due to deficiency or absence of the cbs gene encoding cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) have marked retinal disruption, ganglion cell loss, optic nerve mitochondrial dysfunction, and ERG defects; those with mild hyperhomocysteinemia have delayed retinal morphological/functional phenotype. Excess homocysteine is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases; however, it is not known whether excess homocysteine alters retinal vasculature. Methods. Cbs+/+, cbs+/−, and cbs−/− mice (age ∼3 weeks) were subjected to angiography; retinas were harvested for cryosections, flat-mount preparations, or trypsin digestion and subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy to visualize vessels using isolectin-B4, to detect angiogenesis using anti-VEGF and anti-endoglin (anti-CD105) and activated glial cells (anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein [anti-GFAP]) and to investigate the blood–retinal barrier using the tight junction markers zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin. Expression of vegf was determined by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunoblotting. Human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) were treated with excess homocysteine to analyze permeability. Results. Angiography revealed vascular leakage in cbs−/− mice; immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated vascular patterns consistent with ischemia; isolectin-B4 labeling revealed a capillary-free zone centrally and new vessels with capillary tufts midperipherally. This was associated with increased vegf mRNA and protein, CD105, and GFAP in cbs−/− retinas concomitant with a marked decrease in ZO-1 and occludin. Homocysteine-treated HRECs showed increased permeability. Conclusions. Severe elevation of homocysteine in cbs−/− mutant mice is accompanied by alterations in retinal vasculature (ischemia, neovascularization, and incompetent blood–retinal barrier). The marked disruption of retinal structure and decreased visual function reported in cbs−/− mice

  15. Alterations in regulatory T cells induced by specific oligosaccharides improve vaccine responsiveness in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel A Schijf

    Full Text Available Prophylactic vaccinations are generally performed to protect naïve individuals with or without suppressed immune responsiveness. In a mouse model for Influenza vaccinations the specific alterations of CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs in the immune modulation induced by orally supplied oligosaccharides containing scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS was assessed. This dietary intervention increased vaccine specific DTH responses. In addition, a significant increased percentage of T-bet(+ (Th1 activated CD69(+CD4(+ T cells (p<0.001 and reduced percentage of Gata-3(+ (Th2 activated CD69(+CD4(+T cells (p<0.001 was detected in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN of mice receiving scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS compared to control mice. Although no difference in the number or percentage of Tregs (CD4(+Foxp3(+ could be determined after scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS intervention, the percentage of CXCR3 (+ /T-bet(+ (Th1-Tregs was significantly reduced (p<0.05 in mice receiving scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS as compared to mice receiving placebo diets. Moreover, although no absolute difference in suppressive capacity could be detected, an alteration in cytokine profile suggests a regulatory T cell shift towards a reducing Th1 suppression profile, supporting an improved vaccination response.These data are indicative for improved vaccine responsiveness due to reduced Th1 suppressive capacity in the Treg population of mice fed the oligosaccharide specific diet, showing compartmentalization within the Treg population. The modulation of Tregs to control immune responses provides an additional arm of intervention using alternative strategies possibly leading to the development of improved vaccines.

  16. Tenascin-x deficiency mimics ehlers-danlos syndrome in mice through alteration of collagen deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, J.R.; Taylor, G.; Dean, W.B.; Wagner, D.R.; Afzal, V.; Lotz, J.C.; Rubin, E.M.; Bristow, J.

    2002-03-01

    Tenascin-X is a large extracellular matrix protein of unknown function1-3. Tenascin-X deficiency in humans is associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome4,5, a generalized connective tissue disorder resulting from altered metabolism of the fibrillar collagens6. Because TNXB is the first Ehlers-Danlos syndrome gene that does not encode a fibrillar collagen or collagen-modifying enzyme7-14, we suggested that tenascin-X might regulate collagen synthesis or deposition15. To test this hypothesis, we inactivated Tnxb in mice. Tnxb-/- mice showed progressive skin hyperextensibility, similar to individuals with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Biomechanical testing confirmed increased deformability and reduced tensile strength of their skin. The skin of Tnxb-/- mice was histologically normal, but its collagen content was significantly reduced. At the ultrastructural level, collagen fibrils of Tnxb-/- mice were of normal size and shape, but the density of fibrils in their skin was reduced, commensurate with the reduction in collagen content. Studies of cultured dermal fibroblasts showed that although synthesis of collagen I by Tnxb-/- and wildtype cells was similar, Tnxb-/- fibroblasts failed to deposit collagen I into cell-associated matrix. This study confirms a causative role for TNXB in human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and suggests that tenascin-X is an essential regulator of collagen deposition by dermal fibroblasts.

  17. Chronic gastrointestinal inflammation induces anxiety-like behavior and alters central nervous system biochemistry in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercik, Premysl; Verdu, Elena F; Foster, Jane A; Macri, Joseph; Potter, Murray; Huang, Xiaxing; Malinowski, Paul; Jackson, Wendy; Blennerhassett, Patricia; Neufeld, Karen A; Lu, Jun; Khan, Waliul I; Corthesy-Theulaz, Irene; Cherbut, Christine; Bergonzelli, Gabriela E; Collins, Stephen M

    2010-12-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies have associated gastrointestinal inflammation and infection with altered behavior. We investigated whether chronic gut inflammation alters behavior and brain biochemistry and examined underlying mechanisms. AKR mice were infected with the noninvasive parasite Trichuris muris and given etanercept, budesonide, or specific probiotics. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy was performed in a subgroup of mice before infection. Gastrointestinal inflammation was assessed by histology and quantification of myeloperoxidase activity. Serum proteins were measured by proteomic analysis, circulating cytokines were measured by fluorescence activated cell sorting array, and serum tryptophan and kynurenine were measured by liquid chromatography. Behavior was assessed using light/dark preference and step-down tests. In situ hybridization was used to assess brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the brain. T muris caused mild to moderate colonic inflammation and anxiety-like behavior that was associated with decreased hippocampal BDNF messenger RNA (mRNA). Circulating tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, as well as the kynurenine and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, were increased. Proteomic analysis showed altered levels of several proteins related to inflammation and neural function. Administration of etanercept, and to a lesser degree of budesonide, normalized behavior, reduced cytokine and kynurenine levels, but did not influence BDNF expression. The probiotic Bifidobacterium longum normalized behavior and BDNF mRNA but did not affect cytokine or kynurenine levels. Anxiety-like behavior was present in infected mice after vagotomy. Chronic gastrointestinal inflammation induces anxiety-like behavior and alters central nervous system biochemistry, which can be normalized by inflammation-dependent and -independent mechanisms, neither of which requires the integrity of the vagus nerve. Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc

  18. Addiction and Reward-related Genes Show Altered Expression in the Postpartum Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiu eZhao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Motherhood involves a switch in natural rewards, whereby offspring become highly rewarding. Nucleus accumbens (NAC is a key CNS region for natural rewards and addictions, but to date no study has evaluated on a large scale the events in NAC that underlie the maternal change in natural rewards. In this study we utilized microarray and bioinformatics approaches to evaluate postpartum NAC gene expression changes in mice. Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET indicated that postpartum (relative to virgin NAC gene expression profile was significantly enriched for genes related to addiction and reward in 5 of 5 independently curated databases (e.g., Malacards, Phenopedia. Over 100 addiction/reward related genes were identified and these included: Per1, Per2, Arc, Homer2, Creb1, Grm3, Fosb, Gabrb3, Adra2a, Ntrk2, Cry1, Penk, Cartpt, Adcy1, Npy1r, Htr1a, Drd1a, Gria1, and Pdyn. ToppCluster analysis found maternal NAC expression profile to be significantly enriched for genes related to the drug action of nicotine, ketamine, and dronabinol. Pathway analysis indicated postpartum NAC as enriched for RNA processing, CNS development/differentiation, and transcriptional regulation. Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis identified possible networks for transcription factors, including Nr1d1, Per2, Fosb, Egr1, and Nr4a1. The postpartum state involves increased risk for mental health disorders and MSET analysis indicated postpartum NAC to be enriched for genes related to depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Mental health related genes included: Fabp7, Grm3, Penk, and Nr1d1. We confirmed via quantitative PCR Nr1d1, Per2, Grm3, Penk, Drd1a, and Pdyn. This study indicates for the first time that postpartum NAC involves large scale gene expression alterations linked to addiction and reward. Because the postpartum state also involves decreased response to drugs, the findings could provide insights into how to mitigate addictions.

  19. Echinacea purpurea aerial extract alters course of influenza infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Dahlene; Liu, Xinyan; Savage, Caroline; Taur, Ying; Xiao, Weilie; Kennelly, Edward; Yuan, Jianda; Cassileth, Barrie; Salvatore, Mirella; Papanicolaou, Genovefa A

    2010-05-21

    Influenza infection is a major clinical problem and Echinacea purpurea, a widely consumed botanical product, is purported to alter the course of respiratory infections including influenza. Mice infected with WSN influenza A and treated with E. purpurea polysaccharide extract had less weight loss than untreated mice but similar pulmonary viral titers. Echinacea-treated mice had lower systemic and pulmonary KC and IL-10 levels and lower systemic IFN-gamma levels following influenza infection. These suggest that E. purpurea alters the clinical course of influenza infection in mice through modulation of cytokines and not direct antiviral activity. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Mice lacking hippocampal left-right asymmetry show non-spatial learning deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Akihiro; Kosaki, Yutaka; Ito, Isao; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2017-08-31

    Left-right asymmetry is known to exist at several anatomical levels in the brain and recent studies have provided further evidence to show that it also exists at a molecular level in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 circuit. The distribution of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR2B subunits in the apical and basal synapses of CA1 pyramidal neurons is asymmetrical if the input arrives from the left or right CA3 pyramidal neurons. In the present study, we examined the role of hippocampal asymmetry in cognitive function using β2-microglobulin knock-out (β2m KO) mice, which lack hippocampal asymmetry. We tested β2m KO mice in a series of spatial and non-spatial learning tasks and compared the performances of β2m KO and C57BL6/J wild-type (WT) mice. The β2m KO mice appeared normal in both spatial reference memory and spatial working memory tasks but they took more time than WT mice in learning the two non-spatial learning tasks (i.e., a differential reinforcement of lower rates of behavior (DRL) task and a straight runway task). The β2m KO mice also showed less precision in their response timing in the DRL task and showed weaker spontaneous recovery during extinction in the straight runway task. These results indicate that hippocampal asymmetry is important for certain characteristics of non-spatial learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lead poisoning: altered urinary catecholamine metabolites as indicators of intoxication in mice and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silbergeld, E.K. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore); Chisolm, J.J. Jr.

    1976-04-09

    Whether neuropsychological impairment occurs in children with increased lead absorption who are without clinical symptoms is of current concern. This issue, which involves potentially large numbers of children, remains unresolved, in part because of the lack of sensitive biochemical indicators of the effects of lead on the nervous system. In experimental subclinical lead poisoning in mice, significant increases in homovanillic acid and vanillylmandelic acid have been found in brain and urine. In children with increased lead absorption, these acids were measured in urine collected quantitatively under controlled dietary conditions; preliminary results show fivefold increases in the daily output of these compounds. These data suggest that the altered catecholamine metabolism also occurs in children.

  2. Involvement of gut microbial fermentation in the metabolic alterations occurring in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids-depleted mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpentier Yvon A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Western diet is characterized by an insufficient n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA consumption which is known to promote the pathogenesis of several diseases. We have previously observed that mice fed with a diet poor in n-3 PUFA for two generations exhibit hepatic steatosis together with a decrease in body weight. The gut microbiota contributes to the regulation of host energy metabolism, due to symbiotic relationship with fermentable nutrients provided in the diet. In this study, we have tested the hypothesis that perturbations of the gut microbiota contribute to the metabolic alterations occurring in mice fed a diet poor in n-3 PUFA for two generations (n-3/- mice. Methods C57Bl/6J mice fed with a control or an n-3 PUFA depleted diet for two generations were supplemented with prebiotic (inulin-type Fructooligosaccharides, FOS, 0.20 g/day/mice during 24 days. Results n-3/-mice exhibited a marked drop in caecum weight, a decrease in lactobacilli and an increase in bifidobacteria in the caecal content as compared to control mice (n-3/+ mice. Dietary supplementation with FOS for 24 days was sufficient to increase caecal weight and bifidobacteria count in both n-3/+ and n-3/-mice. Moreover, FOS increased lactobacilli content in n-3/-mice, whereas it decreased their level in n-3/+ mice. Interestingly, FOS treatment promoted body weight gain in n-3/-mice by increasing energy efficiency. In addition, FOS treatment decreased fasting glycemia and lowered the higher expression of key factors involved in the fatty acid catabolism observed in the liver of n-3/-mice, without lessening steatosis. Conclusions the changes in the gut microbiota composition induced by FOS are different depending on the type of diet. We show that FOS may promote lactobacilli and counteract the catabolic status induced by n-3 PUFA depletion in mice, thereby contributing to restore efficient fat storage.

  3. In vivo high-resolution 7 Tesla MRI shows early and diffuse cortical alterations in CADASIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François De Guio

    Full Text Available Recent data suggest that early symptoms may be related to cortex alterations in CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy, a monogenic model of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD. The aim of this study was to investigate cortical alterations using both high-resolution T2* acquisitions obtained with 7 Tesla MRI and structural T1 images with 3 Tesla MRI in CADASIL patients with no or only mild symptomatology (modified Rankin's scale ≤1 and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE ≥24.Complete reconstructions of the cortex using 7 Tesla T2* acquisitions with 0.7 mm isotropic resolution were obtained in 11 patients (52.1±13.2 years, 36% male and 24 controls (54.8±11.0 years, 42% male. Seven Tesla T2* within the cortex and cortical thickness and morphology obtained from 3 Tesla images were compared between CADASIL and control subjects using general linear models.MMSE, brain volume, cortical thickness and global sulcal morphology did not differ between groups. By contrast, T2* measured by 7 Tesla MRI was significantly increased in frontal, parietal, occipital and cingulate cortices in patients after correction for multiple testing. These changes were not related to white matter lesions, lacunes or microhemorrhages in patients having no brain atrophy compared to controls.Seven Tesla MRI, by contrast to state of the art post-processing of 3 Tesla acquisitions, shows diffuse T2* alterations within the cortical mantle in CADASIL whose origin remains to be determined.

  4. Decreased body weight and hepatic steatosis with altered fatty acid ethanolamide metabolism in aged L-Fabp -/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Elizabeth P; Kennedy, Susan M; Xie, Yan; Luo, Jianyang; Crooke, Rosanne M; Graham, Mark J; Fu, Jin; Piomelli, Daniele; Davidson, Nicholas O

    2012-04-01

    The tissue-specific sources and regulated production of physiological signals that modulate food intake are incompletely understood. Previous work showed that L-Fabp(-/-) mice are protected against obesity and hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet, findings at odds with an apparent obesity phenotype in a distinct line of aged L-Fabp(-/-) mice. Here we show that the lean phenotype in L-Fabp(-/-) mice is recapitulated in aged, chow-fed mice and correlates with alterations in hepatic, but not intestinal, fatty acid amide metabolism. L-Fabp(-/-) mice exhibited short-term changes in feeding behavior with decreased food intake, which was associated with reduced abundance of key signaling fatty acid ethanolamides, including oleoylethanolamide (OEA, an agonist of PPARα) and anandamide (AEA, an agonist of cannabinoid receptors), in the liver. These reductions were associated with increased expression and activity of hepatic fatty acid amide hydrolase-1, the enzyme that degrades both OEA and AEA. Moreover, L-Fabp(-/-) mice demonstrated attenuated responses to OEA administration, which was completely reversed with an enhanced response after administration of a nonhydrolyzable OEA analog. These findings demonstrate a role for L-Fabp in attenuating obesity and hepatic steatosis, and they suggest that hepatic fatty acid amide metabolism is altered in L-Fabp(-/-) mice.

  5. Altered autophagy and sympathetic innervation in salivary glands from high-fat diet mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Polliane Morais; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte; Carpenter, Guy Howard

    2017-03-01

    to investigate the effects of a high fat diet (HFD) on salivary glands in vivo, in a mouse model. In particular, whether it will induce the appearance of fat cells in salivary glands, alterations related to autophagy, mTOR pathway and sympathetic innervation. 27 adult female ICR mice were separated in six groups. Three groups fed with (HFD) containing 55% fat, for one, two and three month and another three groups fed with normal diet (2.7% of fat), for the same time periods. The submandibular glands and liver were dissected and part homogenized for protein analyses and part fixed in formalin for histological analyses. After three months the HFD fed mice total body weight fold change increased compared to controls. The Oil Red O staining showed no fat cells deposit in salivary gland however a large increase was observed in liver after three months of HFD. Adiponectin levels were significantly decreased in the HFD group after three months. The group fed with HFD for three months showed increased conversion of the LC3 autophagy marker in salivary gland. mTOR showed no activation regarding the time point studied. Tyrosine hydroxylase significantly decreased after two and three month of HFD. HFD caused several changes after three months however the earliest change was noticed after two months regarding sympathetic innervation. This suggests neural alteration may drive other diet induced changes in salivary glands. These early changes may be the starting point for longer term alterations of salivary glands with alterations in diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intestinal colonization by Candida albicans alters inflammatory responses in Bruton's tyrosine kinase-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Strijbis

    Full Text Available The commensal yeast Candida albicans is part of the human intestinal microflora and is considered a "pathobiont", a resident microbe with pathogenic potential yet harmless under normal conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of C. albicans on inflammation of the intestinal tract and the role of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk. Btk is an enzyme that modulates downstream signaling of multiple receptors involved in innate and adaptive immunity, including the major anti-fungal receptor Dectin-1. Colitis was induced in wild type and Btk-/- mice by treatment with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS and the gastrointestinal tract of selected treatment groups were then colonized with C. albicans. Colonization by C. albicans neither dampened nor exacerbated inflammation in wild type mice, but colon length and spleen weight were improved in Btk-deficient mice colonized with C. albicans. Neutrophil infiltration was comparable between wild type and Btk-/- mice, but the knockout mice displayed severely reduced numbers of macrophages in the colon during both DSS and DSS/Candida treatment. Smaller numbers and reduced responsiveness of Btk-/- macrophages might partially explain the improved colon length of Btk-/- mice as a result of Candida colonization. Surprisingly, DSS/Candida-treated Btk-/- animals had higher levels of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines and levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β were reduced compared to wild type. A clustering and correlation analysis showed that for wild type animals, spleen TGF-β and colon IL-10 and for Btk-/- spleen and colon levels of IL-17A best correlated with the inflammatory parameters. We conclude that in Btk-/- immunocompromised animals, colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by the commensal yeast C. albicans alters inflammatory symptoms associated with colitis.

  7. Intestinal colonization by Candida albicans alters inflammatory responses in Bruton's tyrosine kinase-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijbis, Karin; Yilmaz, Omer H; Dougan, Stephanie K; Esteban, Alexandre; Gröne, Andrea; Kumamoto, Carol A; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2014-01-01

    The commensal yeast Candida albicans is part of the human intestinal microflora and is considered a "pathobiont", a resident microbe with pathogenic potential yet harmless under normal conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of C. albicans on inflammation of the intestinal tract and the role of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk). Btk is an enzyme that modulates downstream signaling of multiple receptors involved in innate and adaptive immunity, including the major anti-fungal receptor Dectin-1. Colitis was induced in wild type and Btk-/- mice by treatment with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and the gastrointestinal tract of selected treatment groups were then colonized with C. albicans. Colonization by C. albicans neither dampened nor exacerbated inflammation in wild type mice, but colon length and spleen weight were improved in Btk-deficient mice colonized with C. albicans. Neutrophil infiltration was comparable between wild type and Btk-/- mice, but the knockout mice displayed severely reduced numbers of macrophages in the colon during both DSS and DSS/Candida treatment. Smaller numbers and reduced responsiveness of Btk-/- macrophages might partially explain the improved colon length of Btk-/- mice as a result of Candida colonization. Surprisingly, DSS/Candida-treated Btk-/- animals had higher levels of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines and levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β were reduced compared to wild type. A clustering and correlation analysis showed that for wild type animals, spleen TGF-β and colon IL-10 and for Btk-/- spleen and colon levels of IL-17A best correlated with the inflammatory parameters. We conclude that in Btk-/- immunocompromised animals, colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by the commensal yeast C. albicans alters inflammatory symptoms associated with colitis.

  8. Somatic Copy Number Alterations at Oncogenic Loci Show Diverse Correlations with Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszik, Jason; Wu, Chang-Jiun; Siroy, Alan E.; Lazar, Alexander J.; Davies, Michael A.; Woodman, Scott E.; Kwong, Lawrence N.

    2016-01-01

    Somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) affecting oncogenic drivers have a firmly established role in promoting cancer. However, no agreed-upon standard exists for calling locus-specific amplifications and deletions in each patient sample. Here, we report the correlative analysis of copy number amplitude and length with gene expression across 6,109 samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset across 16 cancer types. Using specificity, sensitivity, and precision-based scores, we assigned optimized amplitude and length cutoffs for nine recurrent SCNAs affecting known oncogenic drivers, using mRNA expression as a functional readout. These cutoffs captured the majority of SCNA-driven, highly-expression-altered samples. The majority of oncogenes required only amplitude cutoffs, as high amplitude samples were almost invariably focal; however, CDKN2A and PTEN uniquely required both amplitude and length cutoffs as primary predictors. For PTEN, these extended to downstream AKT activation. In contrast, SCNA genes located peri-telomerically or in fragile sites showed poor expression-copy number correlations. Overall, our analyses identify optimized amplitude and length cutoffs as efficient predictors of gene expression changes for specific oncogenic SCNAs, yet warn against one-size-fits-all interpretations across all loci. Our results have implications for cancer data analyses and the clinic, where copy number and mutation data are increasingly used to personalize cancer therapy.

  9. Transient anhedonia phenotype and altered circadian timing of behaviour during night-time dim light exposure in Per3−/− mice, but not wildtype mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynhak, Bruno Jacson; Hogben, Alexandra L.; Zanos, Panos; Georgiou, Polymnia; Andreatini, Roberto; Kitchen, Ian; Archer, Simon N.; von Schantz, Malcolm; Bailey, Alexis; van der Veen, Daan R.

    2017-01-01

    Industrialisation greatly increased human night-time exposure to artificial light, which in animal models is a known cause of depressive phenotypes. Whilst many of these phenotypes are ‘direct’ effects of light on affect, an ‘indirect’ pathway via altered sleep-wake timing has been suggested. We have previously shown that the Period3 gene, which forms part of the biological clock, is associated with altered sleep-wake patterns in response to light. Here, we show that both wild-type and Per3−/− mice showed elevated levels of circulating corticosterone and increased hippocampal Bdnf expression after 3 weeks of exposure to dim light at night, but only mice deficient for the PERIOD3 protein (Per3−/−) exhibited a transient anhedonia-like phenotype, observed as reduced sucrose preference, in weeks 2–3 of dim light at night, whereas WT mice did not. Per3−/− mice also exhibited a significantly smaller delay in behavioural timing than WT mice during weeks 1, 2 and 4 of dim light at night exposure. When treated with imipramine, neither Per3−/− nor WT mice exhibited an anhedonia-like phenotype, and neither genotypes exhibited a delay in behavioural timing in responses to dLAN. While the association between both Per3−/− phenotypes remains unclear, both are alleviated by imipramine treatment during dim night-time light. PMID:28071711

  10. Lens specific RLIP76 transgenic mice show a phenotype similar to microphthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Mukesh; Sharma, Rajendra; Yadav, Sushma; Wakamiya, Maki; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Awasthi, Sanjay; Awasthi, Yogesh C

    2014-01-01

    RALBP1/RLIP76 is a ubiquitously expressed protein, involved in promotion and regulation of functions initiated by Ral and R-Ras small GTPases. Presence of multiple domains in its structure enables RLIP76 to be involved in a number of physiological processes such as endocytosis, exocytosis, mitochondrial fission, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and transport of exogenous and endogenous toxicants. Previously, we have established that RLIP76 provides protection to ocular tissues against oxidative stress by transporting the glutathione-conjugates of the toxic, electrophilic products of lipid peroxidation generated during oxidative stress. Therefore, we developed lens specific RLIP76 transgenic mice (lensRLIP76 Tg) to elucidate the role of RLIP76 in protection against oxidative stress, but these transgenic mice showed impaired lens development and a phenotype with small eyes similar to that observed in microphthalmia. These findings prompted us to investigate the mechanisms via which RLIP76 affects lens and eye development. In the present study, we report engineering of lensRLIP76 Tg mice, characterization of the associated phenotype, and the possible molecular mechanisms that lead to the impaired development of eye and lens in these mice. The results of microarray array analysis indicate that the genes involved in pathways for G-Protein signaling, actin cytoskeleton reorganization, endocytosis, and apoptosis are affected in these transgenic mice. The expression of transcription factors, Pax6, Hsf1, and Hsf4b known to be involved in lens development is down regulated in the lens of these Tg mice. However, the expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps), the downstream targets of Hsfs, is differentially affected in the lens showing down regulation of Hsp27, Hsp40, up regulation of Hsp60, and no effect on Hsp70 and Hsp90 expression. The disruption in the organization of actin cytoskeleton of these Tg mice was associated with the inhibition of the activation of Cdc42 and

  11. Improvement of mount preparations in showing myenteric nerve plexus from intestines of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红; 张远强; 孙岚; 王春杨; 尹岭

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The whole mount preparations of digestive tract is an effective experimental way to study the appearance and distribution of nerve plexus in digestive tract. Although myentric nerve plexus preparations technique was reported very early. But we have done experiment over and over during our research work in order to improve this traditional method and to meet the needs of our research work, we made some progresses in regular mount preparations after many experiments, which helped offer better situation in observing myentric nerve plexus. Methods: Five healthy male adult Kunming mice (20-30 g in weight) were used in this study. After intraperitoneal injection of muscle relaxant, with dislocation of cervical vertebra method, the abdominal cavity was exposed through abdominal median incision. After several steps of mount preparations the mucous layer and longitudinal muscle layer mount preparations with myentric nerve plexus were stripped under anatomical microscope. Immunohistochemical staining was also used in our study. Results: The mount preparation samples with myentric nerve plexus from intestines of mice showed positive SP immunoreaction. The positive cells were dark brown. Many of the cytons appeared circular and oval, while some appeared triangular or irregular. Conclusion: Our improved method is really a good method to show enteric nerve plexus. The method has many advantages and is particularly applied to small animals such as Kunming mice and BALB/c mice, weighing from 20 g to 30 g.

  12. Ghrelin knockout mice show decreased voluntary alcohol consumption and reduced ethanol-induced conditioned place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine; Tolle, Virginie; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Brunel, Luc; Martinez, Jean; Tomasetto, Catherine-Laure; Karam, Sherif M

    2013-05-01

    Recent work suggests that stomach-derived hormone ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonism may reduce motivational aspects of ethanol intake. In the current study we hypothesized that the endogenous GHS-R1A agonist ghrelin modulates alcohol reward mechanisms. For this purpose ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation and voluntary ethanol consumption in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm were examined under conditions where ghrelin and its receptor were blocked, either using ghrelin knockout (KO) mice or the specific ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist "JMV2959". We showed that ghrelin KO mice displayed lower ethanol-induced CPP than their wild-type (WT) littermates. Consistently, when injected during CPP-acquisition, JMV2959 reduced CPP-expression in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation was lower in ghrelin KO mice. Moreover, GHS-R1A blockade, using JMV2959, reduced alcohol-stimulated locomotion only in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. When alcohol consumption and preference were assessed using the two-bottle choice test, both genetic deletion of ghrelin and pharmacological antagonism of the GHS-R1A (JMV2959) reduced voluntary alcohol consumption and preference. Finally, JMV2959-induced reduction of alcohol intake was only observed in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. Taken together, these results suggest that ghrelin neurotransmission is necessary for the stimulatory effect of ethanol to occur, whereas lack of ghrelin leads to changes that reduce the voluntary intake as well as conditioned reward by ethanol. Our findings reveal a major, novel role for ghrelin in mediating ethanol behavior, and add to growing evidence that ghrelin is a key mediator of the effects of multiple abused drugs.

  13. Loss of neprilysin alters protein expression in the brain of Alzheimer's disease model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Per; Loganathan, Krishnapriya; Sekiguchi, Misaki; Winblad, Bengt; Iwata, Nobuhisa; Saido, Takaomi C; Tjernberg, Lars O

    2015-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease displaying extracellular plaques formed by the neurotoxic amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles consisting of protein tau. However, how these pathologies relate to the massive neuronal death that occurs in AD brains remain elusive. Neprilysin is the major Aβ-degrading enzyme and a lack thereof increases Aβ levels in the brain twofold. To identify altered protein expression levels induced by increased Aβ levels, we performed a proteomic analysis of the brain of the AD mouse model APPsw and compared it to that of APPsw mice lacking neprilysin. To this end we established an LC-MS/MS method to analyze brain homogenate, using an (18) O-labeled internal standard to accurately quantify the protein levels. To distinguish between alterations in protein levels caused by increased Aβ levels and those induced by neprilysin deficiency independently of Aβ, the brain proteome of neprilysin deficient APPsw mice was also compared to that of neprilysin deficient mice. By this approach we identified approximately 600 proteins and the levels of 300 of these were quantified. Pathway analysis showed that many of the proteins with altered expression were involved in neurological disorders, and that tau, presenilin and APP were key regulators in the identified networks. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with identifiers PXD000968 and PXD001786 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000968 and (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001786). Interestingly, the levels of several proteins, including some not previously reported to be linked to AD, were associated with increased Aβ levels. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Piroxicam attenuates 3-nitropropionic acid-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Jadiswami; H M, Megha; Dhadde, Shivsharan B; Durg, Sharanbasappa; Potadar, Pandharinath P; B S, Thippeswamy; V P, Veerapur

    2014-12-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is a fungal toxin that produces Huntington's disease like symptoms in both animals and humans. Piroxicam, a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, used as anti-inflammatory agent and also known to decrease free oxygen radical production. In this study, the effect of piroxicam was evaluated against 3-NP-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration in mice. Adult male Swiss albino mice were injected with vehicle/piroxicam (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before 3-NP challenge (15 mg/kg, i.p.) regularly for 14 days. Body weights of the mice were measured on alternative days of the experiment. At the end of the treatment schedule, mice were evaluated for behavioral alterations (movement analysis, locomotor test, beam walking test and hanging wire test) and brain homogenates were used for the estimation of oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and catalase). Administration of 3-NP significantly altered the behavioral activities and brain antioxidant status in mice. Piroxicam, at both the tested doses, caused a significant reversal of 3-NP-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative stress in mice. These findings suggest piroxicam protects the mice against 3-NP-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration. The antioxidant properties of piroxicam may be responsible for the observed beneficial actions.

  15. Helicobacter Infection Significantly Alters Pregnancy Success in Laboratory Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Tara C; Cooper, Caitlin A; Ali, Zil; Truong, Ha; Moore, Julie M

    2017-05-01

    Helicobacter spp. are gram-negative, helically shaped bacteria that cause gastric and enterohepatic infections in mammalian species. Although Helicobacter infection frequently is implicated to interfere with reproductive success, few experimental data support these claims. We therefore retrospectively investigated the effect of Helicobacter infection on murine pregnancy outcome after the identification of endemic Helicobacter infection in an animal research facility. Multiplex conventional PCR analysis was used to characterize Helicobacter infection status in one inbred and 2 transgenic strains of mice in 2 self-contained rooms assigned to the same investigator. Outcomes of timed-mating experiments were compared among Helicobacter spp.-infected and uninfected mice of the same strain; Helicobacter infection was eradicated from the colony through fostering with uninfected dams. Although Helicobacter infection affected fecundity in only one strain of transgenic mouse, the total number of embryos per gravid uterus was significantly reduced in C57BL/6J mice that were infected with a single Helicobacter species, H. typhlonius. Helicobacter infection was also associated with a significant increase in the number of resorbing embryos per uterus and significant decreases in pregnancy-associated weight gain relative to uninfected mice in C57BL6/J mice and one transgenic strain. Helicobacter spp.-infected mice of all tested strains exhibited higher frequency of intrauterine hemorrhaging relative to uninfected mice. These results indicate that naturally-acquired Helicobacter infection not only reduces the productivity of a research animal breeding colony, but also negatively impacts embryo health. Despite these deleterious effects, these data suggest that colonies can be rederived to be Helicobacter-free by Cesarean section and fostering with uninfected dams. This paper provides the first evidence that H. typhlonius infection is sufficient to interfere with reproductive success

  16. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1 levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation.

  17. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Shang, Zhanxian; Yuan, Gongsheng; Xu, Lirong; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Sun, Ning; Yan, Zuoqin; Qian, Ruizhe; Lu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice) by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice) and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice) exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation.

  18. Nav 1.8-null mice show stimulus-dependent deficits in spinal neuronal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood John N

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The voltage gated sodium channel Nav 1.8 has a highly restricted expression pattern to predominantly nociceptive peripheral sensory neurones. Behaviourally Nav 1.8-null mice show an increased acute pain threshold to noxious mechanical pressure and also deficits in inflammatory and visceral, but not neuropathic pain. Here we have made in vivo electrophysiology recordings of dorsal horn neurones in intact anaesthetised Nav 1.8-null mice, in response to a wide range of stimuli to further the understanding of the functional roles of Nav 1.8 in pain transmission from the periphery to the spinal cord. Results Nav 1.8-null mice showed marked deficits in the coding by dorsal horn neurones to mechanical, but not thermal, -evoked responses over the non-noxious and noxious range compared to littermate controls. Additionally, responses evoked to other stimulus modalities were also significantly reduced in Nav 1.8-null mice where the reduction observed to pinch > brush. The occurrence of ongoing spontaneous neuronal activity was significantly less in mice lacking Nav 1.8 compared to control. No difference was observed between groups in the evoked activity to electrical activity of the peripheral receptive field. Conclusion This study demonstrates that deletion of the sodium channel Nav 1.8 results in stimulus-dependent deficits in the dorsal horn neuronal coding to mechanical, but not thermal stimuli applied to the neuronal peripheral receptive field. This implies that Nav 1.8 is either responsible for, or associated with proteins involved in mechanosensation.

  19. Glycophenotypic alterations induced by Pteridium aquilinum in mice gastric mucosa: synergistic effect with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Gomes

    Full Text Available The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum is a plant known to be carcinogenic to animals. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between bracken fern exposure and gastric cancer development in humans. The biological effects of exposure to this plant within the gastric carcinogenesis process are not fully understood. In the present work, effects in the gastric mucosa of mice treated with Pteridium aquilinum were evaluated, as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic role with Helicobacter pylori infection. Our results showed that exposure to Pteridium aquilinum induces histomorphological modifications including increased expression of acidic glycoconjugates in the gastric mucosa. The transcriptome analysis of gastric mucosa showed that upon exposure to Pteridium aquilinum several glycosyltransferase genes were differently expressed, including Galntl4, C1galt1 and St3gal2, that are mainly involved in the biosynthesis of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens. Concomitant treatment with Pteridium aquilinum and infection with Helicobacter pylori also resulted in differently expressed glycosyltransferase genes underlying the biosynthesis of terminal sialylated Lewis antigens, including Sialyl-Lewis(x. These results disclose the molecular basis for the altered pattern of glycan structures observed in the mice gastric mucosa. The gene transcription alterations and the induced glycophenotypic changes observed in the gastric mucosa contribute for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Pteridium aquilinum in the gastric carcinogenesis process.

  20. Fgf9 (Y162C) Mutation Alters Information Processing and Social Memory in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Lillian; Becker, Lore; Rozman, Jan; Puk, Oliver; Stoeger, Tobias; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Bohla, Alexander; Eickelberg, Oliver; Hans, Wolfgang; Prehn, Cornelia; Adamski, Jerzy; Klopstock, Thomas; Rácz, Ildikó; Zimmer, Andreas; Klingenspor, Martin; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Graw, Jochen; Hölter, Sabine M

    2017-07-10

    In neuropsychiatric diseases, such as major depression and anxiety, pathogenic vulnerability is partially dictated by a genetic predisposition. The search continues to define this genetic susceptibility and establish new genetic elements as potential therapeutic targets. The fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) could be interesting in this regard. This family of signaling molecules plays important roles in development while also functioning within the adult. This includes effects on aspects of brain function such as neurogenesis and synapse formation. Of this family, Fgf9 is expressed in the adult brain, but its functional role is less well defined. In this study, we examined the role of Fgf9 in different brain functions by analyzing the behavior of Fgf9 (Y162C) mutant mice, an Fgf9 allele without the confounding systemic effects of other Fgf9 genetic models. Here, we show that this mutation caused altered locomotor and exploratory reactivity to novel, mildly stressful environments. In addition, mutants showed heightened acoustic startle reactivity as well as impaired social discrimination memory. Notably, there was a substantial decrease in the level of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis with no difference in hippocampal neurogenesis. Collectively, our findings indicate a role for the Fgf9 (Y162C) mutation in information processing and perception of aversive situations as well as in social memory. Thus, genetic alterations in Fgf9 could increase vulnerability to developing neuropsychiatric disease, and we propose the Fgf9 (Y162C) mutant mice as a valuable tool to study the predictive etiological aspects.

  1. Mice deficient in dihydrolipoyl succinyl transferase show increased vulnerability to mitochondrial toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lichuan; Shi, Qingli; Ho, Daniel J; Starkov, Anatoly A; Wille, Elizabeth J; Xu, Hui; Chen, H L; Zhang, Steven; Stack, Cliona M; Calingasan, Noel Y; Gibson, Gary E; Beal, M Flint

    2009-11-01

    The activity of a key mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC), declines in many neurodegenerative diseases. KGDHC consists of three subunits. The dihydrolipoyl succinyl transferase (DLST) component is unique to KGDHC. DLST(+/-) mice showed reduced mRNA and protein levels and decreased brain mitochondrial KGDHC activity. Neurotoxic effects of mitochondrial toxins were exacerbated in DLST(+/-) mice. MPTP produced a significantly greater reduction of striatal dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of DLST(+/-) mice. DLST deficiency enhanced the severity of lipid peroxidation in the substantia nigra after MPTP treatment. Striatal lesions induced by either malonate or 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) were significantly larger in DLST(+/-) mice than in wildtype controls. DLST deficiency enhanced the 3-NP inhibition of mitochondria enzymes, and 3-NP induced protein and DNA oxidations. These observations support the hypothesis that reductions in KGDHC may impair the adaptability of the brain and contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Granzyme K-deficient mice show no evidence of impaired antiviral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeckel, Lars T; Allison, Cody C; Pellegrini, Marc; Bird, Catherina H; Bird, Phillip I

    2017-04-21

    The biological role of granzyme K, a serine protease of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), is controversial. It has been reported to induce perforin-mediated cell death in vitro, but is also reported to be non-cytotoxic and to operate in inflammatory processes. To elucidate the biological role of this protease, we have deleted the granzyme K gene in mice (mutant allele: Gzmk(tm1.1Pib); MGI:5636646). Gzmk (-/-) mice are healthy, anatomically normal, fecund and show normal hematopoietic development. Gzmk (-/-) mice readily recover from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and mouse pox Ectromelia virus infection. Ex vivo, virus-specific granzyme K-deficient CTL are indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice in apoptosis induction of target cells. These data suggest that granzyme K does not play an essential role in viral immunity or cytotoxicity. Our granzyme K knockout line completes the collection of mouse models for the human granzymes, and will further our understanding of their biological roles and relationships.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 23 May 2017; doi:10.1038/icb.2017.35.

  3. Executive attention networks show altered relationship with default mode network in PD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Boord

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention dysfunction is a common but often undiagnosed cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease that significantly reduces quality of life. We sought to increase understanding of the mechanisms underlying attention dysfunction using functional neuroimaging. Functional MRI was acquired at two repeated sessions in the resting state and during the Attention Network Test, for 25 non-demented subjects with Parkinson's disease and 21 healthy controls. Behavioral and MRI contrasts were calculated for alerting, orienting, and executive control components of attention. Brain regions showing group differences in attention processing were used as seeds in a functional connectivity analysis of a separate resting state run. Parkinson's disease subjects showed more activation during increased executive challenge in four regions of the dorsal attention and frontoparietal networks, namely right frontal eye field, left and right intraparietal sulcus, and precuneus. In three regions we saw reduced resting state connectivity to the default mode network. Further, whereas higher task activation in the right intraparietal sulcus correlated with reduced resting state connectivity between right intraparietal sulcus and the precuneus in healthy controls, this relationship was absent in Parkinson's disease subjects. Our results suggest that a weakened interaction between the default mode and task positive networks might alter the way in which the executive response is processed in PD.

  4. Bantu expansion shows that habitat alters the route and pace of human dispersals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grollemund, Rebecca; Branford, Simon; Bostoen, Koen; Meade, Andrew; Venditti, Chris; Pagel, Mark

    2015-10-27

    Unlike most other biological species, humans can use cultural innovations to occupy a range of environments, raising the intriguing question of whether human migrations move relatively independently of habitat or show preferences for familiar ones. The Bantu expansion that swept out of West Central Africa beginning ∼5,000 y ago is one of the most influential cultural events of its kind, eventually spreading over a vast geographical area a new way of life in which farming played an increasingly important role. We use a new dated phylogeny of ∼400 Bantu languages to show that migrating Bantu-speaking populations did not expand from their ancestral homeland in a "random walk" but, rather, followed emerging savannah corridors, with rainforest habitats repeatedly imposing temporal barriers to movement. When populations did move from savannah into rainforest, rates of migration were slowed, delaying the occupation of the rainforest by on average 300 y, compared with similar migratory movements exclusively within savannah or within rainforest by established rainforest populations. Despite unmatched abilities to produce innovations culturally, unfamiliar habitats significantly alter the route and pace of human dispersals.

  5. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase knockout mice show resistance to obesity when fed high-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouno, Tetsuya; Akiyama, Nobuteru; Ito, Takahito; Okuda, Tomohiko; Nanchi, Isamu; Notoya, Mitsuru; Oka, Shogo; Yukioka, Hideo

    2016-02-01

    Ghrelin is an appetite-stimulating hormone secreted from stomach. Since the discovery that acylation of the serine-3 residue by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is essential for exerting its functions, GOAT has been regarded as an therapeutic target for attenuating appetite, and thus for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. However, contrary to the expectations, GOAT-knockout (KO) mice have not shown meaningful body weight reduction, under high-fat diet. Here, in this study, we sought to determine whether GOAT has a role in body weight regulation and glucose metabolism with a focus on dietary sucrose, because macronutrient composition of diet is important for appetite regulation. We found that peripherally administered acylated-ghrelin, but not unacylated one, stimulated sucrose consumption in a two-bottle-drinking test. The role of acylated-ghrelin in sucrose preference was further supported by the finding that GOAT KO mice consumed less sucrose solution compared with WT littermates. Then, we investigated the effect of dietary composition of sucrose on food intake and body weight in GOAT KO and WT mice. As a result, when fed on high-fat diet, food intake and body weight were similar between GOAT KO and WT mice. However, when fed on high-fat, high-sucrose diet, GOAT KO mice showed significantly reduced food intake and marked resistance to obesity, leading to amelioration of glucose metabolism. These results suggest that blockade of acylated-ghrelin production offers therapeutic potential for obesity and metabolic disorders caused by overeating of palatable food. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. Neuropeptide Y response to alcohol is altered in nucleus accumbens of mice selectively bred for drinking to intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.; Crabbe, John C.

    2016-01-01

    The High Drinking in the Dark (HDID) mice have been selectively bred for drinking to intoxicating blood alcohol levels and represent a genetic model of risk for binge-like drinking. Presently, little is known about the specific genetic factors that promote excessive intake in these mice. Previous studies have identified neuropeptide Y (NPY) as a potential target for modulating alcohol intake. NPY expression differs in some rodent lines that have been selected for high and low alcohol drinking phenotypes, as well as inbred mouse strains that differ in alcohol preference. Alcohol drinking and alcohol withdrawal also produce differential effects on NPY expression in the brain. Here, we assessed brain NPY protein levels in HDID mice of two replicates of selection and control heterogeneous stock (HS) mice at baseline (water drinking) and after binge-like alcohol drinking to determine whether selection is associated with differences in NPY expression and its sensitivity to alcohol. NPY levels did not differ between HDID and HS mice in any brain region in the water-drinking animals. HS mice showed a reduction in NPY levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) – especially in the shell – in ethanol-drinking animals vs. water-drinking controls. However, HDID mice showed a blunted NPY response to alcohol in the NAc core and shell compared to HS mice. These findings suggest that the NPY response to alcohol has been altered by selection for drinking to intoxication in a region-specific manner. Thus, the NPY system may represent a potential target for altering binge-like alcohol drinking in these mice. PMID:26779672

  7. Altered motivation masks appetitive learning potential of obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen R. Harb

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating depends strongly on learning processes which, in turn, depend on motivation. Conditioned learning, where individuals associate environmental cues with receipt of a reward, forms an important part of hedonic mechanisms; the latter contribute to the development of human overweight and obesity by driving excessive eating in what may become a vicious cycle. Although mice are commonly used to explore the regulation of human appetite, it is not known whether their conditioned learning of food rewards varies as a function of body mass. To address this, groups of adult male mice of differing body weights were tested two appetitive conditioning paradigms (pavlovian and operant as well as in food retrieval and hedonic preference tests in an attempt to dissect the respective roles of learning/motivation and energy state in the regulation of feeding behavior. We found that i the rate of pavlovian conditioning to an appetitive reward develops as an inverse function of body weight; ii higher body weight associates with increased latency to collect food reward; and iii mice with lower body weights are more motivated to work for a food reward, as compared to animals with higher body weights. Interestingly, as compared to controls, overweight and obese mice consumed smaller amounts of palatable foods (isocaloric milk or sucrose, in either the presence or absence of their respective maintenance diets: standard, low fat-high carbohydrate or high fat-high carbohydrate. Notably, however, all groups adjusted their consumption of the different food types, such that their body weight-corrected daily intake of calories remained constant. Thus, overeating in mice does not reflect a reward deficiency syndrome and, in contrast to humans, mice regulate their caloric intake according to metabolic status rather than to the hedonic properties of a particular food. Together, these observations demonstrate that excess weight masks the capacity for appetitive learning in

  8. Prenatal desvenlafaxine induced behavioural alterations in Swiss albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kumari, Amrita; Singh, Mandavi; Trigunayat, Anshuman; Mishra, Anand; Shrestha, Shamsher; Shrestha, Uttam

    2014-01-01

    Background Desvenlafaxine is used as an antidepressant and acts by inhibiting reuptake of serotonin and nor-adrenaline. Purpose The safety profile of desvenlafaxine has not yet been established during pregnancy, so we planned this study to see the behavioral changes in pups of mice who received desvenlafaxine during gestational period. Methods Swiss albino mice were used for the present study. The treated group was given desvenlafaxine orally in the dose of 80 mg/kg from 1st to 6th day of ges...

  9. Cardiac-Specific Disruption of GH Receptor Alters Glucose Homeostasis While Maintaining Normal Cardiac Performance in Adult Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Adam; Liu, Xingbo; Sim, Don; Benner, Chance M; Duran-Ortiz, Silvana; Qian, Yanrong; List, Edward O; Berryman, Darlene E; Kim, Jason K; Kopchick, John J

    2016-05-01

    GH is considered necessary for the proper development and maintenance of several tissues, including the heart. Studies conducted in both GH receptor null and bovine GH transgenic mice have demonstrated specific cardiac structural and functional changes. In each of these mouse lines, however, GH-induced signaling is altered systemically, being decreased in GH receptor null mice and increased in bovine GH transgenic mice. Therefore, to clarify the direct effects GH has on cardiac tissue, we developed a tamoxifen-inducible, cardiac-specific GHR disrupted (iC-GHRKO) mouse line. Cardiac GH receptor was disrupted in 4-month-old iC-GHRKO mice to avoid developmental effects due to perinatal GHR gene disruption. Surprisingly, iC-GHRKO mice showed no difference vs controls in baseline or postdobutamine stress test echocardiography measurements, nor did iC-GHRKO mice show differences in longitudinal systolic blood pressure measurements. Interestingly, iC-GHRKO mice had decreased fat mass and improved insulin sensitivity at 6.5 months of age. By 12.5 months of age, however, iC-GHRKO mice no longer had significant decreases in fat mass and had developed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Furthermore, investigation via immunoblot analysis demonstrated that iC-GHRKO mice had appreciably decreased insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation, specifically in heart and liver, but not in epididymal white adipose tissue. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in circulating IGF-1 levels in 12.5-month-old iC-GHRKO mice. These data indicate that whereas the disruption of cardiomyocyte GH-induced signaling in adult mice does not affect cardiac function, it does play a role in systemic glucose homeostasis, in part through modulation of circulating IGF-1.

  10. High-fat diet alters gut microbiota physiology in mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, Hannelore; Gholami, Amin Moghaddas; Berry, David; Desmarchelier, Charles; Hahne, Hannes; Loh, Gunnar; Mondot, Stanislas; Lepage, Patricia; Rothballer, Michael; Walker, Alesia; Böhm, Christoph; Wenning, Mareike; Wagner, Michael; Blaut, Michael; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Kuster, Bernhard; Haller, Dirk; Clavel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    ...) metaproteome and metabolome via high-resolution mass spectrometry. High-fat diet caused shifts in the diversity of dominant gut bacteria and altered the proportion of Ruminococcaceae (decrease) and Rikenellaceae (increase...

  11. Altered lipid and salt taste responsivity in ghrelin and GOAT null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Cai

    Full Text Available Taste perception plays an important role in regulating food preference, eating behavior and energy homeostasis. Taste perception is modulated by a variety of factors, including gastric hormones such as ghrelin. Ghrelin can regulate growth hormone release, food intake, adiposity, and energy metabolism. Octanoylation of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT is a specific post-translational modification which is essential for many biological activities of ghrelin. Ghrelin and GOAT are both widely expressed in many organs including the gustatory system. In the current study, overall metabolic profiles were assessed in wild-type (WT, ghrelin knockout (ghrelin(-/-, and GOAT knockout (GOAT(-/- mice. Ghrelin(-/- mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased plasma triglycerides and increased ketone bodies compared to WT mice while demonstrating WT-like body weight, fat composition and glucose control. In contrast GOAT(-/- mice exhibited reduced body weight, adiposity, resting glucose and insulin levels compared to WT mice. Brief access taste behavioral tests were performed to determine taste responsivity in WT, ghrelin(-/- and GOAT(-/- mice. Ghrelin and GOAT null mice possessed reduced lipid taste responsivity. Furthermore, we found that salty taste responsivity was attenuated in ghrelin(-/- mice, yet potentiated in GOAT(-/- mice compared to WT mice. Expression of the potential lipid taste regulators Cd36 and Gpr120 were reduced in the taste buds of ghrelin and GOAT null mice, while the salt-sensitive ENaC subunit was increased in GOAT(-/- mice compared with WT mice. The altered expression of Cd36, Gpr120 and ENaC may be responsible for the altered lipid and salt taste perception in ghrelin(-/- and GOAT(-/- mice. The data presented in the current study potentially implicates ghrelin signaling activity in the modulation of both lipid and salt taste modalities.

  12. Altered lipid and salt taste responsivity in ghrelin and GOAT null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huan; Cong, Wei-Na; Daimon, Caitlin M; Wang, Rui; Tschöp, Matthias H; Sévigny, Jean; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Taste perception plays an important role in regulating food preference, eating behavior and energy homeostasis. Taste perception is modulated by a variety of factors, including gastric hormones such as ghrelin. Ghrelin can regulate growth hormone release, food intake, adiposity, and energy metabolism. Octanoylation of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is a specific post-translational modification which is essential for many biological activities of ghrelin. Ghrelin and GOAT are both widely expressed in many organs including the gustatory system. In the current study, overall metabolic profiles were assessed in wild-type (WT), ghrelin knockout (ghrelin(-/-)), and GOAT knockout (GOAT(-/-)) mice. Ghrelin(-/-) mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased plasma triglycerides and increased ketone bodies compared to WT mice while demonstrating WT-like body weight, fat composition and glucose control. In contrast GOAT(-/-) mice exhibited reduced body weight, adiposity, resting glucose and insulin levels compared to WT mice. Brief access taste behavioral tests were performed to determine taste responsivity in WT, ghrelin(-/-) and GOAT(-/-) mice. Ghrelin and GOAT null mice possessed reduced lipid taste responsivity. Furthermore, we found that salty taste responsivity was attenuated in ghrelin(-/-) mice, yet potentiated in GOAT(-/-) mice compared to WT mice. Expression of the potential lipid taste regulators Cd36 and Gpr120 were reduced in the taste buds of ghrelin and GOAT null mice, while the salt-sensitive ENaC subunit was increased in GOAT(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. The altered expression of Cd36, Gpr120 and ENaC may be responsible for the altered lipid and salt taste perception in ghrelin(-/-) and GOAT(-/-) mice. The data presented in the current study potentially implicates ghrelin signaling activity in the modulation of both lipid and salt taste modalities.

  13. Modified oleic cottonseeds show altered content, composition and tissue-specific distribution of triacylglycerol molecular species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Patrick J; Sturtevant, Drew; Chapman, Kent D

    2014-01-01

    Targeted increases in monounsaturated (oleic acid) fatty acid content of refined cottonseed oil could support improved human nutrition and cardiovascular health. Genetic modifications of cottonseed fatty acid composition have been accomplished using several different molecular strategies. Modification of oleic acid content in cottonseed embryos using a dominant-negative protein approach, while successful in effecting change in the desired fatty acid composition, resulted in reduced oil content and seed viability. Here these changes in fatty acid composition were associated with changes in dominant molecular species of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and their spatial distributions within embryo tissues. A combination of mass spectrometry (MS)-based lipidomics approaches, including MS imaging of seed cryo-sections, revealed that cotton embryos expressing a non-functional allele of a Brassica napus delta-12 desaturase showed altered accumulation of TAG species, especially within cotyledonary tissues. While lipid analysis of seed extracts could demonstrate detailed quantitative changes in TAG species in transgenics, the spatial contribution of metabolite compartmentation could only be visualized by MS imaging. Our results suggest tissue-specific differences in TAG biosynthetic pathways within cotton embryos, and indicate the importance of considering the location of metabolites in tissues in addition to their identification and quantification when developing a detailed view of cellular metabolism.

  14. Altered pupillary light reflex in PACAP receptor 1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelund, Anna; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Harrison, Adrian; Luuk, Hendrik; Hannibal, Jens

    2012-05-01

    The pupillary light reflex (PLR) is regulated by the classical photoreceptors, rods and cones, and by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin. IpRGCs receive input from rods and cones and project to the olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN), which is the primary visual center involved in PLR. Mice lacking either the classical photoreceptors or melanopsin exhibit some changes in PLR, whereas the reflex is completely lost in mice deficient of all three photoreceptors. The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is co-stored with melanopsin in ipRGCs and mediates light signaling to the brain via the specific PACAP receptor 1 (PAC1R). Here, we examined the occurrence of PACAP and PAC1R in the mouse OPN, and studied if lack of PAC1R affected the PLR. PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibers were shown in the mouse OPN, and by in situ hybridization histochemistry, we demonstrated the presence of PAC1R mRNA. Mice lacking PAC1R exhibited a significantly attenuated PLR compared to wild type mice upon light stimulation, and the difference became more pronounced as light intensity was increased. Our findings accord well with observations of the PLR in the melanopsin-deficient mouse. We conclude that PACAP/PAC1R signaling is involved in the sustained phase of the PLR at high irradiances.

  15. Altered thymocyte and T cell development in neonatal mice with hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angusamy, Sowmya; Mansour, Tamer; Abdulmageed, Mohammed; Han, Rachel; Schutte, Brian C; LaPres, John; Harkema, Jack R; Omar, Said A

    2017-08-19

    The adaptive immune system of neonates is relatively underdeveloped. The thymus is an essential organ for adaptive T cell development and might be affected during the natural course of oxygen induced lung injury. The effect of prolonged hyperoxia on the thymus, thymocyte and T cell development, and its proliferation has not been studied extensively. Neonatal mice were exposed to 85% oxygen (hyperoxia) or room air (normoxia) up to 28 days. Flow cytometry using surface markers were used to assay for thymocyte development and proliferation. Mice exposed to prolonged hyperoxia had evidence of lung injury associated alveolar simplification, a significantly lower mean weight, smaller thymic size, lower mean thymocyte count and higher percentage of apoptotic thymocytes. T cells subpopulation in the thymus showed a significant reduction in the count and proliferation of double positive and double negative T cells. There was a significant reduction in the count and proliferation of single positive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Prolonged hyperoxia in neonatal mice adversely affected thymic size, thymocyte count and altered the distribution of T cells sub-populations. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged hyperoxia causes defective development of T cells in the thymus.

  16. Altered lymphocyte proliferation and innate immune function in scrapie 139A- and ME7-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In Soo; Spinner, Daryl S; Kascsak, Richard J; Meeker, H Cliff; Kim, Bo Sook; Park, Seung Yong; Schuller-Levis, Georgia; Park, Eunkyue

    2013-06-01

    Lymphoid organs play an important role in prion disease development and progression. While the role of lymphoid organs and changes in immune-related genes have been extensively investigated in scrapie-infected animals, innate immunity has not. Previous studies examined lymphocyte function in scrapie-infected C3H/HeJ mice, which exhibit defects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) response now known to result from a mutation in Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. We examined immune function in scrapie-infected CD1 mice, which are LPS responders. Lymphocyte proliferation from CD1 mice infected with either 139A or ME7 scrapie was measured in response to concanavalin (Con) A or LPS at 1 and 3 months after infection. Following LPS exposure, mice infected 3 months with ME7, but not 139A, demonstrated significantly decreased lymphocyte proliferation compared to controls. After Con A exposure, lymphocyte proliferation in scrapie-infected mice did not differ from controls. Gender-specific comparison of lymphocyte proliferation showed significant decreases in mitogenic responses in females infected 3 months with either 139A or ME7, compared to controls. Males infected for 3 months with ME7, but not 139A, showed significantly decreased proliferation after lymphocyte exposure to LPS, but not Con A. Neither gender showed changes in lymphocyte proliferation after 1 month of scrapie infection. Innate immune activation of peritoneal macrophages was determined via production of nitric oxide (NO), IL-6, and TNF-α after exposure to TLR ligands. TNF-α and IL-6 production were reduced in macrophages from females infected with either scrapie strain for 3 months, while NO production after TLR agonist plus IFN-γ exposure was decreased in both females and males infected for 3 months with 139A, compared to ME7. These data demonstrated altered innate immunity, suggesting hormonal and/or other gender-specific regulation may contribute to gender differences in some immune functions. Our data demonstrate

  17. Histidine decarboxylase knockout mice, a genetic model of Tourette syndrome, show repetitive grooming after induced fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meiyu; Li, Lina; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Pittenger, Christopher

    2015-05-19

    Tics, such as are seen in Tourette syndrome (TS), are common and can cause profound morbidity, but they are poorly understood. Tics are potentiated by psychostimulants, stress, and sleep deprivation. Mutations in the gene histidine decarboxylase (Hdc) have been implicated as a rare genetic cause of TS, and Hdc knockout mice have been validated as a genetic model that recapitulates phenomenological and pathophysiological aspects of the disorder. Tic-like stereotypies in this model have not been observed at baseline but emerge after acute challenge with the psychostimulant d-amphetamine. We tested the ability of an acute stressor to stimulate stereotypies in this model, using tone fear conditioning. Hdc knockout mice acquired conditioned fear normally, as manifested by freezing during the presentation of a tone 48h after it had been paired with a shock. During the 30min following tone presentation, knockout mice showed increased grooming. Heterozygotes exhibited normal freezing and intermediate grooming. These data validate a new paradigm for the examination of tic-like stereotypies in animals without pharmacological challenge and enhance the face validity of the Hdc knockout mouse as a pathophysiologically grounded model of tic disorders.

  18. Elastin-insufficient mice show normal cardiovascular remodeling in 2K1C hypertension despite higher baseline pressure and unique cardiovascular architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenseil, Jessica E; Knutsen, Russell H; Li, Dean Y; Mecham, Robert P

    2007-07-01

    Mice heterozygous for the elastin gene (ELN(+/-)) show unique cardiovascular properties, including increased blood pressure and smaller, thinner arteries with an increased number of lamellar units. Some of these properties are also observed in humans with supravalvular aortic stenosis, a disease caused by functional heterozygosity of the elastin gene. The arterial geometry in ELN(+/-) mice is contrary to the increased thickness that would be expected in an animal demonstrating hypertensive remodeling. To determine whether this is due to a decreased capability for cardiovascular remodeling or to a novel adaptation of the ELN(+/-) cardiovascular system, we increased blood pressure in adult ELN(+/+) and ELN(+/-) mice using the two-kidney, one-clip Goldblatt model of hypertension. Successfully clipped mice have a systolic pressure increase of at least 15 mmHg over sham-operated animals. ELN(+/+) and ELN(+/-)-clipped mice show significant increases over sham-operated mice in cardiac weight, arterial thickness, and arterial cross-sectional area with no changes in lamellar number. There are no significant differences in most mechanical properties with clipping in either genotype. These results indicate that ELN(+/+) and ELN(+/-) hearts and arteries remodel similarly in response to adult induced hypertension. Therefore, the cardiovascular properties of ELN(+/-) mice are likely due to developmental remodeling in response to altered hemodynamics and reduced elastin levels.

  19. Histologic and biochemical alterations predict pulmonary mechanical dysfunction in aging mice with chronic lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Christopher B; Groves, Angela M; Jaggernauth, Smita U; Laskin, Debra L; Gow, Andrew J

    2017-08-01

    Both aging and chronic inflammation produce complex structural and biochemical alterations to the lung known to impact work of breathing. Mice deficient in surfactant protein D (Sftpd) develop progressive age-related lung pathology characterized by tissue destruction/remodeling, accumulation of foamy macrophages and alteration in surfactant composition. This study proposes to relate changes in tissue structure seen in normal aging and in chronic inflammation to altered lung mechanics using a computational model. Alterations in lung function in aging and Sftpd -/- mice have been inferred from fitting simple mechanical models to respiratory impedance data (Zrs), however interpretation has been confounded by the simultaneous presence of multiple coexisting pathophysiologic processes. In contrast to the inverse modeling approach, this study uses simulation from experimental measurements to recapitulate how aging and inflammation alter Zrs. Histologic and mechanical measurements were made in C57BL6/J mice and congenic Sftpd-/- mice at 8, 27 and 80 weeks of age (n = 8/group). An anatomic computational model based on published airway morphometry was developed and Zrs was simulated between 0.5 and 20 Hz. End expiratory pressure dependent changes in airway caliber and recruitment were estimated from mechanical measurements. Tissue elements were simulated using the constant phase model of viscoelasticity. Baseline elastance distribution was estimated in 8-week-old wild type mice, and stochastically varied for each condition based on experimentally measured alteration in elastic fiber composition, alveolar geometry and surfactant composition. Weighing reduction in model error against increasing model complexity allowed for identification of essential features underlying mechanical pathology and their contribution to Zrs. Using a maximum likelihood approach, alteration in lung recruitment and diminished elastic fiber density were shown predictive of mechanical alteration at

  20. Histologic and biochemical alterations predict pulmonary mechanical dysfunction in aging mice with chronic lung inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Massa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Both aging and chronic inflammation produce complex structural and biochemical alterations to the lung known to impact work of breathing. Mice deficient in surfactant protein D (Sftpd develop progressive age-related lung pathology characterized by tissue destruction/remodeling, accumulation of foamy macrophages and alteration in surfactant composition. This study proposes to relate changes in tissue structure seen in normal aging and in chronic inflammation to altered lung mechanics using a computational model. Alterations in lung function in aging and Sftpd -/- mice have been inferred from fitting simple mechanical models to respiratory impedance data (Zrs, however interpretation has been confounded by the simultaneous presence of multiple coexisting pathophysiologic processes. In contrast to the inverse modeling approach, this study uses simulation from experimental measurements to recapitulate how aging and inflammation alter Zrs. Histologic and mechanical measurements were made in C57BL6/J mice and congenic Sftpd-/- mice at 8, 27 and 80 weeks of age (n = 8/group. An anatomic computational model based on published airway morphometry was developed and Zrs was simulated between 0.5 and 20 Hz. End expiratory pressure dependent changes in airway caliber and recruitment were estimated from mechanical measurements. Tissue elements were simulated using the constant phase model of viscoelasticity. Baseline elastance distribution was estimated in 8-week-old wild type mice, and stochastically varied for each condition based on experimentally measured alteration in elastic fiber composition, alveolar geometry and surfactant composition. Weighing reduction in model error against increasing model complexity allowed for identification of essential features underlying mechanical pathology and their contribution to Zrs. Using a maximum likelihood approach, alteration in lung recruitment and diminished elastic fiber density were shown predictive of mechanical

  1. Alterations of interneurons in the striatum and frontal cortex of mice during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Risa; Abe, Manami; Kimoto, Hiroki; Imaoka, Eri; Kato, Hiroyuki; Kasahara, Jiro; Araki, Tsutomu

    2010-08-01

    We investigated the postnatal alterations of neuronal nuclei (NeuN)-positive neurons, parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive interneurons, and neurotrophic factors in the mouse striatum and frontal cortex using immunohistochemistry. NeuN, PV, nNOS, nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) immunoreactivity were measured in 1-, 2-, 4- and 8-week-old mice. Total number of NeuN-positive neurons was unchanged in the mouse striatum and frontal cortex from 1 up to 8 weeks of age. In contrast, a significant decrease in the number of PV-positive interneurons was observed in the striatum and frontal cortex of 1-, 2- and 4-week-old mice. Furthermore, a significant increase of nNOS-positive interneurons was found in the striatum and frontal cortex of 1- and/or 2-week-old mice. NGF-positive neurons were unchanged in the mouse striatum from 1 up to 8 weeks of age. In the frontal cortex, a significant increase in the number of NGF-positive neurons was observed only in 1-week-old mice. In contrast, a significant increase in the number of NGF-positive glia 1 cells was found in the striatum and frontal cortex of 4-week-old mice. Our double-labeled immunostaining showed that nNOS immunoreactivity was not found in PV-immunopositive interneurons. Furthermore, BDNF immunoreactivity was observed in both nNOS-positive and PV-positive interneurons in the striatum of 1- or 2-week-old mice. These results show that the maturation of nNOS-immunopositive interneurons precedes the maturation of PV-immunopositive interneurons in the striatum and frontal cortex during postnatal development. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the expression of BDNF may play some role in the maturation of interneurons in the striatum and frontal cortex during postnatal development. Moreover, our findings suggest that the expression of NGF in glia cells may play some role in the maturation of glial cells and PV-positive interneurons

  2. Altered emotionality leads to increased pain tolerance in amyloid beta (Abeta1-40) peptide-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Fabrício A; Pandolfo, Pablo; Duarte, Filipe S; Takahashi, Reinaldo N; Prediger, Rui D S

    2010-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the decline in cognitive functions, but it is also related to emotional disturbances. Since pain experience results from a complex integration of sensory, cognitive and affective processes, it is not surprising that AD patients display a distinct pattern of pain responsivity. We evaluated whether mice treated with amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide-thought to be critical in the pathogenesis of AD-exhibit altered pain responses and its relation to altered emotionality. Mice received a single i.c.v. injection of vehicle (PBS) or Abeta fragment (1-40) (400pmol/mice) and after 30 days, they were evaluated in tests of pain (hotplate, footshock-sensitivity), learning/memory (water-maze), emotionality (elevated plus-maze, forced swim) and locomotion (open-field). Abeta(1-40)-treated mice presented similar latencies to the control group in the hotplate test and similar nociceptive flinch threshold in the footshock-sensitivity test. However, they presented an increased jump threshold in footshock-sensitivity, suggesting increased pain tolerance. Altered emotionality was observed in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and forced-swim tests (FST), suggesting anxiogenic-like and depressive-like states, respectively. A multifactorial principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that jump threshold of the footshock-sensitivity test falls within 'Emotionality' and 'Pain', showing moderate correlation with each one of the components of behavior. Acute treatment with the antidepressant desipramine (10mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the jump threshold (i.e. pain tolerance) and time of immobility in FST (i.e. depressive-like state). Flinch threshold (i.e. pain sensitivity), locomotion and anxiety were not altered with desipramine treatment. These results suggest that Abeta(1-40) peptide increases pain tolerance, but not pain sensitivity in mice, which seems to be linked to alterations in cognitive/emotional components of pain

  3. Altered astrocytic swelling in the cortex of α-syntrophin-negative GFAP/EGFP mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Anderova

    Full Text Available Brain edema accompanying ischemic or traumatic brain injuries, originates from a disruption of ionic/neurotransmitter homeostasis that leads to accumulation of K(+ and glutamate in the extracellular space. Their increased uptake, predominantly provided by astrocytes, is associated with water influx via aquaporin-4 (AQP4. As the removal of perivascular AQP4 via the deletion of α-syntrophin was shown to delay edema formation and K(+ clearance, we aimed to elucidate the impact of α-syntrophin knockout on volume changes in individual astrocytes in situ evoked by pathological stimuli using three dimensional confocal morphometry and changes in the extracellular space volume fraction (α in situ and in vivo in the mouse cortex employing the real-time iontophoretic method. RT-qPCR profiling was used to reveal possible differences in the expression of ion channels/transporters that participate in maintaining ionic/neurotransmitter homeostasis. To visualize individual astrocytes in mice lacking α-syntrophin we crossbred GFAP/EGFP mice, in which the astrocytes are labeled by the enhanced green fluorescent protein under the human glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter, with α-syntrophin knockout mice. Three-dimensional confocal morphometry revealed that α-syntrophin deletion results in significantly smaller astrocyte swelling when induced by severe hypoosmotic stress, oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD or 50 mM K(+. As for the mild stimuli, such as mild hypoosmotic or hyperosmotic stress or 10 mM K(+, α-syntrophin deletion had no effect on astrocyte swelling. Similarly, evaluation of relative α changes showed a significantly smaller decrease in α-syntrophin knockout mice only during severe pathological conditions, but not during mild stimuli. In summary, the deletion of α-syntrophin markedly alters astrocyte swelling during severe hypoosmotic stress, OGD or high K(+.

  4. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of Ox1r-/- mice showed implication of orexin receptor-1 in mood, anxiety and social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Golam Abbas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides orexin A and orexin B, which are exclusively produced by neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area, play an important role in the regulation of a wide range of behaviors and homeostatic processes, including regulation of sleep/wakefulness states and energy homeostasis. The orexin system has close anatomical and functional relationships with systems that regulate the autonomic nervous system, emotion, mood, the reward system and sleep/wakefulness states. Recent pharmacological studies using selective antagonists have suggested that orexin receptor-1 (OX1R is involved in physiological processes that regulate emotion, the reward system and autonomic nervous system. Here, we examined Ox1r-/- mice with a comprehensive behavioral test battery to screen additional OX1R functions. Ox1r-/- mice showed increased anxiety-like behavior, altered depression-like behavior, slightly decreased spontaneous locomotor activity, reduced social interaction, increased startle response and decreased prepulse inhibition. These results suggest that OX1R plays roles in social behaviour and sensory motor gating in addition to roles in mood and anxiety.

  5. In vitro and in vivo models of Huntington's disease show alterations in the endocannabinoid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Monica; Battista, Natalia; Valenza, Marta; Mastrangelo, Nicolina; Malaponti, Marinella; Catanzaro, Giuseppina; Centonze, Diego; Finazzi-Agrò, Alessandro; Cattaneo, Elena; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we analyzed the components of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in R6/2 mice, a widely used model of Huntington's disease (HD). We measured the endogenous content of N-arachidonoylethanolamine and 2-arachidonoylglycerol and the activity of their biosynthetic enzymes (N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D and diacylglycerol lipase, respectively) and hydrolytic enzymes [fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase, respectively] and of their target receptors (type 1 cannabinoid receptor, type 2 cannabinoid receptor, and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1) in the brains of wild-type and R6/2 mice of different ages, as well as in the striatum and cortex of 12-week-old animals. In addition, we measured FAAH activity in lymphocytes of R6/2 mice. In the whole brains of 12-week-old R6/2 mice, we found reductions in N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D activity, diacylglycerol lipase activity and cannabinoid receptor binding, mostly associated with changes in the striatum but not in the cortex, as well as an increase in 2-arachidonoylglycerol content as compared with wild-type littermates, without any other change in ECS elements. Then, our analysis was extended to HD43 cells, an inducible cellular model of HD derived from rat ST14A cells. In both induced and noninduced conditions, we demonstrated a fully functional ECS. Overall, our data suggest that the ECS is differently affected in mouse and human HD, and that HD43 cells are suitable for high-throughput screening of FAAH-oriented drugs affecting HD progression.

  6. Mice lacking thyroid hormone receptor Beta show enhanced apoptosis and delayed liver commitment for proliferation after partial hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fontal, Raquel; Zeini, Miriam; Través, Paqui G; Gómez-Ferrería, Mariana; Aranda, Ana; Sáez, Guillermo T; Cerdá, Concha; Martín-Sanz, Paloma; Hortelano, Sonsoles; Boscá, Lisardo

    2010-01-14

    The role of thyroid hormones and their receptors (TR) during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) was studied using genetic and pharmacologic approaches. Roles in liver regeneration have been suggested for T3, but there is no clear evidence distinguishing the contribution of increased amounts of T3 from the modulation by unoccupied TRs. Mice lacking TRalpha1/TRbeta or TRbeta alone fully regenerated liver mass after PH, but showed delayed commitment to the initial round of hepatocyte proliferation and transient but intense apoptosis at 48h post-PH, affecting approximately 30% of the remaining hepatocytes. Pharmacologically induced hypothyroidism yielded similar results. Loss of TR activity was associated with enhanced nitrosative stress in the liver remnant, due to an increase in the activity of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 2 and 3, caused by a transient decrease in the concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a potent NOS inhibitor. This decrease in the ADMA levels was due to the presence of a higher activity of dimethylarginineaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH-1) in the regenerating liver of animals lacking TRalpha1/TRbeta or TRbeta. DDAH-1 expression and activity was paralleled by the activity of FXR, a transcription factor involved in liver regeneration and up-regulated in the absence of TR. We report that TRs are not required for liver regeneration; however, hypothyroid mice and TRbeta- or TRalpha1/TRbeta-deficient mice exhibit a delay in the restoration of liver mass, suggesting a specific role for TRbeta in liver regeneration. Altered regenerative responses are related with a delay in the expression of cyclins D1 and E, and the occurrence of liver apoptosis in the absence of activated TRbeta that can be prevented by administration of NOS inhibitors. Taken together, these results indicate that TRbeta contributes significantly to the rapid initial round of hepatocyte proliferation following PH, and improves the survival of the regenerating

  7. Mice Lacking Thyroid Hormone Receptor β Show Enhanced Apoptosis and Delayed Liver Commitment for Proliferation after Partial Hepatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fontal, Raquel; Zeini, Miriam; Través, Paqui G.; Gómez-Ferrería, Mariana; Aranda, Ana; Sáez, Guillermo T.; Cerdá, Concha; Martín-Sanz, Paloma; Hortelano, Sonsoles; Boscá, Lisardo

    2010-01-01

    Background The role of thyroid hormones and their receptors (TR) during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) was studied using genetic and pharmacologic approaches. Roles in liver regeneration have been suggested for T3, but there is no clear evidence distinguishing the contribution of increased amounts of T3 from the modulation by unoccupied TRs. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice lacking TRα1/TRβ or TRβ alone fully regenerated liver mass after PH, but showed delayed commitment to the initial round of hepatocyte proliferation and transient but intense apoptosis at 48h post-PH, affecting ∼30% of the remaining hepatocytes. Pharmacologically induced hypothyroidism yielded similar results. Loss of TR activity was associated with enhanced nitrosative stress in the liver remnant, due to an increase in the activity of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 2 and 3, caused by a transient decrease in the concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a potent NOS inhibitor. This decrease in the ADMA levels was due to the presence of a higher activity of dimethylarginineaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH-1) in the regenerating liver of animals lacking TRα1/TRβ or TRβ. DDAH-1 expression and activity was paralleled by the activity of FXR, a transcription factor involved in liver regeneration and up-regulated in the absence of TR. Conclusions/Significance We report that TRs are not required for liver regeneration; however, hypothyroid mice and TRβ– or TRα1/TRβ–deficient mice exhibit a delay in the restoration of liver mass, suggesting a specific role for TRβ in liver regeneration. Altered regenerative responses are related with a delay in the expression of cyclins D1 and E, and the occurrence of liver apoptosis in the absence of activated TRβ that can be prevented by administration of NOS inhibitors. Taken together, these results indicate that TRβ contributes significantly to the rapid initial round of hepatocyte proliferation following PH, and improves the

  8. Mice lacking thyroid hormone receptor Beta show enhanced apoptosis and delayed liver commitment for proliferation after partial hepatectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel López-Fontal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of thyroid hormones and their receptors (TR during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH was studied using genetic and pharmacologic approaches. Roles in liver regeneration have been suggested for T3, but there is no clear evidence distinguishing the contribution of increased amounts of T3 from the modulation by unoccupied TRs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice lacking TRalpha1/TRbeta or TRbeta alone fully regenerated liver mass after PH, but showed delayed commitment to the initial round of hepatocyte proliferation and transient but intense apoptosis at 48h post-PH, affecting approximately 30% of the remaining hepatocytes. Pharmacologically induced hypothyroidism yielded similar results. Loss of TR activity was associated with enhanced nitrosative stress in the liver remnant, due to an increase in the activity of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS 2 and 3, caused by a transient decrease in the concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, a potent NOS inhibitor. This decrease in the ADMA levels was due to the presence of a higher activity of dimethylarginineaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH-1 in the regenerating liver of animals lacking TRalpha1/TRbeta or TRbeta. DDAH-1 expression and activity was paralleled by the activity of FXR, a transcription factor involved in liver regeneration and up-regulated in the absence of TR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We report that TRs are not required for liver regeneration; however, hypothyroid mice and TRbeta- or TRalpha1/TRbeta-deficient mice exhibit a delay in the restoration of liver mass, suggesting a specific role for TRbeta in liver regeneration. Altered regenerative responses are related with a delay in the expression of cyclins D1 and E, and the occurrence of liver apoptosis in the absence of activated TRbeta that can be prevented by administration of NOS inhibitors. Taken together, these results indicate that TRbeta contributes significantly to the rapid initial round of

  9. Mechanisms linking obesity to altered metabolism in mice colon carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Nimri, Lili; Saadi, Janan; Peri, Irena; Yehuda-Shnaidman, Einav; Schwartz, Betty

    2015-01-01

    There are an increasing number of reports on obesity being a key risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Our goal in this study was to explore the metabolic networks and molecular signaling pathways linking obesity, adipose tissue and colon cancer. Using in-vivo experiments, we found that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and injected with MC38 colon cancer cells develop significantly larger tumors than their counterparts fed a control diet. In ex-vivo experiments, MC38 and CT26 colon c...

  10. Antivenom reversal of biochemical alterations induced by black scorpion Heterometrus fastigiousus Couzijn venom in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Chaubey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Heterometrus fastigiousus venom (HFV was employed as antigen to produce species-specific scorpion antivenom (SAV in albino mice (NIH strain. To determine SAV efficacy, it was pre-incubated with 10 LD50 of HFV and then injected subcutaneously into mice. Subsequently, mortality was observed after 24 hours. Minimum effective dose (MED was 12.5 LD50 of HFV/mL of SAV. SAV effectiveness to reverse HFV-induced biochemical alterations in mice was analyzed by challenge method. Simultaneously, mice received subcutaneously 40% of 24-hour-LD50 of HFV and intravenously SAV. After four hours, changes in serum glucose, free amino acids, uric acids, pyruvic acid, cholesterol, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase enzyme level were determined. Treatment with species-specific SAV resulted in the reversal of HFV-induced biochemical alterations.

  11. Deafness and cochlear fibrocyte alterations in mice deficient for the inner ear protein otospiralin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delprat, Benjamin; Ruel, Jérôme; Guitton, Matthieu J; Hamard, Ghyslaine; Lenoir, Marc; Pujol, Rémy; Puel, Jean-Luc; Brabet, Philippe; Hamel, Christian P

    2005-01-01

    In the cochlea, the mammalian auditory organ, fibrocytes of the mesenchymal nonsensory regions play important roles in cochlear physiology, including the maintenance of ionic and hydric components in the endolymph. Occurrence of human deafness in fibrocyte alterations underlines their critical roles in auditory function. We recently described a novel gene, Otos, which encodes otospiralin, a small protein of unknown function that is produced by the fibrocytes of the cochlea and vestibule. We now have generated mice with deletion of Otos and found that they show moderate deafness, with no frequency predominance. Histopathology revealed a degeneration of type II and IV fibrocytes, while hair cells and stria vascularis appeared normal. Together, these findings suggest that impairment of fibrocytes caused by the loss in otospiralin leads to abnormal cochlear physiology and auditory function. This moderate dysfunction may predispose to age-related hearing loss.

  12. Sertoli-cell-specific knockout of connexin 43 leads to multiple alterations in testicular gene expression in prepubertal mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Giese

    2012-11-01

    A significant decline in human male reproductive function has been reported for the past 20 years but the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. However, recent studies showed that the gap junction protein connexin-43 (CX43; also known as GJA1 might be involved. CX43 is the predominant testicular connexin (CX in most species, including in humans. Alterations of its expression are associated with different forms of spermatogenic disorders and infertility. Men with impaired spermatogenesis often exhibit a reduction or loss of CX43 expression in germ cells (GCs and Sertoli cells (SCs. Adult male transgenic mice with a conditional knockout (KO of the Gja1 gene [referred to here as connexin-43 (Cx43] in SCs (SCCx43KO show a comparable testicular phenotype to humans and are infertile. To detect possible signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms leading to the testicular phenotype in adult SCCx43KO mice and to their failure to initiate spermatogenesis, the testicular gene expression of 8-day-old SCCx43KO and wild-type (WT mice was compared. Microarray analysis revealed that 658 genes were significantly regulated in testes of SCCx43KO mice. Of these genes, 135 were upregulated, whereas 523 genes were downregulated. For selected genes the results of the microarray analysis were confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR and immunostaining. The majority of the downregulated genes are GC-specific and are essential for mitotic and meiotic progression of spermatogenesis, including Stra8, Dazl and members of the DM (dsx and map-3 gene family. Other altered genes can be associated with transcription, metabolism, cell migration and cytoskeleton organization. Our data show that deletion of Cx43 in SCs leads to multiple alterations of gene expression in prepubertal mice and primarily affects GCs. The candidate genes could represent helpful markers for investigators exploring human testicular biopsies from patients showing corresponding spermatogenic deficiencies and for

  13. Human Catestatin Alters Gut Microbiota Composition in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Mohammad F.; Munyaka, Peris M.; Eissa, Nour; Metz-Boutigue, Marie-Hélène; Khafipour, Ehsan; Ghia, Jean Eric

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian intestinal tract is heavily colonized with a dense, complex, and diversified microbial populations. In healthy individuals, an array of epithelial antimicrobial agents is secreted in the gut to aid intestinal homeostasis. Enterochromaffin cells (EC) in the intestinal epithelium are a major source of chromogranin A (CgA), which is a pro-hormone and can be cleaved into many bioactive peptides that include catestatin (CST). This study was carried out to evaluate the possible impact of CST on gut microbiota in vivo using a mouse model. The CST (Human CgA352−372) or normal saline was intrarectally administered in C57BL/6 male mice for 6 days and then sacrificed. Feces and colonic mucosa tissue samples were collected, DNA was extracted, the V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and subjected to MiSeq Illumina sequencing. The α-diversity was calculated using Chao 1 and β-diversity was determined using QIIME. Differences at the genus level were determined using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) was used to predict functional capacity of bacterial community. CST treatment did not modify bacterial richness in fecal and colonic mucosa-associated microbiota; however, treatment significantly modified bacterial community composition between the groups. Also, CST-treated mice had a significantly lower relative abundance of Firmicutes and higher abundance of Bacteroidetes, observed only in fecal samples. However, at lower phylogenetic levels, PLS-DA analysis revealed that some bacterial taxa were significantly associated with the CST-treated mice in both fecal and colonic mucosa samples. In addition, differences in predicted microbial functional pathways in both fecal and colonic mucosa samples were detected. The results support the hypothesis that CST treatment modulates gut microbiota composition under non-pathophysiological conditions

  14. Two Genetically Similar H9N2 Influenza A Viruses Show Different Pathogenicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingtao Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available H9N2 Avian influenza virus has repeatedly infected humans and other mammals, which highlights the need to determine the pathogenicity and the corresponding mechanism of this virus for mammals. In this study, we found two H9N2 viruses with similar genetic background but with different pathogenicity in mice. The A/duck/Nanjing/06/2003 (NJ06 virus was highly pathogenic for mice, with a 50% mouse lethal dose of 102.83 50% egg infectious dose, whereas the A/duck/Nanjing/01/1999 (NJ01 virus was low pathogenic for mice, with a 50% mouse lethal dose of >106.81 50% egg infectious dose. Further studies showed that the NJ06 virus grew faster and reached significantly higher titers than NJ01 in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, the NJ06 virus induced more severe lung lesions, and higher levels of inflammatory cellular infiltration and cytokine response in lungs than NJ01 did. However, only twelve different amino acid residues (HA-K157E, NA-A9T, NA-R435K, PB2-T149P, PB2-K627E, PB1-R187K, PA-L548M, PA-M550L, NP-G127E, NP-P277H, NP-D340N, NS1-D171N were found between the two viruses, and all these residues except for NA-R435K were located in the known functional regions involved in interaction of viral proteins or between the virus and host factors. Summary, our results suggest that multiple amino acid differences may be responsible for the higher pathogenicity of the NJ06 virus for mice, resulting in lethal infection, enhanced viral replication, severe lung lesions, and excessive inflammatory cellular infiltration and cytokine response in lungs. These observations will be helpful for better understanding the pathogenic potential and the corresponding molecular basis of H9N2 viruses that might pose threats to human health in the future.

  15. Loss of SFRP4 Alters Body Size, Food Intake, and Energy Expenditure in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastaitis, Jason; Eckersdorff, Mark; Min, Soo; Xin, Yurong; Cavino, Katie; Aglione, Johnpaul; Okamoto, Haruka; Na, Erqian; Stitt, Trevor; Dominguez, Melissa G; Schmahl, Jennifer P; Lin, Calvin; Gale, Nicholas W; Valenzuela, David M; Murphy, Andrew J; Yancopoulos, George D; Gromada, Jesper

    2015-12-01

    Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4) is an extracellular regulator of the wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site family (WNT) pathway. SFRP4 has been implicated in adipocyte dysfunction, obesity, insulin resistance, and impaired insulin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the exact role of SFRP4 in regulating whole-body metabolism and glucose homeostasis is unknown. We show here that male Sfrp4(-/-) mice have increased spine length and gain more weight when fed a high-fat diet. The body composition and body mass per spine length of diet-induced obese Sfrp4(-/-) mice is similar to wild-type littermates, suggesting that the increase in body weight can be accounted for by their longer body size. The diet-induced obese Sfrp4(-/-) mice have reduced energy expenditure, food intake, and bone mineral density. Sfrp4(-/-) mice have normal glucose and insulin tolerance and β-cell mass. Diet-induced obese Sfrp4(-/-) and control mice show similar impairments of glucose tolerance and a 5-fold compensatory expansion of their β-cell mass. In summary, our data suggest that loss of SFRP4 alters body length and bone mineral density as well as energy expenditure and food intake. However, SFRP4 does not control glucose homeostasis and β-cell mass in mice.

  16. Alteration in the endogenous intestinal flora of swiss webster mice by experimental Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandack Nobre

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The association between worm infections and bacterial diseases has only recently been emphasized. This study examined the effect of experimental Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection on endogenous intestinal flora of Swiss Webster mice. Eight mice aging six weeks were selected for this experiment. Four were infected with A. costaricensis and the other four were used as controls. Twenty eight days after the worm infection, all mice in both groups were sacrificed and samples of the contents of the ileum and colon were obtained and cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. In the mice infected with A. costaricensis there was a significant increase in the number of bacteria of the endogenous intestinal flora, accompanied by a decrease in the number of Peptostreptococcus spp. This alteration in the intestinal flora of mice infected by the nematode may help to understand some bacterial infections described in humans.

  17. Altered synaptic phospholipid signaling in PRG-1 deficient mice induces exploratory behavior and motor hyperactivity resembling psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Patrick; Petzold, Sandra; Sommer, Angela; Nitsch, Robert; Schwegler, Herbert; Vogt, Johannes; Roskoden, Thomas

    2017-08-24

    Plasticity related gene 1 (PRG-1) is a neuron specific membrane protein located at the postsynaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. PRG-1 modulates signaling pathways of phosphorylated lipid substrates such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Deletion of PRG-1 increases presynaptic glutamate release probability leading to neuronal over-excitation. However, due to its cortical expression, PRG-1 deficiency leading to increased glutamatergic transmission is supposed to also affect motor pathways. We therefore analyzed the effects of PRG-1 function on exploratory and motor behavior using homozygous PRG-1 knockout (PRG-1(-/-)) mice and PRG-1/LPA2-receptor double knockout (PRG-1(-/-)/LPA2(-/-)) mice in two open field settings of different size and assessing motor behavior in the Rota Rod test. PRG-1(-/-) mice displayed significantly longer path lengths and higher running speed in both open field conditions. In addition, PRG-1(-/-) mice spent significantly longer time in the larger open field and displayed rearing and self-grooming behavior. Furthermore PRG-1(-/-) mice displayed stereotypical behavior resembling phenotypes of psychiatric disorders in the smaller sized open field arena. Altogether, this behavior is similar to the stereotypical behavior observed in animal models for psychiatric disease of autistic spectrum disorders which reflects a disrupted balance between glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses. These differences indicate an altered excitation/inhibition balance in neuronal circuits in PRG-1(-/-) mice as recently shown in the somatosensory cortex [38]. In contrast, PRG-1(-/-)/LPA2(-/-) did not show significant changes in behavior in the open field suggesting that these specific alterations were abolished when the LPA2-receptor was lacking. Our findings indicate that PRG-1 deficiency led to over-excitability caused by an altered LPA/LPA2-R signaling inducing a behavioral phenotype typically observed in animal models for psychiatric disorders. Copyright

  18. Hepatocellular alterations and dysregulation of oncogenic pathways in the liver of transgenic mice overexpressing growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquet, Johanna G; Freund, Thomas; Martinez, Carolina S; González, Lorena; Díaz, María E; Micucci, Giannina P; Zotta, Elsa; Boparai, Ravneet K; Bartke, Andrzej; Turyn, Daniel; Sotelo, Ana I

    2013-04-01

    Growth hormone (GH) overexpression throughout life in transgenic mice is associated with the development of liver tumors at old ages. The preneoplastic pathology observed in the liver of young adult GH-overexpressing mice is similar to that present in humans at high risk of hepatic cancer. To elucidate the molecular pathogenesis underlying the pro-oncogenic liver pathology induced by prolonged exposure to elevated GH levels, the activation and expression of several components of signal transduction pathways that have been implicated in hepatocellular carcinogenesis were evaluated in the liver of young adult GH-transgenic mice. In addition, males and females were analyzed in parallel in order to evaluate sexual dimorphism. Transgenic mice from both sexes exhibited hepatocyte hypertrophy with enlarged nuclear size and exacerbated hepatocellular proliferation, which were higher in males. Dysregulation of several oncogenic pathways was observed in the liver of GH-overexpressing transgenic mice. Many signaling mediators and effectors were upregulated in transgenic mice compared with normal controls, including Akt2, NFκB, GSK3β, β-catenin, cyclin D1, cyclin E, c-myc, c-jun and c-fos. The molecular alterations described did not exhibit sexual dimorphism in transgenic mice except for higher gene expression and nuclear localization of cyclin D1 in males. We conclude that prolonged exposure to GH induces in the liver alterations in signaling pathways involved in cell growth, proliferation and survival that resemble those found in many human tumors.

  19. Altered muscle force and stiffness of skeletal muscles in alpha-sarcoglycan-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nisha D; Jannapureddy, Suneal R; Hwang, Willy; Chaudhry, Imran; Boriek, Aladin M

    2003-04-01

    Alpha-sarcoglycan (ASG) is a transmembrane protein of the dystrophin-associated complex, and absence of ASG causes limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. We hypothesize that disruption of the sarcoglycan complex may alter muscle extensibility and disrupt the coupling between passive transverse and axial contractile elements in the diaphragm. We determined the length-tension relationships of the diaphragm of young ASG-deficient mice and their controls during uniaxial and biaxial loading. We also determined the isometric contractile properties of the diaphragm muscles from mutant and normal mice in the absence and presence of passive transverse stress. We found that the diaphragm muscles of the null mutants for the protein ASG show 1) significant decrease in muscle extensibility in the directions of the muscle fibers and transverse to fibers, 2) significant reductions in force-generating capacity, and 3) significant reductions in coupling between longitudinal and transverse properties. Thus these findings suggest that the sarcoglycan complex serves a mechanical function in the diaphragm by contributing to muscle passive stiffness and to the modulation of the contractile properties of the muscle.

  20. Cardiac ultrastructural alterations in mice inoculated with Tityus discrepans (Buthidae) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, M; Rodriguez-Acosta, A; Pulido-Mendez, M

    2000-10-01

    In this work we have studied the cardiologic clinical manifestations appearing in response to toxic aggression by Tityus discrepans venom, such as hypertension, hypotension, tachycardia and pulmonary acute oedema. These depend on changes in the organisation of cellular and subcellular components of cardiac tissues and probably correspond with the damage found in envenomed humans. To evaluate cardiac tissue subcellular response to Tityus discrepans venom, male C57/B1 adult mice were randomised into two groups: envenomed mice were intraperitoneally injected at a dose of 5 mg/Kg of body weight and controls received saline solution. Samples from cardiac tissue were prepared for electron microscopy study and observed in a Hitachi-300. The most relevant cardiac ultrastructural findings in this model showed diffuse disarray of the myofibrils and abnormal pattern of the bands in the sarcomera, contractile element disorganisation, degeneration of fibres and loss of the characteristic sarcomeric structure given the appearance of a lax tissue. One of the most prominent features was the presence of a remarkable perinuclear oedema and the perinuclear cistern exhibited indentations over its whole arrangement. The vascular endothelium of the microvessels exhibited alterations with evident cytoplasmic projections toward the lumen of the vessel. Mitochondria presented a condensed conformation. All findings were degenerative signs of the contractile apparatus. We suggest that any cardiac tissue damage produced by toxins present in this venom are responsible for some of the clinical manifestations in envenomed animals and patients.

  1. Alterations in the hippocampal endocannabinoid system in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Federico; Mancini, Giacomo; Schmidt, Helmut; Steindel, Frauke; Mackie, Ken; Angioni, Carlo; Oliet, Stéphane H R; Geisslinger, Gerd; Lutz, Beat

    2010-05-05

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays central roles in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Its alteration in activity contributes to the development and maintenance of obesity. Stimulation of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB(1) receptor) increases feeding, enhances reward aspects of eating, and promotes lipogenesis, whereas its blockade decreases appetite, sustains weight loss, increases insulin sensitivity, and alleviates dysregulation of lipid metabolism. The hypothesis has been put forward that the eCB system is overactive in obesity. Hippocampal circuits are not directly involved in the neuronal control of food intake and appetite, but they play important roles in hedonic aspects of eating. We investigated the possibility whether or not diet-induced obesity (DIO) alters the functioning of the hippocampal eCB system. We found that levels of the two eCBs, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) and anandamide, were increased in the hippocampus from DIO mice, with a concomitant increase of the 2-AG synthesizing enzyme diacylglycerol lipase-alpha and increased CB(1) receptor immunoreactivity in CA1 and CA3 regions, whereas CB(1) receptor agonist-induced [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding was unchanged. eCB-mediated synaptic plasticity was changed in the CA1 region, as depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition and long-term depression of inhibitory synapses were enhanced. Functionality of CB(1) receptors in GABAergic neurons was furthermore revealed, as mice specifically lacking CB(1) receptors on this neuronal population were partly resistant to DIO. Our results show that DIO-induced changes in the eCB system affect not only tissues directly involved in the metabolic regulation but also brain regions mediating hedonic aspects of eating and influencing cognitive processes.

  2. Skeletal muscle alterations and exercise performance decrease in erythropoietin-deficient mice: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mille-Hamard Laurence

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Erythropoietin (EPO is known to improve exercise performance by increasing oxygen blood transport and thus inducing a higher maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max. Furthermore, treatment with (or overexpression of EPO induces protective effects in several tissues, including the myocardium. However, it is not known whether EPO exerts this protective effect when present at physiological levels. Given that EPO receptors have been identified in skeletal muscle, we hypothesized that EPO may have a direct, protective effect on this tissue. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to confirm a decrease in exercise performance and highlight muscle transcriptome alterations in a murine EPO functional knock-out model (the EPO-d mouse. Methods We determined VO2max peak velocity and critical speed in exhaustive runs in 17 mice (9 EPO-d animals and 8 inbred controls, using treadmill enclosed in a metabolic chamber. Mice were sacrificed 24h after a last exhaustive treadmill exercise at critical speed. The tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were removed and total RNA was extracted for microarray gene expression analysis. Results The EPO-d mice’s hematocrit was about 50% lower than that of controls (p  1.4 and 115 were strongly down-regulated (normalized ratio  Conclusions Our results showed that the lack of functional EPO induced a decrease in the aerobic exercise capacity. This decrease was correlated with the hematocrit and reflecting poor oxygen supply to the muscles. The observed alterations in the muscle transcriptome suggest that physiological concentrations of EPO exert both direct and indirect muscle-protecting effects during exercise. However, the signaling pathway involved in these protective effects remains to be described in detail.

  3. Correlated alterations in serotonergic and dopaminergic modulations at the hippocampal mossy fiber synapse in mice lacking dysbindin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Dysbindin-1 (dystrobrevin-binding protein 1, DTNBP1 is one of the promising schizophrenia susceptibility genes. Dysbindin protein is abundantly expressed in synaptic regions of the hippocampus, including the terminal field of the mossy fibers, and this hippocampal expression of dysbindin is strongly reduced in patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, we examined the functional role of dysbindin in hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 synaptic transmission and its modulation using the sandy mouse, a spontaneous mutant with deletion in the dysbindin gene. Electrophysiological recordings were made in hippocampal slices prepared from adult male sandy mice and their wild-type littermates. Basic properties of the mossy fiber synaptic transmission in the mutant mice were generally normal except for slightly reduced frequency facilitation. Serotonin and dopamine, two major neuromodulators implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, can potentiate mossy fiber synaptic transmission probably via an increase in cAMP levels. Synaptic potentiation induced by serotonin and dopamine was very variable in magnitude in the mutant mice, with some mice showing prominent enhancement as compared with the wild-type mice. In addition, the magnitude of potentiation induced by these monoamines significantly correlated with each other in the mutant mice, indicating that a subpopulation of sandy mice has marked hypersensitivity to both serotonin and dopamine. While direct activation of the cAMP cascade by forskolin induced robust synaptic potentiation in both wild-type and mutant mice, this forskolin-induced potentaition correlated in magnitude with the serotonin-induced potentiation only in the mutant mice, suggesting a possible change in coupling of receptor activation to downstream signaling. These results suggest that the dysbindin deficiency could be an essential genetic factor that causes synaptic hypersensitivity to dopamine and serotonin. The altered

  4. Androgen Deficiency Exacerbates High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Alterations in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Vanessa; Laurent, Michaël R; Jardi, Ferran; Antonio, Leen; Lemaire, Katleen; Goyvaerts, Lotte; Deldicque, Louise; Carmeliet, Geert; Decallonne, Brigitte; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Claessens, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Androgen deficiency is associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in men, but the mechanisms behind these associations remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the combined effects of androgen deficiency and high-fat diet (HFD) on body composition and glucose homeostasis in C57BL/6J male mice. Two models of androgen deficiency were used: orchidectomy (ORX) and androgen receptor knockout mice. Both models displayed higher adiposity and serum leptin levels upon HFD, whereas no differences were seen on a regular diet. Fat accumulation in HFD ORX animals was accompanied by increased sedentary behavior and occurred in spite of reduced food intake. HFD ORX mice showed white adipocyte hypertrophy, correlated with decreased mitochondrial content but not function as well as increased lipogenesis and decreased lipolysis suggested by the up-regulation of fatty acid synthase and the down-regulation of hormone-sensitive lipase. Both ORX and androgen receptor knockout exacerbated HFD-induced glucose intolerance by impairing insulin action in liver and skeletal muscle, as evidenced by the increased triglyceride and decreased glycogen content in these tissues. In addition, serum IL-1β levels were elevated, and pancreatic insulin secretion was impaired after ORX. Testosterone but not dihydrotestosterone supplementation restored the castration effects on body composition and glucose homeostasis. We conclude that sex steroid deficiency in combination with HFD exacerbates adiposity, insulin resistance, and β-cell failure in 2 preclinical male mouse models. Our findings stress the importance of a healthy diet in a clinical context of androgen deficiency and may have implications for the prevention of metabolic alterations in hypogonadal men.

  5. Changes in photoperiod alter Glut4 expression in skeletal muscle of C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Ayako; Shibata, Satomi; Takai, Yusuke; Uchiwa, Tatsuhiro; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Yasuo, Shinobu

    2017-03-25

    Seasonal changes in photoperiod influence body weight and metabolism in mice. Here, we examined the effect of changes in photoperiod on the expression of glucose transporter genes in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of C57BL/6J mice. Glut4 expression was lower in the gastrocnemius muscle of mice exposed to a short-duration day (SD) than those to a long-duration day (LD), with accompanying changes in GLUT4 protein levels. Although Glut4 expression in the mouse soleus muscle was higher under SD than under LD, GLUT4 protein levels remained unchanged. To confirm the functional significance of photoperiod-induced changes in Glut4 expression, we checked for variations in insulin sensitivity. Blood glucose levels after insulin injection remained high under SD, suggesting that the mice exposed to SD showed lower sensitivity to insulin than those exposed to LD. We also attempted to clarify the relationship between Glut4 expression and physical activity in the mice following changes in photoperiod. Locomotor activity, as detected via infrared beam sensor, was lower under SD than under LD. However, when we facilitated voluntary activity by using running wheels, the rotation of wheels was similar for both groups of mice. Although physical activity levels were enhanced due to running wheels, Glut4 expression in the gastrocnemius muscle remained unchanged. Thus, variations in photoperiod altered Glut4 expression in the mouse skeletal muscle, with subsequent changes in GLUT4 protein levels and insulin sensitivity; these effects might be independent of physical activity.

  6. Morphological Alterations in Gastrocnemius and Soleus Muscles in Male and Female Mice in a Fibromyalgia Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alejandro Bonaterra

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic musculoskeletal pain disorder, characterized by chronic widespread pain and bodily tenderness and is often accompanied by affective disturbances, however often with unknown etiology. According to recent reports, physical and psychological stress trigger FM. To develop new treatments for FM, experimental animal models for FM are needed to be development and characterized. Using a mouse model for FM including intermittent cold stress (ICS, we hypothesized that ICS leads to morphological alterations in skeletal muscles in mice.Male and female ICS mice were kept under alternating temperature (4 °C/room temperature [22 °C]; mice constantly kept at room temperature served as control. After scarification, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were removed and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen-cooled isopentane or fixed for electron microscopy.In gastrocnemius/soleus muscles of male ICS mice, we found a 21.6% and 33.2% decrease of fiber cross sectional area (FCSA, which in soleus muscle concerns the loss of type IIa and IIx FCSA. This phenomenon was not seen in muscles of female ICS mice. However, this loss in male ICS mice was associated with an increase in gastrocnemius of the density of MIF+ (8.6%-, MuRF+ (14.7%-, Fbxo32+ (17.8%-cells, a 12.1% loss of capillary contacts/muscle fiber as well as a 30.7% increase of damaged mitochondria in comparison with male control mice. Moreover, significant positive correlations exist among densities (n/mm(2 of MIF+, MuRF+, Fbxo32+-cells in gastrocnemius/ soleus muscles of male ICS mice; these cell densities inversely correlate with FCSA especially in gastrocnemius muscle of male ICS mice.The ICS-induced decrease of FCSA mainly concerns gastrocnemius muscle of male mice due to an increase of inflammatory and atrogenic cells. In soleus muscle of male ICS and soleus/gastrocnemius muscles of female ICS mice morphological alterations seem to occur not at all or delayed. The sex-specificity of

  7. Morphological Alterations in Gastrocnemius and Soleus Muscles in Male and Female Mice in a Fibromyalgia Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oezel, Lisa; Schwarzbach, Hans; Ocker, Matthias; Thieme, Kati; Di Fazio, Pietro; Kinscherf, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic musculoskeletal pain disorder, characterized by chronic widespread pain and bodily tenderness and is often accompanied by affective disturbances, however often with unknown etiology. According to recent reports, physical and psychological stress trigger FM. To develop new treatments for FM, experimental animal models for FM are needed to be development and characterized. Using a mouse model for FM including intermittent cold stress (ICS), we hypothesized that ICS leads to morphological alterations in skeletal muscles in mice. Methods Male and female ICS mice were kept under alternating temperature (4°C/room temperature [22°C]); mice constantly kept at room temperature served as control. After scarification, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were removed and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen–cooled isopentane or fixed for electron microscopy. Results In gastrocnemius/soleus muscles of male ICS mice, we found a 21.6% and 33.2% decrease of fiber cross sectional area (FCSA), which in soleus muscle concerns the loss of type IIa and IIx FCSA. This phenomenon was not seen in muscles of female ICS mice. However, this loss in male ICS mice was associated with an increase in gastrocnemius of the density of MIF+ (8.6%)-, MuRF+ (14.7%)-, Fbxo32+ (17.8%)-cells, a 12.1% loss of capillary contacts/muscle fiber as well as a 30.7% increase of damaged mitochondria in comparison with male control mice. Moreover, significant positive correlations exist among densities (n/mm2) of MIF+, MuRF+, Fbxo32+-cells in gastrocnemius/ soleus muscles of male ICS mice; these cell densities inversely correlate with FCSA especially in gastrocnemius muscle of male ICS mice. Conclusion The ICS-induced decrease of FCSA mainly concerns gastrocnemius muscle of male mice due to an increase of inflammatory and atrogenic cells. In soleus muscle of male ICS and soleus/gastrocnemius muscles of female ICS mice morphological alterations seem to occur not at all or

  8. Immunological alteration and changes of gut microbiota after dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Å; Tormo-Badia, N; Baridi, A; Xu, J; Molin, G; Hagslätt, M-L; Karlsson, C; Jeppsson, B; Cilio, C M; Ahrné, S

    2015-02-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa. Administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to animals is a frequently used model to mimic human colitis. Deregulation of the immune response to the enteric microflora or pathogens as well as increased intestinal permeability have been proposed as disease-driving mechanisms. To enlarge the understanding of the pathogenesis, we have studied the effect of DSS on the immune system and gut microbiota in mice. Intestinal inflammation was verified through histological evaluation and myeloperoxidase activity. Immunological changes were assessed by flow cytometry in spleen, Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes and through multiplex cytokine profiling. In addition, quantification of the total amount of bacteria on colonic mucosa as well as the total amount of lactobacilli, Akkermansia, Desulfovibrio and Enterobacteriaceae was performed by the use of quantitative PCR. Diversity and community structure were analysed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) patterns, and principal component analysis was utilized on immunological and T-RFLP patterns. DSS-induced colitis show clinical and histological similarities to UC. The composition of the colonic microflora was profoundly changed and correlated with several alterations of the immune system. The results demonstrate a relationship between multiple immunological changes and alterations of the gut microbiota after DSS administration. These data highlight and improve the definition of the immunological basis of the disease and suggest a role for dysregulation of the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of colitis.

  9. Histopathological alterations induced by non-viable cells and biochemical fractions from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hamdan

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-viable cells and biochemical fractions from Paracoccidioides brasiliens were obtained for experimental inoculation in mice and posterior histopatological analysis. Dead total fungus, total fungus disrupted by sonorous waves, lipids of the fungus, supernatant of the lipid purification, integral and disrupted fungus free of lipids were obtained. The six preparations arised from masses of lyophilized yeasts of a recent isolate of P. brasiliensis (strain JT-1 and from a "Pool" equitably constituted by four strains maintained in laboratory for a long time (SN, 2, 18 and 192. Different doses of the 12 preparations were intraperitonially inoculated and histopathological analysis were done 30 days later. This analysis showed that all the inoculated preparations gave origin to inflamatory foci, except the one designated "supernatant of lipid purification". The alterations were detected exclusively in the liver of the animals and occurred from the smallest dose tested (1 mg, with exception of the lipids of the fungus, where the foci appeared only from a 3 mg dose onwards. No difference in the capacity of inducing histopathological alterations was found between the preparations obtained from the recent isolate (JT-1 and from the older ones ("Pool". On the other hand, an increase of the number of inflammatory foci in function of the inoculated dose was observed.

  10. Alterations in oxidative, inflammatory and apoptotic events in short-lived and long-lived mice testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzkin, María Eugenia; Miquet, Johanna Gabriela; Fang, Yimin; Hill, Cristal Monique; Turyn, Daniel; Calandra, Ricardo Saúl; Bartke, Andrzej; Frungieri, Mónica Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Aged testes undergo profound histological and morphological alterations leading to a reduced functionality. Here, we investigated whether variations in longevity affect the development of local inflammatory processes, the oxidative state and the occurrence of apoptotic events in the testis. To this aim, well-established mouse models with delayed (growth hormone releasing hormone-knockout and Ames dwarf mice) or accelerated (growth hormone-transgenic mice) aging were used. We hereby show that the testes of short-lived mice show a significant increase in cyclooxygenase 2 expression, PGD2 production, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes expression, local macrophages and TUNEL-positive germ cells numbers, and the levels of both pro-caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3. In contrast, although the expression of antioxidant enzymes remained unchanged in testes of long-lived mice, the remainder of the parameters assessed showed a significant reduction. This study provides novel evidence that longevity confers anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic capacities to the adult testis. Oppositely, short-lived mice suffer testicular inflammatory, oxidative and apoptotic processes. PMID:26805572

  11. Nursing frequency alters circadian patterns of mammary gene expression in lactating mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milking frequency impacts lactation in dairy cattle and in rodent models of lactation. The role of circadian gene expression in this process is unknown. The hypothesis tested was that changing nursing frequency alters the circadian patterns of mammary gene expression. Mid-lactation CD1 mice were stu...

  12. Cathepsin K null mice show reduced adiposity during the rapid accumulation of fat stores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Funicello

    Full Text Available Growing evidences indicate that proteases are implicated in adipogenesis and in the onset of obesity. We previously reported that the cysteine protease cathepsin K (ctsk is overexpressed in the white adipose tissue (WAT of obese individuals. We herein characterized the WAT and the metabolic phenotype of ctsk deficient animals (ctsk-/-. When the growth rate of ctsk-/- was compared to that of the wild type animals (WT, we could establish a time window (5-8 weeks of age within which ctsk-/-display significantly lower body weight and WAT size as compared to WT. Such a difference was not observable in older mice. Upon treatment with high fat diet (HFD for 12 weeks ctsk-/- gained significantly less weight than WT and showed reduced brown adipose tissue, liver mass and a lower percentage of body fat. Plasma triglycerides, cholesterol and leptin were significantly lower in HFD-fed-ctsk-/- as compared to HFD-fed WT animals. Adipocyte lipolysis rates were increased in both young and HFD-fed-ctsk-/-, as compared to WT. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 activity, was higher in mitochondria isolated from the WAT of HFD treated ctsk-/- as compared to WT. Together, these data indicate that ctsk ablation in mice results in reduced body fat content under conditions requiring a rapid accumulation of fat stores. This observation could be partly explained by an increased release and/or utilization of FFA and by an augmented ratio of lipolysis/lipogenesis. These results also demonstrate that under a HFD, ctsk deficiency confers a partial resistance to the development of dyslipidemia.

  13. Biochemical Alterations during the Obese-Aging Process in Female and Male Monosodium Glutamate (MSG-Treated Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René J. Hernández-Bautista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, from children to the elderly, has increased in the world at an alarming rate over the past three decades, implying long-term detrimental consequences for individual’s health. Obesity and aging are known to be risk factors for metabolic disorder development, insulin resistance and inflammation, but their relationship is not fully understood. Prevention and appropriate therapies for metabolic disorders and physical disabilities in older adults have become a major public health challenge. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate inflammation markers, biochemical parameters and glucose homeostasis during the obese-aging process, to understand the relationship between obesity and health span during the lifetime. In order to do this, the monosodium glutamate (MSG obesity mice model was used, and data were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months in both female and male mice. Our results showed that obesity was a major factor contributing to premature alterations in MSG-treated mice metabolism; however, at older ages, obesity effects were attenuated and MSG-mice became more similar to normal mice. At a younger age (four months old, the Lee index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, TNF-α and transaminases levels increased; while adiponectin decreased and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity levels were remarkably altered. However, from 16 months old-on, the Lee index and TNF-α levels diminished significantly, while adiponectin increased, and glucose and insulin homeostasis was recovered. In summary, MSG-treated obese mice showed metabolic changes and differential susceptibility by gender throughout life and during the aging process. Understanding metabolic differences between genders during the lifespan will allow the discovery of specific preventive treatment strategies for chronic diseases and functional decline.

  14. Biochemical Alterations during the Obese-Aging Process in Female and Male Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)-Treated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bautista, René J.; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Escobar-Villanueva, María Del C.; Almanza-Pérez, Julio C.; Merino-Aguilar, Héctor; Konigsberg Fainstein, Mina; López-Diazguerrero, Norma E.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, from children to the elderly, has increased in the world at an alarming rate over the past three decades, implying long-term detrimental consequences for individual’s health. Obesity and aging are known to be risk factors for metabolic disorder development, insulin resistance and inflammation, but their relationship is not fully understood. Prevention and appropriate therapies for metabolic disorders and physical disabilities in older adults have become a major public health challenge. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate inflammation markers, biochemical parameters and glucose homeostasis during the obese-aging process, to understand the relationship between obesity and health span during the lifetime. In order to do this, the monosodium glutamate (MSG) obesity mice model was used, and data were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months in both female and male mice. Our results showed that obesity was a major factor contributing to premature alterations in MSG-treated mice metabolism; however, at older ages, obesity effects were attenuated and MSG-mice became more similar to normal mice. At a younger age (four months old), the Lee index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, TNF-α and transaminases levels increased; while adiponectin decreased and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity levels were remarkably altered. However, from 16 months old-on, the Lee index and TNF-α levels diminished significantly, while adiponectin increased, and glucose and insulin homeostasis was recovered. In summary, MSG-treated obese mice showed metabolic changes and differential susceptibility by gender throughout life and during the aging process. Understanding metabolic differences between genders during the lifespan will allow the discovery of specific preventive treatment strategies for chronic diseases and functional decline. PMID:24979131

  15. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) modulates fear-induced alterations in sleep in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linghui; Tang, Xiangdong; Wellman, Laurie L; Liu, Xianling; Sanford, Larry D

    2009-06-18

    Contextual fear significantly reduces rapid eye movement sleep (REM) during post-exposure sleep in mice and rats. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) plays a major role in CNS responses to stressors. We examined the influence of CRF and astressin (AST), a non-specific CRF antagonist, on sleep after contextual fear in BALB/c mice. Male mice were implanted with transmitters for recording sleep via telemetry and with a guide cannula aimed into the lateral ventricle. Recordings for vehicle and handling control were obtained after ICV microinjection of saline (SAL) followed by exposure to a novel chamber. Afterwards, the mice were subjected to shock training (20 trials, 0.5 mA, 0.5 s duration) for 2 sessions. After training, separate groups of mice received ICV microinjections of SAL (0.2 microl, n=9), CRF (0.4 microg, n=8), or AST (1.0 microg, n=8) prior to exposure to the shock context alone. Sleep was then recorded for 20 h (8-hour light and 12-hour dark period). Compared to handling control, contextual fear significantly decreased REM during the 8-h light period in mice receiving SAL and in mice receiving CRF, but not in the mice receiving AST. Mice receiving CRF exhibited reductions in REM during the 12-h dark period after contextual fear, whereas mice receiving SAL or AST did not. CRF also reduced non-REM (NREM) delta (slow wave) amplitude in the EEG. Only mice receiving SAL prior to contextual fear exhibited significant reductions in NREM and total sleep. These findings demonstrate a role for the central CRF system in regulating alterations in sleep induced by contextual fear.

  16. Ceruloplasmin gene-deficient mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis show attenuated early disease evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresle, Melissa M; Schulz, Katrin; Jonas, Anna; Perreau, Victoria M; Cipriani, Tania; Baxter, Alan G; Miranda-Hernandez, Socorro; Field, Judith; Jokubaitis, Vilija G; Cherny, Robert; Volitakis, Irene; David, Samuel; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Butzkueven, Helmut

    2014-06-01

    We conducted a microarray study to identify genes that are differentially regulated in the spinal cords of mice with the inflammatory disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) relative to healthy mice. In total 181 genes with at least a two-fold increase in expression were identified, and most of these genes were associated with immune function. Unexpectedly, ceruloplasmin (Cp), a ferroxidase that converts toxic ferrous iron to its nontoxic ferric form and also promotes the efflux of iron from astrocytes in the CNS, was shown to be highly upregulated (13.2-fold increase) in EAE spinal cord. Expression of Cp protein is known to be increased in several neurological conditions, but the role of Cp regulation in CNS autoimmune disease is not known. To investigate this, we induced EAE in Cp gene knockout, heterozygous, and wild-type mice. Cp knockout mice were found to have slower disease evolution than wild-type mice (EAE days 13-17; P = 0.05). Interestingly, Cp knockout mice also exhibited a significant increase in the number of astrocytes with reactive morphology in early EAE compared with wild-type mice at the same stage of disease. CNS iron levels were not increased with EAE in these mice. Based on these observations, we propose that an increase in Cp expression could contribute to tissue damage in early EAE. In addition, endogenous CP either directly or indirectly inhibits astrocyte reactivity during early disease, which could also worsen early disease evolution.

  17. Proposed second class of Haemophilus ducreyi strains show altered protein and lipooligosaccharide profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Deborah M B; Gibson, Bradford W

    2007-09-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi is the etiologic agent of chancroid, a sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease. Previously we have shown that the protein profiles and lipooligosaccharide (LOS) structures from various strains of H. ducreyi are generally well conserved. Previous studies have demonstrated that at least one strain, 33921, has a variant protein profile and LOS structure. In this study, both the whole cell lysate and the membrane proteins from strain 33921 were further examined and compared to the prototypical strain 35000HP by 2-DE and by the 16-BAC (benzyldimethyl-n-hexadecylammonium chloride)/SDS-PAGE two-detergent system, respectively. These comparisons demonstrated that a number of the proteins that could be identified from both strains had altered positions on the gels, both in their apparent molecular weight and pI values. Strain 33921 has been suggested to be a member of a second class of strains, termed class II strains. In this study, the proteomic profiles and the LOS structures from the five potential class II strains were examined and found to be similar to strain 33921.

  18. Cardiac electrical defects in progeroid mice and Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome patients with nuclear lamina alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Torres, José; Calvo, Conrado J.; Llach, Anna; Guzmán-Martínez, Gabriela; Caballero, Ricardo; González-Gómez, Cristina; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis J.; Guadix, Juan A.; Osorio, Fernando G.; López-Otín, Carlos; Herraiz-Martínez, Adela; Cabello, Nuria; Vallmitjana, Alex; Benítez, Raul; Gordon, Leslie B.; Pérez-Pomares, José M.; Tamargo, Juan; Delpón, Eva; Hove-Madsen, Leif; Filgueiras-Rama, David; Andrés, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare genetic disease caused by defective prelamin A processing, leading to nuclear lamina alterations, severe cardiovascular pathology, and premature death. Prelamin A alterations also occur in physiological aging. It remains unknown how defective prelamin A processing affects the cardiac rhythm. We show age-dependent cardiac repolarization abnormalities in HGPS patients that are also present in the Zmpste24−/− mouse model of HGPS. Challenge of Zmpste24−/− mice with the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol did not trigger ventricular arrhythmia but caused bradycardia-related premature ventricular complexes and slow-rate polymorphic ventricular rhythms during recovery. Patch-clamping in Zmpste24−/− cardiomyocytes revealed prolonged calcium-transient duration and reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium loading and release, consistent with the absence of isoproterenol-induced ventricular arrhythmia. Zmpste24−/− progeroid mice also developed severe fibrosis-unrelated bradycardia and PQ interval and QRS complex prolongation. These conduction defects were accompanied by overt mislocalization of the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43). Remarkably, Cx43 mislocalization was also evident in autopsied left ventricle tissue from HGPS patients, suggesting intercellular connectivity alterations at late stages of the disease. The similarities between HGPS patients and progeroid mice reported here strongly suggest that defective cardiac repolarization and cardiomyocyte connectivity are important abnormalities in the HGPS pathogenesis that increase the risk of arrhythmia and premature death. PMID:27799555

  19. Fibulin-2 and fibulin-5 alterations in tsk mice associated with disorganized hypodermal elastic fibers and skin tethering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Raphael; Korn, Joseph H; Schiemann, William P; Lafyatis, Robert

    2004-12-01

    The Tight skin (Tsk) mouse is an important model of skin fibrosis that occurs in systemic sclerosis. These mice develop skin tethering and thickening associated with expression of a mutant fibrillin-1 gene. We show that Tsk fibrillin-1 leads to marked alterations in elastic fibers of the hypodermis of Tsk animals. In Tsk mice, a prominent elastic fiber layer found normally at the interface between hypodermal muscle and connective tissue was absent from an early age. The lack of elastic fibers at the hypodermal muscle-connective tissue (M-CT) interface was associated with a loss of staining for fibulin-5 in the same region. These mice also formed disorganized elastic fibers throughout hypodermal connective tissue as they aged. The increased elastic fibers in Tsk hypodermal connective tissue was associated with increased fibrillin-1 and fibulin-2 matrices. These results suggest that Tsk fibrillin-1 causes skin tethering by altering matrix protein composition in Tsk hypodermal connective tissues. The closely parallel alterations in elastogenesis associated with increased fibulin-2 in hypodermal connective tissues and decreased fibulin-5 at the hypodermal M-CT interface suggest that these proteins mediate the effect of Tsk-fibrillin-1 on elastogenesis.

  20. Altered response to benzodiazepine anxiolytics in mice lacking GABA B(1) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombereau, Cedric; Kaupmann, Klemens; van der Putten, Herman; Cryan, John F

    2004-08-16

    Recently, we demonstrated that mice lacking the GABA(B(1)) subunit were more anxious than wild-type animals in several behavioural paradigms, most notably in the light-dark test. In an attempt to assess the effects of classical benzodiazepine anxiolytics on anxiety-like behaviour observed in these mice, animals were administered either chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) or diazepam (7.5 mg/kg, p.o.) prior to testing in the light-dark box. Surprisingly, in contrast with the wild-type mice, neither benzodiazepines decreased anxiety-like behaviour in GABA(B(1))(-/-) mice. These data suggest that targeted deletion of GABA(B(1)) subunit alters GABA(A) receptor function in vivo.

  1. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuehai [Cardiovascular Department, Liaocheng People’s Hospital of Shandong University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252000 (China); Cardiovascular Department, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Lu, Huixia [The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Huang, Ziyang, E-mail: huangziyang666@126.com [Cardiovascular Department, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Lin, Huili [Cardiovascular Department, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Lei, Zhenmin [Department of OB/GYN, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Chen, Xiaoqing [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Tang, Mengxiong; Gao, Fei; Dong, Mei [The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Li, Rongda [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Lin, Ling, E-mail: qzlinl@163.com [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • The spleen weights and glomerular areas were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • Expressions of IgG and C3 in glomeruli were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • IgG, C3 and macrophage infiltration in aortic plaques were found in ApoE{sup −/−} mice. - Abstract: Background: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE{sup −/−}) mice is a classic model of atherosclerosis. We have found that ApoE{sup −/−} mice showed splenomegaly, higher titers of serum anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibody compared with C57B6/L (B6) mice. However, whether ApoE{sup −/−} mice show autoimmune injury remains unclear. Methods and results: Six females and six males in each group, ApoE{sup −/−}, Fas{sup −/−} and B6 mice, were used in this study. The titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein were measured by ELISA after 4 months of high-fat diet. The spleen weight and the glomerular area were determined. The expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in kidney and atherosclerotic plaque were detected by immunostaining followed by morphometric analysis. Similar to the characteristics of Fas{sup −/−} mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ApoE{sup −/−} mice, especially female, displayed significant increases of spleen weight and glomerular area when compared to B6 mice. Also, elevated titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein. Moreover, the expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in glomeruli and aortic plaques were found in ApoE{sup −/−} mice. In addition, the IgG and C3 expressions in glomeruli and plaques significantly increased (or a trend of increase) in female ApoE{sup −/−} mice compared with males. Conclusions: Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta.

  2. Sexual Dimorphism in Circadian Physiology Is Altered in LXRα Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Feillet

    Full Text Available The mammalian circadian timing system coordinates key molecular, cellular and physiological processes along the 24-h cycle. Accumulating evidence suggests that many clock-controlled processes display a sexual dimorphism. In mammals this is well exemplified by the difference between the male and female circadian patterns of glucocorticoid hormone secretion and clock gene expression. Here we show that the non-circadian nuclear receptor and metabolic sensor Liver X Receptor alpha (LXRα which is known to regulate glucocorticoid production in mice modulates the sex specific circadian pattern of plasma corticosterone. Lxrα(-/- males display a blunted corticosterone profile while females show higher amplitude as compared to wild type animals. Wild type males are significantly slower than females to resynchronize their locomotor activity rhythm after an 8 h phase advance but this difference is abrogated in Lxrα(-/- males which display a female-like phenotype. We also show that circadian expression patterns of liver 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 and Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck differ between sexes and are differentially altered in Lxrα(-/- animals. These changes are associated with a damped profile of plasma glucose oscillation in males but not in females. Sex specific alteration of the insulin and leptin circadian profiles were observed in Lxα(-/- females and could be explained by the change in corticosterone profile. Together this data indicates that LXRα is a determinant of sexually dimorphic circadian patterns of key physiological parameters. The discovery of this unanticipated role for LXRα in circadian physiology underscores the importance of addressing sex differences in chronobiology studies and future LXRα targeted therapies.

  3. Altered mRNA editing and expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors after kainic acid exposure in cyclooxygenase-2 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Caracciolo

    Full Text Available Kainic acid (KA binds to the AMPA/KA receptors and induces seizures that result in inflammation, oxidative damage and neuronal death. We previously showed that cyclooxygenase-2 deficient (COX-2(-/- mice are more vulnerable to KA-induced excitotoxicity. Here, we investigated whether the increased susceptibility of COX-2(-/- mice to KA is associated with altered mRNA expression and editing of glutamate receptors. The expression of AMPA GluR2, GluR3 and KA GluR6 was increased in vehicle-injected COX-2(-/- mice compared to wild type (WT mice in hippocampus and cortex, whereas gene expression of NMDA receptors was decreased. KA treatment decreased the expression of AMPA, KA and NMDA receptors in the hippocampus, with a significant effect in COX-2(-/- mice. Furthermore, we analyzed RNA editing levels and found that the level of GluR3 R/G editing site was selectively increased in the hippocampus and decreased in the cortex in COX-2(-/- compared with WT mice. After KA, GluR4 R/G editing site, flip form, was increased in the hippocampus of COX-2(-/- mice. Treatment of WT mice with the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib for two weeks decreased the expression of AMPA/KA and NMDAR subunits after KA, as observed in COX-2(-/- mice. After KA exposure, COX-2(-/- mice showed increased mRNA expression of markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, such as cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, microglia (CD11b and astrocyte (GFAP. Thus, COX-2 gene deletion can exacerbate the inflammatory response to KA. We suggest that COX-2 plays a role in attenuating glutamate excitotoxicity by modulating RNA editing of AMPA/KA and mRNA expression of all ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits and, in turn, neuronal excitability. These changes may contribute to the increased vulnerability of COX-2(-/- mice to KA. The overstimulation of glutamate receptors as a consequence of COX-2 gene deletion suggests a functional coupling between COX-2 and the

  4. Cognitive abnormalities and hippocampal alterations in monoamine oxidase A and B knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chanpreet; Bortolato, Marco; Bali, Namrata; Godar, Sean C; Scott, Anna L; Chen, Kevin; Thompson, Richard F; Shih, Jean C

    2013-07-30

    The monoamine oxidase isoenzymes (MAOs) A and B play important roles in the homeostasis of monoaminergic neurotransmitters. The combined deficiency of MAO A and B results in significantly elevated levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), norepinephrine, dopamine, and β-phenylethylamine; in humans and mice, these neurochemical changes are accompanied by neurodevelopmental perturbations as well as autistic-like responses. Ample evidence indicates that normal levels of monoamines in the hippocampus, amygdala, frontal cortex, and cerebellum are required for the integrity of learning and memory. Thus, in the present study, the cognitive status of MAO A/B knockout (KO) mice was examined with a wide array of behavioral tests. In comparison with male wild-type littermates, MAO A/B KO mice exhibited abnormally high and overgeneralized fear conditioning and enhanced eye-blink conditioning. These alterations were accompanied by significant increases in hippocampal long-term potentiation and alterations in the relative expression of NMDA glutamate receptor subunits. Our data suggest that chronic elevations of monoamines, because of the absence of MAO A and MAO B, cause functional alterations that are accompanied with changes in the cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. The characteristics exhibited by MAO A/B KO mice highlight the potential of these animals as a useful tool to provide further insight into the molecular bases of disorders associated with abnormal monoaminergic profiles.

  5. Combined MRI and 31P-MRS Investigations of the ACTA1(H40Y) Mouse Model of Nemaline Myopathy Show Impaired Muscle Function and Altered Energy Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gineste, Charlotte; Le Fur, Yann; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Troter, Arnaud; Pecchi, Emilie; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Hardeman, Edna C.; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is the most common disease entity among non-dystrophic skeletal muscle congenital diseases. Mutations in the skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1) account for ∼25% of all NM cases and are the most frequent cause of severe forms of NM. So far, the mechanisms underlying muscle weakness in NM patients remain unclear. Additionally, recent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies reported a progressive fatty infiltration of skeletal muscle with a specific muscle involvement in patients with ACTA1 mutations. We investigated strictly noninvasively the gastrocnemius muscle function of a mouse model carrying a mutation in the ACTA1 gene (H40Y). Skeletal muscle anatomy (hindlimb muscles and fat volumes) and energy metabolism were studied using MRI and 31Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Skeletal muscle contractile performance was investigated while applying a force-frequency protocol (from 1–150 Hz) and a fatigue protocol (80 stimuli at 40 Hz). H40Y mice showed a reduction of both absolute (−40%) and specific (−25%) maximal force production as compared to controls. Interestingly, muscle weakness was associated with an improved resistance to fatigue (+40%) and an increased energy cost. On the contrary, the force frequency relationship was not modified in H40Y mice and the extent of fatty infiltration was minor and not different from the WT group. We concluded that the H40Y mouse model does not reproduce human MRI findings but shows a severe muscle weakness which might be related to an alteration of intrinsic muscular properties. The increased energy cost in H40Y mice might be related to either an impaired mitochondrial function or an alteration at the cross-bridges level. Overall, we provided a unique set of anatomic, metabolic and functional biomarkers that might be relevant for monitoring the progression of NM disease but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions at a preclinical level. PMID:23613869

  6. Sperm of patients with severe asthenozoospermia show biochemical, molecular and genomic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Oriana; Romeo, Giulietta; Asero, Paola; Pezzino, Franca Maria; Castiglione, Roberto; Burrello, Nunziatina; Sidoti, Giuseppe; Frajese, Giovanni Vanni; Vicari, Enzo; D'Agata, Rosario

    2016-12-01

    The multifactorial pathological condition, that is, severe low sperm motility is a frequent cause of infertility. However, mechanisms underlying the development of this condition are not completely understood. Single abnormalities have been reported in sperm of patients with asthenozoospermia. In this study, we characterized, in 22 normozoospermic men and in 37 patients with asthenozoospermia, biochemical, molecular and genomic abnormalities that frequently occur in sperm of patients with asthenozoospermia. We evaluated a panel of sperm biomarkers that may affect the motility and fertilizing ability of sperm of patients with severe asthenozoospermia. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is involved in the pathogenesis of such sperm abnormalities, we determined the association between ROS production and sperm abnormalities. High percentage of patients with severe asthenozoospermia showed increased basal and stimulated ROS production. Moreover, these patients showed increased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number but decreased mtDNA integrity and they were associated with elevated ROS levels. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential was also significantly decreased and again associated with high ROS production in these patients. However, the rate of nuclear DNA fragmentation was increased only in less than one-fifth of these patients. An important cohort of these patients showed multiple identical biochemical, molecular and genomic abnormalities, which are typical manifestations of oxidative stress. The most frequent association was found in patients with high ROS levels, increased mtDNA copy number and decreased integrity, and low MMP. A smaller cohort of the aforementioned patients also showed nDNA fragmentation. Therefore, patients with asthezoospermia likely present reduced fertilizing potential because of such composed abnormalities.

  7. Gender- and region-specific alterations in bone metabolism in Scarb1-null female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Corine; Martin-Falstrault, Louise; Brissette, Louise; Moreau, Robert

    2014-08-01

    A positive correlation between plasma levels of HDL and bone mass has been reported by epidemiological studies. As scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), the gene product of Scarb1, is known to regulate HDL metabolism, we recently characterized bone metabolism in Scarb1-null mice. These mice display high femoral bone mass associated with enhanced bone formation. As gender differences have been reported in HDL metabolism and SR-BI function, we investigated gender-specific bone alterations in Scarb1-null mice by microtomography and histology. We found 16% greater relative bone volume and 39% higher bone formation rate in the vertebrae from 2-month-old Scarb1-null females. No such alteration was seen in males, indicating gender- and region-specific differences in skeletal phenotype. Total and HDL-associated cholesterol levels, as well as ACTH plasma levels, were increased in both Scarb1-null genders, the latter being concurrent to impaired corticosterone response to fasting. Plasma levels of estradiol did not differ between null and WT females, suggesting that the estrogen metabolism alteration is not relevant to the higher vertebral bone mass in female Scarb1-null mice. Constitutively, high plasma levels of leptin along with 2.5-fold increase in its expression in white adipose tissue were measured in female Scarb1-null mice only. In vitro exposure of bone marrow stromal cells to ACTH and leptin promoted osteoblast differentiation as evidenced by increased gene expression of osterix and collagen type I alpha. Our results suggest that hyperleptinemia may account for the gender-specific high bone mass seen in the vertebrae of female Scarb1-null mice.

  8. Prenatal stress causes alterations in the morphology of microglia and the inflammatory response of the hippocampus of adult female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diz-Chaves Yolanda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress during fetal life increases the risk of affective and immune disorders later in life. The altered peripheral immune response caused by prenatal stress may impact on brain function by the modification of local inflammation. In this study we have explored whether prenatal stress results in alterations in the immune response in the hippocampus of female mice during adult life. Methods Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were subjected three times/day during 45 minutes to restraint stress from gestational Day 12 to delivery. Control non-stressed pregnant mice remained undisturbed. At four months of age, non-stressed and prenatally stressed females were ovariectomized. Fifteen days after surgery, mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or of 5 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Mice were sacrificed 20 hours later by decapitation and the brains were removed. Levels of interleukin-1β (IL1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interferon γ-inducible protein 10 (IP10, and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA were assessed in the hippocampus by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Iba1 immunoreactivity was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Statistical significance was determined by one-way or two-way analysis of variance. Results Prenatal stress, per se, increased IL1β mRNA levels in the hippocampus, increased the total number of Iba1-immunoreactive microglial cells and increased the proportion of microglial cells with large somas and retracted cellular processes. In addition, prenatally stressed and non-stressed animals showed different responses to peripheral inflammation induced by systemic administration of LPS. LPS induced a significant increase in mRNA levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IP10 in the hippocampus of prenatally stressed mice but not of non-stressed animals. In addition, after LPS treatment, prenatally stressed animals showed a higher proportion of Iba1-immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus with

  9. Altered distribution of Ghrelin protein in mice molar development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Han, Xiuchun; Feng, Wei; Cui, Jian; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Amizuka, Norio; Xu, Xin; Li, Minqi

    2016-05-01

    Ghrelin, an appetite-stimulating hormone, plays diverse regulatory functions in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis during mammalian development. There is limited information currently available regarding Ghrelin expression during mammalian tooth development, thus we aimed to establish the spatiotemporal expression of Ghrelin during murine molar odontogenesis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression pattern of Ghrelin in mandible molar from E15.5 to PN7 during murine tooth development. The results showed that Ghrelin initially expressed in the inner enamel epithelium and the adjacent mesenchymal cells below, further with persistent expression in the ameloblasts and odontoblasts throughout the following developmental stages. In addition, Ghrelin was also present in Hertwig's epithelial root sheath at the beginning of tooth root formation. These results suggest that Ghrelin was present in tooth organs throughout the stages of tooth development, especially in ameloblasts and odontoblasts with little spatiotemporal expression differences. However, the potential regulatory roles of this hormone in tooth development still need to be validated by functional studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-Lived αMUPA Mice Show Attenuation of Cardiac Aging and Leptin-Dependent Cardioprotection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Levy

    Full Text Available αMUPA transgenic mice spontaneously consume less food compared with their wild type (WT ancestors due to endogenously increased levels of the satiety hormone leptin. αMUPA mice share many benefits with mice under caloric restriction (CR including an extended life span. To understand mechanisms linked to cardiac aging, we explored the response of αMUPA hearts to ischemic conditions at the age of 6, 18, or 24 months. Mice were subjected to myocardial infarction (MI in vivo and to ischemia/reperfusion ex vivo. Compared to WT mice, αMUPA showed functional and histological advantages under all experimental conditions. At 24 months, none of the WT mice survived the first ischemic day while αMUPA mice demonstrated 50% survival after 7 ischemic days. Leptin, an adipokine decreasing under CR, was consistently ~60% higher in αMUPA sera at baseline. Leptin levels gradually increased in both genotypes 24h post MI but were doubled in αMUPA. Pretreatment with leptin neutralizing antibodies or with inhibitors of leptin signaling (AG-490 and Wortmannin abrogated the αMUPA benefits. The antibodies also reduced phosphorylation of the leptin signaling components STAT3 and AKT specifically in the αMUPA myocardium. αMUPA mice did not show elevation in adiponectin, an adipokine previously implicated in CR-induced cardioprotection. WT mice treated for short-term CR exhibited cardioprotection similar to that of αMUPA, however, along with increased adiponectin at baseline. Collectively, the results demonstrate a life-long increased ischemic tolerance in αMUPA mice, indicating the attenuation of cardiac aging. αMUPA cardioprotection is mediated through endogenous leptin, suggesting a protective pathway distinct from that elicited under CR.

  11. Combination of Radiation and Burn Injury Alters FDG Uptake in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure and burn injury have both been shown to alter glucose utilization in vivo. The present study was designed to study the effect of burn injury combined with radiation exposure, on glucose metabolism in mice using [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG). Groups of male mice weighing approximately 30g were studied. Group 1 was irradiated with a 137Cs source (9 Gy). Group 2 received full thickness burn injury on 25% total body surface area followed by resuscitated with saline (2mL, IP)...

  12. Effects of Altered Levels of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase and Irradiation on Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Female Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Yani [Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Leu, David [Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Palo Alto Institute of Research and Education, Palo Alto, California (United States); Chui, Jennifer [Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Fike, John R. [Departments of Neurosurgery and Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Huang, Ting-Ting, E-mail: tthuang@stanford.edu [Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Altered levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and cranial irradiation have been shown to affect hippocampal neurogenesis. However, previous studies were only conducted in male mice, and it was not clear if there was a difference between males and females. Therefore, female mice were studied and the results compared with those generated in male mice from an earlier study. Methods and Materials: Female wild-type, EC-SOD-null (KO), and EC-SOD bigenic mice with neuronal-specific expression of EC-SOD (OE) were subjected to a single dose of 5-Gy gamma rays to the head at 8 weeks of age. Progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, and long-term survival of newborn neurons were determined. Results: Similar to results from male mice, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation both resulted in significant reductions in mature newborn neurons in female mice. EC-SOD deficiency reduced long-term survival of newborn neurons whereas irradiation reduced progenitor cell proliferation. Overexpression of EC-SOD corrected the negative impacts from EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation and normalized the production of newborn neurons in OE mice. Expression of neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 were significantly reduced by irradiation in wild-type mice, but the levels were not changed in KO and OE mice even though both cohorts started out with a lower baseline level. Conclusion: In terms of hippocampal neurogenesis, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation have the same overall effects in males and females at the age the studies were conducted.

  13. Wfs1-deficient mice display altered function of serotonergic system and increased behavioural response to antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanel eVisnapuu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that mutations in the WFS1 gene make humans more susceptible to mood disorders. Besides that, mood disorders are associated with alterations in the activity of serotonergic and noradrenergic systems. Therefore, in this study, the effects of imipramine, an inhibitor of serotonin (5-HT and noradrenaline (NA reuptake, and paroxetine, a selective inhibitor of 5-HT reuptake, were studied in tests of behavioural despair. The tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST were performed in Wfs1-deficient mice. Simultaneously, gene expression and monoamine metabolism studies were conducted to evaluate changes in 5-HT- and NA-ergic systems of Wfs1-deficient mice. The basal immobility time of Wfs1-deficient mice in TST and FST did not differ from that of their wild-type littermates. However, a significant reduction of immobility time in response to lower doses of imipramine and paroxetine was observed in homozygous Wfs1-deficient mice, but not in their wild-type littermates. In gene expression studies, the levels of 5-HT transporter (SERT were significantly reduced in the pons of homozygous animals. Monoamine metabolism was assayed separately in the dorsal and ventral striatum of naive mice and mice exposed for 30 minutes tobrightly lit motility boxes. We found that this aversive challenge caused a significant increase in the levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA, a metabolite of 5-HT, in the ventral and dorsal striatum of wild-type mice, but not in their homozygous littermates. Taken together, the blunted 5-HT metabolism and reduced levels of SERT are a likely reason for the elevated sensitivity of these mice to the action of imipramine and paroxetine. These changes in the pharmacological and neurochemical phenotype of Wfs1-deficient mice may help to explain the increased susceptibility of Wolfram syndrome patients to depressive states.

  14. Di-octyl phthalate induced altered host resistance: Viral and protozoal models in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogra, R.K.S.; Khanna, S.; Srivastava, S.N.; Shukla, L.; Shanker, R. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India)); Chandra, K.; Chandra, S.; Katiyar, J.C. (Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow (India))

    1989-01-01

    Among industrially important chemicals, the effect of phthalate ester plasticizers on host resistance and immune surveillance to disease has not been well studied. Our recent studies with Di-ccetyl phthalate (DOP) have demonstrated lymphoid organotoxicity, alteration in the functioning of immune system and altered host resistance to a hookworm parasite (Nippostrongylus brasiliensis) in rodents. These observations suggested that DOP, probably through its effect on immune system, could result in altered host resistance to infection. The present studies were, therefore, undertaken to further assess the altered host resistance in DOP treated mice when challenged with either a virus (encephalomyocarditis) or a protozoal (plasmodium) infection, to delineate the possible contribution of phthalate-induced state of immunomodulation to infections.

  15. Adolescents with Mild Stunting Show Alterations in Glucose and Insulin Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Danusa da Luz Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate glucose and insulin profiles in adolescents with mild stunting and overweight in order to assess the possibility of increased predisposition to diabetes. Subjects and Methods. The study population consisted of 66 pubertal adolescents classified as mildly stunted (height-for-age z scores ≥−2 and <−1 or of normal stature, as well as overweight (body mass index ≥85th percentile or normal weight. Beta-cell function and insulin resistance were evaluated according to the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. Results. In the group with mild stunting, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in overweight adolescents compared with those of normal weight, whereas HOMA-B levels were significantly lower. Adolescents with mild stunting showed significantly higher accumulations of body and abdominal fat than their normal stature counterparts. Conclusions. The presence of mild stunting was associated with higher levels of glucose and insulin, diminished function of beta cells, and increased insulin resistance. These results reinforce the need for intervention in adolescents with mild stunting.

  16. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrick, Mark W., E-mail: mhamrick@mail.mcg.edu [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); He, Hong-Zhi [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Shiver, Austin [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Qi, Rui-Qun [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhou, Li [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Isales, Carlos M. [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); and others

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  17. DEPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR AND METABOLIC ALTERATIONS IN MICE ARE MUSICAL STYLE-DEPENDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Lima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the world population has been affected by two serious psychological disorders, anxiety and depression, but there are few discoveries for new therapies to combat them. Studies have shown that music therapy has its beneficial behavioral effects. Therefore, the aim of the present study it was to investigate the possible effects of two music styles in some lipids and carbohydrate metabolism parameters resulting from behavioral changes related to anxiety and depression. So, mice were used with 30 days of age, divided into 6 groups: G1: saline, G2: Diazepam (DZP, G3: Fluoxetine (FLX, G4: control (no treatment, G5: Rock, and G6: Mozart Sonata. The animals from groups G1, G2 and G3 received treatments by oral route (gavage for 15 days. The music therapy sessions (2x/day 4 hours/day occurred in the same period of time at a 65dB frequency for G5 and G6 groups. After being evaluated in spontaneous locomotion, elevated plus maze and forced swimming tests, the animals were euthanized. The lactate, total cholesterol and plasma glucose levels were measured from the blood. No change was observed in spontaneous locomotion test and elevated plus maze. In the forced swimming test animals exposed to Rock showed an increase in immobility time. Furthermore, it was observed an increase in glucose and a reduction in cholesterol levels in the groups exposed to Rock and Mozart, while a decrease of lactate was observed only in group Rock. It was concluded that the auditory stimulus caused by music in mice was able to encourage depressive behavior and alter some lipids and carbohydrate metabolism parameters dependently of the musical style.

  18. Cysteamine treatment ameliorates alterations in GAD67 expression and spatial memory in heterozygous reeler mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutiyanawalla, Ammar; Promsote, Wanwisa; Terry, Alvin; Pillai, Anilkumar

    2012-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling through its receptor, TrkB is known to regulate GABAergic function and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67 expression in neurons. Alterations in BDNF signalling have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and as a result, they are a potential therapeutic target. Interestingly, heterozygous reeler mice (HRM) have decreased GAD67 expression in the frontal cortex and hippocampus and they exhibit many behavioural and neurochemical abnormalities similar to schizophrenia. In this study, we evaluated the potential of cysteamine, a neuroprotective compound to improve the deficits in GAD67 expression and cognitive function in HRM. We found that cysteamine administration (150 mg/kg.d, through drinking water) for 30 d significantly ameliorated the decreases in GAD67, mature BDNF and full-length TrkB protein levels found in frontal cortex and hippocampus of HRM. A significant attenuation of the increased levels of truncated BDNF in frontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as truncated TrkB in frontal cortex of HRM was also observed following cysteamine treatment. In behavioural studies, HRM were impaired in a Y-maze spatial recognition memory task, but not in a spontaneous alternation task or a sensorimotor, prepulse inhibition (PPI) procedure. Cysteamine improved Y-maze spatial recognition in HRM to the level of wide-type controls and it improved PPI in both wild-type and HRM. Finally, mice deficient in TrkB, showed a reduced response to cysteamine in GAD67 expression suggesting that TrkB signalling plays an important role in GAD67 regulation by cysteamine.

  19. MRI shows thickening and altered diffusion in the median and ulnar nerves in multifocal motor neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakma, Wieke [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Aarhus University, Department of Forensic Medicine and Comparative Medicine Lab, Aarhus (Denmark); Jongbloed, Bas A.; Goedee, H.S.; Berg, Leonard H. van den; Pol, W.L. van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Brain Centre Rudolf Magnus, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); Froeling, Martijn; Bos, Clemens; Hendrikse, Jeroen [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Leemans, Alexander [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-05-15

    To study disease mechanisms in multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the median and ulnar nerves. We enrolled ten MMN patients, ten patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ten healthy controls (HCs). Patients underwent MRI (in a prone position) and nerve conduction studies. DTI and fat-suppressed T2-weighted scans of the forearms were performed on a 3.0T MRI scanner. Fibre tractography of the median and ulnar nerves was performed to extract diffusion parameters: fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) were measured on T2-weighted scans. Forty-five out of 60 arms were included in the analysis. AD was significantly lower in MMN patients (2.20 ± 0.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) compared to ALS patients (2.31 ± 0.17 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; p < 0.05) and HCs (2.31± 0.17 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; p < 0.05). Segmental analysis showed significant restriction of AD, RD and MD (p < 0.005) in the proximal third of the nerves. CSA was significantly larger in MMN patients compared to ALS patients and HCs (p < 0.01). Thickening of nerves is compatible with changes in the myelin sheath structure, whereas lowered AD values suggest axonal dysfunction. These findings suggest that myelin and axons are diffusely involved in MMN pathogenesis. (orig.)

  20. Behavioral and molecular neuroepigenetic alterations in prenatally stressed mice: relevance for the study of chromatin remodeling properties of antipsychotic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, E; Tueting, P; Matrisciano, F; Grayson, D R; Guidotti, A

    2016-01-01

    We have recently reported that mice born from dams stressed during pregnancy (PRS mice), in adulthood, have behavioral deficits reminiscent of behaviors observed in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar (BP) disorder patients. Furthermore, we have shown that the frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus of adult PRS mice, like that of postmortem chronic SZ patients, are characterized by increases in DNA-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), ten-eleven methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (TET1) and exhibit an enrichment of 5-methylcytosine (5MC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5HMC) at neocortical GABAergic and glutamatergic gene promoters. Here, we show that the behavioral deficits and the increased 5MC and 5HMC at glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (Gad1), reelin (Reln) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) promoters and the reduced expression of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and proteins corresponding to these genes in FC of adult PRS mice is reversed by treatment with clozapine (5 mg kg−1 twice a day for 5 days) but not by haloperidol (1 mg kg−1 twice a day for 5 days). Interestingly, clozapine had no effect on either the behavior, promoter methylation or the expression of these mRNAs and proteins when administered to offspring of nonstressed pregnant mice. Clozapine, but not haloperidol, reduced the elevated levels of DNMT1 and TET1, as well as the elevated levels of DNMT1 binding to Gad1, Reln and Bdnf promoters in PRS mice suggesting that clozapine, unlike haloperidol, may limit DNA methylation by interfering with DNA methylation dynamics. We conclude that the PRS mouse model may be useful preclinically in screening for the potential efficacy of antipsychotic drugs acting on altered epigenetic mechanisms. Furthermore, PRS mice may be invaluable for understanding the etiopathogenesis of SZ and BP disorder and for predicting treatment responses at early stages of the illness allowing for early detection and remedial intervention. PMID:26756904

  1. Mice lacking desmocollin 1 show epidermal fragility accompanied by barrier defects and abnormal differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidgey, M; Brakebusch, C; Gustafsson, E

    2001-01-01

    The desmosomal cadherin desmocollin (Dsc)1 is expressed in upper epidermis where strong adhesion is required. To investigate its role in vivo, we have genetically engineered mice with a targeted disruption in the Dsc1 gene. Soon after birth, null mice exhibit flaky skin and a striking punctate...... epidermal barrier defect. The epidermis is fragile, and acantholysis in the granular layer generates localized lesions, compromising skin barrier function. Neutrophils accumulate in the lesions and further degrade the tissue, causing sloughing (flaking) of lesional epidermis, but rapid wound healing...... prevents the formation of overt lesions. Null epidermis is hyperproliferative and overexpresses keratins 6 and 16, indicating abnormal differentiation. From 6 wk, null mice develop ulcerating lesions resembling chronic dermatitis. We speculate that ulceration occurs after acantholysis in the fragile...

  2. Altered circadian food anticipatory activity rhythms in PACAP receptor 1 (PAC1) deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2016-01-01

    to the restricted feeding (RF) paradigm and show food anticipatory activity (FAA). A recent study in mice and rats demonstrating that light regulates FAA prompted us to investigate the role of PACAP/PAC1 signaling in the light mediated regulation of FAA. PAC1 receptor knock out (PAC1-/-) and wild type (PAC1...... in RF with access to food for 4-5 h during the subjective day, a significant change in behavior was observed in PAC1-/- mice compared to PAC1+/+ mice. While PAC1-/- mice showed similar FAA as PAC1+/+ animals in FPP at 300 lux, PAC1-/- mice demonstrated an advanced onset of FAA with a nearly 3-fold...

  3. Alterations in the brain adenosine metabolism cause behavioral and neurological impairment in ADA-deficient mice and patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Aisha V.; Hernandez, Raisa Jofra; Fumagalli, Francesca; Bianchi, Veronica; Poliani, Pietro L.; Dallatomasina, Chiara; Riboni, Elisa; Politi, Letterio S.; Tabucchi, Antonella; Carlucci, Filippo; Casiraghi, Miriam; Carriglio, Nicola; Cominelli, Manuela; Forcellini, Carlo Alberto; Barzaghi, Federica; Ferrua, Francesca; Minicucci, Fabio; Medaglini, Stefania; Leocani, Letizia; la Marca, Giancarlo; Notarangelo, Lucia D.; Azzari, Chiara; Comi, Giancarlo; Baldoli, Cristina; Canale, Sabrina; Sessa, Maria; D’Adamo, Patrizia; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) deficiency is an autosomal recessive variant of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) caused by systemic accumulation of ADA substrates. Neurological and behavioral abnormalities observed in ADA-SCID patients surviving after stem cell transplantation or gene therapy represent an unresolved enigma in the field. We found significant neurological and cognitive alterations in untreated ADA-SCID patients as well as in two groups of patients after short- and long-term enzyme replacement therapy with PEG-ADA. These included motor dysfunction, EEG alterations, sensorineural hypoacusia, white matter and ventricular alterations in MRI as well as a low mental development index or IQ. Ada-deficient mice were significantly less active and showed anxiety-like behavior. Molecular and metabolic analyses showed that this phenotype coincides with metabolic alterations and aberrant adenosine receptor signaling. PEG-ADA treatment corrected metabolic adenosine-based alterations, but not cellular and signaling defects, indicating an intrinsic nature of the neurological and behavioral phenotype in ADA deficiency. PMID:28074903

  4. The effect of altered gut flora on glucose intolerance in C57BL/6NTac mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, Ida; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup

    Background Recent studies have shown that long term broad spectrum antibiotic treatment improves glucose tolerance in mice. We hypothesize that it is primarily the early life altering of the gut microbiota, which will have an impact on glucose intolerance. Study setup 40 C57BL/6NTac mice were...... randomized into 3 different groups prior to their birth. Mothers of groups 1 and 2 received a high fat diet whilst mothers of the 3rd group received a low fat diet. Mothers of group 1 also received ampicillin in their drinking water to prevent the pups from establishing a normal gut flora. At 5 weeks of age...... no clustering was evident. Discussion Our results substantiate the theory implying an effect of gut microbiota on glucose tolerance. Furthermore, it seems evident that a window of opportunity for altering the host-microbial interaction response exists only in early life when host immunity is still developing...

  5. Altered metabolism of growth hormone receptor mutant mice: a combined NMR metabonomics and microarray study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst Joachim Schirra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth hormone is an important regulator of post-natal growth and metabolism. We have investigated the metabolic consequences of altered growth hormone signalling in mutant mice that have truncations at position 569 and 391 of the intracellular domain of the growth hormone receptor, and thus exhibit either low (around 30% maximum or no growth hormone-dependent STAT5 signalling respectively. These mutations result in altered liver metabolism, obesity and insulin resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis of metabolic changes was performed using microarray analysis of liver tissue and NMR metabonomics of urine and liver tissue. Data were analyzed using multivariate statistics and Gene Ontology tools. The metabolic profiles characteristic for each of the two mutant groups and wild-type mice were identified with NMR metabonomics. We found decreased urinary levels of taurine, citrate and 2-oxoglutarate, and increased levels of trimethylamine, creatine and creatinine when compared to wild-type mice. These results indicate significant changes in lipid and choline metabolism, and were coupled with increased fat deposition, leading to obesity. The microarray analysis identified changes in expression of metabolic enzymes correlating with alterations in metabolite concentration both in urine and liver. Similarity of mutant 569 to the wild-type was seen in young mice, but the pattern of metabolites shifted to that of the 391 mutant as the 569 mice became obese after six months age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The metabonomic observations were consistent with the parallel analysis of gene expression and pathway mapping using microarray data, identifying metabolites and gene transcripts involved in hepatic metabolism, especially for taurine, choline and creatinine metabolism. The systems biology approach applied in this study provides a coherent picture of metabolic changes resulting from impaired STAT5 signalling by the growth hormone

  6. Is altered expression of hepatic insulin-related genes in growth hormone receptor knockout mice due to GH resistance or a difference in biological life spans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panici, Jacob A; Wang, Feiya; Bonkowski, Michael S; Spong, Adam; Bartke, Andrzej; Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Masternak, Michal M

    2009-11-01

    Growth hormone receptor knockout (GHRKO) mice live about 40%-55% longer than their normal (N) littermates. Previous studies of 21-month-old GHRKO and N mice showed major alterations of the hepatic expression of genes involved in insulin signaling. Differences detected at this age may have been caused by the knockout of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) or by differences in biological age between GHRKO and N mice. To address this question, we compared GHRKO and N mice at ages corresponding to the same percentage of median life span to see if the differences of gene expression persisted. Comparison of GHRKO and N mice at approximately 50% of biological life span showed significant differences in hepatic expression of all 14 analyzed genes. We conclude that these changes are due to disruption of GHR gene and the consequent suppression of growth hormone signaling rather than to differences in "biological age" between mutant and normal animals sampled at the same chronological age.

  7. Mu-opioid receptor knockout mice show diminished food-anticipatory activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, Martien J H; van den Bos, Ruud; Baars, Annemarie M; Lubbers, Marianne; Lesscher, Heidi M B; Hillebrand, Jacquelien J G; Schuller, Alwin G; Pintar, John E; Spruijt, Berry M

    2004-01-01

    We have previously suggested that during or prior to activation of anticipatory behaviour to a coming reward, mu-opioid receptors are activated. To test this hypothesis schedule induced food-anticipatory activity in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice was measured using running wheels. We hypothesized

  8. Interleukin-18 gene-deficient mice show enhanced defense and reduced inflammation during pneumococcal meningitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenburg, P.J.G.; Poll, van der T.; Florquin, S; Akira, S; Takeda, K; Roord, J.J.; Furth, van A.M.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the role of endogenous interleukin-18 (IL-18) in pneumococcal meningitis, meningitis was induced in IL-18 gene-deficient (IL-18(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice by intranasal inoculation of Streptococcus pneumoniae with hyaluronidase. Induction of meningitis resulted in an upregulation of

  9. Cerebellar transcriptional alterations with Purkinje cell dysfunction and loss in mice lacking PGC-1α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Elizabeth K.; Reid, Courtney S.; McMeekin, Laura J.; Dougherty, Sarah E.; Floyd, Candace L.; Cowell, Rita M.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the expression and activity of the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (ppargc1a or PGC-1α) have been reported in multiple movement disorders, yet it is unclear how a lack of PGC-1α impacts transcription and function of the cerebellum, a region with high PGC-1α expression. We show here that mice lacking PGC-1α exhibit ataxia in addition to the previously described deficits in motor coordination. Using q-RT-PCR in cerebellar homogenates from PGC-1α−/− mice, we measured expression of 37 microarray-identified transcripts upregulated by PGC-1α in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with neuroanatomical overlap with PGC-1α or parvalbumin (PV), a calcium buffer highly expressed by Purkinje cells. We found significant reductions in transcripts with synaptic (complexin1, Cplx1; Pacsin2), structural (neurofilament heavy chain, Nefh), and metabolic (isocitrate dehydrogenase 3a, Idh3a; neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1, Nceh1; pyruvate dehydrogenase alpha 1, Pdha1; phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase, Phyh; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, Rieske iron-sulfur polypeptide 1, Uqcrfs1) functions. Using conditional deletion of PGC-1α in PV-positive neurons, we determined that 50% of PGC-1α expression and a reduction in a subset of these transcripts could be explained by its concentration in PV-positive neuronal populations in the cerbellum. To determine whether there were functional consequences associated with these changes, we conducted stereological counts and spike rate analysis in Purkinje cells, a cell type rich in PV, from PGC-1α−/− mice. We observed a significant loss of Purkinje cells by 6 weeks of age, and the remaining Purkinje cells exhibited a 50% reduction in spike rate. Together, these data highlight the complexity of PGC-1α's actions in the central nervous system and suggest that dysfunction in multiple cell types contribute to motor deficits in the context of PGC-1α deficiency. PMID

  10. Cerebellar transcriptional alterations with Purkinje cell dysfunction and loss in mice lacking PGC-1α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the expression and activity of the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (ppargc1a or PGC-1α have been reported in multiple movement disorders, yet it is unclear how a lack of PGC-1α impacts transcription and function of the cerebellum, a region with high PGC-1α expression. We show here that mice lacking PGC-1α exhibit ataxia in addition to the previously described deficits in motor coordination. Using q-RT-PCR in cerebellar homogenates from PGC-1α -/- mice, we measured expression of 37 microarray-identified transcripts upregulated by PGC-1α in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with neuroanatomical overlap with PGC-1α or parvalbumin (PV, a calcium buffer highly expressed by Purkinje cells. We found significant reductions in transcripts with synaptic (complexin1, Cplx1; Pacsin2, structural (neurofilament heavy chain, Nefh, and metabolic (isocitrate dehydrogenase 3a, Idh3a; neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1, Nceh1; pyruvate dehydrogenase alpha 1, Pdha1; phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase, Phyh; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, Rieske iron-sulfur polypeptide 1, Uqcrfs1 functions. Using conditional deletion of PGC-1α in PV-positive neurons, we determined that 50% of PGC-1α expression and a reduction in a subset of these transcripts could be explained by its concentration in PV-positive neuronal populations in the cerbellum. To determine whether there were functional consequences associated with these changes, we conducted stereological counts and spike rate analysis in Purkinje cells, a cell type rich in PV, from PGC-1α -/- mice. We observed a significant loss of Purkinje cells by six weeks of age, and the remaining Purkinje cells exhibited a 50% reduction in spike rate. Together, these data highlight the complexity of PGC-1α’s actions in the central nervous system and suggest that dysfunction in multiple cell types contribute to motor deficits in the context of PGC-1α deficiency.

  11. Prenatal exposure to urban air nanoparticles in mice causes altered neuronal differentiation and depression-like responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Davis

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that excessive exposure to traffic-derived air pollution during pregnancy may increase the vulnerability to neurodevelopmental alterations that underlie a broad array of neuropsychiatric disorders. We present a mouse model for prenatal exposure to urban freeway nanoparticulate matter (nPM. In prior studies, we developed a model for adult rodent exposure to re-aerosolized urban nPM which caused inflammatory brain responses with altered neuronal glutamatergic functions. nPMs are collected continuously for one month from a local freeway and stored as an aqueous suspension, prior to re-aerosolization for exposure of mice under controlled dose and duration. This paradigm was used for a pilot study of prenatal nPM impact on neonatal neurons and adult behaviors. Adult C57BL/6J female mice were exposed to re-aerosolized nPM (350 µg/m(3 or control filtered ambient air for 10 weeks (3×5 hour exposures per week, encompassing gestation and oocyte maturation prior to mating. Prenatal nPM did not alter litter size, pup weight, or postnatal growth. Neonatal cerebral cortex neurons at 24 hours in vitro showed impaired differentiation, with 50% reduction of stage 3 neurons with long neurites and correspondingly more undifferentiated neurons at Stages 0 and 1. Neuron number after 24 hours of culture was not altered by prenatal nPM exposure. Addition of exogenous nPM (2 µg/ml to the cultures impaired pyramidal neuron Stage 3 differentiation by 60%. Adult males showed increased depression-like responses in the tail-suspension test, but not anxiety-related behaviors. These pilot data suggest that prenatal exposure to nPM can alter neuronal differentiation with gender-specific behavioral sequelae that may be relevant to human prenatal exposure to urban vehicular aerosols.

  12. DHEA-mediated inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway alters oocyte lipid metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Patricia T; Frolova, Antonina I; Chi, Maggie M; Grindler, Natalia M; Willcockson, Alexandra R; Reynolds, Kasey A; Zhao, Quihong; Moley, Kelle H

    2013-12-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and hyperandrogenism have altered hormone levels and suffer from ovarian dysfunction leading to subfertility. We have attempted to generate a model of hyperandrogenism by feeding mice chow supplemented with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an androgen precursor that is often elevated in women with PCOS. Treated mice had polycystic ovaries, low ovulation rates, disrupted estrous cycles, and altered hormone levels. Because DHEA is an inhibitor of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, we tested the hypothesis that oocytes from DHEA-exposed mice would have metabolic disruptions. Citrate levels, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and lipid content in denuded oocytes from these mice were significantly lower than controls, suggesting abnormal tricarboxylic acid and pentose phosphate pathway metabolism. The lipid and citrate effects were reversible by supplementation with nicotinic acid, a precursor for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. These findings suggest that elevations in systemic DHEA can have a negative impact on oocyte metabolism and may contribute to poor pregnancy outcomes in women with hyperandrogenism and PCOS.

  13. DHEA-Mediated Inhibition of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway Alters Oocyte Lipid Metabolism in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Patricia T.; Frolova, Antonina I.; Chi, Maggie M.; Grindler, Natalia M.; Willcockson, Alexandra R.; Reynolds, Kasey A.; Zhao, Quihong

    2013-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and hyperandrogenism have altered hormone levels and suffer from ovarian dysfunction leading to subfertility. We have attempted to generate a model of hyperandrogenism by feeding mice chow supplemented with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an androgen precursor that is often elevated in women with PCOS. Treated mice had polycystic ovaries, low ovulation rates, disrupted estrous cycles, and altered hormone levels. Because DHEA is an inhibitor of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, we tested the hypothesis that oocytes from DHEA-exposed mice would have metabolic disruptions. Citrate levels, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and lipid content in denuded oocytes from these mice were significantly lower than controls, suggesting abnormal tricarboxylic acid and pentose phosphate pathway metabolism. The lipid and citrate effects were reversible by supplementation with nicotinic acid, a precursor for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. These findings suggest that elevations in systemic DHEA can have a negative impact on oocyte metabolism and may contribute to poor pregnancy outcomes in women with hyperandrogenism and PCOS. PMID:24036000

  14. Altered dopamine and serotonin metabolism in motorically asymptomatic R6/2 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Mochel

    Full Text Available The pattern of cerebral dopamine (DA abnormalities in Huntington disease (HD is complex, as reflected by the variable clinical benefit of both DA antagonists and agonists in treating HD symptoms. In addition, little is known about serotonin metabolism despite the early occurrence of anxiety and depression in HD. Post-mortem enzymatic changes are likely to interfere with the in vivo profile of biogenic amines. Hence, in order to reliably characterize the regional and chronological profile of brain neurotransmitters in a HD mouse model, we used a microwave fixation system that preserves in vivo concentrations of dopaminergic and serotoninergic amines. DA was decreased in the striatum of R6/2 mice at 8 and 12 weeks of age while DA metabolites, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid, were already significantly reduced in 4-week-old motorically asymptomatic R6/2 mice. In the striatum, hippocampus and frontal cortex of 4, 8 and 12-week-old R6/2 mice, serotonin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were significantly decreased in association with a decreased turnover of serotonin. In addition, automated high-resolution behavioural analyses displayed stress-like behaviours such as jumping and grooming and altered spatial learning in R6/2 mice at age 4 and 6 weeks respectively. Therefore, we describe the earliest alterations of DA and serotonin metabolism in a HD murine model. Our findings likely underpin the neuropsychological symptoms at time of disease onset in HD.

  15. Inducible arginase 1 deficiency in mice leads to hyperargininemia and altered amino acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Yuan Yan; Ballantyne, Laurel L; Mukherjee, Kamalika; St Amand, Tim; Kyriakopoulou, Lianna; Schulze, Andreas; Funk, Colin D

    2013-01-01

    Arginase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from a loss of the liver arginase isoform, arginase 1 (ARG1), which is the final step in the urea cycle for detoxifying ammonia. ARG1 deficiency leads to hyperargininemia, characterized by progressive neurological impairment, persistent growth retardation and infrequent episodes of hyperammonemia. Using the Cre/loxP-directed conditional gene knockout system, we generated an inducible Arg1-deficient mouse model by crossing "floxed" Arg1 mice with CreER(T2) mice. The resulting mice (Arg-Cre) die about two weeks after tamoxifen administration regardless of the starting age of inducing the knockout. These treated mice were nearly devoid of Arg1 mRNA, protein and liver arginase activity, and exhibited symptoms of hyperammonemia. Plasma amino acid analysis revealed pronounced hyperargininemia and significant alterations in amino acid and guanidino compound metabolism, including increased citrulline and guanidinoacetic acid. Despite no alteration in ornithine levels, concentrations of other amino acids such as proline and the branched-chain amino acids were reduced. In summary, we have generated and characterized an inducible Arg1-deficient mouse model exhibiting several pathologic manifestations of hyperargininemia. This model should prove useful for exploring potential treatment options of ARG1 deficiency.

  16. Female Nur77-deficient mice show increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Perez-Sieira

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is essential in the regulation of body weight. The key process in fat catabolism and the provision of energy substrate during times of nutrient deprivation or enhanced energy demand is the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the release of fatty acids and glycerol. Nur77 is a member of the NR4A subfamily of nuclear receptors that plays an important metabolic role, modulating hepatic glucose metabolism and lipolysis in muscle. However, its endogenous role on white adipose tissue, as well as the gender dependency of these mechanisms, remains largely unknown. Male and female wild type and Nur77 deficient mice were fed with a high fat diet (45% calories from fat for 4 months. Mice were analyzed in vivo with the indirect calorimetry system, and tissues were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Female, but not male Nur77 deficient mice, gained more weight and fat mass when compared to wild type mice fed with high fat diet, which can be explained by decreased energy expenditure. The lack of Nur77 also led to a decreased pHSL/HSL ratio in white adipose tissue and increased expression of CIDEA in brown adipose tissue of female Nur77 deficient mice. Overall, these findings suggest that Nur77 is an important physiological modulator of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and that there are gender differences in the sensitivity to deletion of the Nur77 signaling. The decreased energy expenditure and the actions of Nur77 on liver, muscle, brown and white adipose tissue contribute to the increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in females lacking Nur77.

  17. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice show increased titers of serum anti-nuclear and anti-dsDNA antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuehai [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Huang, Ziyang, E-mail: huangziyang666@126.com [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Lu, Huixia [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University, Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Lin, Huili; Wang, Zhenhua [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Chen, Xiaoqing [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Ouyang, Qiufang [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Tang, Mengxiong; Hao, Panpan [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University, Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Ni, Jingqin [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Xu, Dongming [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Zhang, Mingxiang; Zhang, Qunye [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University, Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Lin, Ling [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); and others

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were higher in ApoE{sup -/-} than C57B6/L mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spleen was greater and splenocyte apoptosis lower in ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Level of TLR4 was lower in spleen tissue of ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TLR4 pathway may participate in maintaining the balance of splenocyte apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TLR4 pathway may participate in antibody production in spleen tissue. -- Abstract: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice, atherosclerosis-prone mice, show an autoimmune response, but the pathogenesis is not fully understood. We investigated the pathogenesis in female and male ApoE{sup -/-} mice. The spleens of all ApoE{sup -/-} and C57BL/6 (B6) mice were weighed. The serum IgG level and titers of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibody were assayed by ELISA. Apoptosis of spleen tissue was evaluated by TUNEL. TLR4 level in spleen tissue was tested by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Levels of MyD88, p38, phosphorylated p38 (pp38), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) in spleen tissue were detected by Western blot analysis. We also survey the changes of serum autoantibodies, spleen weight, splenocyte apoptosis and the expressions of TLR4, MyD88, pp38, IRF3 and Bax in spleen tissue in male ApoE{sup -/-} mice after 4 weeks of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Toll-like receptor 4 ligand, administration. ApoE{sup -/-} mice showed splenomegaly and significantly increased serum level of IgG and titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibody as compared with B6 mice. Splenocyte apoptosis and the expression of TLR4, MyD88, pp38, IRF3 and Bax in spleen tissue were significantly lower in ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. The expression of TLR4, MyD88, IRF3, pp38, and Bax differed by sex in ApoE{sup -/-} spleen tissue. The

  18. Motor disturbances in mice with deficiency of the sodium channel gene Scn8a show features of human dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Melanie; Meisler, Miriam H; Richter, Angelika

    2003-12-01

    The med(J) mouse with twisting movements related to deficiency of the sodium channel Scn8a has been proposed as a model of kinesiogenic dystonia. This prompted us to examine the phenotype of these mice in more detail. By cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, we could not detect any changes, demonstrating that the motor disturbances are not epileptic in nature, an important similarity to human dystonia. The significantly decreased body weight of med(J) mice was related to reduced food intake. Observations in the open field and by video recordings revealed that the mice exhibit sustained abnormal postures and movements of limbs, trunk and tail not only during locomotor activity but also at rest. With the exception of the head tremor, the other motor impairments were persistent rather than paroxysmal. When several neurological reflexes were tested, alterations were restricted to the posture and righting reflexes. Results of the wire hang test confirmed the greatly reduced muscle strength in the med(J) mouse. In agreement with different types of human dystonia, biperiden, haloperidol and diazepam moderately reduced the severity of motor disturbances in med(J) mice. In view of the sodium channel deficiency in med(J) mice, the beneficial effects of the sodium channel blocker phenytoin was an unexpected finding. By immunohistochemical examinations, the density of nigral dopaminergic neurons was found to be unaltered, substantiating the absence of pathomorphological abnormalities within the brain of med(J) mice shown by previous studies. With the exception of muscle weakness, many of the features of the med(J) mouse are similar to human idiopathic dystonia.

  19. Mitochondrial morphology is altered in atrophied skeletal muscle of aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc-Gaudet, Jean-Philippe; Picard, Martin; St-Jean Pelletier, Félix; Sgarioto, Nicolas; Auger, Marie-Joëlle; Vallée, Joanne; Robitaille, Richard; St-Pierre, David H; Gouspillou, Gilles

    2015-07-20

    Skeletal muscle aging is associated with a progressive decline in muscle mass and strength, a process termed sarcopenia. Evidence suggests that accumulation of mitochondrial dysfunction plays a causal role in sarcopenia, which could be triggered by impaired mitophagy. Mitochondrial function, mitophagy and mitochondrial morphology are interconnected aspects of mitochondrial biology, and may coordinately be altered with aging. However, mitochondrial morphology has remained challenging to characterize in muscle, and whether sarcopenia is associated with abnormal mitochondrial morphology remains unknown. Therefore, we assessed the morphology of SubSarcolemmal (SS) and InterMyoFibrillar (IMF) mitochondria in skeletal muscle of young (8-12wk-old) and old (88-96wk-old) mice using a quantitative 2-dimensional transmission electron microscopy approach. We show that sarcopenia is associated with larger and less circular SS mitochondria. Likewise, aged IMF mitochondria were longer and more branched, suggesting increased fusion and/or decreased fission. Accordingly, although no difference in the content of proteins regulating mitochondrial dynamics (Mfn1, Mfn2, Opa1 and Drp1) was observed, a mitochondrial fusion index (Mfn2-to-Drp1 ratio) was significantly increased in aged muscles. Our results reveal that sarcopenia is associated with complex changes in mitochondrial morphology that could interfere with mitochondrial function and mitophagy, and thus contribute to aging-related accumulation of mitochondrial dysfunction and sarcopenia.

  20. Induction of antibodies reactive to cardiac myosin and development of heart alterations in cruzipain-immunized mice and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordanengo, L; Maldonado, C; Rivarola, H W; Iosa, D; Girones, N; Fresno, M; Gea, S

    2000-11-01

    Human and murine infection with Trypanosoma cruzi parasite is usually accompanied by strong humoral and cellular immune response to cruzipain, a parasite immunodominant antigen. In the present study we report that the immunization of mice with cruzipain devoid of enzymatic activity, was able to induce antibodies which bind to a 223-kDa antigen from a mouse heart extract. We identified this protein as the mouse cardiac myosin heavy chain by sequencing analysis. The study of IgG isotype profile revealed the occurrence of all IgG isotypes against cruzipain and myosin. IgG1 showed the strongest reactivity against cruzipain, whereas IgG2a was the main isotype against myosin. Anti-cruzipain antibodies purified by immunoabsorption recognized the cardiac myosin heavy chain, suggesting cross-reactive epitopes between cruzipain and myosin. Autoimmune response in mice immunized with cruzipain was associated to heart conduction disturbances. In addition, ultrastructural findings revealed severe alterations of cardiomyocytes and IgG deposit on heart tissue of immunized mice. We investigated whether antibodies induced by cruzipain transferred from immunized mothers to their offsprings could alter the heart function in the pups. All IgG isotypes against cruzipain derived from transplacental crossing were detected in pups' sera. Electrocardiographic studies performed in the offsprings born to immunized mothers revealed conduction abnormalities. These results provide strong evidence for a pathogenic role of autoimmune response induced by a purified T. cruzi antigen in the development of experimental Chagas' disease.

  1. SAMP8 mice have altered hippocampal gene expression in long term potentiation, phosphatidylinositol signaling, and endocytosis pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrecht, Harvey J; Siddiqui, Akbar M; Green, Michael; Farr, Susan A; Kumar, Vijaya B; Banks, William A; Patrick, Ping; Shah, Gul N; Morley, John E

    2014-01-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAMP8) strain exhibits decreased learning and memory and increased amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide accumulation at 12 months. To detect differences in gene expression in SAMP8 mice, we used a control mouse that was a 50% cross between SAMP8 and CD-1 mice and which showed no memory deficits (50% SAMs). We then compared gene expression in the hippocampus of 4- and 12-month-old SAMP8 and control mice using Affymetrix gene arrays. At 12 months, but not at 4 months, pathway analysis revealed significant differences in the long term potentiation (6 genes), phosphatidylinositol signaling (6 genes), and endocytosis (10 genes) pathways. The changes in long term potentiation included mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling (N-ras, cAMP responsive element binding protein [CREB], protein phosphatase inhibitor 1) and Ca-dependent signaling (inositol triphosphate [ITP] receptors 1 and 2 and phospholipase C). Changes in phosphatidylinositol signaling genes suggested altered signaling through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, and Western blotting revealed phosphorylation changes in serine/threonine protein kinase AKT and 70S6K. Changes in the endocytosis pathway involved genes related to clathrin-mediated endocytosis (dynamin and clathrin). Endocytosis is required for receptor recycling, is involved in Aβ metabolism, and is regulated by phosphatidylinositol signaling. In summary, these studies demonstrate altered gene expression in 3 SAMP8 hippocampal pathways associated with memory formation and consolidation. These pathways might provide new therapeutic targets in addition to targeting Aβ metabolism itself.

  2. Oestrogen alters adipocyte biology and protects female mice from adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbins, R E; Najjar, K; Holcomb, V B; Hong, J; Núñez, N P

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, liver steatosis and low-grade inflammation. The role of oestrogen in sex differences in the above co-morbidities is not fully understood. Our aim was to assess the role oestrogen has in modulating adipocyte size, adipose tissue oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance and liver steatosis. To determine the role oestrogen has in the above co-morbidities related to obesity, we randomized C57BL/6J mice into four groups (15 mice per group): (i) male, (ii) non-ovariectomized female (novx), (iii) ovariectomized female (ovx) and (iv) ovariectomized female mice supplemented with 17β estradiol (ovx-E). Mice received either a low-fat (LF) or a high-fat (HF) diet for 10 weeks. Outcomes measured were bodyweight, body fat, adipocyte diameter, adipose tissue lipolysis markers, adipose tissue oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance and liver steatosis. Male and ovx-female mice consuming the HF diet had a higher propensity of gaining weight, specifically in the form of body fat. Oestrogen protected female mice from adipocyte hypertrophy and from developing adipose tissue oxidative stress and inflammation. Moreover, novx-female and ovx-female+E mice had higher phosphorylated levels of protein kinase A and hormone sensitive lipase, markers associated with lipolysis. Additionally, male and ovx female mice had a higher propensity of developing liver steatosis and insulin resistance. In contrast, oestrogen protected female mice from developing liver steatosis and from becoming insulin resistant. We show that oestrogen protects female mice from adipocyte hypertrophy and adipose tissue oxidative stress and inflammation. Furthermore, oestrogen prevented female mice from developing liver steatosis and from becoming insulin resistant. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Altered Responses to Cold Environment in Urocortin 1 and Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayan Chaker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined core body temperature (CBT of urocortin 1 (UCN1 and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF knockout (KO mice exposed to 4°C for 2 h. UCN1KO mice showed higher average CBT during cold exposure as compared to WT. The CBT of male and female WT mice dropped significantly to 34.1 ± 2.4 and 34.9 ± 3.1 C at 4°C, respectively. In contrast, the CBT of male and female UCN1KO mice dropped only slightly after 2 h at 4°C to 36.8 ± 0.7 and 38.1 ± 0.5 C, respectively. WT female and male UCN1KO mice showed significant acclimatization to cold; however, female UCN1KO mice did not show such a significant acclimatization. CRFKO mice showed a dramatic decline in CBT from 38.2 ±  0.4 at 22°C to 26.1 ± 9.8 at 4°C for 2 h. The CRF/UCN1 double KO (dKO mice dropped their CBT to 32.5 ± 4.0 after 2 h exposure to 4°C. Dexamethasone treatment prevented the decline in CBT of the CRFKO and the dKO mice. Taken together, the data suggest a novel role for UCN1 in thermoregulation. The role of CRF is likely secondary to adrenal glucocorticoids, which have an important regulatory role on carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism.

  4. Routine habitat change: a source of unrecognized transient alteration of intestinal microbiota in laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Betty W; Bokulich, Nicholas A; Castillo, Patricia A; Kananurak, Anchasa; Underwood, Mark A; Mills, David A; Bevins, Charles L

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian intestine harbors a vast, complex and dynamic microbial population, which has profound effects on host nutrition, intestinal function and immune response, as well as influence on physiology outside of the alimentary tract. Imbalance in the composition of the dense colonizing bacterial population can increase susceptibility to various acute and chronic diseases. Valuable insights on the association of the microbiota with disease critically depend on investigation of mouse models. Like in humans, the microbial community in the mouse intestine is relatively stable and resilient, yet can be influenced by environmental factors. An often-overlooked variable in research is basic animal husbandry, which can potentially alter mouse physiology and experimental outcomes. This study examined the effects of common husbandry practices, including food and bedding alterations, as well as facility and cage changes, on the gut microbiota over a short time course of five days using three culture-independent techniques, quantitative PCR, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and next generation sequencing (NGS). This study detected a substantial transient alteration in microbiota after the common practice of a short cross-campus facility transfer, but found no comparable alterations in microbiota within 5 days of switches in common laboratory food or bedding, or following an isolated cage change in mice acclimated to their housing facility. Our results highlight the importance of an acclimation period following even simple transfer of mice between campus facilities, and highlights that occult changes in microbiota should be considered when imposing husbandry variables on laboratory animals.

  5. Sulfobetaine (dimethylsulfoniopropionate) and glycine betaine show incompatible involvement in crucial Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kenji; Nakajima, Yoshiki; Tsujiwaki, Satomi

    2015-03-01

    The role of methylation reactions in cancer was examined using the methylating agents, sulfobetaine [dimethylsulfonioproponate (DMSP)], and glycine betaine (GB), in murine crucial Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) for up to 10 days. DMSP administration in EAC-bearing mice mitigated EAC, while GB administration clearly promoted EAC. However, the immune cell profiles did not differ largely between animals receiving DMSP and those receiving GB. Moreover, DMSP and GB had merely any effects on proliferation of EAC cells in vitro. Injection of DMSP into normal mice interestingly led to macrophage accumulation in the peritoneal cavity in a dose-dependent manner at early rearing. These results indicate that GB promoted EAC by the methylation of cancer promotor gene, whereas DMSP ameliorated EAC by the accumulation of activated macrophages with a rapid response and long life span during cancer progression. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. Pregnancy amelioration of arthritis in SKG mice corresponds with alterations in serum amyloid A3 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Laura A; Stefanski, Adrianne L; Peterson, Lisa K; Rumer, Kristen K; Vondracek, Andrea; Phang, Tzu L; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Winn, Virginia D; Dragone, Leonard L

    2012-06-30

    OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy leads to rheumatoid arthritis remission in humans. The objective of this study was to determine if the SKG mouse could serve as a model for pregnancy-associated inflammatory arthritis amelioration. In addition, the maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) transcriptome was assessed to define a biomarker associated with remission. METHODS: Cohorts of zymosan-treated pregnant SKG mice and controls were monitored for arthritis progression. Microarray analysis evaluated alterations in gene expression in maternal PBMCs at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) between arthritic and pregnancy-remitted mice. A selected target, serum amyloid A3 (SAA3), was further investigated using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Pregnancy resulted in complete or partial remission in the majority of the zymosan-treated SKG mice. Twenty-seven transcripts were differentially expressed in the PBMCs between arthritic and pregnancy-remitted mice. Expression and plasma SAA3 levels decreased with pregnancy-induced arthritis amelioration and plasma SAA3 levels correlated with arthritis severity. CONCLUSIONS: These results establish the SKG mouse as a model system to study pregnancy-induced amelioration of arthritis. These studies also establish SAA3 as a biomarker of arthritis amelioration in SKG mice. This model can be used to elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the impact of pregnancy on the maternal immune system that results in arthritis amelioration.

  7. IL-5-overexpressing mice exhibit eosinophilia and altered wound healing through mechanisms involving prolonged inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Victoria D; Strudwick, Xanthe L; Matthaei, Klaus I; Dent, Lindsay A; Cowin, Allison J

    2009-02-01

    Leucocytes are essential in healing wounds and are predominantly involved in the inflammatory and granulation stages of wound repair. Eosinophils are granulocytic leucocytes and are specifically regulated by interleukin-5 (IL-5), a cytokine produced by T helper 2 (Th2) cells. To characterize more clearly the role of the IL-5 and eosinophils in the wound healing process, IL-5-overexpressing and IL-5-deficient mice were used as models of eosinophilia and eosinophil depletion, respectively. Our results reveal a significantly altered inflammatory response between IL-5-overexpressing and IL-5 knockout mice post-wounding. Healing was significantly delayed in IL-5-overexpressing mice with wounds gaping wider and exhibiting impaired re-epithelialization. A delay in collagen deposition was observed suggesting a direct effect on matrix synthesis. A significant increase in inflammatory cell infiltration, particularly eosinophils and CD4(+) cells, one of the main cell types which secrete IL-5, was observed in IL-5-overexpressing mice wounds suggesting that one of the main roles of IL-5 in wound repair may be to promote the infiltration of eosinophils into healing wounds. Healing is delayed in IL-5-overexpressing mice and this corresponds to significantly increased levels of eosinophils and CD4(+) cells within the wound site that may contribute to and exacerbate the inflammatory response, resulting in detrimental wound repair.

  8. Alteration of intestinal barrier function during activity-based anorexia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jésus, Pierre; Ouelaa, Wassila; François, Marie; Riachy, Lina; Guérin, Charlène; Aziz, Moutaz; Do Rego, Jean-Claude; Déchelotte, Pierre; Fetissov, Sergueï O; Coëffier, Moïse

    2014-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe eating disorder often leading to malnutrition and cachexia, but its pathophysiology is still poorly defined. Chronic food restriction during anorexia nervosa may induce gut barrier dysfunction, which may contribute to disease development and its complications. Here we have characterized intestinal barrier function in mice with activity-based anorexia (ABA), an animal model of anorexia nervosa. Male C57Bl/6 ABA or limited food access (LFA) mice were placed respectively in cages with or without activity wheel. After 5 days of acclimatization, both ABA and LFA mice had progressively limited access to food from 6 h/d at day 6 to 3 h/d at day 9 and until the end of experiment at day 17. A group of pair-fed mice (PF) was also compared to ABA. On day 17, food intake was lower in ABA than LFA mice (2.0 ± 0.18 g vs. 3.0 ± 0.14 g, p anorexia nervosa. The role of these alterations in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa should be further evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Altered helper Tcell-mediated immune responses in male mice conceived through in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Hiwa; Mahdavi, Pooya; Fakhari, Shohreh; Faryabi, Mohammad Reza; Esmaeili, Parisa; Banafshi, Omid; Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Fathi, Fardin; Mokarizadeh, Aram

    2017-03-08

    A study using a mouse IVF model was conducted to examine the hypothesis that in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment may lead to immune alteration in the offspring. Phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogen, alloantigen, and purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium bovis were investigated in the splenocytes of BCG-treated male mice conceived by IVF or natural conception. Intracellular expression of T-bet and GATA3 in helper T-cell population were examined in both groups. Moreover, the serum levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 along with BCG-specific levels of IgG1 and IgG2a were assessed by ELISA. In comparison with naturally-conceived mice, PPD-specific proliferative response and T-bet/GATA3 ratio were significantly decreased in IVF-conceived mice. Moreover, IVF-conceived mice exhibited marked decreases in IFN-γ/IL-4 and IgG2a/IgG1 ratios. Results indicate that in comparison with male mice conceived by natural conception, IVF counterparts exhibit less efficient immune responses against BCG through further promotion of Th2 responses.

  10. NKT Cell-Deficient Mice Harbor an Altered Microbiota That Fuels Intestinal Inflammation during Chemically Induced Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvanantham, Thirumahal; Lin, Qiaochu; Guo, Cynthia Xinyi; Surendra, Anuradha; Fieve, Stephanie; Escalante, Nichole K; Guttman, David S; Streutker, Catherine J; Robertson, Susan J; Philpott, Dana J; Mallevaey, Thierry

    2016-12-01

    NKT cells are unconventional T cells that respond to self and microbe-derived lipid and glycolipid Ags presented by the CD1d molecule. Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells influence immune responses in numerous diseases. Although only a few studies have examined their role during intestinal inflammation, it appears that iNKT cells protect from Th1-mediated inflammation but exacerbate Th2-mediated inflammation. Studies using iNKT cell-deficient mice and chemically induced dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis have led to inconsistent results. In this study, we show that CD1d-deficient mice, which lack all NKT cells, harbor an altered intestinal microbiota that is associated with exacerbated intestinal inflammation at steady-state and following DSS treatment. This altered microbiota, characterized by increased abundance of the bacterial phyla Proteobacteria, Deferribacteres, and TM7, among which the mucin-eating Mucispirillum, as well as members of the genus Prevotella and segmented filamentous bacteria, was transmissible upon fecal transplant, along with the procolitogenic phenotype. Our results also demonstrate that this proinflammatory microbiota influences iNKT cell function upon activation during DSS colitis. Collectively, alterations of the microbiota have a major influence on colitis outcome and therefore have to be accounted for in such experimental settings and in studies focusing on iNKT cells. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Hybrid embryonic stem cell-derived tetraploid mice show apparently normal morphological, physiological, and neurological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Frieder; Zevnik, Branko; Brüning, Jens; Röhl, Mathias; Willuweit, Antje; Rode, Anja; Hennek, Thomas; Kauselmann, Gunther; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Kühn, Ralf

    2003-06-01

    ES cell-tetraploid (ES) mice are completely derived from embryonic stem cells and can be obtained at high efficiency upon injection of hybrid ES cells into tetraploid blastocysts. This method allows the immediate generation of targeted mouse mutants from genetically modified ES cell clones, in contrast to the standard protocol, which involves the production of chimeras and several breeding steps. To provide a baseline for the analysis of ES mouse mutants, we performed a phenotypic characterization of wild-type B6129S6F(1) ES mice in relation to controls of the same age, sex, and genotype raised from normal matings. The comparison of 90 morphological, physiological, and behavioral parameters revealed elevated body weight and hematocrit as the only major difference of ES mice, which exhibited an otherwise normal phenotype. We further demonstrate that ES mouse mutants can be produced from mutant hybrid ES cells and analyzed within a period of only 4 months. Thus, ES mouse technology is a valid research tool for rapidly elucidating gene function in vivo.

  12. Unstable Foxp3(+) Regulatory T Cells and Altered Dendritic Cells Are Associated with Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Fetal Loss in Pregnant Interleukin 10-Deficient Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Jelmer R.; Zhang, Bihong; Schjenken, John E.; Guerin, Leigh R.; Barry, Simon C.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal interleukin (IL) 10 deficiency elevates susceptibility to fetal loss induced by the model Toll-like receptor agonist lipopolysaccharide, but the mechanisms are not well elucidated. Here, we show that Il10 null mutant (Il10(-/-)) mice exhibit altered local T cell responses in pregnancy, exhi

  13. Unstable Foxp3(+) Regulatory T Cells and Altered Dendritic Cells Are Associated with Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Fetal Loss in Pregnant Interleukin 10-Deficient Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Jelmer R.; Zhang, Bihong; Schjenken, John E.; Guerin, Leigh R.; Barry, Simon C.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal interleukin (IL) 10 deficiency elevates susceptibility to fetal loss induced by the model Toll-like receptor agonist lipopolysaccharide, but the mechanisms are not well elucidated. Here, we show that Il10 null mutant (Il10(-/-)) mice exhibit altered local T cell responses in pregnancy,

  14. Loss of Bace1 in mice does not alter the severity of caerulein induced pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Heindl

    Full Text Available Beta-site alpha-amyloid protein cleaving enzyme1 (BACE1 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Additional to its moderate expression in the brain, high levels of BACE1 mRNA were found in the pancreas. Murine Bace1 has been immunohistochemicaly detected at the apical pole of acinar cells within the exocrine pancreas of mice and Bace1 activity was observed in pancreatic juice. In vitro experiments revealed enteropeptidase as a putative substrate for Bace1 suggesting a role in acute pancreatitis.The aim of this study was to address a protective mechanism of Bace1 in acute experimental pancreatitis in mice.Acute experimental pancreatitis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of caerulein in homozygote Bace1-/- mice and wild type mice. Serum and tissue analyses were carried out after 4 h, 8 h and 24 h. Measurement of plasma amylase and lipase was performed to confirm pancreatitis induction. In order to assess the severity of pancreatitis H&E stained pancreatic sections were examined regarding edema, inflammation and apoptosis. Immunohistochemical detection of myeloperoxidase (MPO positive cells was carried out to further quantify the extent of inflammation. Expression of Bace2 within the pancreas was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR.We demonstrate that total loss of Bace1 in mice leads to no alterations in the course of acute experimental caerulein-pancreatitis. Bace1-/- mice develop a moderate pancreatitis that is comparable in histomorphological and serological features with those seen in wild type mice.We discuss the results in the context of the applied caerulein induced edematous pancreatitis model and possible compensatory mechanisms via Bace2 that might be responsible for the observed results.

  15. Early alterations in airway mucociliary clearance and inflammation of the lamina propria in CF mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahm, J M; Gaillard, D; Dupuit, F; Hinnrasky, J; Porteous, D; Dorin, J R; Puchelle, E

    1997-03-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF), whether cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction leads to decreased mucociliary clearance and mucus hypersecretion, before bacterial infection, remains an open question. To answer this question, we quantified in a blind trial the mucociliary transport velocity, the histological state, and the degree of inflammation of the tracheal mucosa in 23 cftr(m1HGU/cftr(m1HGU) transgenic mice (Dorin, J. R., P. Dickinson, E. W. F. W. Alton, S. N. Smith, D. M. Geddes, B. J. Stevenson, W. L. Kimber, S. Fleming, A. R. Clark, M. L. Hooper, L. Anderson, R. S. P. Beddington, and D. J. Porteous. Nature Lond. 359: 211-215, 1992) and in 30 control littermates housed in pathogen-free conditions. The nasal and tracheal transepithelial potential difference (PD) measured in basal conditions was significantly more negative in the cftr(m1HGU) mutant mice as compared with the control mice (nasal PD: -7.1 +/- 0.6 and -4.6 +/- 0.5 mV, respectively, P < 0.01; tracheal PD: -30.8 +/- 2.1 and -21.4 +/- 1.8 mV, respectively, P < 0.04). In the cftr(m1HGU)/cftr(m1HGU) mice, the mucociliary transport velocity was significantly lower (14.2 +/- 4.4 microm/mm, P < 0.04) compared with the control mice (30.6 +/- 5.9 microm/mm). The number of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria was significantly higher in the cftr(m1HGU)/cftr(m1HGU) mice (1048.7 +/- 124.7 cells/mm2, P < 0.03) compared with the control mice (640.5 +/- 58.2 cells/mm2). These results suggest that in CF, decreased airway mucociliary clearance and airway submucosal inflammation represent early alterations, before any airway infection.

  16. Early nocturnal meal skipping alters the peripheral clock and increases lipogenesis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Chika

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, skipping meals, especially breakfast, has been associated with obesity and other related syndromes. Recent studies in rodents suggest that fasting and feeding times are potential factors that affect the peripheral circadian clocks and metabolism. However, the link between fasting and obesity in rodents has yet to be fully demonstrated. Method We conducted early nocturnal fasting (ENF from zeitgeber time (ZT 12 to 18 for 4 consecutive days in C57B6 mice. The first set of experiments was performed under ad libitum conditions, where ENF and free-feeding (FF control groups were compared. The second set was performed under isocaloric adjustment by restricting the diet to 90% of the basal intake of ENF mice. Calorie-restricted ENF (ENF-CR mice were then compared with isocaloric controls (IC-control. Body weight, food intake, core body temperature, activity, adiposity, and clock-related gene expression levels in the liver and adipose tissues were investigated. A stable isotopic analysis was also conducted to estimate de novo lipogenesis fluxes. Results In the ad libitum condition, the ENF mice ate more during the day, increased their overall daily food intake and gained more weight than FF-control mice. The amplitude of the body core temperature rhythm in ENF mice was also lower than in the FF-controls. Under isocaloric conditions, ENF-CR attenuated the CR-induced body weight loss, compared with the IC-control. ENF-CR also altered the acrophase time of the expression of the clock genes, which is associated with time-shift of genes involved in lipid metabolism and increased lipogenesis, compared with the IC-control. Conclusions ENF in nocturnal mice disturbs the peripheral clock and increases de novo lipid synthesis and results in a predisposition to obesity.

  17. PGC1-α over-expression prevents metabolic alterations and soleus muscle atrophy in hindlimb unloaded mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavino, Jessica; Brocca, Lorenza; Sandri, Marco; Bottinelli, Roberto; Pellegrino, Maria Antonietta

    2014-10-15

    Prolonged skeletal muscle inactivity causes muscle fibre atrophy. Redox imbalance has been considered one of the major triggers of skeletal muscle disuse atrophy, but whether redox imbalance is actually the major cause or simply a consequence of muscle disuse remains of debate. Here we hypothesized that a metabolic stress mediated by PGC-1α down-regulation plays a major role in disuse atrophy. First we studied the adaptations of soleus to mice hindlimb unloading (HU) in the early phase of disuse (3 and 7 days of HU) with and without antioxidant treatment (trolox). HU caused a reduction in cross-sectional area, redox status alteration (NRF2, SOD1 and catalase up-regulation), and induction of the ubiquitin proteasome system (MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 mRNA up-regulation) and autophagy (Beclin1 and p62 mRNA up-regulation). Trolox completely prevented the induction of NRF2, SOD1 and catalase mRNAs, but not atrophy or induction of catabolic systems in unloaded muscles, suggesting that oxidative stress is not a major cause of disuse atrophy. HU mice showed a marked alteration of oxidative metabolism. PGC-1α and mitochondrial complexes were down-regulated and DRP1 was up-regulated. To define the link between mitochondrial dysfunction and disuse muscle atrophy we unloaded mice overexpressing PGC-1α. Transgenic PGC-1α animals did not show metabolic alteration during unloading, preserving muscle size through the reduction of autophagy and proteasome degradation. Our results indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a major role in disuse atrophy and that compounds inducing PGC-1α expression could be useful to treat/prevent muscle atrophy. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  18. Altered resistance to Trichinella spiralis infection following subchronic exposure of adult mice to chemicals of environmental concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebke, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of subchronic chemical exposure on expulsion of adult Trichinella spiralis from the small intestine of mice and encystment of newborn larvae in the host's musculature were investigated. Exposure to diethylstilbestrol, benzo(a)pyrene, tris-(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, cyclophosphamide, phorbol myristate acetate, and dimethylvinylchloride prior to infection of mice with 200 infective larvae resulted in larger worm burdens in treated animals than in controls 14 days after infection. Worm expulsion was not affected by exposure to tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate, orthophenylphenol, and indomethacin. Increased burdens of muscle-phase larvae were found in animals that maintained significant numbers of adult worms in the gut at 14 days, except in mice administered diethylstilbestrol and dimethylvinylchloride. Exposure to diethylstilbestrol and cyclophosphamide resulted in decreased inflammatory reactions in the tissues of the small intestine and development of bone marrow eosinophilia in infected mice. Marrow eosinophilia was likewise decreased in mice given tris-(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate before infection. Additional studies with diethylstilbestrol administered either before, at the time of, or after infection showed inhibition of worm expulsion. Drug exposure during a primary infection inhibited the expulsion of a second T. spiralis infection, but did not affect worm elimination when given during a second infection. Treatment with diethylstilbestrol after artificial sensitization of mice with Trichinella antigens decreased delayed hypersensitivity responses to the sensitizing antigen. Immune functions, assessed by lymphoproliferative responses to mitogens and antibody responses to sheep red blood cells, generally correlated with altered host resistance to T. spiralis infection.

  19. Sex differences in high-fat diet-induced obesity, metabolic alterations and learning, and synaptic plasticity deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ling-Ling; Wang, Chien-Hua; Li, Tzu-Ling; Chang, Shih-Dar; Lin, Li-Chun; Chen, Ching-Ping; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Liang, Keng-Chen; Ho, Ing-Kang; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Chiou, Lih-Chu

    2010-03-01

    Obesity is a potential risk factor for cognitive deficits in the elder humans. Using a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model, we investigated the impacts of HFD on obesity, metabolic and stress hormones, learning performance, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Both male and female C57BL/6J mice fed with HFD (3 weeks to 9-12 months) gained significantly more weights than the sex-specific control groups. Compared with the obese female mice, the obese males had similar energy intake but developed more weight gains. The obese male mice developed hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hyperleptinemia, but not hypertriglyceridemia. The obese females had less hyperinsulinemia and hypercholesterolemia than the obese males, and no hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. In the contextual fear conditioning and step-down passive avoidance tasks, the obese male, but not female, mice showed poorer learning performance than their normal counterparts. These learning deficits were not due to sensorimotor impairment as verified by the open-field and hot-plate tests. Although, basal synaptic transmission characteristics (input-output transfer and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) ratio) were not significantly different between normal and HFD groups, the magnitudes of synaptic plasticity (long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD)) were lower at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses of the hippocampal slices isolated from the obese male, but not female, mice, as compared with their sex-specific controls. Our results suggest that male mice are more vulnerable than the females to the impacts of HFD on weight gains, metabolic alterations and deficits of learning, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

  20. NLRP3 INFLAMMASOME ACTIVATION CONTRIBUTES TO LONG-TERM BEHAVIORAL ALTERATIONS IN MICE INJECTED WITH LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, WEI; CAO, FENG-SHENG; FENG, JUN; CHEN, HUA-WENG; WAN, JIE-RU; LU, QING; WANG, JIAN

    2017-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) might affect the central nervous system by causing neuroinflammation, which subsequently leads to brain damage and dysfunction. In this study, we evaluated the role of nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in long-term behavioral alterations of 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice injected intraperitoneally with LPS (5 mg/kg). At different time points after injection, we assessed locomotor function with a 24-point neurologic deficit scoring system and the rotarod test; assessed recognition memory with the novel object recognition test; and assessed emotional abnormality (anhedonia and behavioral despair) with the tail suspension test, forced swim test, and sucrose preference test. We also assessed protein expression of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), and caspase-1 p10 in hippocampus by Western blotting; measured levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and IL-10 in hippocampus; measured TNFα and IL-1β in serum by ELISA; and evaluated microglial activity in hippocampus by Iba1 immunofluorescence. We found that LPS-injected mice displayed long-term depression-like behaviors and recognition memory deficit; elevated expression of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 p10; increased levels of IL-1β, IL-18, and TNFα; decreased levels of IL-10; and increased microglial activation. These effects were blocked by the NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor Ac-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethylketone. The results demonstrate proof of concept that NLRP3 inflammasome activation contributes to long-term behavioral alterations in LPS-exposed mice, probably through enhanced inflammation, and that NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition might alleviate peripheral and brain inflammation and thereby ameliorate long-term behavioral alterations in LPS-exposed mice. PMID:27923741

  1. Alteration of the thymic T cell repertoire by rotavirus infection is associated with delayed type 1 diabetes development in non-obese diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Webster

    Full Text Available Rotaviruses are implicated as a viral trigger for the acceleration of type 1 diabetes in children. Infection of adult non-obese diabetic (NOD mice with rotavirus strain RRV accelerates diabetes development, whereas RRV infection in infant NOD mice delays diabetes onset. In this study of infant mice, RRV titers and lymphocyte populations in the intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN and thymus of NOD mice were compared with those in diabetes-resistant BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Enhanced intestinal RRV infection occurred in NOD mice compared with the other mouse strains. This was associated with increases in the frequency of CD8αβ TCRαβ intraepithelial lymphocytes, and their PD-L1 expression. Virus spread to the MLN and T cell numbers there also were greatest in NOD mice. Thymic RRV infection is shown here in all mouse strains, often in combination with alterations in T cell ontogeny. Infection lowered thymocyte numbers in infant NOD and C57BL/6 mice, whereas thymocyte production was unaltered overall in infant BALB/c mice. In the NOD mouse thymus, effector CD4(+ T cell numbers were reduced by infection, whereas regulatory T cell numbers were maintained. It is proposed that maintenance of thymic regulatory T cell numbers may contribute to the increased suppression of inflammatory T cells in response to a strong stimulus observed in pancreatic lymph nodes of adult mice infected as infants. These findings show that rotavirus replication is enhanced in diabetes-prone mice, and provide evidence that thymic T cell alterations may contribute to the delayed diabetes onset following RRV infection.

  2. Sustained alterations of hypothalamic tanycytes during posttraumatic hypopituitarism in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterstock, Guillaume; El Yandouzi, Taoufik; Romanò, Nicola; Carmignac, Danielle; Langlet, Fanny; Coutry, Nathalie; Guillou, Anne; Schaeffer, Marie; Chauvet, Norbert; Vanacker, Charlotte; Galibert, Evelyne; Dehouck, Bénédicte; Robinson, Iain C A F; Prévot, Vincent; Mollard, Patrice; Plesnila, Nikolaus; Méry, Pierre-François

    2014-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of hypopituitarism, which compromises patients' recovery, quality of life, and life span. To date, there are no means other than standardized animal studies to provide insights into the mechanisms of posttraumatic hypopituitarism. We have found that GH levels were impaired after inducing a controlled cortical impact (CCI) in mice. Furthermore, GHRH stimulation enhanced GH to lower level in injured than in control or sham mice. Because many characteristics were unchanged in the pituitary glands of CCI mice, we looked for changes at the hypothalamic level. Hypertrophied astrocytes were seen both within the arcuate nucleus and the median eminence, two pivotal structures of the GH axis, spatially remote to the injury site. In the arcuate nucleus, GHRH neurons were unaltered. In the median eminence, injured mice exhibited unexpected alterations. First, the distributions of claudin-1 and zonula occludens-1 between tanycytes were disorganized, suggesting tight junction disruptions. Second, endogenous IgG was increased in the vicinity of the third ventricle, suggesting abnormal barrier properties after CCI. Third, intracerebroventricular injection of a fluorescent-dextran derivative highly stained the hypothalamic parenchyma only after CCI, demonstrating an increased permeability of the third ventricle edges. This alteration of the third ventricle might jeopardize the communication between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. In conclusion, the phenotype of CCI mice had similarities to the posttraumatic hypopituitarism seen in humans with intact pituitary gland and pituitary stalk. It is the first report of a pathological status in which tanycyte dysfunctions appear as a major acquired syndrome.

  3. Aged mice have increased inflammatory monocyte concentration and altered expression of cell-surface functional receptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kelley Strohacker; Whitney L Breslin; Katie C Carpenter; Brian K McFarlin

    2012-03-01

    The expression of monocyte cell-surface receptors represents one index of immune dysfunction, which is common with aging. Although mouse models of aging are prevalent, monocyte subset assessment is rare. Our purpose was to compare cell receptor expression on classic (CD115+/Gr-1high) and non-classic (CD115+/Gr-1low) monocytes from 80- or 20-week-old CD-1 mice. Three-colour flow cytometry was used to determine the concentration of monocyte subsets and their respective cell-surface expression of TLR2, TLR4, CD80, CD86, MHC II and CD54. These receptors were selected because they have been previously associated with altered monocyte function. Data were analysed with independent -tests; significance was set at < 0.05. Old mice had a greater concentration of both classic (258%, =0.003) and non-classic (70%, =0.026) monocytes. The classic : non-classic monocyte ratio doubled in old as compared with that in young mice (=0.006), indicating a pro-inflammatory shift. TLR4 ($\\downarrow$27%, =0.001) and CD80 ($\\downarrow$37%, =0.004) were decreased on classic monocytes from old as compared with those from young mice. TLR2 ($\\uparrow$24%, =0.002) and MHCII ($\\downarrow$21%, =0.026) were altered on non-classic monocytes from old as compared with those from young mice. The increased classic : non-classic monocyte ratio combined with changes in the cell-surface receptor expression on both monocyte subsets is indicative of immune dysfunction, which may increase age-associated disease risk.

  4. Human influenza viral infection in utero alters glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity in the developing brains of neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S H; Emamian, E S; Sidwell, R W; Kist, D A; Stary, J M; Earle, J A; Thuras, P

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological reports describe a strong association between prenatal human influenza viral infection and later development of schizophrenia. Postmodern human brain studies, however, indicate a lack of gliosis in schizophrenic brains presumably secondary to absence of glial cells during the second trimester viral infection in utero. We hypothesized that human influenza infection in day 9 pregnant mice would alter the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, an important marker of gliosis, neuron migration, and reactive injury) in developing brains of postnatal days 0, 14 and 35 mice. Determination of cellular GFAP immunoreactivity (IR) expressed as cell density in cortex and hippocampus of control and experimental brains showed increases in GFAP-positive density in exposed cortical (P = 0.03 day 14 vs control) and hippocampal cells (P = 0.035 day 14, P = 0.034 day 35). Similarly, ependymal cell layer GFAP-IR cell counts showed increases with increasing brain age from day 0, to days 14 and 35 in infected groups (P = 0.037, day 14) vs controls. The GFAP-positive cells in prenatally exposed brains showed 'hypertrophy' and more stellate morphology. These results implicate a significant role of prenatal human influenza viral infection on subsequent gliosis, which persists throughout brain development in mice from birth to adolescence.

  5. Altered ghrelin secretion in mice in response to diet-induced obesity and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    OpenAIRE

    Aki Uchida; Juliet F. Zechner; Mani, Bharath K.; Won-mee Park; Vincent Aguirre; Zigman, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined potential mechanisms for altered circulating ghrelin levels observed in diet-induced obesity (DIO) and following weight loss resulting from Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). We hypothesized that circulating ghrelin levels were altered in obesity and after weight loss through changes in ghrelin cell responsiveness to physiological cues. We confirmed lower ghrelin levels in DIO mice and demonstrated elevated ghrelin levels in mice 6 weeks post-RYGB. In both DIO and RYG...

  6. Altered Circadian Food Anticipatory Activity Rhythms in PACAP Receptor 1 (PAC1) Deficient Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2016-01-01

    +/+) mice placed in running wheels were examined in a full photoperiod (FPP) of 12:12 h light/dark (LD) and a skeleton photoperiod (SPP) 1:11:1:11 h L:DD:L:DD at 300 and 10 lux light intensity. Both PAC1-/- mice and PAC1+/+ littermates entrained to FPP and SPP at both light intensities. However, when placed...... in RF with access to food for 4-5 h during the subjective day, a significant change in behavior was observed in PAC1-/- mice compared to PAC1+/+ mice. While PAC1-/- mice showed similar FAA as PAC1+/+ animals in FPP at 300 lux, PAC1-/- mice demonstrated an advanced onset of FAA with a nearly 3-fold...... increase in amplitude compared to PAC1+/+ mice when placed in SPP at 300 lux. The same pattern of FAA was observed at 10 lux during both FPP and SPP. The present study indicates a role of PACAP/PAC1 signaling during light regulated FAA. Most likely, PACAP found in ipRGCs mediating non-image forming light...

  7. Alterations in Brain Inflammation, Synaptic Proteins, and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis during Epileptogenesis in Mice Lacking Synapsin2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Chugh

    Full Text Available Synapsins are pre-synaptic vesicle-associated proteins linked to the pathogenesis of epilepsy through genetic association studies in humans. Deletion of synapsins causes an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance, exemplified by the epileptic phenotype of synapsin knockout mice. These mice develop handling-induced tonic-clonic seizures starting at the age of about 3 months. Hence, they provide an opportunity to study epileptogenic alterations in a temporally controlled manner. Here, we evaluated brain inflammation, synaptic protein expression, and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the epileptogenic (1 and 2 months of age and tonic-clonic (3.5-4 months phase of synapsin 2 knockout mice using immunohistochemical and biochemical assays. In the epileptogenic phase, region-specific microglial activation was evident, accompanied by an increase in the chemokine receptor CX3CR1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and a decrease in chemokine keratinocyte chemoattractant/ growth-related oncogene. Both post-synaptic density-95 and gephyrin, scaffolding proteins at excitatory and inhibitory synapses, respectively, showed a significant up-regulation primarily in the cortex. Furthermore, we observed an increase in the inhibitory adhesion molecules neuroligin-2 and neurofascin and potassium chloride co-transporter KCC2. Decreased expression of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor-δ subunit and cholecystokinin was also evident. Surprisingly, hippocampal neurogenesis was reduced in the epileptogenic phase. Taken together, we report molecular alterations in brain inflammation and excitatory/inhibitory balance that could serve as potential targets for therapeutics and diagnostic biomarkers. In addition, the regional differences in brain inflammation and synaptic protein expression indicate an epileptogenic zone from where the generalized seizures in synapsin 2 knockout mice may be initiated or spread.

  8. Obesity alters immune and metabolic profiles: New insight from obese-resistant mice on high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boi, Shannon K; Buchta, Claire M; Pearson, Nicole A; Francis, Meghan B; Meyerholz, David K; Grobe, Justin L; Norian, Lyse A

    2016-10-01

    Diet-induced obesity has been shown to alter immune function in mice, but distinguishing the effects of obesity from changes in diet composition is complicated. It was hypothesized that immunological differences would exist between diet-induced obese (DIO) and obese-resistant (OB-Res) mice fed the same high-fat diet (HFD). BALB/c mice were fed either standard chow or HFD to generate lean or DIO and OB-Res mice, respectively. Resulting mice were analyzed for serum immunologic and metabolic profiles and cellular immune parameters. BALB/c mice on HFD were categorized as DIO or OB-Res, based on body weight versus lean controls. DIO mice were physiologically distinct from OB-Res mice, whose serum insulin, leptin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and eotaxin concentrations remained similar to lean controls. DIO mice had increased macrophage(+) crown-like structures in white adipose tissue, although macrophage percentages were unchanged from OB-Res and lean mice. DIO mice also had decreased splenic CD4(+) T cells, elevated serum GM-CSF, and increased splenic CD11c(+) dendritic cells, but impaired dendritic cell stimulatory capacity (P Diet-induced obesity results in alterations in immune and metabolic profiles that are distinct from effects caused by HFD alone. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  9. Renal and hepatotoxic alterations in adult mice on inhalation of specific mixture of organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketan, Vaghasia K; Bhavyata, Kalariya; Linzbuoy, George; Hyacinth, Highland N

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed at investigating alterations in renal and hepatic toxicity induced by exposing to a combination of three solvents, namely, benzene, toluene and xylene in adult mice. The mice were divided into three groups (control, low-dose-treated (450 ppm) and high-dose (675 ppm) groups) using randomization methods. The treated groups were exposed to vapours of a mixture of benzene, toluene and xylene at doses of 450 and 675 ppm, for 6 h day(-1) for a short-term of 7-day exposure period. The study revealed that the solvent exposure resulted in an increase in the weight of liver and kidney as compared to the control. Biochemical analyses indicated a significant decline in the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in both the treated groups, with concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation. Liver aminotransferases (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) were elevated with significant alterations in the levels of protein, creatinine and cholesterol in these tissues upon solvent exposure. Correlated with these changes, serum thyroid hormones T3 and T4 were also significantly altered. This study, therefore, demonstrates that inhalation of vapours from the solvent mixture resulted in significant dose-dependent biochemical and functional changes in the vital tissues (liver and kidney) studied. The study has specific relevance since humans are increasingly being exposed to such solvents due to increased industrial use in such combinations.

  10. Mice repeatedly exposed to Group-A β-Haemolytic Streptococcus show perseverative behaviors, impaired sensorimotor gating, and immune activation in rostral diencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, Simone; Ceci, Chiara; Onori, Martina Proietti; Invernizzi, Roberto William; Bartolini, Erika; Altabella, Luisa; Canese, Rossella; Imperi, Monica; Orefici, Graziella; Creti, Roberta; Margarit, Immaculada; Magliozzi, Roberta; Laviola, Giovanni

    2015-08-25

    Repeated exposure to Group-A β-Haemolytic Streptococcus (GAS) may constitute a vulnerability factor in the onset and course of pediatric motor disturbances. GAS infections/colonization can stimulate the production of antibodies, which may cross the blood brain barrier, target selected brain areas (e.g. basal ganglia), and exacerbate motor alterations. Here, we exposed developing SJL male mice to four injections with a GAS homogenate and evaluated the following domains: motor coordination; general locomotion; repetitive behaviors; perseverative responses; and sensorimotor gating (pre-pulse inhibition, PPI). To demonstrate that behavioral changes were associated with immune-mediated brain alterations, we analyzed, in selected brain areas, the presence of infiltrates and microglial activation (immunohistochemistry), monoamines (HPLC), and brain metabolites (in vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy). GAS-exposed mice showed increased repetitive and perseverative behaviors, impaired PPI, and reduced concentrations of serotonin in prefrontal cortex, a brain area linked to the behavioral domains investigated, wherein they also showed remarkable elevations in lactate. Active inflammatory processes were substantiated by the observation of infiltrates and microglial activation in the white matter of the anterior diencephalon. These data support the hypothesis that repeated GAS exposure may elicit inflammatory responses in brain areas involved in motor control and perseverative behavior, and result in phenotypic abnormalities.

  11. Hydronephrosis alters cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling; Ma, Lulu; Wu, Junyan; Chen, Tingting

    2015-06-01

    Hydronephrosis is characterized by substantial loss of tubules and affects renin secretion in the kidney. However, whether alterations of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart are observed in hydronephrosis is unknown. Thus, we assessed these components in hydronephrotic mice treated with AT1 receptor blockade and ACE inhibitor. Hydronephrosis was induced by left ureteral ligation in Balb/C mice except sham-operated animals. The levels of cardiac ACE, ACE2 and Mas receptor were measured after treatment of losartan or enalapril. Hydronephrosis led to an increase of ACE level and a decrease of ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart. Losartan decreased cardiac ACE level, but ACE2 and Mas receptor levels significantly increased in hydronephrotic mice (p Mas receptor in the heart. Plasma renin activity (PRA) and Ang II decreased in hydronephrotic mice, but significantly increased after treatment with losartan or enalapril. Hydronephrosis increased cardiac ACE and suppressed ACE2 and Mas receptor levels. AT1 blockade caused sustained activation of cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor, but ACE inhibitor had the limitation of such activation of Mas receptor in hydronephrotic animals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Altered cognitive performance and synaptic function in the hippocampus of mice lacking C3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Alcazar, Marta; Daborg, Jonny; Stokowska, Anna; Wasling, Pontus; Björefeldt, Andreas; Kalm, Marie; Zetterberg, Henrik; Carlström, Karl E; Blomgren, Klas; Ekdahl, Christine T; Hanse, Eric; Pekna, Marcela

    2014-03-01

    Previous work implicated the complement system in adult neurogenesis as well as elimination of synapses in the developing and injured CNS. In the present study, we used mice lacking the third complement component (C3) to elucidate the role the complement system plays in hippocampus-dependent learning and synaptic function. We found that the constitutive absence of C3 is associated with enhanced place and reversal learning in adult mice. Our findings of lower release probability at CA3-CA1 glutamatergic synapses in combination with unaltered overall efficacy of these synapses in C3 deficient mice implicate C3 as a negative regulator of the number of functional glutamatergic synapses in the hippocampus. The C3 deficient mice showed no signs of spontaneous epileptiform activity in the hippocampus. We conclude that C3 plays a role in the regulation of the number and function of glutamatergic synapses in the hippocampus and exerts negative effects on hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance.

  13. Habituation under stress: shocked mice show nonassociative learning in a T-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D; Osborne, E W; O'Boyle, M W

    1985-03-01

    Conflicting predictions of reinforcement and neophobia-arousal theories were evaluated in a simple choice task. Four groups of C57BL/6J mice were administered daily two-trial tests in a uniform T-maze for 10 consecutive days. For three groups, the contingencies of footshock treatments were manipulated to reinforce alternation, perseveration, or both. A control group that was not administered footshock alternated, but all three groups that were stressed perseverated more and more across tests, despite the differences in reinforcement contingencies. These results are inconsistent with the predictions of reinforcement theory but consistent with the view that stressed or aroused animals are neophobic and use nonassociative learning (habituation) to distinguish between novel and familiar alternatives.

  14. mBin1b transgenic mice show enhanced resistance to epididymal infection by bacteria challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Z; Hu, S; Xiao, L; Zhou, J; Diao, H; Yu, H; Fang, S; Wang, Y; Wan, Y; Wang, W; He, Y; Wang, C; Xu, G; Wang, Z; Zhang, Y; Fei, J

    2012-09-01

    The mBin1b is a beta-defensin gene identified in the mouse epididymis. In the current report, its expression pattern and antibacterial activities were characterized, and a transgenic (TG) mouse model was developed in which mBin1b was exclusively overexpressed by up to 50-fold over normal levels in the caput epididymis. The experimental animals are healthy with normal reproductive activity, but are more resistant to epididymal infection from Escherichia coli than normal animals. The expression of IL1α and IL1β in the epididymis was decreased in the TG mice, which suggests that mBin1b has a role in the regulation of inflammatory response in the epididymis.

  15. Reversal of schizophrenia-like symptoms and immune alterations in mice by immunomodulatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Araújo, Tatiane; Maia Chaves Filho, Adriano Jose; Monte, Aline Santos; Isabelle de Góis Queiroz, Ana; Cordeiro, Rafaela Carneiro; de Jesus Souza Machado, Michel; de Freitas Lima, Ricardo; Freitas de Lucena, David; Maes, Michael; Macêdo, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    Immune dysregulation observed in schizophrenia alters tryptophan metabolism. Tryptophan metabolism is triggered by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). Tryptophan is converted to quinolinic acid, a potent neurotoxin, and to kynurenic acid, an NMDA antagonist. 1-Methyl-D-tryptophan (MDT) inhibits IDO. Melatonin is metabolized by IDO while inhibiting TDO. We evaluated the reversal of ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like behavioral and neurochemical alterations in mice by the administration of MDT (20 or 40 mg/kg, i.p.) or melatonin (15 mg/kg, per os). Oxidative stress and inflammatory alterations, i.e. myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-6 were measured in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus and striatum. Risperidone was used as standard antipsychotic. Ketamine triggered positive- (PPI deficits and hyperlocomotion), cognitive- (working memory deficits) and negative (social interaction deficits) schizophrenia-like symptoms. These symptoms were accompanied by increased MPO activity, decreased GSH and increased LPO in all brain areas and increments in hippocampal IL-4 and IL-6. MDT and melatonin reversed all ketamine-induced behavioral alterations. Risperidone did not reverse working memory deficits. MDT and melatonin reversed alterations in MPO activity and GSH levels. LP was reversed only by melatonin and risperidone. Risperidone could not reverse MPO alterations in the PFC and striatum. All drugs reversed the alterations in IL-4 and IL-6. The hippocampus and striatum of ketamine+melatonin-treated animals had lower levels of IL-6. Our findings provide further preclinical evidence that immune-inflammatory and oxidative pathways are involved in schizophrenia and that targeting these pathways is a valid treatment option in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Alteration of mice L-tryptophan metabolism by the organophosphorous acid triester diazinon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, J; Pewnim, T

    1992-12-01

    Diazinon [O,O-diethyl O-(2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4- pyrimidinyl)phosphorothioate] altered the formation of several L-tryptophan metabolites associated with the L-kynurenine pathway in mice. Liver kynurenine formamidase was inhibited almost completely by diazinon (10 mg/kg). The enzyme inhibition resulted in reduced L-kynurenine biosynthesis in livers with a concomitant accumulation of N-formyl-L-kynurenine. In contrast to the liver, plasma L-kynurenine increased up to 5-fold in diazinon-treated mice. Consequently, the urinary excretion of xanthurenic acid and kynurenic acid was raised 5- to 15-fold. The revelation of this novel mechanism of diazinon action is an important piece of information needed for a better understanding of the noncholinergic toxicity of organophosphorous acid triesters and methylcarbamates.

  17. Altered parasympathetic nervous system regulation of the sinoatrial node in Akita diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Pooja S; Egom, Emmanuel E; Moghtadaei, Motahareh; Jansen, Hailey J; Azer, John; Bogachev, Oleg; Mackasey, Martin; Robbins, Courtney; Rose, Robert A

    2015-05-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus that impairs autonomic regulation of heart rate (HR). This has been attributed to damage to the nerves that modulate spontaneous pacemaker activity in the sinoatrial node (SAN). Our objective was to test the hypothesis that impaired parasympathetic regulation of HR in diabetes is due to reduced responsiveness of the SAN to parasympathetic agonists. We used the Akita mouse model of type 1 diabetes to study the effects of the parasympathetic agonist carbachol (CCh) on SAN function using intracardiac programmed stimulation, high resolution optical mapping and patch-clamping of SAN myocytes. CCh decreased HR by 30% and increased corrected SAN recovery time (cSNRT) by 123% in wildtype mice. In contrast, CCh only decreased HR by 12%, and only increased cSNRT by 37% in Akita mice. These alterations were due to smaller effects of CCh on SAN electrical conduction and spontaneous action potential firing in isolated SAN myocytes. Voltage clamp experiments demonstrate that the acetylcholine-activated K(+) current (IKACh) is reduced in Akita SAN myocytes due to enhanced desensitization and faster deactivation kinetics. These IKACh alterations were normalized by treating Akita SAN myocytes with PI(3,4,5)P3 or an inhibitor of regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4). There was no difference in the effects of CCh on the hyperpolarization-activated current (If) between wildtype and Akita mice. Our study demonstrates that Akita diabetic mice demonstrate impaired parasympathetic regulation of HR and SAN function due to reduced responses of the SAN to parasympathetic agonists. Our experiments demonstrate a key role for insulin-dependent phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in the parasympathetic dysfunction seen in the SAN in diabetes.

  18. Altered Interactions between the Gut Microbiome and Colonic Mucosa Precede Polyposis in APCMin/+ Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua S Son

    Full Text Available Mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene, an early event in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, is present in 70-80% of sporadic human colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. To test the hypothesis that mutation of the APC gene alters microbial interactions with host intestinal mucosa prior to the development of polyposis, culture-independent methods (targeted qPCR assays and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V1V2 hypervariable region were used to compare the intestinal microbial composition of 30 six-week old C57BL/6 APCMin/+ and 30 congenic wild type (WT mice. The results demonstrate that similar to 12-14 week old APCMin/+ mice with intestinal neoplasia, 6 week old APCMin/+ mice with no detectable neoplasia, exhibit an increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes spp in the colon. Parallel mouse RNA sequence analysis, conducted on a subset of proximal colonic RNA samples (6 APCMin/+, 6 WT revealed 130 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, fold change ≥ 2, FDR <0.05. Hierarchical clustering of the DEGs was carried out by using 1-r dissimilarity measurement, where r stands for the Pearson correlation, and Ward minimum variance linkage, in order to reduce the number of input variables. When the cluster centroids (medians were included along with APC genotype as input variables in a negative binomial (NB regression model, four of seven mouse gene clusters, in addition to APC genotype, were significantly associated with the increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes spp. Three of the four clusters include several downregulated genes encoding immunoglobulin variable regions and non-protein coding RNAs. These results support the concept that mutation of the APC gene alters colonic-microbial interactions prior to polyposis. It remains to be determined whether interventions directed at ameliorating dysbiosis in APCMin/+mice, such as through probiotics, prebiotics or antibiotics, could reduce tumor formation.

  19. Relationships between protein and mineral during enamel development in normal and genetically altered mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles E.; Hu, Yuanyuan; Richardson, Amelia S.; Bartlett, John D.; Hu, Jan C-C.; Simmer, James P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the amounts of volatiles (mostly protein) and mineral present in developing incisor enamel in normal mice and in those genetically engineered for absence of intact enamelin, ameloblastin, matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP20) or kallikrein-related peptidase 4 (KLK4). Data indicated that all mice showed peaks in the gross weight of volatiles and a similar weight of mineral at locations on incisors normally associated with early maturation. Thereafter, the content of volatiles on normal incisors declined rapidly by as much as 62%, but not by 100%, over 2 mm, accompanied by increases of ~threefold in mineral weights. Enamelin heterozygous mice (lower incisors) showed a decrease in volatile content across the maturation stage, yet mineral failed to increase significantly. Mmp20 null mice showed no significant loss of volatiles from maturing enamel, yet the amount of mineral increased. Klk4 null mice showed normal mineral acquisition up to early maturation, but the input of new volatiles in mid to late maturation caused the final mineralization to slow below normal levels. These results suggest that it is not only the amount of protein but also the nature or type of protein or fragments present in the local crystallite environment that affects their volumetric expansion as they mature. PMID:22243238

  20. Induction and reversion process of molecular and cytological alterations after highly irradiated food ingestion in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo M, M.I. (Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago. Dept. de Aplicaciones de los Isotopos y Radiaciones); Fernandez C, M. (Chile Univ., Santiago. Dept. de Fisica)

    1984-04-01

    The molecular and cytological alterations induced in a mammal (Mus musculus) fed ad libitum with a balanced pellet diet irradiated with 50 KGy gamma radiation from weaning, for different periods, are analyzed. The transient chromosomal changes that recall tumor-like phenomena could be the expression of the damage and repair processes induced by changed molecules present in irradiated food. The reversible alterations of DNA structure and cytoplasmatic soluble proteins observed in mice fed with irradiated pellet diet could be interpreted as a result of the enhancement of the repair processes which could also explain the significant increase of the radioresistance of DNA found at 200 days after irradiated food ingestion. Finally, our results would suggest an induction of a pseudo-neoplasia due to a prolongated and exclusive ingestion of food irradiated with sterilizing gamma dose. Moreover, the maintenance of the irradiated diet induce the reversion of the observed phenomena by an eventual activation of the repair mechanisms.

  1. Coumarin Compounds of Biebersteinia Multifida Roots Show Potential Anxiolytic Effects In Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Monsef-Esfahani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Traditional preparations of the root of Biebersteinia multifida DC (Geraniaceae, a native medicinal plant of Irano-Turanian floristic region, have been used for the treatment of phobias as anxiolytic herbal preparation.Methods:We utilized the phobic behavior of mice in an elevated plus-maze as a model to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of the plant extract and bio-guided fractionation was applied to isolate the active compounds. Total root extract, alkaline and ether fraction were administered to mice at different doses 30 and 90 min prior to the maze test. Saline and diazepam were administered as negative and positive controls, respectively. The time spent in open and closed arms, an index of anxiety behavior and entry time, was measured as an index of animal activity.Results:The total root extract exhibited anxiolytic effect which was comparable to diazepam but with longer duration. This sustained effect of the crude extract was sustained for 90 min and was even more after injection of 45 mg/kg while the effect of diazepam had been reduced by 90 min. The anxiolytic effect factor was only present in the alkaline fraction and displayed its effect at lower doses than diazepam while pure vasicinone as the previously known alkaloid did not shown anxiolytic effect. The effect of the alkaline fraction was in a dose dependent manner starting at 0.2 mg/kg with a maximum at 1.0 mg/kg. Bio-guided fractionation using a variety of chromatographic methods led to isolation and purification of three coumarin derivatives from the bioactive fraction, including umbelliferone, scopoletin, and ferulic acid.Conclusion:For the first time, bio-guided fractionation of the root extract of B. multifida indicates significant sustained anxiolytic effects which led to isolation of three coumarin derivatives with well-known potent MAO inhibitory and anti-anxiety effects. These data contribute to evidence-based traditional use of B. multifida root for anxiety

  2. Altered neurotransmission in the lateral amygdala in aged human apoE4 targeted replacement mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rebecca C; Acheson, Shawn K; Mace, Brian E; Sullivan, Patrick M; Moore, Scott D

    2014-09-01

    The human APOE4 allele is associated with an early age of onset and increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Apolipoprotein E is secreted as part of a high-density lipoprotein-like particle by glial cells in the brain for the primary purpose of transport of lipophilic compounds involved in the maintenance of synapses. Previous studies examining synaptic integrity in the amygdala of human apoE targeted replacement (TR) mice showed a decrease in spontaneous excitatory synaptic activity, dendritic arbor, and spine density associated with apoE4 compared with apoE3 and apoE2 in adult male mice. In the present study, we assessed how APOE genotype affects synaptic integrity of amygdala neurons by comparing electrophysiological and morphometric properties in human apoE3, E4, and E2/4 TR mice at the age of 18-20 months. In contrast to adult mice, we found that aged apoE4 TR mice exhibited the highest level of excitatory synaptic activity compared with other cohorts. Additionally, apoE4 mice had significantly greater spontaneous inhibitory activity than all other cohorts. Taken together, there was a significant interaction between genotypes when comparing inhibition relative to excitation; there was a simple main effect of frequency type with an imbalance toward inhibition in apoE4 mice but not in apoE3 or apoE2/4 mice. These results suggest that apoE isoforms differentially influence synaptic transmission throughout the life span, where aging coupled with apoE4 expression, results in an imbalance in maintaining integrity of synaptic transmission.

  3. Alterations in slow-twitch muscle phenotype in transgenic mice overexpressing the Ca2+ buffering protein parvalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Eva R; Grange, Robert W; Viau, Francois; Simard, Alain R; Humphries, Caroline; Shelton, John; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Williams, R Sanders; Michel, Robin N

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether induced expression of the Ca2+ buffering protein parvalbumin (PV) in slow-twitch fibres would lead to alterations in physiological, biochemical and molecular properties reflective of a fast fibre phenotype. Transgenic (TG) mice were generated that overexpressed PV in slow (type I) muscle fibres. In soleus muscle (SOL; 58 % type I fibres) total PV expression was 2- to 6-fold higher in TG compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Maximum twitch and tetanic tensions were similar in WT and TG but force at subtetanic frequencies (30 and 50 Hz) was reduced in TG SOL. Twitch time-to-peak tension and half-relaxation time were significantly decreased in TG SOL (time-to-peak tension: 39.3 +/- 2.6 vs. 55.1 +/- 4.7 ms; half-relaxation time: 42.1 +/- 3.5 vs. 68.1 +/- 9.6 ms, P single fibre glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was decreased in a subset of type IIa fibres. These differences were associated with a 64 % reduction in calcineurin activity in TG SOL. These data show that overexpression of PV, resulting in decreased calcineurin activity, can alter the functional and metabolic profile of muscle and influence the expression of key marker genes in a predominantly slow-twitch muscle with minimal effects on the expression of muscle contractile proteins.

  4. Otx1 null mutant mice show partial segregation of sensory epithelia comparable to lamprey ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, B.; Signore, M.; Simeone, A.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the development of inner ear innervation in Otx1 null mutants, which lack a horizontal canal, between embryonic day 12 (E12) and postnatal day 7 (P7) with DiI and immunostaining for acetylated tubulin. Comparable to control animals, horizontal crista-like fibers were found to cross over the utricle in Otx1 null mice. In mutants these fibers extend toward an area near the endolymphatic duct, not to a horizontal crista. Most Otx1 null mutants had a small patch of sensory hair cells at this position. Measurement of the area of the utricular macula suggested it to be enlarged in Otx1 null mutants. We suggest that parts of the horizontal canal crista remain incorporated in the utricular sensory epithelium in Otx1 null mutants. Other parts of the horizontal crista appear to be variably segregated to form the isolated patch of hair cells identifiable by the unique fiber trajectory as representing the horizontal canal crista. Comparison with lamprey ear innervation reveals similarities in the pattern of innervation with the dorsal macula, a sensory patch of unknown function. SEM data confirm that all foramina are less constricted in Otx1 null mutants. We propose that Otx1 is not directly involved in sensory hair cell formation of the horizontal canal but affects the segregation of the horizontal canal crista from the utricle. It also affects constriction of the two main foramina in the ear, but not their initial formation. Otx1 is thus causally related to horizontal canal morphogenesis as well as morphogenesis of these foramina.

  5. Contractile abnormalities and altered drug response in engineered heart tissue from Mybpc3-targeted knock-in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöhr, Andrea; Friedrich, Felix W; Flenner, Frederik; Geertz, Birgit; Eder, Alexandra; Schaaf, Sebastian; Hirt, Marc N; Uebeler, June; Schlossarek, Saskia; Carrier, Lucie; Hansen, Arne; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Myosin-binding protein C (Mybpc3)-targeted knock-in mice (KI) recapitulate typical aspects of human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We evaluated whether these functional alterations can be reproduced in engineered heart tissue (EHT) and yield novel mechanistic information on the function of cMyBP-C. EHTs were generated from cardiac cells of neonatal KI, heterozygous (HET) or wild-type controls (WT) and developed without apparent morphological differences. KI had 70% and HET 20% lower total cMyBP-C levels than WT, accompanied by elevated fetal gene expression. Under standard culture conditions and spontaneous beating, KI EHTs showed more frequent burst beating than WT and occasional tetanic contractions (14/96). Under electrical stimulation (6Hz, 37°C) KI EHTs exhibited shorter contraction and relaxation times and a twofold higher sensitivity to external [Ca(2+)]. Accordingly, the sensitivity to verapamil was 4-fold lower and the response to isoprenaline or the Ca(2+) sensitizer EMD 57033 2- to 4-fold smaller. The loss of EMD effect was verified in 6-week-old KI mice in vivo. HET EHTs were apparently normal under basal conditions, but showed similarly altered contractile responses to [Ca(2+)], verapamil, isoprenaline and EMD. In contrast, drug-induced changes in intracellular Ca(2+) transients (Fura-2) were essentially normal. In conclusion, the present findings in auxotonically contracting EHTs support the idea that cMyBP-C's normal role is to suppress force generation at low intracellular Ca(2+) and stabilize the power-stroke step of the cross bridge cycle. Pharmacological testing in EHT unmasked a disease phenotype in HET. The altered drug response may be clinically relevant.

  6. Alteration of Lysophosphatidylcholine-Related Metabolic Parameters in the Plasma of Mice with Experimental Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Won-Gyun; Jung, Jun-Sub; Kwon, Hyeok Yil; Song, Dong-Keun

    2017-04-01

    Plasma concentration of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) was reported to decrease in patients with sepsis. However, the mechanisms of sepsis-induced decrease in plasma LPC levels are not currently well known. In mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a model of polymicrobial peritoneal sepsis, we examined alterations in LPC-related metabolic parameters in plasma, i.e., the plasma concentration of LPC-related substances (i.e., phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)), and activities or levels in the plasma of some enzymes that can be involved in the regulation of plasma LPC concentration (i.e., secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), and autotaxin (ATX)), as well as plasma albumin concentration. We found that levels of LPC and albumin and enzyme activities of LCAT, ATX, and sPLA2 were decreased, whereas levels of PC, LPA, and LPCAT1-3 were increased in the plasma of mice subjected to CLP. Bacterial peritonitis led to alterations in all the measured LPC-related metabolic parameters in the plasma, which could potentially contribute to sepsis-induced decrease in plasma LPC levels. These findings could lead to the novel biomarkers of sepsis.

  7. Alterations in metabolic pathways in stomach of mice infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiumi, Shin; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi

    2017-08-01

    Numerous studies of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) have been performed, but few studies have evaluated the effects of H. pylori infections using metabolome analysis, which involves the comprehensive study of low molecular weight metabolites. In this study, the metabolites in the stomach tissue of mice that had been infected with H. pylori SS1 for 1, 3, or 6 months were analyzed, and then evaluations of various metabolic pathways were performed to gain novel understandings of H. pylori infections. As a result, it was found that the glycolytic pathway, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the choline pathway tended to be upregulated at 1 month after the H. pylori SS1 infection. The urea cycle tended to be downregulated at 6 months after the infection. High levels of some amino acids were observed in the stomach tissue of the H. pylori SS1-infected mice at 1 month after the infection, whereas low levels of many amino acids were detected at 3 and 6 months after the infection. These results suggest that H. pylori infection causes various metabolic alterations at lesional sites, and these alterations might be linked to the crosstalk between H. pylori and the host leading to transition of disease conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytokine-producing microglia have an altered beta-amyloid load in aged APP/PS1 Tg mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Alicia A; Ilkjær, Laura; Clausen, Bettina H; Villadsen, Birgitte; Dissing-Olesen, Lasse; Bendixen, Anita T M; Lyck, Lise; Lambertsen, Kate L; Finsen, Bente

    2015-08-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and chronic neuroinflammation are significant neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease. Microglial cells in aged brains have potential to produce cytokines such as TNF and IL-1 family members (IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-1Ra) and to phagocytose Aβ in Alzheimer's disease, however the inter-relationship between these processes is poorly understood. Here we show that % Aβ plaque load followed a sigmoidal trajectory with age in the neocortex of APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Tg mice, and correlated positively with soluble Aβ40 and Aβ42. Aβ measures were moderately correlated with mRNA levels of CD11b, TNF, and IL-1Ra. Cytokine production and Aβ load were assessed in neocortical CD11b(+)(CD45(+)) microglia by flow cytometry. Whereas most microglia in aged mice produced IL-1Ra, relatively low proportions of microglia produced TNF, IL-1α, and IL-1β. However, microglial production of these latter cytokines was generally increased in APP/PS1 Tg mice. Microglia that phagocytosed endogenously-produced Aβ were only observed in APP/PS1 Tg mice. Differences in phagocytic index and total Aβ load were observed in microglia with specific cytokine profiles. Both phagocytic index and total Aβ load were higher in IL-1α(+) and IL-1Ra(+) microglia, than microglia that did not produce these cytokines. In contrast, total Aβ load was lower in IL-1β(+) and TNF(+) microglia, compared to IL-1β(-) and TNF(-) microglia, and TNF(+) microglia also had a lower phagocytic index. Using GFP bone marrow chimeric mice, we confirmed that the majority of neocortical CD11b(+)(CD45(+)) microglia were resident cells (GFP(-)) in APP/PS1 Tg mice, even after selectively analysing CD11b(+)CD45(high) cells, which are typically considered to be infiltrating cells. Together, our data demonstrate that cytokine expression is selectively correlated with age and Aβ pathology, and is associated with an altered Aβ load in phagocytic microglia from APP/PS1 Tg mice. These findings have

  9. Mice doubly-deficient in lysosomal hexosaminidase A and neuraminidase 4 show epileptic crises and rapid neuronal loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyrantepe, Volkan; Lema, Pablo; Caqueret, Aurore; Dridi, Larbi; Bel Hadj, Samar; Carpentier, Stephane; Boucher, Francine; Levade, Thierry; Carmant, Lionel; Gravel, Roy A; Hamel, Edith; Vachon, Pascal; Di Cristo, Graziella; Michaud, Jacques L; Morales, Carlos R; Pshezhetsky, Alexey V

    2010-09-16

    Tay-Sachs disease is a severe lysosomal disorder caused by mutations in the HexA gene coding for the α-subunit of lysosomal β-hexosaminidase A, which converts G(M2) to G(M3) ganglioside. Hexa(-/-) mice, depleted of β-hexosaminidase A, remain asymptomatic to 1 year of age, because they catabolise G(M2) ganglioside via a lysosomal sialidase into glycolipid G(A2), which is further processed by β-hexosaminidase B to lactosyl-ceramide, thereby bypassing the β-hexosaminidase A defect. Since this bypass is not effective in humans, infantile Tay-Sachs disease is fatal in the first years of life. Previously, we identified a novel ganglioside metabolizing sialidase, Neu4, abundantly expressed in mouse brain neurons. Now we demonstrate that mice with targeted disruption of both Neu4 and Hexa genes (Neu4(-/-);Hexa(-/-)) show epileptic seizures with 40% penetrance correlating with polyspike discharges on the cortical electrodes of the electroencephalogram. Single knockout Hexa(-/-) or Neu4(-/-) siblings do not show such symptoms. Further, double-knockout but not single-knockout mice have multiple degenerating neurons in the cortex and hippocampus and multiple layers of cortical neurons accumulating G(M2) ganglioside. Together, our data suggest that the Neu4 block exacerbates the disease in Hexa(-/-) mice, indicating that Neu4 is a modifier gene in the mouse model of Tay-Sachs disease, reducing the disease severity through the metabolic bypass. However, while disease severity in the double mutant is increased, it is not profound suggesting that Neu4 is not the only sialidase contributing to the metabolic bypass in Hexa(-/-) mice.

  10. Mice doubly-deficient in lysosomal hexosaminidase A and neuraminidase 4 show epileptic crises and rapid neuronal loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Seyrantepe

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tay-Sachs disease is a severe lysosomal disorder caused by mutations in the HexA gene coding for the α-subunit of lysosomal β-hexosaminidase A, which converts G(M2 to G(M3 ganglioside. Hexa(-/- mice, depleted of β-hexosaminidase A, remain asymptomatic to 1 year of age, because they catabolise G(M2 ganglioside via a lysosomal sialidase into glycolipid G(A2, which is further processed by β-hexosaminidase B to lactosyl-ceramide, thereby bypassing the β-hexosaminidase A defect. Since this bypass is not effective in humans, infantile Tay-Sachs disease is fatal in the first years of life. Previously, we identified a novel ganglioside metabolizing sialidase, Neu4, abundantly expressed in mouse brain neurons. Now we demonstrate that mice with targeted disruption of both Neu4 and Hexa genes (Neu4(-/-;Hexa(-/- show epileptic seizures with 40% penetrance correlating with polyspike discharges on the cortical electrodes of the electroencephalogram. Single knockout Hexa(-/- or Neu4(-/- siblings do not show such symptoms. Further, double-knockout but not single-knockout mice have multiple degenerating neurons in the cortex and hippocampus and multiple layers of cortical neurons accumulating G(M2 ganglioside. Together, our data suggest that the Neu4 block exacerbates the disease in Hexa(-/- mice, indicating that Neu4 is a modifier gene in the mouse model of Tay-Sachs disease, reducing the disease severity through the metabolic bypass. However, while disease severity in the double mutant is increased, it is not profound suggesting that Neu4 is not the only sialidase contributing to the metabolic bypass in Hexa(-/- mice.

  11. Stanniocalcin 2 alters PERK signalling and reduces cellular injury during cerulein induced pancreatitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiMattia Gabriel E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stanniocalcin 2 (STC2 is a secreted protein activated by (PKR-like Endoplasmic Reticulum Kinase (PERK signalling under conditions of ER stress in vitro. Over-expression of STC2 in mice leads to a growth-restricted phenotype; however, the physiological function for STC2 has remained elusive. Given the relationship of STC2 to PERK signalling, the objective of this study was to examine the role of STC2 in PERK signalling in vivo. Results Since PERK signalling has both physiological and pathological roles in the pancreas, STC2 expression was assessed in mouse pancreata before and after induction of injury using a cerulein-induced pancreatitis (CIP model. Increased Stc2 expression was identified within four hours of initiating pancreatic injury and correlated to increased activation of PERK signalling. To determine the effect of STC2 over-expression on PERK, mice systemically expressing human STC2 (STC2Tg were examined. STC2Tg pancreatic tissue exhibited normal pancreatic morphology, but altered activation of PERK signalling, including increases in Activating Transcription Factor (ATF 4 accumulation and autophagy. Upon induction of pancreatic injury, STC2Tg mice exhibited limited increases in circulating amylase levels and increased maintenance of cellular junctions. Conclusions This study links STC2 to the pathological activation of PERK in vivo, and suggests involvement of STC2 in responding to pancreatic acinar cell injury.

  12. Low dose effects of a Withania somnifera extract on altered marble burying behavior in stressed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Amitabha; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Withania somnifera root (WSR) extracts are often used in traditionally known Indian systems of medicine for prevention and cure of psychosomatic disorders. The reported experiment was designed to test whether low daily oral doses of such extracts are also effective in suppressing marble burying behavior in stressed mice or not. Materials and Methods: Groups of mice treated with 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg daily oral doses of WSR were subjected to a foot shock stress-induced hyperthermia test on the 1st, 5th, 7th, and 10th day of the experiment. On the 11th and 12th treatment days, they were subjected to marble burying tests. Stress response suppressing effects of low dose WSR were estimated by its effects on body weight and basal core temperature of animals during the course of the experiment. Results: Alterations in bodyweight and basal core temperature triggered by repeated exposures to foot shock stress were absent even in the 10 mg/kg/day WSR treated group, whereas the effectiveness of the extract in foot shock stress-induced hyperthermia and marble burying tests increased with its increasing daily dose. Conclusion: Marble burying test in stressed mice is well suited for identifying bioactive constituents of W. somnifera like medicinal plants with adaptogenic, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities, or for quantifying pharmacological interactions between them. PMID:27366354

  13. Swietenia mahagony extract shows agonistic activity to PPARγ and gives ameliorative effects on diabetic db/db mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan-dan LI; Xu SHEN; Hua-liang JIANG; Jun-hua CHEN; Qing CHEN; Guo-wei LI; Jing CHEN; Jian-min YUE; Min-li CHEN; Xiao-ping WANG; Jian-hua SHEN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To search the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists from Swietenia mahagony extract (SmE) and observe the possible ameliorative effects of SmE on diabetic db/db mice. Methods: The PPARγ agonistic activity of SmE was screened by yeast-two hybrid system. The blood glucose levels of diabetic db/db mice were measured using a blood glucose level monitor and the data were statistically analyzed by NDST8.8W software. Results: By using the clinical drug rosiglitazone as a positive control, it was found that the PPARγ agonistic activity of SmE at a concentration of 50 μg/L was approximately half that of 35.7 μg/L (0.1 μmol/L) of rosiglitazone. At the dose of 1000 mg/kg, SmE remark ably decreased the blood glucose concentration of db/db mice from (15.26±2.98) to (7.58±2.20) mmol/L, and reduced the blood glucose levels by 55.49% compared with the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: SmE shows agonistic activity to PPARγ and can ameliorate the blood glucose levels of diabetic db/db mice. SmE may be thus used as a potential agent for diabetes therapy.

  14. Gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters cardiac structure/function, protein expression and DNA methylation in adult male mice progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Rami, E-mail: rami.haddad@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University, 850 Sherbrooke Street, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 1A2 (Canada); Kasneci, Amanda, E-mail: amanda.kasneci@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Mepham, Kathryn, E-mail: katherine.mepham@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University, 850 Sherbrooke Street, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 1A2 (Canada); Sebag, Igal A., E-mail: igal.sebag@mcgill.ca [Division of Cardiology, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); and others

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women, and thus their fetuses, are exposed to many endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). Fetal cardiomyocytes express sex hormone receptors making them potentially susceptible to re-programming by estrogenizing EDCs. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a proto-typical, non-steroidal estrogen. We hypothesized that changes in adult cardiac structure/function after gestational exposure to the test compound DES would be a proof in principle for the possibility of estrogenizing environmental EDCs to also alter the fetal heart. Vehicle (peanut oil) or DES (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 μg/kg/da.) was orally delivered to pregnant C57bl/6n dams on gestation days 11.5–14.5. At 3 months, male progeny were left sedentary or were swim trained for 4 weeks. Echocardiography of isoflurane anesthetized mice revealed similar cardiac structure/function in all sedentary mice, but evidence of systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation after swim training at higher DES doses. The calcium homeostasis proteins, SERCA2a, phospholamban, phospho-serine 16 phospholamban and calsequestrin 2, are important for cardiac contraction and relaxation. Immunoblot analyses of ventricle homogenates showed increased expression of SERCA2a and calsequestrin 2 in DES mice and greater molecular remodeling of these proteins and phospho-serine 16 phospholamban in swim trained DES mice. DES increased cardiac DNA methyltransferase 3a expression and DNA methylation in the CpG island within the calsequestrin 2 promoter in heart. Thus, gestational DES epigenetically altered ventricular DNA, altered cardiac function and expression, and reduced the ability of adult progeny to cardiac remodel when physically challenged. We conclude that gestational exposure to estrogenizing EDCs may impact cardiac structure/function in adult males. -- Highlights: ► Gestational DES changes cardiac SERCA2a and CASQ2 expression. ► Echocardiography identified systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation. ► DES

  15. Oleanolic acid alters bile acid metabolism and produces cholestatic liver injury in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jie, E-mail: JLiu@kumc.edu [University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi 563003 (China); Lu, Yuan-Fu [University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi 563003 (China); Zhang, Youcai; Wu, Kai Connie [University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Fan, Fang [Cytopathology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D. [University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) is a triterpenoids that exists widely in plants. OA is effective in protecting against hepatotoxicants. Whereas a low dose of OA is hepatoprotective, higher doses and longer-term use of OA produce liver injury. This study characterized OA-induced liver injury in mice. Adult C57BL/6 mice were given OA at doses of 0, 22.5, 45, 90, and 135 mg/kg, s.c., daily for 5 days, and liver injury was observed at doses of 90 mg/kg and above, as evidenced by increases in serum activities of alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, increases in serum total bilirubin, as well as by liver histopathology. OA-induced cholestatic liver injury was further evidenced by marked increases of both unconjugated and conjugated bile acids (BAs) in serum. Gene and protein expression analysis suggested that livers of OA-treated mice had adaptive responses to prevent BA accumulation by suppressing BA biosynthetic enzyme genes (Cyp7a1, 8b1, 27a1, and 7b1); lowering BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2); and increasing a BA efflux transporter (Ostβ). OA increased the expression of Nrf2 and its target gene, Nqo1, but decreased the expression of AhR, CAR and PPARα along with their target genes, Cyp1a2, Cyp2b10 and Cyp4a10. OA had minimal effects on PXR and Cyp3a11. Taken together, the present study characterized OA-induced liver injury, which is associated with altered BA homeostasis, and alerts its toxicity potential. - Highlights: • Oleanolic acid at higher doses and long-term use may produce liver injury. • Oleanolic acid increased serum ALT, ALP, bilirubin and bile acid concentrations. • OA produced feathery degeneration, inflammation and cell death in the liver. • OA altered bile acid homeostasis, affecting bile acid synthesis and transport.

  16. Burn injury reveals altered phenotype in mannan-binding lectin-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Kristensen, Mette; Hamblin, MR; Thiel, Steffen;

    2007-01-01

    , thinned epidermis and dermis, upregulation of soluble factors including cytokines, chemokines, cell adhesion molecules, a growth factor-binding protein, and matrix metalloproteinases. Mice lacking C1q, C4, or C3 did not show the lack of eschar separation seen in MBL null-burn phenotype. These findings...

  17. Postnatal events in intestinal gene expression and splenic cell composition is altered in NOD mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damlund, Dina Silke Malling; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Kristensen, Matilde Bylov

    2013-01-01

    , cellular composition in spleen and liver. At PND1 and 2, the number of Ly-6G and CD11b positive cells in NOD mice was significantly (p=0.05) higher as compared to C57/bl6. Furthermore, gene expression analyses of liver, spleen and intestine showed differences between the two mouse strains in the early...

  18. Female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein show female-typical neural responses to conspecific-derived pheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Brock

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior are sexually differentiated by the perinatal actions of sex steroid hormones. We recently observed using female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-KO and which lack the protective actions of AFP against maternal estradiol, that exposure to prenatal estradiol completely defeminized the potential to show lordosis behavior in adulthood. Furthermore, AFP-KO females failed to show any male-directed mate preferences following treatment with estradiol and progesterone, indicating a reduced sexual motivation to seek out the male. In the present study, we asked whether neural responses to male- and female-derived odors are also affected in AFP-KO female mice. Therefore, we compared patterns of Fos, the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, commonly used as a marker of neuronal activation, between wild-type (WT and AFP-KO female mice following exposure to male or estrous female urine. We also tested WT males to confirm the previously observed sex differences in neural responses to male urinary odors. Interestingly, AFP-KO females showed normal, female-like Fos responses, i.e. exposure to urinary odors from male but not estrous female mice induced equivalent levels of Fos protein in the accessory olfactory pathways (e.g. the medial part of the preoptic nucleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the amygdala, and the lateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus as well as in the main olfactory pathways (e.g. the piriform cortex and the anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus, as WT females. By contrast, WT males did not show any significant induction of Fos protein in these brain areas upon exposure to either male or estrous female urinary odors. These results thus suggest that prenatal estradiol is not involved in the sexual differentiation of neural Fos responses to male-derived odors.

  19. A multifunctional drug combination shows highly potent therapeutic efficacy against human cancer xenografts in athymic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Jun Liu

    Full Text Available The tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role during tumor development. Integrated combination of drugs that target tumor microenvironment is a promising approach to anticancer therapy. Here, we report a multifunctional combination of low-cytotoxic drugs composed of dipyridamole, bestatin and dexamethasone (DBDx which mainly acts on the tumor microenvironment shows highly potent antitumor efficacy in vivo. In mouse hepatoma H22 model, the triple drug combination showed synergistic and highly potent antitumor efficacy. The combination indices of various combinations of the triple drugs were between 0.2 and 0.5. DBDx inhibited the growth of a panel of human tumor xenografts and showed no obvious systemic toxicity. At tolerated doses, DBDx suppressed the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402, HepG2, and lung adenocarcinoma A549 xenografts by 94.5%, 93.7% and 96.9%, respectively. Clonogenic assay demonstrated that DBDx showed weak cytotoxicity. Western blot showed that Flk1 and Nos3 were down-regulated in the DBDx-treated group. Proteomic analysis showed that DBDx mainly affected the metabolic process and immune system process; in addition, the angiogenesis and VEGF signaling pathway were also affected. Conclusively, DBDx, a multifunctional drug combination of three low-cytotoxic drugs, shows synergistic and highly potent antitumor efficacy evidently mediated by the modulation of tumor microenvironment. Based on its low-cytotoxic attributes and its broad-spectrum antitumor therapeutic efficacy, this multifunctional combination might be useful in the treatment of cancers, especially those refractory to conventional chemotherapeutics.

  20. Novel roles of FKBP5 in muscle alteration induced by gravity change in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoide, Takeshi; Kawao, Naoyuki; Tamura, Yukinori; Morita, Hironobu; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2016-10-21

    Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and wasting are induced by hypergravity and microgravity, respectively. However, the mechanisms by which gravity change regulates muscle mass still remain unclear. We previously reported that hypergravity increases muscle mass via the vestibular system in mice. In this study, we performed comparative DNA microarray analysis of the soleus muscle from mice kept in 1 or 3 g environments with or without vestibular lesions. Mice were kept in 1 g or 3 g environment for 4 weeks by using a centrifuge 14 days after surgical bilateral vestibular lesions. FKBP5 was extracted as a gene whose expression was enhanced by hypergravity through the vestibular system. Stable FKBP5 overexpression increased the phosphorylations of Akt and p70 S6 kinase (muscle protein synthesis pathway) and myosin heavy chain, a myotube gene, mRNA level in mouse myoblastic C2C12 cells, although it reduced the mRNA levels of atrogin-1 and MuRF1, muscle protein degradation-related genes. In conclusion, we first showed that FKBP5 is induced by hypergravity through the vestibular system in anti-gravity muscle of mice. Our data suggest that FKBP5 might increase muscle mass through the enhancements of muscle protein synthesis and myotube differentiation as well as an inhibition of muscle protein degradation in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Valepotriate Fraction of Valeriana glechomifolia Shows Sedative and Anxiolytic Properties and Impairs Recognition But Not Aversive Memory in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Maurmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the genus Valeriana (Valerianaceae are used in traditional medicine as a mild sedative, antispasmodic and tranquilizer in many countries. This study was undertaken to explore the neurobehavioral effects of systemic administration of a valepotriate extract fraction of known quantitative composition of Valeriana glechomifolia (endemic of southern Brazil in mice. Adult animals were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of valepotriate fraction (VF in the concentrations of 1, 3 or 10 mg kg-1, or with vehicle in the pre-training period before each behavioral test. During the exploration of an open field, mice treated with 10 mg kg-1 of VF showed reduced locomotion and exploratory behavior. Although overall habituation sessions for locomotion and exploratory behavior among vehicle control and doses of VF were not affected, comparison between open-field and habituation sessions within each treatment showed that VF administration at 1 and 10 mg kg-1 impaired habituation. In the elevated plus-maze test, mice treated with VF (10 mg kg-1 showed a significant increase in the percentage of time spent in the open arms without significant effects in the number of total arm entries. VF at 3 mg kg-1 produced an impairment of novel-object recognition memory. In contrast, VF did not affect fear-related memory assessed in an inhibitory avoidance task. The results indicate that VF can have sedative effects and affect behavioral parameters related to recognition memory.

  2. Combination of Radiation and Burn Injury Alters FDG Uptake in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Edward A.; Winter, David; Tolman, Crystal; Paul, Kasie; Hamrahi, Victoria; Tompkins, Ronald; Fischman, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure and burn injury have both been shown to alter glucose utilization in vivo. The present study was designed to study the effect of burn injury combined with radiation exposure, on glucose metabolism in mice using [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG). Groups of male mice weighing approximately 30g were studied. Group 1 was irradiated with a 137Cs source (9 Gy). Group 2 received full thickness burn injury on 25% total body surface area followed by resuscitated with saline (2mL, IP). Group 3 received radiation followed 10 minutes later by burn injury. Group 4 were sham treated controls. After treatment, the mice were fasted for 23 hours and then injected (IV) with 50 µCi of 18FDG. One hour post injection, the mice were sacrificed and biodistribution was measured. Positive blood cultures were observed in all groups of animals compared to the shams. Increased mortality was observed after 6 days in the burn plus radiated group as compared to the other groups. Radiation and burn treatments separately or in combination produced major changes in 18FDG uptake by many tissues. In the heart, brown adipose tissue (BAT) and spleen, radiation plus burn produced a much greater increase (p<0.0001) in 18FDG accumulation than either treatment separately. All three treatments produced moderate decreases in 18FDG accumulation (p<0.01) in the brain and gonads. Burn injury, but not irradiation, increased 18FDG accumulation in skeletal muscle; however the combination of burn plus radiation decreased 18FDG accumulation in skeletal muscle. This model may be useful for understanding the effects of burns + irradiation injury on glucose metabolism and in developing treatments for victims of injuries produced by the combination of burn plus irradiation. PMID:23143615

  3. Altered expression of neuropeptides in FoxG1-null heterozygous mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frullanti, Elisa; Amabile, Sonia; Lolli, Maria Grazia; Bartolini, Anna; Livide, Gabriella; Landucci, Elisa; Mari, Francesca; Vaccarino, Flora M; Ariani, Francesca; Massimino, Luca; Renieri, Alessandra; Meloni, Ilaria

    2016-02-01

    Foxg1 gene encodes for a transcription factor essential for telencephalon development in the embryonic mammalian forebrain. Its complete absence is embryonic lethal while Foxg1 heterozygous mice are viable but display microcephaly, altered hippocampal neurogenesis and behavioral and cognitive deficiencies. In order to evaluate the effects of Foxg1 alteration in adult brain, we performed expression profiling in total brains from Foxg1+/- heterozygous mutants and wild-type littermates. We identified statistically significant differences in expression levels for 466 transcripts (Pneuropeptides have an important role in maternal and social behavior, and their alteration is associated with impaired social interaction and autistic behavior. In addition, Neuronatin (Nnat) levels appear significantly higher both in Foxg1+/- whole brain and in hippocampal neurons after silencing Foxg1, strongly suggesting that it is directly or indirectly repressed by Foxg1. During fetal and neonatal brain development, Nnat may regulate neuronal excitability, receptor trafficking and calcium-dependent signaling and, in the adult brain, it is predominantly expressed in parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons. Overall, these results implicate the overexpression of a group of neuropeptides in the basal ganglia, hypothalamus, cortex and hippocampus in the pathogenesis FOXG1 behavioral impairments.

  4. Valproate administration to mice increases hippocampal p21 expression by altering genomic DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Shu; Yamamuro, Yutaka

    2015-10-21

    Although valproate (VPA) is used widely in the treatment of bipolar mood disorder and epilepsy, the precise mechanism of action in the brain remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the effects of subchronic VPA administrations on the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (Cdkn) family in the hippocampus of adult mice. The administration of VPA specifically increased hippocampal p21 expression involving both mRNA and protein levels, but other members of the Cdkn family were not affected. We identified two CpG islands in the p21 gene regulatory region, located distal and proximal to the transcription start site. VPA altered genomic DNA methylation patterns in the distal region, but not in the proximal promoter region. However, no change was found in DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) 1 or Dnmt3a protein levels, suggesting an involvement in active demethylation mechanisms. These findings suggest that VPA alters the gene expression of cell cycle regulators by modulating promoter DNA methylation, and this resulted in altered hippocampal cell proliferation. These findings promote understanding of the actions of VPA in the brain.

  5. Specific genes involved in synthesis and editing of heparan sulfate proteoglycans show altered expression patterns in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Vega Iván

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of a specific set of genes controls the different structures of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs, which are involved in the growth, invasion and metastatic properties of cancerous cells. The purpose of this study is to increase knowledge of HSPG alterations in breast cancer. Methods Twenty-three infiltrating ductal adenocarcinomas (IDCs, both metastatic and non-metastatic were studied. A transcriptomic approach to the structure of heparan sulfate (HS chains was used, employing qPCR to analyze both the expression of the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and editing, as well as the proteoglycan core proteins. Since some of these proteoglycans can also carry chondroitin sulfate chains, we extended the study to include the genes involved in the biosynthesis of these glycosaminoglycans. Histochemical techniques were also used to analyze tissular expression of particular genes showing significant expression differences, of potential interest. Results No significant change in transcription was detected in approximately 70% of analyzed genes. However, 13 demonstrated changes in both tumor types (40% showing more intense deregulation in the metastatic, while 5 genes showed changes only in non-metastatic tumors. Changes were related to 3 core proteins: overexpression of syndecan-1 and underexpression of glypican-3 and perlecan. HS synthesis was affected by lower levels of some 3-O-sulfotransferase transcripts, the expression of NDST4 and, only in non metastatic tumors, higher levels of extracellular sulfatases. Furthermore, the expression of chondroitin sulfate also was considerably affected, involving both the synthesis of the saccharidic chains and sulfations at all locations. However, the pro-metastatic enzyme heparanase did not exhibit significant changes in mRNA expression, although in metastatic tumors it appeared related to increased levels of the most stable form of mRNA. Finally, the expression of

  6. Prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) null mice have increased mu opioid receptor levels accompanied by altered morphine-induced antinociception, tolerance and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfy, K; Parikh, D; Lee, D L; Liu, Y; Ferrini, M G; Hamid, A; Friedman, T C

    2016-08-04

    Chronic morphine treatment increases the levels of prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) in brain regions involved in nociception, tolerance and dependence. Thus, we tested if PC2 null mice exhibit altered morphine-induced antinociception, tolerance and dependence. PC2 null mice and their wild-type controls were tested for baseline hot plate latency, injected with morphine (1.25-10mg/kg) and tested for antinociception 30min later. For tolerance studies, mice were tested in the hot plate test before and 30min following morphine (5mg/kg) on day 1. Mice then received an additional dose so that the final dose of morphine was 10mg/kg on this day. On days 2-4, mice received additional doses of morphine (20, 40 and 80mg/kg on days 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively). On day 5, mice were tested in the hot plate test before and 30min following morphine (5mg/kg). For withdrawal studies, mice were treated with the escalating doses of morphine (10, 20, 40 and 80mg/kg) for 4days, implanted with a morphine pellet on day 5 and 3 days later injected with naloxone (1mg/kg) and signs of withdrawal were recorded. Morphine dose-dependently induced antinociception and the magnitude of this response was greater in PC2 null mice. Tolerance to morphine was observed in wild-type mice and this phenomenon was blunted in PC2 null mice. Withdrawal signs were also reduced in PC2 null mice. Immunohistochemical studies showed up-regulation of the mu opioid receptor (MOP) protein expression in the periaqueductal gray area, ventral tegmental area, lateral hypothalamus, medial hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and somatosensory cortex in PC2 null mice. Likewise, naloxone specific binding was increased in the brains of these mice compared to their wild-type controls. The results suggest that the PC2-derived peptides may play a functional role in morphine-induced antinociception, tolerance and dependence. Alternatively, lack of opioid peptides led to up-regulation of the MOP and altered morphine

  7. Altered Circadian Food Anticipatory Activity Rhythms in PACAP Receptor 1 (PAC1) Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Jens; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Light signals from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) entrain the circadian clock and regulate negative masking. Two neurotransmitters, glutamate and Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP), found in the ipRGCs transmit light signals to the brain via glutamate receptors and the specific PACAP type 1 (PAC1) receptor. Light entrainment occurs during the twilight zones and has little effect on clock phase during daytime. When nocturnal animals have access to food only for a few hours during the resting phase at daytime, they adapt behavior to the restricted feeding (RF) paradigm and show food anticipatory activity (FAA). A recent study in mice and rats demonstrating that light regulates FAA prompted us to investigate the role of PACAP/PAC1 signaling in the light mediated regulation of FAA. PAC1 receptor knock out (PAC1-/-) and wild type (PAC1+/+) mice placed in running wheels were examined in a full photoperiod (FPP) of 12:12 h light/dark (LD) and a skeleton photoperiod (SPP) 1:11:1:11 h L:DD:L:DD at 300 and 10 lux light intensity. Both PAC1-/- mice and PAC1+/+ littermates entrained to FPP and SPP at both light intensities. However, when placed in RF with access to food for 4-5 h during the subjective day, a significant change in behavior was observed in PAC1-/- mice compared to PAC1+/+ mice. While PAC1-/- mice showed similar FAA as PAC1+/+ animals in FPP at 300 lux, PAC1-/- mice demonstrated an advanced onset of FAA with a nearly 3-fold increase in amplitude compared to PAC1+/+ mice when placed in SPP at 300 lux. The same pattern of FAA was observed at 10 lux during both FPP and SPP. The present study indicates a role of PACAP/PAC1 signaling during light regulated FAA. Most likely, PACAP found in ipRGCs mediating non-image forming light information to the brain is involved.

  8. Altered Circadian Food Anticipatory Activity Rhythms in PACAP Receptor 1 (PAC1 Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Hannibal

    Full Text Available Light signals from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs entrain the circadian clock and regulate negative masking. Two neurotransmitters, glutamate and Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP, found in the ipRGCs transmit light signals to the brain via glutamate receptors and the specific PACAP type 1 (PAC1 receptor. Light entrainment occurs during the twilight zones and has little effect on clock phase during daytime. When nocturnal animals have access to food only for a few hours during the resting phase at daytime, they adapt behavior to the restricted feeding (RF paradigm and show food anticipatory activity (FAA. A recent study in mice and rats demonstrating that light regulates FAA prompted us to investigate the role of PACAP/PAC1 signaling in the light mediated regulation of FAA. PAC1 receptor knock out (PAC1-/- and wild type (PAC1+/+ mice placed in running wheels were examined in a full photoperiod (FPP of 12:12 h light/dark (LD and a skeleton photoperiod (SPP 1:11:1:11 h L:DD:L:DD at 300 and 10 lux light intensity. Both PAC1-/- mice and PAC1+/+ littermates entrained to FPP and SPP at both light intensities. However, when placed in RF with access to food for 4-5 h during the subjective day, a significant change in behavior was observed in PAC1-/- mice compared to PAC1+/+ mice. While PAC1-/- mice showed similar FAA as PAC1+/+ animals in FPP at 300 lux, PAC1-/- mice demonstrated an advanced onset of FAA with a nearly 3-fold increase in amplitude compared to PAC1+/+ mice when placed in SPP at 300 lux. The same pattern of FAA was observed at 10 lux during both FPP and SPP. The present study indicates a role of PACAP/PAC1 signaling during light regulated FAA. Most likely, PACAP found in ipRGCs mediating non-image forming light information to the brain is involved.

  9. Ilexgenin A, a novel pentacyclic triterpenoid extracted from Aquifoliaceae shows reduction of LPS-induced peritonitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weidong; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Yaqi; Qiu, Xia; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Hongxia; Rong, Yi; Sun, Yun

    2017-02-15

    Ilexgenin A (IA) is a novel pentacyclic triterpenoid, which extracted from leaves of Ilex hainanensis Merr. In the present study, we aim to explore anti-inflammatory activity of IA on LPS-induced peritonitis and its underlying molecular mechanism. The results determined that IA was capable of suppressing peritonitis in mice induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of lipopolysaccaride (LPS). Furthermore, the results showed that IA dramatically inhibited levels of inflammatory cells infiltration in peritoneal cavity and serum in LPS-induced mice peritonitis model. Besides, IA could dramatically inhibit levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in peritoneal cavity in LPS-induced mice peritonitis model. In vitro study, the results showed that IA inhibited production of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α at transcriptional and translational levels in RAW 264.7 cells induced by LPS. Furthermore, IA could suppress the LPS-induced activation of Akt and downstream degradation and phosphorylation of kappa B-α (IκB-α). Moreover, IA could significantly inhibit ERK 1/2 phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 cells induced by LPS. These results were concurrent with molecular docking which revealed ERK1/2 inhibition. These results demonstrated that IA might as an anti-inflammatory agent candidate for inflammatory disease therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chronic methadone treatment shows a better cost/benefit ratio than chronic morphine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, Johan; Ferwerda, Madeline; Milan-Lobo, Laura; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    Chronic treatment of pain with opiate drugs can lead to analgesic tolerance and drug dependence. Although all opiate drugs can promote tolerance and dependence in practice, the severity of those unwanted side effects differs depending on the drug used. Although each opiate drug has its own unique set of pharmacological profiles, methadone is the only clinically used opioid drug that produces substantial receptor endocytosis at analgesic doses. Here, we examined whether moderate doses of methadone carry any benefits over chronic use of equianalgesic morphine, the prototypical opioid. Our data show that chronic administration of methadone produces significantly less analgesic tolerance than morphine. Furthermore, we found significantly reduced precipitated withdrawal symptoms after chronic methadone treatment than after chronic morphine treatment. Finally, using a novel animal model with a degrading μ-opioid receptor we showed that, although endocytosis seems to protect against tolerance development, endocytosis followed by receptor degradation produces a rapid onset of analgesic tolerance to methadone. Together, these data indicated that opioid drugs that promote receptor endocytosis and recycling, such as methadone, may be a better choice for chronic pain treatment than morphine and its derivatives that do not.

  11. Motor impairments, striatal degeneration, and altered dopamine-glutamate interplay in mice lacking PSD-95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingping; Saur, Taixiang; Duke, Angela N; Grant, Seth G N; Platt, Donna M; Rowlett, James K; Isacson, Ole; Yao, Wei-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Excessive activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) mediate neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration under many neurological conditions, including Huntington's disease (HD), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by the preferential loss of medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs) in the striatum. PSD-95 is a major scaffolding protein in the postsynaptic density (PSD) of dendritic spines, where a classical role for PSD-95 is to stabilize glutamate receptors at sites of synaptic transmission. Our recent studies indicate that PSD-95 also interacts with the D1 DA receptor localized in spines and negatively regulates spine D1 signaling. Moreover, PSD-95 forms ternary protein complexes with D1 and NMDA receptors, and plays a role in limiting the reciprocal potentiation between both receptors from being escalated. These studies suggest a neuroprotective role for PSD-95. Here we show that mice lacking PSD-95, resulting from genetic deletion of the GK domain of PSD-95 (PSD-95-ΔGK mice), sporadically develop progressive neurological impairments characterized by hypolocomotion, limb clasping, and loss of DARPP-32-positive MSNs. Electrophysiological experiments indicated that NMDA receptors in mutant MSNs were overactive, suggested by larger, NMDA receptor-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and higher ratios of NMDA- to AMPA-mediated corticostriatal synaptic transmission. In addition, NMDA receptor currents in mutant cortical neurons were more sensitive to potentiation by the D1 receptor agonist SKF81297. Finally, repeated administration of the psychostimulant cocaine at a dose regimen not producing overt toxicity-related phenotypes in normal mice reliably converted asymptomatic mutant mice to clasping symptomatic mice. These results support the hypothesis that deletion of PSD-95 in mutant mice produces concomitant overactivation of both D1 and NMDA receptors that makes neurons more

  12. Mice with deficient BK channel function show impaired prepulse inhibition and spatial learning, but normal working and spatial reference memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marei Typlt

    Full Text Available Genetic variations in the large-conductance, voltage- and calcium activated potassium channels (BK channels have been recently implicated in mental retardation, autism and schizophrenia which all come along with severe cognitive impairments. In the present study we investigate the effects of functional BK channel deletion on cognition using a genetic mouse model with a knock-out of the gene for the pore forming α-subunit of the channel. We tested the F1 generation of a hybrid SV129/C57BL6 mouse line in which the slo1 gene was deleted in both parent strains. We first evaluated hearing and motor function to establish the suitability of this model for cognitive testing. Auditory brain stem responses to click stimuli showed no threshold differences between knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Despite of muscular tremor, reduced grip force, and impaired gait, knockout mice exhibited normal locomotion. These findings allowed for testing of sensorimotor gating using the acoustic startle reflex, as well as of working memory, spatial learning and memory in the Y-maze and the Morris water maze, respectively. Prepulse inhibition on the first day of testing was normal, but the knockout mice did not improve over the days of testing as their wild-type littermates did. Spontaneous alternation in the y-maze was normal as well, suggesting that the BK channel knock-out does not impair working memory. In the Morris water maze knock-out mice showed significantly slower acquisition of the task, but normal memory once the task was learned. Thus, we propose a crucial role of the BK channels in learning, but not in memory storage or recollection.

  13. Heterozygous caveolin-3 mice show increased susceptibility to palmitate-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, M A Hassan; Preda, Marilena; Ryzhova, Larisa; Prudovsky, Igor; Pinz, Ilka M

    2016-03-01

    Insulin resistance and diabetes are comorbidities of obesity and affect one in 10 adults in the United States. Despite the high prevalence, the mechanisms of cardiac insulin resistance in obesity are still unclear. We test the hypothesis that the insulin receptor localizes to caveolae and is regulated through binding to caveolin-3 (CAV3). We further test whether haploinsufficiency forCAV3 increases the susceptibility to high-fat-induced insulin resistance. We used in vivo and in vitro studies to determine the effect of palmitate exposure on global insulin resistance, contractile performance of the heart in vivo, glucose uptake in the heart, and on cellular signaling downstream of theIR We show that haploinsufficiency forCAV3 increases susceptibility to palmitate-induced global insulin resistance and causes cardiomyopathy. On the basis of fluorescence energy transfer (FRET) experiments, we show thatCAV3 andIRdirectly interact in cardiomyocytes. Palmitate impairs insulin signaling by a decrease in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt that corresponds to an 87% decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake inHL-1 cardiomyocytes. Despite loss of Akt phosphorylation and lower glucose uptake, palmitate increased insulin-independent serine phosphorylation ofIRS-1 by 35%. In addition, we found lipid induced downregulation ofCD36, the fatty acid transporter associated with caveolae. This may explain the problem the diabetic heart is facing with the simultaneous impairment of glucose uptake and lipid transport. Thus, these findings suggest that loss ofCAV3 interferes with downstream insulin signaling and lipid uptake, implicatingCAV3 as a regulator of theIRand regulator of lipid uptake in the heart. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  14. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the impact of anesthesia on oral glucose tolerance in mice. Anesthesia is often used when performing OGTT in mice to avoid the stress of gavage and blood sampling, although anesthesia may influence gastrointestinal motility, blood glucose, and plasma insulin dynamics. C57Bl/6 mice...... in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine...... regimens altered the oral glucose tolerance, and we conclude that anesthesia should not be used when performing metabolic studies in mice....

  15. Altered ghrelin secretion in mice in response to diet-induced obesity and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Uchida

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined potential mechanisms for altered circulating ghrelin levels observed in diet-induced obesity (DIO and following weight loss resulting from Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB. We hypothesized that circulating ghrelin levels were altered in obesity and after weight loss through changes in ghrelin cell responsiveness to physiological cues. We confirmed lower ghrelin levels in DIO mice and demonstrated elevated ghrelin levels in mice 6 weeks post-RYGB. In both DIO and RYGB settings, these changes in ghrelin levels were associated with altered ghrelin cell responsiveness to two key physiological modulators of ghrelin secretion – glucose and norepinephrine. In DIO mice, increases in ghrelin cell density within both the stomach and duodenum and in somatostatin-immunoreactive D cell density in the duodenum were observed. Our findings provide new insights into the regulation of ghrelin secretion and its relation to circulating ghrelin within the contexts of obesity and weight loss.

  16. Estrogen mediates innate and adaptive immune alterations to influenza infection in pregnant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Pazos

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a leading risk factor for severe complications during an influenza virus infection. Women infected during their second and third trimesters are at increased risk for severe cardiopulmonary complications, premature delivery, and death. Here, we establish a murine model of aerosolized influenza infection during pregnancy. We find significantly altered innate antiviral responses in pregnant mice, including decreased levels of IFN-β, IL-1α, and IFN-γ at early time points of infection. We also find reduced cytotoxic T cell activity and delayed viral clearance. We further demonstrate that pregnancy levels of the estrogen 17-β-estradiol are able to induce key anti-inflammatory phenotypes in immune responses to the virus independently of other hormones or pregnancy-related stressors. We conclude that elevated estrogen levels result in an attenuated anti-viral immune response, and that pregnancy-associated morbidities occur in the context of this anti-inflammatory phenotype.

  17. Garlic attenuates histological and histochemical alterations in livers of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Y I; Riad, N H; Taha, H

    2016-08-01

    Interest in screening for new anti-schistosomal agents is growing because of increased concerns about resistance to and safety of praziquantel. We investigated the anti-schistosomal action of prophylactic and therapeutic doses of garlic on the histological and histochemical alterations caused by Schistosoma mansoni infection. Livers of infected mice were characterized by granulomas, periportal inflammation and fibrosis, hepatocyte vacuolation, fatty degeneration and necrosis, and hypertrophy and pigmentation of Kupffer cells. Significant depletion of carbohydrates and increased lipid vacuoles also were observed. All garlic regimens caused suppression of granuloma formation and amelioration of histological and histochemical changes; the continuous treatment protocol produced the best results. Garlic appears to be a safe and economical anti-schistosomal adjuvant for attenuating the pathogenicity of schistosomiasis.

  18. Plgf-/-eNos-/- mice show defective angiogenesis associated with increased oxidative stress in response to tissue ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Bruna; Morlino, Giulia; Gentile, Maria Teresa; Persico, Maria Graziella; De Falco, Sandro

    2006-05-01

    Neo-angiogenesis is a complex phenomenon modulated by the concerted action of several molecular factors. We have generated a congenic line of knockout mice carrying null mutations of both placental growth factor (PlGF) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), two genes that play a pivotal role in the regulation of pathological angiogenesis. In the present study, we describe the phenotype of this new experimental animal model after surgically induced hind-limb ischemia. Plgf-/-, eNos-/-, Plgf-/- eNos-/-, and wild-type C57BL/6J mice were studied. Plgf-/- eNos-/- mice showed the most severe phenotype: self-amputation, and death occurred in up to 47% of the animals studied; in ischemic legs, capillary density was severely reduced; macrophage infiltration and oxidative stress increased as compared to the other groups of animals. These changes were associated with an up-regulation of both inducible NOS (iNOS) expression and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels in ischemic limbs, and to an increased extent of protein nitration. Our results demonstrate that the deletion of these two genes, Plgf, which acts in synergism with VEGF, and eNos, a downstream mediator of VEGF, determines a significant change in the vascular response to an ischemic stimulus and that oxidative stress within the ischemic tissue represents a crucial factor to maintain tissue homeostasis.

  19. Inflammatory cytokines, goblet cell hyperplasia and altered lung mechanics in Lgl1+/- mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Tim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal lung injury, a leading cause of morbidity in prematurely born infants, has been associated with arrested alveolar development and is often accompanied by goblet cell hyperplasia. Genes that regulate alveolarization and inflammation are likely to contribute to susceptibility to neonatal lung injury. We previously cloned Lgl1, a developmentally regulated secreted glycoprotein in the lung. In rat, O2 toxicity caused reduced levels of Lgl1, which normalized during recovery. We report here on the generation of an Lgl1 knockout mouse in order to determine whether deficiency of Lgl1 is associated with arrested alveolarization and contributes to neonatal lung injury. Methods An Lgl1 knockout mouse was generated by introduction of a neomycin cassette in exon 2 of the Lgl1 gene. To evaluate the pulmonary phenotype of Lgl1+/- mice, we assessed lung morphology, Lgl1 RNA and protein, elastin fibers and lung function. We also analyzed tracheal goblet cells, and expression of mucin, interleukin (IL-4 and IL-13 as markers of inflammation. Results Absence of Lgl1 was lethal prior to lung formation. Postnatal Lgl1+/- lungs displayed delayed histological maturation, goblet cell hyperplasia, fragmented elastin fibers, and elevated expression of TH2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13. At one month of age, reduced expression of Lgl1 was associated with elevated tropoelastin expression and altered pulmonary mechanics. Conclusion Our findings confirm that Lgl1 is essential for viability and is required for developmental processes that precede lung formation. Lgl1+/- mice display a complex phenotype characterized by delayed histological maturation, features of inflammation in the post-natal period and altered lung mechanics at maturity. Lgl1 haploinsufficiency may contribute to lung disease in prematurity and to increased risk for late-onset respiratory disease.

  20. Spontaneous colitis occurrence in transgenic mice with altered B7-mediated costimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gisen; Turovskaya, Olga; Levin, Matthew; Byrne, Fergus R; Whoriskey, John S; McCabe, James G; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2008-10-15

    The B7 costimulatory molecules govern many aspects of T cell immune responses by interacting with CD28 for costimulation, but also with CTLA-4 for immune suppression. Although blockade of CTLA-4 with Ab in humans undergoing cancer immune therapy has led to some cases of inflammatory bowel disease, spontaneous animal models of colitis that depend upon modulation of B7 interactions have not been previously described. In this study, we demonstrate that mice expressing a soluble B7-2 Ig Fc chimeric protein spontaneously develop colitis that is dependent on CD28-mediated costimulation of CD4(+) T cells. We show that the chimeric protein has mixed agonistic/antagonist properties, and that it acts in part by blocking the cell intrinsic effects on T cell activation of engagement of CTLA-4. Disease occurred in transgenic mice that lack expression of the endogenous B7 molecules (B7 double knock-out mice), because of the relatively weak costimulatory delivered by the chimeric protein. Surprisingly, colitis was more severe in this context, which was associated with the decreased number of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in transgenic B7 double knock-out mice. This model provides an important tool for examining how B7 molecules and their effects on CTLA-4 modulate T cell function and the development of inflammatory diseases.

  1. Learning, memory and long-term potentiation are altered in Nedd4 heterozygous mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Daria; Coleman, Harold A; Parkington, Helena C; Jenkins, Trisha A; Pow, David V; Boase, Natasha; Kumar, Sharad; Poronnik, Philip

    2016-04-15

    The consolidation of short-term memory into long-term memory involves changing protein level and activity for the synaptic plasticity required for long-term potentiation (LTP). AMPA receptor trafficking is a key determinant of LTP and recently ubiquitination by Nedd4 has been shown to play an important role via direct action on the GluA1 subunit, although the physiological relevance of these findings are yet to be determined. We therefore investigated learning and memory in Nedd4(+/-) mice that have a 50% reduction in levels of Nedd4. These mice showed decreased long-term spatial memory as evidenced by significant increases in the time taken to learn the location of and subsequently find a platform in the Morris water maze. In contrast, there were no significant differences between Nedd4(+/+) and Nedd4(+/-) mice in terms of short-term spatial memory in a Y-maze test. Nedd4(+/-) mice also displayed a significant reduction in post-synaptic LTP measured in hippocampal brain slices. Immunofluorescence of Nedd4 in the hippocampus confirmed its expression in hippocampal neurons of the CA1 region. These findings indicate that reducing Nedd4 protein by 50% significantly impairs LTP and long-term memory thereby demonstrating an important role for Nedd4 in these processes.

  2. Developmental and lactational exposure to dieldrin alters mammary tumorigenesis in Her2/neu transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L Cameron

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Western women and while its precise etiology is unknown, environmental factors are thought to play a role. The organochlorine pesticide dieldrin is a persistent environmental toxicant thought to increase the risk of breast cancer and reduce survival in the human population. The objective of this study was to define the effect of developmental exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of dieldrin, on mammary tumor development in the offspring. Sexually mature FVB-MMTV/neu female mice were treated with vehicle (corn oil, or dieldrin (0.45, 2.25, and 4.5 microg/g body weight daily by gavage for 5 days prior to mating and then once weekly throughout gestation and lactation until weaning. Dieldrin concentrations were selected to produce serum levels representative of human background body burdens, occupational exposure, and overt toxicity. Treatment had no effect on litter size, birth weight or the number of pups surviving to weaning. The highest dose of dieldrin significantly increased the total tumor burden and the volume and number of tumors found in the thoracic mammary glands. Increased mRNA and protein expression of the neurotrophin BDNF and its receptor TrkB was increased in tumors from the offspring of dieldrin treated dams. This study indicates that developmental exposure to the environmental contaminant dieldrin causes increased tumor burden in genetically predisposed mice. Dieldrin exposure also altered the expression of BNDF and TrkB, novel modulators of cancer pathogenesis.

  3. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonist, alters triglyceride metabolism in enterocytes of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Aki; Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Buhman, Kimberly K

    2011-03-01

    Fenofibrate, a drug in the fibrate class of amphiphathic carboxylic acids, has multiple blood lipid modifying actions, which are beneficial to the prevention of atherosclerosis. One of its benefits is in lowering fasting and postprandial blood triglyceride (TG) concentrations. The goal of this study was to determine whether the hypotriglyceridemic actions of fenofibrate in the postprandial state include alterations in TG and fatty acid metabolism in the small intestine. We found that the hypotriglyceridemic actions of fenofibrate in the postprandial state of high-fat (HF) fed mice include a decrease in supply of TG for secretion by the small intestine. A decreased supply of TG for secretion was due in part to the decreased dietary fat absorption and increased intestinal fatty acid oxidation in fenofibrate compared to vehicle treated HF fed mice. These results suggest that the effects of fenofibrate on the small intestine play a critical role in the hypotriglyceridemic effects of fenofibrate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Altered network timing in the CA3-CA1 circuit of hippocampal slices from aged mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Kanak

    Full Text Available Network patterns are believed to provide unique temporal contexts for coordinating neuronal activity within and across different regions of the brain. Some of the characteristics of network patterns modeled in vitro are altered in the CA3 or CA1 subregions of hippocampal slices from aged mice. CA3-CA1 network interactions have not been examined previously. We used slices from aged and adult mice to model spontaneous sharp wave ripples and carbachol-induced gamma oscillations, and compared measures of CA3-CA1 network timing between age groups. Coherent sharp wave ripples and gamma oscillations were evident in the CA3-CA1 circuit in both age groups, but the relative timing of activity in CA1 stratum pyramidale was delayed in the aged. In another sample of aged slices, evoked Schaffer collateral responses were attenuated in CA3 (antidromic spike amplitude and CA1 (orthodromic field EPSP slope. However, the amplitude and timing of spontaneous sharp waves recorded in CA1 stratum radiatum were similar to adults. In both age groups unit activity recorded juxtacellularly from unidentified neurons in CA1 stratum pyramidale and stratum oriens was temporally modulated by CA3 ripples. However, aged neurons exhibited reduced spike probability during the early cycles of the CA3 ripple oscillation. These findings suggest that aging disrupts the coordination of patterned activity in the CA3-CA1 circuit.

  5. Dietary fish oil substitution alters the eicosanoid profile in ankle joints of mice during Lyme infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumlao, Darren S; Cunningham, Anna M; Wax, Laura E; Norris, Paul C; Hanks, Jennifer Hughes; Halpin, Rachel; Lett, Kawasi M; Blaho, Victoria A; Mitchell, William J; Fritsche, Kevin L; Dennis, Edward A; Brown, Charles R

    2012-08-01

    Dietary ingestion of (n-3) PUFA alters the production of eicosanoids and can suppress chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The extent of changes in eicosanoid production during an infection of mice fed a diet high in (n-3) PUFA, however, has not, to our knowledge, been reported. We fed mice a diet containing either 18% by weight soybean oil (SO) or a mixture with fish oil (FO), FO:SO (4:1 ratio), for 2 wk and then infected them with Borrelia burgdorferi. We used an MS-based lipidomics approach and quantified changes in eicosanoid production during Lyme arthritis development over 21 d. B. burgdorferi infection induced a robust production of prostanoids, mono-hydroxylated metabolites, and epoxide-containing metabolites, with 103 eicosanoids detected of the 139 monitored. In addition to temporal and compositional changes in the eicosanoid profile, dietary FO substitution increased the accumulation of 15-deoxy PGJ(2), an antiinflammatory metabolite derived from arachidonic acid. Chiral analysis of the mono-hydroxylated metabolites revealed they were generated from primarily nonenzymatic mechanisms. Although dietary FO substitution reduced the production of inflammatory (n-6) fatty acid-derived eicosanoids, no change in the host inflammatory response or development of disease was detected.

  6. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization is required to alter the nasal microbiota in cigarette smoke-exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Pamela; Whelan, Fiona J; Schenck, L Patrick; McGrath, Joshua J C; Vanderstocken, Gilles; Bowdish, Dawn M E; Surette, Michael G; Stämpfli, Martin R

    2017-07-31

    Smokers have nasal microbiota dysbiosis, with an increased frequency of colonizing bacterial pathogens. It is possible that cigarette smoke increases pathogen acquisition by perturbing the microbiota and decreasing colonization resistance. However, it is difficult to disentangle microbiota dysbiosis due to cigarette smoke exposure from microbiota changes caused by increased pathogen acquisition in human smokers. Utilizing an experimental mouse model, we investigated the impact of cigarette smoke on the nasal microbiota in the absence and presence of nasal pneumococcal colonization. We observed that cigarette smoke exposure alone did not alter nasal microbiota composition. Microbiota composition was also unchanged at 12 hours following low dose nasal pneumococcal inoculation, suggesting the ability of the microbiota to resist initial nasal pneumococcal acquisition was not impaired in smoke-exposed mice. However, nasal microbiota dysbiosis occurred as a consequence of established high dose nasal pneumococcal colonization at day 3 in smoke-exposed mice. Similar to clinical reports in human smokers, we observed an enrichment of potentially pathogenic bacterial genera such as Fusobacterium, Gemella, and Neisseria Our findings suggest that cigarette smoke exposure predisposes to pneumococcal colonization independent of changes to the nasal microbiota, and microbiota dysbiosis observed in smokers may occur as a consequence of established pathogen colonization. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Aniracetam does not alter cognitive and affective behavior in adult C57BL/6J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Elston

    Full Text Available There is a growing community of individuals who self-administer the nootropic aniracetam for its purported cognitive enhancing effects. Aniracetam is believed to be therapeutically useful for enhancing cognition, alleviating anxiety, and treating various neurodegenerative conditions. Physiologically, aniracetam enhances both glutamatergic neurotransmission and long-term potentiation. Previous studies of aniracetam have demonstrated the cognition-restoring effects of acute administration in different models of disease. No previous studies have explored the effects of aniracetam in healthy subjects. We investigated whether daily 50 mg/kg oral administration improves cognitive performance in naïve C57BL/6J mice in a variety of aspects of cognitive behavior. We measured spatial learning in the Morris water maze test; associative learning in the fear conditioning test; motor learning in the accelerating rotarod test; and odor discrimination. We also measured locomotion in the open field test, anxiety through the elevated plus maze test and by measuring time in the center of the open field test. We measured repetitive behavior through the marble burying test. We detected no significant differences between the naive, placebo, and experimental groups across all measures. Despite several studies demonstrating efficacy in impaired subjects, our findings suggest that aniracetam does not alter behavior in normal healthy mice. This study is timely in light of the growing community of healthy humans self-administering nootropic drugs.

  8. Developmental and lactational exposure to dieldrin alters mammary tumorigenesis in Her2/neu transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Heather L; Foster, Warren G

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Western women and while its precise etiology is unknown, environmental factors are thought to play a role. The organochlorine pesticide dieldrin is a persistent environmental toxicant thought to increase the risk of breast cancer and reduce survival in the human population. The objective of this study was to define the effect of developmental exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of dieldrin, on mammary tumor development in the offspring. Sexually mature FVB-MMTV/neu female mice were treated with vehicle (corn oil), or dieldrin (0.45, 2.25, and 4.5 microg/g body weight) daily by gavage for 5 days prior to mating and then once weekly throughout gestation and lactation until weaning. Dieldrin concentrations were selected to produce serum levels representative of human background body burdens, occupational exposure, and overt toxicity. Treatment had no effect on litter size, birth weight or the number of pups surviving to weaning. The highest dose of dieldrin significantly increased the total tumor burden and the volume and number of tumors found in the thoracic mammary glands. Increased mRNA and protein expression of the neurotrophin BDNF and its receptor TrkB was increased in tumors from the offspring of dieldrin treated dams. This study indicates that developmental exposure to the environmental contaminant dieldrin causes increased tumor burden in genetically predisposed mice. Dieldrin exposure also altered the expression of BNDF and TrkB, novel modulators of cancer pathogenesis.

  9. Alteration of de novo glucose production contributes to fasting hypoglycaemia in Fyn deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjuan Yang

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that glucose disposal is increased in the Fyn knockout (FynKO mice due to increased insulin sensitivity. FynKO mice also display fasting hypoglycaemia despite decreased insulin levels, which suggested that hepatic glucose production was unable to compensate for the increased basal glucose utilization. The present study investigates the basis for the reduction in plasma glucose levels and the reduced ability for the liver to produce glucose in response to gluconeogenic substrates. FynKO mice had a 5-fold reduction in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK gene and protein expression and a marked reduction in pyruvate, pyruvate/lactate-stimulated glucose output. Remarkably, de novo glucose production was also blunted using gluconeogenic substrates that bypass the PEPCK step. Impaired conversion of glycerol to glucose was observed in both glycerol tolerance test and determination of the conversion of (13C-glycerol to glucose in the fasted state. α-glycerol phosphate levels were reduced but glycerol kinase protein expression levels were not changed. Fructose-driven glucose production was also diminished without alteration of fructokinase expression levels. The normal levels of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate observed in the FynKO liver extracts suggested normal triose kinase function. Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (aldolase mRNA or protein levels were normal in the Fyn-deficient livers, however, there was a large reduction in liver fructose-6-phosphate (30-fold and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (7-fold levels as well as a reduction in glucose-6-phosphate (2-fold levels. These data suggest a mechanistic defect in the allosteric regulation of aldolase activity.

  10. Oleanolic acid alters bile acid metabolism and produces cholestatic liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Zhang, Youcai; Wu, Kai Connie; Fan, Fang; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2013-11-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) is a triterpenoids that exists widely in plants. OA is effective in protecting against hepatotoxicants. Whereas a low dose of OA is hepatoprotective, higher doses and longer-term use of OA produce liver injury. This study characterized OA-induced liver injury in mice. Adult C57BL/6 mice were given OA at doses of 0, 22.5, 45, 90, and 135 mg/kg, s.c., daily for 5 days, and liver injury was observed at doses of 90 mg/kg and above, as evidenced by increases in serum activities of alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, increases in serum total bilirubin, as well as by liver histopathology. OA-induced cholestatic liver injury was further evidenced by marked increases of both unconjugated and conjugated bile acids (BAs) in serum. Gene and protein expression analysis suggested that livers of OA-treated mice had adaptive responses to prevent BA accumulation by suppressing BA biosynthetic enzyme genes (Cyp7a1, 8b1, 27a1, and 7b1); lowering BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2); and increasing a BA efflux transporter (Ostβ). OA increased the expression of Nrf2 and its target gene, Nqo1, but decreased the expression of AhR, CAR and PPARα along with their target genes, Cyp1a2, Cyp2b10 and Cyp4a10. OA had minimal effects on PXR and Cyp3a11. Taken together, the present study characterized OA-induced liver injury, which is associated with altered BA homeostasis, and alerts its toxicity potential.

  11. Adipocyte Gene Expression Is Altered in Formerly Obese Mice and As a Function of Diet Composition123

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan S Miller; Becker, Kevin G.; Prabhu, Vinayakumar; Cooke, David W.

    2008-01-01

    In the development of obesity, the source of excess energy may influence appetite and metabolism. To determine the effects of differences in diet composition in obesity, mice were fed either a high-carbohydrate diet (HC; 10% fat energy) or a high-fat energy–restricted diet (HFR; 60% fat energy) over 18 wk in weight-matched groups of mice. To identify obesity-associated genes with persistently altered expression following weight reduction, mice were fed either a standard low-fat diet (LF; 10% ...

  12. Streptozotocin diabetic mice display depressive-like behavior and alterations in the structure, neurotransmission and plasticity of medial prefrontal cortex interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Gómez, Esther; Coviello, Simona; Perez-Rando, Marta; Curto, Yasmina; Carceller, Héctor; Salvador, Alicia; Nacher, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus patients are at increased risk of developing depression, although the neurobiological bases of this comorbidity are not yet fully understood. These patients show CNS alterations, similar to those found in major depression, including changes in the structure and neurotransmission of excitatory neurons. However, although depressive patients and animal models also display alterations in inhibitory networks, little is known about the effects of diabetes on interneurons. Our main objective was to study the impact of diabetes on interneurons of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), one of the regions most affected by major depression. For this purpose we have induced diabetes with high-dose streptozotozin in transgenic mice displaying fluorescent interneurons. These animals showed a depressive-like behavior (increased immobility time in tail suspension test) in parallel with reductions in interneuronal dendritic arborization and in the expression of GAD67, the enzyme that synthetizes the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. However, the levels of PSA-NCAM, a plasticity-related molecule exclusively expressed by interneurons in the mPFC, were unaltered in the different regions and layers of this cortical area. Interestingly, diabetic mice also showed increased levels of synaptophysin, a synaptic vesicle protein. These results indicate that the structure and neurotransmission of interneurons is altered in the mPFC of diabetic mice and suggest that these changes may play a key role in the depressive symptoms associated to diabetes.

  13. Dysfunction of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 alters intestinal bacteria and bile acid metabolism in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcai Zhang

    Full Text Available Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1 is predominantly expressed in liver and is able to transport bile acids (BAs in vitro. Male Oatp1a1-null mice have increased concentrations of taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA, a secondary BA generated by intestinal bacteria, in both serum and livers. Therefore, in the present study, BA concentrations and intestinal bacteria in wild-type (WT and Oatp1a1-null mice were quantified to investigate whether the increase of secondary BAs in Oatp1a1-null mice is due to alterations in intestinal bacteria. The data demonstrate that Oatp1a1-null mice : (1 have similar bile flow and BA concentrations in bile as WT mice; (2 have a markedly different BA composition in the intestinal contents, with a decrease in conjugated BAs and an increase in unconjugated BAs; (3 have BAs in the feces that are more deconjugated, desulfated, 7-dehydroxylated, 3-epimerized, and oxidized, but less 7-epimerized; (4 have 10-fold more bacteria in the small intestine, and 2-fold more bacteria in the large intestine which is majorly due to a 200% increase in Bacteroides and a 30% reduction in Firmicutes; and (5 have a different urinary excretion of bacteria-related metabolites than WT mice. In conclusion, the present study for the first time established that lack of a liver transporter (Oatp1a1 markedly alters the intestinal environment in mice, namely the bacteria composition.

  14. Alterations in bone and erythropoiesis in hemolytic anemia: comparative study in bled, phenylhydrazine-treated and Plasmodium-infected mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Moreau

    Full Text Available Sustained erythropoiesis and concurrent bone marrow hyperplasia are proposed to be responsible for low bone mass density (BMD in chronic hemolytic pathologies. As impaired erythropoiesis is also frequent in these conditions, we hypothesized that free heme may alter marrow and bone physiology in these disorders. Bone status and bone marrow erythropoiesis were studied in mice with hemolytic anemia (HA induced by phenylhydrazine (PHZ or Plasmodium infection and in bled mice. All treatments resulted in lower hemoglobin concentrations, enhanced erythropoiesis in the spleen and reticulocytosis. The anemia was severe in mice with acute hemolysis, which also had elevated levels of free heme and ROS. No major changes in cellularity and erythroid cell numbers occurred in the bone marrow of bled mice, which generated higher numbers of erythroid blast forming units (BFU-E in response to erythropoietin. In contrast, low numbers of bone marrow erythroid precursors and BFU-E and low concentrations of bone remodelling markers were measured in mice with HA, which also had blunted osteoclastogenesis, in opposition to its enhancement in bled mice. The alterations in bone metabolism were accompanied by reduced trabecular bone volume, enhanced trabecular spacing and lower trabecular numbers in mice with HA. Taken together our data suggests that hemolysis exerts distinct effects to bleeding in the marrow and bone and may contribute to osteoporosis through a mechanism independent of the erythropoietic stress.

  15. Alterations in Bone and Erythropoiesis in Hemolytic Anemia: Comparative Study in Bled, Phenylhydrazine-Treated and Plasmodium-Infected Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Robert; Tshikudi Malu, Diane; Dumais, Mathieu; Dalko, Esther; Gaudreault, Véronique; Roméro, Hugo; Martineau, Corine; Kevorkova, Olha; Dardon, Jaime Sanchez; Dodd, Erin Lynn; Bohle, David Scott; Scorza, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    Sustained erythropoiesis and concurrent bone marrow hyperplasia are proposed to be responsible for low bone mass density (BMD) in chronic hemolytic pathologies. As impaired erythropoiesis is also frequent in these conditions, we hypothesized that free heme may alter marrow and bone physiology in these disorders. Bone status and bone marrow erythropoiesis were studied in mice with hemolytic anemia (HA) induced by phenylhydrazine (PHZ) or Plasmodium infection and in bled mice. All treatments resulted in lower hemoglobin concentrations, enhanced erythropoiesis in the spleen and reticulocytosis. The anemia was severe in mice with acute hemolysis, which also had elevated levels of free heme and ROS. No major changes in cellularity and erythroid cell numbers occurred in the bone marrow of bled mice, which generated higher numbers of erythroid blast forming units (BFU-E) in response to erythropoietin. In contrast, low numbers of bone marrow erythroid precursors and BFU-E and low concentrations of bone remodelling markers were measured in mice with HA, which also had blunted osteoclastogenesis, in opposition to its enhancement in bled mice. The alterations in bone metabolism were accompanied by reduced trabecular bone volume, enhanced trabecular spacing and lower trabecular numbers in mice with HA. Taken together our data suggests that hemolysis exerts distinct effects to bleeding in the marrow and bone and may contribute to osteoporosis through a mechanism independent of the erythropoietic stress. PMID:23029401

  16. Mechanical, biochemical and morphometric alterations in the femur of mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaki, Wilson Romero; Bertran, Celso Aparecido; Matsumura, Cintia Yuri; Santo-Neto, Humberto; Camilli, José Angelo

    2011-02-01

    The bone tissue abnormalities observed in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy are frequently attributed to muscle weakness. In this condition, bones receive fewer mechanical stimuli, compromising the process of bone modeling. In the present study we hypothesize that other factors inherent to the disease might be associated with bone tissue impairment, irrespective of the presence of muscle impairment. Mdx mice lack dystrophin and present cycles of muscle degeneration/regeneration that become more intense in the third week of life. As observed in humans with muscular dystrophy, bone tissue abnormalities were found in mdx mice during more intense muscle degeneration due to age. Under these circumstances, muscle deficit is probably one of the factors promoting these changes. To test our hypothesis, we investigated the changes that occur in the femur of mdx mice at 21 days of age when muscle damage is still not significant. The mechanical (structural and material) and biochemical properties and morphometric characteristics of the femur of mdx and control animals were evaluated. The results demonstrated a lower strength, stiffness and energy absorption capacity in mdx femurs. Higher values for structural (load and stiffness) and material (stress, elastic modulus and toughness) properties were observed in the control group. Mdx femurs were shorter and were characterized by a smaller cortical area and thickness and a smaller area of epiphyseal trabecular bone. The hydroxyproline content was similar in the two groups, but there was a significant difference in the Ca/P ratios. Thermogravimetry showed a higher mineral matrix content in cortical bone of control animals. In conclusion, femurs of mdx mice presented impaired mechanical and biochemical properties as well as changes in collagen organization in the extracellular matrix. Thus, mdx mice developed femoral osteopenia even in the absence of significant muscle fiber degeneration. This weakness of the mdx femur is

  17. HBM Mice Have Altered Bone Matrix Composition and Improved Material Toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ryan D; Mashiatulla, Maleeha; Acerbo, Alvin S; Almer, Jonathan D; Miller, Lisa M; Johnson, Mark L; Sumner, D Rick

    2016-10-01

    The G171V mutation in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) leads to a high bone mass (HBM) phenotype. Studies using HBM transgenic mouse models have consistently found increased bone mass and whole-bone strength, but little attention has been paid to the composition of the bone matrix. The current study sought to determine if the cortical bone matrix composition differs in HBM and wild-type mice and to determine how much of the variance in bone material properties is explained by variance in matrix composition. Consistent with previous studies, HBM mice had greater cortical area, moment of inertia, ultimate force, bending stiffness, and energy to failure than wild-type animals. The increased energy to failure was primarily caused by a large increase in post-yield behavior, with no difference in pre-yield behavior. The HBM mice had increased mineral-to-matrix and collagen cross-link ratios, and decreased crystallinity, carbonate, and acid phosphate substitution as measured by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy, but no differences in crystal length, intra-fibular strains, and mineral spacing compared to wild-type controls, as measured by X-ray scattering. The largest between genotype difference in material properties was a twofold increase in the modulus of toughness in HBM mice. Step-wise regression analyses showed that the specific matrix compositional parameters most closely associated with material properties varied between the wild-type and HBM genotypes. Although the mechanisms controlling the paradoxical combination of more mineralized yet tougher bone in HBM mice remain to be fully explained, the findings suggest that LRP5 represents a target to not only build bone mass but also to improve bone quality.

  18. Altered placental expression of PAPPA2 does not affect birth weight in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christians Julian K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPPA2 is an insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP protease expressed in the placenta and upregulated in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia. The mechanism linking PAPPA2 expression and pre-eclampsia and the consequences of altered PAPPA2 expression remain unknown. We previously identified PAPPA2 as a candidate gene for a quantitative trait locus (QTL affecting growth in mice and in the present study examined whether this QTL affects placental PAPPA2 expression and, in turn, placental or embryonic growth. Methods Using a line of mice that are genetically homogenous apart from a 1 megabase QTL region containing the PAPPA2 gene, we bred mice homozygous for alternate QTL genotypes and collected and weighed placentae and embryos at E12.5. We used quantitative RT-PCR to measure the mRNA levels of PAPPA2, as well as mRNA levels of IGFBP-5 (PAPPA2's substrate, and PAPPA (a closely related IGFBP protease to examine potential feedback and compensation effects. Western blotting was used to quantify PAPPA2 protein. Birth weight was measured in pregnancies allowed to proceed to parturition. Results PAPPA2 mRNA and protein expression levels in the placenta differed by a factor of 2.5 between genotypes, but we did not find a significant difference between genotypes in embryonic PAPPA2 mRNA levels. Placental IGFBP-5 and PAPPA mRNA expression levels were not altered in response to PAPPA2 levels, and we could not detect IGFBP-5 protein in the placenta by Western blotting. The observed difference in placental PAPPA2 expression had no significant effect on placental or embryonic mass at mid-gestation, birth weight or litter size. Conclusions Despite a significant difference between genotypes in placental PAPPA2 expression similar in magnitude to the difference between pre-eclamptic and normal placentae previously reported, we observed no difference in embryonic, placental or birth weight

  19. Hepatoprotective effects of lupeol and mango pulp extract of carcinogen induced alteration in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Kalra, Neetu; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2007-03-01

    Lupeol, a triterpene present in mango and other fruits, is known to exhibit a number of pharmacological properties including antioxidant, antilithiatic, and antidiabetic effects. In the present study, chemopreventive properties of lupeol and mango pulp extract (MPE) were evaluated against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced alteration in liver of Swiss albino mice. Lupeol (25 mg/kg body weight, bw) or 1 mL of 20% w/v aqueous MPE/mouse were daily given once for 1 wk after a single dose of DMBA (50 mg/kg bw). Lupeol/MPE supplementation effectively influenced the DMBA induced oxidative stress, characterized by restored antioxidant enzyme activities and decrease in lipid peroxidation. A reduction of apoptotic cell population in the hypodiploid region was observed in lupeol and MPE supplemented animals. The inhibition of apoptosis was preceded by decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and restoration of mitochondrial transmembrane potential followed by decreased DNA fragmentation. In DMBA treated animals, downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and upregulation of proapoptotic Bax and Caspase 3 in mouse liver was observed. These alterations were restored by lupeol/MPE, indicating inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, lupeol/MPE was found to be effective in combating oxidative stress induced cellular injury of mouse liver by modulating cell-growth regulators.

  20. Stress induces altered CRE/CREB pathway activity and BDNF expression in the hippocampus of glucocorticoid receptor-impaired mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alboni, Silvia; Tascedda, Fabio; Corsini, Daniela; Benatti, Cristina; Caggia, Federica; Capone, Giacomo; Barden, Nicholas; Blom, Joan M C; Brunello, Nicoletta

    2011-06-01

    The gene coding for the neurotrophin Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a stress-responsive gene. Changes in its expression may underlie some of the pathological effects of stress-related disorders like depression. Data on the stress-induced regulation of the expression of BDNF in pathological conditions are rare because often research is conducted using healthy animals. In our experiments, we used transgenic mice with glucocorticoid receptor impaired (GR-i) expression in the hypothalamus created as a tool to study the neuroendocrine changes occurring in stress-related disorders. First, under basal condition, GR-i mice displayed lower levels of BDNF exons IX and IV and decreased CRE(BDNF) binding activity with respect to wild-type (WT) mice in the hippocampus. Then, we exposed GR-i and WT mice to an acute restraint stress (ARS) to test the hypothesis that GR-i mice display: 1] different ARS induced expression of BDNF, and 2] altered activation of signaling pathways implicated in regulating BDNF gene expression in the hippocampus with respect to WT mice. Results indicate that ARS enhanced BDNF mRNA expression mainly in the CA3 hippocampal sub-region of GR-i mice in the presence of enhanced levels of pro-BDNF protein, while no effect was observed in WT mice. Moreover, ARS reduced CREB signaling and binding to the BDNF promoter in GR-i mice but enhanced signaling and binding, possibly through ERK1/2 activation, in WT mice. Thus, life-long central GR dysfunction resulted in an altered sensitivity at the transcriptional level that may underlie an impaired response to an acute psycho-physical stress. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology: in memory of Erminio Costa'.

  1. T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 deficient mice show elevated anxiety, impaired memory and reduced sensitivity to psychostimulants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eGangarossa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fine-tuning of neuronal excitability relies on a tight control of Ca2+ homeostasis. The low voltage-activated T-type calcium channels (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 isoforms play a critical role in regulating these processes. Despite their wide expression throughout the central nervous system, the implication of T-type Cav3.2 isoform in brain functions is still poorly characterized. Here we investigate the effect of genetic ablation of this isoform in affective disorders, including anxiety, cognitive functions as well as sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Using a wide range of behavioral assays we show that genetic ablation of the cacna1h gene results in an anxiety-like phenotype, whereas novelty-induced locomotor activity is unaffected. Deletion of the T-type channel Cav3.2 also triggers impairment of hippocampus-dependent recognition memories. Acute and sensitized hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and cocaine are dramatically reduced in T-type Cav3.2 deficient mice. In addition, the administration of the T-type blocker TTA-A2 prevented the expression of locomotor sensitization observed in wildtype mice. In conclusion, our data reveal that physiological activity of this specific Ca2+ channel is required for affective and cognitive behaviors. Moreover, our work highlights the interest of T-type channel blockers as therapeutic strategies to reverse drug-associated alterations.

  2. Comprehensive Behavioral Analysis of Male Ox1r (-/-) Mice Showed Implication of Orexin Receptor-1 in Mood, Anxiety, and Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Md G; Shoji, Hirotaka; Soya, Shingo; Hondo, Mari; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides orexin A and orexin B, which are exclusively produced by neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area, play an important role in the regulation of a wide range of behaviors and homeostatic processes, including regulation of sleep/wakefulness states and energy homeostasis. The orexin system has close anatomical and functional relationships with systems that regulate the autonomic nervous system, emotion, mood, the reward system, and sleep/wakefulness states. Recent pharmacological studies using selective antagonists have suggested that orexin receptor-1 (OX1R) is involved in physiological processes that regulate emotion, the reward system, and autonomic nervous system. Here, we examined Ox1r (-/-) mice with a comprehensive behavioral test battery to screen additional OX1R functions. Ox1r (-/-) mice showed increased anxiety-like behavior, altered depression-like behavior, slightly decreased spontaneous locomotor activity, reduced social interaction, increased startle response, and decreased prepulse inhibition. These results suggest that OX1R plays roles in social behavior and sensory motor gating in addition to roles in mood and anxiety.

  3. Comprehensive Behavioral Analysis of Male Ox1r−/− Mice Showed Implication of Orexin Receptor-1 in Mood, Anxiety, and Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Md. G.; Shoji, Hirotaka; Soya, Shingo; Hondo, Mari; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides orexin A and orexin B, which are exclusively produced by neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area, play an important role in the regulation of a wide range of behaviors and homeostatic processes, including regulation of sleep/wakefulness states and energy homeostasis. The orexin system has close anatomical and functional relationships with systems that regulate the autonomic nervous system, emotion, mood, the reward system, and sleep/wakefulness states. Recent pharmacological studies using selective antagonists have suggested that orexin receptor-1 (OX1R) is involved in physiological processes that regulate emotion, the reward system, and autonomic nervous system. Here, we examined Ox1r−/− mice with a comprehensive behavioral test battery to screen additional OX1R functions. Ox1r−/− mice showed increased anxiety-like behavior, altered depression-like behavior, slightly decreased spontaneous locomotor activity, reduced social interaction, increased startle response, and decreased prepulse inhibition. These results suggest that OX1R plays roles in social behavior and sensory motor gating in addition to roles in mood and anxiety. PMID:26696848

  4. Both pre- and post-synaptic alterations contribute to aberrant cholinergic transmission in superior cervical ganglia of APP(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhao-Lin; Zhang, Jia-Jia; Chen, Ming; Wang, Jin-Zhao; Xiao, Peng; Yang, Li; Long, Cheng

    2016-11-01

    Though amyloid precursor protein (APP) can potentially be cleaved to generate the pathological amyloid β peptide (Aβ), APP itself plays an important role in regulating neuronal activity. APP deficiency causes functional impairment in cholinergic synaptic transmission and cognitive performance. However, the mechanisms underlying altered cholinergic synaptic transmission in APP knock-out mice (APP(-/-)) are poorly understood. In this study, we conducted in vivo extracellular recording to investigate cholinergic compound action potentials (CAPs) of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) in APP(-/-) and littermate wild-type (WT) mice. Our results demonstrate that APP not only regulates presynaptic activity, but also affects postsynaptic function at cholinergic synapses in SCG. APP deficiency reduces the number of vesicles in presynaptic terminalsand attenuatesthe amplitude of CAPs, likely due to dysfunction of high-affinity choline transporters. Pharmacological and biochemical examination showed that postsynaptic responsesmediated by α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are reduced in the absence of APP. Our research provides evidences on how APP regulates cholinergic function and therefore may help to identify potential therapeutic targets to treat cholinergic dysfunction associated with Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.

  5. Methamidophos alters sperm function and DNA at different stages of spermatogenesis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urióstegui-Acosta, Mayrut; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel [Departamento de Toxicología, CINVESTAV-IPN, D.F. (Mexico); Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Manuel [Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Hidalgo (Mexico); Piña-Guzmán, Belem [Instituto Politécnico Nacional-UPIBI, D.F. (Mexico); Rafael-Vázquez, Leticia; Solís-Heredia, M.J.; Martínez-Aguilar, Gerardo [Departamento de Toxicología, CINVESTAV-IPN, D.F. (Mexico); Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet, E-mail: mquintan@cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Toxicología, CINVESTAV-IPN, D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-09-15

    Methamidophos (MET) is a highly toxic organophosphate (OP) pesticide that is widely used in developing countries. MET has male reproductive effects, including decreased fertility. We evaluated MET effects on sperm quality, fertilization and DNA integrity, exploring the sensitivity of different stages of spermatogenesis. Adult male mice received MET (3.75 or 5 mg/kg-bw/ip/day/4 days) and were euthanized 1, 28 or 45 days post-treatment (dpt) to evaluate MET's effects on epididymal maturation, meiosis or mitosis, respectively. Spermatozoa were obtained from the cauda epididymis–vas deferens and were evaluated for sperm quality, acrosome reaction (AR; Coomassie staining), mitochondrial membrane potential (by JC-1), DNA damage (comet assay), oxidative damage (malondialdehyde (MDA) production), in vitro fertilization and protein phosphorylation (immunodetection), and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. At 1-dpt, MET inhibited AChE (43–57%) and increased abnormal cells (6%). While at 28- and 45-dpt, sperm motility and viability were significantly reduced with an increasing MET dose, and abnormal morphology increased at 5 mg/kg/day/4 days. MDA and mitochondrial activity were not affected at any dose or time. DNA damage (OTM and %DNA) was observed at 5 mg/kg/day/4 days in a time-dependent manner, whereas both parameters were altered in cells from mice exposed to 3.75 mg/kg/day/4 days only at 28-dpt. Depending on the time of collection, initial-, spontaneous- and induced-AR were altered at 5 mg/kg/day/4 days, and the fertilization capacity also decreased. Sperm phosphorylation (at serine and tyrosine residues) was observed at all time points. Data suggest that meiosis and mitosis are the more sensitive stages of spermatogenesis for MET reproductive toxicity compared to epididymal maturation. - Highlights: • Methamidophos alters sperm cell function at different stages of spermatogenesis. • Testicular stages of spermatogenesis are more sensitive to

  6. Dietary Capsaicin Improves Glucose Homeostasis and Alters the Gut Microbiota in Obese Diabetic ob/ob Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Xian Song

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of capsaicin on obesity and glucose homeostasis are still controversial and the mechanisms underlying these effects remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the potential relationship between the regulation of obesity and glucose homeostasis by dietary capsaicin and the alterations of gut microbiota in obese diabetic ob/ob mice.Methods: The ob/ob mice were subjected to a normal, low-capsaicin (0.01%, or high-capsaicin (0.02% diet for 6 weeks, respectively. Obesity phenotypes, glucose homeostasis, the gut microbiota structure and composition, short-chain fatty acids, gastrointestinal hormones, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured.Results: Both the low- and high-capsaicin diets failed to prevent the increase in body weight, adiposity index, and Lee's obesity index. However, dietary capsaicin at both the low and high doses significantly inhibited the increase of fasting blood glucose and insulin levels. These inhibitory effects were comparable between the two groups. Similarly, dietary capsaicin resulted in remarkable improvement in glucose and insulin tolerance. In addition, neither the low- nor high-capsaicin diet could alter the α-diversity and β-diversity of the gut microbiota. Taxonomy-based analysis showed that both the low- and high-capsaicin diets, acting in similar ways, significantly increased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio at the phylum level as well as increased the Roseburia abundance and decreased the Bacteroides and Parabacteroides abundances at the genus level. Spearman's correlation analysis revealed that the Roseburia abundance was negatively while the Bacteroides and Parabacteroides abundances were positively correlated to the fasting blood glucose level and area under the curve by the oral glucose tolerance test. Finally, the low- and high-capsaicin diets significantly increased the fecal butyrate and plasma total GLP-1 levels, but decreased plasma total ghrelin, TNF-α, IL-1

  7. Conessine, an H3 receptor antagonist, alters behavioral and neurochemical effects of ethanol in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Silva, Gessynger; Ferreira-Santos, Mariane; Marin, Marcelo T

    2016-05-15

    Ethanol abuse potential is mainly due to its reinforcing properties, crucial in the transition from the recreational to pathological use. These properties are mediated by mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways and neuroadaptations in these pathways seem to be responsible for addiction. Both pathways are modulated by other neurotransmitters systems, including neuronal histaminergic system. Among the histamine receptors, H3 receptor stands out due to its role in modulation of histamine and other neurotransmitters release. Thus, histaminergic system, through H3 receptors, may have an important role in ethanol addiction development. Aiming to understand these interactions, conessine, an H3 receptor antagonist, was given to mice subjected to the evaluation of ethanol-induced psychostimulation, ethanol CPP and quantification of norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites in mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways following acute ethanol treatment. Systemic conessine administration exacerbated ethanol effects on locomotor activity. Despite of conessine reinforcing effect on CPP, this drug did not alter acquisition of ethanol CPP. Ethanol treatment affects the serotoninergic neurotransmission in the ventral tegmental area, the dopaminergic neurotransmission in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) and caudate-putamen nucleus (CPu) and the noradrenergic neurotransmission in the CPu. In the PFC, conessine blocked ethanol effects on dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission. The blockade of H3 receptors and ethanol seem to interact in the modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission of nigrostriatal pathway, decreasing dopamine metabolites in substantia nigra. In conclusion, conessine was able to change psychostimulant effect of ethanol, without altering its reinforcing properties. This exacerbation of ethanol-induced psychostimulation would be related to alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nigrostriatal pathway.

  8. A novel BET bromodomain inhibitor, RVX-208, shows reduction of atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic ApoE deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahagirdar, Ravi; Zhang, Haiyan; Azhar, Salman; Tobin, Jennifer; Attwell, Sarah; Yu, Raymond; Wu, Jin; McLure, Kevin G; Hansen, Henrik C; Wagner, Gregory S; Young, Peter R; Srivastava, Rai Ajit K; Wong, Norman C W; Johansson, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Despite the benefit of statins in reducing cardiovascular risk, a sizable proportion of patients still remain at risk. Since HDL reduces CVD risk through a process that involves formation of pre-beta particles that facilitates the removal of cholesterol from the lipid-laden macrophages in the arteries, inducing pre-beta particles, may reduce the risk of CVD. A novel BET bromodomain antagonist, RVX-208, was reported to raise apoA-I and increase preβ-HDL particles in non-human primates and humans. In the present study, we investigated the effect of RVX-208 on aortic lesion formation in hyperlipidemic apoE(-/-) mice. Oral treatments of apoE(-/-) mice with 150 mg/kg b.i.d RVX-208 for 12 weeks significantly reduced aortic lesion formation, accompanied by 2-fold increases in the levels of circulating HDL-C, and ∼50% decreases in LDL-C, although no significant changes in plasma apoA-I were observed. Circulating adhesion molecules as well as cytokines also showed significant reduction. Haptoglobin, a proinflammatory protein, known to bind with HDL/apoA-I, decreased >2.5-fold in the RVX-208 treated group. With a therapeutic dosing regimen in which mice were fed Western diet for 10 weeks to develop lesions followed by switching to a low fat diet and concurrent treatment with RVX-208 for 14 weeks, RVX-208 similarly reduced lesion formation by 39% in the whole aorta without significant changes in the plasma lipid parameters. RVX-208 significantly reduced the proinflammatory cytokines IP-10, MIP1(®) and MDC. These results show that the antiatherogenic activity of BET inhibitor, RVX-208, occurs via a combination of lipid changes and anti-inflammatory activities.

  9. Exposure to N-Ethyl-N-Nitrosourea in Adult Mice Alters Structural and Functional Integrity of Neurogenic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Gil-Perotin, Sara; Ferragud, Antonio; Bonet-Ponce, Luis; Canales, Juan Jose; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that prenatal exposure to the mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), a N-nitroso compound (NOC) found in the environment, disrupts developmental neurogenesis and alters memory formation. Previously, we showed that postnatal ENU treatment induced lasting deficits in proliferation of neural progenitors in the subventricular zone (SVZ), the main neurogenic region in the adult mouse brain. The present study is aimed to examine, in mice exposed to ENU, both the structural features of adult neurogenic sites, incorporating the dentate gyrus (DG), and the behavioral performance in tasks sensitive to manipulations of adult neurogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings 2-month old mice received 5 doses of ENU and were sacrificed 45 days after treatment. Then, an ultrastructural analysis of the SVZ and DG was performed to determine cellular composition in these regions, confirming a significant alteration. After bromodeoxyuridine injections, an S-phase exogenous marker, the immunohistochemical analysis revealed a deficit in proliferation and a decreased recruitment of newly generated cells in neurogenic areas of ENU-treated animals. Behavioral effects were also detected after ENU-exposure, observing impairment in odor discrimination task (habituation-dishabituation test) and a deficit in spatial memory (Barnes maze performance), two functions primarily related to the SVZ and the DG regions, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrate that postnatal exposure to ENU produces severe disruption of adult neurogenesis in the SVZ and DG, as well as strong behavioral impairments. These findings highlight the potential risk of environmental NOC-exposure for the development of neural and behavioral deficits. PMID:22238669

  10. Exposure to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea in adult mice alters structural and functional integrity of neurogenic sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Capilla-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that prenatal exposure to the mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU, a N-nitroso compound (NOC found in the environment, disrupts developmental neurogenesis and alters memory formation. Previously, we showed that postnatal ENU treatment induced lasting deficits in proliferation of neural progenitors in the subventricular zone (SVZ, the main neurogenic region in the adult mouse brain. The present study is aimed to examine, in mice exposed to ENU, both the structural features of adult neurogenic sites, incorporating the dentate gyrus (DG, and the behavioral performance in tasks sensitive to manipulations of adult neurogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 2-month old mice received 5 doses of ENU and were sacrificed 45 days after treatment. Then, an ultrastructural analysis of the SVZ and DG was performed to determine cellular composition in these regions, confirming a significant alteration. After bromodeoxyuridine injections, an S-phase exogenous marker, the immunohistochemical analysis revealed a deficit in proliferation and a decreased recruitment of newly generated cells in neurogenic areas of ENU-treated animals. Behavioral effects were also detected after ENU-exposure, observing impairment in odor discrimination task (habituation-dishabituation test and a deficit in spatial memory (Barnes maze performance, two functions primarily related to the SVZ and the DG regions, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrate that postnatal exposure to ENU produces severe disruption of adult neurogenesis in the SVZ and DG, as well as strong behavioral impairments. These findings highlight the potential risk of environmental NOC-exposure for the development of neural and behavioral deficits.

  11. Chemotherapy Agents Alter Plasma Lipids in Breast Cancer Patients and Show Differential Effects on Lipid Metabolism Genes in Liver Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Tuaine, Jo; McLaren, Blair; Waters, Debra L; Black, Katherine; Jones, Lynnette M; McCormick, Sally P A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications have emerged as a major concern for cancer patients. Many chemotherapy agents are cardiotoxic and some appear to also alter lipid profiles, although the mechanism for this is unknown. We studied plasma lipid levels in 12 breast cancer patients throughout their chemotherapy. Patients received either four cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by weekly paclitaxel or three cycles of epirubicin, cyclophosphamide and 5'-fluorouracil followed by three cycles of docetaxel. Patients demonstrated a significant reduction (0.32 mmol/L) in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) levels (0.18 g/L) and an elevation in apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels (0.15 g/L) after treatment. Investigation of the individual chemotherapy agents for their effect on genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism in liver cells showed that doxorubicin decreased ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) via a downregulation of the peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and liver X receptor α (LXRα) transcription factors. In contrast, ABCA1 levels were not affected by cyclophosphamide or paclitaxel. Likewise, apoA1 levels were reduced by doxorubicin and remained unaffected by cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel. Doxorubicin and paclitaxel both increased apoB protein levels and paclitaxel also decreased low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) protein levels. These findings correlate with the observed reduction in HDL-C and apoA1 and increase in apoB levels seen in these patients. The unfavourable lipid profiles produced by some chemotherapy agents may be detrimental in the longer term to cancer patients, especially those already at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This knowledge may be useful in tailoring effective follow-up care plans for cancer survivors.

  12. Huntingtons Disease Mice Infected with Toxoplasma gondii Demonstrate Early Kynurenine Pathway Activation, Altered CD8+ T-Cell Responses, and Premature Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, David W.; Olson, Andrew R.; Raisbeck, Merl F.; Fox, Jonathan H.; Gigley, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine-repeat expansion in the huntingtin protein. Activation of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation is implicated in the pathogenesis of HD. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyzes the oxidation of tryptophan to kynurenine, the first step in this pathway. The prevalent, neuroinvasive protozoal pathogen Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) results in clinically silent life-long infection in immune-competent individuals. T. gondii infection results in activation of IDO which provides some protection against the parasite by depleting tryptophan which the parasite cannot synthesize. The kynurenine pathway may therefore represent a point of synergism between HD and T. gondii infection. We show here that IDO activity is elevated at least four-fold in frontal cortex and striata of non-infected N171-82Q HD mice at 14-weeks corresponding to early–advanced HD. T. gondii infection at 5 weeks resulted in elevation of cortical IDO activity in HD mice. HD-infected mice died significantly earlier than wild-type infected and HD control mice. Prior to death, infected HD mice demonstrated decreased CD8+ T-lymphocyte proliferation in brain and spleen compared to wild-type infected mice. We demonstrate for the first time that HD mice have an altered response to an infectious agent that is characterized by premature mortality, altered immune responses and early activation of IDO. Findings are relevant to understanding how T. gondii infection may interact with pathways mediating neurodegeneration in HD. PMID:27611938

  13. Hypothalamic transcriptomic alterations in male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus) developmentally exposed to bisphenol A or ethinyl estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah A; Spollen, William G; Manshack, Lindsey K; Bivens, Nathan J; Givan, Scott A; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2017-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) prevalent in many household items. Rodent models and human epidemiological studies have linked this chemical to neurobehavior impairments. In California mice, developmental exposure to BPA results in sociosexual disorders at adulthood, including communication and biparental care deficits, behaviors that are primarily regulated by the hypothalamus. Thus, we sought to examine the transcriptomic profile in this brain region of juvenile male and female California mice offspring exposed from periconception through lactation to BPA or ethinyl estradiol (EE, estrogen present in birth control pills and considered a positive estrogen control for BPA studies). Two weeks prior to breeding, P0 females were fed a control diet, or this diet supplemented with 50 mg BPA/kg feed weight or 0.1 ppb EE, and continued on the diets through lactation. At weaning, brains from male and female offspring were collected, hypothalamic RNA isolated, and RNA-seq analysis performed. Results indicate that BPA and EE groups clustered separately from controls with BPA and EE exposure leading to unique set of signature gene profiles. Kcnd3 was downregulated in the hypothalamus of BPA- and EE-exposed females, whereas Tbl2, Topors, Kif3a, and Phactr2 were upregulated in these groups. Comparison of transcripts differentially expressed in BPA and EE groups revealed significant enrichment of gene ontology terms associated with microtubule-based processes. Current results show that perinatal exposure to BPA or EE can result in several transcriptomic alterations, including those associated with microtubule functions, in the hypothalamus of California mice. It remains to be determined whether these genes mediate BPA-induced behavioral disruptions. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  14. Alterations in the baroreceptor-heart rate reflex in conscious inbred polydipsic (STR/N) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C P; Cui, B R; Kannan, H; Qiu, D L

    2015-01-01

    STR/N is an inbred strain of mice which is known to exhibit extreme polydipsia and polyuria. We previously found central administration of angiotensin II enhanced cardiovascular responses in STR/N mice than normal mice, suggesting that STR/N mice might exhibit different cardiovascular responses. Therefore, in this study, we investigated daily mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate, and changes in the baroreceptor-heart rate reflex in conscious STR/N mice and control (ICR) mice. We found that variability in daily mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate was significantly larger in STR/N mice than in ICR mice (pSTR/N mice than in ICR mice. For baroreceptor reflex sensitivity, in the rapid response period, the slopes of PE and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were more negative in STR/N mice than in ICR mice. In the later period, the slopes of PE and SNP were negatively correlated between heart rate and blood pressure in ICR mice, but their slopes were positively correlated in STR/N mice. These results indicated that STR/N mice exhibited the different cardiovascular responses than ICR mice, suggesting that the dysfunction of baroreceptor reflex happened in conscious STR/N mice.

  15. Aromatase deficiency causes altered expression of molecules critical for calcium reabsorption in the kidneys of female mice *.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oz, O.K.; Hajibeigi, A.; Howard, K.; Cummins, C.L.; Abel, M. van; Bindels, R.J.M.; Word, R.A.; Kuro-o, M.; Pak, C.Y.; Zerwekh, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Kidney stones increase after menopause, suggesting a role for estrogen deficiency. ArKO mice have hypercalciuria and lower levels of calcium transport proteins, whereas levels of the klotho protein are elevated. Thus, estrogen deficiency is sufficient to cause altered renal calcium handling. INTRODU

  16. Trigeminal ganglion neurons of mice show intracellular chloride accumulation and chloride-dependent amplification of capsaicin-induced responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Schöbel

    Full Text Available Intracellular Cl(- concentrations ([Cl(-](i of sensory neurons regulate signal transmission and signal amplification. In dorsal root ganglion (DRG and olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, Cl(- is accumulated by the Na(+-K(+-2Cl(- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1, resulting in a [Cl(-](i above electrochemical equilibrium and a depolarizing Cl(- efflux upon Cl(- channel opening. Here, we investigate the [Cl(-](i and function of Cl(- in primary sensory neurons of trigeminal ganglia (TG of wild type (WT and NKCC1(-/- mice using pharmacological and imaging approaches, patch-clamping, as well as behavioral testing. The [Cl(-](i of WT TG neurons indicated active NKCC1-dependent Cl(- accumulation. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A receptor activation induced a reduction of [Cl(-](i as well as Ca(2+ transients in a corresponding fraction of TG neurons. Ca(2+ transients were sensitive to inhibition of NKCC1 and voltage-gated Ca(2+ channels (VGCCs. Ca(2+ responses induced by capsaicin, a prototypical stimulus of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member-1 (TRPV1 were diminished in NKCC1(-/- TG neurons, but elevated under conditions of a lowered [Cl(-](o suggesting a Cl(--dependent amplification of capsaicin-induced responses. Using next generation sequencing (NGS, we found expression of different Ca(2+-activated Cl(- channels (CaCCs in TGs of mice. Pharmacological inhibition of CaCCs reduced the amplitude of capsaicin-induced responses of TG neurons in Ca(2+ imaging and electrophysiological recordings. In a behavioral paradigm, NKCC1(-/- mice showed less avoidance of the aversive stimulus capsaicin. In summary, our results strongly argue for a Ca(2+-activated Cl(--dependent signal amplification mechanism in TG neurons that requires intracellular Cl(- accumulation by NKCC1 and the activation of CaCCs.

  17. Altered glucose homeostasis and hepatic function in obese mice deficient for both kinin receptor genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos C Barros

    Full Text Available The Kallikrein-Kinin System (KKS has been implicated in several aspects of metabolism, including the regulation of glucose homeostasis and adiposity. Kinins and des-Arg-kinins are the major effectors of this system and promote their effects by binding to two different receptors, the kinin B2 and B1 receptors, respectively. To understand the influence of the KKS on the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM, we generated an animal model deficient for both kinin receptor genes and leptin (obB1B2KO. Six-month-old obB1B2KO mice showed increased blood glucose levels. Isolated islets of the transgenic animals were more responsive to glucose stimulation releasing greater amounts of insulin, mainly in 3-month-old mice, which was corroborated by elevated serum C-peptide concentrations. Furthermore, they presented hepatomegaly, pronounced steatosis, and increased levels of circulating transaminases. This mouse also demonstrated exacerbated gluconeogenesis during the pyruvate challenge test. The hepatic abnormalities were accompanied by changes in the gene expression of factors linked to glucose and lipid metabolisms in the liver. Thus, we conclude that kinin receptors are important for modulation of insulin secretion and for the preservation of normal glucose levels and hepatic functions in obese mice, suggesting a protective role of the KKS regarding complications associated with obesity and T2DM.

  18. Melatonin can improve insulin resistance and aging-induced pancreas alterations in senescence-accelerated prone male mice (SAMP8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Sara; Kireev, Roman; García, Cruz; Rancan, Lisa; Vara, Elena; Tresguerres, Jesús A F

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of aging on several parameters related to glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in pancreas and how melatonin administration could affect these parameters. Pancreas samples were obtained from two types of male mice models: senescence-accelerated prone (SAMP8) and senescence-accelerated-resistant mice (SAMR1). Insulin levels in plasma were increased with aging in both SAMP8 and SAMR1 mice, whereas insulin content in pancreas was decreased with aging in SAMP8 and increased in SAMR1 mice. Expressions of glucagon and GLUT2 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were increased with aging in SAMP8 mice, and no differences were observed in somatostatin and insulin mRNA expressions. Furthermore, aging decreased also the expressions of Pdx-1, FoxO 1, FoxO 3A and Sirt1 in pancreatic SAMP8 samples. Pdx-1 was decreased in SAMR1 mice, but no differences were observed in the rest of parameters on these mice strains. Treatment with melatonin was able to decrease plasma insulin levels and to increase its pancreatic content in SAMP8 mice. In SAMR1, insulin pancreatic content and plasma levels were decreased. HOMA-IR was decreased with melatonin treatment in both strains of animals. On the other hand, in SAMP8 mice, treatment decreased the expression of glucagon, GLUT2, somatostatin and insulin mRNA. Furthermore, it was also able to increase the expression of Sirt1, Pdx-1 and FoxO 3A. According to these results, aging is associated with significant alterations in the relative expression of pancreatic genes associated to glucose metabolism. This has been especially observed in SAMP8 mice. Melatonin administration was able to improve pancreatic function in old SAMP8 mice and to reduce HOMA-IR improving their insulin physiology and glucose metabolism.

  19. Herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff (vhs) activity alters periocular disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T J; Ackland-Berglund, C E; Leib, D A

    2000-04-01

    During lytic infection, the virion host shutoff (vhs) protein of herpes simplex virus (HSV) mediates the rapid degradation of RNA and shutoff of host protein synthesis. In mice, HSV type 1 (HSV-1) mutants lacking vhs activity are profoundly attenuated. HSV-2 has significantly higher vhs activity than HSV-1, eliciting a faster and more complete shutoff. To examine further the role of vhs activity in pathogenesis, we generated an intertypic recombinant virus (KOSV2) in which the vhs open reading frame of HSV-1 strain KOS was replaced with that of HSV-2 strain 333. KOSV2 and a marker-rescued virus, KOSV2R, were characterized in cell culture and tested in an in vivo mouse eye model of latency and pathogenesis. The RNA degradation kinetics of KOSV2 was identical to that of HSV-2 333, and both showed vhs activity significantly higher than that of KOS. This demonstrated that the fast vhs-mediated degradation phenotype of 333 had been conferred upon KOS. The growth of KOSV2 was comparable to that of KOS, 333, and KOSV2R in cell culture, murine corneas, and trigeminal ganglia and had a reactivation frequency similar to those of KOS and KOSV2R from explanted latently infected trigeminal ganglia. There was, however, significantly reduced blepharitis and viral replication within the periocular skin of KOSV2-infected mice compared to mice infected with either KOS or KOSV2R. Taken together, these data demonstrate that heightened vhs activity, in the context of HSV-1 infection, leads to increased viral clearance from the skin of mice and that the replication of virus in the skin is a determining factor for blepharitis. These data also suggest a role for vhs in modulating host responses to HSV infection.

  20. Collagen content does not alter the passive mechanical properties of fibrotic skeletal muscle in mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucas R; Barton, Elisabeth R

    2014-05-15

    Many skeletal muscle diseases are associated with progressive fibrosis leading to impaired muscle function. Collagen within the extracellular matrix is the primary structural protein providing a mechanical scaffold for cells within tissues. During fibrosis collagen not only increases in amount but also undergoes posttranslational changes that alter its organization that is thought to contribute to tissue stiffness. Little, however, is known about collagen organization in fibrotic muscle and its consequences for function. To investigate the relationship between collagen content and organization with muscle mechanical properties, we studied mdx mice, a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) that undergoes skeletal muscle fibrosis, and age-matched control mice. We determined collagen content both histologically, with picosirius red staining, and biochemically, with hydroxyproline quantification. Collagen content increased in the mdx soleus and diaphragm muscles, which was exacerbated by age in the diaphragm. Collagen packing density, a parameter of collagen organization, was determined using circularly polarized light microscopy of picosirius red-stained sections. Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscle had proportionally less dense collagen in mdx muscle, while the diaphragm did not change packing density. The mdx muscles had compromised strength as expected, yet only the EDL had a significantly increased elastic stiffness. The EDL and diaphragm had increased dynamic stiffness and a change in relative viscosity. Unexpectedly, passive stiffness did not correlate with collagen content and only weakly correlated with collagen organization. We conclude that muscle fibrosis does not lead to increased passive stiffness and that collagen content is not predictive of muscle stiffness. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Altered consolidation of extinction-like inhibitory learning in genotype-specific dysfunctional coping fostered by chronic stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campus, P; Maiolati, M; Orsini, C; Cabib, S

    2016-12-15

    Genetic and stress-related factors interact to foster mental disorders, possibly through dysfunctional learning. In a previous study we reported that a temporary experience of reduced food availability increases forced swim (FS)-induced helplessness tested 14days after a first experience in mice of the standard inbred C57BL/6(B6) strain but reduces it in mice of the genetically unrelated DBA/2J (D2) strain. Because persistence of FS-induced helplessness influences adaptive coping with stress challenge and involve learning processes the present study tested whether the behavioral effects of restricted feeding involved altered consolidation of FS-related learning. First, we demonstrated that restricted feeding does not influence behavior expressed on the first FS experience, supporting a specific effect on persistence rather then development of helplessness. Second, we found that FS-induced c-fos expression in the infralimbic cortex (IL) was selectively enhanced in food-restricted (FR) B6 mice and reduced in FR D2 mice, supporting opposite alterations of consolidation processes involving this brain area. Third, we demonstrated that immediate post-FS inactivation of IL prevents 24h retention of acquired helplessness by continuously free-fed mice of both strains, indicating the requirement of a functioning IL for consolidation of FS-related learning in either mouse strain. Finally, in line with the known role of IL in consolidation of extinction memories, we found that restricted feeding selectively facilitated 24h retention of an acquired extinction in B6 mice whereas impairing it in D2 mice. These findings support the conclusion that an experience of reduced food availability strain-specifically affects persistence of newly acquired passive coping strategies by altering consolidation of extinction-like inhibitory learning.

  2. Statins do not alter the incidence of mesothelioma in asbestos exposed mice or humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleo Robinson

    Full Text Available Mesothelioma is principally caused by asbestos and may be preventable because there is a long latent period between exposure and disease development. The most at-risk are a relatively well-defined population who were exposed as a consequence of their occupations. Although preventative agents investigated so far have not been promising, discovery of such an agent would have a significant benefit world-wide on healthcare costs and personal suffering. Statins are widely used for management of hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular risk; they can induce apoptosis in mesothelioma cells and epidemiological data has linked their use to a lower incidence of cancer. We hypothesised that statins would inhibit the development of asbestos-induced mesothelioma in mice and humans. An autochthonous murine model of asbestos-induced mesothelioma was used to test this by providing atorvastatin daily in the feed at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Continuous administration of atorvastatin did not alter the rate of disease development nor increase the length of time that mice survived. Latency to first symptoms of disease and disease progression were also unaffected. In a parallel study, the relationship between the use of statins and development of mesothelioma was investigated in asbestos-exposed humans. In a cohort of 1,738 asbestos exposed people living or working at a crocidolite mine site in Wittenoom, Western Australia, individuals who reported use of statins did not have a lower incidence of mesothelioma (HR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.44-2.29, p = 0.99. Some individuals reported use of both statins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or COX-2 inhibitors, and these people also did not have an altered risk of mesothelioma development (HR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.61-1.67, p = 0.97. We conclude that statins do not moderate the rate of development of mesothelioma in either a mouse model or a human cohort exposed to asbestos.

  3. Altered memory capacities and response to stress in p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) histone acetylase knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Tangui; Duclot, Florian; Meunier, Johann; Naert, Gaëlle; Givalois, Laurent; Meffre, Julie; Célérier, Aurélie; Jacquet, Chantal; Copois, Virginie; Mechti, Nadir; Ozato, Keiko; Gongora, Céline

    2008-06-01

    Chromatin remodeling by posttranslational modification of histones plays an important role in brain plasticity, including memory, response to stress and depression. The importance of H3/4 histones acetylation by CREB-binding protein (CBP) or related histone acetyltransferase, including p300, was specifically demonstrated using knockout (KO) mouse models. The physiological role of a related protein that also acts as a transcriptional coactivator with intrinsic histone acetylase activity, the p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF), is poorly documented. We analyzed the behavioral phenotype of homozygous male and female PCAF KO mice and report a marked impact of PCAF deletion on memory processes and stress response. PCAF KO animals showed short-term memory deficits at 2 months of age, measured using spontaneous alternation, object recognition, or acquisition of a daily changing platform position in the water maze. Acquisition of a fixed platform location was delayed, but preserved, and no passive avoidance deficit was noted. No gender-related difference was observed. These deficits were associated with hippocampal alterations in pyramidal cell layer organization, basal levels of Fos immunoreactivity, and MAP kinase activation. PCAF KO mice also showed an exaggerated response to acute stress, forced swimming, and conditioned fear, associated with increased plasma corticosterone levels. Moreover, learning and memory impairments worsened at 6 and 12 months of age, when animals failed to acquire the fixed platform location in the water maze and showed passive avoidance deficits. These observations demonstrate that PCAF histone acetylase is involved lifelong in the chromatin remodeling necessary for memory formation and response to stress.

  4. Genetic deletion of P-glycoprotein alters stress responsivity and increases depression-like behavior, social withdrawal and microglial activation in the hippocampus of female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, Natalia I; Smith, Kristie L; Zhou, Cilla; Waters, Peter M; Cavalcante, Ligia Menezes; Abelev, Sarah V; Kuligowski, Michael; Clarke, David J; Todd, Stephanie M; Arnold, Jonathon C

    2017-10-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC transporter expressed at the blood brain barrier and regulates the brain uptake of various xenobiotics and endogenous mediators including glucocorticoid hormones which are critically important to the stress response. Moreover, P-gp is expressed on microglia, the brain's immune cells, which are activated by stressors and have an emerging role in psychiatric disorders. We therefore hypothesised that germline P-gp deletion in mice might alter the behavioral and microglial response to stressors. Female P-gp knockout mice displayed an unusual, frantic anxiety response to intraperitoneal injection stress in the light-dark test. They also tended to display reduced conditioned fear responses compared to wild-type (WT) mice in a paradigm where a single electric foot-shock stressor was paired to a context. Foot-shock stress reduced social interaction and decreased microglia cell density in the amygdala which was not varied by P-gp genotype. Independently of stressor exposure, female P-gp deficient mice displayed increased depression-like behavior, idiosyncratic darting behavior, age-related social withdrawal and hyperactivity, facilitated sensorimotor gating and altered startle reactivity. In addition, P-gp deletion increased microglia cell density in the CA3 region of the hippocampus, and the microglial cells exhibited a reactive, hypo-ramified morphology. Further, female P-gp KO mice displayed increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in the hippocampus. In conclusion, this research shows that germline P-gp deletion affected various behaviors of relevance to psychiatric conditions, and that altered microglial cell activity and enhanced GR expression in the hippocampus may play a role in mediating these behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Altered protein networks and cellular pathways in severe west nile disease in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Fraisier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The recent West Nile virus (WNV outbreaks in developed countries, including Europe and the United States, have been associated with significantly higher neuropathology incidence and mortality rate than previously documented. The changing epidemiology, the constant risk of (re-emergence of more virulent WNV strains, and the lack of effective human antiviral therapy or vaccines makes understanding the pathogenesis of severe disease a priority. Thus, to gain insight into the pathophysiological processes in severe WNV infection, a kinetic analysis of protein expression profiles in the brain of WNV-infected mice was conducted using samples prior to and after the onset of clinical symptoms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To this end, 2D-DIGE and gel-free iTRAQ labeling approaches were combined, followed by protein identification by mass spectrometry. Using these quantitative proteomic approaches, a set of 148 proteins with modified abundance was identified. The bioinformatics analysis (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of each protein dataset originating from the different time-point comparisons revealed that four major functions were altered during the course of WNV-infection in mouse brain tissue: i modification of cytoskeleton maintenance associated with virus circulation; ii deregulation of the protein ubiquitination pathway; iii modulation of the inflammatory response; and iv alteration of neurological development and neuronal cell death. The differential regulation of selected host protein candidates as being representative of these biological processes were validated by western blotting using an original fluorescence-based method. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides novel insights into the in vivo kinetic host reactions against WNV infection and the pathophysiologic processes involved, according to clinical symptoms. This work offers useful clues for anti-viral research and further evaluation of early biomarkers for the diagnosis

  6. Multiple alterations of platelet functions dominated by increased secretion in mice lacking Cdc42 in platelets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pleines, Irina; Eckly, Anita; Elvers, Margitta;

    2010-01-01

    formation and exocytosis in various cell types, but its exact function in platelets is not established. Here, we show that the megakaryocyte/platelet-specific loss of Cdc42 leads to mild thrombocytopenia and a small increase in platelet size in mice. Unexpectedly, Cdc42-deficient platelets were able to form...... reduced, suggesting increased clearing of the cells under physiologic conditions. These data point to novel multiple functions of Cdc42 in the regulation of platelet activation, granule organization, degranulation, and a specific role in GPIb signaling....

  7. Evaluation of potential gender-related differences in behavioral and cognitive alterations following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Clarissa Vasconcelos de; Grigoletto, Jéssica; Funck, Vinícius Rafael; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Furian, Ana Flávia; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider

    2015-05-01

    Together with pharmacoresistant seizures, the quality of life of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients is negatively impacted by behavioral comorbidities including but not limited to depression, anxiety and cognitive deficits. The pilocarpine model of TLE has been widely used to study characteristics of human TLE, including behavioral comorbidities. Since the outcomes of pilocarpine-induced TLE might vary depending on several experimental factors, we sought to investigate potential gender-related differences regarding selected behavioral alterations in C57BL6 mice. We found that epileptic mice, independent of gender, displayed increased anxiety-like behavior in the open-field test. In the object recognition test, epileptic mice, regardless of gender, showed a decreased recognition index at 24 (but not at 4) hours after training. On the other hand, no significant differences were found regarding mice learning and memory performance in the Barnes maze paradigm. Motor coordination and balance as assessed by the beam walk and rotarod tests were not impaired in epileptic mice of both genders. However, female mice, independent of epilepsy, performed the beam walk and rotarod tasks better than their male counterparts. We also found that only male epileptic mice displayed disturbed behavior in the forced swim test, but the mice of both genders displayed anhedonia-like behavior in the taste preference test. Lastly, we found that the extent of hilar cell loss is similar in both genders. In summary, both genders can be successfully employed to study behavioral comorbidities of TLE; however, taking the potential gender differences into account may help choose the more appropriated gender for a given task, which may be of value for the minimization of the number of animals used during the experiments.

  8. Altered Expression of Somatostatin Receptors in Pancreatic Islets from NOD Mice Cultured at Different Glucose Concentrations In Vitro and in Islets Transplanted to Diabetic NOD Mice In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ludvigsen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatostatin acts via five receptors (sst1-5. We investigated if the changes in pancreatic islet sst expression in diabetic NOD mice compared to normoglycemic mice are a consequence of hyperglycemia or the ongoing immune reaction in the pancreas. Pancreatic islets were isolated from NOD mice precultured for 5 days and further cultured for 3 days at high or low glucose before examined. Islets were also isolated from NOD mice and transplanted to normal or diabetic mice in a number not sufficient to cure hyperglycemia. After three days, the transplants were removed and stained for sst1-5 and islet hormones. Overall, changes in sst islet cell expression were more common in islets cultured in high glucose concentration in vitro as compared to the islet transplantation in vivo to diabetic mice. The beta and PP cells exhibited more frequent changes in sst expression, while the alpha and delta cells were relatively unaffected by the high glucose condition. Our findings suggest that the glucose level may alter sst expressed in islets cells; however, immune mechanisms may counteract such changes in islet sst expression.

  9. Conservation of 5-HT1A receptor-mediated autoinhibition of serotonin (5-HT neurons in mice with altered 5-HT homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naozumi eAraragi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Firing activity of serotonin (5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN is controlled by inhibitory somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors. This autoinhibitory mechanism is implicated in the etiology of disorders of emotion regulation, such as anxiety disorders and depression, as well as in the mechanism of antidepressant action. Here, we investigated how persistent alterations in brain 5-HT availability affect autoinhibition in two genetically modified mouse models lacking critical mediators of serotonergic transmission: 5-HT transporter knockout (Sert -/- and tryptophan hydroxylase-2 knockout (Tph2 -/- mice. The degree of autoinhibition was assessed by loose-seal cell-attached recording in DRN slices. First, application of the 5-HT1A-selective agonist R(+-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylaminotetralin showed mild sensitization and marked desensitization of 5-HT1A receptors in Tph2 -/- mice and Sert -/- mice, respectively. While 5-HT neurons from Tph2 -/- mice did not display autoinhibition in response to L-tryptophan, autoinhibition of these neurons was unaltered in Sert -/- mice despite marked desensitization of their 5-HT1A autoreceptors. When the Tph2-dependent 5-HT synthesis step was bypassed by application of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP, neurons from both Tph2 -/- and Sert -/- mice decreased their firing rates at significantly lower concentrations of 5-HTP compared to wildtype controls. Our findings demonstrate that, as opposed to the prevalent view, sensitivity of somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors does not predict the magnitude of 5-HT neuron autoinhibition. Changes in 5-HT1A receptor sensitivity may rather be seen as an adaptive mechanism to keep autoinhibition functioning in response to extremely altered levels of extracellular 5-HT resulting from targeted inactivation of mediators of serotonergic signaling.

  10. The environmental chemical tributyltin chloride (TBT) shows both estrogenic and adipogenic activities in mice which might depend on the exposure dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penza, M; Jeremic, M; Marrazzo, E; Maggi, A; Ciana, P; Rando, G; Grigolato, P G; Di Lorenzo, D

    2011-08-15

    Exposure during early development to chemicals with hormonal action may be associated with weight gain during adulthood because of altered body homeostasis. It is known that organotins affect adipose mass when exposure occurs during fetal development, although no knowledge of effects are available for exposures after birth. Here we show that the environmental organotin tributyltin chloride (TBT) exerts adipogenic action when peripubertal and sexually mature mice are exposed to the chemical. The duration and extent of these effects depend on the sex and on the dose of the compound, and the effects are relevant at doses close to the estimated human intake (0.5μg/kg). At higher doses (50-500μg/kg), TBT also activated estrogen receptors (ERs) in adipose cells in vitro and in vivo, based on results from acute and longitudinal studies in ERE/luciferase reporter mice. In 3T3-L1 cells (which have no ERs), transiently transfected with the ERE-dependent reporter plus or minus ERα or ERβ, TBT (in a dose range of 1-100nM) directly targets each ER subtype in a receptor-specific manner through a direct mechanism mediated by ERα in undifferentiated preadipocytic cells and by ERβ in differentiating adipocytes. The ER antagonist ICI-182,780 inhibits this effect. In summary, the results of this work suggest that TBT is adipogenic at all ages and in both sexes and that it might be an ER activator in fat cells. These findings might help to resolve the apparent paradox of an adipogenic chemical being also an estrogen receptor activator by showing that the two apparently opposite actions are separated by the different doses to which the organism is exposed.

  11. Functionally Distinct Tendons From Elastin Haploinsufficient Mice Exhibit Mild Stiffening and Tendon-Specific Structural Alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eekhoff, Jeremy D; Fang, Fei; Kahan, Lindsey G; Espinosa, Gabriela; Cocciolone, Austin J; Wagenseil, Jessica E; Mecham, Robert P; Lake, Spencer P

    2017-11-01

    Elastic fibers are present in low quantities in tendon, where they are located both within fascicles near tenocytes and more broadly in the interfascicular matrix (IFM). While elastic fibers have long been known to be significant in the mechanics of elastin-rich tissue (i.e., vasculature, skin, lungs), recent studies have suggested a mechanical role for elastic fibers in tendons that is dependent on specific tendon function. However, the exact contribution of elastin to properties of different types of tendons (e.g., positional, energy-storing) remains unknown. Therefore, this study purposed to evaluate the role of elastin in the mechanical properties and collagen alignment of functionally distinct supraspinatus tendons (SSTs) and Achilles tendons (ATs) from elastin haploinsufficient (HET) and wild type (WT) mice. Despite the significant decrease in elastin in HET tendons, a slight increase in linear stiffness of both tendons was the only significant mechanical effect of elastin haploinsufficiency. Additionally, there were significant changes in collagen nanostructure and subtle alteration to collagen alignment in the AT but not the SST. Hence, elastin may play only a minor role in tendon mechanical properties. Alternatively, larger changes to tendon mechanics may have been mitigated by developmental compensation of HET tendons and/or the role of elastic fibers may be less prominent in smaller mouse tendons compared to the larger bovine and human tendons evaluated in previous studies. Further research will be necessary to fully elucidate the influence of various elastic fiber components on structure-function relationships in functionally distinct tendons.

  12. Beneficial effect of pine honey on trichlorfon induced some biochemical alterations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraslan, Gökhan; Kanbur, Murat; Silici, Sibel; Karabacak, Mürsel

    2010-07-01

    Forty-eight male BALB/c mice, weighing 30-35 g, were used in the study, and were divided into groups of 12 each. The four groups established in the study included one control group and three experimental groups. The first group served as the control group, while Groups 2, 3 and 4 were administered 1g/kg bw/day pine honey, 180 mg/kg bw/day trichlorfon ( approximately 1/5LD(50)) and 1g/kg bw/day pine honey plus 180 mg/kg bw/day trichlorfon, respectively, by the oral route using a catheter for 21 days. At the end of 21 days post-administration, blood and tissue (liver, kidney, brain and heart) samples were collected. Serum levels/activities of total protein, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, BUN, creatine, uric acid, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, total bilirubin, GGT, LDH, AST, ALT and ALP were determined. Furthermore, tissue MDA levels and CAT, SOD and GSH-Px activities were analyzed. According to the data obtained, when administered at the indicated dose and for the indicated time period, trichlorfon was determined to lead to negative alterations in most of the biochemical parameters investigated. The administration of pine honey was determined to alleviate this effect.

  13. Meal time shift disturbs circadian rhythmicity along with metabolic and behavioral alterations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji-Ae; Han, Dong-Hee; Noh, Jong-Yun; Kim, Mi-Hee; Son, Gi Hoon; Kim, Kyungjin; Kim, Chang-Ju; Pak, Youngmi Kim; Cho, Sehyung

    2012-01-01

    In modern society, growing numbers of people are engaged in various forms of shift works or trans-meridian travels. Such circadian misalignment is known to disturb endogenous diurnal rhythms, which may lead to harmful physiological consequences including metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and gastric disorders as well as other physical and mental disorders. However, the precise mechanism(s) underlying these changes are yet unclear. The present work, therefore examined the effects of 6 h advance or delay of usual meal time on diurnal rhythmicities in home cage activity (HCA), body temperature (BT), blood metabolic markers, glucose homeostasis, and expression of genes that are involved in cholesterol homeostasis by feeding young adult male mice in a time-restrictive manner. Delay of meal time caused locomotive hyperactivity in a significant portion (42%) of subjects, while 6 h advance caused a torpor-like symptom during the late scotophase. Accordingly, daily rhythms of blood glucose and triglyceride were differentially affected by time-restrictive feeding regimen with concurrent metabolic alterations. Along with these physiological changes, time-restrictive feeding also influenced the circadian expression patterns of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) as well as most LDLR regulatory factors. Strikingly, chronic advance of meal time induced insulin resistance, while chronic delay significantly elevated blood glucose levels. Taken together, our findings indicate that persistent shifts in usual meal time impact the diurnal rhythms of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in addition to HCA and BT, thereby posing critical implications for the health and diseases of shift workers.

  14. Alterations in Oxygen Consumption, Respiratory Quotient, and Heat Production in Long-Lived GHRKO and Ames Dwarf Mice, and Short-Lived bGH Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Westbrook, Reyhan; Bonkowski, Michael S.; Strader, April D.; Bartke, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) signaling influences longevity in mice, with decreased GH signaling associated with longer life span and increased GH signaling with shortened life span. A proposed mechanism through which GH signaling influences life span postulates that decreased GH signaling lowers metabolic rate, thus slowing aging by decreasing production of damaging free radicals. The influence of altered GH signaling on metabolism was tested by monitoring oxygen consumption (VO2), respiratory quotie...

  15. A model of premature aging in mice based on altered stress-related behavioral response and immunosenescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros, María-Paz; Arranz, Lorena; Hernanz, Angel; Miquel, Jaime; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2007-01-01

    The intensity of behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stressful stimuli in rodent strains seems to be inversely related to their life span. We have previously shown that interindividual differences in members of outbred Swiss and inbred BALB/c mouse populations, both male and female, may be related to their behavior in a simple T-maze test. The animals that explore the maze slowly show impaired neuromuscular vigor and coordination, decreased locomotor activity, increased level of emotionality/anxiety, decreased levels of brain biogenic amines as well as immunosenescence and decreased life span, when compared to their control counterparts, which quickly explore the maze. These traits are similar to some of the alterations previously observed in aging animals and therefore we proposed that those 'slow mice' are biologically older than the fast animals and may be a model of prematurely aging mice (PAM). Although most of our work on this model has been performed on chronologically adult-mature animals, we have also shown that certain characteristics of PAM, such as increased anxiety and deficient immune response, are already present in chronologically young animals. Thus, it is tempting to hypothesize that chronic hyperreactivity to stress (trait anxiety) leading to immune dysfunction may have a causal relationship with impaired health and premature aging. In view of the link between oxidative stress and the aging process, the redox state of peritoneal leukocytes from PAM has been studied, showing an oxidative stress situation. In the present work we have determined the levels of a key antioxidant, reduced glutathione (GSH), and the oxidant malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, both in the spleen and brain of male and female PAM and non-PAM (NPAM). We found that GSH and MDA are decreased and increased, respectively, in PAM with respect to NPAM. Moreover, diet supplementation with antioxidants showed to be an effective strategy for protection

  16. Chronic Sleep Disruption Alters Gut Microbiota, Induces Systemic and Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poroyko, Valeriy A.; Carreras, Alba; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Khalyfa, Ahamed A.; Leone, Vanessa; Peris, Eduard; Almendros, Isaac; Gileles-Hillel, Alex; Qiao, Zhuanhong; Hubert, Nathaniel; Farré, Ramon; Chang, Eugene B.; Gozal, David

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) commonly occurs in human populations, and although it does not involve circadian shifts or sleep deprivation, it markedly alters feeding behaviors ultimately promoting obesity and insulin resistance. These symptoms are known to be related to the host gut microbiota. Mice were exposed to SF for 4 weeks and then allowed to recover for 2 weeks. Taxonomic profiles of fecal microbiota were obtained prospectively, and conventionalization experiments were performed in germ-free mice. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and inflammation, as well as circulating measures of inflammation, were assayed. Effect of fecal water on colonic epithelial permeability was also examined. Chronic SF-induced increased food intake and reversible gut microbiota changes characterized by the preferential growth of highly fermentative members of Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae and a decrease of Lactobacillaceae families. These lead to systemic and visceral white adipose tissue inflammation in addition to altered insulin sensitivity in mice, most likely via enhanced colonic epithelium barrier disruption. Conventionalization of germ-free mice with SF-derived microbiota confirmed these findings. Thus, SF-induced metabolic alterations may be mediated, in part, by concurrent changes in gut microbiota, thereby opening the way for gut microbiome-targeted therapeutics aimed at reducing the major end-organ morbidities of chronic SF. PMID:27739530

  17. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-06-01

    Evaluation of the impact of anesthesia on oral glucose tolerance in mice. Anesthesia is often used when performing OGTT in mice to avoid the stress of gavage and blood sampling, although anesthesia may influence gastrointestinal motility, blood glucose, and plasma insulin dynamics. C57Bl/6 mice were anesthetized using the following commonly used regimens: (1) hypnorm/midazolam repetitive or single injection; (2) ketamine/xylazine; (3) isoflurane; (4) pentobarbital; and (5) A saline injected, nonanesthetized group. Oral glucose was administered at time 0 min and blood glucose measured in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine/xylazine lowered insulin responses and resulted in severe hyperglycemia throughout the experiment; (3) isoflurane did not only alter the insulin secretion but also resulted in severe hyperglycemia; (4) pentobarbital resulted in both increased insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance. All four anesthetic regimens altered the oral glucose tolerance, and we conclude that anesthesia should not be used when performing metabolic studies in mice.

  18. Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure alters radial arm maze performance and hippocampal morphology in female AhR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, B E; Lin, T-M; Vanka, A; Peterson, R E; Juraska, J M; Schantz, S L

    2005-02-01

    Perinatal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been reported to alter spatial learning in rats tested on a radial arm maze (RAM). TCDD is believed to exert most of its effects through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). To determine whether the AhR mediates TCDD-induced alterations in spatial learning, we tested male and female AhR-knockout (AhR-/-), heterozygous (AhR+/-) and wild-type (AhR+/+) mice on the RAM. AhR+/- male and female mice were time mated, and treated dams were dosed with 5 microg TCDD/kg body weight on day 13 of gestation. When offspring reached adulthood, male and female AhR+/+, AhR+/- and AhR-/- mice from TCDD-exposed and unexposed litters were tested on the eight-arm RAM. After testing, we examined hippocampal morphology as visualized by the Timm's silver sulfide stain. TCDD-exposed female AhR+/- mice made more errors than their respective controls on the RAM and exhibited a decrease in the size of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIP-MF) field of the hippocampus. None of the other TCDD-exposed groups differed from their respective control groups with regard to maze performance or hippocampal morphology. The reduction of IIP-MF field indicates a possible morphological basis for the learning deficit that was observed in the female AhR+/- mice. It is hypothesized that the effect of TCDD exposure is AhR dependent and that TCDD may alter GABAergic activity in the hippocampus of female mice during development.

  19. Brn3c null mutant mice show long-term, incomplete retention of some afferent inner ear innervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirvola Ulla

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ears of Brn3c null mutants develop immature hair cells, identifiable only by certain molecular markers, and undergo apoptosis in neonates. This partial development of hair cells could lead to enough neurotrophin expression to sustain sensory neurons through embryonic development. We have therefore investigated in these mutants the patterns of innervation and of expression of known neurotrophins. Results At birth there is a limited expression of BDNF and NT-3 in the mutant sensory epithelia and DiI tracing shows no specific reduction of afferents or efferents that resembles neurotrophin null mutations. At postnatal day 7/8 (P7/8, innervation is severely reduced both qualitatively and quantitatively. 1% of myosin VIIa-positive immature hair cells are present in the mutant cochlea, concentrated in the base. Around 20% of immature hair cells exist in the mutant vestibular sensory epithelia. Despite more severe loss of hair cells (1% compared to 20%, the cochlea retains many more sensory neurons (46% compared to 15% than vestibular epithelia. Even 6 months old mutant mice have some fibers to all vestibular sensory epithelia and many more to the cochlear apex which lacks MyoVIIa positive hair cells. Topologically organized central cochlea projections exist at least until P8, suggesting that functional hair cells are not required to establish such projections. Conclusion The limited expression of neurotrophins in the cochlea of Brn3c null mice suffices to support many sensory neurons, particularly in the cochlea, until birth. The molecular nature of the long term survival of apical spiral neurons remains unclear.

  20. Familial hemiplegic migraine type-1 mutated cav2.1 calcium channels alter inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in the lateral superior olive of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchauspe, Carlota González; Pilati, Nadia; Di Guilmi, Mariano N; Urbano, Francisco J; Ferrari, Michel D; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Forsythe, Ian D; Uchitel, Osvaldo D

    2015-01-01

    CaV2.1 Ca(2+) channels play a key role in triggering neurotransmitter release and mediating synaptic transmission. Familial hemiplegic migraine type-1 (FHM-1) is caused by missense mutations in the CACNA1A gene that encodes the α1A pore-forming subunit of CaV2.1 Ca(2+) channels. We used knock-in (KI) transgenic mice harbouring the pathogenic FHM-1 mutation R192Q to study inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission in the principle neurons of the lateral superior olive (LSO) in the auditory brainstem. We tested if the R192Q FHM-1 mutation differentially affects excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, disturbing the normal balance between excitation and inhibition in this nucleus. Whole cell patch-clamp was used to measure neurotransmitter elicited excitatory (EPSCs) and inhibitory (IPSCs) postsynaptic currents in wild-type (WT) and R192Q KI mice. Our results showed that the FHM-1 mutation in CaV2.1 channels has multiple effects. Evoked EPSC amplitudes were smaller whereas evoked and miniature IPSC amplitudes were larger in R192Q KI compared to WT mice. In addition, in R192Q KI mice, the release probability was enhanced compared to WT, at both inhibitory (0.53 ± 0.02 vs. 0.44 ± 0.01, P = 2.10(-5), Student's t-test) and excitatory synapses (0.60 ± 0.03 vs. 0.45 ± 0.02, P = 4 10(-6), Student's t-test). Vesicle pool size was diminished in R192Q KI mice compared to WT mice (68 ± 6 vs 91 ± 7, P = 0.008, inhibitory; 104 ± 13 vs 335 ± 30, P = 10(-6), excitatory, Student's t-test). R192Q KI mice present enhanced short-term plasticity. Repetitive stimulation of the afferent axons caused short-term depression (STD) of E/IPSCs that recovered significantly faster in R192Q KI mice compared to WT. This supports the hypothesis of a gain-of-function of the CaV2.1 channels in R192Q KI mice, which alters the balance of excitatory/inhibitory inputs and could also have implications in the altered cortical excitability responsible for FHM

  1. Growth Hormone Alters the Glutathione S-Transferase and Mitochondrial Thioredoxin Systems in Long-Living Ames Dwarf Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Rakoczy, Sharlene

    2014-01-01

    Ames dwarf mice are deficient in growth hormone (GH), prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone and live significantly longer than their wild-type (WT) siblings. The lack of GH is associated with stress resistance and increased longevity. However, the mechanism underlying GH’s actions on cellular stress defense have yet to be elucidated. In this study, WT or Ames dwarf mice were treated with saline or GH (WT saline, Dwarf saline, and Dwarf GH) two times daily for 7 days. The body and liver weights of Ames dwarf mice were significantly increased after 7 days of GH administration. Mitochondrial protein levels of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) isozymes, K1 and M4 (GSTK1 and GSTM4), were significantly higher in dwarf mice (Dwarf saline) when compared with WT mice (WT saline). GH administration downregulated the expression of GSTK1 proteins in dwarf mice. We further investigated GST activity from liver lysates using different substrates. Substrate-specific GST activity (bromosulfophthalein, dichloronitrobenzene, and 4-hydrox-ynonenal) was significantly reduced in GH-treated dwarf mice. In addition, GH treatment attenuated the activity of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin in liver mitochondria of Ames mice. Importantly, GH treatment suppressed Trx2 and TrxR2 mRNA expression. These data indicate that GH has a role in stress resistance by altering the functional capacity of the GST system through the regulation of specific GST family members in long-living Ames dwarf mice. It also affects the regulation of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, factors that regulate posttranslational modification of proteins and redox balance, thereby further influencing stress resistance. PMID:24285747

  2. Semi-automatic classification of skeletal morphology in genetically altered mice using flat-panel volume computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dullin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid progress in exploring the human and mouse genome has resulted in the generation of a multitude of mouse models to study gene functions in their biological context. However, effective screening methods that allow rapid noninvasive phenotyping of transgenic and knockout mice are still lacking. To identify murine models with bone alterations in vivo, we used flat-panel volume computed tomography (fpVCT for high-resolution 3-D imaging and developed an algorithm with a computational intelligence system. First, we tested the accuracy and reliability of this approach by imaging discoidin domain receptor 2- (DDR2- deficient mice, which display distinct skull abnormalities as shown by comparative landmark-based analysis. High-contrast fpVCT data of the skull with 200 microm isotropic resolution and 8-s scan time allowed segmentation and computation of significant shape features as well as visualization of morphological differences. The application of a trained artificial neuronal network to these datasets permitted a semi-automatic and highly accurate phenotype classification of DDR2-deficient compared to C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Even heterozygous DDR2 mice with only subtle phenotypic alterations were correctly determined by fpVCT imaging and identified as a new class. In addition, we successfully applied the algorithm to classify knockout mice lacking the DDR1 gene with no apparent skull deformities. Thus, this new method seems to be a potential tool to identify novel mouse phenotypes with skull changes from transgenic and knockout mice on the basis of random mutagenesis as well as from genetic models. However for this purpose, new neuronal networks have to be created and trained. In summary, the combination of fpVCT images with artificial neuronal networks provides a reliable, novel method for rapid, cost-effective, and noninvasive primary screening tool to detect skeletal phenotypes in mice.

  3. Oophorectomy did not show any additional effect on bone density and mineral content in thyroxine treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broulik, P D; Pacovský, V; Límanová, Z

    1989-03-01

    Experimental hyperthyroidism (thyroxine administration for 21 days) caused a significant decrease in ash mass, bone density and mineral content in the femora of mice, the same degree of reduction in individual measures of bone mass being found in oophorectomized and intact mice treated with thyroxine. It may be suggested that estrogens did not protect the skeleton against the resorbing action of thyroxine or triiodothyronine.

  4. Alterations in ethanol-induced behaviors and consumption in knock-in mice expressing ethanol-resistant NMDA receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina R den Hartog

    Full Text Available Ethanol's action on the brain likely reflects altered function of key ion channels such as glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs. In this study, we determined how expression of a mutant GluN1 subunit (F639A that reduces ethanol inhibition of NMDARs affects ethanol-induced behaviors in mice. Mice homozygous for the F639A allele died prematurely while heterozygous knock-in mice grew and bred normally. Ethanol (44 mM; ∼0.2 g/dl significantly inhibited NMDA-mediated EPSCs in wild-type mice but had little effect on responses in knock-in mice. Knock-in mice had normal expression of GluN1 and GluN2B protein across different brain regions and a small reduction in levels of GluN2A in medial prefrontal cortex. Ethanol (0.75-2.0 g/kg; i.p. increased locomotor activity in wild-type mice but had no effect on knock-in mice while MK-801 enhanced activity to the same extent in both groups. Ethanol (2.0 g/kg reduced rotarod performance equally in both groups but knock-in mice recovered faster following a higher dose (2.5 g/kg. In the elevated zero maze, knock-in mice had a blunted anxiolytic response to ethanol (1.25 g/kg as compared to wild-type animals. No differences were noted between wild-type and knock-in mice for ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, sleep time, hypothermia or ethanol metabolism. Knock-in mice consumed less ethanol than wild-type mice during daily limited-access sessions but drank more in an intermittent 24 h access paradigm with no change in taste reactivity or conditioned taste aversion. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that NMDA receptors are important in regulating a specific constellation of effects following exposure to ethanol.

  5. Effect of German chamomile oil application on alleviating atopic dermatitis-like immune alterations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon-Hee; Heo, Yong; Kim, Young-Chul

    2010-03-01

    Historically, German chamomile (GC) oil has been used for treatment of skin disorders. BALB/c mice were sensitized twice a week with 100 microL of 1% 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and challenged twice the following week with 100 microL of 0.2% DNCB for atopic dermatitis induction. Thereafter, 3% GC oil was applied daily (70 microL, 6 times week) on the dorsal skin for 4 weeks. Saline or jojoba oil was used for the control mice. Blood was collected after second DNCB challenge, and at 2 and 4 weeks after initiating oil application. Serum IgE levels were significantly lowered in the GC oil application group at the end of the 4-week application period. The GC oil application for 4 weeks resulted in reduction in serum IgG1 level compared with that after 2-week application. The GC oil application group showed a significantly lower serum histamine level than the control group 2 weeks after oil application. Scratching frequency of the GC oil application group was significantly lower than either control groups. This study is to demonstrate GC oil's immunoregulatory potential for alleviating atopic dermatitis through influencing of Th2 cell activation.

  6. Prenatal cocaine alters later responses to morphine in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelles, Josefina; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Maldonado, Concepción; Manzanedo, Carmen; Aguilar, María A; Miñarro, José

    2006-08-30

    Mice prenatally exposed to cocaine (25 mg/kg), physiological saline or non-treated during the last 6 days of pregnancy were evaluated as adults for the rewarding properties of 2 mg/kg of morphine, using the conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. Likewise, isolated animals underwent a social interaction test with conspecifics after receiving the same morphine dose. Unlike control or animals pre-treated with saline, subjects prenatally treated with cocaine did not develop CPP with this dose of morphine. Only cocaine-exposed animals showed increased threat, avoidance and fleeing during the social encounter. No differences in motor effects of morphine were observed. Analysis of monoamines revealed effects of housing conditions, isolated animals having fewer DOPAC but higher levels of HVA than those grouped, but in both groups there was a decrease in DOPAC in cocaine- and saline-treated mice. Prenatal cocaine exposure decreases the response to the rewarding properties of drugs in mature offspring. They also implicate cocaine consumption during pregnancy could affect the response of offspring to take other drugs of abuse.

  7. The von Hippel-Lindau Chuvash mutation in mice alters cardiac substrate and high-energy phosphate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingo, Mary; Cole, Mark; Carr, Carolyn; Curtis, Mary K; Dodd, Michael; Giles, Lucia; Heather, Lisa C; Tyler, Damian; Clarke, Kieran; Robbins, Peter A

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) appears to function as a global master regulator of cellular and systemic responses to hypoxia. HIF pathway manipulation is of therapeutic interest; however, global systemic upregulation of HIF may have as yet unknown effects on multiple processes. We used a mouse model of Chuvash polycythemia (CP), a rare genetic disorder that modestly increases expression of HIF target genes in normoxia, to understand what these effects might be within the heart. An integrated in and ex vivo approach was employed. Compared with wild-type controls, CP mice had evidence (using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging) of pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and increased left ventricular ejection fraction. Glycolytic flux (measured using [(3)H]glucose) in the isolated contracting perfused CP heart was 1.8-fold higher. Net lactate efflux was 1.5-fold higher. Furthermore, in vivo (13)C-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of hyperpolarized [(13)C1]pyruvate revealed a twofold increase in real-time flux through lactate dehydrogenase in the CP hearts and a 1.6-fold increase through pyruvate dehydrogenase. (31)P-MRS of perfused CP hearts under increased workload (isoproterenol infusion) demonstrated increased depletion of phosphocreatine relative to ATP. Intriguingly, no changes in cardiac gene expression were detected. In summary, a modest systemic dysregulation of the HIF pathway resulted in clear alterations in cardiac metabolism and energetics. However, in contrast to studies generating high HIF levels within the heart, the CP mice showed neither the predicted changes in gene expression nor any degree of LV impairment. We conclude that the effects of manipulating HIF on the heart are dose dependent.

  8. Severe SMA mice show organ impairment that cannot be rescued by therapy with the HDACi JNJ-26481585.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreml, Julia; Riessland, Markus; Paterno, Mario; Garbes, Lutz; Roßbach, Kristina; Ackermann, Bastian; Krämer, Jan; Somers, Eilidh; Parson, Simon H; Heller, Raoul; Berkessel, Albrecht; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Wirth, Brunhilde

    2013-06-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the leading genetic cause of early childhood death worldwide and no therapy is available today. Many drugs, especially histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), increase SMN levels. As all HDACi tested so far only mildly ameliorate the SMA phenotype or are unsuitable for use in humans, there is still need to identify more potent drugs. Here, we assessed the therapeutic power of the pan-HDACi JNJ-26481585 for SMA, which is currently used in various clinical cancer trials. When administered for 64 h at 100 nM, JNJ-26481585 upregulated SMN levels in SMA fibroblast cell lines, including those from non-responders to valproic acid. Oral treatment of Taiwanese SMA mice and control littermates starting at P0 showed no overt extension of lifespan, despite mild improvements in motor abilities and weight progression. Many treated and untreated animals showed a very rapid decline or unexpected sudden death. We performed exploratory autopsy and histological assessment at different disease stages and found consistent abnormalities in the intestine, heart and lung and skeletal muscle vasculature of SMA animals, which were not prevented by JNJ-26481585 treatment. Interestingly, some of these features may be only indirectly caused by α-motoneuron function loss but may be major life-limiting factors in the course of disease. A better understanding of - primary or secondary - non-neuromuscular organ involvement in SMA patients may improve standard of care and may lead to reassessment of how to investigate SMA patients clinically.

  9. Tolerogenic dendritic cells show gene expression profiles that are different from those of immunogenic dendritic cells in DBA/1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Gae; Jung, Nam-Chul; Lee, Jun-Ho; Song, Jie-Young; Ryu, Sang-Young; Seo, Han Geuk; Han, Sung Gu; Ahn, Keun Jae; Hong, Kwan Soo; Choi, Jinjung; Lim, Dae-Seog

    2016-01-01

    Tolerogenic dendritic cells (tDCs) play an important role in inducing peripheral tolerance; however, few tDC-specific markers have been identified. The aims of this study were to examine whether tDCs show a different gene expression profile from that of immunogenic DCs and identify specific gene markers of each cell type, in DBA/1 mice. tDCs were generated by treating immature DCs (imDCs) with TNF-α and type II collagen. The gene expression profiles of mature (m)DCs and tDCs were then investigated by microarray analysis and candidate markers were validated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Supervised selection identified 75 gene signatures, 63 of which were consistently upregulated in mDCs and 12 of which were upregulated only in tDCs. Additionally, 10 genes were overexpressed or equally expressed in both tDCs and mDCs. Scin (tDC-specific genes) and Orm1, Pdlim4 and Enpp2 (mDC-specific genes) were validated by real-time qRT-PCR. Taken together, these results clearly show that tDCs and mDCs can be identified according to their expression of specific gene markers.

  10. Untargeted Metabolomics Analysis of ABCC6-Deficient Mice Discloses an Altered Metabolic Liver Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mie Rostved; Nielsen, Kirstine Lykke; Christensen, Mia Benedicte Lykke Roest

    2016-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the transmembrane ABCC6 transport protein cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), an ectopic, metabolic mineralization disorder that affects the skin, eye, and vessels. ABCC6 is assumed to mediate efflux of one or several small molecule compounds from the liver cytosol...... in acetylation reactions, were accumulated in the liver. None of the identified metabolites seems to explain mineralization in extrahepatic tissues, but the present study now shows that abrogated ABCC6 function does cause alterations in the metabolic profile of the liver in accordance with PXE being a metabolic...

  11. BIOCHEMICAL AND HEMATOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS IN MICE INOCULATED WITH OUTER MEMBRANE PROTEIN, LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES AND WHOLE CELLS OF PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA TYPE B: 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle and buffaloes is an economically important livestock disease in Asia including Malaysia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical and hematological alterations in mice model inoculated with outer membrane protein, lipopolysaccharides and whole cells of Pasteurella multocida type B: 2. Two hundred healthy male mice of eight to ten weeks old were used in this study. The mice were divided into four equal groups of 50 mice each. Mice of group 1 were inoculated intra-peritoneal with 1.0 mL sterile Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS pH7, group 2 were inoculated with 1.0 mL of 109 colony forming unit (cfu of P. multocida B: 2. Mice of groups 3 and 4 were inoculated intra-peritoneal with 1.0 mL of LPS and 1.0 mL of OMP, respectively. Blood samples were collected from the moribund animals and the biochemical and hematological parameters were assessed using ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test. In the hematology, significant decreases were observed in the treatment groups compared to the control group. Increases were only observed in band neutrophils, eosinophils and plasma proteins in the treatment groups compared to the control group. In the serum biochemistry, significant increases were observed in the treatment groups compared to the control group. Decreases were only observed in AP and albumin: globulin ratio. In electrolytes, significant increases were observed in chloride and calcium in the treatment groups compared to the control. In conclusion, all the immunogen group of mice showed changes in complete blood count and biochemistry profiles with some differences between the groups.

  12. Noninvasive assessment of cutaneous alterations in mice exposed to whole body gamma irradiation using optical imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P; Sahu, K; Kushwaha, P K; Kumar, S; Swami, M K; Kumawat, J; Patel, H S; Kher, S; Sahani, P K; Haridas, G; Gupta, P K

    2017-07-11

    We report the results of a study carried out to investigate the potential of optical techniques such as optical coherence tomography, Mueller matrix spectroscopy, and cross-polarization imaging for noninvasive monitoring of the ionizing radiation exposure-induced alterations in cutaneous tissue of mice. Radiation dose-dependent changes were observed in tissue microvasculature and tissue optical parameters like retardance and depolarization as early as 1 h post radiation exposure. Results suggest that these optical techniques may allow early detection of radiation dose-dependent alterations which could help in screening of population exposed to radiation.

  13. Clopidogrel attenuates lithium-induced alterations in renal water and sodium channels/transporters in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Peti-Peterdi, János; Heiney, Kristina M; Riquier-Brison, Anne; Carlson, Noel G; Müller, Christa E; Ecelbarger, Carolyn M; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2015-12-01

    Lithium (Li) administration causes deranged expression and function of renal aquaporins and sodium channels/transporters resulting in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Extracellular nucleotides (ATP/ADP/UTP), via P2 receptors, regulate these transport functions. We tested whether clopidogrel bisulfate (CLPD), an antagonist of ADP-activated P2Y(12) receptor, would affect Li-induced alterations in renal aquaporins and sodium channels/transporters. Adult mice were treated for 14 days with CLPD and/or Li and euthanized. Urine and kidneys were collected for analysis. When administered with Li, CLPD ameliorated polyuria, attenuated the rise in urine prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and resulted in significantly higher urinary arginine vasopressin (AVP) and aldosterone levels as compared to Li treatment alone. However, urine sodium excretion remained elevated. Semi-quantitative immunoblotting revealed that CLPD alone increased renal aquaporin 2 (AQP2), Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2), Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), and the subunits of the epithelial Na channel (ENaC) in medulla by 25-130 %. When combined with Li, CLPD prevented downregulation of AQP2, Na-K-ATPase, and NKCC2 but was less effective against downregulation of cortical α- or γ-ENaC (70 kDa band). Thus, CLPD primarily attenuated Li-induced downregulation of proteins involved in water conservation (AVP-sensitive), with modest effects on aldosterone-sensitive proteins potentially explaining sustained natriuresis. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed strong labeling for P2Y(12)-R in proximal tubule brush border and blood vessels in the cortex and less intense labeling in medullary thick ascending limb and the collecting ducts. Therefore, there is the potential for CLPD to be directly acting at the tubule sites to mediate these effects. In conclusion, P2Y(12)-R may represent a novel therapeutic target for Li-induced NDI.

  14. Meal time shift disturbs circadian rhythmicity along with metabolic and behavioral alterations in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ae Yoon

    Full Text Available In modern society, growing numbers of people are engaged in various forms of shift works or trans-meridian travels. Such circadian misalignment is known to disturb endogenous diurnal rhythms, which may lead to harmful physiological consequences including metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and gastric disorders as well as other physical and mental disorders. However, the precise mechanism(s underlying these changes are yet unclear. The present work, therefore examined the effects of 6 h advance or delay of usual meal time on diurnal rhythmicities in home cage activity (HCA, body temperature (BT, blood metabolic markers, glucose homeostasis, and expression of genes that are involved in cholesterol homeostasis by feeding young adult male mice in a time-restrictive manner. Delay of meal time caused locomotive hyperactivity in a significant portion (42% of subjects, while 6 h advance caused a torpor-like symptom during the late scotophase. Accordingly, daily rhythms of blood glucose and triglyceride were differentially affected by time-restrictive feeding regimen with concurrent metabolic alterations. Along with these physiological changes, time-restrictive feeding also influenced the circadian expression patterns of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR as well as most LDLR regulatory factors. Strikingly, chronic advance of meal time induced insulin resistance, while chronic delay significantly elevated blood glucose levels. Taken together, our findings indicate that persistent shifts in usual meal time impact the diurnal rhythms of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in addition to HCA and BT, thereby posing critical implications for the health and diseases of shift workers.

  15. Mice repeatedly exposed to Group-A β-Haemolytic Streptococcus show perseverative behaviors, impaired sensorimotor gating, and immune activation in rostral diencephalon

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Macrì; Chiara Ceci; Martina Proietti Onori; Roberto William Invernizzi; Erika Bartolini; Luisa Altabella; Rossella Canese; Monica Imperi; Graziella Orefici; Roberta Creti; Immaculada Margarit; Roberta Magliozzi; Giovanni Laviola

    2015-01-01

    Repeated exposure to Group-A β-Haemolytic Streptococcus (GAS) may constitute a vulnerability factor in the onset and course of pediatric motor disturbances. GAS infections/colonization can stimulate the production of antibodies, which may cross the blood brain barrier, target selected brain areas (e.g. basal ganglia), and exacerbate motor alterations. Here, we exposed developing SJL male mice to four injections with a GAS homogenate and evaluated the following domains: motor coordination; gen...

  16. Lingonberries alter the gut microbiota and prevent low-grade inflammation in high-fat diet fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovisa Heyman-Lindén

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of obesity and obesity-associated impairments such as low-grade inflammation. Lingonberries have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity and low-grade inflammation. However, it is not known whether the effect of lingonberry supplementation is related to modifications of the gut microbiota. The aim of the present study was to describe whether consumption of different batches of lingonberries alters the composition of the gut microbiota, which could be relevant for the protective effect against high fat (HF-induced metabolic alterations. Methods: Three groups of C57BL/6J mice were fed HF diet with or without a supplement of 20% lingonberries from two different batches (Lingon1 and Lingon2 during 11 weeks. The composition and functionality of the cecal microbiota were assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing and PICRUSt. In addition, parameters related to obesity, insulin sensitivity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and gut barrier function were examined. Results: HF-induced obesity was only prevented by the Lingon1 diet, whereas both batches of lingonberries reduced plasma levels of markers of inflammation and endotoxemia (SAA and LBP as well as modified the composition and functionality of the gut microbiota, compared to the HF control group. The relative abundance of Akkermansia and Faecalibacterium, genera associated with healthy gut mucosa and anti-inflammation, was found to increase in response to lingonberry intake. Conclusions: Our results show that supplementation with lingonberries to an HF diet prevents low-grade inflammation and is associated with significant changes of the microbiota composition. Notably, the anti-inflammatory properties of lingonberries seem to be independent of effects on body weight gain.

  17. Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus alters hippocampal PKC expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian Xin; Liu, Yong; Tang, Feng Ru

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the protein expression of different protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms (PKC-alpha, PKC-beta1, PKC-beta2, PKC-gamma, PKC-delta, PKC-epsilon, PKC-eta and PKC-zeta) in the hippocampus of normal control mice and progressive changes in PKC isoforms expression during and after pilocarpine induced status epilepticus (PISE). We showed the reduced expression of PKC-delta, PKC-eta and PKC-zeta in interneurons in the CA1 area and in the hilus of the dentate gyrus during or after PISE. Increased expression of PKC-alpha and PKC-beta1 was demonstrated in the stratum pyramidale of CA3 area, and PKC-epsilon was up-regulated in the stratum lucidum of the CA3 area during or after PISE. Our results suggest that hippocampal PKC isoforms may play different roles in seizure generation, and be targets for development of anti-convulsive drugs.

  18. Administration of Recombinant Soluble Urokinase Receptor Per Se Is Not Sufficient to Induce Podocyte Alterations and Proteinuria in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cathelin, Dominique; Placier, Sandrine; Ploug, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Circulating levels of soluble forms of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) are generally elevated in sera from children and adults with FSGS compared with levels in healthy persons or those with other types of kidney disease. In mice lacking the gene encoding uPAR, forced increa...... in increased glomerular proteinuria or altered podocyte architecture. Our findings suggest that glomerular deposits of suPAR caused by elevated plasma levels are not sufficient to engender albuminuria....

  19. Aged neuronal nitric oxide knockout mice show preserved olfactory learning in both social recognition and odor-conditioning tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwen M James

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence for both neurotoxic and neuroprotective roles of nitric oxide (NO in the brain and changes in the expression of the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS gene occur during aging. The current studies have investigated potential support for either a neurotoxic or neuroprotective role of NO derived from nNOS in the context of aging by comparing olfactory learning and locomotor function in young compared to old nNOS knockout (nNOS/- and wildtype control mice. Tasks involving social recognition and olfactory conditioning paradigms showed that old nNOS-/-animals had improved retention of learning compared to similar aged wildtype controls. Young nNOS-/- animals showed superior reversal learning to wildtypes in a conditioned learning task, although their performance was weakened with age. Interestingly, whereas young nNOS-/- animals were impaired in long term memory for social odors compared to wildtype controls, in old animals this pattern was reversed, possibly indicating beneficial compensatory changes influencing olfactory memory may occur during aging in nNOS-/- animals. Possibly such compensatory changes may have involved increased NO from other NOS isoforms since the memory deficit in young nNOS-/-animals could be rescued by the NO-donor, molsidomine. Both nNOS-/- and wildtype animals showed an age-associated decline in locomotor activity although young nNOS-/- animals were significantly more active than wildtypes, possibly due to an increased interest in novelty. Overall our findings suggest that lack of NO release via nNOS may protect animals to some extent against age-associated cognitive decline in memory tasks typically involving olfactory and hippocampal regions, but not against declines in reversal learning or locomotor activity.

  20. Mice with altered brain lipoprotein metabolism display maladaptive responses to environmental challenges that may predispose to weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellinen, Jacob; Wang, Hong; Eckel, Robert H

    2014-08-01

    Three-month-old neuron-specific lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-depleted mice (NEXLP(-/-)) mice are preobese and have normal body weight before developing obesity by 4.5 months. This series of experiments investigated responses to novel environment stimuli and acute sleep deprivation in preobese NEXLPL(-/-)) mice to test the hypothesis that neuron-specific LPL deletion alters normal adaptive metabolic responses to environmental challenges. Three-month-old, age- and weight-matched, male NEXLPL(-/-)) (n=10) and wild-type (WT) (n=10) mice were housed in individual metabolic chambers with a 12-hr dark cycle. Food and water intake, locomotor activity, and calorimetry data were recorded in 12-min intervals. Novel environmental responses were elicited by first-time introduction to chambers at dark onset, followed by acclimation, baseline recording, and 6-hr of sleep deprivation on subsequent experimental days. NEXLPL(-/-)) mice displayed a 1.5-fold greater increase in activity in response to a novel environment than seen in WT controls (P=0.0308), and a two-fold greater increase in food intake following acute sleep deprivation (P=0.0117). NEXLPL(-/-)) mice averaged a 27% higher metabolic rate than WT mice throughout the experiments (Pweight, composition, and temperature did not differ between murine groups throughout the experiments. Levels of free fatty acid, insulin, glucose, and triglycerides were similar between groups at the terminus. A deficiency in neuronal LPL signaling disrupts normal responses to novel environmental exposure and acute sleep deprivation, a maladaptive response that may contribute to weight gain in genetically predisposed mice, and perhaps humans.

  1. Dopamine Release and Uptake Impairments and Behavioral Alterations Observed in Mice that Model Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Jenny L; O'Bryhim, Bliss E; Wenzel, Sara K; Fowler, Stephen C; Vorontsova, Elena; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Ortiz, Andrea N; Johnson, Michael A

    2010-10-20

    In this study we evaluated the relationship between amphetamine-induced behavioral alterations and dopamine release and uptake characteristics in Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1 KO) mice, which model fragile X syndrome. The behavioral analyses, obtained at millisecond temporal resolution and 2 mm spatial resolution using a force-plate actometer, revealed that Fmr1 KO mice express a lower degree of focused stereotypy compared to wild type (WT) control mice after injection with 10 mg/kg (ip) amphetamine. To identify potentially related neurochemical mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we measured electrically-evoked dopamine release and uptake using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes in striatal brain slices. At 10 weeks of age, dopamine release per pulse, which is dopamine release corrected for differences in uptake, was unchanged. However, at 15 (the age of behavioral testing) and 20 weeks of age, dopamine per pulse and the maximum rate of dopamine uptake was diminished in Fmr1 KO mice compared to WT mice. Dopamine uptake measurements, obtained at different amphetamine concentrations, indicated that dopamine transporters in both genotypes have equal affinities for amphetamine. Moreover, dopamine release measurements from slices treated with quinpirole, a D2-family receptor agonist, rule out enhanced D2 autoreceptor sensitivity as a mechanism of release inhibition. However, dopamine release, uncorrected for uptake and normalized against the corresponding pre-drug release peaks, increased in Fmr1 KO mice, but not in WT mice. Collectively, these data are consistent with a scenario in which a decrease in extracellular dopamine levels in the striatum result in diminished expression of focused stereotypy in Fmr1 KO mice.

  2. Early Exposure to Intermediate-Frequency Magnetic Fields Alters Brain Biomarkers without Histopathological Changes in Adult Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin-Tin Win-Shwe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently we have reported that intermediate-frequency magnetic field (IF-MF exposure transiently altered the mRNA expression levels of memory function-related genes in the hippocampi of adult male mice. However, the effects of IF-MF exposure during brain development on neurological biomarkers have not yet been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effect of IF-MF exposure during development on neurological and immunological markers in the mouse hippocampus in 3- and 7-week-old male mice. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to IF-MF (21 kHz, 3.8 mT for one hour per day from organogenesis period day 7 to 17. At adolescence, some IF-MF-exposed mice were further divided into exposure, recovery, and sham-exposure groups. The adolescent-exposure groups were exposed again to IF-MF from postnatal day 27 to 48. The expression of mRNA in the hippocampi was examined using a real-time RT-PCR method, and microglia activation was examined by immunohistochemical analysis. The expression levels of NR1 and NR2B as well as transcription factors (CaMKIV, CREB1, inflammatory mediators (COX2, IL-1 b,TNF-α, and the oxidative stress marker heme-oxygenase (HO-1 were significantly increased in the IF-MF-exposed mice, compared with the control group, in the 7-week-old mice, but not in the 3-week-old mice. Microglia activation was not different between the control and other groups. This study provides the first evidence that early exposure to IF-MF reversibly affects the NMDA receptor, its related signaling pathways, and inflammatory mediators in the hippocampus of young adult mice; these changes are transient and recover after termination of exposure without histopathological changes.

  3. Grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) deficiency in brain leads to altered locomotor activity and decreased anxiety-like behaviours in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Sebastian; Auden, Alana; Partridge, Darren D; Daglas, Maria; Medcalf, Robert L; Mantamadiotis, Theo; Georgy, Smitha R; Darido, Charbel; Jane, Stephen M; Ting, Stephen B

    2016-12-01

    The highly conserved Grainyhead-like (Grhl) family of transcription factors, comprising three members in vertebrates (Grhl1-3), play critical regulatory roles during embryonic development, cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Although loss of Grhl function leads to multiple neural abnormalities in numerous animal models, a comprehensive analysis of Grhl expression and function in the mammalian brain has not been reported. Here we show that only Grhl3 expression is detectable in the embryonic mouse brain; particularly within the habenula, an organ known to modulate repressive behaviours. Using both Grhl3-knockout mice (Grhl3(-/-) ), and brain-specific conditional deletion of Grhl3 in adult mice (Nestin-Cre/Grhl3(flox/flox) ), we performed histological expression analyses and behavioural tests to assess long-term effects of Grhl3 loss on motor co-ordination, spatial memory, anxiety and stress. We found that complete deletion of Grhl3 did not lead to noticeable structural or cell-intrinsic defects in the embryonic brain, however aged Grhl3 conditional knockout (cKO) mice showed enlarged lateral ventricles and displayed marked changes in motor function and behaviours suggestive of decreased fear and anxiety. We conclude that loss of Grhl3 in the brain leads to significant alterations in locomotor activity and decreased self-inhibition, and as such, these mice may serve as a novel model of human conditions of impulsive behaviour or hyperactivity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamic alterations of serotonergic metabolism and receptors during social isolation of low- and high-active mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilke, O; Freier, D; Jähkel, M; Oehler, J

    1998-04-01

    Alterations induced by social isolation (1 day to 18 weeks) in low- and high-active mice (LAM and HAM) were studied in respect to serotonin metabolism, [3H]-8-OH-DPAT binding of presynaptic (midbrain), postsynaptic (hippocampus) 5-HT1A receptors and [3H]-ketanserin binding of cortical 5-HT2A receptors. Individual housing of mice was associated with reduction of serotonin metabolism, depending on isolation time and brain structure. Whereas a transient decrease in the striatum and cortex was detected between 1 week and 6 weeks, reduction of cerebellar and hippocampal serotonin metabolism was found later (12-18 weeks). Serotonergic systems of HAM were found to be more reactive to environmental disturbances, and their serotonin metabolism was more affected by social isolation. Isolation-induced upregulation of cortical 5-HT2A receptors was measured only in HAM. Densities of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in the hippocampus did differ either in grouped or isolated mice. However, there were significant differences in hippocampal 5-HT1A receptor affinity, especially between 1 day and 3 weeks. Transient downregulation of presynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in the midbrain was found in isolated mice between 3 and 6 weeks. These results are discussed in terms of interactions between serotonergic alterations and isolation-induced aggression.

  5. Alteration of sensory-evoked metabolic and oscillatory activities in the olfactory bulb of GLAST-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMartin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are key cellular elements in both the tripartite synapse and the neuro-vascular unit. To fulfill this dual role in synaptic activity and metabolism, they express a panel of receptors and transporters that sense glutamate. Among them, the GLT-1 and GLAST transporters are known to regulate extracellular glutamate concentrations at excitatory synapses and consequently modulate glutamate receptor signaling. These major uptake systems are also involved in energy supply to neurons. However, the functional role of GLAST in concurrent regulation of metabolic and neuronal activity is currently unknown. We took advantage of the attractive structural and functional features of the main olfactory bulb to explore the impact of GLAST on sensory information processing while probing both glutamate uptake and neuronal activity in glomeruli and deeper cellular layers respectively. Using odor-evoked 2-deoxyglucose imaging and local field potential recordings in GLAST knock-out mice, we show in vivo that deletion of GLAST alters both glucose uptake and neuronal oscillations in olfactory bulb networks.

  6. Influenza A virus infection causes alterations in expression of synaptic regulatory genes combined with changes in cognitive and emotional behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraki, S; Aronsson, F; Karlsson, H; Ogren, S O; Kristensson, K

    2005-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated a link between certain neuropsychiatric diseases and exposure to viral infections. In order to examine long-term effects on behavior and gene expression in the brain of one candidate virus, we have used a model involving olfactory bulb injection of the neuro-adapted influenza A virus strain, WSN/33, in C57Bl/6 mice. Following this olfactory route of invasion, the virus targets neurons in the medial habenular, midline thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei as well as monoaminergic neurons in the brainstem. The mice survive and the viral infection is cleared from the brain within 12 days. When tested 14-20 weeks after infection, the mice displayed decreased anxiety in the elevated plus-maze and impaired spatial learning in the Morris water maze test. Elevated transcriptional activity of two genes encoding synaptic regulatory proteins, regulator of G-protein signaling 4 and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIalpha, was found in the amygdala, hypothalamus and cerebellum. It is of particular interest that the gene encoding RGS4, which has been related to schizophrenia, showed the most pronounced alteration. This study indicates that a transient influenza virus infection can cause persistent changes in emotional and cognitive functions as well as alterations in the expression of genes involved in the regulation of synaptic activities.

  7. Neurodegeneration Alters Metabolic Profile and Sirt 1 Signaling in High-Fat-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leandro Ceotto Freitas; Saliba, Soraya Wilke; Andrade, João Marcus Oliveira; Cunha, Maria Luisa; Cassini-Vieira, Puebla; Feltenberger, John David; Barcelos, Lucíola Silva; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena; de-Paula, Alfredo Mauricio Batista; de Oliveira, Antônio Carlos Pinheiro; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Sousa

    2016-05-16

    Different factors may contribute to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Among them, metabolic syndrome (MS), which has reached epidemic proportions, has emerged as a potential element that may be involved in neurodegeneration. Furthermore, studies have shown the importance of the sirtuin family in neuronal survival and MS, which opens the possibility of new pharmacological targets. This study investigates the influence of sirtuin metabolic pathways by examining the functional capacities of glucose-induced obesity in an excitotoxic state induced by a quinolinic acid (QA) animal model. Mice were divided into two groups that received different diets for 8 weeks: one group received a regular diet, and the other group received a high-fat diet (HF) to induce MS. The animals were submitted to a stereotaxic surgery and subdivided into four groups: Standard (ST), Standard-QA (ST-QA), HF and HF-QA. The QA groups were given a 250 nL quinolinic acid injection in the right striatum and PBS was injected in the other groups. Obese mice presented with a weight gain of 40 % more than the ST group beyond acquiring an insulin resistance. QA induced motor impairment and neurodegeneration in both ST-QA and HF-QA, although no difference was observed between these groups. The HF-QA group showed a reduction in adiposity when compared with the groups that received PBS. Therefore, the HF-QA group demonstrated a commitment-dependent metabolic pathway. The results suggest that an obesogenic diet does not aggravate the neurodegeneration induced by QA. However, the excitotoxicity induced by QA promotes a sirtuin pathway impairment that contributes to metabolic changes.

  8. Changes in insulin-like growth factor signaling alter phenotypes in Fragile X Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, T L

    2017-02-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inherited form of intellectual disability that is usually caused by expansion of a polymorphic CGG repeat in the 5' untranslated region of the X-linked FMR1 gene, which leads to hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing. Two non-neurological phenotypes of FXS are enlarged testes and connective tissue dysplasia, which could be caused by alterations in a growth factor signaling pathway. FXS patients also frequently have autistic-like symptoms, suggesting that the signaling pathways affected in FXS may overlap with those affected in autism. Identifying these pathways is important for both understanding the effects of FMR1 inactivation and developing treatments for both FXS and autism. Here we show that decreasing the levels of the insulin-like growth factor (Igf) receptor 1 corrects a number of phenotypes in the mouse model of FXS, including macro-orchidism, and that increasing the levels of IGF2 exacerbates the seizure susceptibility phenotype. These results suggest that the pathways altered by the loss of the FMR1-encoded protein (FMRP) may overlap with the pathways affected by changes in Igf signaling or that one or more of the proteins that play a role in Igf signaling could interact with FMRP. They also indicate a new set of potential targets for drug treatment of FXS and autism spectrum disorders.

  9. Rats with minimal hepatic encephalopathy show reduced cGMP-dependent protein kinase activity in hypothalamus correlating with circadian rhythms alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipo, Vicente; Piedrafita, Blanca; Barios, Juan A; Agustí, Ana; Ahabrach, Hanan; Romero-Vives, María; Barrio, Luis C; Rey, Beatriz; Gaztelu, Jose M; Llansola, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Patients with liver cirrhosis show disturbances in sleep and in its circadian rhythms which are an early sign of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). The mechanisms of these disturbances are poorly understood. Rats with porta-caval shunt (PCS), a model of MHE, show sleep disturbances reproducing those of cirrhotic patients. The aims of this work were to characterize the alterations in circadian rhythms in PCS rats and analyze the underlying mechanisms. To reach these aims, we analyzed in control and PCS rats: (a) daily rhythms of spontaneous and rewarding activity and of temperature, (b) timing of the onset of activity following turning-off the light, (c) synchronization to light after a phase advance and (d) the molecular mechanisms contributing to these alterations in circadian rhythms. PCS rats show altered circadian rhythms of spontaneous and rewarding activities (wheel running). PCS rats show more rest bouts during the active phase, more errors in the onset of motor activity and need less time to re-synchronize after a phase advance than control rats. Circadian rhythm of body temperature is also slightly altered in PCS rats. The internal period length (tau) of circadian rhythm of motor activity is longer in PCS rats. We analyzed some mechanisms by which hypothalamus modulate circadian rhythms. PCS rats show increased content of cGMP in hypothalamus while the activity of cGMP-dependent protein kinase was reduced by 41% compared to control rats. Altered cGMP-PKG pathway in hypothalamus would contribute to altered circadian rhythms and synchronization to light.

  10. Defects in the CAPN1 Gene Result in Alterations in Cerebellar Development and Cerebellar Ataxia in Mice and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubin Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A CAPN1 missense mutation in Parson Russell Terrier dogs is associated with spinocerebellar ataxia. We now report that homozygous or heterozygous CAPN1-null mutations in humans result in cerebellar ataxia and limb spasticity in four independent pedigrees. Calpain-1 knockout (KO mice also exhibit a mild form of ataxia due to abnormal cerebellar development, including enhanced neuronal apoptosis, decreased number of cerebellar granule cells, and altered synaptic transmission. Enhanced apoptosis is due to absence of calpain-1-mediated cleavage of PH domain and leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 1 (PHLPP1, which results in inhibition of the Akt pro-survival pathway in developing granule cells. Injection of neonatal mice with the indirect Akt activator, bisperoxovanadium, or crossing calpain-1 KO mice with PHLPP1 KO mice prevented increased postnatal cerebellar granule cell apoptosis and restored granule cell density and motor coordination in adult mice. Thus, mutations in CAPN1 are an additional cause of ataxia in mammals, including humans.

  11. Combined MRI and ³¹P-MRS investigations of the ACTA1(H40Y mouse model of nemaline myopathy show impaired muscle function and altered energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Gineste

    Full Text Available Nemaline myopathy (NM is the most common disease entity among non-dystrophic skeletal muscle congenital diseases. Mutations in the skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1 account for ∼25% of all NM cases and are the most frequent cause of severe forms of NM. So far, the mechanisms underlying muscle weakness in NM patients remain unclear. Additionally, recent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies reported a progressive fatty infiltration of skeletal muscle with a specific muscle involvement in patients with ACTA1 mutations. We investigated strictly noninvasively the gastrocnemius muscle function of a mouse model carrying a mutation in the ACTA1 gene (H40Y. Skeletal muscle anatomy (hindlimb muscles and fat volumes and energy metabolism were studied using MRI and (31Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Skeletal muscle contractile performance was investigated while applying a force-frequency protocol (from 1-150 Hz and a fatigue protocol (80 stimuli at 40 Hz. H40Y mice showed a reduction of both absolute (-40% and specific (-25% maximal force production as compared to controls. Interestingly, muscle weakness was associated with an improved resistance to fatigue (+40% and an increased energy cost. On the contrary, the force frequency relationship was not modified in H40Y mice and the extent of fatty infiltration was minor and not different from the WT group. We concluded that the H40Y mouse model does not reproduce human MRI findings but shows a severe muscle weakness which might be related to an alteration of intrinsic muscular properties. The increased energy cost in H40Y mice might be related to either an impaired mitochondrial function or an alteration at the cross-bridges level. Overall, we provided a unique set of anatomic, metabolic and functional biomarkers that might be relevant for monitoring the progression of NM disease but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions at a preclinical level.

  12. Combined MRI and ³¹P-MRS investigations of the ACTA1(H40Y) mouse model of nemaline myopathy show impaired muscle function and altered energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gineste, Charlotte; Le Fur, Yann; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Troter, Arnaud; Pecchi, Emilie; Cozzone, Patrick J; Hardeman, Edna C; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is the most common disease entity among non-dystrophic skeletal muscle congenital diseases. Mutations in the skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1) account for ∼25% of all NM cases and are the most frequent cause of severe forms of NM. So far, the mechanisms underlying muscle weakness in NM patients remain unclear. Additionally, recent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies reported a progressive fatty infiltration of skeletal muscle with a specific muscle involvement in patients with ACTA1 mutations. We investigated strictly noninvasively the gastrocnemius muscle function of a mouse model carrying a mutation in the ACTA1 gene (H40Y). Skeletal muscle anatomy (hindlimb muscles and fat volumes) and energy metabolism were studied using MRI and (31)Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Skeletal muscle contractile performance was investigated while applying a force-frequency protocol (from 1-150 Hz) and a fatigue protocol (80 stimuli at 40 Hz). H40Y mice showed a reduction of both absolute (-40%) and specific (-25%) maximal force production as compared to controls. Interestingly, muscle weakness was associated with an improved resistance to fatigue (+40%) and an increased energy cost. On the contrary, the force frequency relationship was not modified in H40Y mice and the extent of fatty infiltration was minor and not different from the WT group. We concluded that the H40Y mouse model does not reproduce human MRI findings but shows a severe muscle weakness which might be related to an alteration of intrinsic muscular properties. The increased energy cost in H40Y mice might be related to either an impaired mitochondrial function or an alteration at the cross-bridges level. Overall, we provided a unique set of anatomic, metabolic and functional biomarkers that might be relevant for monitoring the progression of NM disease but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions at a preclinical level.

  13. Rai1 haploinsufficiency causes reduced Bdnf expression resulting in hyperphagia, obesity and altered fat distribution in mice and humans with no evidence of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Brooke; Schmidt, Kristie; Williams, Stephen R; Kim, Sun; Girirajan, Santhosh; Elsea, Sarah H

    2010-10-15

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a genetic disorder caused by haploinsufficiency of the retinoic acid induced 1 (RAI1) gene. In addition to intellectual disabilities, behavioral abnormalities and sleep disturbances, a majority of children with SMS also have significant early-onset obesity. To study the role of RAI1 in obesity, we investigated the growth and obesity phenotype in a mouse model haploinsufficient for Rai1. Data show that Rai1(+/-) mice are hyperphagic, have an impaired satiety response and have altered abdominal and subcutaneous fat distribution, with Rai1(+/-) female mice having a higher proportion of abdominal fat when compared with wild-type female mice. Expression analyses revealed that Bdnf (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), a gene previously associated with hyperphagia and obesity, is downregulated in the Rai1(+/-) mouse hypothalamus, and reporter studies show that RAI1 directly regulates the expression of BDNF. Even though the Rai1(+/-) mice are significantly obese, serum analyses do not reveal any evidence of metabolic syndrome. Supporting these findings, a caregiver survey revealed that even though a high incidence of abdominal obesity is observed in females with SMS, they did not exhibit a higher incidence of indicators of metabolic syndrome above the general population. We conclude that Rai1 haploinsufficiency represents a single-gene model of obesity with hyperphagia, abnormal fat distribution and altered hypothalamic gene expression associated with satiety, food intake, behavior and obesity. Linking RAI1 and BDNF provides a more thorough understanding of the role of Rai1 in growth and obesity and insight into the complex pathogenicity of obesity, behavior and sex-specific differences in adiposity.

  14. Moderate intensity treadmill exercise alters food preference via dopaminergic plasticity of ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Hai Jun; Shang, Ning Ning; Liu, Jun; Li, Juan; Tang, Dong Hui; Li, Qiong

    2017-02-22

    Obesity has been associated with the excessive intake of palatable food as well as physical inactivity. To investigate the neurobiological mechanism underlying the exercised-induced prevention and treatment of obesity, the present study examined the effect of treadmill exercise on the preference for palatable food in mice. Levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens system were also analysed, as well as levels of dopamine, dopamine transporter, and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens. Forty C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a control group (CG, n=10) and a high-fat diet group (HG, N=30). Mice of the HG group were fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks in order to induce a model of obesity, following which the obese mice were randomly divided into an obese control group (OG, n=11) and an obese+exercise group (OEG, n=12). OEG mice received 8 weeks of treadmill exercise intervention. Our results indicate that, relative to animals in the OG group, OEG mice exhibited significant decreases in the preference for high-fat diets and insulin resistance, along with increases in the preference for sucrose and milk, TH and D2 receptor expression, and levels of dopamine in the ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens system. These results suggest that moderate-intensity treadmill exercise can alter food preference in obese mice, which may be mediated by dopaminergic plasticity of the ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Factor XI Deficiency Alters the Cytokine Response and Activation of Contact Proteases during Polymicrobial Sepsis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E Bane

    Full Text Available Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response to infection, is often accompanied by abnormalities of blood coagulation. Prior work with a mouse model of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP suggested that the protease factor XIa contributed to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC and to the cytokine response during sepsis. We investigated the importance of factor XI to cytokine and coagulation responses during the first 24 hours after CLP. Compared to wild type littermates, factor XI-deficient (FXI-/- mice had a survival advantage after CLP, with smaller increases in plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-10 and delayed IL-1β and IL-6 responses. Plasma levels of serum amyloid P, an acute phase protein, were increased in wild type mice 24 hours post-CLP, but not in FXI-/- mice, supporting the impression of a reduced inflammatory response in the absence of factor XI. Surprisingly, there was little evidence of DIC in mice of either genotype. Plasma levels of the contact factors factor XII and prekallikrein were reduced in WT mice after CLP, consistent with induction of contact activation. However, factor XII and PK levels were not reduced in FXI-/- animals, indicating factor XI deficiency blunted contact activation. Intravenous infusion of polyphosphate into WT mice also induced changes in factor XII, but had much less effect in FXI deficient mice. In vitro analysis revealed that factor XIa activates factor XII, and that this reaction is enhanced by polyanions such polyphosphate and nucleic acids. These data suggest that factor XI deficiency confers a survival advantage in the CLP sepsis model by altering the cytokine response to infection and blunting activation of the contact (kallikrein-kinin system. The findings support the hypothesis that factor XI functions as a bidirectional interface between contact activation and thrombin generation, allowing the two processes to influence each other.

  16. Alterations in synaptic plasticity coincide with deficits in spatial working memory in presymptomatic 3xTg-AD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jason K; Furgerson, Matthew; Crystal, Jonathon D; Fechheimer, Marcus; Furukawa, Ruth; Wagner, John J

    2015-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative condition believed to be initiated by production of amyloid-beta peptide, which leads to synaptic dysfunction and progressive memory loss. Using a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (3xTg-AD), an 8-arm radial maze was employed to assess spatial working memory. Unexpectedly, the younger (3month old) 3xTg-AD mice were as impaired in the spatial working memory task as the older (8month old) 3xTg-AD mice when compared with age-matched NonTg control animals. Field potential recordings from the CA1 region of slices prepared from the ventral hippocampus were obtained to assess synaptic transmission and capability for synaptic plasticity. At 3months of age, the NMDA receptor-dependent component of LTP was reduced in 3xTg-AD mice. However, the magnitude of the non-NMDA receptor-dependent component of LTP was concomitantly increased, resulting in a similar amount of total LTP in 3xTg-AD and NonTg mice. At 8months of age, the NMDA receptor-dependent LTP was again reduced in 3xTg-AD mice, but now the non-NMDA receptor-dependent component was decreased as well, resulting in a significantly reduced total amount of LTP in 3xTg-AD compared with NonTg mice. Both 3 and 8month old 3xTg-AD mice exhibited reductions in paired-pulse facilitation and NMDA receptor-dependent LTP that coincided with the deficit in spatial working memory. The early presence of this cognitive impairment and the associated alterations in synaptic plasticity demonstrate that the onset of some behavioral and neurophysiological consequences can occur before the detectable presence of plaques and tangles in the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Diet-induced Obesity Alters Bone Remodeling Leading to Decreased Femoral Trabecular Bone Mass in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body mass derived from an obesity condition may be detrimental to bone health but the mechanism is unknown. This study was to examine changes in bone structure and serum cytokines related to bone metabolism in obese mice induced by a high-fat diet(HFD). Mice fed the HFD were obese and had higher ser...

  18. C-peptide responses alter meal challenge in mice transplanted with microencapsulated rat islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatarkiewicz, K; Garcia, M; Omer, A; Weir, GC; De Vos, P

    2001-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis. This study aimed to assess a response of microencapsulated rat islets to a meal challenge after being transplanted intraperitoneally into diabetic mice. Methods. Microencapsulated rat: islets or control naked syngeneic mouse islets were transplanted intraperitoneally into mice with

  19. Tissue Taurine Depletion Alters Metabolic Response to Exercise and Reduces Running Capacity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid found in very high concentration in skeletal muscle. Taurine deficient mice engineered by knocking out the taurine transporter gene exhibit skeletal muscle wasting, structural defects, and exercise intolerance. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the development of metabolic abnormalities and exercise intolerance in muscle of the TauTKO phenotype. Running speed and endurance time of TauTKO mice were lower than those of control mice. Blood lactate level was elevated by >3-fold during treadmill running in TauTKO mice but remained largely unaltered by exercise in WT mice. Blood glucose was cleared faster during treadmill running in TauTKO mice than WT mice. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK β-2 subunit was reduced in TauTKO muscle concomitant with a reduction in α1 and α2 subunits of AMPK. The level of PPARα and its targets, Gpx3, Cpt2, and Echs1, were also decreased in TauTKO muscle. Collectively, taurine depletion impairs metabolic adaptation to exercise in skeletal muscle, a phenomenon associated with a downregulation of AMPK and diminished NADH utilization by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. These findings suggest a crucial role of taurine in regulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercising TauTKO mice, changes that contribute to impaired exercise endurance.

  20. Testosterone Modifies Alterations to Detrusor Muscle after Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Juvenile Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Flum

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to posterior urethral valves (PUV arise in boys during adolescence. The reasons for this have previously been attributed to increased urine output as boys experience increased growth. Additionally, there are few choices for clinicians to effectively treat these complications. We formed the new hypothesis that increased androgen levels at this time of childhood development could play a role at the cellular level in obstructed bladders. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the role of testosterone on bladder detrusor muscle following injury from partial bladder outlet obstruction (PO in mice. A PO model was surgically created in juvenile male mice. A group of mice were castrated by bilateral orchiectomy at time of obstruction (CPO. Testosterone cypionate was administered to a group of castrated, obstructed mice (CPOT. Bladder function was assessed by voiding stain on paper (VSOP. Bladders were analyzed at 7 and 28 days by weight and histology. Detrusor collagen to smooth muscle ratio (Col/SM was calculated using Masson’s trichrome stain. All obstructed groups had lower max voided volumes (MVV than sham mice at 1 day. Hormonally intact mice (PO continued to have lower MVV at 7 and 28 days while CPO mice improved to sham levels at both time points. In accordance, PO mice had higher bladder-to-body weight ratios than CPO and sham mice demonstrating greater bladder hypertrophy. Histologically, Col/SM was lower in sham and CPO mice. When testosterone was restored in CPOT mice, MVV remained low at 7 and 28 days compared to CPO and bladder-to-body weight ratios were also greater than CPO. Histologic changes were also seen in CPOT mice with higher Col/SM than sham and CPO mice. In conclusion, our findings support a role for testosterone in the fibrotic changes that occur after obstruction in male mice. This suggests that while other changes may occur in adolescent boys that cause complication in boys

  1. Testosterone Modifies Alterations to Detrusor Muscle after Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Juvenile Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flum, Andrew S; Firmiss, Paula R; Bowen, Diana K; Kukulka, Natalie; Delos Santos, Grace B; Dettman, Robert W; Gong, Edward M

    2017-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to posterior urethral valves (PUV) arise in boys during adolescence. The reasons for this have previously been attributed to increased urine output as boys experience increased growth. Additionally, there are few choices for clinicians to effectively treat these complications. We formed the new hypothesis that increased androgen levels at this time of childhood development could play a role at the cellular level in obstructed bladders. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the role of testosterone on bladder detrusor muscle following injury from partial bladder outlet obstruction (PO) in mice. A PO model was surgically created in juvenile male mice. A group of mice were castrated by bilateral orchiectomy at time of obstruction (CPO). Testosterone cypionate was administered to a group of castrated, obstructed mice (CPOT). Bladder function was assessed by voiding stain on paper (VSOP). Bladders were analyzed at 7 and 28 days by weight and histology. Detrusor collagen to smooth muscle ratio (Col/SM) was calculated using Masson's trichrome stain. All obstructed groups had lower max voided volumes (MVV) than sham mice at 1 day. Hormonally intact mice (PO) continued to have lower MVV at 7 and 28 days while CPO mice improved to sham levels at both time points. In accordance, PO mice had higher bladder-to-body weight ratios than CPO and sham mice demonstrating greater bladder hypertrophy. Histologically, Col/SM was lower in sham and CPO mice. When testosterone was restored in CPOT mice, MVV remained low at 7 and 28 days compared to CPO and bladder-to-body weight ratios were also greater than CPO. Histologic changes were also seen in CPOT mice with higher Col/SM than sham and CPO mice. In conclusion, our findings support a role for testosterone in the fibrotic changes that occur after obstruction in male mice. This suggests that while other changes may occur in adolescent boys that cause complication in boys with PUV, the

  2. Resistance to high-fat diet-induced obesity and altered expression of adipose-specific genes in HSL-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kenji; Shen, Wen-Jun; Patel, Shailja; Natu, Vanita; Wang, Jining; Osuga, Jun-ichi; Ishibashi, Shun; Kraemer, Fredric B

    2003-12-01

    To elucidate the role of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in diet-induced obesity, HSL-deficient (HSL-/-) and wild-type mice were fed normal chow or high-fat diets. HSL-/- mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity showing higher core body temperatures. Weight and triacylglycerol contents were decreased in white adipose tissue (WAT) but increased in both brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver of HSL-/- mice. Serum insulin levels in the fed state and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA levels in adipose tissues were higher, whereas serum levels of adipocyte complement-related protein of 30 kDa (ACRP30)/adiponectin and leptin, as well as mRNA levels of ACRP30/adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and adipsin in WAT, were lower in HSL-/- mice than in controls. Expression of transcription factors associated with adipogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, CAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha) and lipogenesis (carbohydrate response element-binding protein, adipocyte determination- and differentiation-dependent factor-1/sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c), as well as of adipose differentiation markers (adipocyte lipid-binding protein, perilipin, lipoprotein lipase), lipogenic enzymes (glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 and -2, fatty acid synthase, ATP citrate lyase) and insulin signaling proteins (insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1, GLUT4), was suppressed in WAT but not in BAT of HSL-/- mice. In contrast, expression of genes associated with cholesterol metabolism (sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-2, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1) and thermogenesis (uncoupling protein-2) was upregulated in both WAT and BAT of HSL-/- mice. Our results suggest that impaired lipolysis in HSL deficiency affects lipid metabolism through alterations of adipose differentiation and adipose-derived hormone levels.

  3. Alterations in grooming activity and syntax in heterozygous SERT and BDNF knockout mice: the utility of behavior-recognition tools to characterize mutant mouse phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Pham, Mimi; Roth, Andrew; Cachat, Jonathan; Green, Jeremy; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Kalueff, Allan V

    2012-12-01

    Serotonin transporter (SERT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are key modulators of molecular signaling, cognition and behavior. Although SERT and BDNF mutant mouse phenotypes have been extensively characterized, little is known about their self-grooming behavior. Grooming represents an important behavioral domain sensitive to environmental stimuli and is increasingly used as a model for repetitive behavioral syndromes, such as autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The present study used heterozygous ((+/-)) SERT and BDNF male mutant mice on a C57BL/6J background and assessed their spontaneous self-grooming behavior applying both manual and automated techniques. Overall, SERT(+/-) mice displayed a general increase in grooming behavior, as indicated by more grooming bouts and more transitions between specific grooming stages. SERT(+/-) mice also aborted more grooming bouts, but showed generally unaltered activity levels in the observation chamber. In contrast, BDNF(+/-) mice displayed a global reduction in grooming activity, with fewer bouts and transitions between specific grooming stages, altered grooming syntax, as well as hypolocomotion and increased turning behavior. Finally, grooming data collected by manual and automated methods (HomeCageScan) significantly correlated in our experiments, confirming the utility of automated high-throughput quantification of grooming behaviors in various genetic mouse models with increased or decreased grooming phenotypes. Taken together, these findings indicate that mouse self-grooming behavior is a reliable behavioral biomarker of genetic deficits in SERT and BDNF pathways, and can be reliably measured using automated behavior-recognition technology.

  4. Daesiho-Tang Is an Effective Herbal Formulation in Attenuation of Obesity in Mice through Alteration of Gene Expression and Modulation of Intestinal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ahtesham; Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Bose, Shambhunath; Wang, Jing-Hua; Lim, Dongwoo; Song, Yun-Kyung; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Kim, Hojun

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has become a major global health challenge due to its increasing prevalence, and the associated health risk. It is the main cause of various metabolic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke and certain forms of cancer. In the present study we evaluated the anti-obesity property of Daesiho-tang (DSHT), an herbal medicine, using high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice as a model. Our results showed that DSHT ameliorated body weight gain, decreased total body fat, regulated expression of leptin and adiponectin genes of adipose tissue and exerted an anti-diabetic effect by attenuating fasting glucose level and serum insulin level in HFD-fed animals. In addition, DSHT-treatment significantly reduced total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and increased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) levels in serum and reduced deposition of fat droplets in liver. DSHT treatment resulted in significantly increased relative abundance of bacteria including Bacteroidetes, Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, Akkermansia Bifidobacterium., Lactobacillus, and decreased the level of Firmicutes. Using RT2 profiler PCR array, 39 (46%) genes were found to be differentially expressed in HFD-fed mice compared to normal control. However, normal gene expressions were restored in 36 (92%) genes of HFD-fed mice, when co-exposed to DSHT. The results of this study demonstrated that DSHT is an effective herbal formulation in attenuation of obesity in HFD-fed mice through alteration of gene expressions and modulation of intestinal microbiota.

  5. Improved Glucose Homeostasis in Obese Mice Treated With Resveratrol Is Associated With Alterations in the Gut Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Miranda M; Kim, Ty T; Denou, Emmanuel; Soltys, Carrie-Lynn M; Hamza, Shereen M; Byrne, Nikole J; Masson, Grant; Park, Heekuk; Wishart, David S; Madsen, Karen L; Schertzer, Jonathan D; Dyck, Jason R B

    2017-02-01

    Oral administration of resveratrol is able to improve glucose homeostasis in obese individuals. Herein we show that resveratrol ingestion produces taxonomic and predicted functional changes in the gut microbiome of obese mice. In particular, changes in the gut microbiome were characterized by a decreased relative abundance of Turicibacteraceae, Moryella, Lachnospiraceae, and Akkermansia and an increased relative abundance of Bacteroides and Parabacteroides Moreover, fecal transplantation from healthy resveratrol-fed donor mice is sufficient to improve glucose homeostasis in obese mice, suggesting that the resveratrol-mediated changes in the gut microbiome may play an important role in the mechanism of action of resveratrol. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  6. Kainate-induced epileptogenesis alters circular hole board learning strategy but not the performance of C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubens, Chantal J; Kaptein, Pascale S; ter Horst, Judith P; Voskuyl, Rob A; Schenk, Geert J

    2014-12-01

    Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) frequently show cognitive deficits. However, the relation between mTLE and cognitive impairment is poorly understood. To gain more insight into epilepsy-associated alterations in cognitive performance, we studied the spatial learning of C57BL/6J mice five weeks after kainate-induced status epilepticus (SE). Typically, structural hippocampal rearrangements take place within five weeks after SE. Mice were monitored by exposing them to four tasks with a focus on spatial memory and anxiety: the circular hole board, modified hole board, novel object-placement task, and elevated plus maze. On the circular hole board, animals showed a higher preference for hippocampus-independent strategies after SE. In contrast, no change in strategy was seen on the modified hole board, but animals with SE were able to finish the task more often. Animals did not have an increased preference for a relocated object in the novel object-placement task but showed an increased locomotion after SE. No indications for altered anxiety were found when tested on the elevated plus maze following SE. These data suggest that the circular hole board is a well-suited paradigm to detect subtle SE-induced hippocampal deficits.

  7. Brevican-deficient mice display impaired hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation but show no obvious deficits in learning and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brakebusch, Cord; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Asztely, Fredrik

    2002-01-01

    to be less prominent in mutant than in wild-type mice. Brevican-deficient mice showed significant deficits in the maintenance of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). However, no obvious impairment of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission was found, suggesting a complex cause for the LTP defect....... Detailed behavioral analysis revealed no statistically significant deficits in learning and memory. These data indicate that brevican is not crucial for brain development but has restricted structural and functional roles....

  8. ALTERATIONS IN A11 TRANS RETINOIC ACID METABOLISM IN LIVER MICROSOMES FROM MICE TREATED WITH HEPATOTUMORIGENIC AND NON-HEPATOTUMORIGENIC CONAZOLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conazoles are fungicides used in crop protection and as pharmaceuticals. Triadimefon and propiconazole are hepatotumorigenic in mice, while myclobutanil is not. Previous toxicogenomic studies suggest that alteration of the retinoic acid metabolism pathway may be a key event in co...

  9. Altered nuclear factor-kappaB inducing kinase expression in insulin-resistant mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Lei; XIU Ling-ling; WEI Guo-hong; ZHONG Xing; LIU Yuan-yuan; CAO Xiao-pei; LI Yan-bing; XIAO Hai-peng

    2011-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance is an underlying feature of both type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.Currently,it is unclear whether nuclear factor (NF)-κB inducing kinase (NIK) plays a role in the development of insulin resistance.The present in vivo study investigated the roles of NIK and IKB kinase α (IKKα) in obesity-induced insulin resistance using animal models.Methods NIK expression was evaluated by Westem blotting in male Lepob mice and C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) (45% fat).After metformin and sulfasalazine treatment,NIK expression was investigated during the improvement of insulin resistance.Results NIK was increased by about 1-fold in the renal tissues of Lepob mice and C57BL/6J mice fed a HFD for 12 weeks.After 1 and 3 weeks of high-fat feeding,we observed an almost 50% decrease in NIK and IKKα expression in the liver and renal tissues of C57BL/6J mice.NIK expression was significantly lower in the liver and renal tissues of HFD-fed mice that were treated with insulin sensitizers,metformin and sulfasalazine.However,IKKα expression was increased after metformin treatment in both tissues.Conclusion These results suggest a possible role of NIK in the liver and renal tissues of insulin-resistant mice.

  10. X-ray survival characteristics and genetic analysis for nine saccharomyces deletion mutants that show altered radiation sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Game, John C.; Williamson, Marsha S.; Baccari, Clelia

    2004-01-07

    The availability of a genome-wide set of Saccharomyces deletion mutants provides a chance to identify all the yeast genes involved in DNA repair. Using X-rays, we are screening these mutants to identify additional genes that show increased sensitivity to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation. For each mutant identified as sensitive, we are confirming that the sensitivity phenotype co-segregates with the deletion allele and are obtaining multipoint survival-versus-dose assays in at least two haploid and one homozygous diploid strains. We present data for deletion mutants involving the genes DOT1, MDM20, NAT3, SPT7, SPT20, GCN5, HFI1, DCC1 and VID21/EAF1, and discuss their potential roles in repair. Eight of these genes have a clear radiation-sensitive phenotype when deleted, but the ninth, GCN5, has at most a borderline phenotype. None of the deletions confer substantial sensitivity to ultra-violet radiation, although one or two may confer marginal sensitivity. The DOT1 gene is of interest because its only known function is to methylate one lysine residue in the core of the histone H3 protein. We find that histone H3 mutants (supplied by K. Struhl) in which this residue is replaced by other amino-acids are also X-ray sensitive, seeming to confirm that methylation of the lysine-79 residue is required for effective repair of radiation damage.

  11. Altered mucus glycosylation in core 1 O-glycan-deficient mice affects microbiota composition and intestinal architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Felix; Adam, Nina; Johansson, Malin E V; Xia, Lijun; Hansson, Gunnar C; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    A functional mucus layer is a key requirement for gastrointestinal health as it serves as a barrier against bacterial invasion and subsequent inflammation. Recent findings suggest that mucus composition may pose an important selection pressure on the gut microbiota and that altered mucus thickness or properties such as glycosylation lead to intestinal inflammation dependent on bacteria. Here we used TM-IEC C1galt (-/-) mice, which carry an inducible deficiency of core 1-derived O-glycans in intestinal epithelial cells, to investigate the effects of mucus glycosylation on susceptibility to intestinal inflammation, gut microbial ecology and host physiology. We found that TM-IEC C1galt (-/-) mice did not develop spontaneous colitis, but they were more susceptible to dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis. Furthermore, loss of core 1-derived O-glycans induced inverse shifts in the abundance of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. We also found that mucus glycosylation impacts intestinal architecture as TM-IEC C1galt(-/-) mice had an elongated gastrointestinal tract with deeper ileal crypts, a small increase in the number of proliferative epithelial cells and thicker circular muscle layers in both the ileum and colon. Alterations in the length of the gastrointestinal tract were partly dependent on the microbiota. Thus, the mucus layer plays a role in the regulation of gut microbiota composition, balancing intestinal inflammation, and affects gut architecture.

  12. Alteration of Methamphetamine-induced stereotypic behaviour in transgenic mice expressing HIV-1 envelope protein gp120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda J; Maung, Ricky; Sejbuk, Natalia E; Ake, Christopher; Kaul, Marcus

    2010-02-15

    The use of drugs for recreational purposes, in particular Methamphetamine, is associated with an increased risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1. HIV-1 infection in turn can lead to HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND) that range from mild cognitive and motor impairment to HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Interestingly, post mortem brain specimens from HAD patients and transgenic (tg) mice expressing the viral envelope protein gp120 in the central nervous system display similar neuropathological signs. In HIV patients, the use of Methamphetamine appears to aggravate neurocognitive alterations. In the present study, we injected HIV/gp120tg mice and non-transgenic littermate control animals with Methamphetamine dissolved in Saline or Saline vehicle and assessed locomotion and stereotyped behaviour. We found that HIVgp120-transgenic mice differ significantly from non-transgenic controls in certain domains of their behavioural response to Methamphetamine. Thus this experimental model system may be useful to further study the mechanistic interaction of both the viral envelope protein and the psychostimulant drug in behavioural alterations and neurodegenerative disease.

  13. Long-term artificial sweetener acesulfame potassium treatment alters neurometabolic functions in C57BL/6J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-na Cong

    Full Text Available With the prevalence of obesity, artificial, non-nutritive sweeteners have been widely used as dietary supplements that provide sweet taste without excessive caloric load. In order to better understand the overall actions of artificial sweeteners, especially when they are chronically used, we investigated the peripheral and central nervous system effects of protracted exposure to a widely used artificial sweetener, acesulfame K (ACK. We found that extended ACK exposure (40 weeks in normal C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a moderate and limited influence on metabolic homeostasis, including altering fasting insulin and leptin levels, pancreatic islet size and lipid levels, without affecting insulin sensitivity and bodyweight. Interestingly, impaired cognitive memory functions (evaluated by Morris Water Maze and Novel Objective Preference tests were found in ACK-treated C57BL/6J mice, while no differences in motor function and anxiety levels were detected. The generation of an ACK-induced neurological phenotype was associated with metabolic dysregulation (glycolysis inhibition and functional ATP depletion and neurosynaptic abnormalities (dysregulation of TrkB-mediated BDNF and Akt/Erk-mediated cell growth/survival pathway in hippocampal neurons. Our data suggest that chronic use of ACK could affect cognitive functions, potentially via altering neuro-metabolic functions in male C57BL/6J mice.

  14. Cortical spreading depolarization increases adult neurogenesis, and alters behavior and hippocampus-dependent memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, Anja; Baum, Eileen; Braun, Falko; Witte, Otto W

    2017-05-01

    Cortical spreading depolarizations are an epiphenomenon of human brain pathologies and associated with extensive but transient changes in ion homeostasis, metabolism, and blood flow. Previously, we have shown that cortical spreading depolarization have long-lasting consequences on the brains transcriptome and structure. In particular, we found that cortical spreading depolarization stimulate hippocampal cell proliferation resulting in a sustained increase in adult neurogenesis. Since the hippocampus is responsible for explicit memory and adult-born dentate granule neurons contribute to this function, cortical spreading depolarization might influence hippocampus-dependent cognition. To address this question, we induced cortical spreading depolarization in C57Bl/6 J mice by epidural application of 1.5 mol/L KCl and evaluated neurogenesis and behavior at two, four, or six weeks thereafter. Congruent with our previous findings in rats, we found that cortical spreading depolarization increases numbers of newborn dentate granule neurons. Moreover, exploratory behavior and object location memory were consistently enhanced. Reference memory in the water maze was virtually unaffected, whereas memory formation in the Barnes maze was impaired with a delay of two weeks and facilitated after four weeks. These data show that cortical spreading depolarization produces lasting changes in psychomotor behavior and complex, delay- and task-dependent changes in spatial memory, and suggest that cortical spreading depolarization-like events affect the emotional and cognitive outcomes of associated brain pathologies.

  15. Evidence for altered osteoclastogenesis in splenocyte cultures from VDR knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Daniel C; Starczak, Yolandi; Kogawa, Masakazu; Barratt, Kate R; Morris, Howard A; Anderson, Paul H; Atkins, Gerald J

    2017-07-29

    The indirect action of 1α,25(OH)2-vitamin-D3 (1,25D) on the osteoclast through stromal signalling is well established. The role of vitamin D in osteoclasts through direct 1,25D-VDR signalling is less well known. We showed previously that local 1,25D synthesis in osteoclasts modified osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic resorptive activity. In this study, we hypothesised that osteoclasts lacking VDR expression would display an enhanced resorptive capacity due to the loss of 1,25D signalling. Splenocytes were cultured under osteoclast-differentiating conditions from mice with global deletion of the Vdr gene (VDRKO) and this was compared with age-matched wild-type littermate controls (WT). In VDRKO cultures, osteoclastogenesis was reduced, as indicated by fewer TRAP-positive multinucleated cells at all time points measured (p<0.05) compared to WT levels. However, VDRKO osteoclasts demonstrated greater resorption on a per cell basis than their WT counterparts. VDRKO cultures expressed greatly increased c-Fos mRNA compared to WT. In addition, the ratio of expression of the pro-apoptotic gene Bax to the pro-survival gene Bcl-2 was decreased in VDRKO cultures, implying that these osteoclasts may survive longer than WT osteoclasts. Our data indicate abnormal osteoclastogenesis due to the absence of Vdr expression, consistent with direct effects of vitamin D signalling being important for regulating the maturation and resorptive activities of osteoclasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ALTERED HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS AND AMYGDALAR NEURONAL ACTIVITY IN ADULT MICE WITH REPEATED EXPERIENCE OF AGGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy eSmagin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The repeated experience of winning in a social conflict setting elevates levels of aggression and may lead to violent behavioral patterns. Here we use a paradigm of repeated aggression and fighting deprivation to examine changes in behavior, neurogenesis, and neuronal activity in mice with positive fighting experience. We show that for males, repeated positive fighting experience induces persistent demonstration of aggression and stereotypic behaviors in daily agonistic interactions, enhances aggressive motivation, and elevates levels of anxiety. When winning males are deprived of opportunities to engage in further fights, they demonstrate increased levels of aggressiveness. Positive fighting experience results in increased levels of progenitor cell proliferation and production of young neurons in the hippocampus. This increase is not diminished after a fighting deprivation period. Furthermore, repeated winning experience decreases the number of activated (c-fos positive cells in the basolateral amygdala and increases the number of activated cells in the hippocampus; a subsequent no-fight period restores the number of c-fos-positive cells. Our results indicate that extended positive fighting experience in a social conflict heightens aggression, increases proliferation of neuronal progenitors and production of young neurons in the hippocampus, and decreases neuronal activity in the amygdala; these changes can be modified by depriving the winners of the opportunity for further fights.

  17. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) administration during neonatal brain development affects cognitive function and alters its analgesic and anxiolytic response in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viberg, Henrik; Eriksson, Per; Gordh, Torsten; Fredriksson, Anders

    2014-03-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of pain and fever in children, both at home and in the clinic, and is now also found in the environment. Paracetamol is known to act on the endocannabinoid system, involved in normal development of the brain. We examined if neonatal paracetamol exposure could affect the development of the brain, manifested as adult behavior and cognitive deficits, as well as changes in the response to paracetamol. Ten-day-old mice were administered a single dose of paracetamol (30 mg/kg body weight) or repeated doses of paracetamol (30 + 30 mg/kg body weight, 4h apart). Concentrations of paracetamol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured in the neonatal brain, and behavioral testing was done when animals reached adulthood. This study shows that acute neonatal exposure to paracetamol (2 × 30 mg) results in altered locomotor activity on exposure to a novel home cage arena and a failure to acquire spatial learning in adulthood, without affecting thermal nociceptive responding or anxiety-related behavior. However, mice neonatally exposed to paracetamol (2 × 30 mg) fail to exhibit paracetamol-induced antinociceptive and anxiogenic-like behavior in adulthood. Behavioral alterations in adulthood may, in part, be due to paracetamol-induced changes in BDNF levels in key brain regions at a critical time during development. This indicates that exposure to and presence of paracetamol during a critical period of brain development can induce long-lasting effects on cognitive function and alter the adult response to paracetamol in mice.

  18. Alterations in Notch signalling in skeletal muscles from mdx and dko dystrophic mice and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jarrod E; Trieu, Jennifer; Chee, Annabel; Naim, Timur; Gehrig, Stefan M; Lamon, Séverine; Angelini, Corrado; Russell, Aaron P; Lynch, Gordon S

    2014-04-01

    New Findings What is the central question of this study? The Notch signalling pathway plays an important role in muscle regeneration, and activation of the pathway has been shown to enhance muscle regeneration in aged mice. It is unknown whether Notch activation will have a similarly beneficial effect on muscle regeneration in the context of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). What is the main finding and its importance? Although expression of Notch signalling components is altered in both mouse models of DMD and in human DMD patients, activation of the Notch signalling pathway does not confer any functional benefit on muscles from dystrophic mice, suggesting that other signalling pathways may be more fruitful targets for manipulation in treating DMD. Abstract In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), muscle damage and impaired regeneration lead to progressive muscle wasting, weakness and premature death. The Notch signalling pathway represents a central regulator of gene expression and is critical for cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptotic signalling during all stages of embryonic muscle development. Notch activation improves muscle regeneration in aged mice, but its potential to restore regeneration and function in muscular dystrophy is unknown. We performed a comprehensive examination of several genes involved in Notch signalling in muscles from dystrophin-deficient mdx and dko (utrophin- and dystrophin-null) mice and DMD patients. A reduction of Notch1 and Hes1 mRNA in tibialis anterior muscles of dko mice and quadriceps muscles of DMD patients and a reduction of Hes1 mRNA in the diaphragm of the mdx mice were observed, with other targets being inconsistent across species. Activation and inhibition of Notch signalling, followed by measures of muscle regeneration and function, were performed in the mouse models of DMD. Notch activation had no effect on functional regeneration in C57BL/10, mdx or dko mice. Notch inhibition significantly depressed the

  19. Altered Hippocampal Transcript Profile Accompanies an Age-Related Spatial Memory Deficit in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbitsky, Miguel; Yonan, Amanda L.; Malleret, Gael; Kandel, Eric R.; Gilliam, T. Conrad; Pavlidis, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We have carried out a global survey of age-related changes in mRNA levels in the 57BL/6NIA mouse hippocampus and found a difference in the hippocampal gene expression profile between 2-month-old young mice and 15-month-old middle-aged mice correlated with an age-related cognitive deficit in hippocampal-based explicit memory formation. Middle-aged…

  20. Altered pulmonary response to hyperoxia in Clara cell secretory protein deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C J; Mango, G W; Finkelstein, J N; Stripp, B R

    1997-08-01

    Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) is an abundant component of the extracellular lining fluid of airways. Even though the in vivo function of CCSP is unknown, in vitro studies support a potential role of CCSP in the control of inflammatory responses. CCSP-deficient mice (CCSP -/-) were generated to investigate the in vivo function of this protein (13). In this study, we used hyperoxia exposure as a model to investigate phenotypic consequences of CCSP deficiency following acute lung injury. The pathologic response of the mouse lung to hyperoxia, and recovery of the lung, include inflammatory cell infiltrate and edema. Continuous exposure to > 95% O2 was associated with significantly reduced survival time among CCSP -/- mice as compared with strain-, age-, and sex-matched wild-type control mice. Differences in survival were associated with early onset of lung edema in CCSP -/- mice as compared with wild-type controls. To further investigate these differences in response, mice were exposed to > 95% O2 for either 48 h or 68 h with one group receiving 68 h of hyperoxia followed by room-air recovery. Lung RNA was characterized for changes in the abundance of cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) using a ribonuclease (RNase) protection assay. After 68 h of hyperoxia, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1beta, and IL-3 mRNAs were 14-, 3-, and 2.5-fold higher, respectively, in CCSP -/- mice than in similarly exposed wild-type control mice. Increased expression of IL-1beta mRNA in hyperoxia-exposed CCSP -/- mice was localized principally within the lung parenchyma, suggesting that the effects of CCSP deficiency were not confined to the airway epithelium. We conclude that CCSP deficiency results in increased sensitivity to hyperoxia-induced lung injury as measured by increased mortality, early onset of lung edema, and induction of proinflammatory cytokine mRNAs.

  1. High Dietary Folate in Mice Alters Immune Response and Reduces Survival after Malarial Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N Meadows

    Full Text Available Malaria is a significant global health issue, with nearly 200 million cases in 2013 alone. Parasites obtain folate from the host or synthesize it de novo. Folate consumption has increased in many populations, prompting concerns regarding potential deleterious consequences of higher intake. The impact of high dietary folate on the host's immune function and response to malaria has not been examined. Our goal was to determine whether high dietary folate would affect response to malarial infection in a murine model of cerebral malaria. Mice were fed control diets (CD, recommended folate level for rodents or folic acid-supplemented diets (FASD, 10x recommended level for 5 weeks before infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Survival, parasitemia, numbers of immune cells and other infection parameters were assessed. FASD mice had reduced survival (p<0.01, Cox proportional hazards and higher parasitemia (p< 0.01, joint model of parasitemia and survival compared with CD mice. FASD mice had lower numbers of splenocytes, total T cells, and lower numbers of specific T and NK cell sub-populations, compared with CD mice (p<0.05, linear mixed effects. Increased brain TNFα immunoreactive protein (p<0.01, t-test and increased liver Abca1 mRNA (p<0.01, t-test, a modulator of TNFα, were observed in FASD mice; these variables correlated positively (rs = 0.63, p = 0.01. Bcl-xl/Bak mRNA was increased in liver of FASD mice (p<0.01, t-test, suggesting reduced apoptotic potential. We conclude that high dietary folate increases parasite replication, disturbs the immune response and reduces resistance to malaria in mice. These findings have relevance for malaria-endemic regions, when considering anti-folate anti-malarials, food fortification or vitamin supplementation programs.

  2. Obesity-Associated Alterations in Inflammation, Epigenetics, and Mammary Tumor Growth Persist in Formerly Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Emily L; de Angel, Rebecca E; Bowers, Laura W; Khatib, Subreen A; Smith, Laura A; Van Buren, Eric; Bhardwaj, Priya; Giri, Dilip; Estecio, Marcos R; Troester, Melissa A; Hair, Brionna Y; Kirk, Erin L; Gong, Ting; Shen, Jianjun; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Hursting, Stephen D

    2016-05-01

    Using a murine model of basal-like breast cancer, we tested the hypothesis that chronic obesity, an established breast cancer risk and progression factor in women, induces mammary gland epigenetic reprogramming and increases mammary tumor growth. Moreover, we assessed whether the obesity-induced epigenetic and protumor effects are reversed by weight normalization. Ovariectomized female C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet or diet-induced obesity (DIO) regimen for 17 weeks, resulting in a normal weight or obese phenotype, respectively. Mice on the DIO regimen were then randomized to continue the DIO diet or were switched to the control diet, resulting in formerly obese (FOb) mice with weights comparable with control mice. At week 24, all mice were orthotopically injected with MMTV-Wnt-1 mouse mammary tumor cells. Mean tumor volume, serum IL6 levels, expression of proinflammatory genes in the mammary fat pad, and mammary DNA methylation profiles were similar in DIO and FOb mice and higher than in controls. Many of the genes found to have obesity-associated hypermethylation in mice were also found to be hypermethylated in the normal breast tissue of obese versus nonobese human subjects, and nearly all of these concordant genes remained hypermethylated after significant weight loss in the FOb mice. Our findings suggest that weight normalization may not be sufficient to reverse the effects of chronic obesity on epigenetic reprogramming and inflammatory signals in the microenvironment that are associated with breast cancer progression. Cancer Prev Res; 9(5); 339-48. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Oral P. gingivalis infection alters the vascular reactivity in healthy and spontaneously atherosclerotic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanon Ivanita

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that recent studies have demonstrated endothelial dysfunction in subjects with periodontitis and that there is no information about vascular function in coexistence of periodontitis and atherosclerosis, we assessed the impact of oral inoculation with the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis on vascular reactivity in healthy and hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE mice. In vitro preparations of mesenteric arteriolar bed were used to determine the vascular responses to acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine (PE. Results Alveolar bone resorption, an evidence of periodontitis, was assessed and confirmed in all infected mice. Acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced vasorelaxations were similar among all groups. Non-infected ApoE mice were hyperreactive to PE when compared to non-infected healthy mice. P gingivalis infection significantly enhanced the vasoconstriction to PE in both healthy and spontaneous atherosclerotic mice, when compared to their respective controls. Conclusions This study demonstrates that oral P gingivalis affects the alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated vascular responsiveness in both healthy and spontaneous atherosclerotic mice, reinforcing the association between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Therapy with bone marrow cells reduces liver alterations in mice chronically infected by Schistosoma mansoni

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheilla Andrade Oliveira; Bruno Solano Freitas Souza; Cada Adriana Guimar(a)es-Ferreira; Elton Sá Barreto; Siane Campos Souza; Luiz Antonio Rodrigues Freitas; Ricardo Ribeiro-dos-Santos; Milena Botelho Pereira Soares

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MCs) in the regeneration of hepatic lesions induced by Schistosoma mansoni (S.mansoni) chronic infection.METHODS: Female mice chronically infected with S.mansoni were treated with BM-MCs obtained from male green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice by intravenous or intralobular injections. Control mice received injections of saline in similar conditions. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for GFP DNA, immunofluorescence and morphometric studies were performed.RESULTS: Transplanted GFP+ cells migrated to granuloma areas and reduced the percentage of liver fibrosis. The presence of donor-derived cells was confirmed by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for detection of cells bearing Y chromosome and by PCR analysis for detection of GFP DNA. The levels of TGF-β, a cytokine associated with fibrosis deposition, in liver fragments of mice submitted to therapy were reduced. The number of oval cells in liver sections of S.rnansoni-infected mice increased 3-4 fold after transplantation. A partial recovery in albumin expression, which is decreased upon infection with S.mansoni, was found in livers of infected mice after cellular therapy.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, transplanted BMCs migrate to and reduce the damage of chronic fibrotic liver lesions caused by S.mansoni.

  5. Cold-Induced Browning Dynamically Alters the Expression Profiles of Inflammatory Adipokines with Tissue Specificity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Luo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cold exposure or β3-adrenoceptor agonist treatment induces the adipose tissues remodeling, relevant for beige adipogenesis within white adipose tissue (WAT. It remains unclear whether this process influences inflammatory adipokines expression in adipose tissues. We determine the temporal profile of cold or β3-adrenoceptor agonist (CL316,243-induced changes in the expression of inflammatory adipokines in adipose tissues in mice or primary mice adipocytes. Male C57BL/6J mice at eight weeks old were exposed to 4 °C for 1–5 days. Interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT, inguinal subcutaneous WAT (sWAT and epididymal WAT (eWAT were harvested for gene and protein expression analysis. In addition, cultured primary mice brown adipocyte (BA and white adipocyte (WA treated with or without CL316,243 were harvested for gene expression analysis. The inflammatory adipokines expressed significantly higher in WAT than BAT at baseline. They were rapidly changed in iBAT, while down-regulated in sWAT and up-regulated in eWAT during the cold acclimation. Upon CL316,243 treatment, detected inflammatory adipokines except Leptin were transiently increased in both BA and WA. Our in vivo and in vitro data demonstrate that the browning process alters the inflammatory adipokines expression in adipose tissues, which is acutely responded to in iBAT, dynamically decreased in sWAT whilst increased in eWAT for compensation.

  6. Pseudouridine synthase 1 deficient mice, a model for Mitochondrial Myopathy with Sideroblastic Anemia, exhibit muscle morphology and physiology alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, Joshua E.; Hardee, Justin P.; Fix, Dennis K.; Puppa, Melissa J.; Elkes, Johnathon; Altomare, Diego; Bykhovskaya, Yelena; Campagna, Dean R.; Schmidt, Paul J.; Sendamarai, Anoop K.; Lidov, Hart G. W.; Barlow, Shayne C.; Fischel-Ghodsian, Nathan; Fleming, Mark D.; Carson, James A.; Patton, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathy with lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA) is an oxidative phosphorylation disorder, with primary clinical manifestations of myopathic exercise intolerance and a macrocytic sideroblastic anemia. One cause of MLASA is recessive mutations in PUS1, which encodes pseudouridine (Ψ) synthase 1 (Pus1p). Here we describe a mouse model of MLASA due to mutations in PUS1. As expected, certain Ψ modifications were missing in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs from Pus1−/− animals. Pus1−/− mice were born at the expected Mendelian frequency and were non-dysmorphic. At 14 weeks the mutants displayed reduced exercise capacity. Examination of tibialis anterior (TA) muscle morphology and histochemistry demonstrated an increase in the cross sectional area and proportion of myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIB and low succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) expressing myofibers, without a change in the size of MHC IIA positive or high SDH myofibers. Cytochrome c oxidase activity was significantly reduced in extracts from red gastrocnemius muscle from Pus1−/− mice. Transmission electron microscopy on red gastrocnemius muscle demonstrated that Pus1−/− mice also had lower intermyofibrillar mitochondrial density and smaller mitochondria. Collectively, these results suggest that alterations in muscle metabolism related to mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity may account for the reduced exercise capacity in Pus1−/− mice. PMID:27197761

  7. Mice deficient in the putative phospholipid flippase ATP11C exhibit altered erythrocyte shape, anemia, and reduced erythrocyte life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabas, Mehmet; Coupland, Lucy A; Cromer, Deborah; Winterberg, Markus; Teoh, Narci C; D'Rozario, James; Kirk, Kiaran; Bröer, Stefan; Parish, Christopher R; Enders, Anselm

    2014-07-11

    Transmembrane lipid transporters are believed to establish and maintain phospholipid asymmetry in biological membranes; however, little is known about the in vivo function of the specific transporters involved. Here, we report that developing erythrocytes from mice lacking the putative phosphatidylserine flippase ATP11C showed a lower rate of PS translocation in vitro compared with erythrocytes from wild-type littermates. Furthermore, the mutant mice had an elevated percentage of phosphatidylserine-exposing mature erythrocytes in the periphery. Although erythrocyte development in ATP11C-deficient mice was normal, the mature erythrocytes had an abnormal shape (stomatocytosis), and the life span of mature erythrocytes was shortened relative to that in control littermates, resulting in anemia in the mutant mice. Thus, our findings uncover an essential role for ATP11C in erythrocyte morphology and survival and provide a new candidate for the rare inherited blood disorder stomatocytosis with uncompensated anemia. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. The testis of the mice C57/BL6 offspring in adulthood have alterations due to maternal caffeine consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Fernanda Silveira; Aiceles, Verônica; Moraes, Diana de Freitas Serapião; Alves-Pereira, Jorge Luiz; Faria, Tatiane Silva; Ramos, Cristiane da Fonte

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of the maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy to adult male testis mice offspring. Twenty pregnant mice were divided into control group (c) and caffeine group (cf). dams received daily saline or 20 mg/kg of caffeine subcutaneously. Male offspring were monitored daily until 13th week. The testis were used to evaluate both the proliferation (pcna) and apoptosis (bax); leptin receptor (ob-r); aromatase; follicle stimulating hormone (fshr), luteinizing hormone (lhr) and androgen receptors (ar); steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (star); vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) and estrogen receptors (erα and erβ) by western blotting. Serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol and leptin were measured. There was a significant reduction in food intake and the body mass gain (pcaffeine. The serum testosterone levels in the cf offspring were 90% lower than in the c offspring (p=0.04). Maternal caffeine consumption has a role and alters the testis of the offspring in adulthood.

  9. Mice lacking cannabinoid CB1-, CB2-receptors or both receptors show increased susceptibility to trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, M A; Kellermann, C A; Burnat, G; Hahn, E G; Rau, T; Konturek, P C

    2010-02-01

    This study was performed to assess whether mice lacking the cannabinoid receptor CB1, CB2 or both receptors show increased susceptibility to TNBS colitis in comparison to wildtype mice. Previously, activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors showed attenuation of TNBS colitis in mice. The aim of the study was to investigate the susceptibility of three mouse strains CB1-, CB2- and CB1+2 double knockout mice in the model of TNBS colitis. The different knockout mice were given each a single enema with TNBS 7 mg, volume 150 microl (in 50% ethanol solution) on day 1. Control group (C57BL/6 mice) received the same concentration of TNBS enema and each strain received vehicle application of 150 microl 50% ethanol solution. After a 3-day period, the animals were sacrificed and their colon excised. A scoring system was used to describe macroscopical and histological changes. Messenger RNA-expression of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta as pro-inflammatory markers was measured by RT-PCR. All three knockout strains showed increased susceptibility to TNBS colitis quantified by macroscopical and histological scoring systems and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in comparison to the TNBS control group (wild type C57BL/6 animals). Mice lacking the CB1-, CB2-receptor or both receptors showed aggravation of inflammation in the model of TNBS colitis. Lacking of both cannabinoid receptors did not result in potentiation of colitis severity compared to lacking of each CB1 or CB2, respectively. These results suggest that the endocannabinoid system may have tonic inhibitory effects on inflammatory responses in the colon.

  10. Altered cellular infiltration and cytokine levels during early Mycobacterium tuberculosis sigC mutant infection are associated with late-stage disease attenuation and milder immunopathology in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMurray David N

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse virulence assessments of certain Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants have revealed an immunopathology defect in which high tissue CFU counts are observed but the tissue pathology and lethality are reduced. M. tuberculosis mutants which grow and persist in the mouse lungs, but have attenuated disease progression, have the immunopathology (imp phenotype. The antigenic properties of these strains may alter the progression of disease due to a reduction in host immune cell recruitment to the lungs resulting in disease attenuation and prolonged host survival. Results In this study we focused on the mouse immune response to one such mutant; the M. tuberculosis ΔsigC mutant. Aerosol infection of DBA/2 and SCID mice with the M. tuberculosis ΔsigC mutant, complemented mutant and wild type strain showed proliferation of mutant bacilli in mouse lungs, but with decreased inflammation and mortality in DBA/2 mice. SCID mice shared the same phenotype as the DBA/2 mice in response to the ΔsigC mutant, however, they succumbed to the infection faster. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid analysis revealed elevated numbers of infiltrating neutrophils in the lungs of mice infected with wild type and complemented ΔsigC mutant strains but not in mice infected with the ΔsigC mutant. In addition, DBA/2 mice infected with the ΔsigC mutant had reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IFN-γ in the lungs. Similarly, there was a reduction in proinflammatory cytokines in the lungs of SCID mice. In contrast to the mouse model, the ΔsigC mutant had reduced initial growth in guinea pig lungs. A possible mechanism of attenuation in the ΔsigC mutant may be a reduction in neutrophilic-influx in the alveolar spaces of the lungs, and decreased proinflammatory cytokine secretion. In contrast to mouse data, the M. tuberculosis ΔsigC mutant proliferates slowly in guinea pig lungs, a setting characterized by caseating necrosis. Conclusion Our

  11. Alterations in oral [1-(14C] 18:1n-9 distribution in lean wild-type and genetically obese (ob/ob mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxia Wang

    Full Text Available Obesity may result from altered fatty acid (FA disposal. Altered FA distribution in obese individuals is poorly understood. Lean wild-type C57BL/6J and obese C57BL/6Job/ob mice received an oral dose of [1-(14C]18:1n-9 (oleic acid, and the radioactivity in tissues was evaluated at various time points. The (14C concentration decreased rapidly in gastrointestinal tract but gradually increased and peaked at 96 h in adipose tissue, muscle and skin in lean mice. The (14C concentration was constant in adipose tissue and muscle of obese mice from 4 h to 168 h. (14C-label content in adipose tissue was significantly affected by genotype, whereas muscle (14C-label content was affected by genotype, time and the interaction between genotype and time. There was higher total (14C retention (47.7% in obese mice than in lean mice (9.0% at 168 h (P<0.05. The (14C concentrations in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscle were higher in obese mice than in lean mice (P<0.05. Perirenal adipose tissue contained the highest (14C content in lean mice, whereas subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT had the highest (14C content and accounted for the largest proportion of total radioactivity among fat depots in obese mice. More lipid radioactivity was recovered as TAG in SAT from obese mice than from lean mice (P<0.05. Gene expression suggested acyl CoA binding protein and fatty acid binding protein are important for FA distribution in adipose tissue and muscle. The FA distribution in major tissues was altered in ob/ob mice, perhaps contributing to obesity. Understanding the disparity in FA disposal between lean and obese mice may reveal novel targets for the treatment and prevention of obesity.

  12. Alcohol intake alters immune responses and promotes CNS viral persistence in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftis, Jennifer M; Taylor, Jonathan; Raué, Hans-Peter; Slifka, Mark K; Huang, Elaine

    2016-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to progressive liver disease and is associated with a variety of extrahepatic effects, including central nervous system (CNS) damage and neuropsychiatric impairments. Alcohol abuse can exacerbate these adverse effects on brain and behavior, but the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. This study investigated the role of alcohol in regulating viral persistence and CNS immunopathology in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a model for HCV infections in humans. Female and male BALB/c mice (n=94) were exposed to alcohol (ethanol; EtOH) and water (or water only) using a two-bottle choice paradigm, followed one week later by infection with either LCMV clone 13 (causes chronic infection similar to chronic HCV), LCMV Armstrong (causes acute infection), or vehicle. Mice were monitored for 60days post-infection and continued to receive 24-h access to EtOH and water. Animals infected with LCMV clone 13 drank more EtOH, as compared to those with an acute or no viral infection. Six weeks after infection with LCMV clone 13, mice with EtOH exposure evidenced higher serum viral titers, as compared to mice without EtOH exposure. EtOH intake was also associated with reductions in virus-specific CD8(+) T cell frequencies (particularly CD11a(hi) subsets) and evidence of persistent CNS viremia in chronically infected mice. These findings support the hypothesis that EtOH use and chronic viral infection can result in combined toxic effects accelerating CNS damage and neuropsychiatric dysfunction and suggest that examining the role of EtOH in regulating viral persistence and CNS immunopathology in mice infected with LCMV can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of comorbid alcohol use disorder and chronic viral infection.

  13. Enzyme-treated Asparagus officinalis extract shows neuroprotective effects and attenuates cognitive impairment in senescence-accelerated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Takuya; Ito, Tomohiro; Wakame, Koji; Kitadate, Kentaro; Arai, Takashi; Ogasawara, Junetsu; Kizaki, Takako; Sato, Shogo; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Fujiwara, Tomonori; Akagawa, Kimio; Ishida, Hitoshi; Ohno, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Increases in the number of patients with dementia involving Alzheimer's disease (AD) are seen as a grave public health problem. In neurodegenerative disorders involving AD, biological stresses, such as oxidative and inflammatory stress, induce neural cell damage. Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a popular vegetable, and an extract prepared from this reportedly possesses various beneficial biological activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) on neuronal cells and early cognitive impairment of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. The expression of mRNAs for factors that exert cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic functions, such as heat-shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase-1, was upregulated in NG108-15 neuronal cells by treatment with ETAS. Moreover, when release of lactate dehydrogenase from damaged NG108-15 cells was increased for cells cultured in medium containing either the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside or the hypoxia mimic reagent cobalt chloride, ETAS significantly attenuated this cell damage. Also, when contextual fear memory, which is considered to be a hippocampus-dependent memory, was significantly impaired in SAMP8 mice, ETAS attenuated the cognitive impairment. These results suggest that ETAS produces cytoprotective effects in neuronal cells and attenuates the effects on the cognitive impairment of SAMP8 mice.

  14. Mice deficient in GEM GTPase show abnormal glucose homeostasis due to defects in beta-cell calcium handling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny E Gunton

    Full Text Available AIMS AND HYPOTHESIS: Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta-cells is a tightly regulated process that requires calcium flux to trigger exocytosis of insulin-containing vesicles. Regulation of calcium handling in beta-cells remains incompletely understood. Gem, a member of the RGK (Rad/Gem/Kir family regulates calcium channel handling in other cell types, and Gem over-expression inhibits insulin release in insulin-secreting Min6 cells. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Gem in insulin secretion. We hypothesised that Gem may regulate insulin secretion and thus affect glucose tolerance in vivo. METHODS: Gem-deficient mice were generated and their metabolic phenotype characterised by in vivo testing of glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance and insulin secretion. Calcium flux was measured in isolated islets. RESULTS: Gem-deficient mice were glucose intolerant and had impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Furthermore, the islets of Gem-deficient mice exhibited decreased free calcium responses to glucose and the calcium oscillations seen upon glucose stimulation were smaller in amplitude and had a reduced frequency. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that Gem plays an important role in normal beta-cell function by regulation of calcium signalling.

  15. Intracellular activities related to in vitro hippocampal sharp waves are altered in CA3 pyramidal neurons of aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Chameh, H; Peng, J; Wu, C; Zhang, L

    2014-09-26

    Pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA3 area interconnect intensively via recurrent axonal collaterals, and such CA3-to-CA3 recurrent circuitry plays important roles in the generation of hippocampal network activities. In particular, the CA3 circuitry is able to generate spontaneous sharp waves (SPWs) when examined in vitro. These in vitro SPWs are thought to result from the network activity of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons as SPW-correlating intracellular activities are featured with strong IPSPs in pyramidal neurons and EPSPs or spikes in GABAergic interneurons. In view of accumulating evidence indicating a decrease in subgroups of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons in aged animals, we test the hypothesis that the intracellular activities related to in vitro SPWs are altered in CA3 pyramidal neurons of aged mice. Hippocampal slices were prepared from adult and aged C57 black mice (ages 3-6 and 24-28months respectively). Population and single-cell activities were examined via extracellular and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. CA3 SPW frequencies were not significantly different between the slices of adult and aged mice but SPW-correlating intracellular activities featured weaker IPSC components in aged CA3 pyramidal neurons compared to adult neurons. It was unlikely that this latter phenomenon was due to general impairments of GABAergic synapses in the aged CA3 circuitry as evoked IPSC responses and pharmacologically isolated IPSCs were observed in aged CA3 pyramidal neurons. In addition, aged CA3 pyramidal neurons displayed more positive resting potentials and had a higher propensity of burst firing than adult neurons. We postulate that alterations of GABAergic network activity may explain the reduced IPCS contributions to in vitro SPWs in aged CA3 pyramidal neurons. Overall, our present observations are supportive of the notion that excitability of hippocampal CA3 circuitry is increased in aged mice.

  16. Sulfur-based redox alterations in long-lived Snell dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitvitsky, Victor; Martinov, Michael; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil; Miller, Richard A; Banerjee, Ruma

    2013-01-01

    Changes in sulfur-based redox metabolite profiles in multiple tissues of long-lived Snell dwarf mice were compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Plasma methionine and its oxidation products, hypotaurine and taurine, were increased in Snell dwarfs while cystine and glutathione levels were decreased, leading to an oxidative shift in the redox potential. Sexual dimorphism in renal cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) activity was observed in control mice but not in Snell dwarfs. Instead, female Snell mice exhibited ~2-fold higher CBS activity, comparable to levels seen in male Snell dwarf and in control mice. Taurine levels were significantly higher in kidney and brain of Snell dwarf versus control mice. Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) was higher in liver of Snell dwarfs, and the higher concentration of its product, S-adenosylmethionine, was correlated with elevated global DNA methylation status. Application of a mathematical model for methionine metabolism revealed that the metabolite perturbations in Snell dwarfs could be explained by decreased methionine transport, increased MAT and increased methyltransferase activity. Our study provides a comprehensive map of systemic differences in the sulfur network between Snell dwarfs and controls, providing the necessary foundation for assessment of nutrition-linked metabolic status in long-lived versus control animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pharmacogenetic modulation of orexin neurons alters sleep/wakefulness states in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Sasaki

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic neurons expressing neuropeptide orexins are critically involved in the control of sleep and wakefulness. Although the activity of orexin neurons is thought to be influenced by various neuronal input as well as humoral factors, the direct consequences of changes in the activity of these neurons in an intact animal are largely unknown. We therefore examined the effects of orexin neuron-specific pharmacogenetic modulation in vivo by a new method called the Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs approach (DREADD. Using this system, we successfully activated and suppressed orexin neurons as measured by Fos staining. EEG and EMG recordings suggested that excitation of orexin neurons significantly increased the amount of time spent in wakefulness and decreased both non-rapid eye movement (NREM and rapid eye movement (REM sleep times. Inhibition of orexin neurons decreased wakefulness time and increased NREM sleep time. These findings clearly show that changes in the activity of orexin neurons can alter the behavioral state of animals and also validate this novel approach for manipulating neuronal activity in awake, freely-moving animals.

  18. Experimental Chagas disease in Balb/c mice previously vaccinated with T. rangeli. II. The innate immune response shows immunological memory: reality or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, B; Marini, V

    2015-03-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a real challenge to the host's immune system, because it requires strong humoral and cellular immune response to remove circulating trypomastigote forms, and to prevent the replication of amastigote forms in tissues, involving many regulator and effector components. This protozoan is responsible for Chagas disease, a major public health problem in Latinamerica. We have developed a model of vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli, a parasite closely related to T. cruzi, but nonpathogenic to humans, which reduces the infectiousness in three different species of animals, mice, dogs and guinea pigs, against challenge with T. cruzi. In a previous work, we demonstrated that mice vaccinated with T. rangeli showed important soluble mediators that stimulate phagocytic activity versus only infected groups. The aim of this work was to study the innate immune response in mice vaccinated or not with T. rangeli. Different population cells and some soluble mediators (cytokines) in peritoneal fluid and plasma in mice vaccinated-infected and only infected with T. cruzi were studied. In the first hours of challenge vaccinated mice showed an increase of macrophages, NK, granulocytes, and regulation of IL6, IFNγ, TNFα and IL10, with an increase of IL12, with respect to only infected mice. Furthermore an increase was observed of Li T, Li B responsible for adaptative response. Finally the findings showed that the innate immune response plays an important role in vaccinated mice for the early elimination of the parasites, complementary with the adaptative immune response, suggesting that vaccination with T. rangeli modulates the innate response, which develops some kind of immunological memory, recognizing shared antigens with T. cruzi. These results could contribute to the knowledge of new mechanisms which would have an important role in the immune response to Chagas disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Altered expression of CRMPs in the brain of bovine spongiform encephalopathy-infected mice during disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvergnon, Nathalie; Reibel, Sophie; Touret, Monique; Honnorat, Jérôme; Baron, Thierry; Giraudon, Pascale; Bencsik, Anna

    2009-03-19

    While recent studies suggest that synaptic alterations are first events in the mechanisms of prion-mediated neurodegeneration, little is known on the identity of the neuronal plasticity-related genes potentially concerned. Here the expression of 4 Collapsin Response Mediator Proteins (CRMPs), a family of signal transduction proteins involved in brain development and altered in Alzheimer's disease, was studied in the brain of C57Bl/6 mice infected with the BSE strain of prion agent, using RT-PCR and Western-blot methods. At the terminal stage of the disease, gene expression of each CRMP had decreased, while at the mid-stage of the disease only CRMP4 (mRNA and protein) expression had increased, concomitant to the start of PrP(Sc) accumulation in the brainstem. Altogether our findings picked out originally CRMPs, and especially CRMP4, as potential contributors to prion pathogenesis.

  20. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency alters erythroblastic island formation, steady-state erythropoiesis and red blood cell lifespan in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Stuart T; Midwinter, Robyn G; Coupland, Lucy A; Kong, Stephanie; Berger, Birgit S; Yeo, Jia Hao; Andrade, Osvaldo Cooley; Cromer, Deborah; Suarna, Cacang; Lam, Magda; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Chong, Beng H; Parish, Christopher R; Stocker, Roland

    2015-05-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 is critical for iron recycling during red blood cell turnover, whereas its impact on steady-state erythropoiesis and red blood cell lifespan is not known. We show here that in 8- to 14-week old mice, heme oxygenase-1 deficiency adversely affects steady-state erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. This is manifested by a decrease in Ter-119(+)-erythroid cells, abnormal adhesion molecule expression on macrophages and erythroid cells, and a greatly diminished ability to form erythroblastic islands. Compared with wild-type animals, red blood cell size and hemoglobin content are decreased, while the number of circulating red blood cells is increased in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice, overall leading to microcytic anemia. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency increases oxidative stress in circulating red blood cells and greatly decreases the frequency of macrophages expressing the phosphatidylserine receptor Tim4 in bone marrow, spleen and liver. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency increases spleen weight and Ter119(+)-erythroid cells in the spleen, although α4β1-integrin expression by these cells and splenic macrophages positive for vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 are both decreased. Red blood cell lifespan is prolonged in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that while macrophages and relevant receptors required for red blood cell formation and removal are substantially depleted in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice, the extent of anemia in these mice may be ameliorated by the prolonged lifespan of their oxidatively stressed erythrocytes.

  1. Altered neuronal architecture and plasticity in the visual cortex of adult MMP-3-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Jeroen; Nys, Julie; Moons, Lieve; Hu, Tjing-Tjing; Arckens, Lutgarde

    2015-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are Zn(2+)-dependent endopeptidases considered to be essential for normal brain development and neuroplasticity by modulating extracellular matrix proteins, receptors, adhesion molecules, growth factors and cytoskeletal proteins. Specifically, MMP-3 has recently been implicated in synaptic plasticity, hippocampus-dependent learning and neuronal development and migration in the cerebellum. However, the function(s) of this enzyme in the neocortex is understudied. Therefore, we explored the phenotypical characteristics of the neuronal architecture and the capacity for experience-dependent cortical plasticity in the visual cortex of adult MMP-3-deficient (MMP-3(-/-)) mice. Golgi-Cox stainings revealed a significant reduction in apical dendritic length and an increased number of apical obliques for layer V pyramidal neurons in the visual cortex of adult MMP-3(-/-) mice compared to wild-type (WT) animals. In addition, a significant upregulation of both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein (NF)-high, phosphorylated NF-medium, NF-low and α-internexin was detected in the visual cortex of MMP-3(-/-) mice. To assess the effect of MMP-3 deficiency on cortical plasticity, we monocularly enucleated adult MMP-3(-/-) mice and analyzed the reactivation of the contralateral visual cortex 7 weeks post-enucleation. In contrast to previous results in C57Bl/6J adult mice, activity remained confined to the binocular zone and did not expand into the monocular regions indicative for an aberrant open-eye potentiation. Permanent hypoactivity in the monocular cortex lateral and medial to V1 also indicated a lack of cross-modal plasticity. These observations demonstrate that genetic inactivation of MMP-3 has profound effects on the structural integrity and plasticity response of the visual cortex of adult mice.

  2. Bovine growth hormone-transgenic mice have major alterations in hepatic expression of metabolic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Bob; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Brusehed, Ola; Isaksson, Olle G P; Ahrén, Bo; Olofsson, Sven-Olof; Oscarsson, Jan; Törnell, Jan

    2003-09-01

    Transgenic mice overexpressing growth hormone (GH) have been extensively used to study the chronic effects of elevated serum levels of GH. GH is known to have many acute effects in the liver, but little is known about the chronic effects of GH overexpression on hepatic gene expression. Therefore, we used DNA microarray to compare gene expression in livers from bovine GH (bGH)-transgenic mice and littermates. Hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) and genes involved in fatty acid activation, peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-oxidation, and production of ketone bodies was decreased. In line with this expression profile, bGH-transgenic mice had a reduced ability to form ketone bodies in both the fed and fasted states. Although the bGH mice were hyperinsulinemic, the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 and most lipogenic enzymes regulated by SREBP-1 was reduced, indicating that these mice are different from other insulin-resistant models with respect to expression of SREBP-1 and its downstream genes. This study also provides several candidate genes for the well-known association between elevated GH levels and cardiovascular disease, e.g., decreased expression of scavenger receptor class B type I, hepatic lipase, and serum paraoxonase and increased expression of serum amyloid A-3 protein. We conclude that bGH-transgenic mice display marked changes in hepatic genes coding for metabolic enzymes and suggest that GH directly or indirectly regulates many of these hepatic genes via decreased expression of PPARalpha and SREBP-1.

  3. Early Behavioral Abnormalities and Perinatal Alterations of PTEN/AKT Pathway in Valproic Acid Autism Model Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun-Jeong; Ahn, Sangzin; Lee, Kihwan; Mahmood, Usman; Kim, Hye-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy has been linked with increased incidence of autism, and has repeatedly been demonstrated as a useful autism mouse model. We examined the early behavioral and anatomical changes as well as molecular changes in mice prenatally exposed to VPA (VPA mice). In this study, we first showed that VPA mice showed developmental delays as assessed with self-righting, eye opening tests and impaired social recognition. In addition, we provide the first evidence that primary cultured neurons from VPA-treated embryos present an increase in dendritic spines, compared with those from control mice. Mutations in phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene are also known to be associated with autism, and mice with PTEN knockout show autistic characteristics. Protein expression of PTEN was decreased and the ratio of p-AKT/AKT was increased in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, and a distinctive anatomical change in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was observed. Taken together, our study suggests that prenatal exposure to VPA induces developmental delays and neuroanatomical changes via the reduction of PTEN level and these changes were detectable in the early days of life.

  4. Mice Doubly-deficient in lysosomal hexosaminidase a and neuraminidase 4 show epileptic crises and rapid neuronal loss

    OpenAIRE

    Seyrantepe, Volkan; Lema, Pablo; Caqueret, Aurore; Dridi, Larbi; Hadj, Samar Bel; Carpentier, Stephane; Boucher, Francine; Levade, Thierry; Carmant, Lionel; Gravel, Roy A.; Hamel, Edith; Vachon, Pascal; Di Cristo, Graziella; Michaud, Jacques L.; Morales, Carlos R.

    2010-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease is a severe lysosomal disorder caused by mutations in the HexA gene coding for the a-subunit of lysosomal β-hexosaminidase A, which converts GM2 to GM3 ganglioside. Hexa-/- mice, depleted of b-hexosaminidase A, remain asymptomatic to 1 year of age, because they catabolise GM2 ganglioside via a lysosomal sialidase into glycolipid GA2, which is further processed by β-hexosaminidase B to lactosyl-ceramide, thereby bypassing the β-hexosaminidase A defect. Since this bypass is no...

  5. Early exposure to ethanol but not red wine at the same alcohol concentration induces behavioral and brain neurotrophin alterations in young and adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Marco; Laviola, Giovanni; Aloe, Luigi; di Fausto, Veronica; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during pregnancy is one of the major causes of mental retardation in western countries by inducing fetal-alcohol-like-syndromes. Red wine is known to contain ethanol but also compounds with putative antioxidant properties. It has also been shown that nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are severely affected by ethanol during prenatal and postnatal life. The aim of the current study was to investigate in male CD1 mice brain alterations in NGF and BDNF due to chronic early exposure to ethanol solution (11 vol%) or to red wine at the same alcohol concentration starting from 60 days before pregnancy up to pups weaning. Data revealed no differences between groups of dams in pregnancy duration, neither in pups delivery, pups mortality and sex ratio. Data also showed that adult animals exposed to only ethanol had disrupted levels of both NGF and BDNF in the hippocampus and other brain areas. This profile was associated with impaired ChAT immunopositivity in the septum and Nuclei Basalis and with altered cognition and emotional behavior. Quite interestingly mice exposed to red wine had no change in the behavior or in ChAT immunopositivity but a decrease in hippocampal BDNF and a mild NGF decrease in the cortex. Also NGF-induced neuritic outgrowth in PC-12 cells was still present when exposed to red wine but not when exposed to ethanol solution only. Data suggest differences in ethanol-induced neurotoxicity between red wine and ethanol solution only.

  6. Lithium ameliorates sleep deprivation-induced mania-like behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis alterations, oxidative stress and elevations of cytokine concentrations in the brain and serum of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvassori, Samira S; Resende, Wilson R; Dal-Pont, Gustavo; Sangaletti-Pereira, Heron; Gava, Fernanda F; Peterle, Bruna R; Carvalho, André F; Varela, Roger B; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João

    2017-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of lithium administration on behavior, oxidative stress parameters and cytokine levels in the periphery and brain of mice subjected to an animal model of mania induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD). Male C57 mice were treated with saline or lithium for 7 days. The sleep deprivation protocol started on the 5th day during for the last 36 hours of the treatment period. Immediately after the sleep deprivation protocol, animals locomotor activity was evaluated and serum and brain samples was extracted to evaluation of corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone circulating levels, oxidative stress parameters and citokynes levels. The results showed that PSD induced hyperactivity in mice, which is considered a mania-like behavior. PSD increased lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to DNA, as well as causing alterations to antioxidant enzymes in the frontal cortex, hippocampus and serum of mice. In addition, PSD increased the levels of cytokines in the brains of mice. Treatment with lithium prevented the mania-like behavior, oxidative damage and cytokine alterations induced by PSD. Improving our understanding of oxidative damage in biomolecules, antioxidant mechanisms and the inflammatory system - alterations presented in the animal models of mania - is important in helping us to improve our knowledge concerning the pathophysiology of BD, and the mechanisms of action employed by mood stabilizers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Mice Homozygous for a Deletion in the Glaucoma Susceptibility Locus INK4 Show Increased Vulnerability of Retinal Ganglion Cells to Elevated Intraocular Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Jakobs, Tatjana C

    2016-04-01

    A genomic region located on chromosome 9p21 is associated with primary open-angle glaucoma and normal tension glaucoma in genome-wide association studies. The genomic region contains the gene for a long noncoding RNA called CDKN2B-AS, two genes that code for cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors 2A and 2B (CDKN2A/p16(INK4A) and CDKN2B/p15(INK4B)) and an additional protein (p14(ARF)). We used a transgenic mouse model in which 70 kb of murine chromosome 4, syntenic to human chromosome 9p21, are deleted to study whether this deletion leads to a discernible phenotype in ocular structures implicated in glaucoma. Homozygous mice of this strain were previously reported to show persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. Fundus photography and optical coherence tomography confirmed that finding but showed no abnormalities for heterozygous mice. Optokinetic response, eletroretinogram, and histology indicated that the heterozygous and mutant retinas were normal functionally and morphologically, whereas glial cells were activated in the retina and optic nerve head of mutant eyes. In quantitative PCR, CDKN2B expression was reduced by approximately 50% in the heterozygous mice and by 90% in the homozygous mice, which suggested that the CDKN2B knock down had no deleterious consequences for the retina under normal conditions. However, compared with wild-type and heterozygous animals, the homozygous mice are more vulnerable to retinal ganglion cell loss in response to elevated intraocular pressure.

  8. Altered behavior in mice with deletion of the alpha2-antiplasmin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashita, Eri; Kanno, Yosuke; Ikeda, Kanako; Kuretake, Hiromi; Matsuo, Osamu; Matsuno, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The α2-antiplasmin (α2AP) protein is known to be a principal physiological inhibitor of plasmin, and is expressed in various part of the brain, including the hippocampus, cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum, thus suggesting a potential role for α2AP in brain functions. However, the involvement of α2AP in brain functions is currently unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of the deletion of the α2AP gene on the behavior of mice. The motor function was examined by the wire hang test and rotarod test. To evaluate the cognitive function, a repeated rotarod test, Y-maze test, Morris water maze test, passive or shuttle avoidance test and fear conditioning test were performed. An open field test, dark/light transition test or tail suspension test was performed to determine the involvement of α2AP in anxiety or depression-like behavior. The α2AP knockout (α2AP-/-) mice exhibited impaired motor function compared with α2AP+/+ mice. The α2AP-/- mice also exhibited impairments in motor learning, working memory, spatial memory and fear conditioning memory. Furthermore, the deletion of α2AP induced anxiety-like behavior, and caused an anti-depression-like effect in tail suspension. Therefore, our findings suggest that α2AP is a crucial mediator of motor function, cognitive function, anxiety-like behavior and depression-like behavior, providing new insights into the role of α2AP in the brain functions.

  9. Nanosuspension delivery of paclitaxel to xenograft mice can alter drug disposition and anti-tumor activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Chang; Gould, Stephen; Nannini, Michelle; Qin, Ann; Deng, Yuzhong; Arrazate, Alfonso; Kam, Kimberly R.; Ran, Yingqing; Wong, Harvey

    2014-04-01

    Paclitaxel is a common chemotherapeutic agent that is effective against various cancers. The poor aqueous solubility of paclitaxel necessitates a large percentage of Cremophor EL:ethanol (USP) in its commercial formulation which leads to hypersensitivity reactions in patients. We evaluate the use of a crystalline nanosuspension versus the USP formulation to deliver paclitaxel to tumor-bearing xenograft mice. Anti-tumor efficacy was assessed following intravenous administration of three 20 mg/kg doses of paclitaxel. Paclitaxel pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution were evaluated, and differences were observed between the two formulations. Plasma clearance and tissue to plasma ratio of mice that were dosed with the nanosuspension are approximately 33- and 11-fold higher compared to those of mice that were given the USP formulation. Despite a higher tumor to plasma ratio for the nanosuspension treatment group, absolute paclitaxel tumor exposure was higher for the USP group. Accordingly, a higher anti-tumor effect was observed in the xenograft mice that were dosed with the USP formulation (90% versus 42% tumor growth inhibition). This reduction in activity of nanoparticle formulation appeared to result from a slower than anticipated dissolution in vivo. This study illustrates a need for careful consideration of both dose and systemic solubility prior utilizing nanosuspension as a mode of intravenous delivery.

  10. Altered Expression of EPO Might Underlie Hepatic Hemangiomas in LRRK2 Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ben; Xiao, Kaifu; Zhang, Zhuohua; Ma, Long

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the midbrain. The molecular mechanism of PD pathogenesis is unclear. Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are a common genetic cause of familial and sporadic PD. However, studies on LRRK2 mutant mice revealed no visible dopaminergic neuronal loss in the midbrain. While surveying a LRRK2 knockout mouse strain, we found that old animals developed age-dependent hepatic vascular growths similar to cavernous hemangiomas. In livers of these hemangioma-positive LRRK2 knockout mice, we detected an increased expression of the HIF-2α protein and significant reactivation of the expression of the HIF-2α target gene erythropoietin (EPO), a finding consistent with a role of the HIF-2α pathway in blood vessel vascularization. We also found that the kidney EPO expression was reduced to 20% of the wild-type level in 18-month-old LRRK2 knockout mice. Unexpectedly, this reduction was restored to wild-type levels when the knockout mice were 22 months to 23 months old, implying a feedback mechanism regulating kidney EPO expression. Our findings reveal a novel function of LRRK2 in regulating EPO expression and imply a potentially novel relationship between PD genes and hematopoiesis.

  11. High fat diet produces brain insulin resistance, synaptodendritic abnormalities and altered behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven E; Lucki, Irwin; Brookshire, Bethany R; Carlson, Gregory C; Browne, Caroline A; Kazi, Hala; Bang, Sookhee; Choi, Bo-Ran; Chen, Yong; McMullen, Mary F; Kim, Sangwon F

    2014-07-01

    Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome are increasingly recognized for their effects on cognitive health. To ascertain mechanisms by which this occurs, we fed mice a very high fat diet (60% kcal by fat) for 17days or a moderate high fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal by fat) for 8weeks and examined changes in brain insulin signaling responses, hippocampal synaptodendritic protein expression, and spatial working memory. Compared to normal control diet mice, cerebral cortex tissues of HFD mice were insulin-resistant as evidenced by failed activation of Akt, S6 and GSK3β with ex-vivo insulin stimulation. Importantly, we found that expression of brain IPMK, which is necessary for mTOR/Akt signaling, remained decreased in HFD mice upon activation of AMPK. HFD mouse hippocampus exhibited increased expression of serine-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1-pS(616)), a marker of insulin resistance, as well as decreased expression of PSD-95, a scaffolding protein enriched in post-synaptic densities, and synaptopodin, an actin-associated protein enriched in spine apparatuses. Spatial working memory was impaired as assessed by decreased spontaneous alternation in a T-maze. These findings indicate that HFD is associated with telencephalic insulin resistance and deleterious effects on synaptic integrity and cognitive behaviors.

  12. Pannexin-1 Deficient Mice Have an Increased Susceptibility for Atrial Fibrillation and Show a QT-Prolongation Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Petric

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Pannexin-1 (Panx1 is an ATP release channel that is ubiquitously expressed and coupled to several ligand-gated receptors. In isolated cardiac myocytes, Panx1 forms large conductance channels that can be activated by Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Here we characterized the electrophysiological function of these channels in the heart in vivo, taking recourse to mice with Panx1 ablation. Methods: Cardiac phenotyping of Panx1 knock-out mice (Panx1-/- was performed by employing a molecular, cellular and functional approach, including echocardiography, surface and telemetric ECG recordings with QT analysis, physical stress testing and quantification of heart rate variability. In addition, an in vivo electrophysiological study entailed programmed electrical stimulation using an intracardiac octapolar catheter. Results: Panx1 deficiency results in a higher incidence of AV-block, delayed ventricular depolarisation, significant prolongation of QT- and rate corrected QT-interval and a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation after intraatrial burst stimulation. Conclusion: Panx1 seems to play an important role in murine cardiac electrophysiology and warrants further consideration in the context of hereditary forms of atrial fibrillation.

  13. Excitatory synapses are stronger in the hippocampus of Rett syndrome mice due to altered synaptic trafficking of AMPA-type glutamate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Xu, Xin; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas

    2016-03-15

    Deficits in long-term potentiation (LTP) at central excitatory synapses are thought to contribute to cognitive impairments in neurodevelopmental disorders associated with intellectual disability and autism. Using the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (Mecp2) knockout (KO) mouse model of Rett syndrome, we show that naïve excitatory synapses onto hippocampal pyramidal neurons of symptomatic mice have all of the hallmarks of potentiated synapses. Stronger Mecp2 KO synapses failed to undergo LTP after either theta-burst afferent stimulation or pairing afferent stimulation with postsynaptic depolarization. On the other hand, basal synaptic strength and LTP were not affected in slices from younger presymptomatic Mecp2 KO mice. Furthermore, spine synapses in pyramidal neurons from symptomatic Mecp2 KO are larger and do not grow in size or incorporate GluA1 subunits after electrical or chemical LTP. Our data suggest that LTP is occluded in Mecp2 KO mice by already potentiated synapses. The higher surface levels of GluA1-containing receptors are consistent with altered expression levels of proteins involved in AMPA receptor trafficking, suggesting previously unidentified targets for therapeutic intervention for Rett syndrome and other MECP2-related disorders.

  14. Influenza virus-induced alterations of cytochrome P-450 enzyme activities following exposure of mice to coal and diesel particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabovsky, J; Judy, D J; Rodak, D J; Petersen, M

    1986-06-01

    between metabolic detoxication and resistance to infection in normal mice was altered during a short-term preexposure to CD or DE.

  15. CC-chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) deficiency alters adipose tissue leukocyte populations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Jeb S; Kennedy, Arion J; Hill, Andrea A; Anderson-Baucum, Emily K; Hubler, Merla J; Hasty, Alyssa H

    2016-09-01

    The mechanism by which macrophages and other immune cells accumulate in adipose tissue (AT) has been an area of intense investigation over the past decade. Several different chemokines and their cognate receptors have been studied for their role as chemoattractants in promoting recruitment of immune cells to AT However, it is also possible that chemoattractants known to promote clearance of immune cells from tissues to regional lymph nodes might be a critical component to overall AT immune homeostasis. In this study, we evaluated whether CCR7 influences AT macrophage (ATM) or T-cell (ATT) accumulation. CCR7(-/-) and littermate wild-type (WT) mice were placed on low-fat diet (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. CCR7 deficiency did not impact HFD-induced weight gain, hepatic steatosis, or glucose intolerance. Although lean CCR7(-/-) mice had an increased proportion of alternatively activated ATMs, there were no differences in ATM accumulation or polarization between HFD-fed CCR7(-/-) mice and their WT counterparts. However, CCR7 deficiency did lead to the preferential accumulation of CD8(+) ATT cells, which was further exacerbated by HFD feeding. Finally, expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, such as Tnf, Il6, Il1β, Ccl2, and Ccl3, was equally elevated in AT by HFD feeding in CCR7(-/-) and WT mice, while Ifng and Il18 were elevated by HFD feeding in CCR7(-/-) but not in WT mice. Together, these data suggest that CCR7 plays a role in CD8(+)ATT cell egress, but does not influence ATM accumulation or the metabolic impact of diet-induced obesity.

  16. Capsaicin-induced transcriptional changes in hypothalamus and alterations in gut microbial count in high fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baboota, Ritesh K; Murtaza, Nida; Jagtap, Sneha; Singh, Dhirendra P; Karmase, Aniket; Kaur, Jaspreet; Bhutani, Kamlesh K; Boparai, Ravneet K; Premkumar, Louis S; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is a global health problem and recently it has been seen as a growing concern for developing countries. Several bioactive dietary molecules have been associated with amelioration of obesity and associated complications and capsaicin is one among them. The present work is an attempt to understand and provide evidence for the novel mechanisms of anti-obesity activity of capsaicin in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Swiss albino mice divided in three groups (n=8-10) i.e. control, HFD fed and capsaicin (2mg/kg, po)+HFD fed were administered respective treatment for 3months. After measuring phenotypic and serum related biochemical changes, effect of capsaicin on HFD-induced transcriptional changes in hypothalamus, white adipose tissue (WAT) (visceral and subcutaneous), brown adipose tissue (BAT) and gut microbial alterations was studied and quantified. Our results suggest that, in addition to its well-known effects, oral administration of capsaicin (a) modulates hypothalamic satiety associated genotype, (b) alters gut microbial composition, (c) induces "browning" genotype (BAT associated genes) in subcutaneous WAT and (d) increases expression of thermogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis genes in BAT. The present study provides evidence for novel and interesting mechanisms to explain the anti-obesity effect of capsaicin.

  17. Human N-methyl D-aspartate receptor antibodies alter memory and behaviour in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planagumà, Jesús; Leypoldt, Frank; Mannara, Francesco; Gutiérrez-Cuesta, Javier; Martín-García, Elena; Aguilar, Esther; Titulaer, Maarten J; Petit-Pedrol, Mar; Jain, Ankit; Balice-Gordon, Rita; Lakadamyali, Melike; Graus, Francesc; Maldonado, Rafael; Dalmau, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder that associates with prominent memory and behavioural deficits. Patients' antibodies react with the N-terminal domain of the GluN1 (previously known as NR1) subunit of NMDAR causing in cultured neurons a selective and reversible internalization of cell-surface receptors. These effects and the frequent response to immunotherapy have suggested an antibody-mediated pathogenesis, but to date there is no animal model showing that patients' antibodies cause memory and behavioural deficits. To develop such a model, C57BL6/J mice underwent placement of ventricular catheters connected to osmotic pumps that delivered a continuous infusion of patients' or control cerebrospinal fluid (flow rate 0.25 µl/h, 14 days). During and after the infusion period standardized tests were applied, including tasks to assess memory (novel object recognition in open field and V-maze paradigms), anhedonic behaviours (sucrose preference test), depressive-like behaviours (tail suspension, forced swimming tests), anxiety (black and white, elevated plus maze tests), aggressiveness (resident-intruder test), and locomotor activity (horizontal and vertical). Animals sacrificed at Days 5, 13, 18, 26 and 46 were examined for brain-bound antibodies and the antibody effects on total and synaptic NMD