Sample records for mice receiving multiple

  1. Multiple Antenna Cognitive Receivers and Signal Detection

    Couillet, Romain


    A Bayesian inference learning process for cognitive receivers is provided in this paper. We focus on the particular case of signal detectionas an explanatory example to the learning framework. Under any prior state of knowledge on the communication channel, an information theoretic criterion is presented to decide on the presence of informative data in a noisy wireless MIMO communication. We detail the particular cases of knowledge, or absence of knowledge at the receiver, of the number of transmit antennas and noise power. The provided method is instrumental to provide intelligence to the receiver and gives birth to a novel Bayesian signal detector. The detector is compared to the classical power detector and provides detection performance upper bounds. Simulations corroborate the theoretical results and quantify the gain achieved using the proposed Bayesian framework.

  2. Explicit receivers for pure-interference bosonic multiple access channels

    Wilde, Mark M


    The pure-interference bosonic multiple access channel has two senders and one receiver, such that the senders each communicate with a single mode of light and the effect of the channel is to mix their transmissions on a beamsplitter. The receiver then obtains a signal from one of the output ports. In prior work, Yen and Shapiro found the capacity region of this channel if the senders are restricted to coherent-state encodings. Here, we demonstrate how to achieve the Yen-Shapiro region (in some cases) with a sequential decoding strategy, such that the receiver performs binary-outcome quantum measurements for every codeword pair in the senders' codebooks. A crucial component of this scheme is a non-destructive "vacuum-or-not" measurement that projects an n-symbol modulated codeword onto the n-fold vacuum state or its orthogonal complement, such that the post-measurement state is either the n-fold vacuum or has the vacuum removed from the support of the n symbols' joint quantum state. This receiver requires the ...

  3. Melanocortins protect against multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in mice

    Bitto, Alessandra; Polito, Francesca; Altavilla, Domenica; Irrera, Natasha; Giuliani, Daniela; Ottani, Alessandra; Minutoli, Letteria; Spaccapelo, Luca; Galantucci, Maria; Lodi, Renzo; Guzzo, Giuseppe; Guarini, Salvatore; Squadrito, Francesco


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Melanocortins reverse circulatory shock and improve survival by counteracting the systemic inflammatory response, and through the activation of the vagus nerve-mediated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. To gain insight into the potential therapeutic value of melanocortins against multiple organ damage following systemic inflammatory response, here we investigated the effects of the melanocortin analogue [Nle4, D-Phe7]α-MSH (NDP-α-MSH) in a widely used murine model of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH MODS was induced in mice by a single intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide followed, 6 days later (= day 0), by zymosan. After MODS or sham MODS induction, animals were randomized to receive intraperitoneally NDP-α-MSH (340 µg·kg−1 day) or saline for up to 16 days. Additional groups of MODS mice were concomitantly treated with the melanocortin MC4 receptor antagonist HS024, or the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist chlorisondamine, and NDP-α-MSH. KEY RESULTS At day 7, in the liver and lung NDP-α-MSH, significantly reduced mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), increased mRNA expression of interleukin-10 and improved the histological picture, as well as reduced TNF-α plasma levels; furthermore, NDP-α-MSH dose-dependently increased survival rate, as assessed throughout the 16 day observation period. HS024 and chlorisondamine prevented all the beneficial effects of NDP-α-MSH in MODS mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These data indicate that NDP-α-MSH protects against experimental MODS by counteracting the systemic inflammatory response, probably through brain MC4 receptor-triggered activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. These findings reveal previously undescribed effects of melanocortins and could have clinical relevance in the MODS setting. PMID:21039420

  4. Lidar receiver spatial filters for recording multiple scattering

    Abramochkin, Alexander I.; Abramochkin, Serge A.; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.


    For lidar receivers, spatial filtration problems with separate recording of the multiply backscattered flux incident at different angles relative to the optical axis of the receiving lens are considered. Beam separation is performed with spatial filters selecting image fragments within the lidar receiver field of view, which greatly exceeds the transmitted beam divergence. Various instrumental realizations of spatial filter-separators are examined, such as multielement photodetectors with concentric rings, multifiber and refractive separators, and changeable diaphragms. Possibilities and peculiarities of simultaneous and sequential recording of image fragments are considered.

  5. Channel capacity of multiple-input multiple-output systems with transmit and receive correlation


    In order to investigate the impact of channel model parameters on the channel capacity of a multipleinput multiple-output (MIMO) system,a novel method is proposed to explore the channel capacity under Rayleigh flat fading with correlated transmit and receive antennas.The optimal transmitting direction which can achieve maximum channel capacity is derived using random matrices theory.In addition,the closed-form expression for the channel capacity of MIMO systems is given by utilizing the properties of Wishart distribution when SNR is high.Computer simulation results show that the channel capacity is maximized when the antenna spacing increases to a certain point,and furthermore,the larger the scattering angle is,the more quickly the channel capacity converges to its maximum.At high SNR (>12 dB),the estimation of capacity is close to its true value.And,when the same array configuration is adopted both at the transmitter and the receiver,the UCA yields higher channel capacity than ULA.

  6. Sexually selected dichromatism in the hihi Notiomystis cincta: multiple colours for multiple receivers.

    Walker, L K; Ewen, J G; Brekke, P; Kilner, R M


    Why do some bird species show dramatic sexual dichromatism in their plumage? Sexual selection is the most common answer to this question. However, other competing explanations mean it is unwise to assume that all sexual dichromatism has evolved by this mechanism. Even if sexual selection is involved, further work is necessary to determine whether dichromatism results from competition amongst rival males, or by female choice for attractive traits, or both. Here, we test whether sexually dichromatic hihi (Notiomystis cincta) plumage is currently under sexual selection, with detailed behavioural and genetic analyses of a free-living island population. Bateman gradients measured for males and females reveal the potential for sexual selection, whilst selection gradients, relating reproductive success to specific colourful traits, show that there is stabilizing selection on white ear tuft length in males. By correlating colourful male plumage with different components of reproductive success, we show that properties of yellow plumage are most likely a product of male-male competition, whilst properties of the black and white plumage are an outcome of both male-male competition and female choice. Male plumage therefore potentially signals to multiple receivers (rival males and potential mates), and this may explain the multicoloured appearance of one of the most strikingly dichromatic species in New Zealand.

  7. Transmission of multiple system atrophy prions to transgenic mice.

    Watts, Joel C; Giles, Kurt; Oehler, Abby; Middleton, Lefkos; Dexter, David T; Gentleman, Steve M; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B


    Prions are proteins that adopt alternative conformations, which become self-propagating. Increasing evidence argues that prions feature in the synucleinopathies that include Parkinson's disease, Lewy body dementia, and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Although TgM83(+/+) mice homozygous for a mutant A53T α-synuclein transgene begin developing CNS dysfunction spontaneously at ∼10 mo of age, uninoculated TgM83(+/-) mice (hemizygous for the transgene) remain healthy. To determine whether MSA brains contain α-synuclein prions, we inoculated the TgM83(+/-) mice with brain homogenates from two pathologically confirmed MSA cases. Inoculated TgM83(+/-) mice developed progressive signs of neurologic disease with an incubation period of ∼100 d, whereas the same mice inoculated with brain homogenates from spontaneously ill TgM83(+/+) mice developed neurologic dysfunction in ∼210 d. Brains of MSA-inoculated mice exhibited prominent astrocytic gliosis and microglial activation as well as widespread deposits of phosphorylated α-synuclein that were proteinase K sensitive, detergent insoluble, and formic acid extractable. Our results provide compelling evidence that α-synuclein aggregates formed in the brains of MSA patients are transmissible and, as such, are prions. The MSA prion represents a unique human pathogen that is lethal upon transmission to Tg mice and as such, is reminiscent of the prion causing kuru, which was transmitted to chimpanzees nearly 5 decades ago.

  8. Automatic visual tracking and social behaviour analysis with multiple mice.

    Luca Giancardo

    Full Text Available Social interactions are made of complex behavioural actions that might be found in all mammalians, including humans and rodents. Recently, mouse models are increasingly being used in preclinical research to understand the biological basis of social-related pathologies or abnormalities. However, reliable and flexible automatic systems able to precisely quantify social behavioural interactions of multiple mice are still missing. Here, we present a system built on two components. A module able to accurately track the position of multiple interacting mice from videos, regardless of their fur colour or light settings, and a module that automatically characterise social and non-social behaviours. The behavioural analysis is obtained by deriving a new set of specialised spatio-temporal features from the tracker output. These features are further employed by a learning-by-example classifier, which predicts for each frame and for each mouse in the cage one of the behaviours learnt from the examples given by the experimenters. The system is validated on an extensive set of experimental trials involving multiple mice in an open arena. In a first evaluation we compare the classifier output with the independent evaluation of two human graders, obtaining comparable results. Then, we show the applicability of our technique to multiple mice settings, using up to four interacting mice. The system is also compared with a solution recently proposed in the literature that, similarly to us, addresses the problem with a learning-by-examples approach. Finally, we further validated our automatic system to differentiate between C57B/6J (a commonly used reference inbred strain and BTBR T+tf/J (a mouse model for autism spectrum disorders. Overall, these data demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of this new machine learning system in the detection of social and non-social behaviours in multiple (>2 interacting mice, and its versatility to deal with different

  9. Hypoglossal motoneurons in newborn mice receive respiratory drive from both sides of the medulla

    Tarras-Wahlberg, S; Rekling, J C


    Respiratory motor output in bilateral cranial nerves is synchronized, but the underlying synchronizing mechanisms are not clear. We used an in vitro slice preparation from newborn mice to investigate the effect of systematic transsections on respiratory activity in bilateral XII nerves. Complete...... correlations, where large-amplitude XII-bursts on one side was synchronized with small-amplitude XII-burst on the contralateral side. These characteristic amplitude correlations suggest that hypoglossal motoneurons receive respiratory drive from bilateral sources. Retrograde labeling confirmed that commissural...... in bilateral XII nerves. Hypoglossal motoneurons receive respiratory drive from both sides of the medulla, possibly mediated by contralaterally projecting dendrites....

  10. Exendin-4 protected against cognitive dysfunction in hyperglycemic mice receiving an intrahippocampal lipopolysaccharide injection.

    Hei-Jen Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic hyperglycemia-associated inflammation plays critical roles in disease initiation and the progression of diabetic complications, including Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, the association of chronic hyperglycemia with acute inflammation of the central nervous system in the progression of AD still needs to be elucidated. In addition, recent evidence suggests that Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R protects against neuronal damage in the brain. Therefore, the neuroprotective effects of the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (EX-4 against hyperglycemia/lipopolysaccharides (LPS damage were also evaluated in this study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten days after streptozotocin (STZ or vehicle (sodium citrate treatment in mice, EX-4 treatment (10 µg/kg/day was applied to the mice before intrahippocampal CA1 injection of LPS or vehicle (saline and continued for 28 days. This study examined the molecular alterations in these mice after LPS and EX4 application, respectively. The mouse cognitive function was evaluated during the last 6 days of EX-4 treatment. The results showed that the activation of NF-κB-related inflammatory responses induced cognitive dysfunction in both the hyperglycemic mice and the mice that received acute intrahippocampal LPS injection. Furthermore, acute intrahippocampal LPS injection exacerbated the impairment of spatial learning and memory through a strong decrease in monoaminergic neurons and increases in astrocytes activation and apoptosis in the hyperglycemic mice. However, EX-4 treatment protected against the cognitive dysfunction resulting from hyperglycemia or/and intrahippocampal LPS injection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings reveal that both hyperglycemia and intrahippocampal LPS injection induced cognitive dysfunction via activation of NF-κB-related inflammatory responses. However, acute intrahippocampal LPS injection exacerbated the progression of cognitive dysfunction in the

  11. Multiple host barriers restrict poliovirus trafficking in mice.

    Sharon K Kuss


    Full Text Available RNA viruses such as poliovirus have high mutation rates, and a diverse viral population is likely required for full virulence. We previously identified limitations on poliovirus spread after peripheral injection of mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor (PVR, and we hypothesized that the host interferon response may contribute to the viral bottlenecks. Here, we examined poliovirus population bottlenecks in PVR mice and in PVR mice that lack the interferon alpha/beta receptor (PVR-IFNAR-/-, an important component of innate immunity. To monitor population dynamics, we developed a pool of ten marked polioviruses discriminated by a novel hybridization-based assay. Following intramuscular or intraperitoneal injection of the ten-virus pool, a major bottleneck was observed during transit to the brain in PVR mice, but was absent in PVR-IFNAR-/- mice, suggesting that the interferon response was a determinant of the peripheral site-to-brain bottleneck. Since poliovirus infects humans by the fecal-oral route, we tested whether bottlenecks exist after oral inoculation of PVR-IFNAR-/- mice. Despite the lack of a bottleneck following peripheral injection of PVR-IFNAR-/- mice, we identified major bottlenecks in orally inoculated animals, suggesting physical barriers may contribute to the oral bottlenecks. Interestingly, two of the three major bottlenecks we identified were partially overcome by pre-treating mice with dextran sulfate sodium, which damages the colonic epithelium. Overall, we found that viral trafficking from the gut to other body sites, including the CNS, is a very dynamic, stochastic process. We propose that multiple host barriers and the resulting limited poliovirus population diversity may help explain the rare occurrence of viral CNS invasion and paralytic poliomyelitis. These natural host barriers are likely to play a role in limiting the spread of many microbes.

  12. Aged mice receiving caffeine since adulthood show distinct patterns of anxiety-related behavior.

    Botton, Paulo Henrique S; Pochmann, Daniela; Rocha, Andreia S; Nunes, Fernanda; Almeida, Amanda S; Marques, Daniela M; Porciúncula, Lisiane O


    Caffeine is the psychostimulant most consumed worldwide. Anxiogenic effects of caffeine have been described in adult animals with controversial findings about its anxiogenic potential. Besides, the effects of caffeine on anxiety with aging are still poorly known. In this study, adult mice (6months old) started to receive caffeine (0.3 and 1.0mg/mL, drinking water) during 12-14months only in the light cycle and at weekdays. The open field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) testing were used to determine the effects of caffeine on anxiety-related behavior in adult and aged mice (18-20months old). Because aging alters synaptic proteins, we also evaluated SNAP-25 (as a nerve terminals marker), GFAP (as an astrocyte marker) and adenosine A1 and A2A receptors levels in the cortex. According to the OF analysis, caffeine did not change both hypolocomotion and anxiety with aging. However, aged mice showed less anxiety behavior in the EPM, but after receiving caffeine (0.3mg/mL) during adulthood they were anxious as adult mice. While SNAP-25 and adenosine A2A receptors increased with aging, both GFAP and adenosine A1 receptors were not affected. Caffeine at moderate dose prevented the age-related increase of the SNAP-25, with no effect on adenosine A2A receptors. The absence of effect for the highest dose suggests that tolerance to caffeine may have developed over time. Aged mice showed high responsiveness to the OF, being difficult to achieve any effect of caffeine. On the other hand this substance sustained the adult anxious behavior over time in a less stressful paradigm, and this effect was coincident with changes in the SNAP-25, suggesting the involvement of this synaptic protein in the ability of caffeine to preserve changes related to emotionality with aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Persistence and adherence in multiple sclerosis patients starting glatiramer acetate treatment : assessment of relationship with care received from multiple disciplines

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Lemmens, Wim A.; Hupperts, Raymond; Hoogervorst, Erwin L. J.; Schrijver, Hans M.; Slettenaar, Astrid; de Schryver, Els L.; Boringa, Jan; van Noort, Esther; Donders, Rogier


    Background: In multiple sclerosis patients, the persistence of, and adherence to, disease-modifying treatment are often insufficient. The degree of persistence and adherence may relate to the care received from various disciplines. Methods: In an observational study of 203 patients treated with glat

  14. Performance Enhancement of Land Vehicle Positioning Using Multiple GPS Receivers in an Urban Area

    Jong-Hwa Song


    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System (GPS is the most widely used navigation system in land vehicle applications. In urban areas, the GPS suffers from insufficient signal strength, multipath propagation and non-line-of-sight (NLOS errors, so it thus becomes difficult to obtain accurate and reliable position information. In this paper, an integration algorithm for multiple receivers is proposed to enhance the positioning performance of GPS for land vehicles in urban areas. The pseudoranges of multiple receivers are integrated based on a tightly coupled approach, and erroneous measurements are detected by testing the closeness of the pseudoranges. In order to fairly compare the pseudoranges, GPS errors and terms arising due to the differences between the positions of the receivers need to be compensated. The double-difference technique is used to eliminate GPS errors in the pseudoranges, and the geometrical distance is corrected by projecting the baseline vector between pairs of receivers. In order to test and analyze the proposed algorithm, an experiment involving live data was performed. The positioning performance of the algorithm was compared with that of the receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM-based integration algorithm for multiple receivers. The test results showed that the proposed algorithm yields more accurate position information in urban areas.

  15. Performance Enhancement of Land Vehicle Positioning Using Multiple GPS Receivers in an Urban Area.

    Song, Jong-Hwa; Jee, Gyu-In


    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is the most widely used navigation system in land vehicle applications. In urban areas, the GPS suffers from insufficient signal strength, multipath propagation and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) errors, so it thus becomes difficult to obtain accurate and reliable position information. In this paper, an integration algorithm for multiple receivers is proposed to enhance the positioning performance of GPS for land vehicles in urban areas. The pseudoranges of multiple receivers are integrated based on a tightly coupled approach, and erroneous measurements are detected by testing the closeness of the pseudoranges. In order to fairly compare the pseudoranges, GPS errors and terms arising due to the differences between the positions of the receivers need to be compensated. The double-difference technique is used to eliminate GPS errors in the pseudoranges, and the geometrical distance is corrected by projecting the baseline vector between pairs of receivers. In order to test and analyze the proposed algorithm, an experiment involving live data was performed. The positioning performance of the algorithm was compared with that of the receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM)-based integration algorithm for multiple receivers. The test results showed that the proposed algorithm yields more accurate position information in urban areas.

  16. Optimal power allocation of a single transmitter-multiple receivers channel in a cognitive sensor network

    Ayala Solares, Jose Roberto


    The optimal transmit power of a wireless sensor network with one transmitter and multiple receivers in a cognitive radio environment while satisfying independent peak, independent average, sum of peak and sum of average transmission rate constraints is derived. A suboptimal scheme is proposed to overcome the frequency of outages for the independent peak transmission rate constraint. In all cases, numerical results are provided for Rayleigh fading channels. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Stevens-Johnson syndrome limited to multiple sites of radiation therapy in a patient receiving phenobarbital.

    Duncan, K O; Tigelaar, R E; Bolognia, J L


    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a severe cutaneous eruption that most often appears as an adverse reaction to a medication. There have been 21 reported cases of atypical erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and SJS arising in patients receiving radiation therapy in addition to phenytoin, phenobarbital, or carbamazepine. We report the second case of SJS resulting from concomitant phenobarbital and radiation therapy, in which the eruption was limited to the sites of radiation, which were multiple.

  18. Assessment and monitoring of patients receiving chemotherapy for multiple myeloma: strategies to improve outcomes

    Faiman B


    Full Text Available Beth Faiman, Jason Valent Department of Hematologic Oncology and Blood Disorders, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: Improved understanding as to the biology of multiple myeloma (MM and the bone marrow microenvironment has led to the development of new drugs to treat MM. This explosion of new and highly effective drugs has led to dramatic advances in the management of MM and underscores the need for supportive care. Impressive and deep response rates to chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies, and small molecule drugs provide hope of a cure or prolonged remission for the majority of individuals. For most patients, long-term, continuous therapy is often required to suppress the malignant plasma cell clone, thus requiring clinicians to become more astute in assessment, monitoring, and intervention of side effects as well as monitoring response to therapy. Appropriate diagnosis and monitoring strategies are essential to ensure that patients receive the appropriate chemotherapy and supportive therapy at relapse, and that side effects are appropriately managed to allow for continued therapy and adherence to the regimen. Multiple drugs with complex regimens are currently available with varying side effect profiles. Knowledge of the drugs used to treat MM and the common adverse events will allow for preventative strategies to mitigate adverse events and prompt intervention. The purpose of this paper is to review updates in the diagnosis and management of MM, and to provide strategies for assessment and monitoring of patients receiving chemotherapy for MM. Keywords: multiple myeloma, treatment, symptoms, assessment, monitoring, symptom management, targeted therapies

  19. Multiple Interference Cancellation Performance for GPS Receivers with Dual-Polarized Antenna Arrays

    Moeness G. Amin


    Full Text Available This paper examines the interference cancellation performance in global positioning system (GPS receivers equipped with dual-polarized antenna arrays. In dense jamming environment, different types of interferers can be mitigated by the dual-polarized antennas, either acting individually or in conjunction with other receiver antennas. We apply minimum variance distorntionless response (MVDR method to a uniform circular dual-polarized antenna array. The MVDR beamformer is constructed for each satellite. Analysis of the eigenstructures of the covariance matrix and the corresponding weight vector polarization characteristics are provided. Depending on the number of jammers and jammer polarizations, the array chooses to expend its degrees of freedom to counter the jammer polarization or/and use phase coherence to form jammer spatial nulls. Results of interference cancellations demonstrate that applying multiple MVDR beamformers, each for one satellite, has a superior cancellation performance compared to using only one MVDR beamformer for all satellites in the field of view.

  20. Effects of carnitine administration to multiple injury patients receiving total parenteral nutrition.

    Testasecca, D


    Blood, urine and tissue concentrations of carnitine have been found to be below the normal values in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). It might be postulated that the carnitine deficiency is responsible for the metabolic disturbances observed during TPN. To 20 patients (10 male and 10 female) in a state of coma following multiple injuries or brain injury and submitted to a TPN regimen (hypertonic polycarbohydrate, 7% aminoacid solutions on 10% lipid suspensions), we have administered 3-8 g/day of carnitine i.v. as a single bolus each morning. We have found no increase in cholesterol and triglycerides serum levels and a normalization of pyruvate and lactate serum levels. Our results seem to confirm the importance of carnitine in improving metabolism of the energy-giving substrate in patients receiving TPN.

  1. Performance Analysis of a Free Space Optics Link with Multiple Transmitters/Receivers

    Nur Haedzerin Md Noor


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:  Multiple transmitters/receivers (TX/RX are used to improve the quality of Free Space Optics (FSO communication systems. With the current needs of this technology for longer distance communication, the qualitative analysis of the system has become essential. In this work, the received power level (PR and bit error rate (BER are considered to influence the FSO link performance. The relationship between the two parameters are investigated and analysed. Furthermore, the received power for various numbers of TXs and RXs are experimentally measured and compared with the values obtained from theoretical calculations. The first part of the work deals with the theoretical calculation and simulation designs of multiple laser beams based on the commercial FSO used in actual sites. The second part describes the practical work and analysis of the system’s performance.ABSTRAK: Pemancar/penerima berganda (TX/RX digunakan bagi meningkatkan kualiti sistem komunikasi Ruang Optik Bebas (FSO. Analisis kualitatif ke atas sistemnya adalah penting bagi keperluan semasa teknologi ini untuk jarak jauh. Di dalam kajian ini, aras kuasa penerima (PR dan kadar ralat bit (BER telah diambilkira bagi menentukan prestasi rangkaian FSO. Hubungan di antara kedua-dua parameter telah dikaji dan dianalisis. Seterusnya, kuasa penerima untuk pelbagai nombor TXs dan RXs diukur secara eksperimen dan dibandingkan dengan nilai teori yang dikira. Bahagian pertama skop kajian berkaitan dengan pengiraan teori dan rekabentuk simulasi sinaran laser berdasarkan FSO komersial di lapangan. Bahagian kedua kajian adalah kerja lapangan dan analisis prestasi sistem.KEY WORDS:  Free Space Optics (FSO link; Multiple TX/RX FSO; bit error rate (BER; eye diagram.



    This paper is concerned with the simulation of the mixing mechanism of submerged multiport diffusers used to discharge heated water from thermal-electric power plants and households into shallow receiving waters. The three-dimensional turbulence model and hybrid finite analytic method are used to predict the behavior of near field for multiport buoyant jets in rivers. The predicted temperature dilution and velocity prove good by comparison with available laboratory measurements. An empirical formula for temperature dilution and velocity in near field for this kind of flow is given. The effect of parameters on the dilution behavior of multiple jets are also discussed.

  3. Role of Serotonin in MODS: Deficiency of Serotonin Protects Against Zymosan-Induced Multiple Organ Failure in Mice.

    Zhang, Jingyao; Pang, Qing; Song, Sidong; Zhang, Ruiyao; Liu, Sushun; Huang, Zichao; Wu, Qifei; Liu, Yang; Liu, Chang


    Zymosan-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is a multifactorial pathology that involves the deterioration of function of several organs. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a small monoamine molecule that is primarily known for its role as a neurotransmitter. Previous studies have shown that 5-HT could serve as an important inflammatory mediator in the peripheral immune system. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 5-HT on the development of non-septic shock caused by zymosan in mice. Tryptophan hydroxylase 1-knockout mice (TPH1, leading to the absence of 5-HT), TPH1 + 5-hydroxytryptophan (precursor of 5-HT) treatment mice, wild-type (TPH1) mice, and wild-type plus p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, TPH1 inhibitor) treatment mice received zymosan intraperitoneally at a dose of 500 mg/kg. Organ failure and systemic inflammation in the mice were assessed 18 h after the administration of zymosan. Deficiency of 5-HT caused a significant reduction of the 1) peritoneal exudate formation, 2) neutrophil infiltration, 3) MODS, 4) nitrosative stress, and 5) cytokine formation. In addition, at the end of the observation period (7 days), deficiency of 5-HT in the mice was shown to be able to alleviate the severe illness characterized as systemic toxicity, significant loss of body weight, and high mortality caused by zymosan. In conclusion, the lack of 5-HT by genetic knockout or by pharmacologic inhibition of the TPH1 enzyme significantly attenuated zymosan-induced MODS.

  4. Research on non-uniform sampling problem when adapting wavenumber algorithm to multiple-receiver synthetic aperture sonar


    The azimuth sampling of multiple-receiver SAS systems is non-uniform,which causes standard wavenumber algorithm(ω—κ) can't be applied to multiple-receiver SAS image reconstruction.To solve the problem,two methods are presented,which can adapt the standardω—κalgorithm to multiple-receiver SAS system.One method named Non-uniform Separate Fourier Transform(NSFFT) converts the Fourier Transform(FT) of the non-uniform samples in azimuth direction into several uniform FTs on the assumption that the sonar array...

  5. On the estimation of target depth using the single transmit multiple receive metal detector array

    Ho, K. C.; Gader, P. D.


    This paper investigates the use of the Single Transmit Multiple Receive (STMR) metal detector (MD) array to estimate the depth of metal targets, such as 155mm shells. The depth estimation problem using MD has been investigated by a number of researchers and the processing was performed along the down-track. The proposed method takes a different approach by exploring the MD responses in cross-track to achieve the depth estimation. It is found that the normalized energy spread of the MD output is narrower for shallow targets and wider for deeper targets. Based on this observation, a method is derived to estimate the depth of a target. Experimental results from the data collected at an U.S. Army test site validate the performance of the proposed depth estimator.

  6. Low Complexity Receiver Structures for Space-Time Coded Multiple-Access Systems

    Jayaweera Sudharman K


    Full Text Available Multiuser detection for space-time coded synchronous multiple-access systems in the presence of independent Rayleigh fading is considered. Under the assumption of quasi-static fading, it is shown that optimal (full diversity achieving space-time codes designed for single-user channels, can still provide full diversity in the multiuser channel. The joint optimal maximum likelihood multiuser detector, which can be implemented with a Viterbi-type algorithm, is derived for such space-time coded systems. Low complexity, partitioned detector structures that separate the multiuser detection and space-time decoding into two stages are also developed. Both linear and nonlinear multiuser detection schemes are considered for the first stage of these partitioned space-time multiuser receivers. Simulation results show that these latter methods achieve performance competitive with the single-user bound for space-time coded systems.

  7. Performance analysis of underlay cognitive multihop regenerative relaying systems with multiple primary receivers

    Hyadi, Amal


    Multihop relaying is an efficient strategy to improve the connectivity and extend the coverage area of secondary networks in underlay cognitive systems. In this work, we provide a comprehensive performance study of cognitive multihop regenerative relaying systems in an underlay spectrum sharing scenario with the presence of multiple primary receivers. Both interference power and peak power constraints are taken into account. In our analysis, all the links are subject to independent, non-identically distributed Nakagami-m fading. We derive closed-form expressions for the outage probability, high-order amount of fading, bit error rate, symbol error rate, and ergodic capacity. Different scenarios are presented to illustrate the obtained results and Monte Carlo simulations confirm the accuracy of our analytical derivations. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Multi-Destination Cognitive Radio Relay Network with SWIPT and Multiple Primary Receivers

    Al-Habob, Ahmed A.


    In this paper, we study the performance of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) technique in a multi-destination dual-hop underlay cognitive relay network with multiple primary receivers. Information transmission from the secondary source to destinations is performed entirely via a decode- and-forward (DF) relay. The relay is assumed to have no embedded power source and to harvest energy from the source signal using a power splitting (PS) protocol and employing opportunistic scheduling to forward the information to the selected destination. We derive analytical expressions for the outage probability assuming Rayleigh fading channels and considering the energy harvesting efficiency at relay, the source maximum transmit power and primary receivers interference constraints. The system performance is also studied at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values where approximate expressions for the outage probability are provided and analyzed in terms of diversity order and coding gain. Monte-Carlo simulations and some numerical examples are provided to validate the derived expressions and to illustrate the effect of various system parameters on the system performance. In contrast to their conventional counterparts where a multi- destination diversity is usually achieved, the results show that the multi-destination cognitive radio relay networks with the SWIPT technique achieve a constant diversity order of one.

  9. Statistics and frequency-domain moveout for multiple-taper receiver functions

    Park, J.; Levin, V.


    The multiple-taper correlation (MTC) algorithm for the estimation of teleseismic receiver functions (RFs) has desirable statistical properties. This paper presents several adaptations to the MTC algorithm that exploit its frequency-domain uncertainty estimates to generate stable RFs that include moveout corrections for deeper interfaces. Narrow-band frequency averaging implicit in spectral cross-correlation restricts the MTC-based RF estimates to resolve Ps converted phases only at short delay times, appropriate to the upper 100 km of Earth's lithosphere. The Ps conversions from deeper interfaces can be reconstructed by the MTC algorithm in two ways. Event cross-correlation computes a cross-correlation of single-taper spectrum estimates for a cluster of events rather than for a set of eigenspectrum estimates of a single P coda. To extend the reach of the algorithm, pre-stack moveout corrections in the frequency domain preserves the formal uncertainties of the RF estimates, which are used to weight RF stacks. Moving-window migration retains the multiple-taper approach, but cross-correlates the P-polarized motion with time-delayed SH and SV motion to focus on a Ps phase of interest. The frequency-domain uncertainties of bin-averaged RFs do not translate directly into the time domain. A jackknife over data records in each bin stack offers uncertainty estimates in the time domain while preserving uncertainty weighting in the frequency-domain RF stack.

  10. Multiple pathogenic proteins implicated in neuronopathic Gaucher disease mice.

    Xu, You-hai; Xu, Kui; Sun, Ying; Liou, Benjamin; Quinn, Brian; Li, Rong-hua; Xue, Ling; Zhang, Wujuan; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Witte, David; Grabowski, Gregory A


    Gaucher disease, a prevalent lysosomal storage disease (LSD), is caused by insufficient activity of acid β-glucosidase (GCase) and the resultant glucosylceramide (GC)/glucosylsphingosine (GS) accumulation in visceral organs (Type 1) and the central nervous system (Types 2 and 3). Recent clinical and genetic studies implicate a pathogenic link between Gaucher and neurodegenerative diseases. The aggregation and inclusion bodies of α-synuclein with ubiquitin are present in the brains of Gaucher disease patients and mouse models. Indirect evidence of β-amyloid pathology promoting α-synuclein fibrillation supports these pathogenic proteins as a common feature in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, multiple proteins are implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic neuronopathic Gaucher disease (nGD). Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses showed significant amounts of β-amyloid and amyloid precursor protein (APP) aggregates in the cortex, hippocampus, stratum and substantia nigra of the nGD mice. APP aggregates were in neuronal cells and colocalized with α-synuclein signals. A majority of APP co-localized with the mitochondrial markers TOM40 and Cox IV; a small portion co-localized with the autophagy proteins, P62/LC3, and the lysosomal marker, LAMP1. In cultured wild-type brain cortical neural cells, the GCase-irreversible inhibitor, conduritol B epoxide (CBE), reproduced the APP/α-synuclein aggregation and the accumulation of GC/GS. Ultrastructural studies showed numerous larger-sized and electron-dense mitochondria in nGD cerebral cortical neural cells. Significant reductions of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate production and oxygen consumption (28-40%) were detected in nGD brains and in CBE-treated neural cells. These studies implicate defective GCase function and GC/GS accumulation as risk factors for mitochondrial dysfunction and the multi-proteinopathies (α-synuclein-, APP- and Aβ-aggregates) in nGD.

  11. Reactivation of BK polyomavirus in patients with multiple sclerosis receiving natalizumab therapy.

    Lonergan, Roisin M


    Natalizumab therapy in multiple sclerosis has been associated with JC polyomavirus-induced progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy. We hypothesized that natalizumab may also lead to reactivation of BK, a related human polyomavirus capable of causing morbidity in immunosuppressed groups. Patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis treated with natalizumab were prospectively monitored for reactivation of BK virus in blood and urine samples, and for evidence of associated renal dysfunction. In this cohort, JC and BK DNA in blood and urine; cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in blood and urine; CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte counts and ratios in peripheral blood; and renal function were monitored at regular intervals. BK subtyping and noncoding control region sequencing was performed on samples demonstrating reactivation. Prior to commencement of natalizumab therapy, 3 of 36 patients with multiple sclerosis (8.3%) had BK viruria and BK reactivation occurred in 12 of 54 patients (22.2%). BK viruria was transient in 7, continuous in 2 patients, and persistent viruria was associated with transient viremia. Concomitant JC and CMV viral loads were undetectable. CD4:CD8 ratios fluctuated, but absolute CD4 counts did not fall below normal limits. In four of seven patients with BK virus reactivation, transient reductions in CD4 counts were observed at onset of BK viruria: these resolved in three of four patients on resuppression of BK replication. No renal dysfunction was observed in the cohort. BK virus reactivation can occur during natalizumab therapy; however, the significance in the absence of renal dysfunction is unclear. We propose regular monitoring for BK reactivation or at least for evidence of renal dysfunction in patients receiving natalizumab.

  12. Improved survival of TNF-deficient mice during the zymosan-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    Volman, T.J.H.; Hendriks, T.; Verhofstad, A.A.J.; Kullberg, B.J.; Goris, R.J.A.


    The purpose of the study was to investigate the course of the zymosan-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in the absence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in a murine model. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha-lymphotoxin-a knockout (TNF/LT-/-) mice (n = 36) and wild-type (TNF/LT+/+) mice (n =

  13. sCD200 present in mice receiving cardiac and skin allografts causes immunosuppression in vitro and induces Tregs.

    Gorczynski, Reginald; Chen, Zhiqi; Khatri, Ismat; Yu, Kai


    CD200 overexpression in transgenic mice increases skin, cardiac, and renal allograft survival. Elevated levels of soluble CD200 (sCD200) are found in the serum of cancer individuals. We investigated whether sCD200 levels increase in mice with prolonged graft survival. Control or CD200 BL/6 recipients of BALB/c cardiac or skin grafts received low-dose rapamycin (0.5 mg/kg) at 36-hr intervals, a dose shown previously not to augment the survival of control grafts or alter the host antigraft immunity or graft gene expression profiles. Separate groups received high-dose rapamycin (1.5 mg/kg). Serum was obtained at 8, 15, and 80 days after grafting and assayed for sCD200 (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), for the suppression of immunity in mixed leukocyte cultures (MLCs), for the induction of regulatory T cells able to suppress cytotoxic T lymphocyte induction in MLCs, and for the ability to transfer graft survival to naïve recipients. Both CD200 and conventional mice with early enhanced graft survival had increased levels of sCD200 in serum, which induced Tr1 able to suppress MLCs. Suppression was abolished after passage of serum over a CD200 immunoadsorbent column. Dendritic cells maturing in the presence of sCD200 serum could induce populations of Foxp3 regulatory T cells able to suppress MLCs in vitro. In CD200 mice with long-term surviving cardiac (skin) allografts in the absence of continued transgene induction (>80 days [>35 days]), sCD200 levels returned to baseline, with no loss of grafts, but sera were unable to suppress MLCs in vitro. sCD200 serum adoptively transferred increased graft survival to naïve mice. We conclude that monitoring sCD200 at early times after engraftment may predict allograft survival.

  14. Histopathological Study of the Lungs of Mice Receiving Human Secretory IgA and Challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Alvarez, Nadine; Infante, Juan Francisco; Borrero, Reinier; Mata, Dulce; Payan, Jorge Barrios-; Hossain, Md Murad; Mohd Nor, Norazmi; Sarmiento, María Elena; Hernandez-Pando, Rogelio; Acosta, Armando


    Humoral and cellular immune responses are associated with protection against extracellular and intracellular pathogens, respectively. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of receiving human secretory immunoglobulin A (hsIgA) on the histopathology of the lungs of mice challenged with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The hsIgA was purified from human colostrum and administered to Balb/c mice by the intranasal route prior to infection with M. tuberculosis or in a pre-incubated formulation with mycobacteria, with the principal aim to study its effect on qualitative pulmonary histopathology. The intranasal administration of hsIgA and the pre-incubation of mycobacteria with this preparation was associated with the presence of organised granulomas with signs of immune activation and histological features related to efficient disease control. This effect was highly evident during the late stage of infection (60 days), as demonstrated by numerous organised granulomas with numerous activated macrophages in the lungs of treated mice. The administration of hsIgA to mice before intratracheal infection with M. tuberculosis or the pre-incubation of the bacteria with the antibody formulation induced the formation of well-organised granulomas and inflammatory lesions in lungs compared with non-treated animals which correlates with the protective effect already demonstrated by these antibody formulations.

  15. Recall of UVB-induced erythema in breast cancer patient receiving multiple drug chemotherapy

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Lindskov, R


    One day after sunbathing, a breast cancer patient received intravenous methotrexate, cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil and had a recall of her UV erythema over the following week. Phototesting with UVA and UVB prior to and after a subsequent chemotherapy treatment showed a UVB-induced recall of...

  16. Multiple sevoflurane anesthesia in pregnant mice inhibits neurogenesis of fetal hippocampus via repressing transcription factor Pax6.

    Fang, Fang; Song, Ruixue; Ling, Xiaomim; Peng, Mengyuan; Xue, Zhanggang; Cang, Jing


    Sevoflurane is widely used in non-obstetric surgeries of pregnant women, but its influences on fetal brain are still not fully known. We set out to assess the effects of multiple maternal sevoflurane exposure on neurogenesis and cognitive dysfunction in fetus and offspring. Pregnant mice (gestational day 15.5) and cultured mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) received daily sevoflurane exposure (2.5%×2h and 4.1%×2h respectively) for three consecutive days. Cognitive function of the offspring was determined with the Morris water maze. The expression of Ccnd1 and Pax6 in fetal brains and NSCs were analyzed by immunofluorescence, Western blot and qPCR. The neurogenesis was evaluated by BrdU staining. Results showed that multiple sevoflurane exposure in pregnant mice caused the decrease of Pax6 and Ccnd1 expression, the inhibition of NSCs proliferation and fetal hippocampus neurogenesis, which may contribute to the impaired learning and memory in offspring at P28. Moreover, lithium mitigated the sevoflurane-induced reduction in Pax6, Ccnd1 and neurogenesis. All these results suggest that multiple sevoflurane exposure may induce detrimental effects in the developing brains of fetus and offspring by the depression of neurogenesis through Pax6 pathway.

  17. Algorithms for Locating and Identifying Multiple Sources and Receivers by a Distributed Sensor Network.


    to the non-stationarity of the atmosphere) have characterized methods which employ covariance calculations of the received field to estimate cross...dK(st)/dt + d(s,t)/ds . see e.g., IKLM], where -1 is an or of the divergence type. Livshits [LY] defined an equivalent infinitesimal ition capacity calculations . In many applications, one may be interested in efficient parametrizations of such measures, either to simplify the

  18. Advanced Receiver Design for Mitigating Multiple RF Impairments in OFDM Systems: Algorithms and RF Measurements

    Adnan Kiayani


    Full Text Available Direct-conversion architecture-based orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM systems are troubled by impairments such as in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q imbalance and carrier frequency offset (CFO. These impairments are unavoidable in any practical implementation and severely degrade the obtainable link performance. In this contribution, we study the joint impact of frequency-selective I/Q imbalance at both transmitter and receiver together with channel distortions and CFO error. Two estimation and compensation structures based on different pilot patterns are proposed for coping with such impairments. The first structure is based on preamble pilot pattern while the second one assumes a sparse pilot pattern. The proposed estimation/compensation structures are able to separate the individual impairments, which are then compensated in the reverse order of their appearance at the receiver. We present time-domain estimation and compensation algorithms for receiver I/Q imbalance and CFO and propose low-complexity algorithms for the compensation of channel distortions and transmitter IQ imbalance. The performance of the compensation algorithms is investigated with computer simulations as well as with practical radio frequency (RF measurements. The performance results indicate that the proposed techniques provide close to the ideal performance both in simulations and measurements.

  19. Experiments on multiple-receiver magnetic resonance-based wireless power transfer in low megahertz with metamaterials

    Kang, Le; Hu, Yuli; Zheng, Wei


    In this paper, an efficient magnetic resonance-based wireless power transfer (MRWPT) system with metamaterials is proposed. The negative permeability (MNG) metamaterials for this system with low-megahertz frequency is designed, which can be adjusted to work well at a variable receiving angle ranging from 0° to 45° along z-direction. The S-parameters, resonant frequency and permeability of metamaterials are computed for analysis. The transmission efficiency of the multiple-receiver MRWPT system in free space is compared to that in the presence of metamaterials placed in front of transmission and receive coils. The measured results show that the performance of the proposed metamaterials is perfect in improving the efficiency with incident electromagnetic waves from various directions.

  20. Sodium fusidate ameliorates the course of diabetes induced in mice by multiple low doses of streptozotocin

    Nicoletti, F; Di Marco, R; Conget, I


    We studied the effects of the immunosuppressant sodium fusidate (fusidin) on murine immunoinflammatory diabetes mellitus (DM) induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (SZ). Fusidin was given by gavage to three strains of mice (C57KsJ, C57BL/6, CD1) at doses 10 or 100 mg/kg body weight every...

  1. Regulation of an Autoimmune Model for Multiple Sclerosis in Th2-Biased GATA3 Transgenic Mice

    Viromi Fernando


    Full Text Available T helper (Th2 cells have been proposed to play a neuroprotective role in multiple sclerosis (MS. This is mainly based on “loss-of-function” studies in an animal model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, using blocking antibodies against Th2 related cytokines, and knockout mice lacking Th2-related molecules. We tested whether an increase of Th2 responses (“gain-of-function” approach could alter EAE, the approach of novel GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3-transgenic (tg mice that overexpress GATA3, a transcription factor required for Th2 differentiation. In EAE induced with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35−55 peptide, GATA3-tg mice had a significantly delayed onset of disease and a less severe maximum clinical score, compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Histologically, GATA3-tg mice had decreased levels of meningitis and demyelination in the spinal cord, and anti-inflammatory cytokine profiles immunologically, however both groups developed similar levels of MOG-specific lymphoproliferative responses. During the early stage, we detected higher levels of interleukin (IL-4 and IL-10, with MOG and mitogen stimulation of regional lymph node cells in GATA3-tg mice. During the late stage, only mitogen stimulation induced higher IL-4 and lower interferon-γ and IL-17 production in GATA3-tg mice. These results suggest that a preexisting bias toward a Th2 immune response may reduce the severity of inflammatory demyelinating diseases, including MS.

  2. Recall of UVB-induced erythema in breast cancer patient receiving multiple drug chemotherapy

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Lindskov, R


    One day after sunbathing, a breast cancer patient received intravenous methotrexate, cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil and had a recall of her UV erythema over the following week. Phototesting with UVA and UVB prior to and after a subsequent chemotherapy treatment showed a UVB-induced recall...... of erythema, as well as a phototoxicity-like response. Skin biopsies from test sites were compatible with phototoxic dermatitis. The occurrence of both erythema recall and the phototoxicity-like reaction suggests that more than one mechanism is involved in this side effect....

  3. Population dynamics of Toxocara canis in pigs receiving a single or multiple infection

    Taira, K.; Saeed, I.; Lind, Peter


    of the experiment (day 49 p.i.). A few larvae were found in the muscles and brain until day 42 p.i., and 2 larvae were found in the eyes of 2 pigs on day 35 p.i. There was little evidence of protective immurory to a challenge infection in this experiment. The eosinophil levels tended not to increase in pigs...... receiving a challenge infection, in contrast to the challenge control pigs. The fact that T. canis larvae migrate and persist in the tissues of pigs for more than 1 month suggests a zoonotic risk in infected pigs. The relevance of these data to the population biology and immunology of porcine and human...

  4. Multiple mechanisms involved in diabetes protection by lipopolysaccharide in non-obese diabetic mice

    Wang, Jun [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Cao, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Wang, Hongjie [Section of Neurobiology, Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Port Saint Lucie, FL (United States); Yin, Guoxiao; Du, Jiao; Xia, Fei; Lu, Jingli [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Xiang, Ming, E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)


    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation has been proposed to be important for islet cell inflammation and eventually β cell loss in the course of type 1 diabetes (T1D) development. However, according to the “hygiene hypothesis”, bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an agonist on TLR4, inhibits T1D progression. Here we investigated possible mechanisms for the protective effect of LPS on T1D development in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. We found that LPS administration to NOD mice during the prediabetic state neither prevented nor reversed insulitis, but delayed the onset and decreased the incidence of diabetes, and that a multiple-injection protocol is more effective than a single LPS intervention. Further, LPS administration suppressed spleen T lymphocyte proliferation, increased the generation of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs), reduced the synthesis of strong Th1 proinflammatory cytokines, and downregulated TLR4 and its downstream MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Most importantly, multiple injections of LPS induced a potential tolerogenic dendritic cell (DC) subset with low TLR4 expression without influencing the DC phenotype. Explanting DCs from repeated LPS-treated NOD mice into NOD/SCID diabetic mice conferred sustained protective effects against the progression of diabetes in the recipients. Overall, these results suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in the protective effects of LPS against the development of diabetes in NOD diabetic mice. These include Treg induction, down-regulation of TLR4 and its downstream MyD88-dependent signaling pathway, and the emergence of a potential tolerogenic DC subset. - Highlights: • Administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) prevented type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. • Downregulating TLR4 level and MyD88-dependent pathway contributed to protection of LPS. • LPS administration also hampered DC maturation and promoted Treg differentiation.

  5. The effect of cortisone on the multiplication of M. tuberculosis in normal and immune mice

    Robson, J. M.; Sullivan, F. M.


    The multiplication of M. tuberculosis, var. bovis inoculated into the cornea of mice was studied by staining the whole cornea at various stages after inoculation. Four groups of animals were studied: untreated animals, animals treated with cortisone, animals previously immunized with the same bovine strain, and immunized animals treated with cortisone. In the untreated immunized group little or no multiplication occurred. In the other three groups multiplication did occur and was about the same for the first week after inoculation. After this stage, cortisone-treated animals, whether previously immunized or not, showed increased multiplication and massive cord formation, as compared with untreated animals in which little further multiplication was seen. The cortisone treatment had thus completely suppressed immunity. The significance of these results is discussed. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:13446380

  6. Bayesian receiver operating characteristic estimation of multiple tests for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in Chadian cattle.

    Borna Müller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (BTB today primarily affects developing countries. In Africa, the disease is present essentially on the whole continent; however, little accurate information on its distribution and prevalence is available. Also, attempts to evaluate diagnostic tests for BTB in naturally infected cattle are scarce and mostly complicated by the absence of knowledge of the true disease status of the tested animals. However, diagnostic test evaluation in a given setting is a prerequisite for the implementation of local surveillance schemes and control measures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We subjected a slaughterhouse population of 954 Chadian cattle to single intra-dermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT testing and two recently developed fluorescence polarization assays (FPA. Using a Bayesian modeling approach we computed the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve of each diagnostic test, the true disease prevalence in the sampled population and the disease status of all sampled animals in the absence of knowledge of the true disease status of the sampled animals. In our Chadian setting, SICCT performed better if the cut-off for positive test interpretation was lowered from >4 mm (OIE standard cut-off to >2 mm. Using this cut-off, SICCT showed a sensitivity and specificity of 66% and 89%, respectively. Both FPA tests showed sensitivities below 50% but specificities above 90%. The true disease prevalence was estimated at 8%. Altogether, 11% of the sampled animals showed gross visible tuberculous lesions. However, modeling of the BTB disease status of the sampled animals indicated that 72% of the suspected tuberculosis lesions detected during standard meat inspections were due to other pathogens than Mycobacterium bovis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results have important implications for BTB diagnosis in a high incidence sub-Saharan African setting and demonstrate the practicability of our Bayesian approach for

  7. A multiplicative reinforcement learning model capturing learning dynamics and interindividual variability in mice.

    Bathellier, Brice; Tee, Sui Poh; Hrovat, Christina; Rumpel, Simon


    Both in humans and in animals, different individuals may learn the same task with strikingly different speeds; however, the sources of this variability remain elusive. In standard learning models, interindividual variability is often explained by variations of the learning rate, a parameter indicating how much synapses are updated on each learning event. Here, we theoretically show that the initial connectivity between the neurons involved in learning a task is also a strong determinant of how quickly the task is learned, provided that connections are updated in a multiplicative manner. To experimentally test this idea, we trained mice to perform an auditory Go/NoGo discrimination task followed by a reversal to compare learning speed when starting from naive or already trained synaptic connections. All mice learned the initial task, but often displayed sigmoid-like learning curves, with a variable delay period followed by a steep increase in performance, as often observed in operant conditioning. For all mice, learning was much faster in the subsequent reversal training. An accurate fit of all learning curves could be obtained with a reinforcement learning model endowed with a multiplicative learning rule, but not with an additive rule. Surprisingly, the multiplicative model could explain a large fraction of the interindividual variability by variations in the initial synaptic weights. Altogether, these results demonstrate the power of multiplicative learning rules to account for the full dynamics of biological learning and suggest an important role of initial wiring in the brain for predispositions to different tasks.

  8. Value of the free light chain analysis in the clinical evaluation of response in multiple myeloma patients receiving anti-myeloma therapy

    Toftmann Hansen, Charlotte; Pedersen, Per T.; Jensen, Bo Amdi;

    Value of the free light chain analysis in the clinical evaluation of response in multiple myeloma patients receiving anti-myeloma therapy.......Value of the free light chain analysis in the clinical evaluation of response in multiple myeloma patients receiving anti-myeloma therapy....


    王荷英; 张伟云; 喻林冲; 施美琴; 刘季和


    Immune-defieient nude mice were inoculated with nude mouse derived Mycobacterium leprae by multiple routes (intravenously, subcutaneously at the foot pads and ears). The results showed that these inoculated animals were capable of producing a great number of Mycohecteritma leprae to a level 1011-12 per gram of tissue, and were detected histopathologically to have heavy lepromatous lesions. The dissemination of the infeetion was found particulerly in sites with lower body temperature. The ccgaulsms have a partiality to striated muscles and peripheral nerves. The authors suggest that experimental lepeosy in nude mice is a very useful tool for leprosy resarch, especially Jn cotmtries without armadillos. Compared with the single-route inoculation reported previously, multiple-route inoculation is more available.

  10. A non-inheritable maternal Cas9-based multiple-gene editing system in mice.

    Sakurai, Takayuki; Kamiyoshi, Akiko; Kawate, Hisaka; Mori, Chie; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanaka, Megumu; Uetake, Ryuichi; Sato, Masahiro; Shindo, Takayuki


    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is capable of editing multiple genes through one-step zygote injection. The preexisting method is largely based on the co-injection of Cas9 DNA (or mRNA) and guide RNAs (gRNAs); however, it is unclear how many genes can be simultaneously edited by this method, and a reliable means to generate transgenic (Tg) animals with multiple gene editing has yet to be developed. Here, we employed non-inheritable maternal Cas9 (maCas9) protein derived from Tg mice with systemic Cas9 overexpression (Cas9 mice). The maCas9 protein in zygotes derived from mating or in vitro fertilization of Tg/+ oocytes and +/+ sperm could successfully edit the target genome. The efficiency of such maCas9-based genome editing was comparable to that of zygote microinjection-based genome editing widely used at present. Furthermore, we demonstrated a novel approach to create "Cas9 transgene-free" gene-modified mice using non-Tg (+/+) zygotes carrying maCas9. The maCas9 protein in mouse zygotes edited nine target loci simultaneously after injection with nine different gRNAs alone. Cas9 mouse-derived zygotes have the potential to facilitate the creation of genetically modified animals carrying the Cas9 transgene, enabling repeatable genome engineering and the production of Cas9 transgene-free mice.

  11. Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple electroconvulsive therapy sessions: characteristics, indications, and results

    Iancu I


    Full Text Available Iulian Iancu,* Nimrod Pick,* Orit Seener-Lorsh, Pinhas Dannon Be’er Ya’akov Mental Health Center, affiliated with the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel *These authors share first authorship of this paper Background: While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT has been used for many years, there is insufficient research regarding the indications for continuation/maintenance (C/M-ECT, its safety and efficacy, and the characteristics of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple ECT sessions. The aims of this study were to characterize a series of patients who received 30 ECT sessions or more, to describe treatment regimens in actual practice, and to examine the results of C/M-ECT in terms of safety and efficacy, especially the effect on aggression and functioning.Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of 20 consecutive patients (mean age 64.6 years with schizophrenia (n=16 or schizoaffective disorder (n=4 who received at least 30 ECT sessions at our ECT unit, and also interviewed the treating physician and filled out the Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised.Results: Patients received a mean of 91.3 ECT sessions at a mean interval of 2.6 weeks. All had been hospitalized for most or all of the previous 3 years. There were no major adverse effects, and cognitive side effects were relatively minimal (cognitive deficit present for several hours after treatment. We found that ECT significantly reduced scores on the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised subscales for verbal aggression and self-harm, and improved Global Assessment of Functioning scores. There were reductions in total aggression scores, subscale scores for harm to objects and to others, and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scores, these were not statistically significant.Conclusion: C/M-ECT is safe and effective for

  12. Comparison of doses received by the hippocampus in patients treated with single isocenter– vs multiple isocenter–based stereotactic radiation therapy to the brain for multiple brain metastases

    Algan, Ozer, E-mail:; Giem, Jared; Young, Julie; Ali, Imad; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Hossain, Sabbir


    To investigate the doses received by the hippocampus and normal brain tissue during a course of stereotactic radiation therapy using a single isocenter (SI)–based or multiple isocenter (MI)–based treatment planning in patients with less than 4 brain metastases. In total, 10 patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrating 2-3 brain metastases were included in this retrospective study, and 2 sets of stereotactic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans (SI vs MI) were generated. The hippocampus was contoured on SPGR sequences, and doses received by the hippocampus and the brain were calculated and compared between the 2 treatment techniques. A total of 23 lesions in 10 patients were evaluated. The median tumor volume, the right hippocampus volume, and the left hippocampus volume were 3.15, 3.24, and 2.63 mL, respectively. In comparing the 2 treatment plans, there was no difference in the planning target volume (PTV) coverage except in the tail for the dose-volume histogram (DVH) curve. The only statistically significant dosimetric parameter was the V{sub 100}. All of the other measured dosimetric parameters including the V{sub 95}, V{sub 99}, and D{sub 100} were not significantly different between the 2 treatment planning techniques. None of the dosimetric parameters evaluated for the hippocampus revealed any statistically significant difference between the MI and SI plans. The total brain doses were slightly higher in the SI plans, especially in the lower dose region, although this difference was not statistically different. The use of SI-based treatment plan resulted in a 35% reduction in beam-on time. The use of SI treatments for patients with up to 3 brain metastases produces similar PTV coverage and similar normal tissue doses to the hippocampus and the brain when compared with MI plans. SI treatment planning should be considered in patients with multiple brain metastases undergoing stereotactic treatment.

  13. Optimization of magnetic flux density measurement using multiple RF receiver coils and multi-echo in MREIT.

    Jeong, Woo Chul; Chauhan, Munish; Sajib, Saurav Z K; Kim, Hyung Joong; Serša, Igor; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je


    Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) is an MRI method that enables mapping of internal conductivity and/or current density via measurements of magnetic flux density signals. The MREIT measures only the z-component of the induced magnetic flux density B = (Bx, By, Bz) by external current injection. The measured noise of Bz complicates recovery of magnetic flux density maps, resulting in lower quality conductivity and current-density maps. We present a new method for more accurate measurement of the spatial gradient of the magnetic flux density gradient (∇ Bz). The method relies on the use of multiple radio-frequency receiver coils and an interleaved multi-echo pulse sequence that acquires multiple sampling points within each repetition time. The noise level of the measured magnetic flux density Bz depends on the decay rate of the signal magnitude, the injection current duration, and the coil sensitivity map. The proposed method uses three key steps. The first step is to determine a representative magnetic flux density gradient from multiple receiver coils by using a weighted combination and by denoising the measured noisy data. The second step is to optimize the magnetic flux density gradient by using multi-echo magnetic flux densities at each pixel in order to reduce the noise level of ∇ Bz and the third step is to remove a random noise component from the recovered ∇ Bz by solving an elliptic partial differential equation in a region of interest. Numerical simulation experiments using a cylindrical phantom model with included regions of low MRI signal to noise ('defects') verified the proposed method. Experimental results using a real phantom experiment, that included three different kinds of anomalies, demonstrated that the proposed method reduced the noise level of the measured magnetic flux density. The quality of the recovered conductivity maps using denoised ∇ Bz data showed that the proposed method reduced the conductivity

  14. Evidences of Protective Potentials of Microdoses of Ultra-High Diluted Arsenic Trioxide in Mice Receiving Repeated Injections of Arsenic Trioxide

    Pathikrit Banerjee


    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to examine if microdoses of ultra-high diluted arsenic trioxide (a potentized homeopathic remedy, Arsenicum Album 200C, diluted 10-400 times have hepatoprotective potentials in mice subjected to repeated injections of arsenic trioxide. Arsenic intoxicated mice were divided into: (i those receiving Arsenicum Album-200C daily, (ii those receiving the same dose of diluted succussed alcohol (Alc 200C and (iii another group receiving neither drug nor succussed alcohol. Two other control groups were also maintained: one fed normal diet only and the other receiving normal diet and Alc-200C. Toxicity biomarkers like aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, glutathione reductase, catalase, succinate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione contents were periodically assayed keeping the observer “blinded”. Additionally, electron microscopic studies and gelatin zymography for matrix metalloproteinases of liver tissues were made at day 90 and 120. Blood glucose, hemoglobin, estradiol and testosterone contents were also studied. Compared to controls, Arsenicum Album-200C fed mice showed positive modulations of all parameters studied, thereby providing evidence of protective potentials of the homeopathic drug against chronic arsenic poisoning.

  15. Multiple alterations of platelet functions dominated by increased secretion in mice lacking Cdc42 in platelets

    Pleines, Irina; Eckly, Anita; Elvers, Margitta;


    formation and exocytosis in various cell types, but its exact function in platelets is not established. Here, we show that the megakaryocyte/platelet-specific loss of Cdc42 leads to mild thrombocytopenia and a small increase in platelet size in mice. Unexpectedly, Cdc42-deficient platelets were able to form...... reduced, suggesting increased clearing of the cells under physiologic conditions. These data point to novel multiple functions of Cdc42 in the regulation of platelet activation, granule organization, degranulation, and a specific role in GPIb signaling....

  16. Sodium fusidate ameliorates the course of diabetes induced in mice by multiple low doses of streptozotocin

    Nicoletti, F; Di Marco, R; Conget, I


    development of hyperglycaemia acutely induced by one single and high (160 mg/kg) dose of SZ, which is a model of DM primarily due to the toxic action of SZ on the beta cells and does not involve immunopathogenetic mechanisms. On day 14 after SZ, fusidin markedly altered the circulating cytokine profile......We studied the effects of the immunosuppressant sodium fusidate (fusidin) on murine immunoinflammatory diabetes mellitus (DM) induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (SZ). Fusidin was given by gavage to three strains of mice (C57KsJ, C57BL/6, CD1) at doses 10 or 100 mg/kg body weight every...

  17. The Multiple Forms of Leishmania Major in BALB/C Mice Lung in Iran

    M Jafari


    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases, which are endemic in different parts of Iran. Leishmania major and L. tropica are the primary causative agents of this disease. The aim of the present study was to detect the multiple forms of L. major in lung. Ppromastigotes of L. major at stationary phase were injected to BALB/c mice. After 60 days, the different forms of Leishmania parasites were checked in lung tissue. Promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania parasites were detected.

  18. The tissue distribution of diazinon and the inhibition of blood cholinesterase activities in rats and mice receiving a single intraperitoneal dose of diazinon.

    Tomokuni, K; Hasegawa, T; Hirai, Y; Koga, N


    The tissue distribution of diazinon and the inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activities in plasma, erythrocyte and brain were investigated using male rats and mice which received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of diazinon (20 or 100 mg/kg body wt) in olive oil. The blood diazinon level was estimated to reach a maximum at 1-2 h after the i.p. administration. It was demonstrated that the diazinon residue levels are the highest in the kidney, when comparing the distribution of diazinon among liver, kidney and brain in the animals after dosing. It was indicated that the ChE inhibition by diazinon exposure is greater in the plasma than in the erythrocytes for male mice, while its inhibition is greater in the erythrocytes for male rats. Brain ChE activity was also inhibited markedly in the mice after dosing.

  19. A multiple receiver - multiple transmitter VLF high-order differential analysis evaluation network for near real-time detection and discrimination of seismic-ionospheric precursor phenomena

    Skeberis, Christos; Zaharis, Zaharias; Xenos, Thomas; Spatalas, Spyridon; Stratakis, Dimitrios; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Biagi, Pier francesco


    This study provides an evaluation of the application of high-order differential analysis on VLF signals on a multiple-receiver multiple-transmitter network. This application provides a method for near-real-time detection of disturbances that can be attributed to seismic-ionospheric precursor phenomena and can discriminate disturbances that could be classified as false positives and thus should be attributed to other geomagnetic influences. VLF data acquired in Thessaloniki, Greece (40.59N, 22,78E) Herakleion, Greece (35.31N, 25.10E), Nicosia, Cyprus (35.17N, 33.35E), Italy (42.42N, 13.08E) and transmitted by the VLF station in Tavolara, Italy (ICV station 40.923N, 9.731E) and the station in Keflavik, Iceland (ICE 64.02N, 22.57W) from January 2015 to January 2016 were used for the purpose of this paper. The receivers have been developed by Elettronika Srl and are part of the International Network for Frontier Research on Earthquake Precursors (INFREP). The process applied for this study has been further developed and is based on differential analysis. The signals undergo transformation using an enhanced version of the Hilbert Huang Transform, and relevant spectra are produced. On the product of this process, differential analysis is applied. Finally, the method produces the correlation coefficient of signals that are on the same path over an earthquake epicenter in order to highlight disturbances, and on the opposite can make comparisons with unrelated transmitted signals of different paths to eliminate disturbances that are not localized to the area of interest. This improvement provides a simple method of noise cancellation to signals that would otherwise be considered as false positives. A further evaluation of the method is provided with the presentation and discussion of sample results. The method seems to be a robust tool of analysis of VLF signals and also an automatic detection tool with built-in noise cancellation of outside disturbances.

  20. Long-term Effects of Multiple Glucocorticoid Exposures in Neonatal Mice

    Susan E. Maloney


    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids (GCs such as dexamethasone (DEX or betamethasone are repeatedly administered for up to a month to prematurely born infants as a treatment for chronic lung dysfunction. Results of clinical trials have shown that the use of GCs in these infants induces long-term deficits in neuromotor function and cognition. We have previously shown that a single exposure to clinically relevant doses of DEX or other GCs in the mouse during a period corresponding to the human perinatal period produces a dramatic increase in apoptotic cell death of neural progenitor cells in the developing cerebellum. To provide a model approximating more chronic clinical dosing regimens, we evaluated possible behavioral effects resulting from repeated exposures to DEX and subsequent GC-induced neuronal loss where neonatal mouse pups were injected with 3.0 mg/kg DEX or saline on postnatal days 7, 9, and 11 (DEX3 treatment. Adult, DEX3-treated mice exhibited long-term, possibly permanent, neuromotor deficits on a complex activity wheel task, which requires higher-order motor co-ordination skills. DEX3 mice exhibited impaired performance on this task relative to saline controls in each of two independent studies involving separate cohorts of mice. Histopathology studies utilizing stereological neuronal counts conducted in behaviorally-tested mice showed that the DEX3 treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the number of neurons in the internal granule layer (IGL of the cerebellum, although the number of neurons in the Purkinje cell layer were unchanged. The results suggest that multiple neonatal DEX exposures can produce chronic deficits in fine motor co-ordination that are associated with cerebellar IGL neuronal loss.

  1. Underwater acoustic channel estimation using multiple sources and receivers in shallow waters at very-high frequencies

    Kaddouri, Samar

    The underwater channel poses numerous challenges for acoustic communication. Acoustic waves suffer long propagation delay, multipath, fading, and potentially high spatial and temporal variability. In addition, there is no typical underwater acoustic channel; every body of water exhibits quantifiably different properties. Underwater acoustic modems are traditionally operated at low frequencies. However, the use of broadband, high frequency communication is a good alternative because of the lower background noise compared to low-frequencies, considerably larger bandwidth and better source transducer efficiency. One of the biggest problems in the underwater acoustic communications at high frequencies is time-selective fading, resulting in the Doppler spread. While many Doppler detection, estimation and compensation techniques can be found in literature, the applications are limited to systems operating at low frequencies contained within frequencies ranging from a few hundred Hertz to around 30 kHz. This dissertation proposes two robust channel estimation techniques for simultaneous transmissions using multiple sources and multiple receivers (MIMO) that closely follows the rapidly time-varying nature of the underwater channel. The first method is a trended least square (LS) estimation that combines the traditional LS method with an empirical modal decomposition (EMD) based trend extraction algorithm. This method allows separating the slow fading modes in the MIMO channels from the fast-fading ones and thus achieves a close tracking of the channel impulse response time fluctuations. This dissertation also outlines a time-varying underwater channel estimation method based on the channel sparsity characteristic. The sparsity of the underwater communication channel is exploited by using the MIMO P-iterative greedy orthogonal matching pursuit (MIMO-OMP) algorithm for the channel estimation. Both techniques are demonstrated in a fully controlled environment, using simulated

  2. The Bcl-2 family member BIM has multiple glaucoma-relevant functions in DBA/2J mice.

    Harder, Jeffrey M; Fernandes, Kimberly A; Libby, Richard T


    Axonal insult induces retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death through a BAX-dependent process. The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member BIM is known to induce BAX activation. BIM expression increased in RGCs after axonal injury and its induction was dependent on JUN. Partial and complete Bim deficiency delayed RGC death after mechanical optic nerve injury. However, in a mouse model of glaucoma, DBA/2J mice, Bim deficiency did not prevent RGC death in eyes with severe optic nerve degeneration. In a subset of DBA/2J mice, Bim deficiency altered disease progression resulting in less severe nerve damage. Bim deficient mice exhibited altered optic nerve head morphology and significantly lessened intraocular pressure elevation. Thus, a decrease in axonal degeneration in Bim deficient DBA/2J mice may not be caused by a direct role of Bim in RGCs. These data suggest that BIM has multiple roles in glaucoma pathophysiology, potentially affecting susceptibility to glaucoma through several mechanisms.

  3. Organ damage in zymosan-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in mice is not mediated by inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    Volman, T.J.H.; Goris, R.J.A.; Jagt, M. van der; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Hendriks, T.


    OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the development of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in a murine model by using either a selective iNOS inhibitor or iNOS knockout mice. DESIGN: Prospective randomized laboratory study. SETTING: Central animal

  4. Dietary phytoestrogens present in soy dramatically increase cardiotoxicity in male mice receiving a chemotherapeutic tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

    Harvey, Pamela Ann; Leinwand, Leslie Anne


    Use of soy supplements to inhibit cancer cell growth is increasing among patients due to the perception that phytoestrogens in soy inhibit carcinogenesis via induction of apoptosis. Genistein, the most prevalent phytoestrogen in soy, is a potent endocrine disruptor and tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that causes apoptosis in many cells types. Chemotherapeutic TKIs limit cancer cell growth via the same mechanisms. However, TKIs such as Sunitinib cause cardiotoxicity in a significant number of patients. Molecular interactions between Sunitinib and dietary TKIs like genistein have not been examined in cardiomyocytes. Significant lethality occurred in mice treated with Sunitinib and fed a phytoestrogen-supplemented diet. Isolated cardiomyocytes co-treated with genistein and Sunitinib exhibited additive inhibition of signaling molecules important for normal cardiac function and increased apoptosis compared with Sunitinib alone. Thus, dietary soy supplementation should be avoided during administration of Sunitinib due to exacerbated cardiotoxicity, despite evidence for positive effects in cancer.

  5. Multiple-Echo Suppression Modeling and Experimental Verification for Acoustic Transmission along Periodic Drillstring Using Dual Receivers

    Li Cheng


    Full Text Available In the oil industry, the accompanied reverberation is a major constraint in the transmission rate and distance because the drillstring is a heterogeneous assembly. Based on the transient impulse responses in uplink and downlink channels, an improved simplified echo suppression model with two acoustic receivers is presented in consideration of position optimization of single acoustic receiver. Then the acoustic receiving characteristics of transmitted signals in a length-limited periodic drillstring channel are obtained in single- and dual-receiver modes. An additive downward white Gaussian noise is also introduced in the channel. Moreover, an experimental rig is established by using a rotatable electromagnetic vibration exciter and two piezoelectric accelerometers, which are spaced one-quarter wavelength apart along a 6.3-meter simulated periodic drillstring. The ASK-, FSK-, and PSK-modulated square-wave pulse sequences at a transmission rate of 200 bit/s are applied to the simulated drillstring at a rotation speed of 0, 80, and 140 r/min, respectively. The experimental results show that the dual-receiver mode can exhibit a significantly improved average error bit ratio, which is approximately 2.5 to 3 times lower than that of the single-receiver mode, especially under the conditions of higher rotation speeds.

  6. Progressive multiple sclerosis cerebrospinal fluid induces inflammatory demyelination, axonal loss, and astrogliosis in mice.

    Cristofanilli, Massimiliano; Rosenthal, Hannah; Cymring, Barbara; Gratch, Daniel; Pagano, Benjamin; Xie, Boxun; Sadiq, Saud A


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory demyelination and neurodegeneration throughout the CNS, which lead over time to a condition of irreversible functional decline known as progressive MS. Currently, there are no satisfactory treatments for this condition because the mechanisms that underlie disease progression are not well understood. This is partly due to the lack of a specific animal model that represents progressive MS. We investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular injections of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) derived from untreated primary progressive (PPMS), secondary progressive (SPMS), and relapsing/remitting (RRMS) MS patients into mice. We found discrete inflammatory demyelinating lesions containing macrophages, B cell and T cell infiltrates in the brains of animals injected with CSF from patients with progressive MS. These lesions were rarely found in animals injected with RRMS-CSF and never in those treated with control-CSF. Animals that developed brain lesions also presented extensive inflammation in their spinal cord. However, discrete spinal cord lesions were rare and only seen in animals injected with PPMS-CSF. Axonal loss and astrogliosis were seen within the lesions following the initial demyelination. In addition, Th17 cell activity was enhanced in the CNS and in lymph nodes of progressive MS-CSF injected animals compared to controls. Furthermore, CSF derived from MS patients who were clinically stable following therapy had greatly diminished capacity to induce CNS lesions in mice. Finally, we provided evidence suggesting that differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines present in the progressive MS CSF might be involved in the observed mouse pathology. Our data suggests that the agent(s) responsible for the demyelination and neurodegeneration characteristic of progressive MS is present in patient CSF and is amenable to further characterization in experimental models of the disease.

  7. Melatonin Improves Outcomes of Heatstroke in Mice by Reducing Brain Inflammation and Oxidative Damage and Multiple Organ Dysfunction

    Yu-Feng Tian


    Full Text Available We report here that when untreated mice underwent heat stress, they displayed thermoregulatory deficit (e.g., animals display hypothermia during room temperature exposure, brain (or hypothalamic inflammation, ischemia, oxidative damage, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis impairment (e.g., decreased plasma levels of both adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone during heat stress, multiple organ dysfunction or failure, and lethality. Melatonin therapy significantly reduced the thermoregulatory deficit, brain inflammation, ischemia, oxidative damage, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis impairment, multiple organ dysfunction, and lethality caused by heat stroke. Our data indicate that melatonin may improve outcomes of heat stroke by reducing brain inflammation, oxidative damage, and multiple organ dysfunction.

  8. Immunogenicity of multiple antigen peptides containing Plasmodium vivax CS epitopes in BALB/c mice

    Myriam A. Herrera


    Full Text Available Multiple antigen peptide systems (MAPs allow the incorporation of various epitopes in to a single synthetic peptide immunogen. We have characterized the immune response of BALB/c mice to a series of MAPs assembled with different B and T cell epitopes derived from the Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite (CS protein. A B-cell epitope from the central repeat domain and two T-cell epitopes from the amino and carboxyl flanking regions were used to assembled eight different MAPs. An additional universal T cell epitope (ptt-30 from tetanus toxin protein was included. Immunogenicity in terms of antibody responses and in vitro T lymphocyte proliferation was evaluated. MAPs containing B and T cell epitopes induced high titers of anti-peptides antibodies, which recognized the native protein on sporozoites as determined by IFAT. The antibody specificity was also determined by a competitive inhibition assay with different MAPs. A MAP containing the B cell epitope (p11 and the universal epitope ptt-30 together with another composed of p11 and the promiscuous T cell epitope (p25 proved to be the most immunogenic. The strong antibody response and specificity for the cognate protein indicates that further studies designed to assess the potential of these proteins as human malaria vaccine candidates are warranted.

  9. Trade-Offs in a 1 Tbps Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO) Communication System Between an Airship and Ground Receive Antennas


    system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.2. 4QAM decision boundaries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.3. Multipath in SIMO system...11 2.4. SISO antenna model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.5. SIMO antenna model...12 SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 SIMO Single-Input and Multiple-Output

  10. PD98059, a specific MAP kinase inhibitor, attenuates multiple organ dysfunction syndrome/failure (MODS) induced by zymosan in mice.

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Galuppo, Maria; Mazzon, Emanuela; Paterniti, Irene; Bramanti, Placido; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore


    PD98059 (MEK1 Inhibitor) has been shown to act in vivo as a highly selective inhibitor of MEK1 activation and the MAP kinase cascade. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of PD98059, on the development of non-septic shock caused by zymosan in mice. Mice received either intraperitoneally zymosan (500mg/kg, administered i.p. as a suspension in saline) or vehicle (0.25ml/mouse saline). PD98059 (10mg/kg) was administered 1 and 6h after zymosan administration i.p. Organ failure and systemic inflammation in mice was assessed 18h after administration of zymosan and/or PD98059. Treatment of mice with PD98059 attenuated the peritoneal exudation and the migration of polymorphonuclear cells caused by zymosan. PD98059 also attenuated the lung, liver and pancreatic injury and renal dysfunction caused by zymosan as well as the increase of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta plasma levels caused by zymosan. Immunohistochemical analysis for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine, poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), ICAM-1, P-selectin, Bax, Bcl-2 and FAS-ligand revealed positive staining in pancreatic and intestinal tissue obtained from zymosan-injected mice. The degree of staining for nitrotyrosine, iNOS, PAR, ICAM-1, P-selectin, Bax, Bcl-2 and FAS-ligand were markedly reduced in tissue sections obtained from zymosan-injected mice, which had received PD98059. Moreover treatment of mice with PD98059 (10mg/kg) attenuated the NF-kappaB activation and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) expression induced by zymosan injection. In addition, administration of zymosan caused a severe illness in the mice characterized by a systemic toxicity, significant loss of body weight and a 60% of mortality at the end of observation period. Treatment with PD98059 significantly reduced the development of systemic toxicity, the loss in body weight and the mortality (20%) caused by zymosan. This study provides evidence that PD98059 attenuates the degree of zymosan-induced non-septic shock

  11. Conditional calcineurin knockout mice exhibit multiple abnormal behaviors related to schizophrenia.

    Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Leiter, Lorene M; Gerber, David J; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Sotnikova, Tatyana D; Zeng, Hongkui; Caron, Marc G; Tonegawa, Susumu


    Calcineurin (CN), a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, plays a significant role in the central nervous system. Previously, we reported that forebrain-specific CN knockout mice (CN mutant mice) have impaired working memory. To further analyze the behavioral effects of CN deficiency, we subjected CN mutant mice to a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Mutant mice showed increased locomotor activity, decreased social interaction, and impairments in prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition. In addition, CN mutant mice displayed an increased response to the locomotor stimulating effects of MK-801. Collectively, the abnormalities of CN mutant mice are strikingly similar to those described for schizophrenia. We propose that alterations affecting CN signaling could comprise a contributing factor in schizophrenia pathogenesis.

  12. Effects of Wei Chang An on expression of multiple genes in human gastric cancer grafted onto nude mice

    Ai-Guang Zhao; Ting Li; Sheng-Fu You; Hai-Lei Zhao; Ying Gu; Lai-Di Tang; Jin-Kun Yang


    AIM:To investigate the expression of multiple genes in Chinese jianpi herbal recipe Wei Chang An (WCA) in human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901.METHODS:A human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line SGC-7901 grafted onto nude mice was used as the animal model.The mice were randomly divided into 3 groups,one control and the two representing experimental conditions.Animals in the two experimental groups received either WCA over a 34-d period or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) over 6-d period starting at 8th d after grafting.Control animals received saline on an identical schedule.Animals were killed 41 d after being grafted.The expression profiles in paired WCA treated gastric cancer samples and the N.S.control samples were studied by using a cDNA array representing 14181 cDNA clusters.The alterations in gene expression levels were confirmed by Real-time Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).RESULTS:When compared with controls,the average tumor inhibitory rate in WCA group was 44.32%±5.67% and 5-FU 47.04% 4±11.33% (P<0.01,respectively).The average labeling index (LI) for PCNA in WCA group and 5-FU group was significantly decreased compared with the control group.Apoptotic index (AI) was significantly increased to 9.72%±4.51% using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate fluorescence nick end labeling (TUNEL) method in WCA group compared with the controls 2.45%±1.37%.5-FU group was also found to have a significantly increased AI compared with the controls.The expression of cleaved Caspase-3 in WCA group and 5-FU group was significantly increased compared with the control group respectively.There were 45 different expressed sequence tags (ESTs) among the control sample pool and WCA sample pool.There were 24 ESTs up-regulated in WCA samples and 21 ESTs down-regulated.By using qPCR,the expression level of Stat3,rap2 interacting protein x (RIPX),regulator of differentiation 1 (ROD1) and Bcl-2 was lower in WCA group than that in control

  13. Comparison of Radiation-Induced Normal Lung Tissue Density Changes for Patients From Multiple Institutions Receiving Conventional or Hypofractionated Treatments

    Diot, Quentin, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Bentzen, Soren M. [Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, University of Maryland Greenbaum Cancer Center, and Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Senan, Suresh [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Lawrence, Michael V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Palma, David A. [London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada)


    Purpose: To quantitatively assess changes in computed tomography (CT)–defined normal lung tissue density after conventional and hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: The pre-RT and post-RT CT scans from 118 and 111 patients receiving conventional and hypofractionated RT, respectively, at 3 institutions were registered to each other and to the 3-dimensional dose distribution to quantify dose-dependent changes in normal lung tissue density. Dose-response curves (DRC) for groups of patients receiving conventional and hypofractionated RT were generated for each institution, and the frequency of density changes >80 Hounsfield Units (HU) was modeled depending on the fractionation type using a Probit model for different follow-up times. Results: For the pooled data from all institutions, there were significant differences in the DRC between the conventional and hypofractionated groups; the respective doses resulting in 50% complication risk (TD{sub 50}) were 62 Gy (95% confidence interval [CI] 57-67) versus 36 Gy (CI 33-39) at <6 months, 48 Gy (CI 46-51) versus 31 Gy (CI 28-33) at 6-12 months, and 47 Gy (CI 45-49) versus 35 Gy (32-37) at >12 months. The corresponding m values (slope of the DRC) were 0.52 (CI 0.46-0.59) versus 0.31 (CI 0.28-0.34) at <6 months, 0.46 (CI 0.42-0.51) versus 0.30 (CI 0.26-0.34) at 6-12 months, and 0.45 (CI 0.42-0.50) versus 0.31 (CI 0.27-0.35) at >12 months (P<.05 for all comparisons). Conclusion: Compared with conventional fractionation, hypofractionation has a lower TD{sub 50} and m value, both suggesting an increased degree of normal tissue density sensitivity with hypofractionation.

  14. A new method for estimation of TEC from GNSS receivers during multiple cycle slips and data loss due to ionospheric irregularities

    Dashora, Nirvikar


    Estimation of total electron content (TEC) is a must to utilize the GNSS signal for ionospheric research. The estimation of absolute ionospheric TEC from raw GNSS data itself is a lengthy and complex task and requires knowledge of sophisticated computer programming skills, satellite orbital geometry and many other aspects like GNSS signal structure, satellite and receiver specific information etc. Not many software are available that automatize the complex task of cycle slip detection and correction. The estimation of satellite and receiver biases is one more step left before getting true TEC. In equatorial and low latitudes, where the nighttime ionospheric irregularities are oft-occurring phenomena, estimation of TEC becomes a challenge. This is because, during TEC depletions and scintillations, the loss of lock in the receiver results either in data loss or sharp gradients in the recorded delays; more often for phase than code. Raw data in form of accumulated phase in radians and total code-range in meters show random occurrences of multiple cycle slips and data loss of several minutes in the data file. Thus, such phase and code data has to be corrected first before processing it to obtain TEC. Almost all available software/algorithms suggest flagging such data for no further use. Hence, TEC cannot be estimated during multiple cycle slip events within few minutes from raw GPS data. But, for ionospheric research the time of occurrence, evolution and drift of depletions are very useful. This paper details a complete new software for pre-processing the raw RINEX (receiver independent exchange format) data and retrieval of TEC using code and carrier-phase measurements from an stand alone dual frequency GPS receiver. We use modified and new sets of algorithms a GNSS receiver. It is significant to note that we are able to retrieves almost all the the corrupted TEC data points due to random multiple cycle slip events which are oft-occurring phenomena during ESF in

  15. Genetic control of responses to Trypanosoma cruzi in mice: multiple genes influencing parasitemia and survival.


    Inbred strains of mice can be divided into two groups based on the level of parasitemia which develops after injection with 10(3) trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (Peru). Strains which developed parasitemias of greater than 10(7) trypomastigotes per ml by day 17, including C3H/HeJ, BALB/c, and CBA/N mice, were termed high parasitemia strains. Low parasitemia strains, including C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, developed parasitemias of less than 5 x 10(6) trypomastigotes per ml by day 17 of infec...

  16. Resolution Performance Analysis of Multiple-transmitter Multiple-receiver Multistatic Radar System%多发多收多基地雷达系统分辨性能分析

    闵涛; 肖顺平


    Detection of multiple unresolved targets is a frontier topic and pressing task in radar technology field. Considering a multistatic radar system with multiple transmitters and multiple receivers, ambiguity functions for spatially coherent and incoherent multistatic radar were analyzed, 3-dB contour area of ambiguity function was used as a measurement to compare target range resolution performance of different sensor geometrical configuration and waveform selection with one-transmitter multiple-receiver multistatic radar, relevant simulation results were presented. The results show that spatial coherence information enhances target range resolution performance of multistatic radar system, although multiple-transmitter multiple-receiver multistatic radar system increases system complexity, if improperly configured, the target resolution performance may be not superior to that of one-transmitter multiple-receiver multistatic radar system. The conclusion of this paper can be used in the analysis of multistatic radar detection performance of multiple unresolved targets, and will supply the sensor placement and waveform design of multistatic radar with reference.%对密集多目标的探测是当前雷达技术领域所面临的前沿课题和紧迫任务.本文考虑一个多发多收多基地雷达系统,在分析空间相关和非相关多基地雷达模糊函数的基础上,以模糊函数3-dB投影面积值为指标,对比单发多收多基地雷达,分析了不同传感器部署和波形选择情况下的目标距离分辨性能,并给出了相应的仿真结果.仿真结果显示,空间相关信息的引入,提高了多基地雷达系统的目标分辨性能;多发多收多基地雷达虽然增加了系统的复杂性,但如果配置不当,在目标分辨性能方面,不一定优于单发多收多基地雷达.本文的研究成果,不仅能用于对多基地雷达密集多目标探测性能的分析,还能为多基地雷达系统波形设计、布站提供一定的理论参考.

  17. Multiple Exposures to Ascaris suum Induce Tissue Injury and Mixed Th2/Th17 Immune Response in Mice.

    Nogueira, Denise Silva; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Resende, Nathália Maria; Silva, Caroline Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Luciana Maria; Amorim, Chiara Cássia Oliveira; Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus Silva; Mattos, Matheus Silvério; Kraemer, Lucas Rocha; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Gaze, Soraya; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Russo, Remo Castro; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio


    Ascaris spp. infection affects 800 million people worldwide, and half of the world population is currently at risk of infection. Recurrent reinfection in humans is mostly due to the simplicity of the parasite life cycle, but the impact of multiple exposures to the biology of the infection and the consequences to the host's homeostasis are poorly understood. In this context, single and multiple exposures in mice were performed in order to characterize the parasitological, histopathological, tissue functional and immunological aspects of experimental larval ascariasis. The most important findings revealed that reinfected mice presented a significant reduction of parasite burden in the lung and an increase in the cellularity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) associated with a robust granulocytic pulmonary inflammation, leading to a severe impairment of respiratory function. Moreover, the multiple exposures to Ascaris elicited an increased number of circulating inflammatory cells as well as production of higher levels of systemic cytokines, mainly IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and TNF-α when compared to single-infected animals. Taken together, our results suggest the intense pulmonary inflammation associated with a polarized systemic Th2/Th17 immune response are crucial to control larval migration after multiple exposures to Ascaris.

  18. ZiBuPiYin recipe protects db/db mice from diabetes-associated cognitive decline through improving multiple pathological changes.

    Jing Chen

    Full Text Available Multiple organ systems, including the brain, which undergoes changes that may increase the risk of cognitive decline, are adversely affected by diabetes mellitus (DM. Here, we demonstrate that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM db/db mice exhibited hippocampus-dependent memory impairment, which might associate with a reduction in dendritic spine density in the pyramidal neurons of brain, Aβ1-42 deposition in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and hippocampus, and a decreased expression of neurostructural proteins including microtubule-associated protein (MAP2, a marker of dendrites, and postsynaptic density 95 (PSD95, a marker of excitatory synapses. To investigate the effects of the ZiBuPiYin recipe (ZBPYR, a traditional Chinese medicine recipe, on diabetes-related cognitive decline (DACD, db/db mice received daily administration of ZBPYR over an experimental period of 6 weeks. We then confirmed that ZBPYR rescued learning and memory performance impairments, reversed dendritic spine loss, reduced Aβ1-42 deposition and restored the expression levels of MAP2 and PSD95. The present study also revealed that ZBPYR strengthened brain leptin and insulin signaling and inhibited GSK3β overactivity, which may be the potential mechanism or underlying targets of ZBPYR. These findings conclude that ZBPYR prevents DACD, most likely by improving dendritic spine density and attenuating brain leptin and insulin signaling pathway injury. Our findings provide further evidence for the effects of ZBPYR on DACD.

  19. The prognostic impact of 1p21 deletion on newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients receiving thalidomide-based first-line treatment



    Objective To explore the deletion rate,clinical correlation and prognostic significance of 1p21 deletion,a novel genetic prognostic index,in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) .Methods The interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (I-FISH) was performed on purified CD138+plasma cells from 78 newly diagnosed patients from Sept 2007 to Sept 2012 receiving thalidomide-based chemotherapy by using BAC probe covered 1p21.2 region that contains the human cell division cycle 14A

  20. Genetic control of responses to Trypanosoma cruzi in mice: multiple genes influencing parasitemia and survival.

    Wrightsman, R; Krassner, S; Watson, J


    Inbred strains of mice can be divided into two groups based on the level of parasitemia which develops after injection with 10(3) trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (Peru). Strains which developed parasitemias of greater than 10(7) trypomastigotes per ml by day 17, including C3H/HeJ, BALB/c, and CBA/N mice, were termed high parasitemia strains. Low parasitemia strains, including C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, developed parasitemias of less than 5 x 10(6) trypomastigotes per ml by day 17 of infection. Congenic mice from C57BL/10J, C57BL/6J, and BALB/c backgrounds which differed at the H-2 region were injected with 10(3) trypomastigotes to determine the effect of the H-2 locus on response to infection. The H-2 locus had no effect on the level of parasitemia attained during infection. However, one strain, B10.S (H-2s), was unusual in that most of the mice survived infection. The results of infection of F1 hybrid progeny with T. cruzi (Peru) suggest that the low parasitemia response in inherited in a dominant manner and that survival may be influenced by several other genes. The response to T. cruzi infection in inbred mice, as measured by parasitemia and survival time, was influenced by several genes. One or more genes, located outside the H-2 region, were involved in regulating the level of parasitemia reached during infection. Another H-2-linked gene(s) was involved in survival of the infection and appeared to be unique to the H-2s haplotype.

  1. Multiple non-cell-autonomous defects underlie neocortical callosal dysgenesis in Nfib-deficient mice

    Sunn Nana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agenesis of the corpus callosum is associated with many human developmental syndromes. Key mechanisms regulating callosal formation include the guidance of axons arising from pioneering neurons in the cingulate cortex and the development of cortical midline glial populations, but their molecular regulation remains poorly characterised. Recent data have shown that mice lacking the transcription factor Nfib exhibit callosal agenesis, yet neocortical callosal neurons express only low levels of Nfib. Therefore, we investigate here how Nfib functions to regulate non-cell-autonomous mechanisms of callosal formation. Results Our investigations confirmed a reduction in glial cells at the midline in Nfib-/- mice. To determine how this occurs, we examined radial progenitors at the cortical midline and found that they were specified correctly in Nfib mutant mice, but did not differentiate into mature glia. Cellular proliferation and apoptosis occurred normally at the midline of Nfib mutant mice, indicating that the decrease in midline glia observed was due to deficits in differentiation rather than proliferation or apoptosis. Next we investigated the development of callosal pioneering axons in Nfib-/- mice. Using retrograde tracer labelling, we found that Nfib is expressed in cingulate neurons and hence may regulate their development. In Nfib-/- mice, neuropilin 1-positive axons fail to cross the midline and expression of neuropilin 1 is diminished. Tract tracing and immunohistochemistry further revealed that, in late gestation, a minor population of neocortical axons does cross the midline in Nfib mutants on a C57Bl/6J background, forming a rudimentary corpus callosum. Finally, the development of other forebrain commissures in Nfib-deficient mice is also aberrant. Conclusion The formation of the corpus callosum is severely delayed in the absence of Nfib, despite Nfib not being highly expressed in neocortical callosal neurons. Our

  2. Sertoli-cell-specific knockout of connexin 43 leads to multiple alterations in testicular gene expression in prepubertal mice

    Sarah Giese


    A significant decline in human male reproductive function has been reported for the past 20 years but the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. However, recent studies showed that the gap junction protein connexin-43 (CX43; also known as GJA1 might be involved. CX43 is the predominant testicular connexin (CX in most species, including in humans. Alterations of its expression are associated with different forms of spermatogenic disorders and infertility. Men with impaired spermatogenesis often exhibit a reduction or loss of CX43 expression in germ cells (GCs and Sertoli cells (SCs. Adult male transgenic mice with a conditional knockout (KO of the Gja1 gene [referred to here as connexin-43 (Cx43] in SCs (SCCx43KO show a comparable testicular phenotype to humans and are infertile. To detect possible signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms leading to the testicular phenotype in adult SCCx43KO mice and to their failure to initiate spermatogenesis, the testicular gene expression of 8-day-old SCCx43KO and wild-type (WT mice was compared. Microarray analysis revealed that 658 genes were significantly regulated in testes of SCCx43KO mice. Of these genes, 135 were upregulated, whereas 523 genes were downregulated. For selected genes the results of the microarray analysis were confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR and immunostaining. The majority of the downregulated genes are GC-specific and are essential for mitotic and meiotic progression of spermatogenesis, including Stra8, Dazl and members of the DM (dsx and map-3 gene family. Other altered genes can be associated with transcription, metabolism, cell migration and cytoskeleton organization. Our data show that deletion of Cx43 in SCs leads to multiple alterations of gene expression in prepubertal mice and primarily affects GCs. The candidate genes could represent helpful markers for investigators exploring human testicular biopsies from patients showing corresponding spermatogenic deficiencies and for

  3. Role of PPAR-δ in the development of zymosan-induced multiple organ failure: an experiment mice study

    Kapoor Amar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-beta/delta is a nuclear receptor transcription factor that regulates gene expression in many important biological processes. It is expressed ubiquitously, especially white adipose tissue, heart, muscle, intestine, placenta and macrophages but many of its functions are unknown. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids activate PPAR-beta/delta, but physiological ligands have not yet been identified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of PPAR-beta/delta activation, through the use of GW0742 (0,3 mg/kg 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO i.p, a synthetic high affinity ligand, on the development of zymosan-induced multiple organ failure (MOF. Methods Multiple organ failure (MOF was induced in mice by administration of zymosan (given at 500 mg/kg, i.p. as a suspension in saline. The control groups were treated with vehicle (0.25 ml/mouse saline, while the pharmacological treatment was the administration of GW0742 (0,3 mg/kg 10% DMSO i.p. 1 h and 6 h after zymosan administration. MOF and systemic inflammation in mice was assessed 18 hours after administration of zymosan. Results Treatment with GW0742 caused a significant reduction of the peritoneal exudate formation and of the neutrophil infiltration caused by zymosan resulting in a reduction in myeloperoxidase activity. The PPAR-beta/delta agonist, GW0742, at the dose of 0,3 mg/kg in 10% DMSO, also attenuated the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome caused by zymosan. In pancreas, lung and gut, immunohistochemical analysis of some end points of the inflammatory response, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, nitrotyrosine, poly (ADP-ribose (PAR, TNF- and IL-1as well as FasL, Bax, Bcl-2 and apoptosis, revealed positive staining in sections of tissue obtained from zymosan-injected mice. On the contrary, these parameters were markedly reduced in samples obtained from mice treated with GW0742

  4. MiR-155 Enhances Insulin Sensitivity by Coordinated Regulation of Multiple Genes in Mice

    Lin, Taoyan; Lin, Xia; Chen, Li; Zeng, Hui; Han, Yanjiang; Wu, Lihong; Huang, Shun; Wang, Meng; Huang, Shenhao; Xie, Raoying; Liang, Liqi; Liu, Yu; Liu, Ruiyu; Zhang, Tingting; Li, Jing; Wang, Shengchun; Sun, Penghui; Huang, Wenhua; Yao, Kaitai; Xu, Kang; Du, Tao; Xiao, Dong


    miR-155 plays critical roles in numerous physiological and pathological processes, however, its function in the regulation of blood glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity and underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we reveal that miR-155 levels are downregulated in serum from type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients, suggesting that miR-155 might be involved in blood glucose control and diabetes. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies in mice demonstrate that miR-155 has no effects on the pancreatic β-cell proliferation and function. Global transgenic overexpression of miR-155 in mice leads to hypoglycaemia, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Conversely, miR-155 deficiency in mice causes hyperglycemia, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. In addition, consistent with a positive regulatory role of miR-155 in glucose metabolism, miR-155 positively modulates glucose uptake in all cell types examined, while mice overexpressing miR-155 transgene show enhanced glycolysis, and insulin-stimulated AKT and IRS-1 phosphorylation in liver, adipose tissue or skeletal muscle. Furthermore, we reveal these aforementioned phenomena occur, at least partially, through miR-155-mediated repression of important negative regulators (i.e. C/EBPβ, HDAC4 and SOCS1) of insulin signaling. Taken together, these findings demonstrate, for the first time, that miR-155 is a positive regulator of insulin sensitivity with potential applications for diabetes treatment. PMID:27711113

  5. Paclitaxel-Fe3O4 nanoparticles inhibit growth of CD138–  CD34– tumor stem-like cells in multiple myeloma-bearing mice

    Yang C


    Full Text Available Cuiping Yang,1,3,* Jing Wang,2,* Dengyu Chen,1,* Junsong Chen,1 Fei Xiong,4 Hongyi Zhang,1 Yunxia Zhang,2 Ning Gu,4 Jun Dou11Department of Pathogenic Biology and Immunology, Medical School, 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, 3Department of Pathogenic Biology and Immunology, School of Basic Medicine, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, 4School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: There is growing evidence that CD138– CD34– cells may actually be tumor stem cells responsible for initiation and relapse of multiple myeloma. However, effective drugs targeted at CD138– CD34– tumor stem cells are yet to be developed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of paclitaxel-loaded Fe3O4 nanoparticles (PTX-NPs on CD138– CD34– tumor stem cells in multiple myeloma-bearing mice.Methods: CD138– CD34– cells were isolated from a human U266 multiple myeloma cell line using an immune magnetic bead sorting method and then subcutaneously injected into mice with nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency to develop a multiple myeloma-bearing mouse model. The mice were treated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles 2 mg/kg, paclitaxel 4.8 mg/kg, and PTX-NPs 0.64 mg/kg for 2 weeks. Tumor growth, pathological changes, serum and urinary interleukin-6 levels, and molecular expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were evaluated.Results: CD138– CD34– cells were found to have tumor stem cell characteristics. All the mice developed tumors in 40 days after injection of 1 × 106 CD138– CD34– tumor stem cells. Tumor growth in mice treated with PTX-NPs was significantly inhibited compared with the controls (P <  0.005, and the groups that received nanoparticles alone (P < 0.005 or paclitaxel alone (P < 0.05. In addition

  6. A noncoding point mutation of Zeb1 causes multiple developmental malformations and obesity in Twirler mice.

    Kiyoto Kurima


    Full Text Available Heterozygous Twirler (Tw mice develop obesity and circling behavior associated with malformations of the inner ear, whereas homozygous Tw mice have cleft palate and die shortly after birth. Zeb1 is a zinc finger protein that contributes to mesenchymal cell fate by repression of genes whose expression defines epithelial cell identity. This developmental pathway is disrupted in inner ears of Tw/Tw mice. The purpose of our study was to comprehensively characterize the Twirler phenotype and to identify the causative mutation. The Tw/+ inner ear phenotype includes irregularities of the semicircular canals, abnormal utricular otoconia, a shortened cochlear duct, and hearing loss, whereas Tw/Tw ears are severely malformed with barely recognizable anatomy. Tw/+ mice have obesity associated with insulin-resistance and have lymphoid organ hypoplasia. We identified a noncoding nucleotide substitution, c.58+181G>A, in the first intron of the Tw allele of Zeb1 (Zeb1(Tw. A knockin mouse model of c.58+181G>A recapitulated the Tw phenotype, whereas a wild-type knockin control did not, confirming the mutation as pathogenic. c.58+181G>A does not affect splicing but disrupts a predicted site for Myb protein binding, which we confirmed in vitro. In comparison, homozygosity for a targeted deletion of exon 1 of mouse Zeb1, Zeb1(ΔEx1, is associated with a subtle abnormality of the lateral semicircular canal that is different than those in Tw mice. Expression analyses of E13.5 Twirler and Zeb1(ΔEx1 ears confirm that Zeb1(ΔEx1 is a null allele, whereas Zeb1(Tw RNA is expressed at increased levels in comparison to wild-type Zeb1. We conclude that a noncoding point mutation of Zeb1 acts via a gain-of-function to disrupt regulation of Zeb1(Tw expression, epithelial-mesenchymal cell fate or interactions, and structural development of the inner ear in Twirler mice. This is a novel mechanism underlying disorders of hearing or balance.

  7. L-Arginine improves multiple physiological parameters in mice exposed to diet-induced metabolic disturbances

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Smajilovic, Sanela


    : -Arg supplementation to male C57BL/6 mice on an array of physiological parameters. L: -Arg supplemented mice were maintained on a low-protein diet and body composition, appetite regulation, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and energy expenditure were evaluated. A significant reduction......L: -Arginine (L: -Arg) is a conditionally essential amino acid and a natural constituent of dietary proteins. Studies in obese rats and type 2 diabetic humans have indicated that dietary supplementation with L: -Arg can diminish gain in white adipose tissue (WAT) and improve insulin sensitivity....... However, the effects of L: -Arg on glucose homeostasis, body composition and energy metabolism remain unclear. In addition, no studies have, to our knowledge, examined whether L: -Arg has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement in the mouse model. In the present study, we investigated the effects of L...

  8. Acute multiple organ failure in adult mice deleted for the developmental regulator Wt1.

    You-Ying Chau


    Full Text Available There is much interest in the mechanisms that regulate adult tissue homeostasis and their relationship to processes governing foetal development. Mice deleted for the Wilms' tumour gene, Wt1, lack kidneys, gonads, and spleen and die at mid-gestation due to defective coronary vasculature. Wt1 is vital for maintaining the mesenchymal-epithelial balance in these tissues and is required for the epithelial-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT that generates coronary vascular progenitors. Although Wt1 is only expressed in rare cell populations in adults including glomerular podocytes, 1% of bone marrow cells, and mesothelium, we hypothesised that this might be important for homeostasis of adult tissues; hence, we deleted the gene ubiquitously in young and adult mice. Within just a few days, the mice suffered glomerulosclerosis, atrophy of the exocrine pancreas and spleen, severe reduction in bone and fat, and failure of erythropoiesis. FACS and culture experiments showed that Wt1 has an intrinsic role in both haematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell lineages and suggest that defects within these contribute to the phenotypes we observe. We propose that glomerulosclerosis arises in part through down regulation of nephrin, a known Wt1 target gene. Protein profiling in mutant serum showed that there was no systemic inflammatory or nutritional response in the mutant mice. However, there was a dramatic reduction in circulating IGF-1 levels, which is likely to contribute to the bone and fat phenotypes. The reduction of IGF-1 did not result from a decrease in circulating GH, and there is no apparent pathology of the pituitary and adrenal glands. These findings 1 suggest that Wt1 is a major regulator of the homeostasis of some adult tissues, through both local and systemic actions; 2 highlight the differences between foetal and adult tissue regulation; 3 point to the importance of adult mesenchyme in tissue turnover.

  9. Multiple origins of XY female mice (genus Akodon): phylogenetic and chromosomal evidence.

    Hoekstra, H. E.; Edwards, S.V.


    Despite the diversity in sex determination across organisms, theory predicts that the evolution of XY females is rare in mammals due to fitness consequences associated with infertility or the loss of YY zygotes. We investigated this hypothesis from a phylogenetic perspective by examining the inter- and intraspecific distribution of Y chromosomes in males and females (XY females) in South American field mice (Akodon). We found that XY females occurred at appreciable frequencies (10-66%) in at ...

  10. Cinnamon ameliorates experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in mice via regulatory T cells: implications for multiple sclerosis therapy.

    Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada


    Upregulation and/or maintenance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) during an autoimmune insult may have therapeutic efficacy in autoimmune diseases. Although several immunomodulatory drugs and molecules are available, most present significant side effects over long-term use. Cinnamon is a commonly used natural spice and flavoring material used for centuries throughout the world. Here, we have explored a novel use of cinnamon powder in protecting Tregs and treating the disease process of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Oral feeding of cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum) powder suppresses clinical symptoms of relapsing-remitting EAE in female PLP-TCR transgenic mice and adoptive transfer mouse model. Cinnamon also inhibited clinical symptoms of chronic EAE in male C57/BL6 mice. Dose-dependent study shows that cinnamon powder at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt/d or higher significantly suppresses clinical symptoms of EAE in mice. Accordingly, oral administration of cinnamon also inhibited perivascular cuffing, maintained the integrity of blood-brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier, suppressed inflammation, normalized the expression of myelin genes, and blocked demyelination in the central nervous system of EAE mice. Interestingly, cinnamon treatment upregulated Tregs via reduction of nitric oxide production. Furthermore, we demonstrate that blocking of Tregs by neutralizing antibodies against CD25 abrogates cinnamon-mediated protection of EAE. Taken together, our results suggest that oral administration of cinnamon powder may be beneficial in MS patients and that no other existing anti-MS therapies could be so economical and trouble-free as this approach.

  11. Cerebroside D, a glycoceramide compound, improves experimental colitis in mice with multiple targets against activated T lymphocytes

    Wu, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xing-Xin; Guo, Wen-Jie; Luo, Qiong [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Gu, Yan-Hong [Department of Clinical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Shen, Yan; Tan, Ren-Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Sun, Yang, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Qiang, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    In the present paper, we aimed to examine the novel effects of cerebroside D, a glycoceramide compound, on murine experimental colitis. Cerebroside D significantly reduced the weight loss, mortality rate and alleviated the macroscopic and microscopic appearances of colitis induced by dexran sulfate sodium. This compound also decreased the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-1β in intestinal tissue of mice with experimental colitis in a concentration-dependent manner, accompanied with markedly increased serum level of IL-10. Cerebroside D inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of T cells activated by concanavalin A or anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 antibodies. The compound did not show an effect on naive lymphocytes but prevented cells from entering S phase and G2/M phase during T cells activation. Moreover, the treatment of cerebroside D led to apoptosis of activated T cells with the cleavage of caspase 3, 9, 12 and PARP. These results showed multiple effects of cerebroside D against activated T cells for a novel approach to treatment of colonic inflammation. Highlights: ► Cerebroside D, a glycoceramide compound, alleviated DSS induced colitis. ► The mechanism of the compound involved multiple effects against activated T cells. ► It regulated cytokine profiles in mice with experimental colitis. ► It prevented T cells from entering S and G2/M phases during activation. ► It led to apoptosis of activated T cells with the cleavage of caspases and PARP.

  12. A novel intergenic ETnII-β insertion mutation causes multiple malformations in polypodia mice.

    Jessica A Lehoczky

    Full Text Available Mouse early transposon insertions are responsible for ~10% of spontaneous mutant phenotypes. We previously reported the phenotypes and genetic mapping of Polypodia, (Ppd, a spontaneous, X-linked dominant mutation with profound effects on body plan morphogenesis. Our new data shows that mutant mice are not born in expected Mendelian ratios secondary to loss after E9.5. In addition, we refined the Ppd genetic interval and discovered a novel ETnII-β early transposon insertion between the genes for Dusp9 and Pnck. The ETn inserted 1.6 kb downstream and antisense to Dusp9 and does not disrupt polyadenylation or splicing of either gene. Knock-in mice engineered to carry the ETn display Ppd characteristic ectopic caudal limb phenotypes, showing that the ETn insertion is the Ppd molecular lesion. Early transposons are actively expressed in the early blastocyst. To explore the consequences of the ETn on the genomic landscape at an early stage of development, we compared interval gene expression between wild-type and mutant ES cells. Mutant ES cell expression analysis revealed marked upregulation of Dusp9 mRNA and protein expression. Evaluation of the 5' LTR CpG methylation state in adult mice revealed no correlation with the occurrence or severity of Ppd phenotypes at birth. Thus, the broad range of phenotypes observed in this mutant is secondary to a novel intergenic ETn insertion whose effects include dysregulation of nearby interval gene expression at early stages of development.

  13. Multiple apoptotic defects in hematopoietic cells from mice lacking lipocalin 24p3.

    Liu, Zhuoming; Yang, Amy; Wang, Zhengqi; Bunting, Kevin D; Davuluri, Gangarao; Green, Michael R; Devireddy, Laxminarayana R


    The lipocalin mouse 24p3 has been implicated in diverse physiological processes, including apoptosis, iron trafficking, development and innate immunity. Studies from our laboratory as well as others demonstrated the proapoptotic activity of 24p3 in a variety of cultured models. However, a general role for the lipocalin 24p3 in the hematopoietic system has not been tested in vivo. To study the role of 24p3, we derived 24p3 null mice and back-crossed them onto C57BL/6 and 129/SVE backgrounds. Homozygous 24p3(-/-) mice developed a progressive accumulation of lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid cells, which was not due to enhanced hematopoiesis because competitive repopulation and recovery from myelosuppression were the same as for wild type. Instead, apoptotic defects were unique to many mature hematopoietic cell types, including neutrophils, cytokine-dependent mast cells, thymocytes, and erythroid cells. Thymocytes isolated from 24p3 null mice also displayed resistance to apoptosis-induced by dexamethasone. Bim response to various apoptotic stimuli was attenuated in 24p3(-/-) cells, thus explaining their resistance to the ensuing cell death. The results of these studies, in conjunction with those of previous studies, reveal 24p3 as a regulator of the hematopoietic compartment with important roles in normal physiology and disease progression. Interestingly, these functions are limited to relatively mature blood cell compartments.

  14. Five quantitative trait loci control radiation-induced adenoma multiplicity in Mom1R Apc Min/+ mice.

    Eiram Elahi

    Full Text Available Ionising radiation is a carcinogen capable of inducing tumours, including colorectal cancer, in both humans and animals. By backcrossing a recombinant line of Apc(Min/+ mice to the inbred BALB/c mouse strain, which is unusually sensitive to radiation-induced tumour development, we obtained panels of 2Gy-irradiated and sham-irradiated N2 Apc(Min/+ mice for genotyping with a genome-wide panel of microsatellites at approximately 15 cM density and phenotyping by counting adenomas in the small intestine. Interval and composite interval mapping along with permutation testing identified five significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci (QTLs responsible for radiation induced tumour multiplicity in the small intestine. These were defined as Mom (Modifier of Min radiation-induced polyposis (Mrip1-5 on chromosome 2 (log of odds, LOD 2.8, p = 0.0003, two regions within chromosome 5 (LOD 5.2, p<0.00001, 6.2, p<0.00001 and two regions within chromosome 16 respectively (LOD 4.1, p = 4x10(-5, 4.8, p<0.00001. Suggestive QTLs were found for sham-irradiated mice on chromosomes 3, 6 and 13 (LOD 1.7, 1.5 and 2.0 respectively; p<0.005. Genes containing BALB/c specific non-synonymous polymorphisms were identified within Mrip regions and prediction programming used to locate potentially functional polymorphisms. Our study locates the QTL regions responsible for increased radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+ mice and identifies candidate genes with predicted functional polymorphisms that are involved in spindle checkpoint and chromosomal stability (Bub1b, Casc5, and Bub1, DNA repair (Recc1 and Prkdc or inflammation (Duox2, Itgb2l and Cxcl5. Our study demonstrates use of in silico analysis in candidate gene identification as a way of reducing large-scale backcross breeding programmes.

  15. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Antagonist TM5484 Attenuates Demyelination and Axonal Degeneration in a Mice Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

    Nicolas Pelisch

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is characterized by inflammatory demyelination and deposition of fibrinogen in the central nervous system (CNS. Elevated levels of a critical inhibitor of the mammalian fibrinolitic system, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 have been demonstrated in human and animal models of MS. In experimental studies that resemble neuroinflammatory disease, PAI-1 deficient mice display preserved neurological structure and function compared to wild type mice, suggesting a link between the fibrinolytic pathway and MS. We previously identified a series of PAI-1 inhibitors on the basis of the 3-dimensional structure of PAI-1 and on virtual screening. These compounds have been reported to provide a number of in vitro and in vivo benefits but none was tested in CNS disease models because of their limited capacity to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB. The existing candidates were therefore optimized to obtain CNS-penetrant compounds. We performed an in vitro screening using a model of BBB and were able to identify a novel, low molecular PAI-1 inhibitor, TM5484, with the highest penetration ratio among all other candidates. Next, we tested the effects on inflammation and demyelination in an experimental allergic encephalomyelitis mice model. Results were compared to either fingolimod or 6α-methylprednisolone. Oral administration of TM5484 from the onset of signs, ameliorates paralysis, attenuated demyelination, and axonal degeneration in the spinal cord of mice. Furthermore, it modulated the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which plays a protective role in neurons against various pathological insults, and choline acetyltransferase, a marker of neuronal density. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential benefits of a novel PAI-1 inhibitor, TM5484, in the treatment of MS.

  16. Prospective longitudinal study on quality of life in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma patients receiving second- or third-line lenalidomide or bortezomib treatment.

    Leleu, X; Kyriakou, C; Vande Broek, I; Murphy, P; Bacon, P; Lewis, P; Gilet, H; Arnould, B; Petrucci, M T


    Treatment advances for multiple myeloma (MM) that have prolonged survival emphasise the importance of measuring patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in clinical studies. HRQoL/functioning and symptoms of patients with relapsed/refractory MM (RRMM) receiving second- or third-line lenalidomide or bortezomib treatment were measured in a prospective European multicentre, observational study at different time points. At baseline, patients in the lenalidomide cohort were frailer than in the bortezomib cohort with more rapid disease progression at study entry (more patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status >2, shorter time from diagnosis, more chronic heart failure, higher serum creatinine levels, more patients with dialysis required). About 40% of the patients receiving lenalidomide discontinued the study in Life Core domains of Diarrhoea and Global Health Status/QoL had worsened in the lenalidomide and bortezomib cohorts, respectively. A clinically meaningful deterioration in HRQoL was more often observed for patients who discontinued the study prior to 6 months in the bortezomib cohort than in the lenalidomide cohort.

  17. The Applicability of the International Staging System in Chinese Patients with Multiple Myeloma Receiving Bortezomib or Thalidomide-Based Regimens as Induction Therapy: A Multicenter Analysis

    Jing Lu


    Full Text Available The International Staging System (ISS is the most important prognostic system for multiple myeloma (MM. It was identified in the era of conventional agents. The outcome of MM has significantly changed by novel agents. Thus the applicability of ISS system in the era of novel agents in Chinese patients needs to be demonstrated. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcomes and prognostic significance of ISS system in 1016 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma in Chinese patients between 2008 and 2012, who received bortezomib- or thalidomide-based regimens as first-line therapy. The median overall survival (OS of patients for ISS stages I/II/III was not reached/55.4 months/41.7 months (p<0.001, and the median progression-free survival (PFS was 30/29.5/25 months (p=0.072, respectively. Statistically significant difference in survival was confirmed among three ISS stages in thalidomide-based group, but not between ISS stages I and II in bortezomib-based group. These findings suggest that ISS system can predict the survival in the era of novel agents in Chinese MM patients, and bortezomib may have the potential to partially overcome adverse effect of risk factors on survival, especially in higher stage of ISS system.

  18. Performance of MMSE Receiver based Multi Input Multi Output-Interleave Division Multiple-Access System with Multi-user Detection over Frequency Selective Wireless Communication Channel

    Kuttathatti S. Vishvaksenan


    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study presents the performance analysis of turbo assisted Interleave Division Multiple-Access (IDMA system with Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO support for multi user scenario over correlated frequency selective and uncorrelated frequency selective channel. Approach: The key principle of IDMA is that interleaver unique which distinguishes the users in contrast to spreading sequence in Code Division Multiple Access System (CDMA. Results: In this work, we assume that Interleavers are generated independently and randomly. At the receiver, we employed Ordered SIC (OSIC technique using ZF and MMSE criterion to combat Inter Antenna Interference (IAI and Multi User Interference (MUI problem along with iterative decoding to improve the performance in terms of BER. The performance of system has been discussed for different channel conditions with realistic channel model using extensive simulation runs based on Monte Carlo simulation trials. We have exhibited the flexibility and robustness provided by MIMO-IDMA. Conclusion/Recommendations: It has been proved from the results that IDMA principle can be applied to realize many potential performance gains highlighted by information theory, including coding gain multiplexing gain and multiuser gain. Simulation results presented to demonstrate the benefits of IDMA with MUD and iterative decoding. It is discerned that IDMA performs better than CDMA in frequency selective channel for high load conditions which is assessed through computer simulation results.

  19. EDSS Change Relates to Physical HRQoL While Relapse Occurrence Relates to Overall HRQoL in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Receiving Subcutaneous Interferon β -1a.

    Vickrey, Barbara G; Lee, Liesly; Moore, Fraser; Moriarty, Patrick


    Objective. To compare patterns of associations of changes in mental and physical health dimensions of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) over time with relapse occurrence and changes in Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS). Methods. This 24-month, phase IV, observational study enrolled 334 patients with RMS who received interferon β-1a 44 μg or 22 μg subcutaneously three times weekly. At each 6-month visit, patients completed the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 (MSQOL-54) and site investigators assessed EDSS and recorded relapse occurrence. A generalized linear model procedure was used for multivariable analyses (per protocol) that explored unique associations of EDSS score change and relapse occurrence with MSQOL-54 physical health composite score (PCS) and mental health composite score (MCS). Results. HRQoL improved over 2 years among those who completed the study. Occurrence of ≥1 relapse was significantly associated with lower MSQOL-54 PCS and MCS. Changes in EDSS score were significantly associated with MSQOL-54 PCS, but not MCS. Conclusions. HRQoL assessments, particularly those that examine mental health, may provide information on the general health status of patients with RMS that would not be recognized using traditional clinician-assessed measures of disease severity and activity. This trial is registered with; identifier: NCT01141751.

  20. EDSS Change Relates to Physical HRQoL While Relapse Occurrence Relates to Overall HRQoL in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Receiving Subcutaneous Interferon β-1a

    Barbara G. Vickrey


    Full Text Available Objective. To compare patterns of associations of changes in mental and physical health dimensions of health-related quality of life (HRQoL over time with relapse occurrence and changes in Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS scores in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS. Methods. This 24-month, phase IV, observational study enrolled 334 patients with RMS who received interferon β-1a 44 μg or 22 μg subcutaneously three times weekly. At each 6-month visit, patients completed the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 (MSQOL-54 and site investigators assessed EDSS and recorded relapse occurrence. A generalized linear model procedure was used for multivariable analyses (per protocol that explored unique associations of EDSS score change and relapse occurrence with MSQOL-54 physical health composite score (PCS and mental health composite score (MCS. Results. HRQoL improved over 2 years among those who completed the study. Occurrence of ≥1 relapse was significantly associated with lower MSQOL-54 PCS and MCS. Changes in EDSS score were significantly associated with MSQOL-54 PCS, but not MCS. Conclusions. HRQoL assessments, particularly those that examine mental health, may provide information on the general health status of patients with RMS that would not be recognized using traditional clinician-assessed measures of disease severity and activity. This trial is registered with; identifier: NCT01141751.


    SOT 2001 DMS214TRIMELLITIC ANHYDRIDE (TMA) HYPERSENSITIVITY INMICE AFTER MULTIPLE INTRATRACHEAL (IT) EXPOSURES. D Sailstad, E Boykin, M Ward, and MJ Selgrade. NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.TMA causes Th2 related respiratory hypersensitivity (RH) responses. W...

  2. Low complexity MIMO receivers

    Bai, Lin; Yu, Quan


    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can increase the spectral efficiency in wireless communications. However, the interference becomes the major drawback that leads to high computational complexity at both transmitter and receiver. In particular, the complexity of MIMO receivers can be prohibitively high. As an efficient mathematical tool to devise low complexity approaches that mitigate the interference in MIMO systems, lattice reduction (LR) has been widely studied and employed over the last decade. The co-authors of this book are world's leading experts on MIMO receivers, and here they share the key findings of their research over years. They detail a range of key techniques for receiver design as multiple transmitted and received signals are available. The authors first introduce the principle of signal detection and the LR in mathematical aspects. They then move on to discuss the use of LR in low complexity MIMO receiver design with respect to different aspects, including uncoded MIMO detection...

  3. In vivo bioluminescence and reflectance imaging of multiple organs in bioluminescence reporter mice by bundled-fiber-coupled microscopy.

    Ando, Yoriko; Sakurai, Takashi; Koida, Kowa; Tei, Hajime; Hida, Akiko; Nakao, Kazuki; Natsume, Mistuo; Numano, Rika


    Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is used in biomedical research to monitor biological processes within living organisms. Recently, fiber bundles with high transmittance and density have been developed to detect low light with high resolution. Therefore, we have developed a bundled-fiber-coupled microscope with a highly sensitive cooled-CCD camera that enables the BLI of organs within the mouse body. This is the first report of in vivo BLI of the brain and multiple organs in luciferase-reporter mice using bundled-fiber optics. With reflectance imaging, the structures of blood vessels and organs can be seen clearly with light illumination, and it allowed identification of the structural details of bioluminescence images. This technique can also be applied to clinical diagnostics in a low invasive manner.

  4. In vivo bioluminescence and reflectance imaging of multiple organs in bioluminescence reporter mice by bundled-fiber-coupled microscopy

    Ando, Yoriko; Sakurai, Takashi; Koida, Kowa; Tei, Hajime; Hida, Akiko; Nakao, Kazuki; Natsume, Mistuo; Numano, Rika


    Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is used in biomedical research to monitor biological processes within living organisms. Recently, fiber bundles with high transmittance and density have been developed to detect low light with high resolution. Therefore, we have developed a bundled-fiber-coupled microscope with a highly sensitive cooled-CCD camera that enables the BLI of organs within the mouse body. This is the first report of in vivo BLI of the brain and multiple organs in luciferase-reporter mice using bundled-fiber optics. With reflectance imaging, the structures of blood vessels and organs can be seen clearly with light illumination, and it allowed identification of the structural details of bioluminescence images. This technique can also be applied to clinical diagnostics in a low invasive manner. PMID:27231601

  5. Autologous bone marrow Th cells can support multiple myeloma cell proliferation in vitro and in xenografted mice.

    Wang, D; Fløisand, Y; Myklebust, C V; Bürgler, S; Parente-Ribes, A; Hofgaard, P O; Bogen, B; Tasken, K; Tjønnfjord, G E; Schjesvold, F; Dalgaard, J; Tveita, A; Munthe, L A


    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy where MM cell growth is supported by the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment with poorly defined cellular and molecular mechanisms. MM cells express CD40, a receptor known to activate autocrine secretion of cytokines and elicit proliferation. Activated T helper (Th) cells express CD40 ligand (CD40L) and BM Th cells are significantly increased in MM patients. We hypothesized that activated BM Th cells could support MM cell growth. We here found that activated autologous BM Th cells supported MM cell growth in a contact- and CD40L-dependent manner in vitro. MM cells had retained the ability to activate Th cells that reciprocated and stimulated MM cell proliferation. Autologous BM Th cells supported MM cell growth in xenografted mice and were found in close contact with MM cells. MM cells secreted chemokines that attracted Th cells, secretion was augmented by CD40-stimulation. Within 14 days of culture of whole bone marrow aspirates in autologous serum, MM cells and Th cells mutually stimulated each other, and MM cells required Th cells for further expansion in vitro and in mice. The results suggest that Th cells may support the expansion of MM cells in patients.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 24 February 2017. doi:10.1038/leu.2017.69.

  6. Quality of Life Assessment in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Receiving Interferon Beta-1a: A Comparative Longitudinal Study of Avonex and Its Biosimilar CinnoVex.

    Abolfazli, R; Hosseini, A; Gholami, Kh; Javadi, M R; Torkamandi, H; Emami, S


    Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of central nervous system (CNS). MS affects quality of Life (QOL) due to physical disability and other associated problems. Disease-modifying agents like interferon beta (IFNB) have been widely utilized in this patient population; however, their frequency, route of administration, side effects, high cost, and also the question of whether they are truly beneficial for longer-term outcomes and QOL need to be further investigated. Objectives. To assess QOL in patients with multiple sclerosis receiving interferon beta-1a (Avonex or CinnoVex) and in order to compare QOL in groups receiving Avonex and CinnoVex, respectively, also, to evaluate whether the more cost-effective biosimilar form of IFNB (CinnoVex) has the same effect on QOL and can be substituted for Avonex. Methods. We conducted a 30-month, nonrandomized longitudinal study and recruited a total of 92 patients diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS. The patients were distributed in Avonex and CinnoVex groups with 46 patients in each group. Quality of life was assessed by means of MSQOL-54 questionnaire, four times a year, at baseline and at months 4, 8, and 12 of the study. Results. Mean age ± SD was 30.5 ± 8.9 and 32.3 ± 9.0 years in Avonex and CinnoVex groups, respectively, and P value of gender was different (P value : 0.036). The physical health composite scores were 61.8 and 59.8 (P values 0.677 and 0.884) for Avonex and CinnoVex groups, in that order. The results of the study revealed no significant difference between the two groups with regard to physical health, health perception, energy, and role limitations due to physical problems, pain, sexual and social function, and physical health distress scores. Further, interferon therapy did not significantly impact patients' QOL after a year of treatment with either Avonex or CinnoVex. Conclusions. According to the present study, treatment with IFNB (Avonex or Cinno

  7. Enhanced mucosal and systemic immune response with squalane oil-containing multiple emulsions upon intranasal and oral administration in mice.

    Shahiwala, Aliasgar; Amiji, Mansoor M


    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate squalane oil-containing water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion for mucosal administration of ovalbumin (OVA) as a model candidate vaccine in BALB/c mice. Control and optimized OVA-containing W/O/W emulsion (OVA-Emul) and chitosan-modified W/O/W emulsion (OVA-Emul-Chi) formulations were administered intranasally and orally at an OVA dose of 100 mug. The mucosal and systemic immune responses were evaluated after the first and second immunization. The OVA-Emul formulations resulted in higher immunoglobulin-G (IgG) and immunoglobulin-A (IgA) responses as compared with aqueous solution. In addition, significant IgG and IgA responses were observed after the second immunization dose using the emulsions with both routes of administration. Intranasal vaccination was more effective in generating the systemic OVA-specific IgG response than the mucosal OVA-specific IgA response. Oral immunizations, on the other hand, showed a much higher systemic IgG and mucosal IgA responses as compared with the nasally treated groups. The results of this study show that squalane oil-containing W/O/W multiple emulsion formulations can significantly enhance the local and systemic immune responses, especially after oral administration, and may be adopted as a better alternative in mucosal delivery of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines.

  8. Multiple organ parenchymal cell apoptosis and its induction early after ischemia-reperfusion in rats and mice


    AIM: To determine the evolutionary pattern of parenchymal cell apoptosis in multiple organs early after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion(I/R) and its induction mechanisms and the role of apoptosis in triggering SIRS/MODS. METHODS: An I/R model was reproduced by clipping and releasing the superior mesenteric artery in rats and mice. Flow cytometry, electron microscope, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, TUNEL method, fluorescent and Gomori's silver-HE staining were used to detect apoptosis. Distribution features of apoptotic parenchymal cells in multiple organs were observed. Immunohistochemical staining of HSP 70 and Bcl-2 were performd to study the induction mechanisms of apoptosis.RESULTS and CONCLUSION: 1. Damage of the liver, lung, gut and kidney was appeared in early phase of I/R. The percentages of apoptosis in parenchyma organs increased progressively. The percentages of cell necrosis increased with the prolonged I/R duration. 2. Percentages of apoptosis were much higher near the central veins of liver lobules, in the outer medulla of the kidney, and the antimescenteric border of intestinal mucosal epithelium because of ischemia. 3. The expression of HSP 70 increased and Bcl-2 reduced in the areas mentioned above because of hypoperfusion. 4. Apoptosis of I/R hepatocytes, splenocytes and thymocytes was obviously increased after Kupffer cell blockage with GdCl3, showing the functional state of Kupffer cells may play an important role in SIRS/MODS.

  9. Cross-protective immunity against multiple influenza virus subtypes by a novel modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vectored vaccine in mice.

    Brewoo, Joseph N; Powell, Tim D; Jones, Jeremy C; Gundlach, Nancy A; Young, Ginger R; Chu, Haiyan; Das, Subash C; Partidos, Charalambos D; Stinchcomb, Dan T; Osorio, Jorge E


    Development of an influenza vaccine that provides cross-protective immunity remains a challenge. Candidate vaccines based on a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) viral vector expressing antigens from influenza (MVA/Flu) viruses were constructed. A vaccine candidate, designated MVA/HA1/C13L/NP, that expresses the hemagglutinin from pandemic H1N1 (A/California/04/09) and the nucleoprotein (NP) from highly pathogenic H5N1 (A/Vietnam/1203/04) fused to a secretory signal sequence from vaccinia virus was highly protective. The vaccine elicited strong antibody titers to homologous H1N1 viruses while cross-reactive antibodies to heterologous viruses were not detectable. In mice, this MVA/HA1/C13L/NP vaccine conferred complete protection against lethal challenge with A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1), A/Norway/3487-2/09 (pandemic H1N1) or A/Influenza/Puerto Rico/8/34 (seasonal H1N1) and partial protection (57.1%) against challenge with seasonal H3N2 virus (A/Aichi/68). The protective efficacy of the vaccine was not affected by pre-existing immunity to vaccinia. Our findings highlight MVA as suitable vector to express multiple influenza antigens that could afford broad cross-protective immunity against multiple subtypes of influenza virus.

  10. SU-E-T-79: Comparison of Doses Received by the Hippocampus in Patients Treated with Single Vs Multiple Isocenter Based Stereotactic Radiation Therapy to the Brain for Multiple Brain Metastases

    Algan, O; Giem, J; Young, J; Ali, I; Ahmad, S; Hossain, S [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)


    Purpose: To investigate the doses received by the hippocampus and normal brain tissue during a course of stereotactic radiotherapy utilizing a single isocenter (SI) versus multiple isocenter (MI) in patients with multiple intracranial metastases. Methods: Seven patients imaged with MRI including SPGR sequence and diagnosed with 2–3 brain metastases were included in this retrospective study. Two sets of stereotactic IMRT treatment plans, (MI vs SI), were generated. The hippocampus was contoured on SPGR sequences and doses received by the hippocampus and whole brain were calculated. The prescribed dose was 25Gy in 5 fractions. The two groups were compared using t-test analysis. Results: There were 17 lesions in 7 patients. The median tumor, right hippocampus, left hippocampus and brain volumes were: 3.37cc, 2.56cc, 3.28cc, and 1417cc respectively. In comparing the two treatment plans, there was no difference in the PTV coverage except in the tail of the DVH curve. All tumors had V95 > 99.5%. The only statistically significant parameter was the V100 (72% vs 45%, p=0.002, favoring MI). All other evaluated parameters including the V95 and V98 did not reveal any statistically significant differences. None of the evaluated dosimetric parameters for the hippocampus (V100, V80, V60, V40, V20, V10, D100, D90, D70, D50, D30, D10) revealed any statistically significant differences (all p-values > 0.31) between MI and SI plans. The total brain dose was slightly higher in the SI plans, especially in the lower dose regions, although this difference was not statistically significant. Utilizing brain-sub-PTV volumes did not change these results. Conclusion: The use of SI treatment planning for patients with up to 3 brain metastases produces similar PTV coverage and similar normal tissue doses to the hippocampus and the brain compared to MI plans. SI treatment planning should be considered in patients with multiple brain metastases undergoing stereotactic treatment.

  11. TRIP-Br2 promotes oncogenesis in nude mice and is frequently overexpressed in multiple human tumors

    Peh Bee


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD family of mammalian transcriptional coregulators have recently been implicated in E2F-mediated cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. We, herein, focus on the detailed functional characterization of the least understood member of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD protein family, TRIP-Br2 (SERTAD2. Methods Oncogenic potential of TRIP-Br2 was demonstrated by (1 inoculation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, which were engineered to stably overexpress ectopic TRIP-Br2, into athymic nude mice for tumor induction and (2 comprehensive immunohistochemical high-throughput screening of TRIP-Br2 protein expression in multiple human tumor cell lines and human tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs. Clinicopathologic analysis was conducted to assess the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker of human cancer. RNA interference of TRIP-Br2 expression in HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma cells was performed to determine the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel chemotherapeutic drug target. Results Overexpression of TRIP-Br2 is sufficient to transform murine fibroblasts and promotes tumorigenesis in nude mice. The transformed phenotype is characterized by deregulation of the E2F/DP-transcriptional pathway through upregulation of the key E2F-responsive genes CYCLIN E, CYCLIN A2, CDC6 and DHFR. TRIP-Br2 is frequently overexpressed in both cancer cell lines and multiple human tumors. Clinicopathologic correlation indicates that overexpression of TRIP-Br2 in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with a worse clinical outcome by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Small interfering RNA-mediated (siRNA knockdown of TRIP-Br2 was sufficient to inhibit cell-autonomous growth of HCT-116 cells in vitro. Conclusion This study identifies TRIP-Br2 as a bona-fide protooncogene and supports the potential for TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker and a chemotherapeutic drug target in human cancer.

  12. Piperacillin population pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome receiving continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration: effect of type of dialysis membrane on dosing requirements

    Ulldemolins, Marta; Martín-Loeches, Ignacio; Llauradó-Serra, Mireia; Fernández, Javier; Vaquer, Sergi; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Pontes, Caridad; Calvo, Gonzalo; Torres, Antoni; Soy, Dolors


    ...) receiving continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF), to identify the sources of PK variability and evaluate different dosing regimens to develop recommendations based on clinical parameters...

  13. ß-cell specific overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 does not protect against multiple low dose streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetes in mice

    Börjesson, A; Rønn, S G; Karlsen, A E;


    We investigated the impact of ß-cell specific overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 (SOCS-3) on the development of multiple low dose streptozotocin (MLDSTZ) induced Type 1 diabetes and the possible mechanisms involved. MLDSTZ treatment was administered to RIP-SOCS-3 transgenic......RNA in islet cells and secretion of IL-1Ra into culture medium. MLDSTZ treatment caused gradual hyperglycemia both in the wt mice and in the transgenic mice with the latter tending to be more sensitive. In vitro experiments on wt and transgenic islets did not reveal any differences in sensitivity to damaging...

  14. Therapeutic Plasma Exchange May Improve Hemodynamics and Organ Failure Among Children with Sepsis-Induced Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome Receiving Extracorporeal Life Support

    Kawai, Yu; Cornell, Timothy T.; Cooley, Elaine G.; Beckman, Craig N.; Baldridge, Paula K.; Mottes, Theresa A.; Luckritz, Kera E.; Plomaritas, Kathryn S.; Meade, J. Michael; Odetola, Folafoluwa O.; Han, Yong Y.; Blatt, Neal B.; Annich, Gail M.


    Objective To determine the effect of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) on hemodynamics, organ failure, and survival in children with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) due to sepsis requiring extracorporeal life support (ECLS). Design A retrospective analysis. Setting A pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in an academic children’s hospital. Patients 14 consecutive children with sepsis and MODS who received TPE while on ECLS from 2005 to 2013. Interventions Median of 3 cycles of TPE with median of 1.0 times the estimated plasma volume per exchange. Measurements and Main Results Organ Failure Index (OFI) and Vasoactive-Inotropic Score (VIS) were measured before and after TPE use. PICU survival in our cohort was 71.4%. OFI decreased in patients following TPE [pre: 4.1 ± 0.7 vs. post: 2.9 ± 0.9 (mean ±SD); p = 0.0004]. Patients showed improved VIS following TPE [pre: 24.5 (13.0–69.8) vs. post: 5.0 (1.5–7.0), median (25th–75th); p = 0.0002]. Among all patients, the change in OFI was greater for early TPE use than late use [pre: −1.7 ±1.2 vs. post: −0.9 ±0.6; p = 0.14], similar to the change in VIS [pre: −67.5 (28.0–171.2) vs. post: −12.0 (7.2–18.5); p = 0.02]. Among survivors, the change in OFI was greater among early TPE use than late use [early: −2.3 ±1.0 vs. late: −0.8 ± 0.8; p = 0.03], as was the change in VIS [early: −42.0 (16.0–76.3) vs. late: −12.0 (5.3–29.0); p=0.17]. The mean duration of ECLS after TPE according to timing of TPE was not statistically different among all patients or among survivors. Conclusions The use of TPE in children on ECLS with sepsis-induced MODS is associated with organ failure recovery and improved hemodynamic status. Initiating TPE early in the hospital course was associated with greater improvement in organ dysfunction and decreased requirement for vasoactive and/or inotropic agents. PMID:25599148

  15. Changes in magnetic resonance imaging disease measures over 3 years in mildly disabled patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis receiving interferon β-1a in the COGnitive Impairment in MUltiple Sclerosis (COGIMUS study

    Quarantelli Mario


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has improved the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis (MS. In clinical trials, MRI has been found to detect treatment effects with greater sensitivity than clinical measures; however, clinical and MRI outcomes tend to correlate poorly. Methods In this observational study, patients (n = 550; 18-50 years; relapsing-remitting MS [Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤4.0] receiving interferon (IFN β-1a therapy (44 or 22 µg subcutaneously [sc] three times weekly [tiw] underwent standardized MRI, neuropsychological and quality-of-life (QoL assessments over 3 years. In this post hoc analysis, MRI outcomes and correlations between MRI parameters and clinical and functional outcomes were analysed. Results MRI data over 3 years were available for 164 patients. T2 lesion and T1 gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+ lesion volumes, but not black hole (BH volumes, decreased significantly from baseline to Year 3 (P P = 0.025 and T1 BH volumes (-7.8% vs +10.3%, P = 0.002. A decrease in T2 lesion volume over 3 years predicted stable QoL over the same time period. Treatment with IFN β-1a, 44 μg sc tiw, predicted an absence of cognitive impairment at Year 3. Conclusion Subcutaneous IFN β-1a significantly decreased MRI measures of disease, with a significant benefit shown for the 44 µg over the 22 µg dose; higher-dose treatment also predicted better cognitive outcomes over 3 years.

  16. Effect of pre-existing Schistosoma haematobium infection on Plasmodium berghei multiplications in imprinting control region mice

    Benjamin; Amoani; Elvis; Ofori; Ameyaw; Du-Bois; Asante; Francis; Ackah; Armah; James; Prah; Collins; Paa; Kwesi; Botchey; Johnson; Nyarko; Boampong


    Objective: To investigate the effect of pre-existing Schistosoma haematobium(S. haematobium) infection on malaria disease severity.Methods: The study involved the use of twenty-i ve imprinting control region mice, i fteen of which were initially infected with S. haematobium. Five of the remaining ten schistouninfected mice together with i ve schisto-infected mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei(P. berghei) after four weeks(acute stage) of schistosoma infection. The remaining i ve schisto-uninfected mice together with i ve schisto-infected mice were also infected with P. berghei after seven weeks(chronic stage) of schistosoma infection. The last i ve schistoinfected mice were used as control group. They were then monitored for changes in P. berghei parasitaemia on Days 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 post-infection. Records on their survivability were also taken.Results: The co-infected mice had signii cantly higher malaria parasitaemia, compared with the mono-infected mice during acute S. haematobium infection. In contrast, the co-infected mice had signii cantly lower malaria parasitaemia during chronic S. haematobium infection and a higher survival rate.Conclusions: Co-infection of mice with P. berghei during acute S. haematobium infection resulted in rapid P. berghei development and increased malaria parasitaemia. However, the co-infection resulted in slower P. berghei development and decreased malaria parasitaemia with enhanced survivability of the mice during chronic S. haematobium infection. Therefore, pre-existing chronic S. haematobium infection may provide some protection to the host by reducing parasitaemia.

  17. Comparison of Th1- and Th2-associated immune reactivities stimulated by single versus multiple vaccination of mice with irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    Caulada-Benedetti, Z.; Al-Zamel, F.; Sher, A.; James, S. (NIAID, Bethesda, MD (USA))


    Mice immunized against Schistosoma mansoni by a single percutaneous exposure to radiation-attenuated parasite larvae demonstrate partial resistance to challenge infection that has been shown to correlate with development of cell-mediated immunity, whereas mice hyperimmunized by multiple exposure to attenuated larvae produce antibodies capable of transferring partial protection to naive recipients. Measurement of Ag-specific lymphokine responses in these animals suggested that the difference in resistance mechanisms may be due to the differential induction of Th subset response by the two immunization protocols. Thus, upon Ag stimulation, singly immunized mice predominantly demonstrated responses associated with Th1 reactivity, including IL-2 and IFN-gamma production, whereas multiply immunized animals showed increased IL-5, IL-4, and IgG1 antibody production associated with enhanced Th2 response. These responses demonstrated some degree of organ compartmentalization, with splenocytes demonstrating higher Th1-related lymphokine production and cells from draining lymph nodes showing stronger proliferation and Th2 type reactivity. However, hyperimmunized mice also continued to demonstrate substantial Th1-associated immune reactivity. Moreover, in vivo Ag challenge elicited activated larvacidal macrophages in hyperimmunized animals. These observations indicate that protective cell-mediated mechanisms associated with induction of CD4+ Th1 cell reactivity predominate in singly vaccinated mice. Further vaccination stimulates Th2 responses, such as enhanced IgG1 production, that may also contribute to protective immunity.

  18. Polymorphisms of nuclear factor-κB family genes are associated with development of multiple myeloma and treatment outcome in patients receiving bortezomib-based regimens.

    Du, Juan; Huo, Jun; Shi, Jun; Yuan, Zhengang; Zhang, Chunyang; Fu, Weijun; Jiang, Hua; Yi, Qing; Hou, Jian


    The nuclear factor-κB pathway is an important signaling pathway activated in multiple myeloma cells. Bortezomib inhibits nuclear factor-κB activation and is an important antimyeloma agent. Nevertheless, patients treated with this drug eventually relapse. We hypothesized that the nuclear factor-κB pathway may be associated with multiple myeloma and patients' responses to bortezomib. In this study we analyzed 26 polymorphism sites of nuclear factor-κB family member genes, IKBα, NFKB2, and TRAF3, in 527 unrelated Chinese Han subjects (252 with multiple myeloma and 275 controls) using a Sequenom MassARRAY genotyping assay, and examined the outcome of 83 patients treated with a bortezomib-based regimen. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the TRAF3 rs12147254 A allele and a specific haplotype 1 of TRAF3 [GAACAG] are associated with a decreased risk of multiple myeloma (odds ratio 0.709, PNuclear factor-κB family member gene polymorphisms play a role in the development of multiple myeloma and in the response to bortezomib therapy.

  19. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in multiple organs of mice acutely exposed to amorphous silica nanoparticles

    Nemmar A


    Full Text Available Abderrahim Nemmar,1 Priya Yuvaraju,1 Sumaya Beegam,1 Javed Yasin,2 Elsadig E Kazzam,2 Badreldin H Ali3 1Department of Physiology, 2Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE; 3Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Al-Khoudh, Sultanate of Oman Abstract: The use of amorphous silica (SiO2 in biopharmaceutical and industrial fields can lead to human exposure by injection, skin penetration, ingestion, or inhalation. However, the in vivo acute toxicity of amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles (SiNPs on multiple organs and the mechanisms underlying these effects are not well understood. Presently, we investigated the acute (24 hours effects of intraperitoneally administered 50 nm SiNPs (0.25 mg/kg on systemic toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in the lung, heart, liver, kidney, and brain of mice. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased by SiNPs in the lung, liver, kidney, and brain, but was not changed in the heart. Similarly, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly affected by SiNPs in all organs studied. While the concentration of tumor necrosis factor α was insignificantly increased in the liver and brain, its increase was statistically significant in the lung, heart, and kidney. SiNPs induced a significant elevation in pulmonary and renal interleukin 6 and interleukin-1 beta in the lung, liver, and brain. Moreover, SiNPs caused a significant increase in DNA damage, assessed by comet assay, in all the organs studied. SiNPs caused leukocytosis and increased the plasma activities of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, alanine aminotranferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. These results indicate that acute systemic exposure to SiNPs causes oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in several major organs, and highlight the need for thorough evaluation

  20. Enhanced immunogenicity of multiple-epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus fused with porcine interferon alpha in mice and protective efficacy in guinea pigs and swine.

    Du, Yijun; Li, Yufeng; He, Hairong; Qi, Jing; Jiang, Wenming; Wang, Xinglong; Tang, Bo; Cao, Jun; Wang, Xianwei; Jiang, Ping


    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals. In this study, three amino acid residues 21-60, 141-160 and 200-213 from VP1 protein of FMDV were selected as multiple-epitopes (VPe), and a recombinant adenovirus expressing the multiple-epitopes fused with porcine interferon alpha (rAd-pIFN alpha-VPe) was constructed. Six groups of female BALB/c mice (18 mice per group) were inoculated subcutaneously (s.c.) twice at 2-week intervals with the recombinant adenoviruses and the immune responses were examined. Following this the protective efficacy of rAd-pIFN alpha-VPe was examined in guinea pigs and swine. The results showed that both FMDV-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses could be induced by rAd-VPe and increased when rAd-pIFN alpha is included in this regime in mice model. Moreover, the levels of the immune responses in the group inoculated with rAd-pIFN alpha-VPe were significantly higher than the group inoculated with rAd-VPe plus rAd-pIFN alpha. All guinea pigs and swine vaccinated with rAd-pIFN alpha-VPe were completely protected from viral challenge. It demonstrated that recombinant adenovirus rAd-pIFN alpha-VPe might be an attractive candidate vaccine for preventing FMDV infection.

  1. Multiple-site carcinogenicity of benzene in Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F sub 1 mice

    Huff, J.E.; Haseman, J.K.; Eustis, S.; Maronpot, R.R. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)); DeMarini, D.M. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)); Peters, A.C.; Persing, R.L. (Battelle Columbus Division, OH (USA)); Chrisp, C.E. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA)); Jacobs, A.C. (Carltech Associates, Rockville, MD (USA))


    Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of benzene were conducted in groups of 60 F344/N rats and 60 B6C3F{sub 1} mice of each sex for each of three exposure doses and vehicle controls. Using the results from 17-week studies, doses for the 2-year studies were selected based on clinical observations, on clinical pathologic findings and on body weight effects. Doses of 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg body weight benzene in corn oil were administered by gavage to male rats, 5 days per week, for 103 weeks. Doses of 0, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg benzene in corn oil were administered by gavage to female rats and to male and female mice for 103 weeks. Ten animals in each of the 16 groups were killed at 12 months, and necropsies were performed. Hematologic profiles were performed at 3-month intervals. For the 2-year studies, mean body weights of the top dose groups of male rats and of both sexes of mice were lower than those of the controls. Survivals of the top dose group of rats and mice of each sex were reduced; however, at week 92 for rats and week 91 for mice, survival was greater than 60% in all groups; most of the dosed animals that died before week 103 had neoplasia. Compound-related nonneoplastic or neoplastic effects on the hematopoietic system, Zymbal gland, forestomach, and adrenal gland were found both for rats and mice. Further, the oral cavity was affected in rats, and the lung, liver, Harderian gland, preputial gland, ovary, and mammary gland were affected in mice. Under the conditions of these 2-year gavage studies, there was clear evidence of carcinogenicity of benzene in male F344/N rats, female F344/N rats, male B6C3F{sub 1} mice, and female B6C3F{sub 1} mice. Dose-related lymphocytopenia was observed for male and female F344/N rats and male and female B6C3F{sub 1} mice. These unequivocal observations show clearly that benzene is a trans-species, trans-sex, multisite potent carcinogen.

  2. Effect of mefloquine administered orally at single, multiple, or combined with artemether, artesunate, or praziquantel in treatment of mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum.

    Xiao, Shu-hua; Mei, Jing-yan; Jiao, Pei-ying


    The purpose of the study is to explore the efficacy of mefloquine administered orally at single, multiple doses, or in combination with artesuante, artemether, or praziquantel in mouse--Schistosoma japonicum model. A total of 205 mice were divided into 4 batches and each batch of mice was infected percutaneously with 40 S. japonicum cercariae for 35 days. The infected mice were treated orally with mefloquine at single doses, multiple daily doses, or combined with artesunate, artemether, or praziquantel, while infected but untreated mice served as control. All treated animals were killed 4 weeks post-treatment for assessment of effect. When infected mice were treated orally with mefloquine at single or multiple daily doses under the same total dose levels, the tendency to decrease the efficacy was seen. Particularly, when a lower single dose of 100 mg/kg was divided equally into five daily doses of 20 mg/kg, the efficacy decreased statistically significant (Pmefloquine or artesuante at a single dose of 100 mg/kg, a moderate effect against schistosomes was observed. No further significant reduction of total and female worm burdens was seen, when the two drugs combined together at the same dose level. On the other hand, administration of mefloquine combined with artesunate at single dose of 50 mg/kg, which exhibited no effect against schistosomes, resulted in significant reduction of total and female worm burdens in comparison with the groups treated with mefloquine and artesunate alone at the same dose level. Similar results were observed in treatment of infected mice with mefloquine in combination with artemether at the smaller dose of 50 mg/kg. The total worm burden was significantly lower than that of control and the female worm burden was also significant lower than that of groups treated with mefloquine and artemether alone. Interestingly, in administration of mefloquine 100 mg/kg combined with artemether 100 mg/kg to the infected mice, all female worms were

  3. Implication of Genetic Deletion of Wdr13 in Mice: Mild Anxiety, Better Performance in Spatial Memory Task, With Upregulation of Multiple Synaptic Proteins

    Shiladitya Mitra


    Full Text Available WDR13 expresses from the X chromosome and has a highly conserved coding sequence. There have been multiple associations of WDR13 with memory. However, its detailed function in context of brain and behavior remains unknown. We characterized the behavioral phenotype of two months old male mice lacking the homologue of WDR13 gene (Wdr13-/0. Taking cue from analysis of its expression in the brain, we chose hippocampus for molecular studies to delineate its function. Wdr13-/0 mice spent less time in the central area of the open field test and with the novel object in novel object recognition test as compared to the wild-type. However, these mice didn’t show any significant changes in total time spent in arms or frequency of arm entries in elevated plus maze. In the absence of Wdr13, there was a significant upregulation of synaptic proteins, viz., SYN1, RAB3A, CAMK2A etc accompanied with increased spine density of hippocampal CA1 neurons and better spatial memory in mice as measured by increased time spent in target quadrant of Morris water maze during probe test. Parallel study from our lab has established c-JUN, ER α/ β and HDAC 1,3,7 as interacting partners of WDR13. WDR13 represses transcription from AP1 (c-JUN responsive and ERE (Estrogen Receptor Element promoters. We hypothesized that absence of Wdr13 would resulted in de-regulated expression of a number of genes including multiple synaptic genes leading to the observed phenotype. Knocking down Wdr13 in Neuro2a cell lines led to increased transcripts of Camk2a and Nrxn2 consistent with in-vivo results. Summarily, our data provides functional evidence for the role of Wdr13 in brain.

  4. Study on effectiveness of transfusion program in thalassemia major patients receiving multiple blood transfusions at a transfusion centre in Western India

    Shah Neeraj


    Full Text Available Background : Children suffering from beta-thalassemia major require repeated blood transfusions which may be associated with dangers like iron overload and contraction of infections such as HIV, HCV, and HBsAg which ultimately curtail their life span. On the other hand, inadequate transfusions lead to severe anemia and general fatigue and debility. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from 142 beta-thalassemia major patients aged 3 years or more receiving regular blood transfusions at a transfusion centre in Western India from 1 April 2009 to 30 June 2009. The clinical data and laboratory results were subsequently analyzed. Results: Of the 142 patients, 76 (53.5% were undertransfused (mean Hb <10 gm%. 96 (67% of the patients were taking some form of chelation therapy but out of them only 2 (2% were adequately chelated (S. ferritin <1000 ng/ml. 5 (3.5% of the patients were known diabetics on insulin therapy. 103 (72% of the patients were retarded in terms of growth. The prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs such as HCV, HIV, and HBsAg was respectively 45%, 2%, and 2%, with the prevalence of HCV being significantly more than the general population. The HCV prevalence showed positive correlation with the age of the patients and with the total no of blood transfusions received. As many as 15% (6 out of 40 children who were born on or after 2002 were HCV positive despite the blood they received being subjected to screening for HCV. Conclusions: The study suggests the need to step up the transfusions to achieve hemoglobin goal of 10 gm% (as per the moderate transfusion regimen and also to institute urgent and effective chelation measures with the aim of keeping serum ferritin levels below 1000 ng/ml to avoid the systemic effects of iron overload. In addition, strict monitoring of the children for endocrinopathy and other systemic effects of iron overload should be done. Rigid implementation of quality control measures for the

  5. Disruption of PC1/3 expression in mice causes dwarfism and multiple neuroendocrine peptide processing defects

    Zhu, Xiaorong; Zhou, An; Dey, Arunangsu


    ., Rouille, Y., Holst, J., Carroll, R., Ravazzola, M., Orci, L., Furuta, H. & Steiner, D. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6646-6651). The PC1/3-null mice differ from a human subject reported with compound heterozygosity for defects in this gene, who was of normal stature but markedly obese from early...... life. The PC1/3-null mice are not obese. The basis for these phenotypic differences is an interesting topic for further study. These findings prove the importance of PC1/3 as a key neuroendocrine convertase....

  6. Multiple phenotypic changes in mice after knockout of the B3gnt5 gene, encoding Lc3 synthase--a key enzyme in lacto-neolacto ganglioside synthesis

    McLendon Roger E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ganglioside biosynthesis occurs through a multi-enzymatic pathway which at the lactosylceramide step is branched into several biosynthetic series. Lc3 synthase utilizes a variety of galactose-terminated glycolipids as acceptors by establishing a glycosidic bond in the beta-1,3-linkage to GlcNaAc to extend the lacto- and neolacto-series gangliosides. In order to examine the lacto-series ganglioside functions in mice, we used gene knockout technology to generate Lc3 synthase gene B3gnt5-deficient mice by two different strategies and compared the phenotypes of the two null mouse groups with each other and with their wild-type counterparts. Results B3gnt5 gene knockout mutant mice appeared normal in the embryonic stage and, if they survived delivery, remained normal during early life. However, about 9% developed early-stage growth retardation, 11% died postnatally in less than 2 months, and adults tended to die in 5-15 months, demonstrating splenomegaly and notably enlarged lymph nodes. Without lacto-neolacto series gangliosides, both homozygous and heterozygous mice gradually displayed fur loss or obesity, and breeding mice demonstrated reproductive defects. Furthermore, B3gnt5 gene knockout disrupted the functional integrity of B cells, as manifested by a decrease in B-cell numbers in the spleen, germinal center disappearance, and less efficiency to proliferate in hybridoma fusion. Conclusions These novel results demonstrate unequivocally that lacto-neolacto series gangliosides are essential to multiple physiological functions, especially the control of reproductive output, and spleen B-cell abnormality. We also report the generation of anti-IgG response against the lacto-series gangliosides 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1.

  7. Statistical analysis on finger replacement schemes for RAKE receivers in the soft handover region with multiple BSs over i.n.d. fading channels

    Nam, Sung Sik


    A new finger replacement technique which is applicable for RAKE receivers in the soft handover region has been proposed and studied under the ideal assumption that the fading is both independent and identically distributed from path to path. To supplement our previous work, we present a general comprehensive framework for the performance assessment of the proposed finger replacement schemes operating over independent but non-identically distributed (i.n.d.) faded paths. To accomplish this object, we derive new closed-form expressions for the target key statistics which are composed of i.n.d. exponential random variables. With these new expressions, the performance analysis of various wireless communication systems over more practical channel environments can be possible.

  8. Altered MARCH1 ubiquination-regulated dendritic cell immune functions during the early stage of zymosan-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in mice.

    Li, Fei; Lu, Jiang-yang; Liu, Qian; Wang, Hong-wei; Guo, Huiqin


    Using a zymosan-induced mouse model of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), we previously found profound increases in spleen immune cells' expressions of ubiquitin and MHC-II molecules and increased CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs) within 24h of zymosan injection. We postulated that the early stage of MODS altered DCs function via an ubiquitination-associated mechanism. We intraperitoneally injected zymosan into 100 male C57BL/6 mice (0.8mg/g) and randomly divided them into 5 groups based on the days after injection (20mice/group): 1d, 3d, 5d, 7d, and 10d. Mice were examined for spleen CD11c+ DC functions at the indicated days. Untreated mice were used for normal spleen tissue and T cell samples. By qPCR, IL-12 and TNF-α mRNA expressions in spleen CD11c+ DCs were significantly increased in MODS 1d mice; on subsequent days post-injection, these mRNA levels gradually returned to control levels. The same patterns were found for MODS mice DCs induction of untreated mouse T cells proliferation and IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA expressions. When T cell functions were examined using MODS 1d DCs with and without MG132 treatment, an inhibitor of ubiquitinated protein degradation, T cell functional activities were enhanced by DCs treated with MG132. MODS 1d DCs also had significantly reduced MARCH1 mRNA expression, a key ubiquitin ligase that regulates DCs MHC-II expression. Silencing DCs MARCH1 expression with siRNA resulted in enhancing their induction of T cell functional activities. Using co-immunoprecipitation, Western blot, and flow cytometry assays, we deduced that MARCH1 ubiquitinated DC surface MHC-II molecules to regulate DC's immune functions in MODS mice. Our results suggest that aberrant degradation of spleen DCs MARCH1-mediated ubiquitinated proteins is involved during the earliest stage of MODS development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Persistence of Multiple Tumor-Specific T-Cell Clones Is Associated with Complete Tumor Regression in a Melanoma Patient Receiving Adoptive Cell Transfer Therapy

    Zhou, Juhua; Dudley, Mark E.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Robbins, Paul F.


    Summary The authors recently reported that adoptive immunotherapy with autologous tumor-reactive tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) immediately following a conditioning nonmyeloablative chemotherapy regimen resulted in an enhanced clinical response rate in patients with metastatic melanoma. These observations led to the current studies, which are focused on a detailed analysis of the T-cell antigen reactivity as well as the in vivo persistence of T cells in melanoma patient 2098, who experienced a complete regression of all metastatic lesions in lungs and soft tissues following therapy. Screening of an autologous tumor cell cDNA library using transferred TILs resulted in the identification of novel mutated growth arrest-specific gene 7 (GAS7) and glyceral-dehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene transcripts. Direct sequence analysis of the expressed T-cell receptor beta chain variable regions showed that the transferred TILs contained multiple T-cell clonotypes, at least six of which persisted in peripheral blood for a month or more following transfer. The persistent T cells recognized both the mutated GAS7 and GAPDH. These persistent tumor-reactive T-cell clones were detected in tumor cell samples obtained from the patient following adoptive cell transfer and appeared to be represented at higher levels in the tumor sample obtained 1 month following transfer than in the peripheral blood obtained at the same time. Overall, these results indicate that multiple tumor-reactive T cells can persist in the peripheral blood and at the tumor site for prolonged times following adoptive transfer and thus may be responsible for the complete tumor regression in this patient. PMID:15614045

  10. Failure of adrenal corticosterone production in POMC-deficient mice results from lack of integrated effects of POMC peptides on multiple factors.

    Karpac, Jason; Czyzewska, Katarzyna; Kern, Andras; Brush, Richard S; Anderson, Robert E; Hochgeschwender, Ute


    Production of corticosteroids from the adrenal gland is a multistep process in which corticosterone is enzymatically processed from its precursor cholesterol. The main hormone regulating the production of corticosterone is the proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Adrenals of POMC-deficient (POMC(-/-)) mice do not produce corticosterone either at basal levels or in response to acute stimulation with ACTH. However, pharmacological amounts of ACTH delivered continuously elicit corticosterone production over time. To define the relative effects of ACTH on individual factors involved in corticosterone production, parameters of adrenal cholesterol metabolism and steroidogenesis were examined in POMC(-/-) mice compared with wild-type and ACTH-treated mutant mice. POMC(-/-) adrenals lack cholesterol esters (CE); adrenal CE is restored with ACTH treatment. However, discontinuation of ACTH treatment stops corticosterone production despite the presence of adrenal CE. Failure of corticosterone production by POMC(-/-) adrenals occurs despite the constitutive presence of transcripts of genes required for cholesterol metabolism and steroidogenesis. Levels of key proteins involved in selective cholesterol uptake and steroidogenesis were attenuated; ACTH treatment increased these protein levels, most significantly those of the receptor responsible for selective uptake of CE, scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI). Our studies reveal that failure of corticosterone production of POMC(-/-) adrenal glands and its pharmacological reconstitution by ACTH are not mediated by any one individual protein, but rather as an integrated effect on multiple factors from import of the substrate cholesterol to its conversion to corticosterone.

  11. Biodistribution and tissue toxicity of amphotericin B in mice following multiple dose administration of a novel oral lipid-based formulation (iCo-009).

    Gershkovich, Pavel; Sivak, Olena; Wasan, Ellen K; Magil, Alex B; Owen, David; Clement, John G; Wasan, Kishor M


    The purpose of this study was to assess the biodistribution and toxicity of amphotericin B (AMB) following multiple dose administration of an oral lipid-based formulation (iCo-009). BALB/c female mice were used. ICo-009 was administered twice daily for 5 days at doses of 2.5-20 mg/kg. Untreated animals, oral vehicle or intravenous Fungizone® (1 or 2 mg/kg) served as control groups. The animals were sacrificed 12 h following the last administration of AMB, and blood and multiple tissues were harvested for drug analysis and histopathological evaluation. Plasma or tissue samples were analysed for concentrations of AMB or creatinine by means of HPLC-UV. A dose-dependent accumulation of AMB in liver, spleen, kidney and lung tissues was found. The concentration of the drug in all these organs exceeded the corresponding concentrations in plasma at the same dose. The concentrations of AMB in heart and brain were similar to the corresponding concentrations in plasma. Creatinine concentrations were elevated above normal concentrations in the 2 mg/kg Fungizone® group only. Histopathological analysis of kidney and liver tissues revealed a normal pattern in all treated groups, except the 2 mg/kg Fungizone® group. No gastrointestinal toxicity was found in this study. A multiple dose treatment regimen with iCo-009 in mice results in a gradual accumulation of AMB in tissues. Despite significant concentrations of AMB, no kidney or liver toxicity of orally administered AMB was detected in this study. Furthermore, multiple oral administration of iCo-009 or of vehicle control did not induce gastrointestinal toxicity.

  12. A tool to measure the attributes of receiving IV therapy in a home versus hospital setting: the Multiple Sclerosis Relapse Management Scale (MSRMS

    Chataway Jeremy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravenous steroids are routinely used to treat disabling relapses in multiple sclerosis (MS. Theoretically, the infusion could take place at home, rather than in hospital. Findings from other patient populations suggest that patients may find the experiences of home relapse management more desirable. However, formal comparison of these two settings, from the patients' point of view, was prevented by the lack of a clinical scale. We report the development of a rating scale to measure patient's experiences of relapse management that allowed this question to be answered confidently. Methods Scale development had three stages. First, in-depth interviews of 21 MS patients generated a conceptual model and pool of potential scale items. Second, these items were administered to 160 people with relapsing-remitting MS. Standard psychometric techniques were used to develop a scale. Third, the psychometric properties of the scale were evaluated in a randomised controlled trial of 138 patients whose relapses were managed either at home or hospital. Results A preliminary conceptual model with eight dimensions, and a pool of 154 items was generated. From this we developed the MS Relapse Management Scale (MSRMS, a 42-item with four subscales: access to care (6 items, coordination of care (11 items, information (7 items, interpersonal care (18 items. The MSRMS subscales satisfied most psychometric criteria but had notable floor effects. Conclusions The MSRMS is a reliable and valid measure of patients' experiences of MS relapse management. The high floor effects suggest most respondents had positive care experiences. Results demonstrate that patients' experiences of relapse management can be measured, and that the MSRMS is a powerful tool for determining which services to develop, support and ultimately commission.

  13. Overexpressing sperm surface beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase in transgenic mice affects multiple aspects of sperm-egg interactions


    Sperm surface beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase (GalTase) mediates fertilization in mice by binding to specific O-linked oligosaccharide ligands on the egg coat glycoprotein ZP3. Before binding the egg, sperm GalTase is masked by epididymally derived glycosides that are shed from the sperm surface during capacitation. After binding the egg, sperm- bound oligosaccharides on ZP3 induce the acrosome reaction by receptor aggregation, presumably involving GalTase. In this study, we asked how increasi...

  14. Doxorubicin-Loaded PEG-PCL-PEG Micelle Using Xenograft Model of Nude Mice: Effect of Multiple Administration of Micelle on the Suppression of Human Breast Cancer

    Cuong, Nguyen-Van [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Industry, 12 Nguyen Van Bao St, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Jiang, Jian-Lin; Li, Yu-Lun [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jim-Ray [Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan and Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Jwo, Shyh-Chuan [Division of General Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan and Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ming-Fa, E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li, Taiwan (China)


    The triblock copolymer is composed of two identical hydrophilic segments Monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and one hydrophobic segment poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL); which is synthesized by coupling of mPEG-PCL-OH and mPEG-COOH in a mild condition using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 4-dimethylamino pyridine. The amphiphilic block copolymer can self-assemble into nanoscopic micelles to accommodate doxorubixin (DOX) in the hydrophobic core. The physicochemical properties and in vitro tests, including cytotoxicity of the micelles, have been characterized in our previous study. In this study, DOX was encapsulated into micelles with a drug loading content of 8.5%. Confocal microscopy indicated that DOX was internalized into the cytoplasm via endocystosis. A dose-finding scheme of the polymeric micelle (placebo) showed a safe dose of PEG-PCL-PEG micelles was 71.4 mg/kg in mice. Importantly, the circulation time of DOX-loaded micelles in the plasma significantly increased compared to that of free DOX in rats. A biodistribution study displayed that plasma extravasation of DOX in liver and spleen occurred in the first four hours. Lastly, the tumor growth of human breast cancer cells in nude mice was suppressed by multiple injections (5 mg/kg, three times daily on day 0, 7 and 14) of DOX-loaded micelles as compared to multiple administrations of free DOX.

  15. Doxorubicin-Loaded PEG-PCL-PEG Micelle Using Xenograft Model of Nude Mice: Effect of Multiple Administration of Micelle on the Suppression of Human Breast Cancer

    Ming-Fa Hsieh


    Full Text Available The triblock copolymer is composed of two identical hydrophilic segments: Monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol (mPEG and one hydrophobic segment poly(ε‑caprolactone (PCL; which is synthesized by coupling of mPEG-PCL-OH and mPEG‑COOH in a mild condition using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 4-dimethylamino pyridine. The amphiphilic block copolymer can self-assemble into nanoscopic micelles to accommodate doxorubixin (DOX in the hydrophobic core. The physicochemical properties and in vitro tests, including cytotoxicity of the micelles, have been characterized in our previous study. In this study, DOX was encapsulated into micelles with a drug loading content of 8.5%. Confocal microscopy indicated that DOX was internalized into the cytoplasm via endocystosis. A dose-finding scheme of the polymeric micelle (placebo showed a safe dose of PEG-PCL-PEG micelles was 71.4 mg/kg in mice. Importantly, the circulation time of DOX-loaded micelles in the plasma significantly increased compared to that of free DOX in rats. A biodistribution study displayed that plasma extravasation of DOX in liver and spleen occurred in the first four hours. Lastly, the tumor growth of human breast cancer cells in nude mice was suppressed by multiple injections (5 mg/kg, three times daily on day 0, 7 and 14 of DOX-loaded micelles as compared to multiple administrations of free DOX.

  16. Multiple mechanisms limit the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in the small intestine of mice deficient in both ACAT2 and ABCA1.

    Turley, Stephen D; Valasek, Mark A; Repa, Joyce J; Dietschy, John M


    Cholesterol homeostasis in the enterocyte is regulated by the interplay of multiple genes that ultimately determines the net amount of cholesterol reaching the circulation from the small intestine. The effect of deleting these genes, particularly acyl CoA:cholesterol acyl transferase 2 (ACAT2), on cholesterol absorption and fecal sterol excretion is well documented. We also know that the intestinal mRNA level for adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) increases in Acat2(-/-) mice. However, none of these studies has specifically addressed how ACAT2 deficiency impacts the relative proportions of esterified and unesterified cholesterol (UC) in the enterocyte and whether the concurrent loss of ABCA1 might result in a marked buildup of UC. Therefore, the present studies measured the expression of numerous genes and related metabolic parameters in the intestine and liver of ACAT2-deficient mice fed diets containing either added cholesterol or ezetimibe, a selective sterol absorption inhibitor. Cholesterol feeding raised the concentration of UC in the small intestine, and this was accompanied by a significant reduction in the relative mRNA level for Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and an increase in the mRNA level for both ABCA1 and ABCG5/8. All these changes were reversed by ezetimibe. When mice deficient in both ACAT2 and ABCA1 were fed a high-cholesterol diet, the increase in intestinal UC levels was no greater than it was in mice lacking only ACAT2. This resulted from a combination of compensatory mechanisms including diminished NPC1L1-mediated cholesterol uptake, increased cholesterol efflux via ABCG5/8, and possibly rapid cell turnover.

  17. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduces body weight with regulation of multiple genes expression in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice.

    Lee, Mak-Soon; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, Yangha


    The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed on a high-fat diet for 8 weeks to induce obesity. Subsequently they were divided into 3 groups and were maintained on a high-fat control diet or high-fat diets supplemented with 0.2 or 0.5% EGCG (w/w) for a further 8 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism and fatty acid oxidation were analyzed in white adipose tissue, together with biometric and blood parameters. Experimental diets supplemented with EGCG resulted in reduction of body weight and mass of various adipose tissues in a dose-dependent manner. EGCG diet also considerably lowered the levels of plasma triglyceride and liver lipid. In the epididymal white adipose tissue of EGCG diet-fed mice, the mRNA levels of adipogenic genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma), CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-alpha), regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were significantly decreased. However, the mRNA levels of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), as well as lipolytic genes such as hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), were significantly increased. These results suggest that green tea EGCG effectively reduces adipose tissue mass and ameliorates plasma lipid profiles in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. These effects might be at least partially mediated via regulation of the expression of multiple genes involved in adipogenesis, lipolysis, beta-oxidation and thermogenesis in white adipose tissue. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Evaluation of multiple-turnover capability of locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides in cell-free RNase H-mediated antisense reaction and in mice.

    Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Naoko; Yasuhara, Hidenori; Wada, Shunsuke; Wada, Fumito; Shigesada, Naoya; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Obika, Satoshi


    The multiple-turnover ability of a series of locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) in the RNase H-mediated scission reaction was estimated using a newly developed cell-free reaction system. We determined the initial reaction rates of AONs under multiple-turnover conditions and found that among 24 AONs tested, AONs with melting temperatures (Tm) of 40°C-60°C efficiently elicit multiple rounds of RNA scission. On the other hand, by measuring Tm with two 10-mer RNAs partially complementary to AONs as models of cleaved 5' and 3' fragments of mRNA, we found that AONs require adequate binding affinity for efficient turnover activities. We further demonstrated that the efficacy of a set of 13-mer AONs in mice correlated with their turnover efficiency, indicating that the intracellular situation where AONs function is similar to multiple-turnover conditions. Our methodology and findings may provide an opportunity to shed light on a previously unknown antisense mechanism, leading to further improvement of the activity and safety profiles of AONs.

  19. A patient care program for adjusting the autoinjector needle depth according to subcutaneous tissue thickness in patients with multiple sclerosis receiving subcutaneous injections of glatiramer acetate.

    Masid, Maria Luisa Sánchez; Ocaña, Rosalía Horno; Gil, María Jesús Díaz; Ramos, Maria Concepción Ramírez; Roig, Matilde Escutia; Carreño, Maria Rosario Coll; Morales, Jaime Cordero; Carrasco, Maria Luisa Vergara; Hidalgo, Leonor Mariana Rubio; Felices, Ana Maria Bernad; Castaño, Adela Harto; Romero, Purificación Castañeda; Martinez, Pablo Francoli; Sánchez-De la Rosa, Rainel


    The perceived pain on injection site caused by subcutaneous (SC) self-injection may negatively affect acceptance and adherence to treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Pain on injection may be caused by inaccurate injection technique, inadequate needle length adjustment, or repeated use of the same injection body area. However, information is lacking concerning the optimal needle depth to minimize the injection pain. The purpose of this program was to characterize the perceived injection-site pain associated with the use of various injection depths of the autoinjector of glatiramer acetate (GA) based on SC tissue thickness (SCT) of the injection site. This was a pilot program performed by MS-specialized nurses in patients with MS new to GA. Patients were trained by MS nurses on the preparation and administration of SC injection and on an eight-site rotation (left and right arms, thighs, abdomen, and upper quadrant of the buttock). The needle length setting was selected based on SCT measures as follows: 4 or 6 mm for SCT 50 mm. Injection pain was rated using a visual analog scale (VAS) at 5- and 40-minute postinjection and during two 24-day treatment periods. Thirty-eight patients with MS were evaluated. The mean SCT ranged from 15.5 mm in the upper outer quadrant of the buttocks to 29.2 mm in the thighs. The mean perceived pain on injection was below 3 for all the injection sites, at both time points (5 and 40 minutes) and during both 24-day evaluation periods. The mean VAS scores were significantly greater after 5 minutes of injection compared with that reported 40-minute postinjection during both 24-day treatment periods and for all the injection areas. Mean VAS measures at 5- and 40-minute postinjection significantly decreased during the second 24-day treatment period with respect to that reported during the first 24 SC injections for all injection sites. Our findings suggest that the adjustment of injection depth of SC GA autoinjector according to

  20. A vaccine encoding conserved promiscuous HIV CD4 epitopes induces broad T cell responses in mice transgenic to multiple common HLA class II molecules.

    Susan Pereira Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Current HIV vaccine approaches are focused on immunogens encoding whole HIV antigenic proteins that mainly elicit cytotoxic CD8+ responses. Mounting evidence points toward a critical role for CD4+ T cells in the control of immunodeficiency virus replication, probably due to cognate help. Vaccine-induced CD4+ T cell responses might, therefore, have a protective effect in HIV replication. In addition, successful vaccines may have to elicit responses to multiple epitopes in a high proportion of vaccinees, to match the highly variable circulating strains of HIV. Using rational vaccine design, we developed a DNA vaccine encoding 18 algorithm-selected conserved, "promiscuous" (multiple HLA-DR-binding B-subtype HIV CD4 epitopes - previously found to be frequently recognized by HIV-infected patients. We assessed the ability of the vaccine to induce broad T cell responses in the context of multiple HLA class II molecules using different strains of HLA class II- transgenic mice (-DR2, -DR4, -DQ6 and -DQ8. Mice displayed CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses of significant breadth and magnitude, and 16 out of the 18 encoded epitopes were recognized. By virtue of inducing broad responses against conserved CD4+ T cell epitopes that can be recognized in the context of widely diverse, common HLA class II alleles, this vaccine concept may cope both with HIV genetic variability and increased population coverage. The vaccine may thus be a source of cognate help for HIV-specific CD8+ T cells elicited by conventional immunogens, in a wide proportion of vaccinees.

  1. An Intranasal Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Broadly Protects Mice from Multiple Subtypes of Influenza A Virus.

    Schwartzman, Louis M; Cathcart, Andrea L; Pujanauski, Lindsey M; Qi, Li; Kash, John C; Taubenberger, Jeffery K


    Influenza virus infections are a global public health problem, with a significant impact of morbidity and mortality from both annual epidemics and pandemics. The current strategy for preventing annual influenza is to develop a new vaccine each year against specific circulating virus strains. Because these vaccines are unlikely to protect against an antigenically divergent strain or a new pandemic virus with a novel hemagglutinin (HA) subtype, there is a critical need for vaccines that protect against all influenza A viruses, a so-called "universal" vaccine. Here we show that mice were broadly protected against challenge with a wide variety of lethal influenza A virus infections (94% aggregate survival following vaccination) with a virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine cocktail. The vaccine consisted of a mixture of VLPs individually displaying H1, H3, H5, or H7 HAs, and vaccinated mice showed significant protection following challenge with influenza viruses expressing 1918 H1, 1957 H2, and avian H5, H6, H7, H10, and H11 hemagglutinin subtypes. These experiments suggest a promising and practical strategy for developing a broadly protective "universal" influenza vaccine. The rapid and unpredictable nature of influenza A virus evolution requires new vaccines to be produced annually to match circulating strains. Human infections with influenza viruses derived from animals can cause outbreaks that may be associated with high mortality, and such strains may also adapt to humans to cause a future pandemic. Thus, there is a large public health need to create broadly protective, or "universal," influenza vaccines that could prevent disease from a wide variety of human and animal influenza A viruses. In this study, a noninfectious virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine was shown to offer significant protection against a variety of influenza A viruses in mice, suggesting a practical strategy to develop a universal influenza vaccine. Copyright © 2015 Schwartzman et al.

  2. Repeated dose liver micronucleus assay using adult mice with multiple genotoxicity assays concurrently performed as a combination test.

    Hagio, Soichiro; Furukawa, Satoshi; Abe, Masayoshi; Kuroda, Yusuke; Hayashi, Seigo; Ogawa, Izumi


    Recently, the liver micronucleus (MN) assay using young adult rats with repeated administrations has been investigated by employing a new method without partial hepatectomy or in situcollagenase perfusion as the repeated dose liver MN (RDLMN) assay by Narumi et al. (2012). In our study, in order to investigate the possibility of the RDLMN assay using young adult mice instead of rats and the feasibility of employing some genotoxicity assays along with the RDLMN assay as a combination test, two genotoxic carcinogens (N,N-diethylnitrosoamine (DEN) and cisplatin (CIS)) and a nongenotoxic carcinogen (phenobarbital sodium (PHE)) were administered to mice for 15 or 29 days. Then, the liver MN assay, peripheral blood (PB) MN assay and comet assay using the liver and kidney were concurrently performed as a combination test. DEN showed positive responses to all endpoints except MN induction in PB after 15 days of repeat administration. A cross-linking agent, CIS, showed MN induction in liver after 29 days of repeat administration, and in PB after 15 and 29 days of repeat administration, although the comet assay yielded negative responses for both organs at both sampling times. PHE yielded negative responses for all endpoints. In conclusion, it is suggested that the RDLMN assay using mice is a feasible method to be integrated into the general repeated toxicity test along with the combination assays, i.e., comet assay or PB MN assay, which would help in risk assessment for carcinogenicity by comparing the results of combination assays with each other.

  3. Deletion of Porcn in mice leads to multiple developmental defects and models human focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome.

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (FDH is a genetic disorder characterized by developmental defects in skin, skeleton and ectodermal appendages. FDH is caused by dominant loss-of-function mutations in X-linked PORCN. PORCN orthologues in Drosophila and mice encode endoplasmic reticulum proteins required for secretion and function of Wnt proteins. Wnt proteins play important roles in embryo development, tissue homeostasis and stem cell maintenance. Since features of FDH overlap with those seen in mouse Wnt pathway mutants, FDH likely results from defective Wnt signaling but molecular mechanisms by which inactivation of PORCN affects Wnt signaling and manifestations of FDH remain to be elucidated. RESULTS: We introduced intronic loxP sites and a neomycin gene in the mouse Porcn locus for conditional inactivation. Porcn-ex3-7flox mice have no apparent developmental defects, but chimeric mice retaining the neomycin gene (Porcn-ex3-7Neo-flox have limb, skin, and urogenital abnormalities. Conditional Porcn inactivation by EIIa-driven or Hprt-driven Cre recombinase results in increased early embryonic lethality. Mesenchyme-specific Prx-Cre-driven inactivation of Porcn produces FDH-like limb defects, while ectodermal Krt14-Cre-driven inactivation produces thin skin, alopecia, and abnormal dentition. Furthermore, cell-based assays confirm that human PORCN mutations reduce WNT3A secretion. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that Porcn inactivation in the mouse produces a model for human FDH and that phenotypic features result from defective WNT signaling in ectodermal- and mesenchymal-derived structures.

  4. Embryonic stem cells and mice expressing different GFP variants for multiple non-invasive reporter usage within a single animal

    Macmaster Suzanne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-invasive autofluorescent reporters have revolutionized lineage labeling in an array of different organisms. In recent years green fluorescent protein (GFP from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequoria Victoria has gained popularity in mouse transgenic and gene targeting regimes 1. It offers several advantages over conventional gene-based reporters, such as lacZ and alkaline phosphatase, in that its visualization does not require a chromogenic substrate and can be realized in vivo. We have previously demonstrated the utility and developmental neutrality of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP in embryonic stem (ES cells and mice 2. Results In this study we have used embryonic stem (ES cell-mediated transgenesis to test the enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP, two mutant and spectrally distinct color variants of wild type (wt GFP. We have also tested DsRed1, the novel red fluorescent protein reporter recently cloned from the Discostoma coral by virtue of its homology to GFP. To this end, we have established lines of ES cells together with viable and fertile mice having widespread expression of either the ECFP or EYFP GFP-variant reporters. However, we were unable to generate equivalent DsRed1 lines, suggesting that DsRed1 is not developmentally neutral or that transgene expression cannot be sustained constitutively. Balanced (diploid diploid and polarized (tetraploid diploid chimeras comprising combinations of the ECFP and EYFP ES cells and/or embryos, demonstrate that populations of cells expressing each individual reporter can be distinguished within a single animal. Conclusions GFP variant reporters are unique in allowing non-invasive multi-spectral visualization in live samples. The ECFP and EYFP-expressing transgenic ES cells and mice that we have generated provide sources of cells and tissues for combinatorial, double-tagged recombination experiments, chimeras or

  5. Hepatic expression of mature transforming growth factor beta 1 in transgenic mice results in multiple tissue lesions.

    Sanderson, N.; Factor, V; Nagy, P; Kopp, J; Kondaiah, P; WAKEFIELD, L.; Roberts, A B; Sporn, M B; Thorgeirsson, S S


    Aberrant expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) has been implicated in a number of disease processes, particularly those involving fibrotic and inflammatory lesions. To determine the in vivo effects of overexpression of TGF-beta 1 on the function and structure of hepatic as well as extrahepatic tissues, transgenic mice were generated containing a fusion gene (Alb/TGF-beta 1) consisting of modified porcine TGF-beta 1 cDNA under the control of the regulatory elements of th...

  6. An allelic series of mice reveals a role for RERE in the development of multiple organs affected in chromosome 1p36 deletions.

    Bum Jun Kim

    Full Text Available Individuals with terminal and interstitial deletions of chromosome 1p36 have a spectrum of defects that includes eye anomalies, postnatal growth deficiency, structural brain anomalies, seizures, cognitive impairment, delayed motor development, behavior problems, hearing loss, cardiovascular malformations, cardiomyopathy, and renal anomalies. The proximal 1p36 genes that contribute to these defects have not been clearly delineated. The arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide (RE repeats gene (RERE is located in this region and encodes a nuclear receptor coregulator that plays a critical role in embryonic development as a positive regulator of retinoic acid signaling. Rere-null mice die of cardiac failure between E9.5 and E11.5. This limits their usefulness in studying the role of RERE in the latter stages of development and into adulthood. To overcome this limitation, we created an allelic series of RERE-deficient mice using an Rere-null allele, om, and a novel hypomorphic Rere allele, eyes3 (c.578T>C, p.Val193Ala, which we identified in an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU-based screen for autosomal recessive phenotypes. Analyses of these mice revealed microphthalmia, postnatal growth deficiency, brain hypoplasia, decreased numbers of neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN-positive hippocampal neurons, hearing loss, cardiovascular malformations-aortic arch anomalies, double outlet right ventricle, and transposition of the great arteries, and perimembranous ventricular septal defects-spontaneous development of cardiac fibrosis and renal agenesis. These findings suggest that RERE plays a critical role in the development and function of multiple organs including the eye, brain, inner ear, heart and kidney. It follows that haploinsufficiency of RERE may contribute-alone or in conjunction with other genetic, environmental, or stochastic factors-to the development of many of the phenotypes seen in individuals with terminal and interstitial deletions that include the

  7. Hepatitis B virus S gene enhances immune responses of a multiple-epitope DNA construct of hepatitis C virus in mice



    The purpose of this study was to construct an eukaryotic DNA vector encoding a multipleepitope antigen (MFC) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) , and explore the effect of HBsAg gene on the immunity of HCV multiple-epitope DNA construct in vitro and invivo in mice. An HCV DNA vector (pVAX1-HBs-MFC) was constructed by fusing HBsAg gene to the Nterminal of an HCV multiple-epitope antigen gene. The pVAX1-HBs-MFC was transfected into HEK 293Tcells and its expression was measured by ELISA and Western blotting. BALB/c mice were intramuscularly immunized with the pVAX1-HBs-MFC, and an ELISA approach was applied to determine the specific antibody titers and subtypes in the mouse serum. The cross-reactivity of the antibodies was also checked with two synthesized HCV hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) peptides. The IFN-γ production and cell proliferation of the mouse spleen cells were evaluated by ELISA and MTS (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-5-[3-carboxymethoxyphenyl]-2-[4-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium,inner salt) assays, respectively. The expression of pVAX1-HBs-MFC was detectable in the transfected HEK 293T cells. The serum antibody response was effectively elicited in BALB/c mice injected with pVAX1-HBs-MFC. The highest titer of antibody against HCV (MFC) was 1:1280, and the ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 was 1.50±0.12 at the fifth weekafter first immunization. Moreover, the collected mouse serum antibody had the ability to cross-react with the two synthesized HCV HVR1 peptides. The stimulation index of the mouse splenocytes to MFC was 1.79±0.07, and the IFN-γ level was 287±6pg/ml at week 21 after first immunization. The highest titer of the antibody in control BALB/c mice immunized with pVAX1-MFC was 1:320, and the ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 was 1.33±0.11 at week 5 post-immunization. Furthermore, the stimulation index of the mouse splenocytes cells to MFC was 1.52 + 0.06, and the IFN-γ level was 225±9.3pg/ml at week 21 post-immunization. The HBsAg gene

  8. Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice

    Imitola, Jaime; Côté, Daniel; Rasmussen, Stine; Xie, X. Sunney; Liu, Yingru; Chitnis, Tanuja; Sidman, Richard L.; Lin, Charles. P.; Khoury, Samia J.


    Myelin loss and axonal degeneration predominate in many neurological disorders; however, methods to visualize them simultaneously in live tissue are unavailable. We describe a new imaging strategy combining video rate reflectance and fluorescence confocal imaging with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy tuned to CH2 vibration of myelin lipids, applied in live tissue of animals with chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our method allows monitoring over time of demyelination and neurodegeneration in brain slices with high spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. Local areas of severe loss of lipid signal indicative of demyelination and loss of the reflectance signal from axons were seen in the corpus callosum and spinal cord of EAE animals. Even in myelinated areas of EAE mice, the intensity of myelin lipid signals is significantly reduced. Using heterozygous knock-in mice in which green fluorescent protein replaces the CX3CR1 coding sequence that labels central nervous system microglia, we find areas of activated microglia colocalized with areas of altered reflectance and CARS signals reflecting axonal injury and demyelination. Our data demonstrate the use of multimodal CARS microscopy for characterization of demyelinating and neurodegenerative pathology in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, and further confirm the critical role of microglia in chronic inflammatory neurodegeneration.

  9. Development of PEGylated serum albumin with multiple reduced thiols as a long-circulating scavenger of reactive oxygen species for the treatment of fulminant hepatic failure in mice.

    Katsumi, Hidemasa; Nishikawa, Makiya; Nishiyama, Kazushi; Hirosaki, Rikiya; Nagamine, Narumi; Okamoto, Haruka; Mizuguchi, Hironori; Kusamori, Kosuke; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the pathophysiology of fulminant hepatic failure. Therefore, we developed polyethylene glycol-conjugated bovine serum albumin with multiple reduced thiols (PEG-BSA-SH) for the treatment of fulminant hepatic failure. As a long-circulating ROS scavenger, PEG-BSA-SH effectively scavenged highly reactive oxygen species and hydrogen peroxide in buffer solution. PEG-BSA-SH showed a long circulation time in the plasma after intravenous injection into mice. Fulminant hepatic failure was induced by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide and D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN) into mice. The LPS/D-GalN-induced elevation of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels was significantly inhibited by a bolus intravenous injection of PEG-BSA-SH. Furthermore, the changes in hepatic lipid peroxide and hepatic blood flow were effectively suppressed by PEG-BSA-SH. In contrast, L-cysteine, glutathione, and dithiothreitol, three traditional reduced thiols, had no statistically significant effects on the serum levels of ALT or AST. These findings indicate that PEG-BSA-SH is a promising ROS scavenger and useful in the treatment of fulminant hepatic failure.

  10. The long persistence of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts in vivo: kinetic study following single and multiple exposures in male ICR mice.

    Zhu, Lin; Xue, Junyi; Xia, Qingsu; Fu, Peter P; Lin, Ge


    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA)-containing plants are widespread in the world and the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Our previous studies demonstrated that PA-derived DNA adducts can potentially be a common biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. In order to validate the use of these PA-derived DNA adducts as a biomarker, it is necessary to understand the basic kinetics of the PA-derived DNA adducts formed in vivo. In this study, we studied the dose-dependent response and kinetics of PA-derived DNA adduct formation and removal in male ICR mice orally administered with a single dose (40 mg/kg) or multiple doses (10 mg/kg/day) of retrorsine, a representative carcinogenic PA. In the single-dose exposure, the PA-derived DNA adducts exhibited dose-dependent linearity and persisted for up to 4 weeks. The removal of the adducts following a single-dose exposure to retrorsine was biphasic with half-lives of 9 h (t 1/2α) and 301 h (~12.5 days, t 1/2β). In the 8-week multiple exposure study, a marked accumulation of PA-derived DNA adducts without attaining a steady state was observed. The removal of adducts after the multiple exposure also demonstrated a biphasic pattern but with much extended half-lives of 176 h (~7.33 days, t 1/2α) and 1736 h (~72.3 days, t 1/2β). The lifetime of PA-derived DNA adducts was more than 8 weeks following the multiple-dose treatment. The significant persistence of PA-derived DNA adducts in vivo supports their role in serving as a biomarker of PA exposure.

  11. Vaccination with M2e-based multiple antigenic peptides: characterization of the B cell response and protection efficacy in inbred and outbred mice.

    Amaya I Wolf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The extracellular domain of the influenza A virus protein matrix protein 2 (M2e is remarkably conserved between various human isolates and thus is a viable target antigen for a universal influenza vaccine. With the goal of inducing protection in multiple mouse haplotypes, M2e-based multiple antigenic peptides (M2e-MAP were synthesized to contain promiscuous T helper determinants from the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein, the hepatitis B virus antigen and the influenza virus hemagglutinin. Here, we investigated the nature of the M2e-MAP-induced B cell response in terms of the distribution of antibody (Ab secreting cells (ASCs and Ab isotypes, and tested the protective efficacy in various mouse strains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunization of BALB/c mice with M2e-MAPs together with potent adjuvants, CpG 1826 oligonucleotides (ODN and cholera toxin (CT elicited high M2e-specific serum Ab titers that protected mice against viral challenge. Subcutaneous (s.c. and intranasal (i.n. delivery of M2e-MAPs resulted in the induction of IgG in serum and airway secretions, however only i.n. immunization induced anti-M2e IgA ASCs locally in the lungs, correlating with M2-specific IgA in the bronchio-alveolar lavage (BAL. Interestingly, both routes of vaccination resulted in equal protection against viral challenge. Moreover, M2e-MAPs induced cross-reactive and protective responses to diverse M2e peptides and variant influenza viruses. However, in contrast to BALB/c mice, immunization of other inbred and outbred mouse strains did not induce protective Abs. This correlated with a defect in T cell but not B cell responsiveness to the M2e-MAPs. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Anti-M2e Abs induced by M2e-MAPs are highly cross-reactive and can mediate protection to variant viruses. Although synthetic MAPs are promising designs for vaccines, future constructs will need to be optimized for use in the genetically heterogeneous human

  12. Immunization with a streptococcal multiple-epitope recombinant protein protects mice against invasive group A streptococcal infection

    Kuo, Chih-Feng; Tsao, Nina; Hsieh, I-Chen; Lin, Yee-Shin; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Hung, Yu-Ting


    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus; GAS) causes clinical diseases, including pharyngitis, scarlet fever, impetigo, necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. A number of group A streptococcus vaccine candidates have been developed, but only one 26-valent recombinant M protein vaccine has entered clinical trials. Differing from the design of a 26-valent recombinant M protein vaccine, we provide here a vaccination using the polyvalence epitope recombinant FSBM protein (rFSBM), which contains four different epitopes, including the fibronectin-binding repeats domain of streptococcal fibronectin binding protein Sfb1, the C-terminal immunogenic segment of streptolysin S, the C3-binding motif of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B, and the C-terminal conserved segment of M protein. Vaccination with the rFSBM protein successfully prevented mortality and skin lesions caused by several emm strains of GAS infection. Anti-FSBM antibodies collected from the rFSBM-immunized mice were able to opsonize at least six emm strains and can neutralize the hemolytic activity of streptolysin S. Furthermore, the internalization of GAS into nonphagocytic cells is also reduced by anti-FSBM serum. These findings suggest that rFSBM can be applied as a vaccine candidate to prevent different emm strains of GAS infection. PMID:28355251

  13. An ID-based signcryption scheme for multiple receivers in standard model%标准模型下基于身份的多接收者签密方案

    祁正华; 杨庚; 任勋益; 王卉


    为了克服随机预言机模型下可证安全的加密方案在实际应用中并不安全的情况,提出了一种标准模型下基于身份的多接收者签密方案.方案利用椭圆曲线上的双线性对,将标准模型下基于身份的加密算法和多接收者签名算法相结合,建立基于身份的多接收者签密方案构架和安全概念,形成了具有安全、高效性的多接收者签密方案.先分析了方案的正确性,然后基于判定双线性Dif-fie-Hellman假定分析了密文的不可区分性以及基于计算性Diffie -Hellman假定分析了签名的不可伪造性.结果表明,提出的方案不借助于随机预言机假设,具有较强的安全性,能够有效地提高多接收者网络应用环境的安全性;并且方案减少了双线性对计算耗时,具有高效性.%In order to solve the application unsecure problems for provable secure encryption scheme of random oracles model, an identity-based multi-receiver signcryption scheme (IBRSC) under standard model was proposed. In the IBRSC, identity-based encryption algorithm and multi-receiver signature algorithm were combined with bilinear pairing on elliptic curves to form the ID-based signcryption scheme for multiple receivers scheme and security concept. A new secure, efficient identity-based multi-receiver signcryption scheme was proposed. The signcryption scheme was proved to be secure against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks and adaptive chosen message attacks based on decisional bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption and computational Diffie-Hellman assumption, respectively. The results show that the proposed scheme is fully secure without random oracles, and can efficiently improve the security of multi-receiver network and reduce computing consumption of bilinear pairing.

  14. A TNFRSF14-FcɛRI-mast cell pathway contributes to development of multiple features of asthma pathology in mice

    Sibilano, Riccardo; Gaudenzio, Nicolas; DeGorter, Marianne K.; Reber, Laurent L.; Hernandez, Joseph D.; Starkl, Philipp M.; Zurek, Oliwia W.; Tsai, Mindy; Zahner, Sonja; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Roers, Axel; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Yu, Mang; Galli, Stephen J.


    Asthma has multiple features, including airway hyperreactivity, inflammation and remodelling. The TNF superfamily member TNFSF14 (LIGHT), via interactions with the receptor TNFRSF14 (HVEM), can support TH2 cell generation and longevity and promote airway remodelling in mouse models of asthma, but the mechanisms by which TNFSF14 functions in this setting are incompletely understood. Here we find that mouse and human mast cells (MCs) express TNFRSF14 and that TNFSF14:TNFRSF14 interactions can enhance IgE-mediated MC signalling and mediator production. In mouse models of asthma, TNFRSF14 blockade with a neutralizing antibody administered after antigen sensitization, or genetic deletion of Tnfrsf14, diminishes plasma levels of antigen-specific IgG1 and IgE antibodies, airway hyperreactivity, airway inflammation and airway remodelling. Finally, by analysing two types of genetically MC-deficient mice after engrafting MCs that either do or do not express TNFRSF14, we show that TNFRSF14 expression on MCs significantly contributes to the development of multiple features of asthma pathology. PMID:27982078

  15. High fat diet feeding exaggerates perfluorooctanoic acid-induced liver injury in mice via modulating multiple metabolic pathways.

    Xiaobing Tan

    Full Text Available High fat diet (HFD is closely linked to a variety of health issues including fatty liver. Exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid, also causes liver injury. The present study investigated the possible interactions between high fat diet and PFOA in induction of liver injury. Mice were pair-fed a high-fat diet (HFD or low fat control with or without PFOA administration at 5 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Exposure to PFOA alone caused elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels and increased liver weight along with reduced body weight and adipose tissue mass. HFD alone did not cause liver damage, but exaggerated PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity as indicated by higher plasma ALT and AST levels, and more severe pathological changes including hepatocyte hypertrophy, lipid droplet accumulation and necrosis as well as inflammatory cell infiltration. These additive effects of HFD on PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity correlated with metabolic disturbance in liver and blood as well as up-regulation of hepatic proinflammatory cytokine genes. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that both serum and hepatic metabolite profiles of PFOA, HFD, or HFD-PFOA group were clearly differentiated from that of controls. PFOA affected more hepatic metabolites than HFD, but HFD showed positive interaction with PFOA on fatty acid metabolites including long chain fatty acids and acylcarnitines. Taken together, dietary high fat potentiates PFOA-induced hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and necrotic cell death by disturbing hepatic metabolism and inducing inflammation. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that HFD increases the risk of PFOA in induction of hepatotoxicity.

  16. Administration of the Y2 receptor agonist PYY3-36 in mice induces multiple behavioral changes relevant to schizophrenia.

    Stadlbauer, Ulrike; Langhans, Wolfgang; Meyer, Urs


    Functional changes in neuropeptide Y (NPY) signaling at the Y2 receptor subtype have been widely implicated in stress-related neuropsychiatric illnesses such as depression and anxiety disorders. Altered Y2 receptor signaling may also play a role in the precipitation of behavioral and cognitive symptoms associated with schizophrenia. To seek preclinical evidence for this possibility, we explored the functional consequences of treatment with the selective Y2 receptor agonist PYY(3-36) using translational tests for the assessment of schizophrenia-relevant behavioral and cognitive deficits in mice. We found that acute systemic administration of PYY(3-36) at a low dose (1 μg/100 g body weight) or high dose (20 μg/100 g body weight) profoundly impaired social interaction without affecting innate anxiety. PYY(3-36) treatment at the high dose further led to a disruption of sensorimotor gating in the form of prepulse inhibition deficiency. This effect was fully antagonized by acute treatment with the preferential dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol, but not with clozapine. In addition, both doses of PYY(3-36) impaired selective associative learning in the latent inhibition paradigm and spatial working memory in a matching-to-position water maze test. The wide range of abnormalities induced by PYY(3-36) suggests that signaling at the Y2 subtype of NPY receptors is critical for a number of behavioral and cognitive functions, some of which are highly relevant to schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. At least some of the behavioral deficits induced by augmentation of Y2 receptor signaling may involve increased dopaminergic activity.

  17. Multiple-contrast X-ray micro-CT visualization of colon malformations and tumours in situ in living mice; Visualisation des malformations et des tumeurs de l'intestin in situ chez la souris par microtomographie

    Choquet, Ph.; Breton, E.; Constantinesco, A. [Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Hopital de Hautepierre, Service de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Calon, A.; Domon-Dell, C.; Freund, J.N. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), U682, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Universite Louis Pasteur, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Beck, F. [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom)


    The development of new therapeutic approaches against colorectal cancer requires preclinical studies in mice. In vivo imaging could greatly facilitate these trials, but the small size of the animals is a major limitation for the direct visualization of intestinal tissue. Here we report a method of in vivo imaging of the mouse intestine based on X-ray micro-computed tomography using multiple contrast agents. This method was validated in the model of non-cancerous polyp-like heteroplasia that spontaneously develops in the caecum area of Cdx2+/- mutant mice and in the model of colon adenocarcinoma induced by administration of the chemical carcinogen azoxymethane. As a simple and non-invasive method, multiple-contrast X-ray micro-computed tomography is appropriate for pre-clinical studies of intestinal diseases in living mice. (authors)

  18. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    Poisel, Richard A


    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  19. Endothelial dysfunction is a potential contributor to multiple organ failure and mortality in aged mice subjected to septic shock: preclinical studies in a murine model of cecal ligation and puncture.

    Coletta, Ciro; Módis, Katalin; Oláh, Gábor; Brunyánszki, Attila; Herzig, Daniela S; Sherwood, Edward R; Ungvári, Zoltán; Szabo, Csaba


    The goal of the current study was to investigate the effect of aging on the development of endothelial dysfunction in a murine model of sepsis, and to compare it with the effect of genetic deficiency of the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was used to induce sepsis in mice. Survival rates were monitored and plasma indices of organ function were measured. Ex vivo studies included the measurement of vascular function in thoracic aortic rings, assessment of oxidative stress/cellular injury in various organs and the measurement of mitochondrial function in isolated liver mitochondria. eNOS deficiency and aging both exacerbated the mortality of sepsis. Both eNOS-deficient and aged mice exhibited a higher degree of sepsis-associated multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), infiltration of tissues with mononuclear cells and oxidative stress. A high degree of sepsis-induced vascular oxidative damage and endothelial dysfunction (evidenced by functional assays and multiple plasma markers of endothelial dysfunction) was detected in aortae isolated from both eNOS(-/-) and aged mice. There was a significant worsening of sepsis-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, both in eNOS-deficient mice and in aged mice. Comparison of the surviving and non-surviving groups of animals indicated that the severity of endothelial dysfunction may be a predictor of mortality of mice subjected to CLP-induced sepsis. Based on the studies in eNOS mice, we conclude that the lack of endothelial nitric oxide production, on its own, may be sufficient to markedly exacerbate the severity of septic shock. Aging markedly worsens the degree of endothelial dysfunction in sepsis, yielding a significant worsening of the overall outcome. Thus, endothelial dysfunction may constitute an early predictor and independent contributor to sepsis-associated MODS and mortality in aged mice.

  20. A High Incidence of Meiotic Silencing of Unsynapsed Chromatin Is Not Associated with Substantial Pachytene Loss in Heterozygous Male Mice Carrying Multiple Simple Robertsonian Translocations

    Vasco, Chiara; Berríos, Soledad; Parra, María Teresa; Viera, Alberto; Rufas, Julio S.; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Garagna, Silvia; Fernández-Donoso, Raúl


    Meiosis is a complex type of cell division that involves homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination, and segregation. When any of these processes is altered, cellular checkpoints arrest meiosis progression and induce cell elimination. Meiotic impairment is particularly frequent in organisms bearing chromosomal translocations. When chromosomal translocations appear in heterozygosis, the chromosomes involved may not correctly complete synapsis, recombination, and/or segregation, thus promoting the activation of checkpoints that lead to the death of the meiocytes. In mammals and other organisms, the unsynapsed chromosomal regions are subject to a process called meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC). Different degrees of asynapsis could contribute to disturb the normal loading of MSUC proteins, interfering with autosome and sex chromosome gene expression and triggering a massive pachytene cell death. We report that in mice that are heterozygous for eight multiple simple Robertsonian translocations, most pachytene spermatocytes bear trivalents with unsynapsed regions that incorporate, in a stage-dependent manner, proteins involved in MSUC (e.g., γH2AX, ATR, ubiquitinated-H2A, SUMO-1, and XMR). These spermatocytes have a correct MSUC response and are not eliminated during pachytene and most of them proceed into diplotene. However, we found a high incidence of apoptotic spermatocytes at the metaphase stage. These results suggest that in Robertsonian heterozygous mice synapsis defects on most pachytene cells do not trigger a prophase-I checkpoint. Instead, meiotic impairment seems to mainly rely on the action of a checkpoint acting at the metaphase stage. We propose that a low stringency of the pachytene checkpoint could help to increase the chances that spermatocytes with synaptic defects will complete meiotic divisions and differentiate into viable gametes. This scenario, despite a reduction of fertility, allows the spreading of Robertsonian

  1. An M2e-based multiple antigenic peptide vaccine protects mice from lethal challenge with divergent H5N1 influenza viruses

    Chan Chris CS


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing concern has raised regarding the pandemic potential of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 viruses. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop an effective and safe vaccine against the divergent H5N1 influenza viruses. In the present study, we designed a tetra-branched multiple antigenic peptide (MAP-based vaccine, designated M2e-MAP, which contains the sequence overlapping the highly conserved extracellular domain of matrix protein 2 (M2e of a HPAI H5N1 virus, and investigated its immune responses and cross-protection against different clades of H5N1 viruses. Results Our results showed that M2e-MAP vaccine induced strong M2e-specific IgG antibody responses following 3-dose immunization of mice with M2e-MAP in the presence of Freunds' or aluminium (alum adjuvant. M2e-MAP vaccination limited viral replication and attenuated histopathological damage in the challenged mouse lungs. The M2e-MAP-based vaccine protected immunized mice against both clade1: VN/1194 and clade2.3.4: SZ/406H H5N1 virus challenge, being able to counteract weight lost and elevate survival rate following lethal challenge of H5N1 viruses. Conclusions These results suggest that M2e-MAP presenting M2e of H5N1 virus has a great potential to be developed into an effective subunit vaccine for the prevention of infection by a broad spectrum of HPAI H5N1 viruses.

  2. A high incidence of meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin is not associated with substantial pachytene loss in heterozygous male mice carrying multiple simple robertsonian translocations.

    Marcia Manterola


    Full Text Available Meiosis is a complex type of cell division that involves homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination, and segregation. When any of these processes is altered, cellular checkpoints arrest meiosis progression and induce cell elimination. Meiotic impairment is particularly frequent in organisms bearing chromosomal translocations. When chromosomal translocations appear in heterozygosis, the chromosomes involved may not correctly complete synapsis, recombination, and/or segregation, thus promoting the activation of checkpoints that lead to the death of the meiocytes. In mammals and other organisms, the unsynapsed chromosomal regions are subject to a process called meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC. Different degrees of asynapsis could contribute to disturb the normal loading of MSUC proteins, interfering with autosome and sex chromosome gene expression and triggering a massive pachytene cell death. We report that in mice that are heterozygous for eight multiple simple Robertsonian translocations, most pachytene spermatocytes bear trivalents with unsynapsed regions that incorporate, in a stage-dependent manner, proteins involved in MSUC (e.g., gammaH2AX, ATR, ubiquitinated-H2A, SUMO-1, and XMR. These spermatocytes have a correct MSUC response and are not eliminated during pachytene and most of them proceed into diplotene. However, we found a high incidence of apoptotic spermatocytes at the metaphase stage. These results suggest that in Robertsonian heterozygous mice synapsis defects on most pachytene cells do not trigger a prophase-I checkpoint. Instead, meiotic impairment seems to mainly rely on the action of a checkpoint acting at the metaphase stage. We propose that a low stringency of the pachytene checkpoint could help to increase the chances that spermatocytes with synaptic defects will complete meiotic divisions and differentiate into viable gametes. This scenario, despite a reduction of fertility, allows the spreading

  3. An Exon-Specific U1snRNA Induces a Robust Factor IX Activity in Mice Expressing Multiple Human FIX Splicing Mutants

    Dario Balestra


    Full Text Available In cellular models we have demonstrated that a unique U1snRNA targeting an intronic region downstream of a defective exon (Exon-specific U1snRNA, ExSpeU1 can rescue multiple exon-skipping mutations, a relevant cause of genetic disease. Here, we explored in mice the ExSpeU1 U1fix9 toward two model Hemophilia B-causing mutations at the 5′ (c.519A > G or 3′ (c.392-8T > G splice sites of F9 exon 5. Hydrodynamic injection of wt-BALB/C mice with plasmids expressing the wt and mutant (hFIX-2G5′ss and hFIX-8G3′ss splicing-competent human factor IX (hFIX cassettes resulted in the expression of hFIX transcripts lacking exon 5 in liver, and in low plasma levels of inactive hFIX. Coinjection of U1fix9, but not of U1wt, restored exon inclusion of variants and in the intrinsically weak FIXwt context. This resulted in appreciable circulating hFIX levels (mean ± SD; hFIX-2G5′ss, 1.0 ± 0.5 µg/ml; hFIX-8G3′ss, 1.2 ± 0.3 µg/ml; and hFIXwt, 1.9 ± 0.6 µg/ml, leading to a striking shortening (from ≃100 seconds of untreated mice to ≃80 seconds of FIX-dependent coagulation times, indicating a hFIX with normal specific activity. This is the first proof-of-concept in vivo that a unique ExSpeU1 can efficiently rescue gene expression impaired by distinct exon-skipping variants, which extends the applicability of ExSpeU1s to panels of mutations and thus cohort of patients.

  4. Detection of Inter-chromosomal Stable Aberrations by Multiple Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (mFISH) and Spectral Karyotyping (SKY) in Irradiated Mice.

    Pathak, Rupak; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin


    Ionizing radiation (IR) induces numerous stable and unstable chromosomal aberrations. Unstable aberrations, where chromosome morphology is substantially compromised, can easily be identified by conventional chromosome staining techniques. However, detection of stable aberrations, which involve exchange or translocation of genetic materials without considerable modification in the chromosome morphology, requires sophisticated chromosome painting techniques that rely on in situ hybridization of fluorescently labeled DNA probes, a chromosome painting technique popularly known as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH probes can be specific for whole chromosome/s or precise sub-region on chromosome/s. The method not only allows visualization of stable aberrations, but it can also allow detection of the chromosome/s or specific DNA sequence/s involved in a particular aberration formation. A variety of chromosome painting techniques are available in cytogenetics; here two highly sensitive methods, multiple fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) and spectral karyotyping (SKY), are discussed to identify inter-chromosomal stable aberrations that form in the bone marrow cells of mice after exposure to total body irradiation. Although both techniques rely on fluorescent labeled DNA probes, the method of detection and the process of image acquisition of the fluorescent signals are different. These two techniques have been used in various research areas, such as radiation biology, cancer cytogenetics, retrospective radiation biodosimetry, clinical cytogenetics, evolutionary cytogenetics, and comparative cytogenetics.

  5. Mutations in SMG9, Encoding an Essential Component of Nonsense-Mediated Decay Machinery, Cause a Multiple Congenital Anomaly Syndrome in Humans and Mice

    Shaheen, Ranad; Anazi, Shams; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Seidahmed, Mohammed Zain; Caddle, L. Brianna; Palmer, Kristina; Ali, Rehab; Alshidi, Tarfa; Hagos, Samya; Goodwin, Leslie; Hashem, Mais; Wakil, Salma M.; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Colak, Dilek; Murray, Stephen A.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.


    Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) is an important process that is best known for degrading transcripts that contain premature stop codons (PTCs) to mitigate their potentially harmful consequences, although its regulatory role encompasses other classes of transcripts as well. Despite the critical role of NMD at the cellular level, our knowledge about the consequences of deficiency of its components at the organismal level is largely limited to model organisms. In this study, we report two consanguineous families in which a similar pattern of congenital anomalies was found to be most likely caused by homozygous loss-of-function mutations in SMG9, encoding an essential component of the SURF complex that generates phospho-UPF1, the single most important step in NMD. By knocking out Smg9 in mice via CRISPR/Cas9, we were able to recapitulate the major features of the SMG9-related multiple congenital anomaly syndrome we observed in humans. Surprisingly, human cells devoid of SMG9 do not appear to have reduction of PTC-containing transcripts but do display global transcriptional dysregulation. We conclude that SMG9 is required for normal human and murine development, most likely through a transcriptional regulatory role, the precise nature of which remains to be determined. PMID:27018474

  6. Interaction between the protective effects of cannabidiol and palmitoylethanolamide in experimental model of multiple sclerosis in C57BL/6 mice.

    Rahimi, A; Faizi, M; Talebi, F; Noorbakhsh, F; Kahrizi, F; Naderi, N


    Cannabinoids (CBs) have recently been approved to exert broad anti-inflammatory activities in experimental models of multiple sclerosis (MS). It has been demonstrated that these compounds could also have effects on neurodegeneration, demyelination, and autoimmune processes occurring in the pathology of MS. However, the clinical use of CBs is limited by their psychoactive effects. Among cannabinoid compounds, cannabidiol (CBD) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) have no psychotropic activities. We induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of MS, by injecting myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) to C57BL/6 mice. We assessed the effects of CBD, PEA, and co-administration of CBD and PEA on neurobehavioral scores, immune cell infiltration, demyelination, axonal injury, and the expression of inflammatory cytokines by using histochemistry methods and real-time RT-PCR. Treatment with either CBD (5mg/kg) or PEA (5mg/kg) during disease onset reduced the severity of the neurobehavioral scores of EAE. This effect of CBD and PEA was accompanied by diminished inflammation, demyelination, axonal damage and inflammatory cytokine expression while concurrent administration of CBD (5mg/kg) and PEA (5mg/kg) was not as effective as treatment with either drug per se. These results suggest that, CBD and PEA, non-psychoactive CBs, attenuate neurobehavioral deficits, histological damage, and inflammatory cytokine expression in MOG-immunized animals. However, there is an antagonistic interaction between CBD and PEA in protection against MOG-induced disease.

  7. Adenovirus-mediated CTLA4-FasL gene transfer prevents autoimmune diabetes in mice induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin

    JIN Yongzhu; WANG Guangming; LI Ailing; HAO Jie; GAO Xiang; XIE Shusheng


    Type 1 diabetes is the result of a selective destruction of insulin-producing β cells in pancreatic islets by autoreactive T cells. Depletion of autoreactive T cell through apoptosis may be a potential strategy for the prevention of autoimmune diabetes. Simultaneous stimulation of Fas-mediated pathway and blockade of costimulation by a CTLA4-FasL fusion protein has been reported to lead to substantial inhibition of mixed lymphocyte reaction and enhanced in vitro apoptosis of peripheral lymphocytes. To test the feasibility of CTLA4-FasL-based gene therapy to prevent autoimmune diabetes, we developed recombinant adenovirus containing human CTLA4-FasL gene (AdCTLA4-FasL). A single injection of 2 × 108 plaque forming units (PFU) of AdCTLA4-FasL via tail vein dramatically reduced the incidence of autoimmune diabetes in mice induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin. AdCTLA4-FasL administration maintained islet insulin content, significantly increased apoptosis of pancreatic lymphocytes, quantitatively reduced IFN-γand Vβ8.2 TCR chain mRNA expression in pancreatic iymphocytes. These results indicate the therapeutic potential of simultaneous stimulation of Fas-mediated pathway and blockade of costimulation by adenovirus-mediated CTLA4-FasL gene transfer in the prevention of autoimmune diabetes.

  8. 一发多收 MIMO 雷达的目标关联特性%Association Characteristics of MIMO Radar with Single Transmitting Station and Multiple Receiving Stations

    朱丽芳; 任翠霞; 李军; 谢菊兰; 刘静秋


    MIMO radar with single transmitting station and multiple receiving stations combines the features and the performance advantages of centralized and distributed MIMO radars.By transmitting orthogonal signals, the angle information of transmitting station can be measured from receiving arrays independently.Thus infor-mation redundancy appears and high localization precision can be obtained with weighted least square fusion algorithm.The improvement of localization accuracy is bound to have positive effects on target correlation. The target association performance of the MIMO radar of T/R-R model is analysed.The probability model is established to calculate the correct association probability and error probability.Then the results of numerical computation and the Monte Carlo simulation show the validity of the model.At last,the association perform-ance advantages of MIMO radar are verified by comparing with the conventional phased array radar.%一发多收 MIMO 雷达结合了集中式和分布式 MIMO 雷达的工作特点,兼有两种模式的性能优势。接收站可以独立测得发射站角度信息,存在信息冗余,通过加权最小二乘融合可得到高精度的定位结果,这将会使目标关联的结果更加精确。基于 T/R-R 模式一发双收 MIMO 雷达,分析了 MIMO 雷达目标关联的性能,建立了概率模型,推算了正确关联概率和错误关联概率,数值计算和蒙特卡洛仿真结果显示了模型的正确性。最后通过与普通相控阵雷达比较,验证了一发多收 MIMO 雷达目标关联的性能优势。

  9. A hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine alpha 7-containing receptor complex is linked to memory retrieval in the multiple-T-maze in C57BL/6j mice.

    Subramaniyan, Saraswathi; Heo, Seok; Patil, Sudarshan; Li, Lin; Hoger, Harald; Pollak, Arnold; Lubec, Gert


    The link between the cholinergic and serotonergic system in cognitive function is well-documented. There is, however, limited information on spatial memory and this formed the rationale to carry out a study with the aim to show a specific link between nicotinic and serotonergic receptor complexes rather than the corresponding subunits, to spatial memory retrieval in a land maze. A total of 46 mice were used and divided into two groups, trained and untrained (yoked) in the multiple-T-Maze (MTM) and following training during the first four days, probe trials for memory retrieval were performed on days 8, 16 and 30. Six hours following scarification, hippocampi were taken for the analysis of native receptor complex levels using blue-native gels followed by immunoblotting with specific antibodies. 5-HT1A-, 5-HT7-, nAChα4- and nACh-α7-containing receptor complexes were observed and were paralleling memory retrievals and receptor complex levels were shown to be significantly different between trained and yoked animals. Only levels of a nicotinic acetylcholine α7 receptor-containing complex at an apparent molecular weight of approximately 480kDa were shown to be linked to memory retrieval on day 8 but not to retrievals on days 16 and 30 when memory extinction has taken place. Correlation between nAChα4-, 5-HT1A- and 5-HT7-containing receptors and latencies on day 16 may point to a probable link in extinction mechanisms. A series of the abovementioned receptor complexes were correlating among each other probably indicating a serotonergic/cholinergic network paralleling spatial memory formation.

  10. Taenia crassiceps Infection Attenuates Multiple Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Arlett Espinoza-Jiménez; Irma Rivera-Montoya; Roberto Cárdenas-Arreola; Liborio Morán; Terrazas, Luis I.


    Taenia crassiceps, like other helminths, can exert regulatory effects on the immune system of its host. This study investigates the effect of chronic T. crassiceps infection on the outcome of Multiple Low Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes (MLDS). Healthy or previously T. crassiceps-infected mice received MLDS and type 1 diabetes (T1D) symptoms were evaluated for 6 weeks following the induction of MLDS. T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed lower blood glucose levels throughout the study. A...

  11. Predicting poor peripheral blood stem cell collection in patients with multiple myeloma receiving pre-transplant induction therapy with novel agents and mobilized with cyclophosphamide plus granulocyte-colony stimulating factor: results from a Gruppo Italiano Malattie EMatologiche dell'Adulto Multiple Myeloma Working Party study.

    Musto, Pellegrino; Simeon, Vittorio; Grossi, Alberto; Gay, Francesca; Bringhen, Sara; Larocca, Alessandra; Guariglia, Roberto; Pietrantuono, Giuseppe; Villani, Oreste; D'Arena, Giovanni; Cuomo, Carmela; Musto, Clelia; Morabito, Fortunato; Petrucci, Maria Teresa; Offidani, Massimo; Zamagni, Elena; Tacchetti, Paola; Conticello, Concetta; Milone, Giuseppe; Palumbo, Antonio; Cavo, Michele; Boccadoro, Mario


    A still not well defined proportion of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and eligible for autologous stem cell transplantation (AuSCT) fails to mobilize CD34+ peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) at all or to collect an adequate number for a safe procedure or sufficient for multiple transplants. These so-called "poor-mobilizers" are difficult to be predicted, due to marked difference across previous heterogeneous studies. We aimed to develop a method based on simple clinical parameters for predicting unsuccessful (<2×10(6)/kg) or sub-optimal (<5×10(6)/kg) collections of CD34+ PBSC in newly diagnosed MM patients eligible for AuSCT, treated with novel agents and receiving an homogeneous mobilizing therapy with cyclophosphamide and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). To this purpose, 1,348 patients enrolled in five consecutive Italian clinical trials were retrospectively analysed. Age, baseline low peripheral blood cell counts, use of lenalidomide, and haematological toxicity developed during induction were taken into account as possible factors associated with poor mobilization. Overall, 280 patients (20.8%) showed either sub-optimal (167 patients, 12.4%) or unsuccessful (113 patients, 8.4%) collections. All analysed parameters negatively influenced the procedure, but only age and haematological toxicity during induction maintained their significance at multivariate analysis. Based on ordinal logistic regression model, we constructed a risk heat-map where the four parameters were pooled and weighted according to their relevance as single or combined variables. This model was predictive for different probabilities of failure, suboptimal or optimal outcomes. We found that about one fifth of newly diagnosed MM fails to collect an adequate number of PBSC. Our model, based on a large group of patients treated frontline with novel agents and receiving the most popular mobilizing approach currently employed in Europe, is applicable in individual subjects and

  12. Antitumor efficacy of lidamycin against human multiple myeloma RPMI 8226 cells and the xenograft in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice

    Yongzhan Zhen


    Conclusions: LDM is highly effective against the growth of MM xenograft in NOD/SCID mice. The potent apoptosis.inducing effect of LDM may be mediated through caspase. and mitochondria.dependent pathway.

  13. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    Schneider, Kerstin


    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  14. Amphetamine-induced sensitization has little effect on multiple learning paradigms and fails to rescue mice with a striatal learning defect.

    Kiara C Eldred

    Full Text Available Behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants such as amphetamine (AMPH is associated with synaptic modifications that are thought to underlie learning and memory. Because AMPH enhances extracellular dopamine in the striatum where dopamine and glutamate signaling are essential for learning, one might expect that the molecular and morphological changes that occur in the striatum in response to AMPH, including changes in synaptic plasticity, would affect learning. To ascertain whether AMPH sensitization affects learning, we tested wild-type mice and mice lacking NMDA receptor signaling in striatal medium spiny neurons in several different learning tests (motor learning, Pavlovian association, U-maze escape test with strategy shifting with or without prior sensitization to AMPH. Prior sensitization had minimal effect on learning in any of these paradigms in wild-type mice and failed to restore learning in mutant mice, despite the fact that the mutant mice became sensitized by the AMPH treatment. We conclude that the changes in synaptic plasticity and many other signaling events that occur in response to AMPH sensitization are dissociable from those involved in learning the tasks used in our experiments.

  15. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  16. Multiple factors interact to produce responses resembling spectrum of human disease in Campylobacter jejuni infected C57BL/6 IL-10-/- mice

    Wolf John E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni infection produces a spectrum of clinical presentations in humans – including asymptomatic carriage, watery diarrhea, and bloody diarrhea – and has been epidemiologically associated with subsequent autoimmune neuropathies. This microorganism is genetically variable and possesses genetic mechanisms that may contribute to variability in nature. However, relationships between genetic variation in the pathogen and variation in disease manifestation in the host are not understood. We took a comparative experimental approach to explore differences among different C. jejuni strains and studied the effect of diet on disease manifestation in an interleukin-10 deficient mouse model. Results In the comparative study, C57BL/6 interleukin-10-/- mice were infected with seven genetically distinct C. jejuni strains. Four strains colonized the mice and caused disease; one colonized with no disease; two did not colonize. A DNA:DNA microarray comparison of the strain that colonized mice without disease to C. jejuni 11168 that caused disease revealed that putative virulence determinants, including loci encoding surface structures known to be involved in C. jejuni pathogenesis, differed from or were absent in the strain that did not cause disease. In the experimental study, the five colonizing strains were passaged four times in mice. For three strains, serial passage produced increased incidence and degree of pathology and decreased time to develop pathology; disease shifted from watery to bloody diarrhea. Mice kept on an ~6% fat diet or switched from an ~12% fat diet to an ~6% fat diet just before infection with a non-adapted strain also exhibited increased incidence and severity of disease and decreased time to develop disease, although the effects of diet were only statistically significant in one experiment. Conclusion C. jejuni strain genetic background and adaptation of the strain to the host by serial passage

  17. Efficient structures for wideband digital receiver

    Wang Hong; Lu Youxin; Wang Xuegang; Wan Yonglun


    Digital receivers have become more and more popular in radar, communication, and electric warfare for the advantages compared with their analog counterparts. But conventional digital receivers have been generally considered impractical for bandwidth greater than several hundreds MHz. To extend receiver bandwidth, decrease data rate and save hardware resources, three novel structures are proposed. They decimate the data stream prior to mixing and filtering, then process the multiple decimated streams in parallel at a lower rate. Consequently it is feasible to realize wideband receivers on the current ASIC devices. A design example and corresponding simulation results are demonstrated to evaluate the proposed structures.

  18. Presence of multiple lesion types with vastly different microenvironments in C3HeB/FeJ mice following aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Scott M. Irwin


    Full Text Available Cost-effective animal models that accurately reflect the pathological progression of pulmonary tuberculosis are needed to screen and evaluate novel tuberculosis drugs and drug regimens. Pulmonary disease in humans is characterized by a number of heterogeneous lesion types that reflect differences in cellular composition and organization, extent of encapsulation, and degree of caseous necrosis. C3HeB/FeJ mice have been increasingly used to model tuberculosis infection because they produce hypoxic, well-defined granulomas exhibiting caseous necrosis following aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A comprehensive histopathological analysis revealed that C3HeB/FeJ mice develop three morphologically distinct lesion types in the lung that differ with respect to cellular composition, degree of immunopathology and control of bacterial replication. Mice displaying predominantly the fulminant necrotizing alveolitis lesion type had significantly higher pulmonary bacterial loads and displayed rapid and severe immunopathology characterized by increased mortality, highlighting the pathological role of an uncontrolled granulocytic response in the lung. Using a highly sensitive novel fluorescent acid-fast stain, we were able to visualize the spatial distribution and location of bacteria within each lesion type. Animal models that better reflect the heterogeneity of lesion types found in humans will permit more realistic modeling of drug penetration into solid caseous necrotic lesions and drug efficacy testing against metabolically distinct bacterial subpopulations. A more thorough understanding of the pathological progression of disease in C3HeB/FeJ mice could facilitate modulation of the immune response to produce the desired pathology, increasing the utility of this animal model.

  19. The Effects of High-Fat Diet Exposure In Utero on the Obesogenic and Diabetogenic Traits Through Epigenetic Changes in Adiponectin and Leptin Gene Expression for Multiple Generations in Female Mice.

    Masuyama, Hisashi; Mitsui, Takashi; Nobumoto, Etsuko; Hiramatsu, Yuji


    Recent studies demonstrate that epigenetic changes under malnutrition in utero might play important roles in transgenerational links with metabolic diseases. We have previously shown that exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) in utero may cause a metabolic syndrome-like phenomenon through epigenetic modifications of Adiponectin and Leptin genes. Because an association of obesity between mother and offspring endured in multiple generations, we examined whether HFD exposure in utero might affect the metabolic status of female offspring through multigenerational epigenetic changes of Adiponectin and Leptin genes and whether a normal diet in utero for multiple generations might abolish such epigenetic changes after exposure to a HFD in utero using ICR mice. We observed that the effect of maternal HFD on offspring over multiple generations in metabolic syndrome-like phenomenon such as weight and fat mass gain, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, abnormal adiponectin and leptin levels, and hypertension, were accumulated with expression and epigenetic changes in Adiponectin and Leptin genes. A normal diet in utero in the subsequent generations after HFD exposure in utero diminished, and a normal diet in utero for 3 generations completely abolished, the effect of HFD in utero on weight and fat mass gain, insulin resistance, serum triglyceride, adiponectin, and leptin levels, with epigenetic changes of Adiponectin and Leptin genes. Exposure to a HFD in utero might affect glucose and lipid metabolism of female offspring through epigenetic modifications to Adiponectin and Leptin genes for multiple generations. Obesogenic and diabetogenic traits were abolished after a maternal normal diet for 3 generations.

  20. Evaluation of a fully human monoclonal antibody against multiple influenza A viral strains in mice and a pandemic H1N1 strain in nonhuman primates.

    Song, Aihua; Myojo, Kensuke; Laudenslager, John; Harada, Daisuke; Miura, Toru; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kuni-Kamochi, Reiko; Soloff, Rachel; Ohgami, Kinya; Kanda, Yutaka


    Influenza virus is a global health concern due to its unpredictable pandemic potential. Frequent mutations of surface molecules, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), contribute to low efficacy of the annual flu vaccine and therapeutic resistance to standard antiviral agents. The populations at high risk of influenza virus infection, such as the elderly and infants, generally mount low immune responses to vaccines, and develop severe disease after infection. Novel therapeutics with high effectiveness and mutation resistance are needed. Previously, we described the generation of a fully human influenza virus matrix protein 2 (M2) specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), Z3G1, which recognized the majority of M2 variants from natural viral isolates, including highly pathogenic avian strains. Passive immunotherapy with Z3G1 significantly protected mice from the infection when administered either prophylactically or 1-2days post infection. In the present study, we showed that Z3G1 significantly protected mice from lethal infection when treatment was initiated 3days post infection. In addition, therapeutic administration of Z3G1 reduced lung viral titers in mice infected with different viral strains, including amantadine and oseltamivir-resistant strains. Furthermore, prophylactic and therapeutic administration of Z3G1 sustained O2 saturation and reduced lung pathology in monkeys infected with a pandemic H1N1 strain. Finally, de-fucosylated Z3G1 with an IgG1/IgG3 chimeric Fc region was generated (AccretaMab® Z3G1), and showed increased ADCC and CDC in vitro. Our data suggest that the anti-M2 mAb Z3G1 has great potential as a novel anti-flu therapeutic agent.

  1. Synergistic Inhibition of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus and Cisplatin on the Multiplication of Tumoral Cells in BALB/c Mice with Breast Cancer

    Ghaderi Pakdel


    Full Text Available Introduction: The probiotic strains of Lactic Acid Bacillus (LAB not only affect gastrointestinal tract microflora and stimulate local immune system of this tract but also modify and stimulate systemic immunity by influence on lymph nodes and spleen. Several studies have shown the anti-tumor effect of these kinds of bacteria. This study was designed to assess the probiotic effects of lactobacillus rhamnosus on cisplatin efficacy among Balb/c mice with breast cancer. Methods: L. rhamnosus strain was inoculated in MRS agar and cultivated for 24 h at 37 °C. Female BalbC mice (n=20 with invasive ductal carcinoma transplantation were divided into four groups: Control, L. rhamnosus, cisplatin and cisplatin plus L. rhamnosus. Cisplatin (5 mg/kg, i.p. was injected twice a week. Lr was administered daily by gastric intubation (3×10 8 CFU/day. The tumor size was measured every 3 days and mice were sacrificed 24 h after the last injection and tumor tissue was removed for more tests. Results: The results showed that oral administration of L. rhamnosus decreased the growth rate of tumor (p<0.05. One reason for antineoplastic effect of lactobacilli is immune system enhancement. The results of delayed-type hypersensitivity show the stimulation of immune system and inhibition of tumor growth by this mechanism. In pathologic assessments probiotic administration increased the antineoplastic effect of cisplatin. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study it can be expected that human studies also show the satisfactory effect of lactobacillus administration besides common therapeutic methods for cancer treatment.

  2. Temporal dynamics of the developing lung transcriptome in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice reveals multiple stages of postnatal alveolar development

    Beauchemin, Kyle J.; Julie M. Wells; Kho, Alvin T.; Philip, Vivek M.; Kamir, Daniela; Kohane, Isaac S; Graber, Joel H.; Bult, Carol J.


    To characterize temporal patterns of transcriptional activity during normal lung development, we generated genome wide gene expression data for 26 pre- and post-natal time points in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice (C57BL/6J, A/J, and C3H/HeJ). Using Principal Component Analysis and least squares regression modeling, we identified both strain-independent and strain-dependent patterns of gene expression. The 4,683 genes contributing to the strain-independent expression patterns w...

  3. Wideband CMOS receivers

    Oliveira, Luis


    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  4. Ns1 is a key protein in the vaccine composition to protect Ifnar(-/- mice against infection with multiple serotypes of African horse sickness virus.

    Francisco de la Poza

    Full Text Available African horse sickness virus (AHSV belongs to the genus Orbivirus. We have now engineered naked DNAs and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA expressing VP2 and NS1 proteins from AHSV-4. IFNAR((-/- mice inoculated with DNA/rMVA-VP2,-NS1 from AHSV-4 in an heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy generated significant levels of neutralizing antibodies specific of AHSV-4. In addition, vaccination stimulated specific T cell responses against the virus. The vaccine elicited partial protection against an homologous AHSV-4 infection and induced cross-protection against the heterologous AHSV-9. Similarly, IFNAR((-/- mice vaccinated with an homologous prime-boost strategy with rMVA-VP2-NS1 from AHSV-4 developed neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity against AHSV-4. Furthermore, the levels of immunity were very high since none of vaccinated animals presented viraemia when they were challenged against the homologous AHSV-4 and very low levels when they were challenged against the heterologous virus AHSV-9. These data suggest that the immunization with rMVA/rMVA was more efficient in protection against a virulent challenge with AHSV-4 and both strategies, DNA/rMVA and rMVA/rMVA, protected against the infection with AHSV-9. The inclusion of the protein NS1 in the vaccine formulations targeting AHSV generates promising multiserotype vaccines.

  5. Assessment of physicochemical parameters and prevalence of virulent and multiple-antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in treated effluent of two wastewater treatment plants and receiving aquatic milieu in Durban, South Africa.

    Pillay, Leanne; Olaniran, Ademola O


    The poor operational status of some wastewater treatment plants often result in the discharge of inadequately treated effluent into receiving surface waters. This is of significant public health concern as there are many informal settlement dwellers (ISDs) that rely on these surface waters for their domestic use. This study investigated the treatment efficiency of two independent wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Durban, South Africa and determined the impact of treated effluent discharge on the physicochemical and microbial quality of the receiving water bodies over a 6-month period. Presumptive Escherichia coli isolates were identified using biochemical tests and detection of the mdh gene via PCR. Six major virulence genes namely eae, hly, fliC, stx1, stx2, and rfbE were also detected via PCR while antibiotic resistance profiles of the isolates were determined using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. The physicochemical parameters of the wastewater samples ranged variously between 9 and 313.33 mg/L, 1.52 and 76.43 NTUs, and 6.30 and 7.87 for COD, turbidity, and pH respectively, while the E. coli counts ranged between 0 and 31.2 × 10(3) CFU/ml. Of the 200 selected E. coli isolates, the hly gene was found in 28 %, fliC in 20 %, stx2 in 17 %, eae in 14 %, with stx1 and rfbE in only 4 % of the isolates. Notable resistance was observed toward trimethoprim (97 %), tetracycline (56 %), and ampicillin (52.5 %). These results further highlight the poor operational status of these WWTPs and outline the need for improved water quality monitoring and enforcement of stringent guidelines.

  6. Myelin basic protein-primed T cells of female but not male mice induce nitric-oxide synthase and proinflammatory cytokines in microglia: implications for gender bias in multiple sclerosis.

    Dasgupta, Subhajit; Jana, Malabendu; Liu, Xiaojuan; Pahan, Kalipada


    Females are more susceptible than males to multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the underlying mechanism behind this gender difference is poorly understood. Because the presence of neuroantigen-primed T cells within the CNS is necessary for the development of MS, the present study was undertaken to investigate the activation of microglia by myelin basic protein (MBP)-primed T cells of male, female, and castrated male mice. Interestingly, MBP-primed T cells isolated from female and castrated male but not from male mice induced the expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-1alpha, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in microglia by cell-cell contact. Again there was no apparent defect in male microglia, because MBP-primed T cells isolated from female and castrated male but not male mice were capable of inducing the production of NO in male primary microglia. Inhibition of female T cell contact-mediated microglial expression of proinflammatory molecules by dominant-negative mutants of p65 and C/EBPbeta suggest that female MBP-primed T cells induce microglial expression of proinflammatory molecules through the activation of NF-kappaB and C/EBPbeta. Interestingly, MBP-primed T cells of male, female, and castrated male mice were able to induce microglial activation of NF-kappaB. However, MBP-primed T cells of female and castrated male but not male mice induced microglial activation of C/EBPbeta. These studies suggest that microglial activation of C/EBPbeta but not NF-kappaB by T cell:microglial contact is a gender-specific event and that male MBP-primed T cells are not capable of inducing microglial expression of proinflammatory molecules due to their inability to induce the activation of C/EBPbeta in microglia. This novel gender-sensitive activation of microglia by neuroantigen-primed T cell contact could be one of the mechanisms behind the female-loving nature of MS.

  7. Zero-power receiver

    Brocato, Robert W.


    An unpowered signal receiver and a method for signal reception detects and responds to very weak signals using pyroelectric devices as impedance transformers and/or demodulators. In some embodiments, surface acoustic wave devices (SAW) are also used. Illustrative embodiments include satellite and long distance terrestrial communications applications.

  8. Sender-Receiver Games

    Peeters, R.J.A.P.; Potters, J.A.M.


    Standard game-theoretic solution concepts do not guarantee meaningful commu- nication in cheap-talk games. In this paper, we define a solution concept which guarantees communication for a large class of games by designing a behavior pro- tocol which the receiver uses to judge messages sent by the

  9. Lipidomics reveals multiple pathway effects of a multi-components preparation on lipid biochemistry in ApoE*3Leiden.CETP mice.

    Heng Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Causes and consequences of the complex changes in lipids occurring in the metabolic syndrome are only partly understood. Several interconnected processes are deteriorating, which implies that multi-target approaches might be more successful than strategies based on a limited number of surrogate markers. Preparations from Chinese Medicine (CM systems have been handed down with documented clinical features similar as metabolic syndrome, which might help developing new intervention for metabolic syndrome. The progress in systems biology and specific animal models created possibilities to assess the effects of such preparations. Here we report the plasma and liver lipidomics results of the intervention effects of a preparation SUB885C in apolipoprotein E3 Leiden cholesteryl ester transfer protein (ApoE*3Leiden.CETP mice. SUB885C was developed according to the principles of CM for treatment of metabolic syndrome. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 blocker rimonabant was included as a general control for the evaluation of weight and metabolic responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ApoE*3Leiden.CETP mice with mild hypercholesterolemia were divided into SUB885C-, rimonabant- and non-treated control groups. SUB885C caused no weight loss, but significantly reduced plasma cholesterol (-49%, p<0.001, CETP levels (-31%, p<0.001, CETP activity (-74%, p<0.001 and increased HDL-C (39%, p<0.05. It influenced lipidomics classes of cholesterol esters and triglycerides the most. Rimonabant induced a weight loss (-9%, p<0.05, but only a moderate improvement of lipid profiles. In vitro, SUB885C extract caused adipolysis stimulation and adipogenesis inhibition in 3T3-L1 cells. CONCLUSIONS: SUB885C, a multi-components preparation, is able to produce anti-atherogenic changes in lipids of the ApoE*3Leiden.CETP mice, which are comparable to those obtained with compounds belonging to known drugs (e.g. rimonabant, atorvastatin, niacin. This study successfully

  10. Intratibial injection of human multiple myeloma cells in NOD/SCID IL-2Rγ(null mice mimics human myeloma and serves as a valuable tool for the development of anticancer strategies.

    Julia Schueler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We systematically analyzed multiple myeloma (MM cell lines and patient bone marrow cells for their engraftment capacity in immunodeficient mice and validated the response of the resulting xenografts to antimyeloma agents. DESIGN AND METHODS: Using flow cytometry and near infrared fluorescence in-vivo-imaging, growth kinetics of MM cell lines L363 and RPMI8226 and patient bone marrow cells were investigated with use of a murine subcutaneous bone implant, intratibial and intravenous approach in NOD/SCID, NOD/SCID treated with CD122 antibody and NOD/SCID IL-2Rγ(null mice (NSG. RESULTS: Myeloma growth was significantly increased in the absence of natural killer cell activity (NSG or αCD122-treated NOD/SCID. Comparison of NSG and αCD122-treated NOD/SCID revealed enhanced growth kinetics in the former, especially with respect to metastatic tumor sites which were exclusively observed therein. In NSG, MM cells were more tumorigenic when injected intratibially than intravenously. In NOD/SCID in contrast, the use of juvenile long bone implants was superior to intratibial or intravenous cancer cell injection. Using the intratibial NSG model, mice developed typical disease symptoms exclusively when implanted with human MM cell lines or patient-derived bone marrow cells, but not with healthy bone marrow cells nor in mock-injected animals. Bortezomib and dexamethasone delayed myeloma progression in L363- as well as patient-derived MM cell bearing NSG. Antitumor activity could be quantified via flow cytometry and in vivo imaging analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the intratibial NSG MM model mimics the clinical situation of the disseminated disease and serves as a valuable tool in the development of novel anticancer strategies.

  11. Compressive Sensing for Spread Spectrum Receivers

    Fyhn, Karsten; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Larsen, Torben


    With the advent of ubiquitous computing there are two design parameters of wireless communication devices that become very important: power efficiency and production cost. Compressive sensing enables the receiver in such devices to sample below the Shannon-Nyquist sampling rate, which may lead...... to a decrease in the two design parameters. This paper investigates the use of Compressive Sensing (CS) in a general Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) receiver. We show that when using spread spectrum codes in the signal domain, the CS measurement matrix may be simplified. This measurement scheme, named...... Compressive Spread Spectrum (CSS), allows for a simple, effective receiver design. Furthermore, we numerically evaluate the proposed receiver in terms of bit error rate under different signal to noise ratio conditions and compare it with other receiver structures. These numerical experiments show that though...

  12. The suppression of aberrant crypt multiplicity in colonic tissue of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-treated C57BL/6J mice by dietary flavone is associated with an increased expression of Krebs cycle enzymes.

    Winkelmann, Isabel; Diehl, Daniela; Oesterle, Doris; Daniel, Hannelore; Wenzel, Uwe


    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide with diet playing a prominent role in disease initiation and progression. Flavonoids are secondary plant compounds that are suggested as protective ingredients of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. We here tested whether flavone, a flavonoid that proved to be an effective apoptosis inducer in colon cancer cells in culture, can affect the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACFs) in C57BL/6J mice in vivo when preneoplastic lesions were induced by the carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Flavone applied at either a low dose (15 mg/kg body wt per day) or a high dose (400 mg/kg body wt per day) reduced the numbers of ACFs significantly, independent of whether it was supplied simultaneously with the carcinogen (blocking group) or subsequent to the tumor induction phase (suppressing group). Proteome analysis performed in colonic tissue samples revealed that flavone treatment increased the expression of a number of Krebs cycle enzymes in the suppressing group and this was associated with reduced crypt multiplicity. It suggests that mitochondrial substrate oxidation is increased by flavone in colonic cells in vivo as already observed in HT-29 cells in vitro as the prime mechanism underlying tumor cell apoptosis induction by flavone. In conclusion, flavone reduces the number of ACFs in DMH-treated mice at doses that can be achieved for flavonoids by a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. Moreover, reduction in crypt multiplicity by flavone is most probably due to the preservation of a normal oxidative metabolism.

  13. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander


    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  14. Pressure difference receiving ears

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye


    of such pressure difference receiving ears have been hampered by lack of suitable experimental methods. In this review, we review the methods for collecting reliable data on the binaural directional cues at the eardrums, on how the eardrum vibrations depend on the direction of sound incidence, and on how sound...... waves behave in the air spaces leading to the interior surfaces of eardrums. A linear mathematical model with well-defined inputs is used for exploring how the directionality varies with the binaural directional cues and the amplitude and phase gain of the sound pathway to the inner surface...

  15. Multiple Irradiation Capsule Experiment (MICE)-3B Irradiation Test of Space Fuel Specimens in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) - Close Out Documentation for Naval Reactors (NR) Information

    M. Chen; CM Regan; D. Noe


    Few data exist for UO{sub 2} or UN within the notional design space for the Prometheus-1 reactor (low fission rate, high temperature, long duration). As such, basic testing is required to validate predictions (and in some cases determine) performance aspects of these fuels. Therefore, the MICE-3B test of UO{sub 2} pellets was designed to provide data on gas release, unrestrained swelling, and restrained swelling at the upper range of fission rates expected for a space reactor. These data would be compared with model predictions and used to determine adequacy of a space reactor design basis relative to fission gas release and swelling of UO{sub 2} fuel and to assess potential pellet-clad interactions. A primary goal of an irradiation test for UN fuel was to assess performance issues currently associated with this fuel type such as gas release, swelling and transient performance. Information learned from this effort may have enabled use of UN fuel for future applications.

  16. Human selenoprotein P and S variant mRNAs with different numbers of SECIS elements and inferences from mutant mice of the roles of multiple SECIS elements.

    Wu, Sen; Mariotti, Marco; Santesmasses, Didac; Hill, Kristina E; Baclaocos, Janinah; Aparicio-Prat, Estel; Li, Shuping; Mackrill, John; Wu, Yuanyuan; Howard, Michael T; Capecchi, Mario; Guigó, Roderic; Burk, Raymond F; Atkins, John F


    Dynamic redefinition of the 10 UGAs in human and mouse selenoprotein P (Sepp1) mRNAs to specify selenocysteine instead of termination involves two 3' UTR structural elements (SECIS) and is regulated by selenium availability. In addition to the previously known human Sepp1 mRNA poly(A) addition site just 3' of SECIS 2, two further sites were identified with one resulting in 10-25% of the mRNA lacking SECIS 2. To address function, mutant mice were generated with either SECIS 1 or SECIS 2 deleted or with the first UGA substituted with a serine codon. They were fed on either high or selenium-deficient diets. The mutants had very different effects on the proportions of shorter and longer product Sepp1 protein isoforms isolated from plasma, and on viability. Spatially and functionally distinctive effects of the two SECIS elements on UGA decoding were inferred. We also bioinformatically identify two selenoprotein S mRNAs with different 5' sequences predicted to yield products with different N-termini. These results provide insights into SECIS function and mRNA processing in selenoprotein isoform diversity.

  17. The effects of G-CSF combined with SB203580 on the immune system of mice received 4 Gy total body irradiation%G-CSF联合SB203580对4Gy照射小鼠免疫系统的作用

    李德冠; 路璐; 吴红英; 张俊伶; 孟爱民


    Objective To observe the effects of G-CSF combined with SB203580(SB) on the immune system of mice received 4 Gy total body irradiation (TBI).Methods Thirty male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group,irradiated group,combined group.The mice in irradiated and combined group received 4 Gy TBI.In combined group,G-CSF (1 μg/each) was intraperitoneally (ip) injected twice one day for 5 days,SB (15 mg/kg) was ip injected every other day after 4 Gy TBI for 5 times.After 4 Gy TBI 10 days,the peripheral bloods were counted,the CD4,CD8,B220 cells in WBC and CD4,CD8 in thymocytes were analyzed by flowcytometry.The reactive oxygen species levels (ROS) of bone marrow cells were detected by microplate reader.Results Compared to the control group,the proportion of CD8,B220 and WBC in the irradiated mice significantly decreased,CD4+CD8+ thymocytes and ROS levels of bone marrow cells increased significantly.Compared to irradiation group,red blood,platelet,CD4 and CD8 cells in peripheral blood,CD4+CD8+ thymocytes decreased in the combined group.Conclusion G-CSF combined with SB has protective effects on the radiation-induced injury in immune system.%目的 研究G-CSF联合p38抑制剂SB203580 (SB)对免疫细胞辐射损伤的作用.方法 C57BL/6雄性小鼠按体质量随机分为对照组、照射组和给药组.照射组和给药组给予4 Gy全身照射.给药组小鼠给予腹腔注射G-CSF和SB,G-CSF于4Gy照射后2h和6h给药(1μg/只),每天2次,连续给药5d,SB于照射后24h给药(15 mg/kg),隔日给药,共给药5次.照射后10d测外周血计数,进行白细胞CD4、CD8、B220检测、胸腺细胞CD4、CD8检测和骨髓细胞活性氧检测.结果 照射组外周血计数和CD8、B220比例下降,而胸腺细胞中CD4+CD8+细胞比例及骨髓细胞活性氧水平显著增加.与照射组相比,联合给药组外周血红细胞数、血小板、CD4、CD8细胞比例升高,胸腺细胞中CD4+CD8+细胞比例下降.结论 G-CSF联合SB对4 Gy照射

  18. Lung Tumors in Mice Receiving Different Schedules of Urethane


    tumors, but this phenotypic expression did become markedly segregated. Thus, there are strains such as A, in which almost all animals develop pulmonary...urethane," Khanolkar Felicitation Volume, Bombay , Indian Cancer Research Center, 1963, pp. 158-181. [11] P. S. HENSHAW and H. L. MEYER, "Further

  19. Determining auditory-evoked activities from multiple cells in layer 1 of the dorsal cortex of the inferior colliculus of mice by in vivo calcium imaging.

    Ito, Tetsufumi; Hirose, Junichi; Murase, Kazuyuki; Ikeda, Hiroshi


    Layer 1 of the dorsal cortex of the inferior colliculus (DCIC) is distinguished from other layers by its cytoarchitecture and fiber connections. However, the information of the sound types represented in layer 1 of the DCIC remains unclear because placing electrodes on such thin structures is challenging. In this study, we utilized in vivo calcium imaging to assess auditory-evoked activities in multiple cells in layer 1 of DCIC and to characterize sound stimuli producing strong activity. Most cells examined showed strong responses to broad-band noise and low-frequency tone bursts of high sound intensity. In some cases, we successfully obtained frequency response areas, which are receptive fields to tone frequencies and intensities, and ~30% of these showed V-shape tunings. This is the first systematic study to record auditory responses of cells in layer 1 of DCIC. These results indicate that cells in this area are selective to tones with low frequency, implying the importance of such auditory information in the neural circuitry of layer 1 of DCIC.

  20. CERN apprentice receives award


    Another CERN apprentice has received an award for the quality of his work. Stéphane Küng (centre), at the UIG ceremony last November, presided over by Geneva State Councillor Pierre-François Unger, Head of the Department of Economics and Health. Electronics technician Stéphane Küng was honoured in November by the Social Foundation of the Union Industrielle Genevoise (UIG) as one of Geneva’s eight best apprentices in the field of mechatronics. The 20-year-old Genevan obtained his Federal apprentice’s certificate (Certificat fédéral de capacité - CFC) in June 2007, achieving excellent marks in his written tests at the Centre d’Enseignement Professionnel Technique et Artisanal (CEPTA). Like more than 200 youngsters before him, Stéphane Küng spent part of his four-year sandwich course working at CERN, where he followed many practical training courses and gained valuable hands-on experience in various technical groups and labs. "It’ always very gr...

  1. GNSS Software Receiver for UAVs

    Olesen, Daniel Madelung; Jakobsen, Jakob; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik


    This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development of ...... of our own GNSS software-receiver targeted for mini UAV applications, and we will in in this paper present our current progress and briefly discuss the benefits of Software Receivers in relation to our research interests....

  2. Taenia crassiceps Infection Attenuates Multiple Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Arlett Espinoza-Jiménez


    Full Text Available Taenia crassiceps, like other helminths, can exert regulatory effects on the immune system of its host. This study investigates the effect of chronic T. crassiceps infection on the outcome of Multiple Low Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes (MLDS. Healthy or previously T. crassiceps-infected mice received MLDS and type 1 diabetes (T1D symptoms were evaluated for 6 weeks following the induction of MLDS. T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed lower blood glucose levels throughout the study. A significantly lower percentage of T. crassiceps-infected mice (40% developed T1D compared to the uninfected group (100%. Insulitis was remarkably absent in T. crassiceps-infected mice, which had normal pancreatic insulin content, whereas uninfected mice showed a dramatic reduction in pancreatic insulin. Infected mice that received MLDS did not show an increase in their regulatory T cell population, however, they had a greater number of alternatively activated macrophages, higher levels of the cytokine IL-4, and lower levels of TNF-α. Therefore, infection with T. crassiceps causes an immunomodulation that modifies the incidence and development of MLDS-induced autoimmune diabetes.

  3. 多重危险因素致小鼠动脉粥样硬化协同作用%Influence of multiple risk factors on atherosclerosis in mice

    刘煜德; 王嵩; 吴伟; 黄衍寿


    目的 探讨多重危险因素对小鼠动脉粥样硬化发生发展的影响.方法 小鼠随机分为6组:空白对照组(A)、高脂组(B)、普食+CPn组(C)、高脂+CPn组(D)、普食+Cpn+蛋氨酸组(E)、高脂+CPn+蛋氨酸组(F),分别饲以相应饲料或接种CPn;采血检测血脂、取胸主动脉检测超微结构变化.结果 其他各组总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、血浆动脉硬化指数(AIP)明显高于A组(均P<0.01),内皮细胞和平滑肌细胞不同程度受损伤;D组TC、LDL-C、ox-LDL明显高于B组(P<0.05或P<0.01);F组TC、ox-LDL明显高于B组(P<0.05或P<0.01);C组LDL-C明显高于A组(P<0.05).结论 CPn感染促使正常饮食小鼠血脂代谢紊乱,加重高脂饮食所致的血脂代谢紊乱;高脂、CPn、蛋氨酸可能协同促进动脉粥样硬化发生.%Objective To explore the influence of multiple risks on the generation and development of atherosclerosis. Methods Mice were randomly divided into 6 groups;normal( group A), high fat diet( group B) ,Chlamydia pneumoniae (CPn) (group C) ,high fat diet + CPn( group D) ,CPn + methionine( group F) ,high fat diet + CPn + methionine( group E). All the mice were fed with specific diet or inoculated with CPn. The blood of the mice was collected to detect the level of blood fat,and thoracic aorta was taken to observe ultra-structrue changes. Results Compared with group A,the level of total cholesterol (TC), tryglyceride (TG), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in other groups was obviously higher (P <0.01 for all). And the endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in all groups except group A were damaged in some extent. Compared with group B, the level of TC, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) were higher (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), and the level of TC, ox-LDL in grouo F were higher significantly (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The level of LDL-C in group C was obviously higher than that of in group A( P

  4. Multiple Pregnancy

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Multiple Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Multiple Pregnancy Page ... Multiple Pregnancy FAQ188, July 2015 PDF Format Multiple Pregnancy Pregnancy How does multiple pregnancy occur? What are ...

  5. Multiple sclerosis; Multiple Sklerose

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Shariat, K. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Kostopoulos, P. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Neurologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)


    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [German] Die Multiple Sklerose (MS) ist die haeufigste chronisch-entzuendliche Erkrankung des Myelins mit eingesprengten Laesionen im Bereich der weissen Substanz des zentralen Nervensystems. Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) hat bei der Diagnosestellung und Verlaufskontrolle eine Schluesselrolle. Dieser Artikel befasst sich mit Hauptcharakteristika der MR-Bildbebung. (orig.)

  6. Advanced Signal Processing for MIMO-OFDM Receivers

    Manchón, Carles Navarro

    This thesis deals with a wide range of topics within the research area of advanced baseband receiver design for wireless communication systems. In particular, the work focuses on signal processing algorithms for receivers in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency-division mult......This thesis deals with a wide range of topics within the research area of advanced baseband receiver design for wireless communication systems. In particular, the work focuses on signal processing algorithms for receivers in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency...... contributions is the derivation of a novel message-passing scheme combining the MF and BP frameworks; the algorithm is derived from the stationary points of a region-based free energy approximation, and is guaranteed to converge if the underlying probabilistic model satisfies certain conditions. Moreover, we...

  7. Compact wideband CMOS receiver frontends for wireless communication

    Blaakmeer, Stephan Carel


    There is an increasing demand for wideband receiver frontends. This is due to the emerge of wideband wireless standards (UWB) and due to the desire for flexible radios (SDR), which can comply with multiple existing and future communication standards. Existing receiver topologies are generally narro

  8. Communications receivers principles and design

    Rohde, Ulrich L; Zahnd, Hans


    This thoroughly updated guide offers comprehensive explanations of the science behind today’s radio receivers along with practical guidance on designing, constructing, and maintaining real-world communications systems. You will explore system planning, antennas and antenna coupling, amplifiers and gain control, filters, mixers, demodulation, digital communication, and the latest software defined radio (SDR) technology. Written by a team of telecommunication experts, Communications Receivers: Principles and Design, Fourth Edition, features technical illustrations, schematic diagrams, and detailed examples. Coverage includes: • Basic radio considerations • Radio receiver characteristics • Receiver system planning • Receiver implementation considerations • RF and baseband techniques for Software-Defined Radios • Transceiver SDR considerations • Antennas and antenna coupling • Mixers • Frequency sources and control • Ancillary receiver circuits • Performance measurement


    Lan Peng; Liu Ju; Gu Bo; Zhang Wei


    A new receive antenna subset selection algorithm with low complexity for wireless Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems is proposed, which is based on the orthogonal components of the channel matrix. Larger capacity is achieved compared with the existing antenna selection methods. Simulation results of quasi-static flat fading channel demonstrate the significant performance of the proposed selection algorithm.

  10. Multiple Roles of Myd88 in the Immune Response to the Plague F1-V Vaccine and in Protection against an Aerosol Challenge of Yersinia pestis CO92 in Mice

    Jennifer L. Dankmeyer


    Full Text Available The current candidate vaccine against Yersinia pestis infection consists of two subunit proteins: the capsule protein or F1 protein and the low calcium response V protein or V-antigen. Little is known of the recognition of the vaccine by the host’s innate immune system and how it affects the acquired immune response to the vaccine. Thus, we vaccinated Toll-like receptor (Tlr 2, 4, and 2/4-double deficient, as well as signal adaptor protein Myd88-deficient mice. We found that Tlr4 and Myd88 appeared to be required for an optimal immune response to the F1-V vaccine but not Tlr2 when compared to wild-type mice. However, there was a difference between the requirement for Tlr4 and MyD88 in vaccinated animals. When F1-V vaccinated Tlr4 mutant (lipopolysaccharide tolerant and Myd88-deficient mice were challenged by aerosol with Y. pestis CO92, all but one Tlr4 mutant mice survived the challenge, but no vaccinated Myd88-deficient mice survived the challenge. Spleens from these latter nonsurviving mice showed that Y. pestis was not cleared from the infected mice. Our results suggest that MyD88 appears to be important for both an optimal immune response to F1-V and in protection against a lethal challenge of Y. pestis CO92 in F1-V vaccinated mice.

  11. A Fast Adaptive Receive Antenna Selection Method in MIMO System

    Chaowei Wang


    Full Text Available Antenna selection has been regarded as an effective method to acquire the diversity benefits of multiple antennas while potentially reduce hardware costs. This paper focuses on receive antenna selection. According to the proportion between the numbers of total receive antennas and selected antennas and the influence of each antenna on system capacity, we propose a fast adaptive antenna selection algorithm for wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO systems. Mathematical analysis and numerical results show that our algorithm significantly reduces the computational complexity and memory requirement and achieves considerable system capacity gain compared with the optimal selection technique in the same time.

  12. Millimeter-wave receivers for wireless communications

    Overmiller, Brock Morgan

    The modern communications environment is becoming an increasingly crowded place, resulting in rapidly increasing demands on current technology. Military and civilian operations require the ability to locate and decode all communication signals in the environment. However, developments in RADAR (RAdio Detection And Ranging) and communications technology are making it harder to effectively identify and maintain bandwidth usage for everyone. Millimeter waves--waves measured between one millimeter to one centimeter in wavelength--have only recently been explored as a new technology to replace the augment receiver architectures. These small wavelengths introduce many engineering challenges, such as: large atmospheric losses, poor sensitivity, and expensive electronic equipment. With growing developments in Microwave Photonics, low-noise RF amplifiers and high-speed modulators have demonstrated the ability to design RF communication links in the millimeter wave regime to counter such problems. However, despite these developments, toward a cost-effective, spatial division multiplexing (SDM) receiver concept has not proved capable of being implemented as part of the next generation 5G wireless network infrastructure. To this end, we present a novel receiver architecture utilizing an optically addressed phased-array millimeter wave receiver based on optical-upconversion and signal recovery. This receiver is capable of geolocation and spatial multiplexing of multiple Tunable Optically Paired Source (TOPS) communication signals in its scene. Operating at 35 GHz, the receiver up-converts the received RF onto an optical sideband, which, to our advantage, contains all of the frequency, amplitude, and phase information of the received signals. Subsequent optical processing allows routing of the sideband to a free space detector port. Photomixing a coherent optical local oscillator (LO) with the optical sideband performs heterodyne down-conversion to an Intermediate Frequency (IF

  13. Joint Transmitter-Receiver Optimization in the Downlink CDMA Systems

    Mohammad Saquib


    Full Text Available To maximize the downlink code-division multiple access (CDMA system capacity, we propose to minimize the total transmitted power of the system subject to users′ signal-to-interference ratio (SIR requirements via designing optimum transmitter sequences and utilizing linear optimum receivers (minimum mean square error (MMSE receiver. In our work on joint transmitter-receiver design for the downlink CDMA systems with multiple antennas and multipath channels, we develop several optimization algorithms by considering various system constraints and prove their convergence. We empirically observed that under the optimization algorithm with no constraint on the system, the optimum receiver structure matches the received transmitter sequences. A simulation study is performed to see how the different practical system constraints penalize the system with respect to the optimum algorithm with no constraint on the system.

  14. Inhibition of UDP-glucosylceramide synthase in mice prevents Gaucher disease-associated B-cell malignancy.

    Pavlova, Elena V; Archer, Joy; Wang, Susan; Dekker, Nick; Aerts, Johannes Mfg; Karlsson, Stefan; Cox, Timothy M


    Clonal B-cell proliferation is a frequent manifestation of Gaucher disease - a sphingolipidosis associated with a high risk of multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Gaucher disease is caused by genetic deficiency of acid β-glucosidase, the natural substrates of which (β-d-glucosylceramide and β-d-glucosylsphingosine) accumulate, principally in macrophages. Mice with inducible deficiency of β-glucosidase [Gba(tm1Karl/tm1Karl)Tg(MX1-cre)1Cgn/0] serve as an authentic model of human Gaucher disease; we have recently reported clonal B-cell proliferation accompanied by monoclonal serum paraproteins and cognate tumours in these animals. To explore the relationship between B-cell malignancy and the biochemical defect, we treated Gaucher mice with eliglustat tartrate (GENZ 112638), a potent and selective inhibitor of the first committed step in glycosphingolipid biosynthesis. Twenty-two Gaucher mice received 300 mg/kg of GENZ 112638 daily for 3-10 months from 6 weeks of age. Plasma concentrations of β-d-glucosylceramide and the unacylated glycosphingolipid, β-d-glucosylsphingosine, declined. After administration of GENZ 112638 to Gaucher mice for 3-10 months, serum paraproteins were not detected and there was a striking reduction in the malignant lymphoproliferation: neither lymphomas nor plasmacytomas were found in animals that had received the investigational agent. In contrast, 14 out of 60 Gaucher mice without GENZ 112638 treatment developed these tumours; monoclonal paraproteins were detected in plasma from 18 of the 44 age-matched mice with Gaucher disease that had not received GENZ 112638. Long-term inhibition of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis suppresses the development of spontaneous B-cell lymphoma and myeloma in Gaucher mice.

  15. Inconsistencies in the hypophagic action of intracerebroventricular insulin in mice.

    Mc Allister, Eugenia; Pacheco-Lopez, Gustavo; Woods, Stephen C; Langhans, Wolfgang


    Insulin inhibits eating after its intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration in multiple species and under a variety of conditions. Nevertheless, the results across reports are inconsistent in that ICV insulin does not always reduce food intake. The reasons for this variability are largely unknown. Using mice as a model, we performed several crossover trials with insulin vs. vehicle when infused into the third cerebral ventricle (i3vt) to test the hypothesis that recent experience with the i3vt procedure contributes to the variability in the effect of ICV insulin on food intake. Using a cross-over design with two days between injections, we found that insulin (0.4 μU/mouse) significantly reduced food intake relative to vehicle in mice that received vehicle on the first and insulin on the second trial, whereas this effect was absent in mice that received insulin on the first and vehicle on the second trial. Higher doses (i3vt 4.0 and 40.0 μU/mouse) had no effect on food intake in this paradigm. When injections were spaced 7 days apart, insulin reduced food intake with no crossover effect. Mice that did not reduce food intake in response to higher doses of i3vt insulin did so in response to i3vt infusion of the melanocortin receptor agonist melanotan-II (MT-II), indicating that the function of the hypothalamic melanocortin system, which mediates the effect of insulin on eating, was not impaired by whatever interfered with the insulin effect, and that this interference occurred upstream of the melanocortin receptors. Overall, our findings suggest that associative effects based on previous experience with the experimental situation can compromise the eating inhibition elicited by i3vt administered insulin.

  16. Vulcan: A deep-towed CSEM receiver

    Constable, Steven; Kannberg, Peter K.; Weitemeyer, Karen


    We have developed a three-axis electric field receiver designed to be towed behind a marine electromagnetic transmitter for the purpose of mapping the electrical resistivity in the upper 1000 m of seafloor geology. By careful adjustment of buoyancy and the use of real-time monitoring of depth and altitude, we are able to deep-tow multiple receivers on arrays up to 1200 m long within 50 m of the seafloor, thereby obtaining good coupling to geology. The rigid body of the receiver is designed to reduce noise associated with lateral motion of flexible antennas during towing, and allows the measurement of the vertical electric field component, which modeling shows to be particularly sensitive to near-seafloor resistivity variations. The positions and orientations of the receivers are continuously measured, and realistic estimates of positioning errors can be used to build an error model for the data. During a test in the San Diego Trough, offshore California, inversions of the data were able to fit amplitude and phase of horizontal electric fields at three frequencies on three receivers to about 1% in amplitude and 1° in phase and vertical fields to about 5% in amplitude and 5° in phase. The geological target of the tests was a known cold seep and methane vent in 1000 m water depth, which inversions show to be associated with a 1 km wide resistor at a depth between 50 and 150 m below seafloor. Given the high resistivity (30 Ωm) and position within the gas hydrate stability field, we interpret this to be massive methane hydrate.

  17. A Novel Receiver Architecture for DBF Antenna Array

    ZHENG Sheng-hua; XU Da-zhuan; JIN Xue-ming


    The developments of the high speed analog to digital converters (ADC) and advanced digital signal processors (DSP) make the smart antenna with digital beamforming (DBF)a reality. In conventional M-elements array antenna system, each element has its own receiving channel and ADCs. In this paper, a novel smart antenna receiver with digital beamforming is proposed. The essential idea is to realize the digital beamforming receiver based on bandpass sampling of multiple distinct intermediate frequency (IF) signals. The proposed system reduces receiver hardware from M IF channels and 2M ADCs to one IF channel and one ADC using a heterodyne radio frequency (RF) circuitry and a multiple bandpass sampling digital receiver. In this scheme, the sampling rate of the ADC is much higher than the summation of the M times of the signal bandwidth. The local oscillator produces different local frequency for each RF channel.The receiver architecture is presented in detail, and the simulation of bandpass sampling of multiple signals and digital down conversion to baseband is given. The principle analysis and simulation results indicate the effectiveness of the new proposed receiver.


    A. K. Esman


    Full Text Available Recent research and development show promising use of high-performance solid-state receivers of the electromagnetic radiation. These receivers are based on the low-barrier Schottky diodes. The approach to the design of the receivers on the basis of delta-doped low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads without bias is especially actively developing because for uncooled receivers of the microwave radiation these diodes have virtually no competition. The purpose of this work is to improve the main parameters and characteristics that determine the practical relevance of the receivers of mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation at the operating room temperature by modifying the electrodes configuration of the diode and optimizing the distance between them. Proposed original design solution of the integrated receiver of mid-infrared radiation on the basis of the low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads allows to effectively adjust its main parameters and characteristics. Simulation of the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed receiver by using the software package HFSS with the basic algorithm of a finite element method which implemented to calculate the behavior of electromagnetic fields on an arbitrary geometry with a predetermined material properties have shown that when the inner parts of the electrodes of the low-barrier Schottky diode is performed in the concentric elliptical convex-concave shape, it can be reduce the reflection losses to -57.75 dB and the standing wave ratio to 1.003 while increasing the directivity up to 23 at a wavelength of 6.09 μm. At this time, the rounded radii of the inner parts of the anode and cathode electrodes are equal 212 nm and 318 nm respectively and the gap setting between them is 106 nm. These parameters will improve the efficiency of the developed infrared optical-promising and electronic equipment for various purposes intended for work in the mid-infrared wavelength range. 

  19. UWB communication receiver feedback loop

    Spiridon, Alex; Benzel, Dave; Dowla, Farid U.; Nekoogar, Faranak; Rosenbury, Erwin T.


    A novel technique and structure that maximizes the extraction of information from reference pulses for UWB-TR receivers is introduced. The scheme efficiently processes an incoming signal to suppress different types of UWB as well as non-UWB interference prior to signal detection. Such a method and system adds a feedback loop mechanism to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of reference pulses in a conventional TR receiver. Moreover, sampling the second order statistical function such as, for example, the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the received signal and matching it to the ACF samples of the original pulses for each transmitted bit provides a more robust UWB communications method and system in the presence of channel distortions.

  20. Receiver-exciter controller design

    Jansma, P. A.


    A description of the general design of both the block 3 and block 4 receiver-exciter controllers for the Deep Space Network (DSN) Mark IV-A System is presented along with the design approach. The controllers are designed to enable the receiver-exciter subsystem (RCV) to be configured, calibrated, initialized and operated from a central location via high level instructions. The RECs are designed to be operated under the control of the DMC subsystem. The instructions are in the form of standard subsystem blocks (SSBs) received via the local area network (LAN). The centralized control provided by RECs and other DSCC controllers in Mark IV-A is intended to reduce DSN operations costs from the Mark III era.

  1. Modulatory effects of Azadirachta indica on benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach tumorigenesis in mice

    Subhash Chander Gangar; Rajat Sandhir; Durg Vijay Rai; Ashwani Koul


    AIM: To evaluate the chemopreventive effects of aqueous Azadirachta indica (A indica) leaf extract (AAILE)against benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced forestomach tumorigenesis in Balb/c mice.METHODS: Female Balb/c mice were divided into four groups of 10-12 animals each. For induction of forestomach tumors, starting from d 14 of the experiment, mice of B(a)P and B(a)P+A indica groups were given intra-gastric instillations of B(a)P (40 mg/kg), twice a week for four weeks. Mice of A indica and B(a)P+A indica groups were orally administered with AAILE (100mg/kg), two weeks prior to B(a)P instillations till the end of the experiment. After 22 wk of the first B(a)P instillation, mice were sacrificed and the forestomachs were analyzed for development of tumors, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histopathology.RESULTS: Tumor incidence was observed to be 100%in mice that received only B(a)P. However, treatment with AAILE reduced the tumor incidence by 58.4%as observed in mice of B(a)P+A indica group when compared to that of B(a)P group. Similarly, the tumor burden and multiplicity were seen to decrease by 87.3% and 69.6% respectively in mice of B(a)P+A indica group when compared to those of B(a)P group.Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that AAILE treatment itself did not cause any abnormalities on the surface architecture of forestomach epithelium.In tumorous forestomach, surface disruption was observed. Over the forestomach tumors of B(a)P group of mice certain rounded structures were seen in addition to closely placed tongue-shaped squamous cells. Interestingly, these rounded structures were not observed in B(a)P + A indica group of mice.Histopathalogically, the tumors were identical and diagnosed to be papillomas. Mice from control and A indica groups of mice did not develop any forestomach tumors and showed normal histo-architecture.CONCLUSION: The present data suggest that A indica exerts chemopreventive effects against B(a)P-induced forestomach tumors in

  2. Low Complexity Receiver Design for MIMO-Radar

    Ahmed, Sajid


    In this work, an algorithm for the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar is proposed. It has low computational complexity compared to the available schemes, and relatively low side-lobe-levels in the receive beampattern compared to the phased-array and MIMO-radar. In the proposed algorithm, the received signal vector of MIMO-radar is divided into sub-vectors, and each sub-vector is multiplied with the corresponding weight vector. The number of sub-vectors and weight vectors are optimally found to maximise the received signal power from the target of interest direction. The proposed scheme can be effectively applied in passive radars to minimise the side-lobe levels and place deep nulls for interferers in the receive beampattern. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has relatively lower side lobe levels and better detection capabilities compared to MIMO-radar and phased-array.

  3. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain K21 on High-Fat Diet-Fed Obese Mice

    Chien-Chen Wu


    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of specific probiotics on alleviating obesity-related disorders. Here we aimed to identify probiotics with potential antiobesity activity among 88 lactic acid bacterial strains via in vitro screening assays, and a Lactobacillus plantarum strain K21 was found to harbor abilities required for hydrolyzing bile salt, reducing cholesterol, and inhibiting the accumulation of lipid in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, effects of K21 on diet-induced obese (DIO mice were examined. Male C57Bl/6J mice received a normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD, or HFD with K21 administration (109 CFU in 0.2 mL PBS/day for eight weeks. Supplementation of K21, but not placebo, appeared to alleviate body weight gain and epididymal fat mass accumulation, reduce plasma leptin levels, decrease cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and mitigate liver damage in DIO mice. Moreover, the hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ related to adipogenesis was significantly downregulated in DIO mice by K21 intervention. We also found that K21 supplementation strengthens intestinal permeability and modulates the amount of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and Clostridium perfringens in the cecal contents of DIO mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that dietary intake of K21 protects against the onset of HFD-induced obesity through multiple mechanisms of action.

  4. Bone phenotypes of P2 receptor knockout mice

    Orriss, Isabel; Syberg, Susanne; Wang, Ning


    been observed in an impressive number of these mice: distinct abnormalities in P2X7-/- mice, depending on the gene targeting construct and the genetic background, decreased bone mass in P2Y1-/- mice, increased bone mass in P2Y2-/- mice, decreased bone resorption in P2Y6-/- mice, decreased bone...... formation and bone resorption in P2Y13-/- mice. These findings demonstrate the unexpected importance of extracellular nucleotide signalling in the regulation of bone metabolism via multiple P2 receptors and distinct mechanisms involving both osteoblasts and osteoclasts....

  5. RFID receiver apparatus and method

    Scott, Jeffrey Wayne


    An RFID backscatter interrogator for transmitting data to an RFID tag, generating a carrier for the tag, and receiving data from the tag modulated onto the carrier, the interrogator including a single grounded-coplanar wave-guide circuit board and at least one surface mount integrated circuit supported by the circuit board.

  6. LU Peizhang receives Golay Award


    @@ Prof. LU Peizhang, an analytical chemist with the CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, received the prestigious Golay Award at the 30th International Symposium on Capillary Chromatography opened on 5 June in Dalian, a port city in northeast China's Liaoning Province.

  7. Absorption Efficiency of Receiving Antennas

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Frandsen, Aksel


    A receiving antenna with a matched load will always scatter some power. This paper sets an upper and a lower bound on the absorption efficiency (absorbed power over sum of absorbed and scattered powers), which lies between 0 and 100% depending on the directivities of the antenna and scatter...

  8. Liposomal insulin promoter-thymidine kinase gene therapy followed by ganciclovir effectively ablates human pancreatic cancer in mice.

    Wu, James X; Liu, Shi-He; Nemunaitis, John J; Brunicardi, F Charles


    PDX1 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, and activates the insulin promoter (IP). Adenoviral IP-thymidine kinase and ganciclovir (TK/GCV) suppresses human pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDAC) in mice, but repeated doses carry significant toxicity. We hypothesized that multiple cycles of liposomal IP-TK/GCV ablate human PDAC in SCID mice with minimal toxicity compared to adenoviral IP-TK/GCV. SCID mice with intraperitoneal human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 tumor implants were given a single cycle of 35 µg iv L-IP-TK, or four cycles of 1, 10, 20, 30, or 35 µg iv L-IP-TK (n = 20 per group), followed by intraperitoneal GCV. Insulin and glucose levels were monitored in mice treated with four cycles of 35 µg iv L-IP-TK. We found that four cycles of 10-35 µg L-IP-TK/GCV ablated more PANC-1 tumor volume compared to a single cycle with 35 µg. Mice that received four cycles of 10 µg L-IP-TK demonstrated the longest survival (P SCID mice with minimal toxicity, suggesting non-viral vectors are superior to adenoviral vectors for IP-gene therapy.

  9. Multiple Sclerosis

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  10. Multiple Myeloma

    Multiple myeloma is a cancer that begins in plasma cells, a type of white blood cell. These cells ... bones. No one knows the exact causes of multiple myeloma, but it is more common in older people ...

  11. Scintillation-Hardened GPS Receiver

    Stephens, Donald R.


    CommLargo, Inc., has developed a scintillation-hardened Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver that improves reliability for low-orbit missions and complies with NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standards. A software-defined radio (SDR) implementation allows a single hardware element to function as either a conventional radio or as a GPS receiver, providing backup and redundancy for platforms such as the International Space Station (ISS) and high-value remote sensing platforms. The innovation's flexible SDR implementation reduces cost, weight, and power requirements. Scintillation hardening improves mission reliability and variability. In Phase I, CommLargo refactored an open-source GPS software package with Kalman filter-based tracking loops to improve performance during scintillation and also demonstrated improved navigation during a geomagnetic storm. In Phase II, the company generated a new field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based GPS waveform to demonstrate on NASA's Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) test bed.

  12. Managing Medicare receivables after PIP.

    Loria, L S


    The luxury of PIP is gone and managing cash flow will become more important than ever before. The hospital industry has come a long way in the development of automated billing systems and related recordkeeping since PIP was first introduced. The performance of an operations review of the accounts receivable management system should improve the effectiveness and efficiency of operations and significantly improve cash flow.

  13. Diversity of MMSE MIMO Receivers

    Mehana, Ahmed Hesham


    In most MIMO systems, the family of waterfall error curves, calculated at different spectral efficiencies, are asymptotically parallel at high SNR. In other words, most MIMO systems exhibit a single diversity value for all {\\em fixed} rates. The MIMO MMSE receiver does not follow this pattern and exhibits a varying diversity in its family of error curves. This effect cannot be captured by DMT analysis, due to the fact that all fixed rates correspond to the same multiplexing gain, thus they cannot be differentiated within DMT analysis. This work analyzes this interesting behavior of the MMSE MIMO receiver and produces the MMSE MIMO diversity at each rate. The diversity of the quasi-static flat-fading MIMO channel consisting of any arbitrary number of transmit and receive antennas is fully characterized, showing that full spatial diversity is possible for all antenna configurations if and only if the rate is within a certain bound which is a function of the number of antennas. For other rate brackets, the avail...

  14. Orexin neurons receive glycinergic innervations.

    Mari Hondo

    Full Text Available Glycine, a nonessential amino-acid that acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is currently used as a dietary supplement to improve the quality of sleep, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. We confirmed the effects of glycine on sleep/wakefulness behavior in mice when administered peripherally. Glycine administration increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep time and decreased the amount and mean episode duration of wakefulness when administered in the dark period. Since peripheral administration of glycine induced fragmentation of sleep/wakefulness states, which is a characteristic of orexin deficiency, we examined the effects of glycine on orexin neurons. The number of Fos-positive orexin neurons markedly decreased after intraperitoneal administration of glycine to mice. To examine whether glycine acts directly on orexin neurons, we examined the effects of glycine on orexin neurons by patch-clamp electrophysiology. Glycine directly induced hyperpolarization and cessation of firing of orexin neurons. These responses were inhibited by a specific glycine receptor antagonist, strychnine. Triple-labeling immunofluorescent analysis showed close apposition of glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2-immunoreactive glycinergic fibers onto orexin-immunoreactive neurons. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis revealed that GlyT2-immunoreactive terminals made symmetrical synaptic contacts with somata and dendrites of orexin neurons. Double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that glycine receptor alpha subunits were localized in the postsynaptic membrane of symmetrical inhibitory synapses on orexin neurons. Considering the importance of glycinergic regulation during REM sleep, our observations suggest that glycine injection might affect the activity of orexin neurons, and that glycinergic inhibition of orexin neurons might play a role in physiological sleep regulation.

  15. Golden Coded Multiple Beamforming

    Li, Boyu


    The Golden Code is a full-rate full-diversity space-time code, which achieves maximum coding gain for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems with two transmit and two receive antennas. Since four information symbols taken from an M-QAM constellation are selected to construct one Golden Code codeword, a maximum likelihood decoder using sphere decoding has the worst-case complexity of O(M^4), when the Channel State Information (CSI) is available at the receiver. Previously, this worst-case complexity was reduced to O(M^(2.5)) without performance degradation. When the CSI is known by the transmitter as well as the receiver, beamforming techniques that employ singular value decomposition are commonly used in MIMO systems. In the absence of channel coding, when a single symbol is transmitted, these systems achieve the full diversity order provided by the channel. Whereas this property is lost when multiple symbols are simultaneously transmitted. However, uncoded multiple beamforming can achieve the full div...

  16. Potent carcinogenicity of cigarette smoke in mice exposed early in life.

    Balansky, Roumen; Ganchev, Gancho; Iltcheva, Marietta; Steele, Vernon E; D'Agostini, Francesco; De Flora, Silvio


    In spite of the dominant role of cigarette smoke (CS) in cancer epidemiology, all studies performed during the past 60 years have shown that this complex mixture is either negative or weakly tumorigenic in experimental animals. We implemented studies aimed at evaluating whether exposure of mice early in life may enhance susceptibility to CS carcinogenicity. A total of 98 newborn Swiss albino mice were either untreated (controls) or received a subcutaneous injection of benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] (positive control) or were exposed whole-body to mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) for 120 days, starting within 12 h after birth. Complete necropsy and histopathological analyses were performed at periodical intervals. In contrast with the lack of lung tumors in controls, MCS-exposed mice developed microscopically detectable tumors, starting only 75 days after birth and reaching an overall incidence of 78.3% after 181-230 days. The mean lung tumor multiplicities were 6.1 and 13.6 tumors per mouse in males and females, respectively, showing a significant intergender difference. Most tumors were microadenomas or adenomas, but 18.4% of the mice additionally had malignant lung cancer. MCS also induced bronchial and alveolar epithelial hyperplasia, and blood vessel proliferation. Furthermore, malignant tumors, some of which may have a metastatic origin, were detected in the urinary tract and liver of MCS-exposed mice. A somewhat different spectrum of tumors was observed in B(a)P-treated mice. In conclusion, MCS is a potent and broad spectrum carcinogen in mice when exposure starts early in life, covering stages of life corresponding to neonatal, childhood and adolescence periods in humans. This animal model will be useful to explore the mechanisms involved in CS-induced carcinogenesis and to investigate the protective effects of dietary agents and chemopreventive drugs.

  17. Interference Cancellation and FEC in S/CDMA Networks with PIN+OA Receiver

    Anand Srivastava


    For reducing the effects of optical multiple access interference (OMAI) and receiver noise in code-division multiple access (OCDMA) networks with STM-1 input, use of parallel cancellation and forward error correcting (FEC)codes greatly improves the performance of the receiver..

  18. Interference Cancellation and FEC in S/CDMA Networks with PIN+OA Receiver

    Anand; Srivastava


    For reducing the effects of optical multiple access interference (OMAI) and receiver noise in code-division multiple access (OCDMA) networks with STM-1 input, use of parallel cancellation and forward error correcting (FEC) codes greatly improves the performance of the receiver..

  19. Multiplicity Counting

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  20. Omnidirectional free-space optical receiver architecture

    Murshid, Syed H.; Lovell, Gregory L.; Finch, Michael F.


    Free Space Optical (FSO) communication is the fusion of wireless technology and optical fiber communications systems. It has the potential of providing fiber optic data rates without the physical restraints of optical fiber cables. This endeavor presents a novel receiver structure with potential for omnidirectional free space optical communications. Interesting approaches for accomplishing omnidirectional free space lasercomm such as direct detection and solar blind non-line of sight UV scattering have been reported over the last few years. However, these technologies have resulted in limited distances of the order of 10 to 100 meters and data rates often limited to less than 1 Mb/s. This endeavor reports the architecture of an omnidirectional receiver setup by integrating an off the shelf detector and a fiber bundle, where the fiber bundle couples omnidirectional photons within its field of view and delivers these photons to the detector. The coupling of light from all directions into a detector is regulated by the cone of the acceptance angle of the fiber. Multiple fibers with overlapping acceptance angles provide the necessary coverage that may be needed to extract the optical signal from the free space optical channel. Simulated results showing the normalized power pattern of the system is presented to demonstrate omnidirectional potential of the structure. Theoretical power level versus distance plot for an FSO System employing On-O Keying (OOK) is also presented.

  1. Chip Advancer For GPS Receiver

    Meehan, Thomas K.; Srinivasan, Jeffrey M.; Thomas, J. Brooks


    Instrument errors made negligible. For each integration interval, both delay and rate of change of delay initialized to small fraction of chip - for example, to order of 10 to the negative 7th power - thereby making feedback control and extraction of delay highly accurate and flexible. With appropriate selection of sampling rate relative to chip rate, commensurability errors reduced to extremely small levels. In Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, pseudorandom code sequence generated by simple digital logic incorporating effects of time, delay, and rate of change of delay. Flexibility in starting time and sum interval very useful in aligning correlation interval with beginnings and endings of data bits.

  2. IL-2–Controlled Expression of Multiple T Cell Trafficking Genes and Th2 Cytokines in the Regulatory T Cell-Deficient Scurfy Mice: Implication to Multiorgan Inflammation and Control of Skin and Lung Inflammation

    Sharma, Rahul; Sharma, Poonam R.; Kim, Youngchul; Leitinger, Norbert; Lee, Jae K.; Fu, Shu Man; Ju, Shyr-Te


    Scurfy (Sf) mice bear a mutation in the Foxp3 transcription factor, lack regulatory T cells (Treg), develop multiorgan inflammation, and die prematurely. The major target organs affected are skin, lungs, and liver. Sf mice lacking the Il2 gene (Sf.Il2−/−), despite being devoid of Treg, did not develop skin and lung inflammation, but the inflammation in liver, pancreas, submandibular gland, and colon remained. Genome-wide microarray analysis revealed hundreds of genes that were differentially regulated among Sf, Sf.Il2−/−, and B6 CD4+ T cells, but the most significant changes were those encoding receptors for trafficking/chemotaxis/retention and cytokines. Our study suggests that IL-2 controls the skin and lung inflammation in Sf mice in an apparent “organ-specific” manner through two novel mechanisms: by regulating the expression of genes encoding a variety of receptors for T cell trafficking/chemotaxis/retention and by regulating Th2 cell expansion and cytokine production. Thus, IL-2 is potentially a master regulator for multiorgan inflammation and an underlying etiological factor for various diseases associated with skin and lung inflammation. PMID:21169543

  3. Palatable meal anticipation in mice.

    Cynthia T Hsu

    Full Text Available The ability to sense time and anticipate events is a critical skill in nature. Most efforts to understand the neural and molecular mechanisms of anticipatory behavior in rodents rely on daily restricted food access, which induces a robust increase of locomotor activity in anticipation of daily meal time. Interestingly, rats also show increased activity in anticipation of a daily palatable meal even when they have an ample food supply, suggesting a role for brain reward systems in anticipatory behavior, and providing an alternate model by which to study the neurobiology of anticipation in species, such as mice, that are less well adapted to "stuff and starve" feeding schedules. To extend this model to mice, and exploit molecular genetic resources available for that species, we tested the ability of wild-type mice to anticipate a daily palatable meal. We observed that mice with free access to regular chow and limited access to highly palatable snacks of chocolate or "Fruit Crunchies" avidly consumed the snack but did not show anticipatory locomotor activity as measured by running wheels or video-based behavioral analysis. However, male mice receiving a snack of high fat chow did show increased food bin entry prior to access time and a modest increase in activity in the two hours preceding the scheduled meal. Interestingly, female mice did not show anticipation of a daily high fat meal but did show increased activity at scheduled mealtime when that meal was withdrawn. These results indicate that anticipation of a scheduled food reward in mice is behavior, diet, and gender specific.

  4. A novel mirror diversity receiver for indoor MIMO visible light

    Park, Ki-Hong


    In this paper, we propose and study a non-imaging receiver design reducing the correlation of channel matrix for indoor multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) visible light communication (VLC) systems. Contrary to previous works, our proposed mirror diversity receiver (MDR) not only blocks the reception of light on one specific direction but also improves the channel gain on the other direction by receiving the light reflected by a mirror deployed between the photodetectors. We analyze the channel capacity and optimal height of mirror in terms of maximum channel capacity for a 2 -by-2 MIMO-VLC system in a 2-dimensional geometric model.We prove that this constructive and destructive effects in channel matrix resulting from our proposed MDR are more beneficial to obtain well-conditioned channel matrix which is suitable for implementing spatial-multiplexing MIMO-VLC systems in order to support high data rate.

  5. Broadband direct RF digitization receivers

    Jamin, Olivier


    This book discusses the trade-offs involved in designing direct RF digitization receivers for the radio frequency and digital signal processing domains.  A system-level framework is developed, quantifying the relevant impairments of the signal processing chain, through a comprehensive system-level analysis.  Special focus is given to noise analysis (thermal noise, quantization noise, saturation noise, signal-dependent noise), broadband non-linear distortion analysis, including the impact of the sampling strategy (low-pass, band-pass), analysis of time-interleaved ADC channel mismatches, sampling clock purity and digital channel selection. The system-level framework described is applied to the design of a cable multi-channel RF direct digitization receiver. An optimum RF signal conditioning, and some algorithms (automatic gain control loop, RF front-end amplitude equalization control loop) are used to relax the requirements of a 2.7GHz 11-bit ADC. A two-chip implementation is presented, using BiCMOS and 65nm...

  6. Fractionated irradiation combined with carbogen breathing and nicotinamide of two human glioblastomas grafted in nude mice

    Sun, Lin-Quan; Buchegger, Franz; Coucke, Philippe; MIRIMANOFF


    This study addressed the potential radiosensitizing effect of nicotinamide and/or carbogen on human glioblastoma xenografts in nude mice. U-87MG and LN-Z308 tumors were irradiated with either 20 fractions over 12 days or 5 fractions over 5 days in air-breathing mice, mice injected with nicotinamide, mice breathing carbogen, or mice receiving nicotinamide plus carbogen. The responses to treatment were assessed using local control and moist desquamation. In U-87MG tumors, the enhancement ratios...

  7. Fractionated irradiation combined with carbogen breathing and nicotinamide of two human glioblastomas grafted in nude mice

    SUN, Lin-Quan; Buchegger, Franz; Coucke, Philippe; MIRIMANOFF


    This study addressed the potential radiosensitizing effect of nicotinamide and/or carbogen on human glioblastoma xenografts in nude mice. U-87MG and LN-Z308 tumors were irradiated with either 20 fractions over 12 days or 5 fractions over 5 days in air-breathing mice, mice injected with nicotinamide, mice breathing carbogen, or mice receiving nicotinamide plus carbogen. The responses to treatment were assessed using local control and moist desquamation. In U-87MG tumors, the enhancement ratios...

  8. Multiple Gliomas


    Multiple gliomas are well-recognized but uncommon tumors. The incidence of multiple gliomas according to some reports ranges from 0.5% to 20% of all gliomas diagnosed. Multiple gliomas can be divided into two categories. One is by location of the lesions (multifocal and multicentric). The second type is by the time of the lesions occur (synchronous and metachronous). The lesions generally show hypo, or isodensity on CT; a hypo- or isointense signal on T1-weighted images, and a hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images. Glioblastoma is the most frequent histotype. The prognosis of multiple gliomas remains unfavorable. The treatment of multiple gliomas includes surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Distinction between multicentric and multifocal gliomas is difficult. This report reviews in detail the aspects of multiple gliomas mentioned above.

  9. A cryogenic receiver for EPR.

    Narkowicz, R; Ogata, H; Reijerse, E; Suter, D


    Cryogenic probes have significantly increased the sensitivity of NMR. Here, we present a compact EPR receiver design capable of cryogenic operation. Compared to room temperature operation, it reduces the noise by a factor of ≈2.5. We discuss in detail the design and analyze the resulting noise performance. At low microwave power, the input noise density closely follows the emission of a cooled 50Ω resistor over the whole measurement range from 20K up to room temperature. To minimize the influence of the microwave source noise, we use high microwave efficiency (≈1.1-1.7mTW(-1/2)) planar microresonators. Their efficient conversion of microwave power to magnetic field permits EPR measurements with very low power levels, typically ranging from a few μW down to fractions of nW. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. CERN physicist receives Einstein Medal


    On 29 June the CERN theorist Gabriele Veneziano was awarded the prestigious Albert Einstein Medal for significant contributions to the understanding of string theory. This award is given by the Albert Einstein Society in Bern to individuals whose scientific contributions relate to the work of Einstein. Former recipients include exceptional physicists such as Murray Gell-Mann last year, but also Stephen Hawking and Victor Weisskopf. Gabriele Veneziano, a member of the integrated CERN Theory Team since 1977, led the Theory Division from 1994 to 1997 and has already received many prestigious prizes for his outstanding work, including the Enrico Fermi Prize (see CERN Courier, November 2005), the Dannie Heineman Prize for mathematical physics of the American Physical Society in 2004 (see Bulletin No. 47/2003), and the I. Ya. Pomeranchuk Prize of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow) in 1999.

  11. GH and IGF1: Roles in Energy Metabolism of Long-Living GH Mutant Mice

    Brown-Borg, Holly M.; Bartke, Andrzej


    Of the multiple theories to explain exceptional longevity, the most robust of these has centered on the reduction of three anabolic protein hormones, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor, and insulin. GH mutant mice live 50% longer and exhibit significant differences in several aspects of energy metabolism as compared with wild-type mice. Mitochondrial metabolism is upregulated in the absence of GH, whereas in GH transgenic mice and dwarf mice treated with GH, multiple aspects of t...

  12. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Signaling Pathway: Modulation by Acupuncture in Telomerase Knockout Mice.

    Lin, Dong; Wu, Qiang; Lin, Xiaoyang; Borlongan, Cesar V; He, Zhi-Xu; Tan, Jun; Cao, Chuanhai; Zhou, Shu-Feng


    Telomerase is a critical enzyme that is involved in aging and cancer and that is thought to be a part of multiple neurological diseases. To investigate the telomerase response in the brain to acupuncture, the study examined the levels of expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its downstream signaling molecules, including tyrosine kinase receptor Β (TrkB), p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), and nuclear factor κΒ (NF-κΒ). Both telomerase-deficient (Terc⁻/⁻) mice (Terc⁻/⁻ group) and normal, wild-type (WT) mice (WT group) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 subgroups, 1 receiving acupuncture (acupuncture subgroup), 1 receiving sham acupuncture therapy (sham subgroup), and 1 receiving no treatment (control subgroup). The study occurred at the University of South Florida Health Byrd Alzheimer's Institute (Tampa, FL, USA). The 2 acupuncture subgroups received acupuncture at the stomach 36 (ST-36) position for 30 min/d for 4 d. For the 2 sham groups, the sham point was set at a location approximately 3 mm to the lateral side of the tail on the gluteus muscle following the same schedule. After 4 d, the mice were sacrificed, and the brain tissues were collected. The protein levels in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus (DG) of each mouse were determined by western blotting and immunostaining assays. The Terc⁻/⁻ group showed downregulated hippocampal BDNF expression compared with the WT mice. Acupuncture at ST-36 for 4 d upregulated BDNF, TrkB, p75NTR, Akt, and ERK1/2 in the DG and hippocampus of the telomerase-deficient mice, but that result was not seen in the WT mice with normally functioning telomerase. The use of acupuncture in pathologies associated with telomerase deficiencies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), may provide some benefit in terms of eliciting better clinical responses. The research team believes that result occurs

  13. Trading detection for resolution in active sonar receivers.

    Sharma, Nabin S; Buck, John R; Simmons, James A


    This paper proposes an active sonar receivers that offers a smooth trade-off between detection and resolution. A matched filter is the optimal detector of known signals in white Gaussian noise but may fail to resolve the targets if the time separation of targets is less than the mainlobe width of the autocorrelation function of the transmitted signal. An inverse filter achieves optimal resolution performance for multiple targets in the absence of noise, but amplifies the noise outside the signal bandwidth in a manner that makes it impractical in many realistic scenarios. The proposed active sonar receiver, the variable resolution and detection receiver (VRDR) combines the matched and inverse filter properties to achieve a smooth trade-off between detection and resolution. Simulated receiver operating characteristics demonstrate that for a range of dipole sonar targets, the performance of the VRDR is superior to the matched and inverse filter, as well as another previously proposed bandlimited inverse filter.

  14. Effect of inositol hexaphosphate on the development of UVB-induced skin tumors in SKH1 hairless mice.

    Kolappaswamy, Krishnan; Williams, Kendra A; Benazzi, Cinzia; Sarli, Giuseppe; McLeod, Charles G; Vucenik, Ivana; DeTolla, Louis J


    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a naturally occurring polyphosphorylated carbohydrate that is abundant in many plants and in various high-fiber foods, such as cereals and legumes. IP6 has a striking, broad-spectrum anticancer activity in various in vitro and animal models, in which it interferes with key pathways in malignancy to inhibit cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, metastasis, invasion, and angiogenesis and to induce apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of IP6 in drinking water on the incidence of UVB-induced skin cancer in the SKH1 (Crl: SKH1-hr) mouse model. One group of 15 mice received 2% IP6 in drinking water and UVB exposure, and the other group (n = 15) received UVB exposure only. All mice in both groups were fed an IP6-deficient diet (AIN 76A). The treatment group started receiving 2% IP6 in the drinking water 3 d before irradiation. Mice were irradiated 3 times each week, starting at a dose of 1.5 kJ/m2, with weekly increases in increments of 1.5 kJ/m2 to a final dose of 7.5 kJ/m2. Tumor formation was monitored until the week 31. IP6 in drinking water significantly decreased tumor incidence by 5-fold and tumor multiplicity by 4-fold. These results show that IP6 has an antiphotocarcinogenic effect and can protect against UVB-induced tumor formation.

  15. Sodium hydrosulfide prevents hypoxia-induced behavioral impairment in neonatal mice.

    Wang, Zhen; Zhan, Jingmin; Wang, Xueer; Gu, Jianhua; Xie, Kai; Zhang, Qingrui; Liu, Dexiang


    Hypoxic encephalopathy is a common cause of neonatal seizures and long-term neurological abnormalities. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) may have multiple functions in brain. The aim of this study is to investigate whether sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a H2S donor, provides protection against neonatal hypoxia-induced neurobehavioral deficits. Neonatal mice were subjected to hypoxia (5% oxygen for 120min) at postnatal day 1 and received NaHS (5.6mg/kg) once daily for 3d. Neurobehavioral toxicity was examined at 3-30d after hypoxia. Treatment with NaHS significantly attenuated the delayed development of sensory and motor reflexes induced by hypoxia up to two weeks after the insult. Moreover, NaHS improved the learning and memory performance of hypoxic animals as indicated in Morris water maze test at 30d after hypoxia. In mice exposed to hypoxia, treatment with NaHS enhanced expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. Furthermore, the protective effects of NaHS were associated with its ability to repress the hypoxia-induced nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and nitric oxide production in the hippocampus of mice brain. Taken together, these results suggest that the long-lasting beneficial effects of NaHS on hypoxia-induced neurobehavioral deficits are mediated, at least in part, by inducing BDNF expression and suppressing NOS activity in the brain of mice.

  16. Bacterial infections in Myd88-deficient mice.

    Villano, Jason S; Rong, Fang; Cooper, Timothy K


    Three breeding colonies of Myd88(-/-) mice had a history of significant morbidity and mortality. Although strain-specific poor reproductive performance might explain neonatal death and dystocia, mice were found dead or required euthanasia because of moribundity, distended abdomen, head tilt, and seizures. Histopathology results included bacteremia, placentitis, metritis, peritonitis with abscess formation, and suppurative meningoencephalitis. Intralesional gram-negative coccobacilli were present, often in extremely high number. Cultures of samples of the cardiac blood of a mouse and from water-bottle sipper tubes provided to some affected mice grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, affected tissues from 2 mice and feces from a third tested PCR-positive for P. aeruginosa. Although the mice had received autoclaved reverse-osmosis-purified drinking water, we suspect that the mice were inoculated with P. aeruginosa through contaminated sipper tubes. Because of the deficiency in most of the Toll-like receptor signaling pathways, these Myd88(-/-) mice were unlikely to have developed competitive innate and adaptive immune responses, resulting in bacterial infections. These clinical cases underscore the importance of understanding how genotype, phenotype and environment affect animal health. Sound husbandry and experimental practices are needed to prevent the exposure of immuno-deficient mice to pathogens.

  17. Pure paraflagellar rod protein protects mice against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.


    The paraflagellar rod proteins (PAR) purified from Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were shown to protect mice against an otherwise lethal challenge inoculum of 10(3) bloodstream-form trypomastigotes. The injection route used for immunization was shown to have a marked impact on the development of protective immunity. Mice receiving subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of PAR proteins had reduced bloodstream parasitemias and showed 100% survival following challenge. In contrast, mice immunized via t...

  18. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers.

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob


    The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and strongly dependent on interaural transmission attenuation. Even though the tympanic middle ear has originated independently in the major tetrapod groups, in each group the ancestral condition probably was that the two middle ears were exposed in the mouth cavity with relatively high interaural transmission. Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural transmission and functionally isolated pressure receiver ears in the mammals. Since some of the binaural interaction already takes place at the eardrum in animals with strongly coupled ears, producing enhanced interaural time and level differences, the subsequent neural processing may be simpler. In robotic simulations of lizards, simple binaural subtraction (EI cells, found in brainstem nuclei of both frogs and lizards) produces strongly lateralized responses that are sufficient for steering the animal robustly to sound sources.

  19. Recent developments in superconducting receivers

    Richards, Paul L.


    A description is given of recent work at Berkeley on superconducting mixers and detectors for infrared and millimeter wavelengths. The first report is a review article which summarizes the status of development of superconducting components for infrared and millimeter wave receivers. The next report describes accurate measurements and also theoretical modeling of an SIS quasiparticle waveguide mixer for W-band which uses very high quality Ta junctions. The best mixer noise is only 1.3 times the quantum limit. Both the mixer gain and the noise are in quantitative agreement with the quantum theory. Next, a report is given on measurements and theoretical modeling of the absorptivity (surface resistance) of high quality epitaxial films of the high Tc superconductor YBCO from 750 GHz to 21 THz. Finally, there are reports on the design and experimental performance of two different types of high Tc bolometric detectors. One is a conventional bolometer with a gold-black absorber. The other is an antenna coupled microbolometer.

  20. A Cramer Rao analysis on receiver placement in a FM band commensal radar system based on doppler only measurements

    Maasdorp, FDV


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the theoretical placement of receivers in an Commensal Radar (CR), Doppler only tracking system with a single transmitter multiple receiver configuration. Theory, based on the Fisher Information matrix (FIM), is developed...

  1. Multiple homicides.

    Copeland, A R


    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered.

  2. Euthanasia of neonatal mice with carbon dioxide

    Pritchett, K.; Corrow, D.; Stockwell, J.; Smith, A.


    Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent method used to euthanize rodents in biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the time of CO2 exposure required to euthanize neonatal mice (0 to 10 days old). Multiple groups of mice were exposed to 100% CO 2 for time periods between 5 and 60 min. Mice were placed in room air for 10 or 20 min after CO2 exposure, to allow for the chance of recovery. If mice recovered at one time point, a longer exposure was examined. Inbred and outbred mice were compared. Results of the study indicated that time to death varied with the age of the animals and could be as long as 50 min on the day of birth and differed between inbred and outbred mice. Institutions euthanizing neonatal mice with CO2 may wish to adjust their CO 2 exposure time periods according the age of the mice and their genetic background. Copyright 2005 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

  3. Oral administration of PF-01247324, a subtype-selective Nav1.8 blocker, reverses cerebellar deficits in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

    Shannon D Shields

    Full Text Available Cerebellar symptoms significantly diminish quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. We previously showed that sodium channel Nav1.8, although normally restricted to peripheral somatosensory neurons, is upregulated in the cerebellum in MS, and that Nav1.8 expression is linked to ataxia and MS-like symptoms in mice. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular administration of the Nav1.8 blocker A-803467 temporarily reversed electrophysiological and behavioral manifestations of disease in a mouse MS model; unfortunately A-803467 is not orally bioavailable, diminishing the potential for translation to human patients. In the present study, we assessed the effect of per os (p.o. dosing of a new orally bioavailable Nav1.8-selective blocker, PF-01247324, in transgenic mice expressing Nav1.8 in Purkinje neurons, and in wildtype mice in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model. PF-01247324 was administered by oral gavage at 1000 mg/kg; control groups received an equal volume of vehicle. Behavioral assays of motor coordination, grip strength, and ataxia were performed. We observed significant improvements in motor coordination and cerebellar-like symptoms in mice that received PF-01247324 compared to control littermates that received vehicle. These preclinical proof-of-concept data suggest that PF-01247324, its derivatives, or other Nav1.8-selective blockers merit further study for providing symptomatic therapy for cerebellar dysfunction in MS and related disorders.

  4. The Mechanism of Company Accounts Receivable Management

    Halyna Yamnenko


    Full Text Available The relevance of the accounts receivable management is caused by its ability to influence on the filling of the company working capital. Therefore it is necessary to create a specific mechanism for management of accounts receivable in the company. The article analyses the components of the mechanism and the influence of factors that significantly affect the operation. The result of the functioning of the accounts receivable management is to receive funds and to minimize accounts receivable.

  5. Multiple myeloma.

    Collins, Conor D


    Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management.

  6. Parenting Multiples

    ... babies do. Though it can be difficult to let go of the thousand other things you need to do, ... tell multiple babies apart when they first come home, so don't feel guilty if you mix yours up at ...

  7. Pure paraflagellar rod protein protects mice against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Wrightsman, R A; Miller, M J; Saborio, J L; Manning, J E


    The paraflagellar rod proteins (PAR) purified from Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were shown to protect mice against an otherwise lethal challenge inoculum of 10(3) bloodstream-form trypomastigotes. The injection route used for immunization was shown to have a marked impact on the development of protective immunity. Mice receiving subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of PAR proteins had reduced bloodstream parasitemias and showed 100% survival following challenge. In contrast, mice immunized via the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route developed parasitemia levels equivalent to those of unimmunized controls and did not survive infection. Western blotting (immunoblotting) demonstrated that sera from both i.p. and s.c. immunized mice reacted specifically with PAR proteins; however, the antibody titer of the i.p. immunized mice was approximately 64-fold greater than that of the s.c. immunized mice, suggesting that the protective response in the s.c. immunized mice is cell mediated rather than humoral.

  8. Thermal resistance model for CSP central receivers

    de Meyer, O. A. J.; Dinter, F.; Govender, S.


    The receiver design and heliostat field aiming strategy play a vital role in the heat transfer efficiency of the receiver. In molten salt external receivers, the common operating temperature of the heat transfer fluid or molten salt ranges between 285°C to 565°C. The optimum output temperature of 565°C is achieved by adjusting the mass flow rate of the molten salt through the receiver. The reflected solar radiation onto the receiver contributes to the temperature rise in the molten salt by means of heat transfer. By investigating published work on molten salt external receiver operating temperatures, corresponding receiver tube surface temperatures and heat losses, a model has been developed to obtain a detailed thermographic representation of the receiver. The steady state model uses a receiver flux map as input to determine: i) heat transfer fluid mass flow rate through the receiver to obtain the desired molten salt output temperature of 565°C, ii) receiver surface temperatures iii) receiver tube temperatures iv) receiver efficiency v) pressure drop across the receiver and vi) corresponding tube strain per panel.

  9. Simplified MMSE Detectors for Turbo Receiver in BICM MIMO Systems

    Juan Han; Chao Tang; Qiu-Ju Wang; Zi-Yuan Zhu; Shan Tang


    In this article,two methods adopting simplified minimum mean square error (MMSE) filter with soft parallel interference cancellation (SPIC) axe discussed for turbo receivers in bit interleaved coded modulation (BICM) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems.The proposed methods are utilized in the non-first iterative process of turbo receiver to suppress residual interference and noise.By modeling the components of residual interference after SPIC plus the noise as uncorrelated Gaussian random variables,the matrix inverse for weighting vector of conventional MMSE becomes unnecessary.Thus the complexity can be greatly reduced with only slight performance deterioration.By introducing optimal ordering to SPIC,performance gap between simplified MMSE and conventional MMSE further narrows.Monte Carlo simulation results confirm that the proposed algorithms can achieve almost the same performance as the conventional MMSE SPIC in various MIMO configurations,but with much lower computational complexity.

  10. Microwave receivers with electronic warfare applications

    Tsui, James


    This book by the author of Digital Techniques for Wideband Receivers willbe like no other one on your book shelf as the definitive word on electronicwarfare (EW) receiver design and performance. Whether you are an EWscientist involved in the test and evaluation of EW receivers or a designerof RWR's and other EW-related receivers, Microwave Receivers withElectronic Warfare Applications is a handy reference through which you canperfect your technical art. Lucidly written, this book is a treatise on EWreceivers that is relevant to you if you are just looking for a top-levelinsight into EW receive

  11. Contribution to Synchronization and Tracking Modelisation in a CDMA Receiver

    Aicha Alami Hassani


    Full Text Available We propose and analyze a noncoherent receiver with PN code tracking for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA communication systems. We employ the delay-lock loop (DLL architectures for the tracking stage. The choice of DLL parameters is studied with special focus on DS-CDMA communication systems and orthogonality conditions. We described the modeling and simulation of the NCO using hardware description language VHDL. Details of the VHDL implementation are shown.

  12. An FFT Core for DVB-T/DVB-H Receivers

    A. Cortés


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a 2K/4K/8K multiple mode FFT core for DVB-T/DVB-H receivers. The proposed core is based on a pipeline radix-22 SDF architecture. The necessary changes in the radix-22 SDF architecture to achieve an efficient FFT implementation are detailed. Quantization effects and timing design parameters are analyzed for DVB-T/DVB-H. Area and power results are provided for the proposed core.

  13. Implementation of a MAP decoder for use in UMTS receivers

    Habermann, Joachim


    Inter-user interference in mobile radio systems based on CDMA can be reduced with the aid of multi-user detection. As a consequence of the reduced interference the system capacity is increased for a given quality of service. The forthcoming UMTS system based on CDMA and FDD will apply long scrambling codes, thus, from a receiver implementation point of view random spreading codes are used. Random spreading codes, however, increase implementation complexity dramatically in a multi-user detection receiver. A receiver which shows both an acceptable implementation complexity and a bit error rate performance which is close to the single user bound, is the coded parallel interference cancellation (PIC) receiver. In principle, the coded PIC algorithm performs the following operations: after despreading and deinterleaving the receiver calculates soft values of the coded data with the aid of the maximum a posteriori (MAP) algorithm. The soft values are then respread and rechanneled. If all users are considered in the receiver, the multiple access interference can, ideally, be cancelled out. Through further stages in the receiver, i.e., doing the same procedure again, the performance of the single user receiver can approximately e obtained, as simulations have shown. In order to implement the coded PIC algorithm, its most complex component, which is the MAP decoder, has to be investigated in more detail. MAP decoding requires the calculation of probabilities and the storage over the entire data block because of a forward and backward recursion. These probabilities are obtained through multiplications and additions. To simplify the MAP algorithm on a large scale, conventionally the LOGMAP algorithm is used, which substitutes multiplications into additions with the aid of the logarithmic function and an additional correction function. To come up with a VHDL implementation of the LOGMAP algorithm, firstly a study into the bit resolution of a fixed point implementation is

  14. An Analog Correlator for Ultra-Wideband Receivers

    Tu Chunjiang


    Full Text Available We present a new analog circuit exhibiting high bandwidth and low distortion, specially designed for signal correlation in an ultra-wideband receiver front end. The ultra-wideband short impulse signals are correlated with a local pulse template by the correlator. A comparator then samples the output for signal detection. A typical Gilbert mixer core is adopted for multiplication of broadband signals up to . As a result of synchronization of the received signal and the local template, the output voltage level after integration and sampling can reach up to , which is sufficient for detection by the comparator. The circuit dissipates about from double voltage supplies of and using SiGe BiCMOS technology. Simulation results are presented to show the feasibility of this circuit design for use in ultra-wideband receivers.

  15. Distributed quantum dense coding with two receivers in noisy environments

    Das, Tamoghna; Prabhu, R.; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal


    We investigate the effect of noisy channels in a classical information transfer through a multipartite state which acts as a substrate for the distributed quantum dense coding protocol between several senders and two receivers. The situation is qualitatively different from the case with one or more senders and a single receiver. We obtain an upper bound on the multipartite capacity which is tightened in the case of the covariant noisy channel. We also establish a relation between the genuine multipartite entanglement of the shared state and the capacity of distributed dense coding using that state, both in the noiseless and the noisy scenarios. Specifically, we find that, in the case of multiple senders and two receivers, the corresponding generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states possess higher dense coding capacities as compared to a significant fraction of pure states having the same multipartite entanglement.

  16. The First Six ALMA Band 10 Receivers

    Fujii, Y.; Gonzalez, A.; Kroug, M.; Kaneko, K.; Miyachi, A.; Yokoshima, T.; Kuroiwa, K.; Ogawa, H.; Makise, K.; Wang, Z.; Uzawa, Y.


    The first six Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 10 (787-950 GHz) receivers have been developed and characterized during the receiver preproduction phase. State-of-the-art measurement systems at THz frequencies have been implemented and successfully used to measure the performance of the first six receivers. Extensive tests ranging from receiver sensitivity and stability to optical aperture efficiency on the secondary antenna have been performed. Performance of all six receivers is well within the stringent ALMA requirements. Moreover, our extensive tests have shown that there are no big performance differences between receivers. These results indicate that the ALMA Band 10 receiver is ready for the production phase, during which an additional 67 receivers will be produced and characterized.

  17. Trough Receiver Heat Loss Testing (Presentation)

    Lewandowski, A.; Feik, C.; Hansen, R.; Phillips, S.; Bingham, C.; Netter, J.; Forristal, R.; Burkholder, F.; Meglan, B.; Wolfrum, E.


    This presentation describes the design, fabrication, and qualification of an experimental capability for thermal loss testing of full-size trough receiver elements; and the testing on a variety of receivers.

  18. Resilience in Aging Mice.

    Kirkland, James L; Stout, Michael B; Sierra, Felipe


    Recently discovered interventions that target fundamental aging mechanisms have been shown to increase life span in mice and other species, and in some cases, these same manipulations have been shown to enhance health span and alleviate multiple age-related diseases and conditions. Aging is generally associated with decreases in resilience, the capacity to respond to or recover from clinically relevant stresses such as surgery, infections, or vascular events. We hypothesize that the age-related increase in susceptibility to those diseases and conditions is driven by or associated with the decrease in resilience. Thus, a test for resilience at middle age or even earlier could represent a surrogate approach to test the hypothesis that an intervention delays the process of aging itself. For this, animal models to test resilience accurately and predictably are needed. In addition, interventions that increase resilience might lead to treatments aimed at enhancing recovery following acute illnesses, or preventing poor outcomes from medical interventions in older, prefrail subjects. At a meeting of basic researchers and clinicians engaged in research on mechanisms of aging and care of the elderly, the merits and drawbacks of investigating effects of interventions on resilience in mice were considered. Available and potential stressors for assessing physiological resilience as well as the notion of developing a limited battery of such stressors and how to rank them were discussed. Relevant ranking parameters included value in assessing general health (as opposed to focusing on a single physiological system), ease of use, cost, reproducibility, clinical relevance, and feasibility of being repeated in the same animal longitudinally. During the discussions it became clear that, while this is an important area, very little is known or established. Much more research is needed in the near future to develop appropriate tests of resilience in animal models within an aging context

  19. 49 CFR 236.730 - Coil, receiver.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coil, receiver. 236.730 Section 236.730 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Coil, receiver. Concentric layers of insulated wire wound around the core of a receiver of an...

  20. 49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of visually receiving a...

  1. Multiple sclerosis

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone


    In a cross-sectional study of 117 randomly selected patients (52 men, 65 women) with definite multiple sclerosis, it was found that 76 percent were married or cohabitant, 8 percent divorced. Social contacts remained unchanged for 70 percent, but outgoing social contacts were reduced for 45 percent...

  2. Multiple Sclerosis.

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  3. Multiple Pregnancy

    ... more frequently and are likely to have their babies by cesarean delivery . How can multiple pregnancy affect my risk of ... the result of a recognized disease. Cesarean Delivery: Delivery of a baby through surgical incisions made in the mother’s abdomen ...

  4. Multiple Medicines

    ... DOO \\RXU YLWDPLQV DQG VXSSOHPHQWV WRR Drug Safety: Managing Multiple Drugs When you review your drugs with your doctor, ask these ... you got similar drugs from different doctors. Or you may take a brand-name and a generic drug that do the ...

  5. Multiple sclerosis

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K


    Forty-two (12%) of a total of 366 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) had psychiatric admissions. Of these, 34 (81%) had their first psychiatric admission in conjunction with or after the onset of MS. Classification by psychiatric diagnosis showed that there was a significant positive correlation...

  6. Multiple sclerosis

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K


    An investigation on the correlation between ability to read TV subtitles and the duration of visual evoked potential (VEP) latency in 14 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS), indicated that VEP latency in patients unable to read the TV subtitles was significantly delayed in comparison...

  7. Multiple sclerosis

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K


    In a cross-sectional investigation of 116 patients with multiple sclerosis, the social and sparetime activities of the patient were assessed by both patient and his/her family. The assessments were correlated to physical disability which showed that particularly those who were moderately disabled...

  8. Multiple sclerosis

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K


    In a cross-sectional study of 94 patients (42 males, 52 females) with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) in the age range 25-55 years, the correlation of neuropsychological tests with the ability to read TV-subtitles and with the use of sedatives is examined. A logistic regression analysis reveals...

  9. A zero-power radio receiver.

    Brocato, Robert Wesley


    This report describes both a general methodology and some specific examples of passive radio receivers. A passive radio receiver uses no direct electrical power but makes sole use of the power available in the radio spectrum. These radio receivers are suitable as low data-rate receivers or passive alerting devices for standard, high power radio receivers. Some zero-power radio architectures exhibit significant improvements in range with the addition of very low power amplifiers or signal processing electronics. These ultra-low power radios are also discussed and compared to the purely zero-power approaches.

  10. An SDR based AIS receiver for satellites

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Mortensen, Hans Peter; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard


    For a few years now, there has been a high interest in monitoring the global ship traffic from space. A few satellite, capable of listening for ship borne AIS transponders have already been launched, and soon the AAUSAT3, carrying two different types of AIS receivers will also be launched. One...... of the AIS receivers onboard AAUSAT3 is an SDR based AIS receiver. This paper serves to describe the background of the AIS system, and how the SDR based receiver has been integrated into the AAUSAT3 satellite. Amongst some of the benefits of using an SDR based receiver is, that due to its versatility, new...

  11. Astronomical Receiver Modelling Using Scattering Matrices

    King, O G; Copley, C; Davis, R J; Leahy, J P; Leech, J; Muchovej, S J C; Pearson, T J; Taylor, Angela C


    Proper modelling of astronomical receivers is vital: it describes the systematic errors in the raw data, guides the receiver design process, and assists data calibration. In this paper we describe a method of analytically modelling the full signal and noise behaviour of arbitrarily complex radio receivers. We use electrical scattering matrices to describe the signal behaviour of individual components in the receiver, and noise correlation matrices to describe their noise behaviour. These are combined to produce the full receiver model. We apply this approach to a specified receiver architecture: a hybrid of a continous comparison radiometer and correlation polarimeter designed for the C-Band All-Sky Survey. We produce analytic descriptions of the receiver Mueller matrix and noise temperature, and discuss how imperfections in crucial components affect the raw data. Many of the conclusions drawn are generally applicable to correlation polarimeters and continuous comparison radiometers.

  12. Social consequences of multiple sclerosis

    Pfleger, C C H; Flachs, E M; Koch-Henriksen, N


    BACKGROUND: Time to disability pension is one of the endpoints to be used to determine the prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in prospective studies. OBJECTIVE:   To assess the time to cessation of work and receiving disability pension in MS, and how it may depend on gender, type of work and age...

  13. Suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis

    Stenager, Elsebeth Nylev; Jensen, Børge; Stenager, Maria


    The purposes of the study were (1) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Denmark and compare the risk to the background population in the County of Funen, Denmark; (2) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in MS patients receiving immunomodulating...

  14. Multiple Descriptions Using Sparse Decompositions

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Østergaard, Jan; Dahl, Joachim


    In this paper, we consider the design of multiple descriptions (MDs) using sparse decompositions. In a description erasure channel only a subset of the transmitted descriptions is received. The MD problem concerns the design of the descriptions such that they individually approximate the source...

  15. A Novel Iterative Receiver Based on Extrinsic Information Update for MIMO Systems

    LIN Wen-feng; HE Chen


    A novel iterative receiver for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems was introduced.Its basis concept is that the reliability of extrinsic information will be strengthened with continuous iterations.Extrinsic information of present iteration is added with prior information of last iteration to obtain performance gain.The simulation results show that the improved iterative receiver can approach the 5th iteration performance of conventional soft interference cancellation (SIC)-minimum mean square error (MMSE) iterative receiver after the 2nd iteration with less computational complexity.Compared with conventional iterative receiver, the improved iterative receiver has 1dB performance gain at bit error rate (BER) of 10-5, with four transmit antennas and four receive antennas system.



    Two patients had cancers of the colon followed by ovarian ... The risk factors in our patients were; receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy and the presence of. HIV. INTRODUCTION. The development of multiple primary tumors in a single.

  17. Wide-band coherent receiver development for enhanced surveillance

    Simpson, M.L.; Richards, R.K.; Hutchinson, D.P.


    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing advanced coherent IR heterodyne receivers for plasma diagnostics in fusion reactors for over 20 years. Recent progress in wide band IR detectors and high speed electronics has significantly enhanced the measurement capabilities of coherent receivers. In addition, developments in new HgCdTe and quantum well IR photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays are providing the possibility of both active and passive coherent imaging. In this paper the authors discuss the implications of these new enabling technologies to the IR remote sensing community for enhanced surveillance. Coherent receivers, as opposed to direct or thermal detection, provide multiple dimensions of information about a scene or target in a single detector system. Combinations of range, velocity, temperature, and chemical species information are all available from a coherent heterodyne receiver. They present laboratory data showing measured noise equivalent power (NEP) of new QWIP detectors with heterodyne bandwidths greater than 7 GHz. For absorption measurements, a wide band coherent receiver provides the capability of looking between CO{sub 2} lines at off-resonance peaks and thus the measurement of lines normally inaccessible with conventional heterodyne or direct detection systems. Also described are differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and Doppler laboratory measurements using an 8 x 8 HgCdTe focal plane array demonstrating the snapshot capability of coherent receiver detector arrays for enhanced chemical plume and moving hardbody capture. Finally they discuss a variety of coherent receiver configurations that can suppress (or enhance) sensitivity of present active remote sensing systems to speckle, glint, and other measurement anomalies.

  18. Contact hypersensitivity response to isophorone diisocyanate in mice

    Stern, M.L.; Brown, T.A.; Brown, R.D.; Munson, A.E. (Virginial Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (USA))


    Isophorone diisocyanate was evaluated for its potential as a sensitizing agent for allergic contact hypersensitivity in mice. Female B6C3F1 mice were sensitized with 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0% isophorone diisocyanate and challenged with 3.0% isophorone diisocyanate. Doses of isophorone diisocyanate were selected from assays for primary irritancy. Mice received 20 microliters by direct dermal application, for 5 days, to sites prepared by shaving, dermabrading and, in some mice, with intra dermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. The rest period was 7 days. Measurement of the contact hypersensitivity response in mice was by radioisotopic assay two days after challenge and mouse ear swelling one and two days after challenge. Mice demonstrated statistically significant dose-dependent contact hypersensitivity responses to isophorone diisocyanate with or without adjuvant pretreatment.

  19. Phorbol myristate acetate and catechol as skin cocarcinogens in SENCAR mice

    Van Duuren, B.L.; Melchionne, S.; Seidman, I.


    The enhancement of the carcinogenicity of benzo(a) pyrene (B(a)P) and ..beta..-propiolactone (BPL) by the mouse skin cocarcinogens phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and catechol were examined in female SENCAR mice, 30 per group. The carcinogen and cocarcinogen were applied simultaneously, three times weekly for 490-560 days. B(a)P and BPL were used at constant doses of 5 and 50, respectively, in all experiments. PMA was used at three doses, 2.5, 1.0, and 0.5 per application, and catechol was used at one dose, 2 mg per application. Control groups included animals that received carcinogen only, cocarcinogen only, acetone only, and no treatment. The carcinogenicity of B(a)P and BPL were enhanced by the cocarcinogens, particularly in terms of tumor multiplicity. For both carcinogens, the most marked cocarcinogenic effects were observed at the lowest dose of PMA used (0.5 per application). This observation applied for days to first tumor, animals with tumors, tumor multiplicity, and incidence of malignant skin tumors. Catechol applied alone did not induce any tumors; with PMA alone there were significant incidences of benign and malignant tumors, e.g., at a dose of only 0.5 per application, 15 of 30 animals had 28 tumors, 5 of which were squamous carcinomas. In two-stage carcinogenesis experiments with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) as initiator and PMA as promoter, SENCAR mice showed a greater susceptibility to tumor induction when compared to ICR/Ha mice used in earlier work. This susceptibility was most notable in terms of rate of tumor appearance and tumor multiplicity.

  20. High stable remote photoelectric receiver for interferometry

    Yang, Hongxing; Zhu, Pengfei; Tan, Jiubin; Hu, Pengcheng; Fan, Zhigang


    A high sensitive and high stable remote photoelectric receiver has been developed to reduce noise and phase delay drift caused by thermal pollution and environmental interference. The phase delay drift model is analyzed and built based on a traditional photoelectric receiver. According to the model, a new mechanical isolation structure and a temperature control system are designed to keep the photoelectric receiver in a low constant temperature. Comparison experiments with traditional bias voltage compensation method and temperature control method are carried out between photoelectric receivers. The results verify that the output voltage fluctuation of photoelectric receiver used is reduced by 65% while the phase drift between measurement and reference photoelectric receivers decreases from 1.05° to 0.02°.

  1. Analysis of the omnium-g receiver

    Bohn, M.


    A thermal analysis of the Omnium-G receiver is presented and the technique is shown to be generally applicable to solar thermal receivers utilizing a directly heated thermal mass. The thermal loss coefficient, including reradiation losses, is calculated and shown to agree quite well with the experimentally measured thermal loss coefficient. The rate of heat transfer to the working fluid is also analyzed and the analysis is used to show that the Omnium-G receiver is well matched to the water/steam working fluid because the steam outlet temperature is almost the same as the receiver temperature. A general procedure for calculating receiver performance is presented. With this procedure, the energy delivery to any working fluid, the delivered temperature of the working fluid, and the pressure drop through the receiver can be determined. An example of the calculation is also presented.

  2. Phenotypic and Functional Analysis of LCMV gp33-41-Specific CD8 T Cells Elicited by Multiple Peptide Immunization in Mice Revealed the Up-regulation of PD-1 Expression on Antigen Specific CD8 T Cells

    Yi Liu; Lihui Xu; Yiqun Jiang; Jianfang Sun; Xianhui He


    The phenotype and function of antigen-specific CD8 T cells are closely associated with the efficacy of a therapeutic vaccination. Here we showed that multiple immunizations with LCMV gp33-41 peptide (KAV) in Freund's adjuvant could induce KAV-specific CD8 T cells with low expression of CD127 and CD62L molecules. The inhibitory receptor PD-1 was also expressed on a substantial part of KAV-specific CD8 T cells, and its expression level on KAV-specific CD8 T cells in spleen and lymph nodes was much higher when compared to those in peripheral blood. Furthermore, KAV-specific CD8 T cells could specifically kill KAV-pulsed target cells in vivo but the efficiency was low. These data suggest that prime-boost vaccination schedule with peptide in Freund's adjuvant can elicit antigen-specific CD8 T cells of effector-like phenotype with partial functional exhaustion, which may only provide short-term protection against the pathogen.

  3. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph


    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  4. Effect of recombinant murine erythropoietinon injected into mice with multiple myeloma on their immune function%多发性骨髓瘤小鼠注射重组鼠源促红细胞生成素后对免疫功能的影响

    汤海玲; 范丽梅


    Objective To investigate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin on immune function in mice with multiple myeloma.Methods Multiple myeloma model mice were divided randomly into control group and treatment groups (low,middle and high doses).The rats in treatment groups were injected with recombinant human erythropoietin 100 μL (2.5,5.0 and 10 mg/kg)via the tail vein for 30 days,and the rats in control group were injected isotonic saline solution of the same volume instead.After the experiment,the colorimetric MTT assay,neutral red method and ELISA kit were used to evaluate the proliferation of B and T lymphocytes,the phagocytic ability of macrophages and the content of serum TNF-α.Results Compared with those in control group,different doses of recombinant human erythropoietin could significantly increase the proliferation of lymphocytes,increase the phagocytosis of macrophages and improve the production of serum TNF-α(P < 0.05 ). Conclusion Recombinant human erythropoietin can significantly improve immunoregulation of mice with multiple myeloma.%目的:探讨重组人红细胞生成素(rhEPO)对多发性骨髓瘤小鼠免疫功能的影响。方法建立多发性骨髓瘤小鼠模型,随机分为4组,即对照组和高、中、低剂量治疗组,治疗组分别给予尾静脉注射重组人源促红细胞生成素2.5、5、10 mg/kg,容量为100μL,连续给药30 d,对照组给予尾静脉注射等体积生理盐水。实验结束后,采用 MTT 法测定各组小鼠 T、B 淋巴细胞增殖能力,中性红实验测定巨噬细胞吞噬能力和 ELISA 试剂盒测定小鼠血清中 TNF-α含量。结果与对照组相比,不同剂量 rhEPO 治疗组小鼠 B、T 淋巴细胞增殖能力、巨噬细胞吞噬能力和血清中 TNF-α含量均显著提高(P <0.05)。结论重组人红细胞生成素可显著改善多发性骨髓瘤小鼠免疫调节能力。

  5. Shipping/Receiving and Quality Control

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Shipping receiving, quality control, large and precise inspection and CMM machines. Coordinate Measuring Machines, including "scanning" probes, optical comparators,...

  6. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生


    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  7. Nursing process approach improves receivables management.

    Dias, K; Stockamp, D


    The "nursing process" is a systematic decision-making approach to problem solving based on open-system theory. This theory assumes that there is an on-going interchange between all system components. Components cannot be viewed in isolation, because decisions regarding one component will affect other components. Receivables management is similar to the nursing process, in that it involves constant diagnosis, assessment, and intervention in the work in process during all phases of the receivables cycle. In experiments that applied the nursing process concept to the management of accounts receivable in several hospitals, gross days in accounts receivable were reduced and cash flow was increased.

  8. Special design topics in digital wideband receivers

    Tsui, James B Y


    Offering engineers a thorough examination of special, more advanced aspects of digital wideband receiver design, this practical book builds on fundamental resources on the topic, helping you gain a more comprehensive understanding of the subject. This in-depth volume presents a detailed look at a complete receiver design, including the encoder. Moreover, it discusses the detection of exotic signals and provides authoritative guidance on designing receivers used in electronic warfare. From frequency modulation and biphase shifting keys, to parameter encoders in electronic warfare receivers and

  9. An Energy-Efficient MIMO Algorithm with Receive Power Constraint

    Glazunov, Andrés Alayón


    We consider the energy-efficiency of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems with constrained received power rather than constrained transmit power. A Energy-Efficient Water-Filling (EEWF) algorithm that maximizes the ratio of the transmission rate to the total transmit power has been derived. The EEWF power allocation policy establishes a trade-off between the transmission rate and the total transmit power under the total receive power constraint. The static and the uncorrelated fast fading Rayleigh channels have been considered, where the maximization is performed on the instantaneous realization of the channel assuming perfect information at both the transmitter and the receiver with equal number of antennas. We show, based on Monte Carlo simulations that the energy-efficiency provided by the EEWF algorithm can be more than an order of magnitude greater than the energy-efficiency corresponding to capacity achieving Water-Filling (WF) algorithm. We also show that the energy-efficiency increases with b...

  10. Interleukin-4 production in BALB/c mice immunized with Anisakis simplex

    Perteguer María Jesús


    Full Text Available We investigated the interleukin (IL-4 levels in BALB/c mice immunized with Anisakis extract in single or multiple doses and in mice orally infected with a larva. From animals immunized maximum responses were obtained with the multiple doses with an only IL-4 peak. Conversely, in the mice inoculated with a larva per os, the IL-4 levels showed two peaks of different rates.

  11. Spin multiplicities

    Curtright, T.L., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-8046 (United States); Van Kortryk, T.S., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-8046 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439-4815 (United States); Zachos, C.K., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-8046 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439-4815 (United States)


    The number of times spin s appears in the Kronecker product of n spin j representations is computed, and the large n asymptotic behavior of the result is obtained. Applications are briefly sketched. - Highlights: • We give a self-contained derivation of the spin multiplicities that occur in n-fold tensor products of spin-j representations. • We make use of group characters, properties of special functions, and asymptotic analysis of integrals. • We emphasize patterns that arise when comparing different values of j, and asymptotic behavior for large n. • Our methods and results should be useful for various statistical and quantum information theory calculations.

  12. Mitigation of MIMO Co-Channel Interference using robust interference cancellation receiver

    Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Prasad, Ramjee


    (STBC) link may become equivalent to an interfering Spatial Multiplexing (SM) link. Using this knowledge and understanding, we propose an interference cancellation receiver robust to different types of MIMO interferers at cell edge for the Downlink (DL) of cellular systems. The receiver systematically......) statistics and Bit Error Rate (BER) performance in cellular Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) systems. We have found that the proposed multiple-symbol linear interference cancellation receiver performs satisfactorily when any kind of single 'logical' stream MIMO scheme is present...

  13. Coupled Receiver/Decoders for Low-Rate Turbo Codes

    Hamkins, Jon; Divsalar, Dariush


    been proposed for receiving weak single- channel phase-modulated radio signals bearing low-rate-turbo-coded binary data. Originally intended for use in receiving telemetry signals from distant spacecraft, the proposed receiver/ decoders may also provide enhanced reception in mobile radiotelephone systems. A radio signal of the type to which the proposal applies comprises a residual carrier signal and a phase-modulated data signal. The residual carrier signal is needed as a phase reference for demodulation as a prerequisite to decoding. Low-rate turbo codes afford high coding gains and thereby enable the extraction of data from arriving radio signals that might otherwise be too weak. In the case of a conventional receiver, if the signal-to-noise ratio (specifically, the symbol energy to one-sided noise power spectral density) of the arriving signal is below approximately 0 dB, then there may not be enough energy per symbol to enable the receiver to recover properly the carrier phase. One could solve the problem at the transmitter by diverting some power from the data signal to the residual carrier. A better solution . a coupled receiver/decoder according to the proposal . could reduce the needed amount of residual carrier power. In all that follows, it is to be understood that all processing would be digital and the incoming signals to be processed would be, more precisely, outputs of analog-to-digital converters that preprocess the residual carrier and data signals at a rate of multiple samples per symbol. The upper part of the figure depicts a conventional receiving system, in which the receiver and decoder are uncoupled, and which is also called a non-data-aided system because output data from the decoder are not used in the receiver to aid in recovering the carrier phase. The receiver tracks the carrier phase from the residual carrier signal and uses the carrier phase to wipe phase noise off the data signal. The receiver typically includes a phase-locked loop

  14. Stacked Transformer for Driver Gain and Receive Signal Splitting

    Driscoll, Kevin R.


    In a high-speed signal transmission system that uses transformer coupling, there is a need to provide increased transmitted signal strength without adding active components. This invention uses additional transformers to achieve the needed gain. The prior art uses stronger drivers (which require an IC redesign and a higher power supply voltage), or the addition of another active component (which can decrease reliability, increase power consumption, reduce the beneficial effect of serializer/deserializer preemphasis or deemphasis, and/or interfere with fault containment mechanisms), or uses a different transformer winding ratio (which requires redesign of the transformer and may not be feasible with high-speed signals that require a 1:1 winding ratio). This invention achieves the required gain by connecting the secondaries of multiple transformers in series. The primaries of these transformers are currently either connected in parallel or are connected to multiple drivers. There is also a need to split a receive signal to multiple destinations with minimal signal loss. Additional transformers can achieve the split. The prior art uses impedance-matching series resistors that cause a loss of signal. Instead of causing a loss, most instantiations of this invention would actually provide gain. Multiple transformers are used instead of multiple windings on a single transformer because multiple windings on the same transformer would require a redesign of the transformer, and may not be feasible with high-speed transformers that usually require a bifilar winding with a 1:1 ratio. This invention creates the split by connecting the primaries of multiple transformers in series. The secondary of each transformer is connected to one of the intended destinations without the use of impedance-matching series resistors.

  15. Variable velocity in solar external receivers

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, M. R.; Sánchez-González, A.; Acosta-Iborra, A.; Santana, D.


    One of the major problems in solar external receivers is tube overheating, which accelerates the risk of receiver failure. It can be solved implementing receivers with high number of panels. However, it exponentially increases the pressure drop in the receiver and the parasitic power consumption of the Solar Power Tower (SPT), reducing the global efficiency of the SPT. A new concept of solar external receiver, named variable velocity receiver, is able to adapt their configuration to the different flux density distributions. A set of valves allows splitting in several independent panels those panels in which the wall temperature is over the limit. It increases the velocity of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and its cooling capacity. This receiver does not only reduce the wall temperature of the tubes, but also simplifies the control of the heliostat field and allows to employ more efficient aiming strategies. In this study, it has been shown that variable velocity receiver presents high advantages with respect to traditional receiver. Nevertheless, more than two divisions per panels are not recommendable, due to the increment of the pressure drop over 70 bars. In the design point (12 h of the Spring Equinox), the use of a variable number of panels between 18 and 36 (two divisions per panel), in a SPT similar to Gemasolar, improves the power capacity of the SPT in 5.7%, with a pressure drop increment of 10 bars. Off-design, when the flux distribution is high and not symmetric (e.g. 10-11 h), the power generated by the variable velocity receiver is 18% higher than the generated by the traditional receiver, at these hours the pressure drop increases almost 20 bars.

  16. Design and implementation of the CAPS receiver

    Hu, Yonghui; Hua, Yu; Hou, Lei; Wei, Jingfa; Wu, Jianfeng


    In this paper, based on analyses of the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) satellite (GEO satellite) resources and signal properties, the signal power at the port of the receiver antenna is estimated, and the implementation projects are presented for a switching band C to band L CAPS C/A code receiver integrated with GPS receiver suite and for a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver. A microstrip receiving antenna is designed with high sensitivity and wide beam orientation, the RF front end of the C/A code and P code receivers, and a processor is designed for the navigation baseband. A single frequency CAPS C/A code receiver and a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver are built at the same time. A software process flow is provided, and research on relatively key techniques is also conducted, such as signal searching, code loop and carrier loop algorithms, a height assistant algorithm, a dual frequency difference speed measurement technique, a speed measurement technique using a single frequency source with frequency assistance, and a CAPS time correcting algorithm, according to the design frame of the receiver hardware. Research results show that the static plane positioning accuracy of the CAPS C/A code receiver is 20.5-24.6 m, height accuracy is 1.2-12.8 m, speed measurement accuracy is 0.13-0.3 m/s, dynamic plane positioning accuracy is 24.4 m, height accuracy is 3.0 m, and speed measurement accuracy is 0.24 m/s. In the case of C/A code, the timing accuracy is 200 ns, and it is also shown that the positioning accuracy of the CAPS precise code receiver (1 σ) is 5 m from south to north, and 0.8 m from east to west. Finally, research on positioning accuracy is also conducted.

  17. Design and implementation of the CAPS receiver


    In this paper, based on analyses of the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) satellite (GEO satellite) resources and signal properties, the signal power at the port of the receiver antenna is estimated, and the implementation projects are presented for a switching band C to band L CAPS C/A code receiver integrated with GPS receiver suite and for a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver. A microstrip receiving antenna is designed with high sensitivity and wide beam orientation, the RF front end of the C/A code and P code receivers, and a processor is designed for the navigation baseband. A single frequency CAPS C/A code receiver and a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver are built at the same time. A software process flow is provided, and research on relatively key techniques is also conducted, such as signal searching, code loop and carrier loop algorithms, a height assistant algorithm, a dual frequency difference speed measurement technique, a speed measurement technique using a single frequency source with frequency assistance, and a CAPS time correcting algorithm, according to the design frame of the receiver hardware. Research results show that the static plane positioning accuracy of the CAPS C/A code receiver is 20.5-24.6 m, height accuracy is 1.2-12.8 m, speed measurement accuracy is 0.13-0.3 m/s, dynamic plane positioning accuracy is 24.4 m, height accuracy is 3.0 m, and speed measurement accuracy is 0.24 m/s. In the case of C/A code, the timing accuracy is 200 ns, and it is also shown that the positioning accuracy of the CAPS precise code receiver (1σ ) is 5 m from south to north, and 0.8 m from east to west. Finally, research on positioning accuracy is also conducted.

  18. Wide-band heterodyne receiver development for effluent measurements

    Hutchinson, D.P.; Richards, R.K.; Simpson, M.L.; Bennett, C.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Liu, H.C.; Buchanan, M. [National Research Council of Canada (Canada)


    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing advanced infrared heterodyne receivers for plasma diagnostics in fusion reactors for over 20 years. Passive heterodyne radiometry in the LWIR region of the spectrum has historically been restricted by HgCdTe (MCT) detector technology to receiver bandwidths of only 2 GHz. Given typical atmospheric line widths of approximately 3 GHz, a CO{sub 2} (or isotope) laser local oscillator with an average line spacing of 50 GHz, and an MCT detector, only chemical species whose absorptions fall directly on top of laser lines can be measured. Thus, with traditional narrow-band heterodyne radiometry, much of the LWIR spectrum is missed and the less complex direct detection DIAL has been the preferred technique in remote sensing applications. Wide-band heterodyne receivers offer significant improvements in remote measurement capability. Progress at the Institute for Microstructural Sciences (IMS) at National Research Council of Canada and at ORNL in wide-band quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QIPs) and receivers is significantly enhancing the bandwidth capabilities of heterodyne radiometers. ORNL recently made measurements in the lab using QWIPs developed at IMS that demonstrate heterodyne quantum efficiencies of 5% with a heterodyne bandwidth of 7 GHz. The path forward indicates that > 10% heterodyne quantum efficiencies and 30-GHz bandwidths are achievable with current QWIP technology. With a chopped, 30-GHz passive heterodyne receiver, a much larger portion of the LWIR spectrum can now be covered. One potential advantage of wide-band heterodyne receivers for effluent measurements is to dramatically reduce the number of laser lines needed to characterize and distinguish multiple chemical species of interest. In the following paper, the authors discuss this and other implications of these new technologies to the characterization of effluents using both passive heterodyne radiometry and thermo-luminescence.

  19. Superconducting integrated submillimeter receiver for TELIS

    Koshelets, Valery P.; Ermakov, Andrey B.; Filippenko, Lyudmila V.; Khudchenko, Andrey V.; Kiselev, Oleg S.; Sobolev, Alexander S.; Torgashin, Mikhail Yu.; Yagoubov, Pavel A.; Hoogeveen, Ruud W. M.; Wild, Wolfgang


    In this report an overview of the results on the development of a single-chip superconducting integrated receiver for the Terahertz Limb Sounder (TELIS) balloon project intended to measure a variety of stratosphere trace gases is presented. The Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR) comprises in

  20. 47 CFR 32.1170 - Receivables.


    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.1170 Receivables. (a... enable the company to make the following analysis: (1) Amounts due from customers who are receiving... process of collection. (b) Collections in excess of amounts charged to this account may be credited to...

  1. Superconducting chip receivers for imaging application

    Shitov, SV; Koshelets, VP; Ermakov, AB; Filippenko, LV; Baryshev, AM; Luinge, W; Gao, [No Value


    Experimental details of a unique superconducting imaging array receiver are discussed. Each pixel contains an internally pumped receiver chip mounted on the back of the elliptical microwave lens. Each chip comprises a quasi-optical SIS mixer integrated with a superconducting flux-flow oscillator (FF

  2. Social networks and receiving informal care.

    Boer, A. de; Klerk, M. de; Cardol, M.; Westert, G.


    In 2001, roughly half a million people (4% of the Dutch population) received informal care from family members living outside their home, and a quarter of a million (2% of the Dutch population) received this care from acquaintances, such as friend, neighbours and work colleagues. The potential suppl

  3. 21 CFR 1020.10 - Television receivers.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Television receivers. 1020.10 Section 1020.10 Food...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR IONIZING RADIATION EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1020.10 Television receivers. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section are applicable to television...

  4. RF performance of T-DAB receivers

    Schiphorst, R.; Potman, J.; Hofstra, K.L.; Cronie, H.S.; Slump, C.H.


    In every wireless system, the weakest link determines the performance of the network. In this paper the Radio Frequency (RF) performance of both band III and L-band Terrestrial Digital Audio Broadcasting (T-DAB) consumer receivers are discussed. The receivers have been tested based on the EN 50248 s

  5. Lack of teratogenicity after combined exposure of pregnant mice to CDMA and WCDMA radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.

    Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Jae-Seon; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Nam; Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Yun-Sil


    Concern about the possible adverse effects of radiofrequency (RF)-field exposure on public health has increased because of the extensive use of wireless mobile phones and other telecommunication devices in daily life. The murine fetus is a very sensitive indicator of the effects of stress or stimuli in the environment. Therefore, we investigated the teratogenic effects of multi-signal radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) on mouse fetuses. Pregnant mice were simultaneously exposed to two types of RF signals, single code division multiple access (CDMA) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA). Mice received two 45-min RF-field exposures, separated by a 15-min interval, daily throughout the entire gestation period. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg. The animals were killed humanely on the 18th day of gestation and fetuses were examined for mortality, growth retardation, changes in head size and other morphological abnormalities. From the results, we report for the first time that simultaneous experimental exposure to CDMA and WCDMA RF EMFs did not cause any observable adverse effects on mouse fetuses.

  6. High dynamic, low volume GPS receiver

    Hurd, W. J.


    A new GPS receiver concept and design are presented to meet the high dynamic and low volume requirements for range applications in missiles and drones. The receiver has the potential to satisfy all range requirements with one basic receiver, which has significant potential economic benefit over the alternate approach of using a family of receivers, each tailored for specific applications. The main new concept is to use approximate maximum likelihood estimates of pseudo range and range-rate, rather than tracking with carrier phase locked loops and code delay locked loops. Preliminary analysis indicates that receivers accelerating at 50 g or more can track with position errors due to acceleration of approximately 0.2 m/g, or 10 m at 50 g. Implementation is almost entirely digital to meet the low volume requirements.

  7. An SDR based AIS receiver for satellites

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Mortensen, Hans Peter; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard


    For a few years now, there has been a high interest in monitoring the global ship traffic from space. A few satellite, capable of listening for ship borne AIS transponders have already been launched, and soon the AAUSAT3, carrying two different types of AIS receivers will also be launched. One...... of the AIS receivers onboard AAUSAT3 is an SDR based AIS receiver. This paper serves to describe the background of the AIS system, and how the SDR based receiver has been integrated into the AAUSAT3 satellite. Amongst some of the benefits of using an SDR based receiver is, that due to its versatility, new...... detection algorithms are easily deployed, and it is easily adapted the new proposed AIS transmission channels....

  8. SAGE based iterative receiver for joint synchronization and channel estimation in uplink MIMO-OFDMA systems

    JIANG Zheng; QIN Xiao-fang; ZHANG Xin; CHANG Yong-yu


    A new Turbo iterative receiver structure is proposed for the uplink multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiple access (MIMO-OFDMA) systems. The space-alternating generalized expectation-maximization (SAGE) algorithm is naturally embedded in the framework of iterative receiver to perform synchronization and detection using the Turbo detector outputs. In each iteration, the expectation step intends to remove the multiple access interference (MAI) caused by other asynchronous users, and the maximization step is utilized to estimate the required parameters (i.e., timing offset, carrier frequency offset, channel state information, etc.) sequentially for each user. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can approach the performance of ideal receiver closely, while the processing complexity is rather lower than the conventional detectors.

  9. Ultrawide Bandwidth Receiver Based on a Multivariate Generalized Gaussian Distribution

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan


    Multivariate generalized Gaussian density (MGGD) is used to approximate the multiple access interference (MAI) and additive white Gaussian noise in pulse-based ultrawide bandwidth (UWB) system. The MGGD probability density function (pdf) is shown to be a better approximation of a UWB system as compared to multivariate Gaussian, multivariate Laplacian and multivariate Gaussian-Laplacian mixture (GLM). The similarity between the simulated and the approximated pdf is measured with the help of modified Kullback-Leibler distance (KLD). It is also shown that MGGD has the smallest KLD as compared to Gaussian, Laplacian and GLM densities. A receiver based on the principles of minimum bit error rate is designed for the MGGD pdf. As the requirement is stringent, the adaptive implementation of the receiver is also carried out in this paper. Training sequence of the desired user is the only requirement when implementing the detector adaptively. © 2002-2012 IEEE.


    Yang Xuexian; Hou Zifeng; Zhang Qunying; Ning Yanqing


    The mismatch of in-phase and quadrature channels in quadrature receiver affects and constrains radar detection performance in coherent radar. It is necessary to keep the in-phase and quadrature branches symmetrical. In this letter, an adaptive method to detect imbalance parameters is derived by means of evaluating channel errors from the received signal sequences.No matter how the bias degree of the gain and phase errors in I/Q channels are, the proposed adaptive scheme can obtain good calibration results. And the required calculations are only a few multiplications and additions. No need of a special test signal, the introduced method is simple to implement and easy to operate.

  11. [Multiple apheresis].

    Coffe, C


    Multiple apheresis makes it possible to obtain at least two labile blood components from a single donor using a cell separator. It can be either multicomponent apheresis leading to the preparation of at least two different blood component types or red blood cell apheresis providing two identical red blood cell concentrates. These techniques available in addition to whole blood donation, are modifying collection strategies in many Etablissements Français du Sang and will contribute to improve stock logistics in the future. In areas with insufficient stock, these procedures will help achieve blood component self-sufficiency. The author first describes the principle underlying different--current or future--techniques as well as their advantages and drawbacks. He finally addresses the potential impact of these processes on the evolution of blood collection and the advantages to be gained.

  12. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) modulates fear-induced alterations in sleep in mice.

    Yang, Linghui; Tang, Xiangdong; Wellman, Laurie L; Liu, Xianling; Sanford, Larry D


    Contextual fear significantly reduces rapid eye movement sleep (REM) during post-exposure sleep in mice and rats. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) plays a major role in CNS responses to stressors. We examined the influence of CRF and astressin (AST), a non-specific CRF antagonist, on sleep after contextual fear in BALB/c mice. Male mice were implanted with transmitters for recording sleep via telemetry and with a guide cannula aimed into the lateral ventricle. Recordings for vehicle and handling control were obtained after ICV microinjection of saline (SAL) followed by exposure to a novel chamber. Afterwards, the mice were subjected to shock training (20 trials, 0.5 mA, 0.5 s duration) for 2 sessions. After training, separate groups of mice received ICV microinjections of SAL (0.2 microl, n=9), CRF (0.4 microg, n=8), or AST (1.0 microg, n=8) prior to exposure to the shock context alone. Sleep was then recorded for 20 h (8-hour light and 12-hour dark period). Compared to handling control, contextual fear significantly decreased REM during the 8-h light period in mice receiving SAL and in mice receiving CRF, but not in the mice receiving AST. Mice receiving CRF exhibited reductions in REM during the 12-h dark period after contextual fear, whereas mice receiving SAL or AST did not. CRF also reduced non-REM (NREM) delta (slow wave) amplitude in the EEG. Only mice receiving SAL prior to contextual fear exhibited significant reductions in NREM and total sleep. These findings demonstrate a role for the central CRF system in regulating alterations in sleep induced by contextual fear.

  13. Lipid metabolism and body composition in Gclm(-/-) mice

    Kendig, Eric L. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Ying [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Krishan, Mansi; Johansson, Elisabet; Schneider, Scott N. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Genter, Mary Beth; Nebert, Daniel W. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Shertzer, Howard G., E-mail: [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)


    In humans and experimental animals, high fat diets (HFD) are associated with risk factors for metabolic diseases, such as excessive weight gain and adiposity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Mice lacking the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm(-/-)) and deficient in glutathione (GSH), are resistant to HFD-mediated weight gain. Herein, we evaluated Gclm-associated regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. C57BL/6J Gclm(-/-) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls received a normal diet or an HFD for 11 weeks. HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not display a decreased respiratory quotient, suggesting that they are unable to process lipid for metabolism. Although dietary energy consumption and intestinal lipid absorption were unchanged in Gclm(-/-) mice, feeding these mice an HFD did not produce excess body weight nor fat storage. Gclm(-/-) mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates resulting from higher activities of liver mitochondrial NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, thus elevating respiration. Although Gclm(-/-) mice exhibited strong systemic and hepatic oxidative stress responses, HFD did not promote glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not develop fatty liver, likely resulting from very low expression levels of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. We conclude that Gclm is involved in the regulation of basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of dietary lipid. Although Gclm(-/-) mice display a strong oxidative stress response, they are protected from HFD-induced excessive weight gain and adipose deposition, insulin resistance and steatosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not produce body weight and fat gain in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not induce steatosis or insulin resistance in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gclm(-/-) mice have high basal metabolism and mitochondrial



    @@ The MICE (Meetings, Incentives, Conventions, and Exhibitions) industry has exploded worldwide over the past decade. The benefits brought by meetings, incentives, conventions, and exhibitions are also benefiting other sectors involved in MICE events, including hotels, travel, and retail. Industry analysts estimate that the income from the global MICE industry will soon exceed USD 220 billion, and is expected to increase by 8-10% each year.

  15. Enhanced AIS receiver design for satellite reception

    Clazzer, Federico; Lázaro, Francisco; Plass, Simon


    The possibility to detect Automatic Identification System (AIS) messages from low earth orbit (LEO) satellites paves the road for a plurality of new and unexplored services. Besides worldwide tracking of vessels, maritime traffic monitoring, analysis of vessel routes employing big data, and oceans monitoring are just few of the fields, where satellite-aided AIS is beneficial. Designed for ship-to-ship communication and collision avoidance, AIS satellite reception performs poorly in regions with a high density of vessels. This calls for the development of advanced satellite AIS receivers able to improve the decoding capabilities. In this context, our contribution focuses on the introduction of a new enhanced AIS receiver design and its performance evaluation. The enhanced receiver makes use of a coherent receiver for the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region, while for medium to high SNRs, a differential Viterbi receiver is used. Additional novelty of our work is in the exploitation of previously decoded packets from one vessel that is still under the LEO reception range, to improve the vessel detection probability. The assessment of the performance against a common receiver is done making the use of a simple and tight model of the medium access (MAC) layer and the multi-packet reception (MPR) matrix for physical layer (PHY) representation. Performance results show the benefits of such enhanced receiver, especially when it is bundled with successive interference cancellation (SIC).

  16. Terahertz Array Receivers with Integrated Antennas

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Llombart, Nuria; Lee, Choonsup; Jung, Cecile; Lin, Robert; Cooper, Ken B.; Reck, Theodore; Siles, Jose; Schlecht, Erich; Peralta, Alessandro; Thomas, Bertrand; Mehdi, Imran


    Highly sensitive terahertz heterodyne receivers have been mostly single-pixel. However, now there is a real need of multi-pixel array receivers at these frequencies driven by the science and instrument requirements. In this paper we explore various receiver font-end and antenna architectures for use in multi-pixel integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies. Development of wafer-level integrated terahertz receiver front-end by using advanced semiconductor fabrication technologies has progressed very well over the past few years. Novel stacking of micro-machined silicon wafers which allows for the 3-dimensional integration of various terahertz receiver components in extremely small packages has made it possible to design multi-pixel heterodyne arrays. One of the critical technologies to achieve fully integrated system is the antenna arrays compatible with the receiver array architecture. In this paper we explore different receiver and antenna architectures for multi-pixel heterodyne and direct detector arrays for various applications such as multi-pixel high resolution spectrometer and imaging radar at terahertz frequencies.

  17. Fundamentals of GPS Receivers A Hardware Approach

    Doberstein, Dan


    While much of the current literature on GPS receivers is aimed at those intimately familiar with their workings, this volume summarizes the basic principles using as little mathematics as possible, and details the necessary specifications and circuits for constructing a GPS receiver that is accurate to within 300 meters. Dedicated sections deal with the features of the GPS signal and its data stream, the details of the receiver (using a hybrid design as exemplar), and more advanced receivers and topics including time and frequency measurements. Later segments discuss the Zarlink GPS receiver chip set, as well as providing a thorough examination of the TurboRogue receiver, one of the most accurate yet made. Guiding the reader through the concepts and circuitry, from the antenna to the solution of user position, the book’s deployment of a hybrid receiver as a basis for discussion allows for extrapolation of the core ideas to more complex, and more accurate designs. Digital methods are used, but any analogue c...

  18. Temperature influences in receiver clock modelling

    Wang, Kan; Meindl, Michael; Rothacher, Markus; Schoenemann, Erik; Enderle, Werner


    In Precise Point Positioning (PPP), hardware delays at the receiver site (receiver, cables, antenna, …) are always difficult to be separated from the estimated receiver clock parameters. As a result, they are partially or fully contained in the estimated "apparent" clocks and will influence the deterministic and stochastic modelling of the receiver clock behaviour. In this contribution, using three years of data, the receiver clock corrections of a set of high-precision Hydrogen Masers (H-Masers) connected to stations of the ESA/ESOC network and the International GNSS Service (IGS) are firstly characterized concerning clock offsets, drifts, modified Allan deviations and stochastic parameters. In a second step, the apparent behaviour of the clocks is modelled with the help of a low-order polynomial and a known temperature coefficient (Weinbach, 2013). The correlations between the temperature and the hardware delays generated by different types of antennae are then analysed looking at daily, 3-day and weekly time intervals. The outcome of these analyses is crucial, if we intend to model the receiver clocks in the ground station network to improve the estimation of station-related parameters like coordinates, troposphere zenith delays and ambiguities. References: Weinbach, U. (2013) Feasibility and impact of receiver clock modeling in precise GPS data analysis. Dissertation, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany.

  19. Altruistic Backoff: Collision Avoidance for Receiver-Initiated MAC Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Orfanidis, Charalampos; Dragoni, Nicola


    In receiver-initiated medium access control (MAC) protocols for wireless sensor networks, communication is initiated by the receiver node which transmits beacons indicating its availability to receive data. In the case of multiple senders having traffic for a given receiver, such beacons form...... points where collisions are likely to happen. In this paper, we present altruistic backoff (AB), a novel collision avoidance mechanism that aims to avoid collisions before the transmission of a beacon. As a result of an early backoff, senders spend less time in idle listening waiting for a beacon, thus...

  20. Learning Strategy Selection in the Water Maze and Hippocampal CREB Phosphorylation Differ in Two Inbred Strains of Mice

    Sung, Jin-Young; Goo, June-Seo; Lee, Dong-Eun; Jin, Da-Qing; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Gallagher, Michela; Han, Jung-Soo


    Learning strategy selection was assessed in two different inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6 and DBA/2, which are used for developing genetically modified mouse models. Male mice received a training protocol in a water maze using alternating blocks of visible and hidden platform trials, during which mice escaped to a single location. After training,…

  1. Prevention of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice by transferring in vitro antigen-pulsed syngeneic dendritic cells

    Papaccio, G; Nicoletti, F; Pisanti, F A;


    To evaluate the effect of antigen-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) transfer on the development of diabetes, 5-week-old female NOD mice received a single iv injection of splenic syngeneic DC from euglycemic NOD mice pulsed in vitro with human y globulin (HGG). Eleven of 12 mice were protected from...

  2. Transcutaneous photodynamic therapy delays the onset of paralysis in a murine multiple sclerosis model

    Hunt, David W. C.; Leong, Simon; Levy, Julia G.; Chan, Agnes H.


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD, Verteporfin) and whole body irradiation, can affect the course of adoptively transferred experimental allergic (autoimmune) encephalomyelitis (EAE) in PL mice. Murine EAE is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease which serves as a model for human multiple sclerosis. Using a novel disease induction protocol, we found that mice characteristically developed EAE within 3 weeks of receipt of myelin basic protein (MBP)-sensitized, in vitro-cultured spleen or lymph node cells. However, if animals were treated with PDT (1 mg BPD/kg bodyweight and exposed to whole body 15 Joules cm2 of LED light) 24 hours after receiving these cells, disease onset time was significantly delayed. PDT-treated mice developed disease symptoms 45 +/- 3 days following cell administration whereas untreated controls were affected within 23 +/- 2 days. In contrast, application of PDT 48 or 120 hours following injection of the pathogenic cells had no significant effect upon the development of EAE. Experiments are in progress to account for the protective effect of PDT in this animal model. These studies should provide evidence on the feasibility of PDT as a treatment for human autoimmune disease.

  3. Global Positioning System receiver evaluation results

    Byrne, R.H.


    A Sandia project currently uses an outdated Magnavox 6400 Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as the core of its navigation system. The goal of this study was to analyze the performance of the current GPS receiver compared to newer, less expensive models and to make recommendations on how to improve the performance of the overall navigation system. This paper discusses the test methodology used to experimentally analyze the performance of different GPS receivers, the test results, and recommendations on how an upgrade should proceed. Appendices contain detailed information regarding the raw data, test hardware, and test software.

  4. List of Nuclear Materials Licensing Actions Received

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — A catalog of all Materials Licensing Actions received for review. The catalog lists the name of the entity submitting the license application, their city and state,...

  5. Metal Mesh Filters for Terahertz Receivers Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The best low-noise receiver solutions for frequencies above about 800 GHz rely on either a low-noise bolometric direct detector or a hot electron bolometric mixer....

  6. Metal Mesh Filters for Terahertz Receivers Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical objective of this SBIR program is to develop and demonstrate metal mesh filters for use in NASA's low noise receivers for terahertz astronomy and...

  7. 49 CFR 236.788 - Receiver.


    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.788 Receiver. A device on a locomotive, so placed that it is in position to be influenced inductively or actuated by...

  8. Collector/Receiver Characterization (Fact Sheet)


    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities for collector/receiver characterization: determining optical efficiency, measuring heat loss, developing and testing concentrators, concentrating the sun's power, and optically characterizing CSP plants.

  9. Digital Receiver for Laser Imaging Radar

    WANG Wei Ran; SUN Bing


    With the extension of the application domains for laser imaging radar,it is necessary to find a new technical way to obtain high technical performance and adaptive ability.In this paper,A new concept of digital receiver of laser imaging radar system is presented.This digital receiver is defined as a time varying parameter receiver which possesses large dynamics region and time domain filter.The receiver's mode,component structure as well as every function of its processing are described.The results and laboratorial data show the feasibility of digital reception.Also,it can exploit the inherent nature of laser imaging radar to obtain high probability of detection.

  10. Optical Coherent Receiver Enables THz Wireless Bridge

    Yu, Xianbin; Liu, Kexin; Zhang, Hangkai


    We experimentally demonstrated a 45 Gbit/s 400 GHz photonic wireless communication system enabled by an optical coherent receiver, which has a high potential in fast recovery of high data rate connections, for example, in disaster....

  11. High dynamic GPS receiver validation demonstration

    Hurd, W. J.; Statman, J. I.; Vilnrotter, V. A.


    The Validation Demonstration establishes that the high dynamic Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver concept developed at JPL meets the dynamic tracking requirements for range instrumentation of missiles and drones. It was demonstrated that the receiver can track the pseudorange and pseudorange rate of vehicles with acceleration in excess of 100 g and jerk in excess of 100 g/s, dynamics ten times more severe than specified for conventional High Dynamic GPS receivers. These results and analytic extensions to a complete system configuration establish that all range instrumentation requirements can be met. The receiver can be implemented in the 100 cu in volume required by all missiles and drones, and is ideally suited for transdigitizer or translator applications.

  12. High-Rate Receiver Design Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an initial architectural and preliminary hardware design study for a high-rate receiver capable of decoding modulation suites specified by CCSDS 413.0-G-1...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.306 - Air receivers.


    ... transportation vehicles such as steam railroad cars, electric railway cars, and automotive equipment. (2) New and... manholes therein are easily accessible. Under no circumstances shall an air receiver be buried underground...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.169 - Air receivers.


    ... and equipment used on transportation vehicles such as steam railroad cars, electric railway cars, and... therein are easily accessible. Under no circumstances shall an air receiver be buried underground or...

  15. Design and implementation of the CAPS receiver

    HU YongHui; HUA Yu; HOU Lei; WEI JingFa; WU JianFeng


    In this paper,baaed on analyses of the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) satellite (GEO satellite) resources and signal properties,the signal power at the port of the receiver antenna is estimated,and the implementation projects are presented for a switching band C to band L CAPS C/A code receiver integrated with GPS receiver suite and for a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver.A microstrip receiving antenna is designed with high sensitivity and wide beam orientation,the RF front end of the C/A code and P code receivers,and a processor is designed for the navigation baseband.A single frequency CAPS C/A code receiver and a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver are built at the same time.A software process flow is provided,and research on relatively key techniques is also conducted,such as signal searching,code loop and carrier loop algorithms,a height assistant algorithm,a dual frequency difference speed measurement technique,a speed measurement technique using a single frequency source with frequency assistance,and a CAPS time correcting algorithm,according to the design frame of the receiver hardware.Research results show that the static plane positioning accuracy of the CAPS C/A code receiver is 20.5-24.6 m,height accuracy is 1.2-12.8 m,speed measurement accuracy is 0.13-0.3 m/s,dynamic plane positioning accuracy is 24.4 m,height accuracy is 3.0 m,and speed measurement accuracy is 0.24 m/s.In the case of C/A code,the timing accuracy is 200 ha,and it is also shown that the positioning accuracy of the CAPS precise code receiver (1σ) is 5 m from south to north,and 0.8 m from east to west.Finally,research on positioning accuracy is also conducted.

  16. A handbook for solar central receiver design

    Falcone, P.K.


    This Handbook describes central receiver technology for solar thermal power plants. It contains a description and assessment of the major components in a central receiver system configured for utility scale production of electricity using Rankine-cycle steam turbines. It also describes procedures to size and optimize a plant and discussed examples from recent system analyses. Information concerning site selection criteria, cost estimation, construction, and operation and maintenance is also included, which should enable readers to perform design analyses for specific applications.

  17. Flexible receiver adapter formal design review

    Krieg, S.A.


    This memo summarizes the results of the Formal (90%) Design Review process and meetings held to evaluate the design of the Flexible Receiver Adapters, support platforms, and associated equipment. The equipment is part of the Flexible Receiver System used to remove, transport, and store long length contaminated equipment and components from both the double and single-shell underground storage tanks at the 200 area tank farms.

  18. Anatomy of a digital coherent receiver

    Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso


    Digital coherent receivers have gained significant attention in the last decade. The reason for this is that coherent detection, along with digital signal processing (DSP) allows for substantial increase of the channel capacity by employing advanced detection techniques. In this paper, we first......, orthonormaliation, chromatic dispersion compensation/nonlinear compensation, resampling a nd timing recovery, polarization demultiplexing and equalization, frequency and phase recovery, digital demodulation. We also describe novel subsystems of a digital coherent receiver: modulation format recognition...

  19. Inversion of receiver function by wavelet transformation

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李桂银; 曾融生


    A new method for receiver function inversion by wavelet transformation is presented in this paper. Receiver func-tion is expanded to different scales with different resolution by wavelet transformation. After an initial model be-ing taken, a generalized least-squares inversion procedure is gradually carried out for receiver function from low tohigh scale, with the inversion result for low order receiver function as the initial model for high order. Aneighborhood containing the global minimum is firstly searched from low scale receiver function, and will gradu-ally focus at the global minimum by introducing high scale information of receiver function. With the gradual ad-dition of high wave-number to smooth background velocity structure, wavelet transformation can keep the inver-sion result converge to the global minimum, reduce to certain extent the dependence of inversion result on theinitial model, overcome the nonuniqueness of generalized least-squares inversion, and obtain reliable crustal andupper mantle velocity with high resolution.

  20. GPS Receiver Performance Inspection by Wavelet Transform

    Xia Lin-yuan; Liu Jing-nan; Lu Liang-xi


    As a powerful analysis tool and the result of contemporary mathematics development, wavelet transform has shown its promising application potentials through the research in the paper. Three aspects regarding GPS receiver performance is tackled: cycle slip detection, receiver noise analysis and receiver channel bias inspection. Wavelet decomposition for double differential observation has demonstrated that this multi-level transform can reveal cycle slips as small as 0.5 cycles without any pre-adjustment processes or satellite orbit information, it can therefore be regarded as a 'geometry free' method. Based on property assumption of receiver noise, signal of noise serial is obtained at the high frequency scale in wavelet decomposition layers. This kind of noise influence on GPSb aseline result can be effectively eliminated by reconstruction process during wavelet reconstruction. Through observed data analysis, the transform has detected a kind of receiver channel bias that has not been completely removed by processing unit of GPS receiver during clock offset resetting operation. Thus the wavelet approach can be employed as a kind of system diagnosis in a generalized point of view.

  1. Efficient receiver tuning using differential evolution strategies

    Wheeler, Caleb H.; Toland, Trevor G.


    Differential evolution (DE) is a powerful and computationally inexpensive optimization strategy that can be used to search an entire parameter space or to converge quickly on a solution. The Kilopixel Array Pathfinder Project (KAPPa) is a heterodyne receiver system delivering 5 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth in the tuning range of 645-695 GHz. The fully automated KAPPa receiver test system finds optimal receiver tuning using performance feedback and DE. We present an adaptation of DE for use in rapid receiver characterization. The KAPPa DE algorithm is written in Python 2.7 and is fully integrated with the KAPPa instrument control, data processing, and visualization code. KAPPa develops the technologies needed to realize heterodyne focal plane arrays containing 1000 pixels. Finding optimal receiver tuning by investigating large parameter spaces is one of many challenges facing the characterization phase of KAPPa. This is a difficult task via by-hand techniques. Characterizing or tuning in an automated fashion without need for human intervention is desirable for future large scale arrays. While many optimization strategies exist, DE is ideal for time and performance constraints because it can be set to converge to a solution rapidly with minimal computational overhead. We discuss how DE is utilized in the KAPPa system and discuss its performance and look toward the future of 1000 pixel array receivers and consider how the KAPPa DE system might be applied.

  2. 47 CFR 15.121 - Scanning receivers and frequency converters used with scanning receivers.


    ... receivers and frequency converters designed or marketed for use with scanning receivers, shall: (1) Be...; replacing a plug-in semiconductor chip; or programming a semiconductor chip using special access codes or an external device, such as a personal computer. Scanning receivers, and frequency converters designed for...

  3. Comparing Drug Use between Welfare-Receiving Arrestees and Non-Welfare-Receiving Arrestees.

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Urbach, Blake J.; Johnson, Regina J.


    Compares drug-positive rates between welfare-receiving arrestees, non-welfare receiving arrestees living below the poverty level, and non-welfare arrestees living above the poverty level. Welfare-receiving arrestees were more likely to be female, older, less educated, and to test positive for opiates and benzodiazepines than the other subgroups.…

  4. Multiple myeloma.

    Anderson, Kenneth C; Shaughnessy, John D; Barlogie, Bart; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Roodman, G David


    This update provides new insights into the biology, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) and its complications. In Section I, Drs. John Shaughnessy, Jr., and Bart Barlogie first correlate global gene microarray expression profiling of patient MM samples with normal plasma cells to provide the basis for a developmental stage-based classification of MM. The powerful clinical utility of these analyses is illustrated in delineating mechanism of drug action, identifying novel therapeutic targets, and providing a molecular analysis not only of the tumor cell, but also of the tumor microenvironment, in MM. In Section II, Dr. Jean-Luc Harousseau reviews the rationale and current results of high dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in MM, including optimal patient selection, prognostic factors, conditioning regimens, sources of stem cells, use of tandem transplantation, and maintenance therapy. He then provides an update on the results of allotransplantation approaches in MM, focusing on proposed methods to reduce toxicity and exploit the graft-versus-MM alloimmune effect by transplantation earlier in the disease course, T cell depletion, and nonmyeloablative transplantation. In Section III, Dr. G. David Roodman provides recent insights into the mechanisms of osteoclast activation, interactions between bone and MM cells, adhesive interactions in MM bone disease, and osteoblast suppression. These recent advances not only provide insights into pathogenesis of MM bone disease, but also form the framework for novel therapeutics. In Section IV, Dr. Kenneth Anderson provides an up-to-date discussion of the role of the bone marrow microenvironment in promoting growth, survival, drug resistance, and migration of MM cells and the signaling cascades mediating these sequelae. These studies provide the framework for evaluation of novel therapeutics targeting the MM cell-host interaction in vivo in animal models and in derived clinical trials.

  5. Multiple osteochondromas

    Bovée Judith VMG


    Full Text Available Abstract Multiple osteochondromas (MO is characterised by development of two or more cartilage capped bony outgrowths (osteochondromas of the long bones. The prevalence is estimated at 1:50,000, and it seems to be higher in males (male-to-female ratio 1.5:1. Osteochondromas develop and increase in size in the first decade of life, ceasing to grow when the growth plates close at puberty. They are pedunculated or sessile (broad base and can vary widely in size. The number of osteochondromas may vary significantly within and between families, the mean number of locations is 15–18. The majority are asymptomatic and located in bones that develop from cartilage, especially the long bones of the extremities, predominantly around the knee. The facial bones are not affected. Osteochondromas may cause pain, functional problems and deformities, especially of the forearm, that may be reason for surgical removal. The most important complication is malignant transformation of osteochondroma towards secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma, which is estimated to occur in 0.5–5%. MO is an autosomal dominant disorder and is genetically heterogeneous. In almost 90% of MO patients germline mutations in the tumour suppressor genes EXT1 or EXT2 are found. The EXT genes encode glycosyltransferases, catalyzing heparan sulphate polymerization. The diagnosis is based on radiological and clinical documentation, supplemented with, if available, histological evaluation of osteochondromas. If the exact mutation is known antenatal diagnosis is technically possible. MO should be distinguished from metachondromatosis, dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica and Ollier disease. Osteochondromas are benign lesions and do not affect life expectancy. Management includes removal of osteochondromas when they give complaints. Removed osteochondromas should be examined for malignant transformation towards secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma. Patients should be well instructed and regular




    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Comparison of antidepressant activity of Losartan with Imipramine in albino mice. BACKGROUND Of all the afflictions that trouble the soul, depression is the commonest characterised by a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behaviour, feelings and physical well-being. Similarly, hypertension is another condition which has emerged as a major public health problem in India and many other developing countries. There is compulsion that 35% of the population has to use the antihypertensives and antidepressants simultaneously for a long period of time to maintain their health. The present work is aimed at comparing antidepressant activity of losartan with imipramine which acts by raising brain BDNF (Brain derived neurotrophic factor levels so that a single agent can be used for both the conditions avoiding multiple medications. METHOD 18 Albino mice were taken, divided into 6 mice in each group and subjected to Forced swim test. All the drugs were administered orally. Drugs were administered and time of onset of immobility is measured 60 min. after the drug administration along with total duration of immobility. Animals are exposed to pretest of 15 min., 24 hrs. prior to the 6 min. swim test. Each animal is considered immobile when it ceased to struggle and swim and remained floating in the water, only moving to keep its head above water. Control group received distilled water (10 mL/kg. Standard group received Imipramine (5 mg/kg and test group was treated with Losartan (3 mg/kg. The Forced swim test for each mouse was video captured which was later analysed to count the time of onset of immobility and total duration of immobility. RESULTS Data was analysed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Losartan showed significant antidepressant activity indicated by significant delay (P<0.05 in the time of onset of immobility and significant reduction (P<0.05 in the total duration of immobility compared to

  7. Of mice and men


    At the end of March , sixty mice were irradiated at the synchro-cyclotron in the course of an experimental programme studying radiation effects on mice and plants (Vicia faba bean roots) being carried out by the CERN Health Physics Group.

  8. A Family of Mice


    @@ 一、故事内容 There is a family of mice in my house. They are father mouse, mother mouse and baby mouse. Baby mouse likes dancing. He is very cute. Father mouse likes watching TV. He likes the sports on TV best. These three mice are clever.

  9. Link Scheduling in Multi-Transmit-Receive Wireless Networks

    Dai, Hong-Ning; Fu, Liqun


    This paper investigates the problem of link scheduling to meet traffic demands with minimum airtime in a multi-transmit-receive (MTR) wireless network. MTR networks are a new class of networks, in which each node can simultaneously transmit to a number of other nodes, or simultaneously receive from a number of other nodes. The MTR capability can be enabled by the use of multiple directional antennas or multiple channels. Potentially, MTR can boost the network capacity significantly. However, link scheduling that makes full use of the MTR capability must be in place before this can happen. We show that optimal link scheduling can be formulated as a linear program (LP). However, the problem is NP-hard because we need to find all the maximal independent sets in a graph first. We propose two computationally efficient algorithms, called Heavy-Weight-First (HWF) and Max-Degree-First (MDF) to solve this problem. Simulation results show that both HWF and MDF can achieve superior performance in terms of runtime and op...

  10. Performance outlook of the SCRAP receiver

    Lubkoll, Matti; von Backström, Theodor W.; Harms, Thomas M.


    A combined cycle (CC) concentrating solar power (CSP) plant provides significant potential to achieve an efficiency increase and an electricity cost reduction compared to current single-cycle plants. A CC CSP system requires a receiver technology capable of effectively transferring heat from concentrated solar irradiation to a pressurized air stream of a gas turbine. The small number of pressurized air receivers demonstrated to date have practical limitations, when operating at high temperatures and pressures. As yet, a robust, scalable and efficient system has to be developed and commercialized. A novel receiver system, the Spiky Central Receiver Air Pre-heater (SCRAP) concept has been proposed to comply with these requirements. The SCRAP system is conceived as a solution for an efficient and robust pressurized air receiver that could be implemented in CC CSP concepts or standalone solar Brayton cycles without a bottoming Rankine cycle. The presented work expands on previous publications on the thermal modeling of the receiver system. Based on the analysis of a single heat transfer element (spike), predictions for its thermal performance can be made. To this end the existing thermal model was improved by heat transfer characteristics for the jet impingement region of the spike tip as well as heat transfer models simulating the interaction with ambient. While the jet impingement cooling effect was simulated employing a commercial CFD code, the ambient heat transfer model was based on simplifying assumptions in order to employ empirical and analytical equations. The thermal efficiency of a spike under design conditions (flux 1.0 MW/m2, air outlet temperature just below 800 °C) was calculated at approximately 80 %, where convective heat losses account for 16.2 % of the absorbed radiation and radiative heat losses for a lower 2.9 %. This effect is due to peak surface temperatures occurring at the root of the spikes. It can thus be concluded that the geometric

  11. Performance of Turbo Interference Cancellation Receivers in Space-Time Block Coded DS-CDMA Systems

    Emmanuel Oluremi Bejide


    Full Text Available We investigate the performance of turbo interference cancellation receivers in the space time block coded (STBC direct-sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA system. Depending on the concatenation scheme used, we divide these receivers into the partitioned approach (PA and the iterative approach (IA receivers. The performance of both the PA and IA receivers is evaluated in Rayleigh fading channels for the uplink scenario. Numerical results show that the MMSE front-end turbo space-time iterative approach receiver (IA effectively combats the mixture of MAI and intersymbol interference (ISI. To further investigate the possible achievable data rates in the turbo interference cancellation receivers, we introduce the puncturing of the turbo code through the use of rate compatible punctured turbo codes (RCPTCs. Simulation results suggest that combining interference cancellation, turbo decoding, STBC, and RCPTC can significantly improve the achievable data rates for a synchronous DS-CDMA system for the uplink in Rayleigh flat fading channels.

  12. Wide-Band Microwave Receivers Using Photonic Processing

    Matsko, Andrey; Maleki, Lute; Itchenko, Vladimir; Yu, Nan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Savchenkov, Anatoliy


    wide-band and narrowband signal processing. Thus, one compact receiver of this type would afford the functionality that, heretofore, could have been obtained only by use of multiple heterodyne microwave receivers.

  13. Chronic toxicity study of cyclohexanone in rats and mice.

    Lijinsky, W; Kovatch, R M


    A 2-year chronic toxicity assay of cyclohexanone (CAS: 108-94-1) was conducted in F344 rats and (C57BL/6 X C3H)F1 mice by administering a solution of cyclohexanone in drinking water. Two concentrations were given to rats, 6,500 and 3,300 ppm (wt/vol). Male mice received 13,000 and 6,500 ppm, while female mice were given three concentrations, 25,000, 13,000, and 6,500 ppm. Each treatment group consisted of 50 or 52 male and 50 or 52 female rats or mice, except 47 male mice treated with the highest dose and 41 female mice treated with the highest dose, and there was a group of untreated controls of each species. Survival and weight gain were similar to those of controls at the lowest cyclohexanone dose in both sexes of both species, but weight gain was depressed at all of the higher doses. Survival was good (greater than 80% at 90 wk) in all groups except in female mice at the 2 highest doses; at 25,000 ppm of cyclohexanone, only 50% of mice lived beyond 1 year. Most of the neoplasms in the treated groups did not differ significantly in number from those in the controls. Male rats receiving 3,300 ppm cyclohexanone had a 13% incidence of adrenal cortex adenomas (7 animals) compared with an incidence of 2% in controls; the incidence of this neoplasm did not increase in the male rats receiving 6,500 ppm or in the female rats given either dose. The mice had a statistically significant increase in incidence of lymphomas-leukemias among the females given 6,500 ppm, but not among the groups given higher doses of cyclohexanone. Male mice given 6,500 ppm cyclohexanone showed an increased incidence of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas, 50% versus 32.5% in controls, but the incidence of these neoplasms was only 37% in the male mice given 13,000 ppm cyclohexanone. The incidence of lymphomas in male mice and of hepatocellular neoplasms in female mice given cyclohexanone did not differ from that in the controls. The evidence for carcinogenic activity of cyclohexanone is

  14. Digital Front End for Wide-Band VLBI Science Receiver

    Jongeling, Andre; Sigman, Elliott; Navarro, Robert; Goodhart, Charles; Rogstad, Steve; Chandra, Kumar; Finley, Sue; Trinh, Joseph; Soriano, Melissa; White, Les; hide


    An upgrade to the very-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI) science receiver (VSR) a radio receiver used in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is currently being implemented. The current VSR samples standard DSN intermediate- frequency (IF) signals at 256 MHz and after digital down-conversion records data from up to four 16-MHz baseband channels. Currently, IF signals are limited to the 265-to-375-MHz range, and recording rates are limited to less than 80 Mbps. The new digital front end, denoted the Wideband VSR, provides improvements to enable the receiver to process wider bandwidth signals and accommodate more data channels for recording. The Wideband VSR utilizes state-of-the-art commercial analog-to-digital converter and field-programmable gate array (FPGA) integrated circuits, and fiber-optic connections in a custom architecture. It accepts IF signals from 100 to 600 MHz, sampling the signal at 1.28 GHz. The sample data are sent to a digital processing module, using a fiber-optic link for isolation. The digital processing module includes boards designed around an Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) industry-standard backplane. Digital signal processing implemented in FPGAs down-convert the data signals in up to 16 baseband channels with programmable bandwidths from 1 kHz to 16 MHz. Baseband samples are transmitted to a computer via multiple Ethernet connections allowing recording to disk at rates of up to 1 Gbps.

  15. Sexual function in women receiving maintenance dialysis.

    Seethala, Srikanth; Hess, Rachel; Bossola, Maurizio; Unruh, Mark L; Weisbord, Steven D


    While substantial attention has been paid to the issue of sexual dysfunction in men on chronic dialysis, less is known about this problem in women with end-stage renal disease. We sought to assess sexual dysfunction in women on chronic dialysis and determine whether patients discuss this problem with their providers and receive treatment. We prospectively enrolled women receiving chronic hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis in Pittsburgh, PA. We asked patients to complete the 19-item Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) to assess sexual function and a 5-item survey that assessed whether patients had discussed sexual dysfunction with their providers and/or received treatment for this problem in the past. We enrolled 66 patients; 59 (89%) on hemodialysis and 7 (11%) on peritoneal dialysis. All patients completed the FSFI, of whom 53 (80%) had FSFI scores <26.55, consistent with the presence of sexual dysfunction. Of 37 patients who were married or residing with a significant other, 27 (73%) had sexual dysfunction. Among 24 participants who reported having been sexually active over the previous 4 weeks, 11 (46%) had sexual dysfunction. Only 21% of patients with sexual dysfunction had discussed this problem with their gynecologist, renal or primary provider, and 3 (6%) reported having received treatment. Sexual dysfunction is common in women on dialysis, even among patients who are married or residing with a significant other and those who are sexually active. However, few women discuss this issue with their providers or receive treatment.

  16. Receiver-Controlled Multi-Node Cooperation

    Liang Ye; Yue Li; XueJun Sha; Esko Alasaarela


    Since wireless links in Ad hoc networks are more fragile than those in traditional wireless networks due to route flapping, multi-node cooperation plays an important role in ensuring the quality of service ( QoS) . Based on the authors’ previous work, this paper proposes a receiver-controlled multi-node cooperation routing protocol, known as AODV-RCC. In this protocol, nodes form a cooperation group based on signal power. In a cooperation group, signal power between a partner and a transmitter, as well as signal power between the partner and the receiver, must be larger than the signal power between the transmitter and the receiver. Otherwise, the transmission will not benefit from cooperation. To avoid collision or congestion, each cooperation group only contains one partner. This partner offers both data and ACK cooperative retransmission. Its retransmission time should be shorter than the internal retry time of the transmitter’ s MAC layer, because it is better for the partner to retransmit firstly, as it offers a more reliable cooperative link. In AODV-RCC, it is the receiver that chooses the partner, because the link between the partner and the receiver is the most important. According to our simulation results, AODV-RCC shortens the end-to-end delay and increases the packet delivery ratio.

  17. Schottky Heterodyne Receivers With Full Waveguide Bandwidth

    Hesler, Jeffrey; Crowe, Thomas


    Compact THz receivers with broad bandwidth and low noise have been developed for the frequency range from 100 GHz to 1 THz. These receivers meet the requirements for high-resolution spectroscopic studies of planetary atmospheres (including the Earth s) from spacecraft, as well as airborne and balloon platforms. The ongoing research is significant not only for the development of Schottky mixers, but also for the creation of a receiver system, including the LO chain. The new receivers meet the goals of high sensitivity, compact size, low total power requirement, and operation across complete waveguide bands. The exceptional performance makes these receivers ideal for the broader range of scientific and commercial applications. These include the extension of sophisticated test and measurement equipment to 1 THz and the development of low-cost imaging systems for security applications and industrial process monitoring. As a particular example, a WR-1.9SHM (400-600 GHz) has been developed (see Figure 1), with state-of-the-art noise temperature ranging from 1,000-1,800 K (DSB) over the full waveguide band. Also, a Vector Network Analyzer extender has been developed (see Figure 2) for the WR1.5 waveguide band (500 750 GHz) with 100-dB dynamic range.

  18. Direct broadcast satellite-radio, receiver development

    Vaisnys, A.; Bell, D.; Gevargiz, J.; Golshan, Nasser


    The status of the ongoing Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Receiver Development Task being performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) is reported. This work is sponsored by the Voice of America/U.S. Information Agency through an agreement with NASA. The objective of this task is to develop, build, test, and demonstrate a prototype receiver that is compatible with reception of digital audio programs broadcast via satellites. The receiver is being designed to operate under a range of reception conditions, including fixed, portable, and mobile, as well as over a sufficiently wide range of bit rates to accommodate broadcasting systems with different cost/audio quality objectives. While the requirements on the receiver are complex, the eventual goal of the design effort is to make the design compatible with low cost production as a consumer product. One solution may be a basic low cost core design suitable for a majority of reception conditions, with optional enhancements for reception in especially difficult environments. Some of the receiver design parameters were established through analysis, laboratory tests, and a prototype satellite experiment accomplished in late 1991. Many of the necessary design trades will be made during the current simulation effort, while a few of the key design options will be incorporated into the prototype for evaluation during the planned satellite field trials.

  19. Dish/stirling hybrid-receiver

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.


    A hybrid high-temperature solar receiver is provided which comprises a solar heat-pipe-receiver including a front dome having a solar absorber surface for receiving concentrated solar energy, a heat pipe wick, a rear dome, a sidewall joining the front and the rear dome, and a vapor and a return liquid tube connecting to an engine, and a fossil fuel fired combustion system in radial integration with the sidewall for simultaneous operation with the solar heat pipe receiver, the combustion system comprising an air and fuel pre-mixer, an outer cooling jacket for tangentially introducing and cooling the mixture, a recuperator for preheating the mixture, a burner plenum having an inner and an outer wall, a porous cylindrical metal matrix burner firing radially inward facing a sodium vapor sink, the mixture ignited downstream of the matrix forming combustion products, an exhaust plenum, a fossil-fuel heat-input surface having an outer surface covered with a pin-fin array, the combustion products flowing through the array to give up additional heat to the receiver, and an inner surface covered with an extension of the heat-pipe wick, a pin-fin shroud sealed to the burner and exhaust plenums, an end seal, a flue-gas diversion tube and a flue-gas valve for use at off-design conditions to limit the temperature of the pre-heated air and fuel mixture, preventing pre-ignition.

  20. Direct broadcast satellite-radio, receiver development

    Vaisnys, A.; Bell, D.; Gevargiz, J.; Golshan, Nasser

    The status of the ongoing Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Receiver Development Task being performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) is reported. This work is sponsored by the Voice of America/U.S. Information Agency through an agreement with NASA. The objective of this task is to develop, build, test, and demonstrate a prototype receiver that is compatible with reception of digital audio programs broadcast via satellites. The receiver is being designed to operate under a range of reception conditions, including fixed, portable, and mobile, as well as over a sufficiently wide range of bit rates to accommodate broadcasting systems with different cost/audio quality objectives. While the requirements on the receiver are complex, the eventual goal of the design effort is to make the design compatible with low cost production as a consumer product. One solution may be a basic low cost core design suitable for a majority of reception conditions, with optional enhancements for reception in especially difficult environments. Some of the receiver design parameters were established through analysis, laboratory tests, and a prototype satellite experiment accomplished in late 1991. Many of the necessary design trades will be made during the current simulation effort, while a few of the key design options will be incorporated into the prototype for evaluation during the planned satellite field trials.

  1. Effect of Leukocytes Transfer on the Induction of Liver Damage after Renal Ischemia- Reperfusion in Inbred Mice

    Hossein Khastar


    Full Text Available Introduction: Renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR induces organ damage in remote organs such as liver, brain and lung. The aim of this study was to assess the role of leukocytes in the induction of liver damage after renal IR injury.Methods: Inbred mice were subjected to either sham operation or bilateral renal IR injury (60 min ischemia followed by 3h reperfusion. Mice were then anesthetized for collection of leukocytes by heart puncture. Isolated leukocytes were transferred to two other groups: intact recipient mice that received leukocytes from IR mice and intact recipient mice that received leukocytes from sham-operated control mice. After 24h, recipient mice were anesthetized and blood and hepatic samples were collected.Results: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA increased significantly in intact recipient mice that received leukocytes from IR mice in comparison to intact recipient mice receiving leukocytes from sham-operated control mice. In addition, loss of normal liver architecture, cytoplasmic vacuolization and focal infiltration of leukocytes were observed.Conclusion: These results suggest that leukocytes are one of the possible factors that contribute to liver damage after renal IR injury and this damage is partly due to the induction of oxidative stress.

  2. Preparing for Multiple Births

    ... Video Games, and the Internet Preparing for Multiple Births KidsHealth > For Parents > Preparing for Multiple Births Print ... a combination of both. The Risks of Multiple Births The most common risk involved with multiple births ...

  3. Multiple Myeloma Symptoms

    ... Treatment Center Finder Home » About Multiple Myeloma » Symptoms Multiple Myeloma Symptoms Multiple myeloma symptoms may vary by patient, ... to be managed or prevented. The most common multiple myeloma symptoms may include: Bone pain or bone fractures ...

  4. Acute total sleep deprivation potentiates amphetamine-induced locomotor-stimulant effects and behavioral sensitization in mice.

    Saito, Luis P; Fukushiro, Daniela F; Hollais, André W; Mári-Kawamoto, Elisa; Costa, Jacqueline M; Berro, Laís F; Aramini, Tatiana C F; Wuo-Silva, Raphael; Andersen, Monica L; Tufik, Sergio; Frussa-Filho, Roberto


    It has been demonstrated that a prolonged period (48 h) of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) potentiates amphetamine (AMP)-induced behavioral sensitization, an animal model of addiction-related neuroadaptations. In the present study, we examined the effects of an acute short-term deprivation of total sleep (TSD) (6h) on AMP-induced behavioral sensitization in mice and compared them to the effects of short-term PSD (6 h). Three-month-old male C57BL/6J mice underwent TSD (experiment 1-gentle handling method) or PSD (experiment 2-multiple platforms method) for 6 h. Immediately after the sleep deprivation period, mice were tested in the open field for 10 min under the effects of saline or 2.0 mg/kg AMP. Seven days later, to assess behavioral sensitization, all of the mice received a challenge injection of 2.0 mg/kg AMP and were tested in the open field for 10 min. Total, peripheral, and central locomotion, and grooming duration were measured. TSD, but not PSD, potentiated the hyperlocomotion induced by an acute injection of AMP and this effect was due to an increased locomotion in the central squares of the apparatus. Similarly, TSD facilitated the development of AMP-induced sensitization, but only in the central locomotion parameter. The data indicate that an acute period of TSD may exacerbate the behavioral effects of AMP in mice. Because sleep architecture is composed of paradoxical and slow wave sleep, and 6-h PSD had no effects on AMP-induced hyperlocomotion or sensitization, our data suggest that the deprivation of slow wave sleep plays a critical role in the mechanisms that underlie the potentiating effects of TSD on both the acute and sensitized addiction-related responses to AMP.

  5. Behavioral characteristics of ubiquitin-specific peptidase 46-deficient mice.

    Saki Imai

    Full Text Available We have previously identified Usp46, which encodes for ubiquitin-specific peptidase 46, as a quantitative trait gene affecting the immobility time of mice in the tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test. The mutation that we identified was a 3-bp deletion coding for lysine (Lys 92, and mice with this mutation (MT mice, as well as Usp46 KO mice exhibited shorter TST immobility times. Behavioral pharmacology suggests that the gamma aminobutyric acid A (GABAA receptor is involved in regulating TST immobility time. In order to understand how far Usp46 controls behavioral phenotypes, which could be related to mental disorders in humans, we subjected Usp46 MT and KO mice to multiple behavioral tests, including the open field test, ethanol preference test, ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex test, sucrose preference test, novelty-suppressed feeding test, marble burying test, and novel object recognition test. Although behavioral phenotypes of the Usp46 MT and KO mice were not always identical, deficiency of Usp46 significantly affected performance in all these tests. In the open field test, activity levels were lower in Usp46 KO mice than wild type (WT or MT mice. Both MT and KO mice showed lower ethanol preference and shorter recovery times after ethanol administration. Compared to WT mice, Usp46 MT and KO mice exhibited decreased sucrose preference, took longer latency periods to bite pellets, and buried more marbles in the sucrose preference test, novelty-suppressed feeding test, and marble burying test, respectively. In the novel object recognition test, neither MT nor KO mice showed an increase in exploration of a new object 24 hours after training. These findings indicate that Usp46 regulates a wide range of behavioral phenotypes that might be related to human mental disorders and provides insight into the function of USP46 deubiquitinating enzyme in the neural system.

  6. The Communication Between Designer and Design Receiver

    Dai, Zheng; Dai, Yan


    When people think about a product,the first impression always mainly influences the result.Product is the medium of communication between designer and designer receiver.Because both of them have varied different experience and background,the information would be biased during the transferring...... process.The common symbols which can be recognized by both of designer and receiver are the key tools for communication.In some case,the same symbol in one product would be leads to different receiver impression.Generally,impression includes 3 aspects:aesthetics,function, and emotion.Designer needs...... to create an attractive and accurate impression in product from these 3 aspects.For facing the dilemma of communication,some experimental approaches can help designer deal with unique and diversity situations.Solving the detail problem in each step could keep the original meaning of designer....

  7. Randomized transmit and receive ultrasound tomography

    Clement, Gregory T


    A tomographic method is considered that forms images from sets of spatially randomized source signals and receiver sensitivities. The method is designed to allow image reconstruction for an extended number of transmitters and receivers in the presence noise and without plane wave approximation or otherwise approximation on the size or regularity of source and receiver functions. An overdetermined set of functions are formed from the Hadamard product between a Gaussian function and a uniformly distributed random number set. It is shown that this particular type of randomization tends to produce well-conditioned matrices whose pseudoinverses may be determined without implementing relaxation methods. When the inverted sets are applied to simulated first-order scattering from a Shepp-Logan phantom, successful image reconstructions are achieved for signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) as low as 1. Evaluation of the randomization approach is conducted by comparing condition numbers with other forms of signal randomization....

  8. Precision Continuum Receivers for Astrophysical Applications

    Wollack, Edward J.


    Cryogenically cooled HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) amplifiers find widespread use in radioastronomy receivers. In recent years, these devices have also been commonly employed in broadband receivers for precision measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. In this setting, the combination of ultra-low-noise and low-spectral-resolution observations reinforce the importance achieving suitable control over the device environment to achieve fundamentally limited receiver performance. The influence of the intrinsic amplifier stability at low frequencies on data quality (e.g., achievable noise and residual temporal correlations), observational and calibration strategies, as well as architectural mitigation approaches in this setting will be discussed. The implications of device level 1/f fluctuations reported in the literature on system performance will be reviewed.

  9. Performance Evaluation of an Integrated Optoelectronic Receiver

    A. Vera-Marquina


    Full Text Available This work describes the optical and electrical characterization of an integrated optoelectronic receiver. The receiver is composed of a photodiode and a transimpedance amplifier, both fabricated in silicon technology using a 0.8 μm BiCMOS process. The total area occupied by the photodiode is of 10,000 μm2. In a first step, the generated photocurrent of the photodiode is measured for the wavelengths of 780 nm and 830 nm at different levels of optical power. In a second step, the responsivity and quantum efficiency parameters of the photodiode are computed. Finally, an electrical measurement including the transimpedance amplifier is achieved. A potential application for this optoelectronic receiver is on the first optical communications window.

  10. Implementation of Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter

    Payata Srikanth Yadav


    Full Text Available Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART is the serial communication protocol that is used for data exchange between computer & peripherals. UART is a low velocity, short-distance, low-cost protocol. UART includes three modules which are received, the baud rate generator and transmitter. The UART design with Very High Description Language can be integrated into the Field Programmable Gate Array to achieve stable data transmission and to make system reliable and compact. In the result and simulation part, this project will focus on check the receive data with error free & baud rate generation at different frequencies. Before synthesizing of UART a baud rate generator is incorporated into the system. We use the frequency divider which sets itself to required frequency for the functionality at lower frequency. All modules are designed using VERILOG and implemented on Xilinx Suite development board.

  11. Antennas and Receivers in Radio Interferometry

    Hunter, Todd R


    The primary antenna elements and receivers are two of the most important components in a synthesis telescope. Together they are responsible for locking onto an astronomical source in both direction and frequency, capturing its radiation, and converting it into signals suitable for digitization and correlation. The properties and performance of antennas and receivers can affect the quality of the synthesized images in a number of fundamental ways. In this lecture, their most relevant design and performance parameters are reviewed, with emphasis on the current ALMA and VLA systems. We discuss in detail the shape of the primary beam and the components of aperture efficiency, and we present the basics of holography, pointing, and servo control. On receivers, we outline the use of amplifiers and mixers both in the cryogenic front-end and in the room temperature back-end signal path. The essential properties of precision local oscillators (LOs), phase lock loops (PLLs), and LO modulation techniques are also describ...

  12. Olympus receiver evaluation and phase noise measurements

    Campbell, Richard L.; Wang, Huailiang; Sweeney, Dennis


    A set of measurements performed by the Michigan Tech Sensing and Signal Processing Group on the analog receiver built by the Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for propagation measurements using the Olympus Satellite is described. Measurements of local oscillator (LO) phase noise were performed for all of the LOs supplied by JPL. In order to obtain the most useful set of measurements, LO phase noise measurements were made using the complete VPI receiver front end. This set of measurements demonstrates the performance of the receiver from the Radio Frequency (RF) input through the high Intermediate Frequency (IF) output. Three different measurements were made: LO phase noise with DC on the voltage controlled crystal oscillator (VCXO) port; LO phase noise with the 11.381 GHz LO locked to the reference signal generator; and a reference measurement with the JPL LOs out of the system.

  13. Multiple Mice Based Collaborative One-to-One Learning

    Infante, Cristian; Hidalgo, Pedro; Nussbaum, Miguel; Alarcon, Rosa; Gottlieb, Andres


    Exchange is a collaborative learning application, originally developed for wirelessly interconnected Pocket PCs, that provides support for students and a teacher performing a face-to-face computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) activity in a Single Input/Single Display (SISD) mode. We extend the application to support a single display…

  14. Performance analysis of MRC spatial diversity receiver system for satellite-to-ground downlink optical transmissions

    Li, Kangning; Ma, Jing; Tan, Liying; Yu, Siyuan; Cao, Yubin


    The performances of satellite-to-ground downlink optical communications over Gamma-Gamma distributed turbulence are studied for multiple apertures receiver system. Maximum ratio combining (MRC) technique is considered as a combining scheme to mitigate the atmospheric turbulence under thermal noise limited conditions. Bit-error rate (BER) performances for on-off keying (OOK) modulated direct detection optical communications are analyzed for MRC diversity receptions through an approximation method. To show the net diversity gain of multiple apertures receiver system, BER performances of MRC receiver system are compared with a single monolithic aperture receiver system with the same total aperture area (same average total incident optical power) for satellite-to-ground downlink optical communications. All the numerical results are also verified by Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations.

  15. An Approach to Calculate the Efficiency for an N-Receiver Wireless Power Transfer System

    Thabat Thabet


    Full Text Available A wireless power transfer system with more than one receiver is a realistic proposition for charging multiple devices such as phones and a tablets. Therefore, it is necessary to consider systems with single transmitters and multiple receivers in terms of efficiency. Current offerings only consider single device charging systems. A problem encountered is the efficiency of one receiver can be affected by another because of the mutual inductance between them. In this paper, an efficiency calculation method is presented for a wireless power transfer system with one to N-receivers. The mutual inductance between coils is implicitly calculated for different spatial positions and verified by practical experimentation. The effect of changing parameters, such as resonant frequency, coil size and distance between coils, on the efficiency has been studied. A clarification of the special performance of a wireless power transfer system at a specific point has been presented.

  16. The new indicators of accounts receivable excellence.

    Lampi, G L


    Calculation of AR days will continue to be a valuable internal measurement tool of accounts receivable excellence. As healthcare organizations move toward managed care through a mix of reimbursement systems--many with conflicting incentives--the director of patient accounting must approach each system separately and ensure that the hospital receives all of the reimbursement to which it is entitled. The director of patient accounting must understand the industry and recognize that healthcare reimbursement will almost certainly continue to become more complex rather than simpler. Creativity will be a necessity, and good luck will be an advantage.

  17. On Satellite Multicast to Heterogeneous Receivers


    combined into one bulk file. Let the multicast source use Reed-Solomon erasure ( RSE ) coding (e.g. [Mac97]) and let the bulk file be encoded into W ≥ 1... RSE -based FEC blocks. Each FEC block consists of h data packets and c parity packets – all of the same length. We assume a multicast tree that has a... RSE -based FEC block, a receiver must receive at least h distinct packets, either data or parity, from the same FEC block. To allow a systematic way

  18. Building and Testing a Portable VLF Receiver

    McLaughlin, Robert; Krause, L.


    Unwanted emissions or signal noise is a major problem for VLF radio receivers. These can occur from man made sources such as power line hum, which can be prevalent for many harmonics after the fundamental 50 or 60 Hz AC source or from VLF radio transmissions such as LORAN, used for navigation and communications. Natural emissions can also be detrimental to the quality of recordings as some of the more interesting natural emissions such as whistlers or auroral chorus may be drowned out by the more common sferic emissions. VLF receivers must selectively filter out unwanted emissions and amplify the filtered signal to a record-able level without degrading the quality.

  19. Avalanche Photodiode Arrays for Optical Communications Receivers

    Srinivasan, M.; Vilnrotter, V.


    An avalanche photodiode (APD) array for ground-based optical communications receivers is investigated for the reception of optical signals through the turbulent atmosphere. Kolmogorov phase screen simulations are used to generate realistic spatial distributions of the received optical field. It is shown that use of an APD array for pulse-position modulation detection can improve performance by up to 4 dB over single APD detection in the presence of turbulence, but that photon-counting detector arrays yield even greater gains.

  20. Financing with Receivables: Factoring, Securitization and Collateral

    Ioana Benea


    Full Text Available Short term financing is vital for the financial survival of any company, because very often they are facing deficits of cash during their activity. Therefore a company has to identify the optimal solutions in order to cover those (temporary deficits. A good solution to this problem is the financing with receivables using factoring, securitization and collateral. In this paper we try to analyze how this types of financing works and which are their advantages and costs. Also, we developed a reasoning pattern in order to evaluate the best receivables financing alternative for the Romanian companies.

  1. Multiple Myeloma: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Michels, Thomas C; Petersen, Keith E


    Multiple myeloma accounts for 1.6% of all cancer cases and approximately 10% of hematologic malignancies in the United States. In 2015, an estimated 28,850 new cases of multiple myeloma were diagnosed in the United States, and the disease caused more than 11,000 deaths. Patients older than 65 years account for 85% of those diagnosed with multiple myeloma, and there is a twofold increased incidence in blacks compared with whites. Patients may present with bone pain or with symptoms that are often nonspecific, such as nausea, vomiting, malaise, weakness, recurrent infections, and weight loss. Many patients present with only laboratory abnormalities, such as anemia, renal disease, and elevated protein levels. The diagnosis of multiple myeloma requires increased numbers of immature, abnormal, or atypical plasma cells in the bone marrow; a monoclonal protein in the serum or urine; or characteristic bone lesions. The diagnostic workup in a patient with suspected multiple myeloma should include a complete blood count with differential; serum chemistries; creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, and beta2-microglobulin tests; immunoglobulin studies; skeletal survey; and bone marrow evaluation. Initiation of chemotherapy and assessment of eligibility for autologous stem cell transplantation require referral to an oncologist. Most patients with multiple myeloma will receive thromboprophylaxis, bisphosphonate therapy, and prophylaxis against infection at some point in their treatment. Family physicians play a role in assessing these patients for infection, adverse treatment effects, and renal and thrombotic complications, and in managing issues related to pain, nutrition, and psychosocial support.

  2. Multiple smart weapons employment mechanism

    McGlynn, M.P.; Meiklejohn, W.D.


    A digital communications armament network adaptor is described for carrying multiple smart weapons on a single wing pylon station of an aircraft, comprising: an aircraft having a weapons controller configured in compliance with MIL-STD 1553; multiple wing-mounted pylons on said aircraft, each providing a weapons station with communications and ejection and release mechanisms electrically connected to said controller for the airborne launch of smart weapons; a multiple ejector rack affixed to at least one pylon, said rack holding a plurality of smart weapons; and an electronic digital network connected between the controller and said rack-mounted smart weapons, said network located in said rack and including circuitry which receives coded digital communications from said controller and selectively rebroadcasts said communications to one of said smart weapons on said rack designated by said coded communications, thereby controlling all required functions of said designated smart weapon.

  3. Locally applied Simvastatin improves fracture healing in mice

    Aspenberg Per


    Full Text Available Abstract Background HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, statins, are widely prescribed to lower cholesterol. High doses of orally administered simvastatin has previously been shown to improve fracture healing in a mouse femur fracture model. In this study, simvastatin was administered either subcutaneously or directly to the fracture area, with the goal of stimulating fracture repair at acceptable doses. Methods Femur fractures were produced in 70 mature male Balb-C mice and stabilized with marrow-nailing. Three experiments were performed. Firstly, 20 mice received subcutaneous injections of either simvastatin (20 mg or vehicle. Secondly, 30 mice were divided into three groups of 10 mice receiving continuous subcutaneous delivery of the vehicle substance, the vehicle with 5 mg or with 10 mg of simvastatin per kg bodyweight per day. Finally, in 20 mice, a silicone tube was led from an osmotic mini-pump to the fracture area. In this way, 10 mice received an approximate local dose of simvastatin of 0.1 mg per kg per day for the duration of the experiment and 10 mice received the vehicle compound. All treatments lasted until the end of the experiment. Bilateral femurs were harvested 14 days post-operative. Biomechanical tests were performed by way of three-point bending. Data was analysed with ANOVA, Scheffé's post-hoc test and Student's unpaired t-test. Results With daily simvastatin injections, no effects could be demonstrated for any of the parameters examined. Continuous systemic delivery resulted in a 160% larger force at failure. Continuous local delivery of simvastatin resulted in a 170% larger force at failure as well as a twofold larger energy uptake. Conclusion This study found a dramatic positive effect on biomechanical parameters of fracture healing by simvastatin treatment directly applied to the fracture area.

  4. Analysis of PFOA in Dosed CD-1 Mice Part 2: Disposition of PFOA in Tissues and fluids from pregnant and lactating mice and their pups

    Previous studies in mice with multiple gestational exposures to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) demonstrate numerous dose dependent growth and developmental effects which appeared to worsen if offspring exposed in utero nursed from PFOA-exposed dams. To evaluate the disposition of ...

  5. Analyses for a Modernized GNSS Radio Occultation Receiver

    Griggs, Erin R.

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) is a remote sensing technique that exploits existing navigation signals to make global, real-time observations of the Earth's atmosphere. A specialized RO receiver makes measurements of signals originating from a transmitter onboard a GNSS spacecraft near the Earth's horizon. The radio wave is altered during passage through the Earth's atmosphere. The changes in the received signals are translated to the refractivity characteristics of the intervening medium, which enable the calculation of atmospheric pressure, temperature, and humidity. Current satellite missions employing GNSS RO have provided invaluable and timely information for weather and climate applications. Existing constellations of occultation satellites, however, are aging and producing fewer quality measurements. Replacement fleets of RO satellites are imperative to sustain and improve the global coverage and operational impact achieved by the current generation of RO satellites. This dissertation describes studies that facilitate the development of next generation RO receivers and satellite constellations. Multiple research efforts were conducted that aim to improve the quantity and quality of measurements made by a future satellite-based RO collection system. These studies range in magnitude and impact, and begin with a receiver development study using ground-based occultation data. Future RO constellations and collection opportunities were simulated and autonomous occultation prediction and scheduling capabilities were implemented. Finally, a comprehensive study was conducted to characterize the stability of the GNSS atomic frequency standards. Oscillator stability for a subset of satellites in the GNSS was found to be of insufficient quality at timescales relevant to RO collections and would degrade the atmospheric profiling capabilities of an RO system utilizing these signals. Recommendations for a high-rate clock correction network

  6. Joint Dirty Paper Coding and Linear Receiver Design for Multiuser MIMO Broadcast Channels

    CHE Xiao-lin; HE Chen


    A multiuser multiple input multiple output (MIMO) broadcast scheme was proposed through ap-plying dirty paper coding (DPC) at the transmitter and linear equalization at the receiver. Assuming single data stream communication for each user, joint transmitter and linear receiver design were done to enhance the system performance. Furthermore, a multiuser scheduling algorithm was presented to exploit multiuser diversity when the number of the users is larger than that of transmit antennas. The proposed system achieves the sum rate close to the Sato bound and is superior to some of the existing schemes.

  7. Iteration-stopping scheme of turbo receiver in turbo-MIMO systems

    Zheng Jianping; Bai Baoming; Wang Xinmei


    The iteration-stopping scheme of turbo receiver, consisting of an inner multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) detector and an outer turbo decoder, was studied in this paper.In the inner MIMO detector,only the reliabilities of bits in those channel slots which included unreliable information bits were updated when the outer turbo code was a systematical one.In conjunction with the trigger events for stopping the turbo decoding, an iteration-stopping scheme of turbo receiver was proposed.Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has lower complexity, but almost the same error performance compared to the scheme with predetermined maximum iterations.

  8. Roscovitine treatment caused impairment of fertilizing ability in mice.

    Yin, Xiang; Qi, Yan; Ren, Ming; Wang, Shuyu; Jiang, Hongquan; Feng, Honglin; Cui, Shangjin


    To explore the adverse effect of roscovitine on reproductive system of male mice. Male hSOD1(G93A) transgenetic mice received roscovitine 72 nmol/day (d) for 4 weeks (w), with normal control and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-treated animals served as controls (n=4). Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with roscovitine at either 72 nmol/d or 144 nmol/d for 4 w or 8 w, and normal control and DMSO treated mice served as controls. Fertility of male mice, sperm quality parameters, histological and related pathological changes of seminiferous tubules associated with roscovitine treatment were evaluated. In male hSOD1(G93A) transgenetic mice treated with 72 nmol/d roscovitine for 4 w and C57BL/6 male mice treated with 72 nmol/d roscovitine for 8w and 144 nmol/d roscovitine for 4 w and 8 w, sperm counts and sperm motility rates decreased and sperm abnormality rates increased, and damage of seminiferous tubules were detected. Roscovitine treatment induced inhibition of CDK5 activities and decrease of BrdU-positive tubuler cells. These results demonstrated that roscovitine treatment induced interference of male reproductive system and caused impairment of fertilizing ability. Reproductive system of ALS male mice was more susceptible to roscovitine induced impaired fertilizing ability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diacylglycerol lipase a knockout mice demonstrate metabolic and behavioral phenotypes similar to those of cannabinoid receptor 1 knockout mice

    David R Powell


    Full Text Available After creating >4650 knockouts (KOs of independent mouse genes, we screened them by high-throughput phenotyping and found that cannabinoid receptor 1 (Cnr1 KO mice had the same lean phenotype published by others. We asked if our KOs of DAG lipase a or b (Dagla or Daglb, which catalyze biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid (EC 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, or Napepld, which catalyzes biosynthesis of the EC anandamide, shared the lean phenotype of Cnr1 KO mice. We found that Dagla KO mice, but not Daglb or Napepld KO mice, were among the leanest of 3651 chow-fed KO lines screened. In confirmatory studies, chow- or high fat diet-fed Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice were leaner than wild type (WT littermates; when data from multiple cohorts of adult mice were combined, body fat was 47% and 45% lower in Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice, respectively, relative to WT values. In contrast, neither Daglb nor Napepld KO mice were lean. Weanling Dagla KO mice ate less than WT mice and had body weight similar to pair-fed WT mice, and adult Dagla KO mice had normal activity and VO2 levels, similar to Cnr1 KO mice. Our Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice also had low fasting insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels, and after a glucose challenge had normal glucose but very low insulin levels. Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice also showed similar responses to a battery of behavioral tests. These data suggest: 1 the lean phenotype of young Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice is mainly due to hypophagia; 2 in pathways where ECs signal through Cnr1 to regulate food intake and other metabolic and behavioral phenotypes observed in Cnr1 KO mice, Dagla alone provides the 2-AG that serves as the EC signal; and 3 small molecule Dagla inhibitors with a pharmacokinetic profile similar to that of Cnr1 inverse agonists are likely to mirror the ability of these Cnr1 inverse agonists to lower body weight and improve glycemic control in obese patients with type 2 diabetes, but may also induce undesirable neuropsychiatric

  10. Superconducting Submm Integrated Receiver for TELIS

    Koshelets, V. P.; Ermakov, A. B.; Filippenko, L. V.; Koryukin, O. V.; Khudchenko, A. V.; Sobolev, A. S.; Torgashin, M. Yu; Yagoubov, P. A.; Hoogeveen, R. W. M.; Vreeling, W. J.; Wild, W.; Pylypenko, O. M.


    In this report we present design and first experimental results for development of the submm superconducting integrated receiver spectrometer for Terahertz Limb Sounder (TELIS). TELIS is a collaborative European project to build up a three-channel heterodyne balloon-based spectrometer for measuring

  11. A 24GHz Radar Receiver in CMOS

    Kwok, K.C.


    This thesis investigates the system design and circuit implementation of a 24GHz-band short-range radar receiver in CMOS technology. The propagation and penetration properties of EM wave offer the possibility of non-contact based remote sensing and through-the-wall imaging of distance stationary or

  12. Reasons Parents Exempt Children from Receiving Immunizations

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Beckstrand, Renea L.; Callister, Lynn C.; Cahoon, Spencer


    School nurses are on the front lines of educational efforts to promote childhood vaccinations. However, some parents still choose to exempt their children from receiving vaccinations for personal reasons. Studying the beliefs of parents who exempt vaccinations allows health care workers, including school nurses, to better understand parental…

  13. CAS expert receives Tribology Gold Medal


    Prof. XUE Qunji, a senior expert in tribology from the CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics (L1CP) and member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, received the Tribology Gold Medalfor 2011 on February 27, 2012 in Beijing. As one of the world's most outstanding and influential tribologists in the last forty years, Prof.

  14. Receiving Assistance and Local Food System Participation

    Rebecca L. Som Castellano


    Full Text Available A body of literature has noted that local food systems (LFSs may not involve active participation by individuals with lower incomes. This is, in part, a function of racial and class hegemony, as well as physical and financial accessibility of LFSs. LFS institutions, such as farmers’ markets, have been working to facilitate receipt of food assistance programs, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP. Charitable assistance programs, such as food banks, have also been actively working to engage in LFSs, for example, by making local foods available. However, little research has explored the role that receiving public or charitable assistance can play in influencing LFS participation. In this article, I utilize quantitative and qualitative data collected from across the state of Ohio to examine the relationship between receiving assistance and LFS participation for women, who remain predominately responsible for food provisioning in the U.S., including among those who participate in LFSs. Quantitative results suggest that receiving assistance can increase participation in LFSs. Qualitative data provides more nuanced information about the importance of food assistance for women who want to participate in LFSs, and suggest that it is essential that food cooperatives and farmers’ markets are equipped to receive food assistance programs, such as SNAP, in order for women with lower incomes to participate in LFSs.

  15. Why Receiving Feedback Collides with Self Determination

    ten Cate, Olle Th. J.


    Providing feedback to trainees in clinical settings is considered important for development and acquisition of skill. Despite recommendations how to provide feedback that have appeared in the literature, research shows that its effectiveness is often disappointing. To understand why receiving feedback is more difficult than it appears, this paper…

  16. A 24GHz Radar Receiver in CMOS

    Kwok, K.C.


    This thesis investigates the system design and circuit implementation of a 24GHz-band short-range radar receiver in CMOS technology. The propagation and penetration properties of EM wave offer the possibility of non-contact based remote sensing and through-the-wall imaging of distance stationary or

  17. Howard Feiertag receives hospitality industry award

    Ho, Sookhan


    Howard Feiertag, of Blacksburg, an instructor in hospitality and tourism management at Virginia Tech's Pamplin College of Business, received the inaugural Excellence in Sales and Marketing Strategy Award at the Hospitality Sales and Marketing Association/New York University Strategy Conference in New York recently.

  18. Compressed Sensing-Based Direct Conversion Receiver

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek; Arildsen, Thomas; Larsen, Torben


    Due to the continuously increasing computational power of modern data receivers it is possible to move more and more processing from the analog to the digital domain. This paper presents a compressed sensing approach to relaxing the analog filtering requirements prior to the ADCs in a direct...

  19. Richard W. Ziolkowski Receives Honorary Doctorate

    Breinbjerg, Olav


    At the annual Commemoration of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) on April 27, 2012, Prof. Richard W. Ziolkowski, University of Arizona (UoA), received DTU's highest academic degree, the Honorary Doctor degree: Doctor Technices Honoris Causa (Figure 1). Prof. Ziolkowski has been a close...

  20. Reasons Parents Exempt Children from Receiving Immunizations

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Beckstrand, Renea L.; Callister, Lynn C.; Cahoon, Spencer


    School nurses are on the front lines of educational efforts to promote childhood vaccinations. However, some parents still choose to exempt their children from receiving vaccinations for personal reasons. Studying the beliefs of parents who exempt vaccinations allows health care workers, including school nurses, to better understand parental…

  1. Radiometric Receiver for Passive Microwave Imaging System

    Ubaichin Anton


    Full Text Available The paper describes a new method to develop a zero-type W-band radiometric receiver. The block diagram and operating algorithm of the digital control system are presented. The main advantages of the zero method in passive radio physical investigations in comparison with classical engineering solutions are shown.

  2. 7 CFR 29.42 - Receiving station.


    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.42 Receiving station. Points at which producer tobacco is offered for marketing (other than sale at auction on a designated market), including tobacco auction warehouses,...

  3. Howard Feiertag receives hospitality industry award

    Ho, Sookhan


    Howard Feiertag, of Blacksburg, an instructor in hospitality and tourism management at Virginia Tech's Pamplin College of Business, received the inaugural Excellence in Sales and Marketing Strategy Award at the Hospitality Sales and Marketing Association/New York University Strategy Conference in New York recently.

  4. Effect of repeated morphine withdrawal on spatial learning, memory and serum cortisol level in mice

    Mahdieh Matinfar; Mahsa Masjedi Esfahani; Neda Aslany; Seyyed Hamid Reza Davoodi; Pouya Parsaei; Ghasem Zarei; Parham Reisi


    Background: One of the serious problems that opioid addicted people are facing is repeated withdrawal syndrome that is accompanying with a significant stress load for addicts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of repeated withdrawal on spatial learning, memory and serum cortisol levels in morphine-dependent mice. Materials and Methods: Male NMRI mice received morphine as daily increasing doses for 3 days. After that, the mice underwent one time or repeated spont...

  5. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Vectored Multi-Antigen Tuberculosis Vaccine Limits Bacterial Proliferation in Mice following a Single Intranasal Dose

    Zhang, Ming; Dong, Chunsheng; Xiong, Sidong


    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious health problem worldwide, and an urgent need exists to improve or replace the available vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Most vaccination protocols adapt two or three doses to induce long-term lasting immunity. Our previous study showed that the naked DNA encoding the triple-antigen fusion TFP846 (Rv3615c-Mtb10.4-Rv2660c) induced robust T cellular immune responses accompanying four inoculations against mycobacteria infection. However, a number of compliance issues exist in some areas lacking the appropriate medical infrastructure with multiple administrations. In this study, a novel vesicular stomatitis virus expressing TFP846 (VSV-846) was developed and the immune responses elicited by VSV-846 were evaluated. We observed that intranasal delivery of VSV-846 induced a potent antigen-specific T cell response following a single dose and VSV-846 efficiently controlled bacterial growth to levels ~10-fold lower than that observed in the mock group 6 weeks post-infection in BCG-infected mice. Importantly, mice immunized with VSV-846 provided long-term protection against mycobacteria infection compared with those receiving p846 or BCG immunization. Increased memory T cells were also observed in the spleens of VSV-846-vaccinated mice, which could be a potential mechanism associated with long-term protective immune response. These findings supported the use of VSV as an antigen delivery vector with the potential for TB vaccine development. PMID:28224119

  6. A GPS Receiver for Lunar Missions

    Bamford, William A.; Heckler, Gregory W.; Holt, Greg N.; Moreau, Michael C.


    Beginning with the launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in October of 2008, NASA will once again begin its quest to land humans on the Moon. This effort will require the development of new spacecraft which will safely transport people from the Earth to the Moon and back again, as well as robotic probes tagged with science, re-supply, and communication duties. In addition to the next-generation spacecraft currently under construction, including the Orion capsule, NASA is also investigating and developing cutting edge navigation sensors which will allow for autonomous state estimation in low Earth orbit (LEO) and cislunar space. Such instruments could provide an extra layer of redundancy in avionics systems and reduce the reliance on support and on the Deep Space Network (DSN). One such sensor is the weak-signal Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver "Navigator" being developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). At the heart of the Navigator is a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based acquisition engine. This engine allows for the rapid acquisition/reacquisition of strong GPS signals, enabling the receiver to quickly recover from outages due to blocked satellites or atmospheric entry. Additionally, the acquisition algorithm provides significantly lower sensitivities than a conventional space-based GPS receiver, permitting it to acquire satellites well above the GPS constellation. This paper assesses the performance of the Navigator receiver based upon three of the major flight regimes of a manned lunar mission: Earth ascent, cislunar navigation, and entry. Representative trajectories for each of these segments were provided by NASA. The Navigator receiver was connected to a Spirent GPS signal generator, to allow for the collection of real-time, hardware-in-the-loop results for each phase of the flight. For each of the flight segments, the Navigator was tested on its ability to acquire and track GPS satellites under the dynamical

  7. Social effects of migration in receiving countries.

    Ohndorf, W


    This paper examines the impact of post-1945 migration into Western, Middle, and Northern Europe from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, and migration to the traditional immigration countries by Asian and Latin American immigrants, on the social structures of receiving countries. Between 1955 and 1974, 1) traditional migration to the US and Australia became less important for European countries while traditional receiving countries accepted many immigrants from developing countries; and 2) rapid economic revival in Western and Northern Europe caused a considerable labor shortage which was filled by migrant workers especially from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, who stayed only until they reached their economic goals. Since 1974, job vacancies have declined and unemployment has soared. This employment crisis caused some migrants 1) to return to their countries of origin, 2) to bring the rest of their families to the receiving country, or 3) to lengthen their stay considerably. The number of refugees has also significantly increased since the mid-970s, as has the number of illegal migrants. After the mid-1970s, Europe began to experience integration problems. The different aspects of the impact of migration on social structures include 1) improvement of the housing situation for foreigners, 2) teaching migrants the language of the receiving country, 3) solving the unemployment problem of unskilled migrants, 4) improvement of educational and vocational qualifications of 2nd generation migrants, 5) development of programs to help unemployed wives of migrants to learn the language and meet indigenous women, 6) encouraging migrants to maintain their cultural identity and assisting them with reintegration if they return to their original country, 7) coping with the problems of refugees, and 8) solving the problems of illegal migration. Almost all receiving countries now severely restrict further immigration. [Those policies should result in

  8. Xanthohumol improved cognitive flexibility in young mice.

    Zamzow, Daniel R; Elias, Valerie; Legette, LeeCole L; Choi, Jaewoo; Stevens, J Fred; Magnusson, Kathy R


    The protein palmitoylation cycle has been shown to be important for protein signaling and synaptic plasticity. Data from our lab showed a change in the palmitoylation status of certain proteins with age. A greater percentage of the NMDA receptor subunits GluN2A and GluN2B, along with Fyn and PSD95 proteins, were palmitoylated in the old mice. The higher level of protein palmitoylation was also associated with poorer learning scores. Xanthohumol is a prenylated flavonoid that has been shown to increase beta-oxidation in the livers of rodents, decreasing circulating free fatty acids in the serum. What is not known is whether the application of xanthohumol could influence the palmitoylation status of proteins. In this study, young and old mice were fed a diet supplemented with xanthohumol for 8 weeks. Spatial memory was assessed with the Morris water maze and protein palmitoylation quantified. The young xanthohumol-treated mice showed a significant improvement in cognitive flexibility. However, this appeared to be associated with the young control mice, on a defined, phytoestrogen-deficient diet, performing as poorly as the old mice and xanthohumol reversing this effect. The old mice receiving xanthohumol did not significantly improve their learning scores. Xanthohumol treatment was unable to affect the palmitoylation of NMDA receptor subunits and associated proteins assessed in this study. This evidence suggests that xanthohumol may play a role in improving cognitive flexability in young animals, but it appears to be ineffective in adjusting the palmitoylation status of neuronal proteins in aged individuals.

  9. The inflammatory stimulus of a natural latex biomembrane improves healing in mice

    Andrade, T.A.M.; Iyer, A.; Das, P.K.; Foss, N.T.; Garcia, S.B.; Coutinho-Netto, J.; Jordão-Jr., A.A.; Frade, M.A.C.


    The aim of the present study was to compare healing obtained with biomembranes with the natural healing process (sham) using biochemical and immunohistological assays. C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups of 15 mice each and received different subcutaneous implants: natural latex biomembrane

  10. Olmesartan and pravastatin additively reduce development of atherosclerosis in APOE*3Leiden transgenic mice

    Hoorn, J.W.A. van der; Kleemann, R.; Havekes, L.M.; Kooistra, T.; Princen, H.M.G.; Jukema, J.W.


    AIM: This study was designed to investigate the effect of the angiotensin II receptor blocker olmesartan alone, or in combination with standard treatment with a statin, pravastatin, on atherosclerosis development in APOE*3Leiden transgenic mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four groups of 15 mice received

  11. The inflammatory stimulus of a natural latex biomembrane improves healing in mice

    Andrade, T.A.M.; Iyer, A.; Das, P.K.; Foss, N.T.; Garcia, S.B.; Coutinho-Netto, J.; Jordão-Jr., A.A.; Frade, M.A.C.


    The aim of the present study was to compare healing obtained with biomembranes with the natural healing process (sham) using biochemical and immunohistological assays. C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups of 15 mice each and received different subcutaneous implants: natural latex biomembrane (NLB

  12. Acai juice attenuates atherosclerosis in apoe deficient mice through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

    Objective - Acai fruit pulp has received much attention because of its high antioxidant capacity and potential anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, athero-protective effects of açaí juice were investigated in apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE -/-) mice. Methods and Results - ApoE-/- mice were f...

  13. Non-motorized voluntary running does not affect experimental and spontaneous metastasis in mice

    The present study investigated the effects of non-motorized voluntary running on experimental metastasis of B16BL/6 melanoma and spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male C57BL/6 mice. After 9 weeks of running, mice (n = 30 per group) received an intravenous injection of B16BL/6 c...

  14. Carcinogenicity of glycidol in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice.

    Irwin, R D; Eustis, S L; Stefanski, S; Haseman, J K


    Glycidol, a simple aliphatic epoxide, was administered by gavage in water to groups of male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Rats received 0, 37.5 or 75 mg kg-1 and mice received 0, 25 or 50 mg kg-1 daily, 5 days per week for 2 years. Exposure to glycidol was associated with dose-related increases in the incidences of neoplasms in numerous tissues in both rats and mice. Survival of rats that received glycidol was markedly reduced compared to the control because of the early induction of neoplastic disease. In male rats, mesothelioma arising in the tunica vaginalis and frequently metastasizing to the peritoneum were considered the major cause of early death. Early deaths in female rats were associated with mammary gland neoplasms. Survival of female mice that received 50 mg kg-1 was lower than the control after week 101 due primarily to euthanasia of moribund animals with mammary gland neoplasms. Survival of male mice and female mice that received 25 mg kg-1 was comparable to the control. In mice, exposure to glycidol was associated with increased incidences of neoplasms of the harderian gland in males and females, the forestomach in males and the mammary gland in females.

  15. Analysis of Analog Photonic Links Employing Multiple-Channel (Arrayed) Receivers


    Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Gain and Noise Penalty Characterization of Commercial EDFAs ...EXCESS NOISE ARIS- ING FROM INCORPORATION OF AN EDFA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 iii I EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Analog photonic links...photocurrent, optical amplifiers – predominantly erbium-doped fiber amplifiers ( EDFAs ) – have been readily incorporated into a variety of systems. It is



    In this paper, a novel multiple trellis coded orthogonal transmit scheme is proposed to exploit transmit diversity in fading channels. In this scheme, a unique vector from a set of orthogonal vectors is assigned to each transmit antenna. Each of the output symbols from the multiple trellis encoder is multiplied with one of these orthogonal vectors and transmitted from corresponding transmit antennas. By correlating with corresponding orthogonal vectors, the receiver separates symbols transmitted from different transmit antennas.This scheme can be adopted in coherent/differential systems with any number of transmit antennas. It is shown that the proposed scheme encompasses the conventional trellis coded unitary space-time modulation based on the optimal cyclic group codes as a special case. We also propose two better designs over the conventional trellis coded unitary space-time modulation. The first design uses 8 Phase Shift Keying (8-PSK) constellations instead of 16 Phase Shift Keying (16-PSK) constellations in the conventional trellis coded unitary space-time modulation. As a result, the product distance of this new design is much larger than that of the conventional trellis coded unitary space-time modulation. The second design introduces constellations with multiple levels of amplitudes into the design of the multiple trellis coded orthogonal transmit scheme. For both designs, simulations show that multiple trellis coded orthogonal transmit schemes can achieve better performance than the conventional trellis coded unitary space-time schemes.

  17. GITR gene deletion and GITR-FC soluble protein administration inhibit multiple organ failure induced by zymosan.

    Galuppo, Maria; Nocentini, Giuseppe; Mazzon, Emanuela; Ronchetti, Simona; Esposito, Emanuela; Riccardi, Luisa; Di Paola, Rosanna; Bruscoli, Stefano; Riccardi, Carlo; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore


    Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is a systemic inflammatory event that can result in organ damage, failure, and high risk of mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related (GITR) on zymosan-induced MODS. Mice were allocated into one GITR knockout (GITR-KO) and two GITR wild-type (GITR-WT) experimental groups. All the animals were treated with zymosan (500 mg/kg, suspended in saline solution, i.p.), and animals of one GITR-WT group received GITR-Fc (6.25 μg/mouse; 3 h after zymosan injection) by mini-osmotic pump. Moreover, three control groups were performed (one GITR-KO and two GITR-WT experimental groups), administering saline instead of zymosan and treating one of the GITR-WT group with GITR-Fc (6.25 μg/mouse; 3 h after saline injection) by mini-osmotic pump. A number of inflammatory parameters such as edema formation, histological damage, adhesion molecules expression, neutrophil infiltration, proinflammatory cytokines, nitrotyrosine, and iNOS production are significantly reduced in GITR-KO as compared with GITR-WT mice as well as in GITR-WT mice treated with GITR-Fc. We here show that GITR plays a role in the modulation of experimental MODS. In particular, we show that genetic inhibition of GITR expression, in GITR-KO mice, or administration of soluble GITR-Fc receptor in GITR-WT mice, reduces inflammation, organ tissue damage, and mortality. Results, while confirming the proinflammatory role of GITR, extend our observations indicating that GITR plays a role in zymosan-induced inflammation and MODS.

  18. Neonatal Bone Marrow Transplantation in MPS IIIA Mice.

    Lau, Adeline A; Shamsani, N Jannah; Winner, Leanne K; Hassiotis, Sofia; King, Barbara M; Hopwood, John J; Hemsley, Kim M


    Patients with some neurological lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) exhibit improved clinical signs following bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The failure of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type IIIA patients and adult mice with the condition to respond to this treatment may relate to factors such as impaired migration of donor-derived cells into the brain, insufficient enzyme production and/or secretion by the donor-derived microglial cells, or the age at which treatment is initiated. To explore these possibilities, we treated neonatal MPS IIIA mice with whole unfractionated bone marrow and observed that nucleated blood cell reconstitution occurred to a similar degree in MPS IIIA mice receiving green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing normal (treatment group) or MPS IIIA-GFP marrow (control group) and normal mice receiving normal-GFP marrow (control group). Further, similar distribution patterns of GFP(+) normal or MPS IIIA donor-derived cells were observed throughout the MPS IIIA mouse brain. We demonstrate that N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase (SGSH), the enzyme deficient in MPS IIIA, is produced and secreted in a manner proportional to that of other lysosomal enzymes. However, despite this, overall brain SGSH activity was unchanged in MPS IIIA mice treated with normal marrow and the lysosomal storage burden in whole brain homogenates did not decrease, most likely due to donor-derived cells comprising MPS IIIA patients and mice to respond to BMT may occur as a result of insufficient donor-derived enzyme production and/or uptake by host brain cells.

  19. Amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice by photobiomodulation induced by 670 nm light.

    Kamaldeen A Muili

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The approved immunomodulatory agents for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS are only partially effective. It is thought that the combination of immunomodulatory and neuroprotective strategies is necessary to prevent or reverse disease progression. Irradiation with far red/near infrared light, termed photobiomodulation, is a therapeutic approach for inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Data suggests that near-infrared light functions through neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. We sought to investigate the clinical effect of photobiomodulation in the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE model of multiple sclerosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The clinical effect of photobiomodulation induced by 670 nm light was investigated in the C57BL/6 mouse model of EAE. Disease was induced with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG according to standard laboratory protocol. Mice received 670 nm light or no light treatment (sham administered as suppression and treatment protocols. 670 nm light reduced disease severity with both protocols compared to sham treated mice. Disease amelioration was associated with down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α and up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies document the therapeutic potential of photobiomodulation with 670 nm light in the EAE model, in part through modulation of the immune response.

  20. A digital receiver module with direct data acquisition for magnetic resonance imaging systems.

    Tang, Weinan; Sun, Hongyu; Wang, Weimin


    A digital receiver module for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with detailed hardware implementations is presented. The module is based on a direct sampling scheme using the latest mixed-signal circuit design techniques. A single field-programmable gate array chip is employed to perform software-based digital down conversion for radio frequency signals. The modular architecture of the receiver allows multiple acquisition channels to be implemented on a highly integrated printed circuit board. To maintain the phase coherence of the receiver and the exciter in the context of direct sampling, an effective phase synchronization method was proposed to achieve a phase deviation as small as 0.09°. The performance of the described receiver module was verified in the experiments for both low- and high-field (0.5 T and 1.5 T) MRI scanners and was compared to a modern commercial MRI receiver system.

  1. CERN Press Office receives award from Euroscience


    The CERN Communication group has received an award for its efforts in communicating the LHC first beam to the media and the public. James Gillies, head of the Communication group was presented the AlphaGalileo Research Public Relations Award on Wednesday, 14 October during the Euroscience Media Award Ceremony in Hannover. "It’s great to receive this recognition," said Gillies. "Of course, we had great material to work with: the LHC is a fantastic story and one that is going to get even better. Angels, Demons and black holes also had their roles to play, but behind the media interest there’s been a lot of hard work by my team. This is for them." The CERN Communication group also works with communication professionals in all the CERN Member States and major physics labs around the world through the European Particle Physics Communication Network, and the InterAction collaboration. "Without them," says Gillies, &am...

  2. Grooms receives 2011 Donald L. Turcotte Award


    Ian Grooms has been awarded the AGU Donald L. Turcotte Award, given annually to recent Ph.D. recipients for outstanding dissertation research that contributes directly to the field of nonlinear geophysics. Grooms's thesis is entitled “Asymptotic and numerical methods for rapidly rotating buoyant flow.” He presented an invited talk and was formally presented with the award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5-9 December in San Francisco, Calif. Grooms received his B.S. in mathematics from the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Va., in 2005. He received a Ph.D. in applied mathematics in 2011 under the supervision of Keith Julien at the University of Colorado at Boulder. His research interests include asymptotic and numerical methods for multiscale problems in geophysical fluid dynamics.

  3. Screen-printed flexible MRI receive coils.

    Corea, Joseph R; Flynn, Anita M; Lechêne, Balthazar; Scott, Greig; Reed, Galen D; Shin, Peter J; Lustig, Michael; Arias, Ana C


    Magnetic resonance imaging is an inherently signal-to-noise-starved technique that limits the spatial resolution, diagnostic image quality and results in typically long acquisition times that are prone to motion artefacts. This limitation is exacerbated when receive coils have poor fit due to lack of flexibility or need for padding for patient comfort. Here, we report a new approach that uses printing for fabricating receive coils. Our approach enables highly flexible, extremely lightweight conforming devices. We show that these devices exhibit similar to higher signal-to-noise ratio than conventional ones, in clinical scenarios when coils could be displaced more than 18 mm away from the body. In addition, we provide detailed material properties and components performance analysis. Prototype arrays are incorporated within infant blankets for in vivo studies. This work presents the first fully functional, printed coils for 1.5- and 3-T clinical scanners.

  4. Fused silica windows for solar receiver applications

    Hertel, Johannes; Uhlig, Ralf; Söhn, Matthias; Schenk, Christian; Helsch, Gundula; Bornhöft, Hansjörg


    A comprehensive study of optical and mechanical properties of quartz glass (fused silica) with regard to application in high temperature solar receivers is presented. The dependence of rupture strength on different surface conditions as well as high temperature is analyzed, focussing particularly on damage by devitrification and sandblasting. The influence of typical types of contamination in combination with thermal cycling on the optical properties of fused silica is determined. Cleaning methods are compared regarding effectiveness on contamination-induced degradation for samples with and without antireflective coating. The FEM-aided design of different types of receiver windows and their support structure is presented. A large-scale production process has been developed for producing fused silica dome shaped windows (pressurized window) up to a diameter of 816 mm. Prototypes were successfully pressure-tested in a test bench and certified according to the European Pressure Vessel Directive.

  5. Perception of older adults receiving palliative care

    Fernanda Laporti Seredynskyj


    Full Text Available The present study aimed at understanding the perception of older adults who are receiving palliative oncological care on self care in relation to different stages of the disease and how such perception affected their lives. This is a qualitative study using oral history conducted with 15 older adults receiving palliative chemotherapy treatment in a health institution. The following categories emerged: social network, perspectives for confronting life, changes and spirituality. It is necessary for nursing staff to understand this process so that the measures implemented take into account all of the implications of the disease and aim at improving quality of life.   doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.22795.

  6. Graphene radio frequency receiver integrated circuit.

    Han, Shu-Jen; Garcia, Alberto Valdes; Oida, Satoshi; Jenkins, Keith A; Haensch, Wilfried


    Graphene has attracted much interest as a future channel material in radio frequency electronics because of its superior electrical properties. Fabrication of a graphene integrated circuit without significantly degrading transistor performance has proven to be challenging, posing one of the major bottlenecks to compete with existing technologies. Here we present a fabrication method fully preserving graphene transistor quality, demonstrated with the implementation of a high-performance three-stage graphene integrated circuit. The circuit operates as a radio frequency receiver performing signal amplification, filtering and downconversion mixing. All circuit components are integrated into 0.6 mm(2) area and fabricated on 200 mm silicon wafers, showing the unprecedented graphene circuit complexity and silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process compatibility. The demonstrated circuit performance allow us to use graphene integrated circuit to perform practical wireless communication functions, receiving and restoring digital text transmitted on a 4.3-GHz carrier signal.

  7. VLBI2010 Receiver Back End Comparison

    Petrachenko, Bill


    VLBI2010 requires a receiver back-end to convert analog RF signals from the receiver front end into channelized digital data streams to be recorded or transmitted electronically. The back end functions are typically performed in two steps: conversion of analog RF inputs into IF bands (see Table 2), and conversion of IF bands into channelized digital data streams (see Tables 1a, 1b and 1c). The latter IF systems are now completely digital and generically referred to as digital back ends (DBEs). In Table 2 two RF conversion systems are compared, and in Tables 1a, 1b, and 1c nine DBE systems are compared. Since DBE designs are advancing rapidly, the data in these tables are only guaranteed to be current near the update date of this document.

  8. Reducing the convective losses of cavity receivers

    Flesch, Robert; Grobbel, Johannes; Stadler, Hannes; Uhlig, Ralf; Hoffschmidt, Bernhard


    Convective losses reduce the efficiency of cavity receivers used in solar power towers especially under windy conditions. Therefore, measures should be taken to reduce these losses. In this paper two different measures are analyzed: an air curtain and a partial window which covers one third of the aperture opening. The cavity without modifications and the usage of a partial window were analyzed in a cryogenic wind tunnel at -173°C. The cryogenic environment allows transforming the results from the small model cavity to a large scale receiver with Gr≈3.9.1010. The cavity with the two modifications in the wind tunnel environment was analyzed with a CFD model as well. By comparing the numerical and experimental results the model was validated. Both modifications are capable of reducing the convection losses. In the best case a reduction of about 50 % was achieved.

  9. Next Generation Radio Astronomy Receiver Systems

    Morgan, Matthew A


    Radio astronomy observations in the coming decade will require new levels of sensitivity while mapping large regions of space with much greater efficiency than is achieved with current telescopes. This requires new instrumentation with the greatest achievable sensitivity, dynamic range, and field of view. Receiver noise is quickly approaching fundamental limits at most radio wavelengths, so significant gains in sensitivity can only be made by increasing collecting area. Jointly, these requirements suggest using large arrays of smaller antennas, or many moderate-size antennas equipped with multi-beam arrays. The challenge is to develop receivers and wide bandwidth data transport systems which are lower cost, more compact, more reliable, lower weight, and more reproducible than the best current systems, with no compromise to performance. This can be achieved with a greater degree of component integration, extensive use of digital signal processing and transport, and replacement of functions currently performed ...

  10. Digital Signal Processor For GPS Receivers

    Thomas, J. B.; Meehan, T. K.; Srinivasan, J. M.


    Three innovative components combined to produce all-digital signal processor with superior characteristics: outstanding accuracy, high-dynamics tracking, versatile integration times, lower loss-of-lock signal strengths, and infrequent cycle slips. Three components are digital chip advancer, digital carrier downconverter and code correlator, and digital tracking processor. All-digital signal processor intended for use in receivers of Global Positioning System (GPS) for geodesy, geodynamics, high-dynamics tracking, and ionospheric calibration.

  11. Armstrong Receives Space Medal of Honor


    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong receives the first Congressional Space Medal of Honor from President Jimmy Carter, assisted by Captain Robert Peterson. Armstrong, one of six astronauts to be presented the medal during ceremonies held in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), was awarded for his performance during the Gemini 8 mission and the Apollo 11 mission when he became the first human to set foot upon the Moon.

  12. Optical antenna gain. II - Receiving antennas

    Degnan, J. J.; Klein, B. J.


    Expressions are developed for the gain of a centrally obscured, circular optical antenna used as the collecting and focusing optics in a laser receiver, involving losses due to (1) incoming light blockage by central obscuration, (2) energy spillover at the detector, and (3) the effect of local oscillator distribution in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. Numerical results are presented for direct detection and for three types of local oscillator distribution (uniform, Gaussian, and matched).

  13. Counterrotator And Correlator For GPS Receivers

    Thomas, J. Brooks; Srinivasan, Jeffrey M.; Meehan, Thomas K.


    Accurate, all-digital, high-speed processor comprising correlator and down-converter developed for receivers in Global Positioning System (GPS). Processor reduces roundoff and commensurability errors to extremely small values. Use of digital chip and phase advancers provides outstanding control and accuracy in phase and feedback. Great flexibility imparted by provision for arbitrary starting time and integration length. Minimum-bit design requires minimum number of logical elements, thereby reducing size, power, and cost.

  14. Modulation of radiation-induced biochemical changes in cerebrum of Swiss albino mice by Grewia Asiatica.

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Ahaskar, Muktika; Sharma, K V; Singh, Smita


    The present study evaluates the possible radioprotective effect of Grewia asiatica fruit (rich in anthocyanin, carotenes, vitamin C, etc.) pulp extract (GAE) on cerebrum of Swiss albino mice exposed to 5 Gy gamma radiation. For this, healthy mice from an inbred colony were divided into four groups: (1) Control (vehicle treated) (2) GAE treated - mice in this group were orally supplemented with GAE (700 m/kg. b.w./day) once daily for fifteen consecutive days, (3) Vehicle treated irradiated mice, and (4) GAE + Irradiated - Mice in this group received distilled water orally equivalent to GAE (700 m/kg. b.w/day) for fifteen days consecutively. Mice were sacrificed at various intervals viz. 1-30 days. Radiation-induced augmentation in the levels of lipid peroxidation of mice cerebrum was significantly ameliorated by GAE pretreatment. Radiation-induced depletion in the level of glutathione and protein was prevented significantly by GAE administration.

  15. Optical antenna gain. 2: receiving antennas.

    Degnan, J J; Klein, B J


    Expressions are derived for the gain of a centrally obscured, circular optical antenna when used as the collecting and focusing optics in a laser receiver which include losses due to (1) blockage of the incoming light by the central obscuration, (2) the spillover of energy at the detector, and (3) the effect of local oscillator distribution in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. Numerical results are presented for direct detection and for three types of local oscillator distributions (uniform, Gaussian, and matched) in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. The results are presented in several graphs that allow the rapid evaluation of receiver gain for an arbitrary set of telescope and detector parameters. It is found that, for uniform illumination by the LO, the optimum SNR is obtained when the detector radius is approximately 0.74 times the Airy disk radius. The use of an optimized Gaussian (spot size = 0.46 times the Airy disk radius) improves the receiver gain by less than 1 dB. Theuse results are insensitive to the size of the central obscuration.

  16. Transient simulation of molten salt central receiver

    Doupis, Dimitri; Wang, Chuan; Carcorze-Soto, Jorge; Chen, Yen-Ming; Maggi, Andrea; Losito, Matteo; Clark, Michael


    Alstom is developing concentrated solar power (CSP) utilizing 60/40wt% NaNO3-KNO3 molten salt as the working fluid in a tower receiver for the global renewable energy market. In the CSP power generation cycle, receivers undergo a daily cyclic operation due to the transient nature of solar energy. Development of robust and efficient start-up and shut-down procedures is critical to avoiding component failures due to mechanical fatigue resulting from thermal transients, thus maintaining the performance and availability of the CSP plant. The Molten Salt Central Receiver (MSCR) is subject to thermal transients during normal daily operation, a cycle that includes warmup, filling, operation, draining, and shutdown. This paper describes a study to leverage dynamic simulation and finite element analysis (FEA) in development of start-up, shutdown, and transient operation concepts for the MSCR. The results of the FEA also verify the robustness of the MSCR design to the thermal transients anticipated during the operation of the plant.

  17. Development of Receiver Stimulator for Auditory Prosthesis

    K. Raja Kumar


    Full Text Available The Auditory Prosthesis (AP is an electronic device that can provide hearing sensations to people who are profoundly deaf by stimulating the auditory nerve via an array of electrodes with an electric current allowing them to understand the speech. The AP system consists of two hardware functional units such as Body Worn Speech Processor (BWSP and Receiver Stimulator. The prototype model of Receiver Stimulator for Auditory Prosthesis (RSAP consists of Speech Data Decoder, DAC, ADC, constant current generator, electrode selection logic, switch matrix and simulated electrode resistance array. The laboratory model of speech processor is designed to implement the Continuous Interleaved Sampling (CIS speech processing algorithm which generates the information required for electrode stimulation based on the speech / audio data. Speech Data Decoder receives the encoded speech data via an inductive RF transcutaneous link from speech processor. Twelve channels of auditory Prosthesis with selectable eight electrodes for stimulation of simulated electrode resistance array are used for testing. The RSAP is validated by using the test data generated by the laboratory prototype of speech processor. The experimental results are obtained from specific speech/sound tests using a high-speed data acquisition system and found satisfactory.

  18. Russian institute receives CMS Gold Award

    Patrice Loïez


    The Snezhinsk All-Russian Institute of Scientific Research for Technical Physics (VNIITF) of the Russian Federal Nuclear Centre (RFNC) is one of twelve CMS suppliers to receive awards for outstanding performance this year. The CMS Collaboration took the opportunity of the visit to CERN of the Director of VNIITF and his deputy to present the CMS Gold Award, which the institute has received for its exceptional performance in the assembly of steel plates for the CMS forward hadronic calorimeter. This calorimeter consists of two sets of 18 wedge-shaped modules arranged concentrically around the beam-pipe at each end of the CMS detector. Each module consists of steel absorber plates with quartz fibres inserted into them. The institute developed a special welding technique to assemble the absorber plates, enabling a high-quality detector to be produced at relatively low cost.RFNC-VNIITF Director Professor Georgy Rykovanov (right), is seen here receiving the Gold Award from Felicitas Pauss, Vice-Chairman of the CMS ...

  19. DSP complexity of mode-division multiplexed receivers.

    Inan, Beril; Spinnler, Bernhard; Ferreira, Filipe; van den Borne, Dirk; Lobato, Adriana; Adhikari, Susmita; Sleiffer, Vincent A J M; Kuschnerov, Maxim; Hanik, Norbert; Jansen, Sander L


    The complexities of common equalizer schemes are analytically analyzed in this paper in terms of complex multiplications per bit. Based on this approach we compare the complexity of mode-division multiplexed digital signal processing algorithms with different numbers of multiplexed modes in terms of modal dispersion and distance. It is found that training symbol based equalizers have significantly lower complexity compared to blind approaches for long-haul transmission. Among the training symbol based schemes, OFDM requires the lowest complexity for crosstalk compensation in a mode-division multiplexed receiver. The main challenge for training symbol based schemes is the additional overhead required to compensate modal crosstalk, which increases the data rate. In order to achieve 2000 km transmission, the effective modal dispersion must therefore be below 6 ps/km when the OFDM specific overhead is limited to 10%. It is concluded that for few mode transmission systems the reduction of modal delay is crucial to enable long-haul performance.

  20. Quantum memory receiver for superadditive communication using binary coherent states

    Klimek, Aleksandra; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad


    We propose a simple architecture based on multimode quantum memories for collective readout of classical information keyed using a pair coherent states, exemplified by the well-known binary phase shift keying format. Such a configuration enables demonstration of the superadditivity effect in classical communication over quantum channels, where the transmission rate becomes enhanced through joint detection applied to multiple channel uses. The proposed scheme relies on the recently introduced idea to prepare Hadamard sequences of input symbols that are mapped by a linear optical transformation onto the pulse position modulation format [Guha, S. {\\em Phys. Rev. Lett.}\\ {\\bf 2011}, {\\em 106}, 240502]. We analyze two versions of readout based on direct detection and an optional Dolinar receiver which implements the minimum-error measurement for individual detection of a binary coherent state alphabet.

  1. Quantum memory receiver for superadditive communication using binary coherent states.

    Klimek, Aleksandra; Jachura, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad


    We propose a simple architecture based on multimode quantum memories for collective readout of classical information keyed using a pair coherent states, exemplified by the well-known binary phase shift keying format. Such a configuration enables demonstration of the superadditivity effect in classical communication over quantum channels, where the transmission rate becomes enhanced through joint detection applied to multiple channel uses. The proposed scheme relies on the recently introduced idea to prepare Hadamard sequences of input symbols that are mapped by a linear optical transformation onto the pulse position modulation format [Guha, S. Phys. Rev. Lett.2011, 106, 240502]. We analyze two versions of readout based on direct detection and an optional Dolinar receiver which implements the minimum-error measurement for individual detection of a binary coherent state alphabet.

  2. Phytosteryl glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption: mechanisms in mice

    Phytosteryl glycosides occur in natural foods but little is known about their metabolism and bioactivity. Purified acylated steryl glycosides (ASG) were compared with phytosteryl esters (PSE) in mice. Animals on a phytosterol-free diet received ASG or PSE by gavage in purified soybean oil along with...

  3. The effects of phenethyl isothiocyanate, N-acetylcysteine and green tea on tobacco smoke-induced lung tumors in strain A/J mice.

    Witschi, H; Espiritu, I; Yu, M; Willits, N H


    Male and female strain A/J mice were exposed to a mixture of cigarette sidestream and mainstream smoke at a chamber concentration of total suspended particulates of 82.5 mg/m3. Exposure time was 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 5 months. The animals were allowed to recover for another 4 months in filtered air before sacrifice and lung tumor count. Male animals were fed either 0.2% N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or 0.05% phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) in diet AIN-76A with 5% corn oil added. Female animals received normal laboratory chow and were given a 1.25% extract of green tea in the drinking water. Corresponding control groups were fed diets without NAC or PEITC or given plain tap water. Exposure to tobacco smoke increased lung tumor multiplicity to 1.1-1.6 tumors/lung, significantly higher than control values (0.5-1.0 tumors/lung). None of the putative chemopreventive agents (NAC, PEITC or green tea extract) had a protective effect. In positive control experiments, PEITC significantly reduced both lung tumor multiplicity and incidence in mice treated with the tobacco smoke-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). In mice treated with three different doses of urethan and fed NAC in the diet, a significant reduction in lung tumor multiplicity was found only at one dose level. Green tea extract did not reduce lung tumor multiplicity in animals treated with a single dose of NNK. It was concluded that successful chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-induced lung tumorigenesis might require administration of several chemopreventive agents rather than just a single one.

  4. Evaluation of Antidepressant activity of Simvastatin, Lovastatin and Atorvastatin in Male Swiss Mice - An Experimental Study

    Gudadappanavar Anupama M


    Full Text Available Context: Depression is the commonest mood disorder, could also be secondary to a number of physical disorders. Pharmacological treatment of such co-morbidities is difficult. If statins show antidepressant activity that could appear to be better lipid-lowering agents as they provide additional benefits in cardiovascular disorders with co-morbidity like depression. Aims: To investigate the effect of simvastatin, lovastatin and atorvastatin for their antidepressant activity using forced swim test and tail suspension test on behavioral models of depression in male swiss mice. Design: Experimental Study Methods and Material: The in vivo antidepressant activity of simvastatin and lovastatin was studied using forced swim test and tail suspension test. The mice received the drug as per their weight and subjected for experimentation. Group mean immobility time was calculated in treated and control groups for comparison. Statistical analysis used: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s multiple comparison test. (P / 0.05 Results: Simvastatin and Lovastatin used in the present study showed significant antidepressant activity in both behavioral models of depression (p<0.05 while atorvastatin failed to show significant antidepressant action. Conclusion: The study suggests that the antidepressant activity of simvastatin and lovastatin, if could be extrapolated to clinical situations, appear to be better lipid-lowering agents as they provide additional benefits in cardiovascular disorders with co-morbidity like depression.

  5. Reconsidering Tonotopic Maps in the Auditory Cortex and Lemniscal Auditory Thalamus in Mice.

    Tsukano, Hiroaki; Horie, Masao; Ohga, Shinpei; Takahashi, Kuniyuki; Kubota, Yamato; Hishida, Ryuichi; Takebayashi, Hirohide; Shibuki, Katsuei


    The auditory thalamus and auditory cortex (AC) are pivotal structures in the central auditory system. However, the thalamocortical mechanisms of processing sounds are largely unknown. Investigation of this process benefits greatly from the use of mice because the mouse is a powerful animal model in which various experimental techniques, especially genetic tools, can be applied. However, the use of mice has been limited in auditory research, and thus even basic anatomical knowledge of the mouse central auditory system has not been sufficiently collected. Recently, optical imaging combined with morphological analyses has enabled the elucidation of detailed anatomical properties of the mouse auditory system. These techniques have uncovered fine AC maps with multiple frequency-organized regions, each of which receives point-to-point thalamocortical projections from different origins inside the lemniscal auditory thalamus, the ventral division of the medial geniculate body (MGv). This precise anatomy now provides a platform for physiological research. In this mini review article, we summarize these recent achievements that will facilitate physiological investigations in the mouse auditory system.

  6. Comparing Betamethasone and Dexamethasone Effects on Concentration of Male Reproductive Hormones in Mice

    Jalalaldin Gooyande


    Full Text Available Most of chemical drugs have side effects on various parts of body. It is necessary to identify these effects to better use of drugs. Betamethasone and Dexamethasone are two of the most usual drugs in human and animal medication. The effect of these drugs on concentration of male reproductive hormones of mice was the goal of this study. Eighteen matured male mice were divided into eight groups including control, placebo and six treatment groups. Placebo group was received physiological serum only and treatments were Betamethasone (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg and Dexamethasone (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg which were injected in peritoneum every other day and for twenty days. After 20 days, blood samples were taken and FSH, LH and testosterone levels were measured using Eliza test method. Obtained data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance and mean comparison was done using Duncan's multiple ranges test and SPSS program. Results showed that 0.5 mg/kg of Betamethasone and all levels of dexamethasone caused significant increase in FSH concentration. For LH hormone, 1 mg/kg of Betamethasone and 0.1 mg/kg of Dexamethasone caused significant decrease whereas 1 mg/kg of Dexamethasone increased it significantly. Testosterone was increased significantly by 1 mg/kg of Dexamethasone. So, mentioned drugs are effective on hormone action of reproductive system dose dependently and probable effect of them must be considered in time of using.

  7. The effect of TIP on pneumovirus-induced pulmonary edema in mice.

    Elske van den Berg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pulmonary edema plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV-induced respiratory failure. In this study we determined whether treatment with TIP (AP301, a synthetic cyclic peptide that mimics the lectin-like domain of human TNF, decreases pulmonary edema in a mouse model of severe human RSV infection. TIP is currently undergoing clinical trials as a therapy for pulmonary permeability edema and has been shown to decrease pulmonary edema in different lung injury models. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM and received TIP or saline (control group by intratracheal instillation on day five (early administration or day seven (late administration after infection. In a separate set of experiments the effect of multiple dose administration of TIP versus saline was tested. Pulmonary edema was determined by the lung wet-to-dry (W/D weight ratio and was assessed at different time-points after the administration of TIP. Secondary outcomes included clinical scores and lung cellular response. RESULTS: TIP did not have an effect on pulmonary edema in different dose regimens at different time points during PVM infection. In addition, TIP administration did not affect clinical severity scores or lung cellular response. CONCLUSION: In this murine model of severe RSV infection TIP did not affect pulmonary edema nor course of disease.

  8. 3,3′-Diindolylmethane increases bone mass by suppressing osteoclastic bone resorption in mice

    Tai-yong Yu


    Full Text Available 3,3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM, a major acid-condensation product or metabolite of indole-3-carbinol which is found in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to have anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and multiple immune stimulating effects. However, its function in bone metabolism is poorly understood. This study evaluated the effect of DIM on bone mass in mice under physiological and pathological conditions. Eight-week-old female mice received injections of a vehicle or 0.1 mg/g of DIM, twice a week for four weeks. We found that DIM treatment significantly increased bone mass as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA and micro-computed tomography (μCT. Further, Bone histomorphometric analyses showed that this treatment significantly reduced bone resorption parameters, but did not increase bone formation parameters. Furthermore, we use ovariectomized (OVX-induced osteoporotic mouse model, and explore function of DIM in skeletal pathological processes. Bone phenotype analyses revealed that the administration of DIM in this study effectively prevented OVX-induced bone loss resulting from increased bone resorption. Our results demonstrated that DIM increased bone mass by suppressing osteoclastic bone resorption in bone metabolism under both physiological and pathological conditions. Accordingly, DIM may be of value in the treatment and the possible prevention of bone diseases characterized by bone loss, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  9. Role of connexin 32 in acetaminophen toxicity in a knockout mice model.

    Igarashi, Isao; Maejima, Takanori; Kai, Kiyonori; Arakawa, Shingo; Teranishi, Munehiro; Sanbuissho, Atsushi


    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), by which glutathione (GSH) and inorganic ions are transmitted to neighboring cells, is recognized as being largely involved in toxic processes of chemicals. We examined acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity clinicopathologically using male wild-type mice and mice lacking the gene for connexin32, a major gap junction protein in the liver [knockout (Cx32KO) mice]. When APAP was intraperitoneally administered at doses of 100, 200, or 300mg/kg, hepatic centrilobular necrosis with elevated plasma aminotransferase activities was observed in wild-type mice receiving 300mg/kg, and in Cx32KO mice given 100mg/kg or more. At 200mg/kg or more, hepatic GSH and GSSG contents decreased significantly and the effect was more severe in wild-type mice than in Cx32KO mice. On the other hand, markedly decreased GSH staining was observed in the hepatic centrilobular zones of Cx32KO mice compared to that of wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that Cx32KO mice are more susceptible to APAP hepatotoxicity than wild-type mice, and indicate that the distribution of GSH of the centrilobular zones in the hepatic lobules, rather than GSH and GSSG contents in the liver, is important in APAP hepatotoxicity. In conclusion, Cx32 protects against APAP-induced hepatic centrilobular necrosis in mice, which may be through the GSH transmission to neighboring hepatocytes by GJIC.

  10. Electric shocks are ineffective in treatment of lethal effects of rattlesnake envenomation in mice.

    Johnson, E K; Kardong, K V; Mackessy, S P


    Electrical shocks, even crudely delivered from 'stun guns' and gasoline engine spark plugs, have been reported to be effective in the treatment of snake bite. We thus applied similar electric shocks to mice artificially injected with reconstituted rattlesnake venom at various LD50 multiples. Those envenomated mice treated with electric shock survived no better than the controls. We thus found no evidence that electric shocks crudely administered had any life saving effect in mice.

  11. Antidepressant effects of Mentha pulegium in mice

    Zahra Rabiei


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the antidepressant effects of Mentha pulegium essential oil in BALB/c mice. Six experimental groups (7 mice each were used. Forced swim test was performed 30 min after essential oil injection. In the groups receiving M. pulegium essential oil (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg, immobility duration significantly decreased compared to the control group. M. pulegium (50 and 75 mg/kg resulted in significant decrease in nitrate/nitrite content in serum compared to the control group. M. pulegium essential oil antidepressant effect that may be due to the inhibition of oxidative stress. The results showed that decrease in nitrate/nitrite content in serum and high anti-oxidant effects of M. pulegium essential oil.

  12. Direct and Evolutionary Approaches for Optimal Receiver Function Inversion

    Dugda, Mulugeta Tuji

    Receiver functions are time series obtained by deconvolving vertical component seismograms from radial component seismograms. Receiver functions represent the impulse response of the earth structure beneath a seismic station. Generally, receiver functions consist of a number of seismic phases related to discontinuities in the crust and upper mantle. The relative arrival times of these phases are correlated with the locations of discontinuities as well as the media of seismic wave propagation. The Moho (Mohorovicic discontinuity) is a major interface or discontinuity that separates the crust and the mantle. In this research, automatic techniques to determine the depth of the Moho from the earth's surface (the crustal thickness H) and the ratio of crustal seismic P-wave velocity (Vp) to S-wave velocity (Vs) (kappa= Vp/Vs) were developed. In this dissertation, an optimization problem of inverting receiver functions has been developed to determine crustal parameters and the three associated weights using evolutionary and direct optimization techniques. The first technique developed makes use of the evolutionary Genetic Algorithms (GA) optimization technique. The second technique developed combines the direct Generalized Pattern Search (GPS) and evolutionary Fitness Proportionate Niching (FPN) techniques by employing their strengths. In a previous study, Monte Carlo technique has been utilized for determining variable weights in the H-kappa stacking of receiver functions. Compared to that previously introduced variable weights approach, the current GA and GPS-FPN techniques have tremendous advantages of saving time and these new techniques are suitable for automatic and simultaneous determination of crustal parameters and appropriate weights. The GA implementation provides optimal or near optimal weights necessary in stacking receiver functions as well as optimal H and kappa values simultaneously. Generally, the objective function of the H-kappa stacking problem

  13. X-rays and photocarcinogenesis in hairless mice

    Lerche, Catharina M; Philipsen, Peter A; Wulf, Hans Christian


    It is well known that excessive X-ray radiation can cause non-melanoma skin cancers. With the increased incidence of sun-related skin cancer there is a need to investigate the combination of sunlight and X-rays. Immunocompetent C3.Cg/TifBomTac mice (n = 298) were divided into 12 groups. Mice were...... irradiated with 12, 29 or 50 kV X-rays. The mice received a total dose of 45 Gy. They were irradiated with 3 SED simulated solar radiation (SSR) either before or after irradiation with X-rays. The groups irradiated with X-rays alone, 0, 3, 9 and 10 mice (0, 12, 29 and 50 kV, respectively) developed squamous...... cell carcinoma. In the groups irradiated with SSR after X-rays the development of tumours was significantly faster in the 50 kV group than in the corresponding control group (175 vs. 194 days, p...

  14. Interleukin-10 does not modulate clopidogrel platelet response in mice.

    Yin, Q; Tai, T; Ji, J-Z; Mi, Q-Y; Zhang, M-R; Huang, W-J; Cao, C-C; Xie, H-G


    ESSENTIALS: It is unclear whether interleukin-10 (IL-10) could affect clopidogrel metabolism and response. The bioactivation of and response to clopidogrel were determined between mice with or without IL-10. Maximum clopidogrel active metabolite levels were the major driver of platelet response to clopidogrel. IL-10 did not modulate maximum levels of clopidogrel active metabolite and its antiplatelet effects. Elevated plasma interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels were observed in patients who responded less to clopidogrel (a prodrug that is required for further metabolic bioactivation in the liver). However, no data are currently available suggesting whether there is such an association. To systematically explore possible differences in the formation of and response to clopidogrel active metabolite (CAM) in mice with or without IL-10 gene expression. A single oral dose of clopidogrel (10 mg kg(-1)) was given to IL-10 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) control mice, respectively, and pharmacokinetic parameters of clopidogrel and CAM were calculated. Moreover, adenosine diphosphate-induced whole-blood platelet aggregation was measured in mice receiving 0, 5, 10, or 20 mg kg(-1) of clopidogrel, respectively. Compared with IL-10 KO mice, WT mice had significantly lower area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of CAM as a result of a shorter mean elimination half-life but had significantly higher AUC of clopidogrel due to slower systemic clearance and smaller volume of distribution. Although AUC of CAM was significantly lower in WT mice than in KO mice, antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel did not differ significantly between the two mouse groups, as their maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax ) of CAM were not significantly different. IL-10 expression level affects AUC rather than Cmax of CAM, but the Cmax of CAM is the major driver of antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel in mice. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  15. Multiuser Receiver Architectures for Space Modems

    Bell, D.; Satorius, E.; Kuperman, I.; Koenig, J.


    In this article, we develop multiuser modem architectures suitable for augmentation of existing software-defined flight radios with important near-term enhancements to relay telecom services as well as support for missions requiring entry, descent, and landing (EDL). EDL support for missions like Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix, Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), and Mars 2020 obtains strong visibility within JPL and NASA headquarters. As part of an agency-wide commitment to support EDL, funding has been made available on past missions to prepare multiple Deep Space Network (DSN) ground station sites, non-DSN ground stations (Greenbank 100-m), and to prioritize in situ coverage from multiple orbiters. Multiuser operations open up new possibilities for simultaneous support of multiple surface landers that are in close proximity such that these surface elements simultaneously appear in the same coverage circle of a single relay orbiter. Simultaneous multiuser support is an important service type for many future surface mission paradigms. In this article, designs for field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of multiuser modems are presented. A fixed-point model of the most promising architecture for space applications is presented as well as simulated performance results based on a fixed-point design that is suitable for FPGA implementation.

  16. Assessment of Carcinogenicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in a short-term assay using Xpa(-/-) and Xpa(-/-)/p53(+/-) mice

    Mortensen, Alicja; Bertram, Margareta; Aarup, V.;


    The potential of Xpa(-/-) and Xpa(-/-)/p53(+/-) mice for short-term carcinogenicity assays was evaluated with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Groups of 15 male and female Xpa(-/-) mice, received diets containing 0, 1,500, 3, 000, or 6,000 ppm DEHP, and wild-type (WT) and Xpa(-/-)/p53(+/-) mice 0...

  17. Solar receiver performance of point focusing collector system

    Wu, Y. C.; Wen, L. C.


    The solar receiver performance of cavity receivers and external receivers used in dispersed solar power systems was evaluated for the temperature range 300-1300 C. Several parameters of receiver and concentrator are examined. It was found that cavity receivers are generally more efficient than external receivers, especially at high temperatures which require a large heat transfer area. The effects of variation in the ratio of receiver area to aperture area are considered.

  18. Global positioning system (GPS) receiver design for multipath mitigation

    Gadallah, El-Sayed Abdel-Salam

    Multipath effects are a source of error degrading the accuracy of DGPS signal processing. The statistical models of multipath are determined by user location and, in addition are time varying. There is no unified statistical model for the multipath signal. Therefore the solution of the multipath problem using statistical models is difficult. This research introduces a new estimator that can detect the presence of multipath, can determine the unknown number of multipath components and can estimate multipath parameters in the GPS receiver (time delay and attenuation coefficients). Furthermore the multipath signal parameters are estimated at any instant of observation. The new estimator is based on maximum likelihood estimation applied to multiple observations of a linear model (regression form) of the received signal. In addition, the estimator is based on a recursive deployment of the multipath time delay. An improvement is achieved to the accuracy of multipath estimates at a low signal-to-noise level by applying Kalman filtering as a cascaded estimator. Kalman filtering application can be considered as an important tool for separating the direct path signal from multipath in noise. This dissertation also includes the design of new modified tracking loops endowed with the mentioned estimator: a modified Phase Lock Loop (PLL) for carrier tracking and a modified Delay Locked-Loop (DLL) in the code tracking. The modified loops can properly track the received direct signal in the presence of multipaths where the standard tracking loops are disabled. Simulations of the standard and the modified loops are presented. Tracking and performance in noise are investigated and a future work is suggested.

  19. Pre-Exposure to Context Affects Learning Strategy Selection in Mice

    Tunur, Tumay; Dohanich, Gary P.; Schrader, Laura A.


    The multiple memory systems hypothesis proposes that different types of learning strategies are mediated by distinct neural systems in the brain. Male and female mice were tested on a water plus-maze task that could be solved by either a place or response strategy. One group of mice was pre-exposed to the same context as training and testing (PTC)…

  20. A Quantized Analog Delay for an ir-UWB Quadrature Downconversion Autocorrelation Receiver

    Bagga, S.; Zhang, L.; Serdijn, W.A.; Long, J.R.; Busking, E.B.


    A quantized analog delay is designed as a requirement for the autocorrelation function in the quadrature downconversion autocorrelation receiver (QDAR). The quantized analog delay is comprised of a quantizer, multiple binary delay lines and an adder circuit. Being the foremost element, the quantizer

  1. Design and simulation of stratified probability digital receiver with application to the multipath communication

    Deal, J. H.


    One approach to the problem of simplifying complex nonlinear filtering algorithms is through using stratified probability approximations where the continuous probability density functions of certain random variables are represented by discrete mass approximations. This technique is developed in this paper and used to simplify the filtering algorithms developed for the optimum receiver for signals corrupted by both additive and multiplicative noise.

  2. 30 CFR 250.1158 - How do I receive approval to downhole commingle hydrocarbons?


    ... hydrocarbons? 250.1158 Section 250.1158 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... hydrocarbons? (a) Before you perforate a well, you must request and receive approval from the Regional Supervisor to commingle hydrocarbons produced from multiple reservoirs within a common wellbore. The...

  3. Interference-Aware OFDM Receiver for Channels with Sparse Common Supports

    Barbu, Oana-Elena; Manchón, Carles Navarro; Badiu, Mihai Alin


    We design an algorithm for OFDM receivers operating in co-channel interference conditions, where the serving and interfering transmitters are synchronized in time. The channel estimation problem is formulated as one of sparse signal reconstruction using multiple measurement vectors. The proposed...

  4. Environmentally toxicant exposures induced intragenerational transmission of liver abnormalities in mice

    Mohamed A. Al-Griw


    Full Text Available Environmental toxicants such as chemicals, heavy metals, and pesticides have been shown to promote transgenerational inheritance of abnormal phenotypes and/or diseases to multiple subsequent generations following parental and/ or ancestral exposures. This study was designed to examine the potential transgenerational action of the environmental toxicant trichloroethane (TCE on transmission of liver abnormality, and to elucidate the molecular etiology of hepatocyte cell damage. A total of thirty two healthy immature female albino mice were randomly divided into three equal groups as follows: a sham group, which did not receive any treatment; a vehicle group, which received corn oil alone, and TCE treated group (3 weeks, 100 μg/kg i.p., every 4th day. The F0 and F1 generation control and TCE populations were sacrificed at the age of four months, and various abnormalities histpathologically investigated. Cell death and oxidative stress indices were also measured. The present study provides experimental evidence for the inheritance of environmentally induced liver abnormalities in mice. The results of this study show that exposure to the TCE promoted adult onset liver abnormalities in F0 female mice as well as unexposed F1 generation offspring. It is the first study to report a transgenerational liver abnormalities in the F1 generation mice through maternal line prior to gestation. This finding was based on careful evaluation of liver histopathological abnormalities, apoptosis of hepatocytes, and measurements of oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and nitric oxide in control and TCE populations. There was an increase in liver histopathological abnormalities, cell death, and oxidative lipid damage in F0 and F1 hepatic tissues of TCE treated group. In conclusion, this study showed that the biological and health impacts of environmental toxicant TCE do not end in maternal adults, but are passed on to offspring

  5. A Simplified Downlink Transmission and Receiving Scheme for IDMA

    Xing-Zhong Xiong; Jian-Hao Hu


    In this paper, we propose a downlink transmission and receiving scheme for interleave-division multiple access (IDMA) system based on time-division duplexing (TDD) mode and time-reversal (TR) technique. The proposed scheme uses the time-reversed version of the channel impulse responses (CIR) obtained from the uplink to pre-process the transmitted signal at base station. By exploiting the weak correlations of fading channels for different user ends (UE), it is helpful to alleviate the multi-user interference (MUI) and co-channel interference (CCI). Moreover, the application of the TR technique in a multiple input-single output (MISO) configuration can reduce the delay spread of the channel impulse response, and mitigate inter-symbol interference (ISI). The UE can be simplified by canceling the iteration operation. Thus the data detection of the proposed scheme is rather simple as compared with the traditional IDMA, the complexity and computational load of UE is decreased substantially, and the proposed scheme provides a great deal of privacy and security to mobile users.

  6. Collectively loading programs in a multiple program multiple data environment

    Aho, Michael E.; Attinella, John E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Miller, Samuel J.


    Techniques are disclosed for loading programs efficiently in a parallel computing system. In one embodiment, nodes of the parallel computing system receive a load description file which indicates, for each program of a multiple program multiple data (MPMD) job, nodes which are to load the program. The nodes determine, using collective operations, a total number of programs to load and a number of programs to load in parallel. The nodes further generate a class route for each program to be loaded in parallel, where the class route generated for a particular program includes only those nodes on which the program needs to be loaded. For each class route, a node is selected using a collective operation to be a load leader which accesses a file system to load the program associated with a class route and broadcasts the program via the class route to other nodes which require the program.

  7. Coherent optical communication using polarization multiple-input-multiple-output.

    Han, Yan; Li, Guifang


    Polarization-division multiplexed (PDM) optical signals can potentially be demultiplexed by coherent detection and digital signal processing without using optical dynamic polarization control at the receiver. In this paper, we show that optical communications using PDM is analogous to wireless communications using multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antennae and thus algorithms for channel estimation in wireless MIMO can be ready applied to optical polarization MIMO (PMIMO). Combined with frequency offset and phase estimation algorithms, simulations show that PDM quadrature phase-shift keying signals can be coherently detected by the proposed scheme using commercial semiconductor lasers while no optical phase locking and polarization control are required. This analogy further suggests the potential application of space-time coding in wireless communications to optical polarization MIMO systems and relates the problem of polarization-mode dispersion in fiber transmission to the multi-path propagation in wireless communications.

  8. Thatcher Receives 2004 Charles A. Whitten Medal

    Stein, Ross


    Wayne Thatcher received the Whitten Medal at the 2004 Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony on 15 December, in San Francisco, California. The medal is given for outstanding achievement in research on the form and dynamics of the Earth and planets. Citation. Armed with geodesy, Wayne Thatcher has probed the behavior of great earthquakes, concentrating on the two sites where large events are frequent and the geodetic record is lush: the western United States and Japan. From this, he has garnered deep insights into the earthquake cycle-the pattern of strain accumulation and release of which an earthquake is only the most visible part.

  9. Transmit selection for imperfect threshold-based receive MRC in Rayleigh fading channels

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh


    The performance of multiple-antenna diversity systems in which the receiver combines signal replicas per thresholdbased maximal ratio combining (MRC) and the transmitter uses only a single antenna according to receive combined signal strength is studied. The impact of imperfect channel estimation is considered when the received signal replicas undergo independent and flat multipath fading. The analysis is applicable for arbitrary transmit antenna selection when the multiple-antenna channels experience identically distributed and non-identically distributed Rayleigh fading conditions. New closed-form expressions for the combined SNR statistics and some performance measures are presented. The system models adopted herein and the presented analytical results can be used to study the performance of different system architectures under various channel conditions when the implementation complexity is of interest. © 2009 IEEE.

  10. Fast converging minimum probability of error neural network receivers for DS-CDMA communications.

    Matyjas, John D; Psaromiligkos, Ioannis N; Batalama, Stella N; Medley, Michael J


    We consider a multilayer perceptron neural network (NN) receiver architecture for the recovery of the information bits of a direct-sequence code-division-multiple-access (DS-CDMA) user. We develop a fast converging adaptive training algorithm that minimizes the bit-error rate (BER) at the output of the receiver. The adaptive algorithm has three key features: i) it incorporates the BER, i.e., the ultimate performance evaluation measure, directly into the learning process, ii) it utilizes constraints that are derived from the properties of the optimum single-user decision boundary for additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) multiple-access channels, and iii) it embeds importance sampling (IS) principles directly into the receiver optimization process. Simulation studies illustrate the BER performance of the proposed scheme.

  11. A novel mirror diversity receiver for indoor MIMO visible light communication systems

    Park, Kihong


    In this paper, we propose and study a non-imaging receiver design reducing the correlation of channel matrix for indoor multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) visible light communication (VLC) systems. Contrary to previous works, our proposed mirror diversity receiver (MDR) not only blocks the reception of light on one specific direction but also improves the channel gain on the other direction by receiving the light reflected by a mirror deployed between the photodetectors. We analyze the channel capacity and optimal height of mirror in terms of maximum channel capacity for a 2 × 2 MIMO-VLC system in a 2-dimensional geometric model. We prove that this constructive and destructive effects in channel matrix resulting from our proposed MDR are more beneficial to obtain well-conditioned channel matrix which is suitable for implementing spatial-multiplexing MIMO-VLC systems in order to support high data rate.

  12. Perspectives from older adults receiving cancer treatment about the cancer-related information they receive


    Objective: Cancer patients have reported that information plays a significant role in their capacity to cope with cancer and manage the consequences of treatment. This study was undertaken to identify the importance older adults receiving cancer treatment assign to selected types of cancer-related information, their satisfaction with the cancer-related information they received, and the barriers to effective information provision for this age group. Methods: This study was conducted in two ph...

  13. Woese on the received view of evolution.

    Sarkar, Sahotra


    As part of his attempt to reconstruct the earliest phase of the evolution of life on Earth, Woese produced a compelling critique of the received view of evolution from the 20th century. This paper explicitly articulates two related features of that critique that are fundamental but the first of which has not been sufficiently clearly recognized in the context of evolutionary theorizing: (1) according to Woese's scenario of communal evolution during life's earliest phase (roughly, the first billion years of life on Earth), well-defined biological individuals (and, thus, individual lineages) did not exist; and (2) during that phase, evolutionary change took place through ubiquitous horizontal gene transfer (HGT) rather than through vertical transmission of features (including genes) and the combinatorics of HGT was the dominant mechanism of evolutionary change. Both factors present serious challenges to the received view of evolution and that framework would have to be radically altered to incorporate these factors. The extent to which this will be necessary will depend on whether Woese's scenario of collective early evolution is correct.

  14. Parabolic Trough Receiver Heat Loss Testing (Poster)

    Price, H.; Netter, J.; Bingham, C.; Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Brandemuehl, M.


    Parabolic trough receivers, or heat collection elements (HCEs), absorb sunlight focused by the mirrors and transfer that thermal energy to a fluid flowing within them. Thje absorbing tube of these receivers typically operates around 400 C (752 F). HCE manufacturers prevent thermal loss from the absorbing tube to the environment by using sputtered selective Cermet coatings on the absorber and by surrounding the absorber with a glass-enclosed evacuated annulus. This work quantifies the heat loss of the Solel UVAC2 and Schott PTR70 HCEs. At 400 C, the HCEs perform similarly, losing about 400 W/m of HCE length. To put this in perspective, the incident beam radiation on a 5 m mirror aperture is about 4500 W/m, with about 75% of that energy ({approx} 3400 W/m) reaching the absorber surface. Of the 3400 W/m on the absorber, about 3000 W/m is absorbed into the working fluid while 400 W/m is lost to the environment.

  15. Solar central receiver heliostat reflector assembly

    Horton, Richard H.; Zdeb, John J.


    A heliostat reflector assembly for a solar central receiver system comprises a light-weight, readily assemblable frame which supports a sheet of stretchable reflective material and includes mechanism for selectively applying tension to and positioning the sheet to stretch it to optical flatness. The frame is mounted on and supported by a pipe pedestal assembly that, in turn, is installed in the ground. The frame is controllably driven in a predetermined way by a light-weight drive system so as to be angularly adjustable in both elevation and azimuth to track the sun and efficiently continuously reflect the sun's rays to a focal zone, i.e. central receiver, which forms part of a solar energy utilization system, such as a solar energy fueled electrical power generation system. The frame may include a built-in system for testing for optical flatness of the reflector. The preferable geometric configuration of the reflector is octagonal; however, it may be other shapes, such as hexagonal, pentagonal or square. Several different embodiments of means for tensioning and positioning the reflector to achieve optical flatness are disclosed. The reflector assembly is based on the stretch frame concept which provides an extremely light-weight, simple, low-cost reflector assembly that may be driven for positioning and tracking by a light-weight, inexpensive drive system.

  16. Transactions Security Tools in Account Receivables Management

    Anna Wodyńska


    Full Text Available Large competition among goods and services suppliers caused that granting clients deferred term of payment became a standard, so in other word granting clients commercial credit is a standard. Companies try to limit credit risk by securing their trade transactions in accordance with their credit policy that determines in some way the choice of trade transaction security tools.This article presents a full range of trade transaction security tools according to the general division into personal and property securities. The author pays attention to the fact that while conducting a proper credit policy in relation to clients, a company has chances to monitor efficiently the receivables and insist on their payment as well as use, as needed, the earlier prepared trade transaction security tools.The author convinces that regardless of the choice of trade transaction security tools, or reasons leading the receivables managing person, the basic criterion of security evaluation shall be its real, checked and verified value. The pledge on an object that does not exist is not worth much. The same applies to security granted by an insolvent person.

  17. The Submillimeter Array Antennas and Receivers

    Blundell, R


    The Submillimeter Array (SMA) was conceived at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in 1984 as a six element interferometer to operate in the major atmospheric windows from about 200 to 900 GHz. In 1996, the Academica Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics of Taiwan joined the project and agreed to provide additional hardware to expand the interferometer to eight elements. All eight antennas are now operating at the observatory site on Mauna Kea, and astronomical observations have been made in the 230, 345, and 650 GHz bands. The SMA antennas have a diameter of 6 m, a surface accuracy of better than 25 micron rms, and can be reconfigured to provide spatial resolutions down to about 0.5" at 200 GHz and, eventually, 0.1" at 850 GHz. Coupling to the receiver package within each antenna is achieved via a beam waveguide, in a bent Nasmyth configuration, comprised of a flat tertiary mirror and two ellipsoidal mirrors that form a secondary pupil used for receiver calibration. An additional fixed mirror ...

  18. Diet-induced obesity promotes colon tumor development in azoxymethane-treated mice.

    Tuominen, Iina; Al-Rabadi, Leina; Stavrakis, Dimitris; Karagiannides, Iordanis; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Bugni, James M


    Obesity is an important risk factor for colon cancer in humans, and numerous studies have shown that a high fat diet enhances colon cancer development. As both increased adiposity and high fat diet can promote tumorigenesis, we examined the effect of diet-induced obesity, without ongoing high fat diet, on colon tumor development. C57BL/6J male mice were fed regular chow or high fat diet for 8 weeks. Diets were either maintained or switched resulting in four experimental groups: regular chow (R), high fat diet (H), regular chow switched to high fat diet (RH), and high fat diet switched to regular chow (HR). Mice were then administered azoxymethane to induce colon tumors. Tumor incidence and multiplicity were dramatically smaller in the R group relative to all groups that received high fat diet at any point. The effect of obesity on colon tumors could not be explained by differences in aberrant crypt foci number. Moreover, diet did not alter colonic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, and interferon-γ, which were measured immediately after azoxymethane treatment. Crypt apoptosis and proliferation, which were measured at the same time, were increased in the HR relative to all other groups. Our results suggest that factors associated with obesity - independently of ongoing high fat diet and obesity - promote tumor development because HR group animals had significantly more tumors than R group, and these mice were fed the same regular chow throughout the entire carcinogenic period. Moreover, there was no difference in the number of aberrant crypt foci between these groups, and thus the effect of obesity appears to be on subsequent stages of tumor development when early preneoplastic lesions transition into adenomas.

  19. Diet-induced obesity promotes colon tumor development in azoxymethane-treated mice.

    Iina Tuominen

    Full Text Available Obesity is an important risk factor for colon cancer in humans, and numerous studies have shown that a high fat diet enhances colon cancer development. As both increased adiposity and high fat diet can promote tumorigenesis, we examined the effect of diet-induced obesity, without ongoing high fat diet, on colon tumor development. C57BL/6J male mice were fed regular chow or high fat diet for 8 weeks. Diets were either maintained or switched resulting in four experimental groups: regular chow (R, high fat diet (H, regular chow switched to high fat diet (RH, and high fat diet switched to regular chow (HR. Mice were then administered azoxymethane to induce colon tumors. Tumor incidence and multiplicity were dramatically smaller in the R group relative to all groups that received high fat diet at any point. The effect of obesity on colon tumors could not be explained by differences in aberrant crypt foci number. Moreover, diet did not alter colonic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, and interferon-γ, which were measured immediately after azoxymethane treatment. Crypt apoptosis and proliferation, which were measured at the same time, were increased in the HR relative to all other groups. Our results suggest that factors associated with obesity - independently of ongoing high fat diet and obesity - promote tumor development because HR group animals had significantly more tumors than R group, and these mice were fed the same regular chow throughout the entire carcinogenic period. Moreover, there was no difference in the number of aberrant crypt foci between these groups, and thus the effect of obesity appears to be on subsequent stages of tumor development when early preneoplastic lesions transition into adenomas.

  20. Inhaled hydrogen sulfide protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice

    Faller Simone


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local pulmonary and systemic infections can lead to acute lung injury (ALI. The resulting lung damage can evoke lung failure and multiple organ dysfunction associated with increased mortality. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S appears to represent a new therapeutic approach to ALI. The gas has been shown to mediate potent anti-inflammatory and organ protective effects in vivo. This study was designed to define its potentially protective role in sepsis-induced lung injury. Methods C57BL/6 N mice received lipopolysaccharide (LPS intranasally in the absence or presence of 80 parts per million H2S. After 6 h, acute lung injury was determined by comparative histology. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid was analyzed for total protein content and differential cell counting. BAL and serum were further analyzed for interleukin-1β, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and/or myeloperoxidase glycoprotein levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Differences between groups were analyzed by one way analysis of variance. Results Histological analysis revealed that LPS instillation led to increased alveolar wall thickening, cellular infiltration, and to an elevated ALI score. In the presence of H2S these changes were not observed despite LPS treatment. Moreover, neutrophil influx, and pro-inflammatory cytokine release were enhanced in BAL fluid of LPS-treated mice, but comparable to control levels in H2S treated mice. In addition, myeloperoxidase levels were increased in serum after LPS challenge and this was prevented by H2S inhalation. Conclusion Inhalation of hydrogen sulfide protects against LPS-induced acute lung injury by attenuating pro-inflammatory responses.