Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.
This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…
Full Text Available In this work we study agonistic behavior of laboratory white mice when they are kept in captivity. For all this experimental work we used direct observation of mice, in small lists, because we need a reduced space to emphasize characteristics of agonistic behavior. Relations between members of the same species that live in organized groups are based in most cases on hierarchical structure. Relations between leader and subservient, decided by fighting, involve a thorough observation between individuals. Each member of a group has its own place on the ierarchical scale depending on resultes of fhights – it can be leader or it can be subsurvient, depending on if it wines or looses the fight. Once hierarchical scale made, every animal will adjust its behavior. After analyzing the obtained data we have enough reasons to believe that after fights the winner, usually, is the massive mouse, but it is also very important the sexual ripeness, so the immature male will be beaten. The leader male had a big exploring area and it checks up all territory.The females can be more aggressive, its fights are more brutal, than male fights are, when they fight for supremacy, but in this case fights are not as frequent as in the case of males. Always the superior female, on hierarchical scale, shows males its own statute, so the strongest genes will be perpetuated.
Roberto Magalhães Pinto
Full Text Available The spectrum of intestinal parasites present in the SwissWebster, C57B1/6 and DBA/2 mice strains from different animal houses was identified and prevalences compared. Three parasites were observed during the course ofthis study, namely the cestode. Vampirolepis nana (Siebold, 1852 Spasskii, 1954(=Hymenolepis nana and the nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera (Nitzsch, 1821 Schulz, 1924 and Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802 Seurat, 1916. The scope of thisinvestigation has been widened to also include morphometric data on the parasites, to further simplify their identification, since the presence of helminths in laboratory animals is regarded as a restricting factor for the proper attainment of experimental protocols.
Full Text Available Zoopharmacognosy denotes a constellation of learned ingestive responses that promote healing and survival of infected or poisoned animals. A similar self-medication phenomenon was reported in diseased laboratory rodents. In particular, a series of studies revealed that autoimmune MRL/lpr mice readily consume solutions paired or laced with cyclophosphamide (CY, an immunosuppressive drug that prevents inflammatory damage to internal organs. However, due to design limitations, it could not be elucidated whether such a response reflects the learned therapeutic effect of CY, or a deficit in sensory input. We presently assess the behavioural effects of prolonged consumption of CY-laced, 16% sucrose solution in a continuous choice paradigm, with tap water available ad lib. Contrary to overall expectation, MRL/lpr mice did not increase their intake of CY with disease progression. Moreover, they ingested lower doses of CY and preferred less CY-laced sucrose solution than age-matched controls. The results obtained could not confirm zoopharmacognosy in diseased MRL/lpr mice, likely due to impaired responsiveness to palatable stimulation, or attenuated survival mechanisms after prolonged inbreeding in captivity. However, by revealing the effectiveness of unrestricted drinking of drug-laced sucrose solution on behavior and immunity, the current study supports broader use of such an administration route in behavioural studies sensitive to external stressors.
Leidinger, Charlotte; Herrmann, Felix; Thöne-Reineke, Christa; Baumgart, Nadine; Baumgart, Jan
Establishing new refinement strategies in laboratory animal science is a central goal in fulfilling the requirements of Directive 2010/63/EU. Previous research determined a profound impact of gentle handling protocols on the well-being of laboratory mice. By introducing clicker training to the keeping of mice, not only do we promote the amicable treatment of mice, but we also enable them to experience cognitive enrichment. Clicker training is a form of positive reinforcement training using a conditioned secondary reinforcer, the "click" sound of a clicker, which serves as a time bridge between the strengthened behavior and an upcoming reward. The effective implementation of the clicker training protocol with a cohort of 12 BALB/c inbred mice of each sex proved to be uncomplicated. The mice learned rather quickly when challenged with tasks of the clicker training protocol, and almost all trained mice overcame the challenges they were given (100% of female mice and 83% of male mice). This study has identified that clicker training for mice strongly correlates with reduced fear in the mice during human-mice interactions, as shown by reduced anxiety-related behaviors (e.g., defecation, vocalization, and urination) and fewer depression-like behaviors (e.g., floating). By developing a reliable protocol that can be easily integrated into the daily routine of the keeping of laboratory mice, the lifetime experience of welfare in the mice can be improved substantially.
In terms of total number of publications, the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) has emerged as the most popular test subject in biomedical research. Mice are used as models to study obesity, diabetes, eNS diseases and variety of other pathologies. Mice are classified as homeotherms...
Full Text Available Decreased consumption of dietary fibers, such as cellulose, has been proposed to promote the emergence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD: Crohn disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC] where intestinal microbes are recognized to play an etiologic role. However, it is not known if transient fiber consumption during critical developmental periods may prevent consecutive intestinal inflammation. The incidence of IBD peaks in young adulthood indicating that pediatric environmental exposures may be important in the etiology of this disease group. We studied the effects of transient dietary cellulose supplementation on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS colitis susceptibility during the pediatric period in mice. Cellulose supplementation stimulated substantial shifts in the colonic mucosal microbiome. Several bacterial taxa decreased in relative abundance (e.g., Coriobacteriaceae [p = 0.001], and other taxa increased in abundance (e.g., Peptostreptococcaceae [p = 0.008] and Clostridiaceae [p = 0.048]. Some of these shifts persisted for 10 days following the cessation of cellulose supplementation. The changes in the gut microbiome were associated with transient trophic and anticolitic effects 10 days following the cessation of a cellulose-enriched diet, but these changes diminished by 40 days following reversal to a low cellulose diet. These findings emphasize the transient protective effect of dietary cellulose in the mammalian large bowel and highlight the potential role of dietary fibers in amelioration of intestinal inflammation.
Nagy-Szakal, Dorottya; Hollister, Emily B.; Luna, Ruth Ann; Szigeti, Reka; Tatevian, Nina; Smith, C. Wayne; Versalovic, James; Kellermayer, Richard
Decreased consumption of dietary fibers, such as cellulose, has been proposed to promote the emergence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD: Crohn disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]) where intestinal microbes are recognized to play an etiologic role. However, it is not known if transient fiber consumption during critical developmental periods may prevent consecutive intestinal inflammation. The incidence of IBD peaks in young adulthood indicating that pediatric environmental exposures may be important in the etiology of this disease group. We studied the effects of transient dietary cellulose supplementation on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis susceptibility during the pediatric period in mice. Cellulose supplementation stimulated substantial shifts in the colonic mucosal microbiome. Several bacterial taxa decreased in relative abundance (e.g., Coriobacteriaceae [p = 0.001]), and other taxa increased in abundance (e.g., Peptostreptococcaceae [p = 0.008] and Clostridiaceae [p = 0.048]). Some of these shifts persisted for 10 days following the cessation of cellulose supplementation. The changes in the gut microbiome were associated with transient trophic and anticolitic effects 10 days following the cessation of a cellulose-enriched diet, but these changes diminished by 40 days following reversal to a low cellulose diet. These findings emphasize the transient protective effect of dietary cellulose in the mammalian large bowel and highlight the potential role of dietary fibers in amelioration of intestinal inflammation. PMID:23437211
Purpose: To evaluate the preventive and therapeutic effects of inulin supplementation in Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) male mice fed with high fat diet. Methods: NMRI male mice (n = 36) were divided into three groups. Control (C1), obese (O1) and experimental mice (E1) were fed during 8 weeks as follows: C1 ...
Alizadeh, Hamid; Bazgir, Behzad; Daryanoosh, Farhad; Koushki, Maryam; Sobhani, Vahid
Exercise has positive and negative effects on immune system. Herein, we would like to investigate the effects of incremental aerobic training and fish oil supplementation on the plasma levels of CRP, CPK and IL-17 in trained mice. One of the major roles of immune system is to produce soluble or cellular components that provide the immunity against inflammatory agent. The purpose of this study is to investigate distinct and combine effects of incremental aerobic training and fish oil supplement on plasma levels of IL-17, CPK and CRP in trained male mice. Totally, 54 healthy male mice (2 months old, weight= 34±1 grams) were selected. At first 10 mice were killed to determine base line values, the rest of them were randomly divided into four groups, control group (C, n=11), supplement group (S, n=11), training group (T, n=11) and supplement-training group (ST, n=11).The supplement and supplement-training groups were fed with 0.2cc/day fish oil for 8 weeks. Training and supplement-training groups underwent exercise for 5 sessions per week for a period of 8 weeks on animal treadmill. SPSS 16.0 software and multivariate analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis of data Exercise and fish oil supplement lead to a decrease in CRP levels and subsequently causing a reduction in plasma levels of IL-17 and CK in mice (poil can reduce regulate inflammatory response caused by incremental exercise.
Osadchuk, L B; Salomacheva, I N; Bragin, A V; Osadchuk, A V
In laboratory male mice the effects of social hierarchy on hormonal and spermatogenic testicular function, accessory organs and testicular weights, sexual behaviour have been investigated using an experimental model of social hierarchy, which is characterised by a minimal size (two male mice) and 5 days period of social interactions. The social rank of the partners was detected by asymmetry in aggressive behaviour. Using the experimental condition, when the both partners have no preferences for exclusive use of area we demonstrated that there were no rank differences in the number of mounts and testicular testosterone content. Nevertheless a rank asymmetry in the male sniffing behaviour towards a receptive female, weights of the testes, seminal vesicles, epididymes and the number of epididymal sperm was kept up in a stable social group. Social dominance was found to affect negatively on testicular testosterone increase in response to introduction of a receptive female and sexual attractiveness of male to a receptive female in both dominant and subordinate males. The results obtained demonstrate the impact of social hierarchy on reproduction in laboratory male mice, particular in respect of spermatogenesis and the testicular testosterone in response to a receptive female.
Carbone, Elizabeth T; Kass, Philip H; Evans, Kristin D
Factors that are considered when selecting laboratory mouse bedding include animal health and comfort, cost, effects on personnel, and bioactive properties. Corncob is economical and facilitates low intracage ammonia but has undesirable influences on some endocrine studies. Rice hulls are an economical material that has not been well characterized as a bedding substrate. In this pilot study, we compared various aspects of bedding performance of rice hulls and other materials. On a per-volume basis, rice hulls were less absorbent than was corncob bedding. Rice hulls had higher odds than did corncob or reclaimed wood pulp of having moisture present at the bedding surface. The results of the absorbency tests coupled with the results of preliminary monitoring of intracage ammonia raised concern about the ability of rice hulls to control ammonia levels sufficiently in cages with high occupancy. However, ammonia was negligible when cages contained 5 young adult female mice. The relative expression of 3 cytochrome p450 genes was compared among mice housed on rice hulls, corncob, reclaimed wood pulp, or pine shavings. The expression of Cyp1a2 was 1.7 times higher in the livers of mice housed on rice hulls than on pine shavings, but other differences were not statistically significant. This study provides information on the merits of rice hulls as laboratory mouse bedding. Their relatively poor moisture control is a major disadvantage that might preclude their widespread use.
Carey, Amanda N; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara
Consuming a high-fat diet may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. It has been demonstrated that blueberry supplementation can allay age-related behavioral deficits. To determine if supplementation of a high-fat diet with blueberries offers protection against putative high-fat diet-related declines, 9-month-old C57Bl/6 mice were maintained on low-fat (10% fat calories) or high-fat (60% fat calories) diets with and without 4% freeze-dried blueberry powder. Novel object recognition memory was impaired by the high-fat diet; after 4 months on the high-fat diet, mice spent 50% of their time on the novel object in the testing trial, performing no greater than chance performance. Blueberry supplementation prevented recognition memory deficits after 4 months on the diets, as mice on this diet spent 67% of their time on the novel object. After 5 months on the diets, mice consuming the high-fat diet passed through the platform location less often than mice on low-fat diets during probe trials on days 2 and 3 of Morris water maze testing, whereas mice consuming the high-fat blueberry diet passed through the platform location as often as mice on the low-fat diets. This study is a first step in determining if incorporating more nutrient-dense foods into a high-fat diet can allay cognitive dysfunction.
Baroni, C; Marchionni, S
The use of calcium-phosphate casein on hypomineralized molars (molar incisor hypomineralization, MIH) has been proposed but not clinically investigated. Qualitative and quantitative effects of supplementation with a calcium-phosphate casein product on MIH molars were monitored over a period of three years. Molar replicas, minimally invasive biopsies and their SEM microphotographs, plus ESEM/EDX semi-quantitative peaks of elements present in affected enamel were evaluated. Mineralization, morphology, and porosity appeared markedly improved, with calcium and phosphate levels reaching almost normal levels at three years' follow-up. The hypothesis tested was rejected, since calcium-phosphate casein improved enamel morphology in vivo.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginseng berry extract on insulin sensitivity and associated molecular mechanisms in aged mice. C57BL/6 mice (15 months old were maintained on a regular diet (CON or a regular diet supplemented with 0.05% ginseng berry extract (GBD for 24 or 32 weeks. GBD-fed mice showed significantly lower serum insulin levels (p = 0.016 and insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR (p = 0.012, suggesting that GBD improved insulin sensitivity. Pancreatic islet hypertrophy was also ameliorated in GBD-fed mice (p = 0.007. Protein levels of tyrosine phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1 (p = 0.047, and protein kinase B (AKT (p = 0.037, were up-regulated in the muscle of insulin-injected GBD-fed mice compared with CON-fed mice. The expressions of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1 (p = 0.036 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ (p = 0.032, which are known as aging- and insulin resistance-related genes, were also increased in the muscle of GBD-fed mice. We conclude that ginseng berry extract consumption might increase activation of IRS-1 and AKT, contributing to the improvement of insulin sensitivity in aged mice.
Sang Su Kwak
Full Text Available This study reports an amelioration of abnormal motor behaviors in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice by the dietary supplementation of tyrosine. Since BH4 is an essential cofactor for the conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine as well as the synthesis of dopamine neurotransmitter within the central nervous system, the levels of tyrosine and dopamine were severely reduced in brains of BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice. We found that Spr (-/- mice display variable 'open-field' behaviors, impaired motor functions on the 'rotating rod', and dystonic 'hind-limb clasping'. In this study, we report that these aberrant motor deficits displayed by Spr (-/- mice were ameliorated by the therapeutic tyrosine diet for 10 days. This study also suggests that dopamine deficiency in brains of Spr (-/- mice may not be the biological feature of aberrant motor behaviors associated with BH4 deficiency. Brain levels of dopamine (DA and its metabolites in Spr (-/- mice were not substantially increased by the dietary tyrosine therapy. However, we found that mTORC1 activity severely suppressed in brains of Spr (-/- mice fed a normal diet was restored 10 days after feeding the mice the tyrosine diet. The present study proposes that brain mTORC1 signaling pathway is one of the potential targets in understanding abnormal motor behaviors associated with BH4-deficiency.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the effects of bovine colostrum on exercise –induced modulation of antioxidant parameters in skeletal muscle in mice. Adult male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (control, colostrum alone, exercise and exercise with colostrum and each group had three subgroups (day 0, 21 and 42. Colostrum groups of mice were given a daily oral supplement of 50 mg/kg body weight of bovine colostrum and the exercise group of mice were made to exercise on the treadmill for 30 minutes per day. Total antioxidants, lipid hydroperoxides, xanthine oxidase and super oxide dismutase level was assayed from the homogenate of hind limb skeletal muscle. Results Exercise—induced a significant oxidative stress in skeletal muscles as evidenced by the elevated lipid hydroperoxides and xanthine oxidase levels. There was a significant decrease in skeletal muscle total antioxidants and superoxide dismutase levels. Daily colostrum supplement significantly reduced the lipid hydroperoxides and xanthine oxidase enzyme level and increased the total antioxidant levels in the leg muscle. Conclusion Thus, the findings of this study showed that daily bovine colostrum supplementation was beneficial to skeletal muscle to reduce the oxidant-induced damage during muscular exercise.
Sánchez-Fidalgo, Susana; Cárdeno, Ana; Villegas, Isabel; Talero, Elena; de la Lastra, Catalina Alarcón
Ulcerative colitis is a nonspecific inflammatory disorder characterized by oxidative and nitrosative stress, leucocyte infiltration and upregulation of inflammatory mediators. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound found in grapes and wine, with multiple pharmacological actions, mainly anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour and immunomodulatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary resveratrol on chronic dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Six-week-old mice were randomized into two dietary groups: one standard diet and the other enriched with resveratrol at 20mg/kg of diet. After 30days, mice were exposed to 3% DSS for 5days developing acute colitis that progressed to severe chronic inflammation after 21days of water. Our results demonstrated that resveratrol group significantly attenuated the clinical signs such as loss of body weight, diarrhea and rectal bleeding improving results from disease activity index and inflammatory score. Moreover, the totality of resveratrol-fed animals survived and finished the treatment while animals fed with standard diet showed a mortality of 40%. Three weeks after DSS removal, the polyphenol caused substantial reductions of the rise of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta and an increase of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Also resveratrol reduced prostaglandin E synthase-1 (PGES-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) proteins expression, via downregulation of p38, a mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signal pathway. We conclude that resveratrol diet represents a novel approach to the treatment of chronic intestinal inflammation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Jing; Anandh Babu, Pon Velayutham; Zhang, Wei; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Cline, Mark; McMillan, Ryan; Hulver, Matthew; Alkhalidy, Hana; Zhen, Wei; Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Dongmin
Obesity and diabetes are growing health problems worldwide. In this study, dietary provision of Chinese ginseng (0.5 g/kg diet) prevented body weight gain in high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Dietary ginseng supplementation reduced body fat mass gain, improved glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity, and prevented hypertension in HF diet-induced obese mice. Ginseng consumption led to reduced concentrations of plasma insulin and leptin, but had no effect on plasma adiponectin levels in HF diet-fed mice. Body temperature was higher in mice fed the ginseng-supplemented diet but energy expenditure, respiration rate, and locomotive activity were not significantly altered. Dietary intake of ginseng increased fatty acid oxidation in the liver but not in skeletal muscle. Expression of several transcription factors associated with adipogenesis (C/EBPα and PPARγ) were decreased in the adipose tissue of HF diet-fed mice, effects that were mitigated in mice that consumed the HF diet supplemented with ginseng. Abundance of fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNA was greater in the adipose tissue of mice that consumed the ginseng-supplemented HF diet as compared with control or un-supplemented HF diet-fed mice. Ginseng treatment had no effect on the expression of genes involved in the regulation of food intake in the hypothalamus. These data suggest that Chinese ginseng can potently prevent the development of obesity and insulin resistance in HF diet-fed mice.
Full Text Available C57BL/6 mice were tested in order to investigate the effects of dietary chitosan (COS supplements on intestinal microflora and resistance to Citrobacter rodentium infection. The findings reveal that, after consuming a 300 mg/kg COS diet for 14 days, microflora became more diverse as a result of the supplement. Mice receiving COS exhibited an increase in the percentage of Bacteroidetes phylum and a decrease in the percentage of Firmicutes phylum. After Citrobacter rodentium infection, the histopathology scores indicated that COS feeding resulted in less severe colitis. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly lower in colon from COS-feeding mice than those in the control group. Furthermore, mice in COS group were also found to experience inhibited activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB in the colonic tissue. Overall, the findings revealed that adding 300 mg/kg COS to the diet changed the composition of the intestinal microflora of mice, resulting in suppressed NF-κB activation and less production of TNF-α and IL-6; and these changes led to better control of inflammation and resolution of infection with C. rodentium.
Garvey, Sarah L.; Shahmohammadi, Golbon; McLain, Derek R.; Dietz, Mark L.
A laboratory experiment is described in which students compare two methods for the determination of the calcium content of commercial dietary supplement tablets. In a two-week sequence, the sample tablets are first analyzed via complexometric titration with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and then, following ion exchange of the calcium ion present…
Alizadeh, Hamid; Bazgir, Behzad; Daryanoosh, Farhad; Koushki, Maryam; Sobhani, Vahid
Background: Exercise has positive and negative effects on immune system. Herein, we would like to investigate the effects of incremental aerobic training and fish oil supplementation on the plasma levels of CRP, CPK and IL-17 in trained mice. One of the major roles of immune system is to produce soluble or cellular components that provide the immunity against inflammatory agent. The purpose of this study is to investigate distinct and combine effects of incremental aerobic training and fish o...
Kohara, Akiko; Machida, Masanao; Setoguchi, Yuko; Ito, Ryouichi; Sugitani, Masanori; Maruki-Uchida, Hiroko; Inagaki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Tatsuhiko; Omi, Naomi; Takemasa, Tohru
Enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ) is produced from rutin using enzymatic hydrolysis followed by treatment with glycosyltransferase in the presence of dextrin to add glucose residues. EMIQ is absorbed in the same way as quercetin, a powerful antioxidant reported to prevent disused muscle atrophy by targeting mitochondria and to have ergogenic effects. The present study investigated the effect of EMIQ on skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by functional overload. In Study 1, 6-week-old ICR male mice were divided into 4 groups: sham-operated control, sham-operated EMIQ, overload-operated control, and overload-operated EMIQ groups. In Study 2, mice were divided into 3 groups: overload-operated whey control, overload-operated whey/EMIQ (low dose), and overload-operated whey/EMIQ (high dose) groups. The functional overload of the plantaris muscle was induced by ablation of the synergist (gastrocnemius and soleus) muscles. EMIQ and whey protein were administered with food. Three weeks after the operation, the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle fibers were measured. In Study 1, functional overload increased the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle. EMIQ supplementation significantly increased the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle in both the sham-operated and overload-operated groups. In Study 2, EMIQ supplementation combined with whey protein administration significantly increased the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle. EMIQ, even when administered as an addition to whey protein supplementation, significantly intensified the fiber hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle in functionally overloaded mice. EMIQ supplementation also induced fiber hypertrophy of the plantaris in sham-operated mice.
Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J.; Tang, Louisa S.; Triplett, Aleata; Aleman, Frank; Finnell, Richard H.
Splotch (Sp/Sp) mice homozygous for a mutation in the Pax3 gene inevitably present with neural tube defects (NTDs), along with other associated congenital anomalies. The affected mutant embryos usually die by gestation days (E) 12-13. In the present study, the effect of modifier genes from a new genetic background (CXL-Sp) and periconceptional supplementation with selected micronutrients (folic acid, 5-formyltetrahydrofolate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, methionine, myoinositol, thiamine, thymidine, and α-tocopherol) was determined with respect to the incidence of NTDs. In order to explore how different exposure parameters (time, dose, and route of compound administration) modulate the beneficial effects of micronutrient supplementation, female mice received either short- or long-term nutrient supplements via enteral or parenteral routes. Embryos were collected on E12.5 and examined for the presence of anterior or posterior NTDs. Additionally, whole mount in situ hybridization studies were conducted in order to reveal/confirm normal expression patterns of the Pax3 gene during neurulation in the wild-type and Sp/Sp homozygous mutant mouse embryos utilized in this study. A strong Pax3 signal was demonstrated in CXL-Sp embryos during neural tube closure (E9.5 to E10.5). The intensity and spatial pattern of expression were similar to other Splotch mutant mice. Of all the micronutrients tested, only supplementation with folic acid or 5-methyltetrahydrofolate rescued the normal phenotype in Sp/Sp embryos. When the folate supplementation dose was increased to 200 mg/kg in the diet, the incidence of rescued splotch homozygotes reached 30%; however, this was accompanied by six-fold increased resorption rate
Full Text Available As major components of neuronal membranes, omega-3 polyunsaturated acids (n-3 PUFA exhibit a wide range of regulatory functions, modulating from synaptic plasticity to neuroinflammation, from oxidative stress to neuroprotection. Recent human and animal studies indicated the n-3 PUFA neuroprotective properties in aging, with a clear negative correlation between n-3 PUFA levels and hippocampal deficits. The present multidimensional study was aimed at associating cognition, hippocampal neurogenesis, volume, neurodegeneration and metabolic correlates to verify n-3 PUFA neuroprotective effects in aging. To this aim 19 month-old mice were given n-3 PUFA mixture, or olive oil or no dietary supplement for 8 weeks during which hippocampal-dependent mnesic functions were tested. At the end of behavioral testing morphological and metabolic correlates were analyzed. n-3 PUFA supplemented aged mice exhibited better object recognition memory, spatial and localizatory memory, and aversive response retention, without modifications in anxiety levels in comparison to controls. These improved hippocampal cognitive functions occurred in the context of an enhanced cellular plasticity and a reduced neurodegeneration. In fact, n-3 PUFA supplementation increased hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic arborization of newborn neurons, volume, neuronal density and microglial cell number, while it decreased apoptosis, astrocytosis and lipofuscin accumulation in the hippocampus. The increased levels of some metabolic correlates (blood Acetyl-L-Carnitine and brain n-3 PUFA concentrations found in n-3 PUFA supplemented mice also pointed towards an effective neuroprotection.On the basis of the present results n-3 PUFA supplementation appears to be a useful tool in health promotion and cognitive decline prevention during aging.
Full Text Available Curcumin (CCM is a well-known phytocompound and food component found in the spice turmeric and has multifunctional bioactivities. However, few studies have examined its effects on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CCM supplementation on fatigue and ergogenic function following physical challenge in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups to receive vehicle or CCM (180 μg/mL by oral gavage at 0, 12.3, 24.6, or 61.5 mL/kg/day for four weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated after physical challenge by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of physical fatigue-associated biomarkers serum lactate, ammonia, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, and glucose and tissue damage markers such as aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, and creatine kinase (CK. CCM supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength and endurance performance and significantly decreased lactate, ammonia, BUN, AST, ALT, and CK levels after physical challenge. Muscular glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased. CCM supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. CCM supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, improving exercise performance and preventing fatigue.
The US Department of Energy (DOE), prepared a draft Supplement Analysis (SA) for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL-L), in accordance with DOE`s requirements for implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (10 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 1021.314). It considers whether the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (1992 EIS/EIR) should be supplement3ed, whether a new environmental impact statement (EIS) should be prepared, or no further NEPA documentation is required. The SA examines the current project and program plans and proposals for LLNL and SNL-L, operations to identify new or modified projects or operations or new information for the period from 1998 to 2002 that was not considered in the 1992 EIS/EIR. When such changes, modifications, and information are identified, they are examined to determine whether they could be considered substantial or significant in reference to the 1992 proposed action and the 1993 Record of Decision (ROD). DOE released the draft SA to the public to obtain stakeholder comments and to consider those comments in the preparation of the final SA. DOE distributed copies of the draft SA to those who were known to have an interest in LLNL or SNL-L activities in addition to those who requested a copy. In response to comments received, DOE prepared this Comment Response Document.
Grajeda-Iglesias, Claudia; Rom, Oren; Hamoud, Shadi; Volkova, Nina; Hayek, Tony; Abu-Saleh, Niroz; Aviram, Michael
Whereas atherogenicity of dietary lipids has been largely studied, relatively little is known about the possible contribution of dietary amino acids to macrophage foam-cell formation, a hallmark of early atherogenesis. Recently, we showed that leucine has antiatherogenic properties in the macrophage model system. In this study, an in-depth investigation of the role of leucine in macrophage lipid metabolism was conducted by supplementing humans, mice, or cultured macrophages with leucine. Macrophage incubation with serum obtained from healthy adults supplemented with leucine (5 g/d, 3 weeks) significantly decreased cellular cholesterol mass by inhibiting the rate of cholesterol biosynthesis and increasing cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Similarly, leucine supplementation to C57BL/6 mice (8 weeks) resulted in decreased cholesterol content in their harvested peritoneal macrophages (MPM) in relation with reduced cholesterol biosynthesis rate. Studies in J774A.1 murine macrophages revealed that leucine dose-dependently decreased cellular cholesterol and triglyceride mass. Macrophages treated with leucine (0.2 mM) showed attenuated uptake of very low-density lipoproteins and triglyceride biosynthesis rate, with a concurrent down-regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1, a key enzyme catalyzing triglyceride biosynthesis in macrophages. Similar effects were observed when macrophages were treated with α-ketoisocaproate, a key leucine metabolite. Finally, both in vivo and in vitro leucine supplementation significantly improved macrophage mitochondrial respiration and ATP production. The above studies, conducted in human, mice, and cultured macrophages, highlight a protective role for leucine attenuating macrophage foam-cell formation by mechanisms related to the metabolism of cholesterol, triglycerides, and energy production. © 2018 BioFactors, 2018. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Febiyanto, Novian; Yamazaki, Chiho; Kameo, Satomi; Sari, Dian K; Puspitasari, Irma M; Sunjaya, Deni K; Herawati, Dewi M D; Nugraha, Gaga I; Fukuda, Toshio; Koyama, Hiroshi
Oxidative stress in obesity leads to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Some selenoproteins possess antioxidant properties, suggesting that selenium (Se) may protect against type 2 diabetes; however, evidence from epidemiological studies is contradictory. We hypothesized that Se status before supplementation (baseline) contributes to the supplementation outcome. This study aimed to clarify the influence of baseline Se status on the effect of Se supplementation on the diabetic condition. Six-week-old KKAy mice were fed a diet without supplemental Se or with 0.1 ppm Se in the form of L-selenomethionine (SeM) for 2 weeks to create low-Se and sufficient-Se baseline statuses, respectively. For the next 4 weeks, low-Se mice were given a SeM (0.5 ppm Se)-supplemented diet, and sufficient-Se mice were given either a SeM (0.5 ppm Se)- or sodium selenite (0.5 ppm Se)-supplemented diet; control groups continued on baseline diets. Serum Se concentrations, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, adiponectin levels, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity were analyzed. All mice became diabetic during the 2-week baseline induction period. At the end of the supplementation period, Se-receiving groups demonstrated significantly higher Se concentrations and GPx activities than their respective controls. Sufficient-Se mice receiving SeM had lower blood glucose levels and better insulin sensitivity than control and sodium selenite-receiving mice, whereas low-Se mice receiving SeM showed no such improvements compared with their controls. Our results suggest that Se supplementation in the form of SeM may help prevent type 2 diabetes aggravation in people taking the 55 μg/day Se recommended dietary allowance.
Danique van Vliet
Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU was the first disorder in which severe neurocognitive dysfunction could be prevented by dietary treatment. However, despite this effect, neuropsychological outcome in PKU still remains suboptimal and the phenylalanine-restricted diet is very demanding. To improve neuropsychological outcome and relieve the dietary restrictions for PKU patients, supplementation of large neutral amino acids (LNAA is suggested as alternative treatment strategy that might correct all brain biochemical disturbances caused by high blood phenylalanine, and thereby improve neurocognitive functioning.As a proof-of-principle, this study aimed to investigate all hypothesized biochemical treatment objectives of LNAA supplementation (normalizing brain phenylalanine, non-phenylalanine LNAA, and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations in PKU mice.C57Bl/6 Pah-enu2 (PKU mice and wild-type mice received a LNAA supplemented diet, an isonitrogenic/isocaloric high-protein control diet, or normal chow. After six weeks of dietary treatment, blood and brain amino acid and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations were assessed.In PKU mice, the investigated LNAA supplementation regimen significantly reduced blood and brain phenylalanine concentrations by 33% and 26%, respectively, compared to normal chow (p<0.01, while alleviating brain deficiencies of some but not all supplemented LNAA. Moreover, LNAA supplementation in PKU mice significantly increased brain serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations from 35% to 71% and from 57% to 86% of wild-type concentrations (p<0.01, respectively, but not brain dopamine concentrations (p = 0.307.This study shows that LNAA supplementation without dietary phenylalanine restriction in PKU mice improves brain biochemistry through all three hypothesized biochemical mechanisms. Thereby, these data provide proof-of-concept for LNAA supplementation as a valuable alternative dietary treatment strategy in PKU. Based on these
Ellery, Stacey J; LaRosa, Domenic A; Kett, Michelle M; Della Gatta, Paul A; Snow, Rod J; Walker, David W; Dickinson, Hayley
Recent evidence obtained from a rodent model of birth asphyxia shows that supplementation of the maternal diet with creatine during pregnancy protects the neonate from multi-organ damage. However, the effect of increasing creatine intake on creatine homeostasis and biosynthesis in females, particularly during pregnancy, is unknown. This study assessed the impact of creatine supplementation on creatine homeostasis, body composition, capacity for de novo creatine synthesis and renal excretory function in non-pregnant and pregnant spiny mice. Mid-gestation pregnant and virgin spiny mice were fed normal chow or chow supplemented with 5 % w/w creatine for 18 days. Weight gain, urinary creatine and electrolyte excretion were assessed during supplementation. At post mortem, body composition was assessed by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or tissues were collected to assess creatine content and mRNA expression of the creatine synthesising enzymes arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) and the creatine transporter (CrT1). Protein expression of AGAT and GAMT was also assessed by Western blot. Key findings of this study include no changes in body weight or composition with creatine supplementation; increased urinary creatine excretion in supplemented spiny mice, with increased sodium (P < 0.001) and chloride (P < 0.05) excretion in pregnant dams after 3 days of supplementation; lowered renal AGAT mRNA (P < 0.001) and protein (P < 0.001) expressions, and lowered CrT1 mRNA expression in the kidney (P < 0.01) and brain (P < 0.001). Creatine supplementation had minimal impact on creatine homeostasis in either non-pregnant or pregnant spiny mice. Increasing maternal dietary creatine consumption could be a useful treatment for birth asphyxia.
Full Text Available Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public’s attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. Purpose: In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA-rich sake protein (SP to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC, and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP. Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. Results: four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine, and uric acid (UA were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. Conclusion: The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training.
Chen, Yi-Ming; Lin, Che-Li; Wei, Li; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Chen, Kuan-Neng; Huang, Chi-Chang; Kao, Chin-Hsung
Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public's attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET) program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-rich sake protein (SP) to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group) for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP) weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and uric acid (UA) were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training.
Passman, Adam M; Strauss, Robyn P; McSpadden, Sarah B; Finch-Edmondson, Megan L; Woo, Ken H; Diepeveen, Luke A; London, Roslyn; Callus, Bernard A; Yeoh, George C
The choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) dietary model induces chronic liver damage, and stimulates liver progenitor cell (LPC)-mediated repair. Long-term CDE administration leads to hepatocellular carcinoma in rodents and lineage-tracing studies show that LPCs differentiate into functional hepatocytes in this model. The CDE diet was first modified for mice by our laboratory by separately administering choline-deficient chow and ethionine in the drinking water (CD+E diet). Although this CD+E diet is widely used, concerns with variability in weight loss, morbidity, mortality and LPC response have been raised by researchers who have adopted this model. We propose that these inconsistencies are due to differential consumption of chow and ethionine in the drinking water, and that incorporating ethionine in the choline-deficient chow, and altering the strength, will achieve better outcomes. Therefore, C57Bl/6 mice, 5 and 6 weeks of age, were fed an all-inclusive CDE diet of various strengths (67% to 100%) for 3 weeks. The LPC response was quantitated and cell lines were derived. We found that animal survival, LPC response and liver damage are correlated with CDE diet strength. The 67% and 75% CDE diet administered to mice older than 5 weeks and greater than 18 g provides a consistent and acceptable level of animal welfare and induces a substantial LPC response, permitting their isolation and establishment of cell lines. This study shows that an all-inclusive CDE diet for mice reproducibly induces an LPC response conducive to in vivo studies and isolation, whilst minimizing morbidity and mortality. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Adam M. Passman
Full Text Available The choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE dietary model induces chronic liver damage, and stimulates liver progenitor cell (LPC-mediated repair. Long-term CDE administration leads to hepatocellular carcinoma in rodents and lineage-tracing studies show that LPCs differentiate into functional hepatocytes in this model. The CDE diet was first modified for mice by our laboratory by separately administering choline-deficient chow and ethionine in the drinking water (CD+E diet. Although this CD+E diet is widely used, concerns with variability in weight loss, morbidity, mortality and LPC response have been raised by researchers who have adopted this model. We propose that these inconsistencies are due to differential consumption of chow and ethionine in the drinking water, and that incorporating ethionine in the choline-deficient chow, and altering the strength, will achieve better outcomes. Therefore, C57Bl/6 mice, 5 and 6 weeks of age, were fed an all-inclusive CDE diet of various strengths (67% to 100% for 3 weeks. The LPC response was quantitated and cell lines were derived. We found that animal survival, LPC response and liver damage are correlated with CDE diet strength. The 67% and 75% CDE diet administered to mice older than 5 weeks and greater than 18 g provides a consistent and acceptable level of animal welfare and induces a substantial LPC response, permitting their isolation and establishment of cell lines. This study shows that an all-inclusive CDE diet for mice reproducibly induces an LPC response conducive to in vivo studies and isolation, whilst minimizing morbidity and mortality.
Full Text Available Spatial learning and memory deficits associated with hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairments are commonly observed during aging. Besides, the beneficial role of dietary polyphenols has been suggested as potential functional food candidates to prevent this memory decline. Indeed, polyphenols could potentiate the signaling pathways of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. In this study, spatial learning deficits of middle-aged mice were first highlighted and characterized according to navigation patterns in the Morris water maze task. An eight-week polyphenol-enriched diet, containing a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB (from the Neurophenols Consortium with high contents of flavonoids, stilbenes and phenolic acids, was then successful in reversing these age-induced effects. The use of spatial strategies was indeed delayed with aging whereas a polyphenol supplementation could promote the occurrence of spatial strategies. These behavioral results were associated with neurobiological changes: while the expression of hippocampal CaMKII mRNA levels was reduced in middle-aged animals, the polyphenol-enriched diet could rescue them. Besides, an increased expression of NGF mRNA levels was also observed in supplemented adult and middle-aged mice. Thus these data suggest that supplementation with polyphenols could be an efficient nutritional way to prevent age-induced cognitive decline.
Vento, Peter J; Swartz, Megan E; Martin, Lisa Be; Daniels, Derek
The benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole (FBZ) is a common and effective treatment for pinworm infestation in laboratory animal colonies. Although many investigators have examined the potential for deleterious biologic effects of FBZ, more subtle aspects of the treatment remain untested. Accordingly, we evaluated differences in food intake when healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided a standard nonmedicated laboratory rodent chow or the same chow supplemented with FBZ. We also tested for a preference for either food type when subjects were provided a choice of the 2 diets. Data from these experiments showed no differences in food intake or body weight when rats were maintained on either standard or FBZ-supplemented chow. When the rats were given access to both the standard and FBZ-supplemented diets, they showed a clear preference for the standard diet. The preference for the standard diet indicates that the rats can discriminate between the 2 foods and may avoid the FBZ-supplemented chow when possible. Investigators conducting experiments during treatment with FBZ in which differences in food preference are relevant should be aware of these data and plan their studies accordingly.
Full Text Available The metabolic effects of carbohydrate supplementation in mice have not been extensively studied. In rats, glucose- and fructose-rich diets induce hypertriacylglycerolemia. In the present study, we compared the metabolic responses to two monosaccharide supplementations in two murine models. Adult male Wistar rats (N = 80 and C57BL/6 mice (N = 60, after 3 weeks on a standardized diet, were submitted to dietary supplementation by gavage with glucose (G or fructose (F solutions (500 g/L, 8 g/kg body weight for 21 days. Glycemia was significantly higher in rats after fructose treatment (F: 7.9 vs 9.3 mM and in mice (G: 6.5 vs 10 and F: 6.6 vs 8.9 mM after both carbohydrate treatments. Triacylglycerolemia increased significantly 1.5 times in rats after G or F supplementation. Total cholesterol did not change with G treatment in rats, but did decrease after F supplementation (1.5 vs 1.4 mM, P < 0.05. Both supplementations in rats induced insulin resistance, as suggested by the higher Homeostasis Model Assessment Index. In contrast, mice showed significant decreases in triacylglycerol (G: 1.8 vs 1.4 and F: 1.9 vs 1.4 mM, P < 0.01 and total cholesterol levels (G and F: 2.7 vs 2.5 mM, P < 0.05 after both monosaccharide supplementations. Wistar rats and C57BL/6 mice, although belonging to the same family (Muridae, presented opposite responses to glucose and fructose supplementation regarding serum triacylglycerol, free fatty acids, and insulin levels after monosaccharide treatment. Thus, while Wistar rats developed features of plurimetabolic syndrome, C57BL/6 mice presented changes in serum biochemical profile considered to be healthier for the cardiovascular system.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic foot ulcers are serious complications for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlines the treatment of these diabetic complications remains unclear. We hypothesized that dietary antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, combined either with vitamin E or with vitamin E and NAC, improves delayed wound healing through modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. Methods Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Mice were divided into 4 groups; CON (non-diabetic control mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, DM (diabetic mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, VCE (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C and 0.5% vitamin E supplemented diet, and Comb (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C, 0.5% vitamin E, and 2.5% NAC supplemented diet. After 10 days of dietary antioxidant supplementation, cutaneous full-thickness excisional wounds were performed, and the rate of wound closure was examined. TBARS as lipid peroxidation products and vitamin E levels were measured in the liver. Expression levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory response related proteins were measured in the cutaneous wound site. Results Dietary antioxidant supplementation improved blood glucose levels and wound closure rate and increased liver vitamin E, but not liver TBARS levels in the diabetic mice as compared to those of the CON. In addition, dietary antioxidant supplementation modulated the expression levels of pIκBα, HO-1, CuZnSOD, iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the diabetic mice. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that delayed wound healing is associated with an inflammatory response induced by hyperglycaemia, and suggests that dietary antioxidant supplementation may have beneficial effects on wound healing through selective modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response.
Sun, Qian; Zhang, Wenliang; Zhong, Wei; Sun, Xinguo; Zhou, Zhanxiang
Overproduction of reactive oxygen species is associated with the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Plant polyphenols have been used as dietary interventions for multiple diseases including ALD. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with fisetin, a novel flavonoid, exerts beneficial effect on alcohol-induced liver injury. C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed with the Lieber-DeCarli control or ethanol (EtOH) diet for 4 weeks with or without fisetin supplementation at 10 mg/kg/d. Alcohol feeding induced lipid accumulation in the liver and increased plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, which were attenuated by fisetin supplementation. The EtOH concentrations in the plasma and liver were significantly elevated by alcohol exposure but were reduced by fisetin supplementation. Although fisetin did not affect the protein expression of alcohol metabolism enzymes, the aldehyde dehydrogenase activities were significantly increased by fisetin compared to the alcohol alone group. In addition, fisetin supplementation remarkably reduced hepatic NADPH oxidase 4 levels along with decreased plasma hydrogen peroxide and hepatic superoxide and 4-hydroxynonenal levels after alcohol exposure. Alcohol-induced apoptosis and up-regulation of Fas and cleaved caspase-3 in the liver were prevented by fisetin. Moreover, fisetin supplementation attenuated alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis through increasing plasma adiponectin levels and hepatic protein levels of p-AMPK, ACOX1, CYP4A, and MTTP. This study demonstrated that the protective effect of fisetin on ALD is achieved by accelerating EtOH clearance and inhibition of oxidative stress. The data suggest that fisetin has a therapeutical potential for treating ALD. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Deplancke, Bart; Finster, Kai; Graham, W Vallen; Collier, Chad T; Thurmond, Joel E; Gaskins, H Rex
There is increasing evidence that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced by intestinal sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of chronic diseases such as ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer. The activity of SRB, and thus H2S production, is likely determined by the availability of sulfur-containing compounds in the intestine. However, little is known about the impact of dietary or inorganic sulfate on intestinal sulfate and SRB-derived H2S concentrations. In this study, the effects of short-term (7 day) and long-term (1 year) inorganic sulfate supplementation of the drinking water on gastrointestinal (GI) sulfate and H2S concentrations (and thus activity of resident SRBs), and the density of large intestinal sulfomucin-containing goblet cells, were examined in C3H/HeJBir mice. Additionally, a PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based molecular ecology technique was used to examine the impact of sulfate-amended drinking water on microbial community structure throughout the GI tract. Average H2S concentrations ranged from 0.1 mM (stomach) to 1 mM (cecum). A sulfate reduction assay demonstrated in situ production of H2S throughout the GI tract, confirming the presence of SRB. However, H2S generation and concentrations were greatest in the cecum and colon. Sulfate supplementation of drinking water did not significantly increase intestinal sulfate or H2S concentrations, suggesting that inorganic sulfate is not an important modulator of intestinal H2S concentrations, although it altered the bacterial profiles of the stomach and distal colon of 1-year-old mice. This change in colonic bacterial profiles may reflect a corresponding increase in the density of sulfomucin-containing goblet cells in sulfate-supplemented compared with control mice.
Full Text Available We describe a cage to be used for foster nursing in order to guarantee that original mother's colostrum is not ingested by the newborn mice. A common (30.5 cm x 19.5 cm x 12.0 cm mouse cage was fitted with a wire net tray with a mesh (1 cm x 1 cm, which divides the cage into an upper and a lower compartment. Mice born to females placed in the upper compartment pass through the mesh and fall into the lower compartment, where another lactating female with one or two of its own pups are. Of a total of 28 newborn mice of C3H/He and Swiss strains, 23 were successfully fostered. Important observations are presented to show that this is a valuable alternative for foster studies without great suffering on the part of the female.
Loo, P.L. van; Blom, H.J.; Meijer, M.K.; Baumans, V.
In the field of biomedical research, the demand for standardization of environmental enrichment for laboratory animals is growing. For laboratory mice, a wide variety of environmental enrichment items are commercially available. Most of these comply with the demands for standardization, hygiene and
Baumans, V.; Loo, P.L.P. van; Pham, T.M.
Rats and mice are the most commonly used species as laboratory animal models of diseases in biomedical research. Environmental factors such as cage size, number of cage mates and cage structure such as environmental enrichment can affect the physiology and behavioural development of laboratory
Full Text Available In this study, we tested the hypothesis that NAC administration leads to reduced oxidative stress and thus to decreased expression of autophagy markers in young mice. Our results reveal that NAC administration results in reduced muscle mRNA levels of several autophagy markers, including Beclin-1, Atg7, LC3, Atg9, and LAMP2. However, NAC supplement fails to block the activation of skeletal muscle autophagy in response to fasting, because fasting significantly increases the mRNA level of several autophagy markers and LC3 lipidation. We further examined the effects of NAC administration on mitochondrial antioxidant capacity in fed and 24-hour fasted mice. Our results clearly show that NAC administration depresses the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR, both of which play a predominant antioxidant role in mitochondria by reducing ROS level. In addition, we found no beneficial effect of NAC supplement on muscle mass but it can protect from muscle loss in response to fasting. Collectively, our findings indicate that ROS is required for skeletal muscle constitutive autophagy, rather than starvation-induced autophagy, and that antioxidant NAC inhibits constitutive autophagy by the regulation of mitochondrial ROS production and antioxidant capacity.
Matina C Kalcounis-Rueppell
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs emitted by muroid rodents, including laboratory mice and rats, are used as phenotypic markers in behavioral assays and biomedical research. Interpretation of these USVs depends on understanding the significance of USV production by rodents in the wild. However, there has never been a study of muroid rodent ultrasound function in the wild and comparisons of USVs produced by wild and laboratory rodents are lacking to date. Here, we report the first comparison of wild and captive rodent USVs recorded from the same species, Peromyscus californicus. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used standard ultrasound recording techniques to measure USVs from California mice in the laboratory (Peromyscus Genetic Stock Center, SC, USA and the wild (Hastings Natural History Reserve, CA, USA. To determine which California mouse in the wild was vocalizing, we used a remote sensing method that used a 12-microphone acoustic localization array coupled with automated radio telemetry of all resident Peromyscus californicus in the area of the acoustic localization array. California mice in the laboratory and the wild produced the same types of USV motifs. However, wild California mice produced USVs that were 2-8 kHz higher in median frequency and significantly more variable in frequency than laboratory California mice. SIGNIFICANCE: The similarity in overall form of USVs from wild and laboratory California mice demonstrates that production of USVs by captive Peromyscus is not an artifact of captivity. Our study validates the widespread use of USVs in laboratory rodents as behavioral indicators but highlights that particular characteristics of laboratory USVs may not reflect natural conditions.
Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Tzeng, Yen-Dun
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related biochemical responses and testosterone content in young-adult C57BL/6 mice. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) for 6-weeks treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), DHEA supplementation (DHEA, 10.2 mg/kg), WBV training (WBV; 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g), and WBV training with DHEA supplementation (WBV+DHEA; WBV: 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g and DHEA: 10.2 mg/kg). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after a 15-min swimming exercise. In addition, the biochemical parameters and the testosterone content were measured at the end of the experiment. Six-week DHEA supplementation alone significantly increased mice body weight (BW), muscle weight, testosterone level, and glycogen contents (liver and muscle) when compared with SC group. DHEA supplementation alone had no negative impact on all tissue and biochemical profiles, but could not improve exercise performance. However, WBV+DHEA supplementation also significantly decreased BW, testosterone level and glycogen content of liver, as well as serum
Shi, Fang; Sheng, Qin; Xu, Xinhua; Huang, Wenli; Kang, Y James
Metallothionein (MT) gene therapy leads to resolution of liver fibrosis in mouse model, in which the activation of collagenases is involved in the regression of liver fibrosis. MT plays a critical role in zinc sequestration in the liver suggesting its therapeutic effect would be mediated by zinc. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that zinc supplementation suppresses liver fibrosis. Male Kunming mice subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL) resulted in liver fibrosis as assessed by increased α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen I production/deposition in the liver. Zinc supplementation was introduced 4 weeks after BDL surgery via intragastric administration once daily for 2 weeks resulting in a significant reduction in the collagen deposition in the liver and an increase in the survival rate. Furthermore, zinc suppressed gene expression of α-SMA and collagen I and enhanced the capacity of collagen degradation, as determined by the increased activity of total collagenases and elevated mRNA and protein levels of MMP13. Therefore, the results demonstrate that zinc supplementation suppresses BDL-induced liver fibrosis through both inhibiting collagen production and enhancing collagen degradation. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.
Full Text Available Fucoidan (FCD is a well-known bioactive constituent of seaweed extract that possess a wide spectrum of activities in biological systems, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammation and modulation of immune systems. However, evidence on the effects of FCD on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. Therefore, we investigated the potential beneficial effects of FCD on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR mice from three groups (n = 8 per group were orally administered FCD for 21 days at 0, 310 and 620 mg/kg/day, which were, respectively, designated the vehicle, FCD-1X and FCD-2X groups. The results indicated that the FCD supplementations increased the grip strength (p = 0.0002 and endurance swimming time (p = 0.0195 in a dose-depend manner. FCD treatments also produced dose-dependent decreases in serum levels of lactate (p < 0.0001 and ammonia (p = 0.0025, and also an increase in glucose level (p < 0.0001 after the 15-min swimming test. In addition, FCD supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. Therefore, we suggest that long-term supplementation with FCD can have a wide spectrum of bioactivities on health promotion, performance improvement and anti-fatigue.
Singh, Nrashant; Kumar, D.; Lal, Kewal; Raisuddin, S.; Sahu, Anand P.
Populations of villages of eastern India and Bangladesh and many other parts of the world are exposed to arsenic mainly through drinking water. Due to non-availability of safe drinking water they are compelled to depend on arsenic-contaminated water. Generally, poverty level is high in those areas and situation is compounded by the lack of proper nutrition. The hypothesis that the deleterious health effects of arsenic can be prevented by modification of dietary factors with the availability of an affordable and indigenous functional food jaggery (sugarcane juice) has been tested in the present study. Jaggery contains polyphenols, vitamin C, carotene and other biologically active components. Arsenic as sodium-m-arsenite at low (0.05 ppm) and high (5 ppm) doses was orally administered to Swiss male albino mice, alone and in combination with jaggery feeding (250 mg/mice), consecutively for 180 days. The serum levels of total antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were substantially reduced in arsenic-exposed groups, while supplementation of jaggery enhanced their levels in combined treatment groups. The serum levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and TNF-α were significantly increased in arsenic-exposed groups, while in the arsenic-exposed and jaggery supplemented groups their levels were normal. The comet assay in bone marrow cells showed the genotoxic effects of arsenic, whereas combination with jaggery feeding lessened the DNA damage. Histopathologically, the lung of arsenic-exposed mice showed the necrosis and degenerative changes in bronchiolar epithelium with emphysema and thickening of alveolar septa which was effectively antagonized by jaggery feeding. These results demonstrate that jaggery, a natural functional food, effectively antagonizes many of the adverse effects of arsenic.
Singh, Nrashant; Kumar, D; Lal, Kewal; Raisuddin, S; Sahu, Anand P
Populations of villages of eastern India and Bangladesh and many other parts of the world are exposed to arsenic mainly through drinking water. Due to non-availability of safe drinking water they are compelled to depend on arsenic-contaminated water. Generally, poverty level is high in those areas and situation is compounded by the lack of proper nutrition. The hypothesis that the deleterious health effects of arsenic can be prevented by modification of dietary factors with the availability of an affordable and indigenous functional food jaggery (sugarcane juice) has been tested in the present study. Jaggery contains polyphenols, vitamin C, carotene and other biologically active components. Arsenic as sodium-m-arsenite at low (0.05 ppm) and high (5 ppm) doses was orally administered to Swiss male albino mice, alone and in combination with jaggery feeding (250 mg/mice), consecutively for 180 days. The serum levels of total antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were substantially reduced in arsenic-exposed groups, while supplementation of jaggery enhanced their levels in combined treatment groups. The serum levels of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha were significantly increased in arsenic-exposed groups, while in the arsenic-exposed and jaggery supplemented groups their levels were normal. The comet assay in bone marrow cells showed the genotoxic effects of arsenic, whereas combination with jaggery feeding lessened the DNA damage. Histopathologically, the lung of arsenic-exposed mice showed the necrosis and degenerative changes in bronchiolar epithelium with emphysema and thickening of alveolar septa which was effectively antagonized by jaggery feeding. These results demonstrate that jaggery, a natural functional food, effectively antagonizes many of the adverse effects of arsenic. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sarker, Rim Sabrina Jahan; Ahsan, Nazmul; Hossain, Khaled; Ghosh, Paritosh Kumar; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Akhand, Anwarul Azim
In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of water Hyacinth Root Powder (HRP) on arsenic-mediated toxic effects in mice. Swiss albino mice, used in this study, were divided into four different groups (for each group n=5). The control group was supplied with normal feed and water, Arsenic group (As-group) was supplied with normal feed plus arsenic (sodium arsenite)-containing water, and arsenic+hyacinth group (As+Hy group) was supplied with feed supplemented with HRP plus arsenic water. The remaining Hy-group was supplied with feed supplemented with HRP plus normal water. Oral administration of arsenic reduced the normal growth of the mice as evidenced by weight loss. Interestingly, tip of the tails of these mice developed wound that caused gradual reduction of the tail length. Supplementation of HRP in feed significantly prevented mice growth retardation and tail wounding in As+Hy group mice. However, the growth pattern in Hy-group mice was observed to be almost similar to that of the control group indicating that HRP itself has no toxic or negative effect in mice. Ingested arsenic also distorted the shape of the blood cells and elevated the serum enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT). Importantly, elevation of these enzymes and distortion of blood cell shape were partially reduced in mice belong to As+Hy group, indicating HRP-mediated reduction of arsenic toxicity. Therefore, the preventive effect of hyacinth root on arsenic-poisoned mice suggested the future application of hyacinth to reduce arsenic toxicity in animal and human.
Kiran Chaudhari; Jessica M. Wong; Philip H. Vann; Nathalie Sumien
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if antioxidant supplementation, moderate exercise, and the combination of both treatments could ameliorate cognitive performance in adult mice and whether the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype as well as sex could influence the functional outcomes of the treatments. Methods: For a period of 16 weeks, separate groups of male and female mice expressing either the human APOE3 or APOE4 isoforms were fed either a control diet (NIH-31) or the co...
Rodriguez, I; Diaz, A; Vaamonde, D
As physical exercise has been shown to negatively affect sperm morphology, this study was undertaken to assess the effect of a 3-min forced swimming protocol during 50 days, with and without administration of antioxidants [N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and trans-resveratrol], on sperm morphology in CD-1 mice. Forty-four 13-week-old CD-1 mice were randomly allocated to four different groups: mice not submitted to exercise, control group (CG), mice submitted to swimming without administration of antioxidants (EX), mice submitted to swimming that received trans-resveratrol supplementation [exercise group (EX)+Resv] and mice submitted to swimming exercise that received NAC supplementation (EX+NAC). The EX showed 30.5% of spermatozoa with normal morphology, showing significant differences with regard to the CG, which showed 58.5%. The groups receiving antioxidant supplements showed significantly higher percentages of spermatozoa with normal morphology in comparison with the EX group (EX+Resv: 64.1%, EX+NAC: 48.2%). The imposed model of forced swimming caused alterations in sperm morphology. The antioxidants employed seem to be suitable antioxidants for avoiding exercise-associated sperm morphology anomalies in prolonged forced swimming exercise. Trans-resveratrol has proven to be more efficient for this purpose. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Weerd, Heleen Ariane van de
Current laboratory housing systems have mainly been developed on the basis of ergonomic and economic factors. These systems provide adequate, basic physiological requirements of animals, but only marginally fulfil other needs, such as the performance of natural behaviour or social interactions.
Macrì, S; Mainetti, L; Patrono, L; Pieretti, S; Secco, A; Sergi, I
The behavioral analysis of laboratory mice plays a key role in several medical and scientific research areas, such as biology, toxicology, pharmacology, and so on. Important information on mice behavior and their reaction to a particular stimulus is deduced from a careful analysis of their movements. Moreover, behavioral analysis of genetically modified mice allows obtaining important information about particular genes, phenotypes or drug effects. The techniques commonly adopted to support such analysis have many limitations, which make the related systems particularly ineffective. Currently, the engineering community is working to explore innovative identification and sensing technologies to develop new tracking systems able to guarantee benefits to animals' behavior analysis. This work presents a tracking solution based on passive Radio Frequency Identification Technology (RFID) in Ultra High Frequency (UHF) band. Much emphasis is given to the software component of the system, based on a Web-oriented solution, able to process the raw tracking data coming from a hardware system, and offer 2D and 3D tracking information as well as reports and dashboards about mice behavior. The system has been widely tested using laboratory mice and compared with an automated video-tracking software (i.e., EthoVision). The obtained results have demonstrated the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed solution, which is able to correctly detect the events occurring in the animals' cage, and to offer a complete and user-friendly tool to support researchers in behavioral analysis of laboratory mice.
Grazul, Hannah; Kanda, L Leann; Gondek, David
Shifts in microbial populations of the intestinal tract have been associated with a multitude of nutritional, autoimmune, and infectious diseases. The limited diversity following antibiotic treatments creates a window for opportunistic pathogens, diarrhea, and inflammation as the microbiome repopulates. Depending on the antibiotics used, microbial diversity can take weeks to months to recover. To alleviate this loss of diversity in the intestinal microbiota, supplementation with probiotics has become increasingly popular. However, our understanding of the purported health benefits of these probiotic bacteria and their ability to shape the microbiome is significantly lacking. This study examined the impact of probiotics concurrent with antibiotic treatment or during the recovery phase following antibiotic treatment of mice. We found that probiotics did not appear to colonize the intestine themselves or shift the overall diversity of the intestinal microbiota. However, the probiotic supplementation did significantly change the types of bacteria which were present. In particular, during the recovery phase the probiotic caused a suppression of Enterobacteriaceae outgrowth (Shigella and Escherichia) while promoting a blooming of Firmicutes, particularly from the Anaerotruncus genus. These results indicate that probiotics have a significant capacity to remodel the microbiome of an individual recovering from antibiotic therapy.
Highet, A R; Bianco-Miotto, T; Pringle, K G; Peura, A; Bent, S; Zhang, J; Nottle, M B; Thompson, J G; Roberts, C T
The preimplantation embryo in vivo is exposed to numerous growth factors in the female reproductive tract, which are not recapitulated in embryo culture media in vitro The IGF2 and plasminogen activator systems facilitate blastocyst development. We hypothesized that the addition of IGF2 in combination with urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen could improve rates of blastocyst hatching and implantation in mice. B6BcF1 and CBAB6F2 mouse embryos were divided into one of four supplemented culture media treatment groups: (1) control (media only); (2) 12.5 nM IGF2; (3) 10 µg/mL uPA and 5 µg/mL plasminogen; or (4) a combination of IGF2, uPA and plasminogen treatments. Embryo development to blastocyst stage and hatching were assessed before transfer to pseudopregnant recipient females and implantation, pregnancy rates and postnatal growth were assessed. After 90.5 h of culture, IGF2 + U + P treatment increased the percentage of B6BcF1 embryos that were hatching/hatched and percentage developing to blastocyst stage compared with controls (P culture, IGF2, uPA and plasminogen supplementation of culture media can improve pregnancy success, but the effect of treatment is dependent on the mouse strain. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.
Dudley, Emily S; Boivin, Gregory P
All currently accepted methods of euthanasia for laboratory mice involve some degree of stress, fear, anxiety, or pain. We evaluated the voluntary oral administration of a euthanasia drug in 99 male and 81 female mice of various strains. We first explored the palatability of sugar-cookie dough with various flavorings added. We placed the cookie dough in the cage with an adult mouse and recorded the amount ingested after 1 h. Mice readily ingested all flavors of sugar-cookie dough. We then added a euthanasia solution containing pentobarbital and phenytoin to all flavors of cookie dough and placed a small bolus in the cage of each mouse or mouse pair. We observed the mice for 1 h for clinical signs of pentobarbital intoxication and then weighed uneaten dough to determine the dose of pentobarbital ingested. Palatability declined sharply when euthanasia solution was present. Mice ingested higher doses of pentobarbital in cookie dough during the dark phase and after fasting. Ingestion caused ataxia in some mice but was not sufficient to cause loss of righting reflex, unconsciousness, or death in any mouse. We successfully identified sugar cookie dough as a drug vehicle that was readily and rapidly eaten by mice without the need for previous exposure. Additional research is needed to identify euthanasia compounds for mice that do not affect the palatability of cookie dough.
Full Text Available Chili pepper is used as a food, seasoning and has been revered for its medicinal and health claims. It is very popular and is the most common spice worldwide. Capsaicin (CAP is a major pungent and bioactive phytochemical in chili peppers. CAP has been shown to improve mitochondrial biogenesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP production. However, there is limited evidence around the effects of CAP on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CAP on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Female Institute of Cancer Research (ICR mice from four groups (n = 8 per group were orally administered CAP for 4 weeks at 0, 205, 410, and 1025 mg/kg/day, which were respectively designated the vehicle, CAP-1X, CAP-2X, and CAP-5X groups. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, BUN (blood urea nitrogen and creatine kinase (CK after a 15-min swimming exercise. The grip strength and exhaustive swimming time of the CAP-5X group were significantly higher than other groups. CAP supplementation dose-dependently reduced serum lactate, ammonia, BUN and CK levels, and increased glucose concentration after the 15-min swimming test. In addition, CAP also increased hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise. The possible mechanism was relevant to energy homeostasis and the physiological modulations by CAP supplementation. Therefore, our results suggest that CAP supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, performance improvement and fatigue amelioration.
Summers, Brooke L; Rofe, Allan M; Coyle, Peter
We have previously demonstrated that ethanol teratogenicity is associated with metallothionein-induced fetal zinc (Zn) deficiency, and that maternal subcutaneous Zn treatment given with ethanol in early pregnancy prevents fetal abnormalities and spatial memory impairments in mice. Here we investigated whether dietary Zn supplementation throughout pregnancy can also prevent ethanol-related dysmorphology. Pregnant mice were injected with saline or 25% ethanol (0.015 ml/g intraperitoneally at 0 and 4 hours) on gestational day (GD) 8 and fed either a control (35 mg Zn/kg) or a Zn-supplemented diet (200 mg Zn/kg) from GD 0 to 18. Fetuses from the saline, saline + Zn, ethanol and ethanol + Zn groups were assessed for external birth abnormalities on GD 18. In a separate cohort of mice, postnatal growth and survival of offspring from these treatment groups were examined from birth until postnatal day 60. Fetuses from dams treated with ethanol alone in early pregnancy had a significantly greater incidence of physical abnormalities (26%) compared to those from the saline (10%), saline + Zn (9%), or ethanol + Zn (12%) groups. The incidence of abnormalities in ethanol + Zn-supplemented fetuses was not different from saline-treated fetuses. While ethanol exposure did not affect the number of fetal resorptions or pre- or postnatal weight, there were more stillbirths with ethanol alone, and cumulative postnatal mortality was significantly higher in offspring exposed to ethanol alone (35% deaths) compared to all other treatment groups (13.5 to 20.5% deaths). Mice supplemented with Zn throughout pregnancy had higher plasma Zn concentrations than those in un-supplemented groups. These findings demonstrate that dietary Zn supplementation throughout pregnancy ameliorates dysmorphology and postnatal mortality caused by ethanol exposure in early pregnancy.
Terry Fei Fan Ng
Full Text Available Mice (Mus musculus are the most commonly used laboratory animals. Viral metagenomics on tissues of immunodeficient mice revealed sequences of a novel mammalian astrovirus. Using PCR, we screened mice from 4 breeders, 4 pharmaceutical companies, 14 research institutes and 30 universities in the US and Japan. Mice from one US breeder tested positive while none from Japanese breeders were positive for MuAstV. Mice in over half of the universities (19/30, institutes (7/14 and pharmaceutical animal facilities (2/4 investigated revealed the presence of MuAstV. Nine mice strains tested positive including both immunodeficient strains (NSG, NOD-SCID, NSG-3GS, C57BL6-Timp-3 (-/-, and uPA-NOG and immunocompetent strains (B6J, ICR, Bash2, BALB/c. Our data indicates that MuAstV has a wide geographical, institutional and host strain distribution. Comparison of the MuAstV RdRp sequences showed numerous mutations indicating ongoing viral divergence in different facilities. This study demonstrates the need for metagenomic screening of laboratory animals to identify adventitious infections that may affect experimental outcomes.
Miao, Rui-Xue; Zhu, Xin-Xin; Wan, Chao-Min; Wang, Zhi-Ling; Wen, Yang; Li, Yi-Yuan
The objective of the present study was to examine whether Clostridium butyricum supplementation has a role in the regulation of the intestinal flora and the development of the immune system of neonatal mice. A total of 30 pregnant BALB/c mice, including their offspring, were randomly divided into three groups: In the maternal intervention group (Ba), maternal mice were treated with Clostridium butyricum from birth until weaning at postnatal day 21 (PD21) followed by administration of saline to the offspring at PD21-28; in the offspring intervention group (Ab), breast-feeding maternal mice were supplemented with saline and offspring were directly supplemented with Clostridium butyricum from PD21-28; in the both maternal and offspring intervention group (Bb), both maternal mice and offspring were supplemented with Clostridium butyricum at PD 0-21 and at PD21-28. While mice in the control group were given the same volume of normal saline. Stool samples from the offspring were collected at PD14, -21 and -28 to observe the intestinal flora by colony counts of Enterococcus spp., Enterobacter spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. Detection of intestinal secreted immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels and serum cytokine (interferon-γ, and interleukin-12, -4 and -10) levels in offspring was performed to evaluate the effect on their immune system. The results revealed that compared with the control group, offspring in the Ba group displayed significantly decreased stool colony counts of Enterococcus spp. (t=3.123, Pflora balance in their offspring. However, due to insignificant effects on sIgA level and the associated cytokines, Clostridium butyricum had a limited influence on the balance of type 1 vs. type 2 T-helper cells. However, using Clostridium butyricum as an invention may be a safe method for improving the balance of intestinal flora and associated processes in offspring.
Boivin, Gregory P; Hickman, Debra L; Creamer-Hente, Michelle A; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Bratcher, Natalie A
Selecting an appropriate, effective euthanasia agent is controversial. Several recent publications provide clarity on the use of CO2 in laboratory rats and mice. This review examines previous studies on CO2 euthanasia and presents the current body of knowledge on the subject. Potential areas for further investigation and recommendations are provided.
Boivin, Gregory P; Hickman, Debra L; Creamer-Hente, Michelle A; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Bratcher, Natalie A
Selecting an appropriate, effective euthanasia agent is controversial. Several recent publications provide clarity on the use of CO2 in laboratory rats and mice. This review examines previous studies on CO2 euthanasia and presents the current body of knowledge on the subject. Potential areas for further investigation and recommendations are provided. PMID:28903819
Xu, Fuyi; Hu, Shixian; Chao, Tianzhu; Wang, Maochun; Li, Kai; Zhou, Yuxun; Xu, Hongyan; Xiao, Junhua
Both natural and artificial selection play a critical role in animals' adaptation to the environment. Detection of the signature of selection in genomic regions can provide insights for understanding the function of specific phenotypes. It is generally assumed that laboratory mice may experience intense artificial selection while wild mice more natural selection. However, the differences of selection signature in the mouse genome and underlying genes between wild and laboratory mice remain unclear. In this study, we used two mouse populations: chromosome 1 (Chr 1) substitution lines (C1SLs) derived from Chinese wild mice and mouse genome project (MGP) sequenced inbred strains and two selection detection statistics: Fst and Tajima's D to identify the signature of selection footprint on Chr 1. For the differentiation between the C1SLs and MGP, 110 candidate selection regions containing 47 protein coding genes were detected. A total of 149 selection regions which encompass 7.215 Mb were identified in the C1SLs by Tajima's D approach. While for the MGP, we identified nearly twice selection regions (243) compared with the C1SLs which accounted for 13.27 Mb Chr 1 sequence. Through functional annotation, we identified several biological processes with significant enrichment including seven genes in the olfactory transduction pathway. In addition, we searched the phenotypes associated with the 47 candidate selection genes identified by Fst. These genes were involved in behavior, growth or body weight, mortality or aging, and immune systems which align well with the phenotypic differences between wild and laboratory mice. Therefore, the findings would be helpful for our understanding of the phenotypic differences between wild and laboratory mice and applications for using this new mouse resource (C1SLs) for further genetics studies.
On December 15, 1997, contractor workers supporting the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction uncovered bones suspected to be of paleontological importance. The NIF workers were excavating a utility trench near the southwest corner of the NIF footprint area, located at the northeast corner of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Livermore Site, and were excavating at a depth of approximately 30 feet. Upon the discovery of bone fragments, the excavation in the immediate vicinity was halted and the LLNL archaeologist was notified. The archaeologist determined that there was no indication of cultural resources. Mark Goodwin, Senior Curator for the University of California Museum of Paleontology at the University of California, Berkeley, was then contacted. Mr. Goodwin visited the site on December 16th and confirmed that the bones consisted of a section of the skull, a portion of the mandible, several teeth, upper palate, and possibly the vertebrae of a mammoth, genus Mammuthus columbi. This supplement analysis evaluates the potential for adverse impacts of excavating skeletal remains, an activity that was only generally assessed by the NIF Project-Specific Analysis in the Final Programmatic Environmental impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (SS and M PEIS) published in September 1996 (DOE/EIS-0236) and its Record of Decision published on December 19, 1996. This supplement analysis has been prepared pursuant to the DOE regulations implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (10 CFR 1021.314)
Full Text Available Drying kinetics of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats during processing at 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90ºC was studied and modeled in this work. Desorption isotherm was obtained at 60ºC giving a monolayer moisture content of 0.04 g water/g d.m. The experimental drying curves showed that drying process took place only in the falling rate period. Several thin-layer drying equations available in the literature were evaluated based on determination coefficient (r², sum squared errors (SSE and Chi-square (χ2 statisticals. In comparison to the experimental moisture values, the values estimated with the Logarithmic model gave the best fit quality (r² >0.994, SSE < 0.00015 and χ2 < 0.00018, showing this equation could predict very accurately the drying time of rat feed under the operative conditions applied.
Braden, Gillian C; Rasmussen, Skye; Monette, Sebastien; Tolwani, Ravi J
Although numerous studies have evaluated the effect of housing density on the wellbeing of laboratory mice, little is known about the effect of breeding configuration on mouse behavior. The 8th edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals lists the recommended minimal floor area per animal for a female mouse and her litter as 51 in.2 We sought to determine the effects of pair, trio, and harem breeding configurations on the maternal and weanling behavior of C57BL/6J (B6) and 129S6/SvEvTac (129) mice on the basis of nest scores and performance in pup retrieval tests, open-field test (OFT), elevated plus maze, and tail suspension test; we concurrently evaluated cage microenvironment, reproductive indices, and anatomic and clinical pathology. Harem breeding configurations enhanced B6 maternal behaviors as evidenced by significantly shorter pup retrieval times. Trio- and harem-raised B6 weanlings showed increased exploratory behaviors, as evidenced by greater time spent in the center of the OFT, when compared with pair-raised B6 mice. Conversely, breeding configuration did not alter pup retrieval times for 129 mice, and on the day of weaning trio- and harem-raised 129 mice demonstrated increased anxiety-like behavior, as evidenced by greater time spent in the periphery of the OFT, when compared with pair-raised counterparts. Behavioral differences were not noted on subsequent days for either strain. Trio- and harem-raised B6 and 129 weanling mice had significantly higher weaning weights than weanlings raised in a pair breeding configuration. Trio and harem breeding in a standard 67-in.2 shoebox cage did not detrimentally affect the evaluated welfare parameters in either C57BL/6J or 129S6/SvEvTac mice.
Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Yee, Sung-Tae
The effect of a new herbal composition, HemoHIM, on immune functions was examined in aged mice, in which various immune responses had been impaired. The composition HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of three edible herbs, Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. Supplementation to the aged mice with HemoHIM restored the proliferative response and cytokine production of splenocytes with a response to ConA. Also, HemoHIM recovered the NK cell activity which had been impaired in the aged mice. Meanwhile aging is known to reduce the Th1-like function, but not the Th2-like function, resulting in a Th1/Th2 imbalance. HemoHIM restored the Th1/Th2 balance in the aged mice through enhanced IFN-gamma and IgG2a production, and conversely a reduced IL-4 and IgG1 production. It was found that one factor for the Th1/Th2 imbalance in the aged mice was a lower production of IL-12p70. However, HemoHIM restored the IL-12p70 production in the aged mice. These results suggested that HemoHIM was effective for the restoration of impaired immune functions of the aged mice and therefore could be a good recommendation for immune restoration in elderly humans. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Rice bran (RB is a major by-product of rice polishing and a rich source of bioactive compounds. Here, we investigated the anti-colitis effect of diet supplementation with fermented rice bran (FRB in a murine model of ulcerative colitis. FRB was prepared by dual fermentation of RB using fungi and lactic acid bacteria. Colitis was induced in C57Bl/6N male mice (n = 8/group by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS. Body weight change, disease activity index (DAI, histopathology score, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, cytokine and chemokine transcript levels, and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs and mucin in the colonic tissue were monitored. Based on histopathology scores, DSS induced severe mucosal inflammation, with an increased loss of crypts, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the control and RB groups, but not in the FRB group. MPO activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels, and pro-inflammatory cytokine transcript (Tnf-α, Il-1β, Il-6, and Il-17 levels were significantly higher in the control and RB groups than in the FRB group. Thus, dietary FRB attenuated intestinal inflammation owing to elevated SCFAs and tryptamine production, which might regulate tight junction barrier integrity and intestinal homeostasis. These results suggest that FRB could comprise an effective potential preventive agent for ulcerative colitis.
A single laboratory validation has been performed on a practical ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), diode array detection (DAD), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS) method for determination of yohimbine in yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements. Good separation was achieved u...
This document reports on the status of supplemental investigations in support of environmental assessments by the Idaho INEL Oversight Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included is information on hydrology studies in wells open through large intervals, unsaturated zone contamination and transport processes, surface water-groundwater interactions, regional groundwater flow, and independent testing of air quality data
This supplement replaces the list of Publications and Presentations in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1980 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, PNL-3700 PT2, Ecological Sciences. The listings in the report as previously distributed were incomplete owing to changeovers in the bibliographic-tracking system.
Kozak, C A; Hartley, J W; Morse, H C
Mendelian segregation analysis was used to define genetic loci for the induction of infectious xenotropic murine leukemia virus in several laboratory and wild-derived mice. MA/My mice contain two loci for xenotropic virus inducibility, one of which, Bxv -1, is the only induction locus carried by five other inbred strains. The second, novel MA/My locus, designated Mxv -1, is unlinked to Bxv -1 and shows a lower efficiency of virus induction. The NZB mouse carries two induction loci; both are distinct from Bxv -1 since neither is linked to the Pep-3 locus on chromosome 1. Finally, one partially inbred strain derived from the wild Japanese mouse, Mus musculus molossinus, carries multiple (at least three) unlinked loci for induction of xenotropic virus. Although it is probable that inbred strains inherited xenotropic virus inducibility from Japanese mice, our data suggest that none of the induction loci carried by this particular M. m. molossinus strain are allelic with Bxv -1.
Continuous bio-methanization of an energy crop, namely the beet silage, was investigated in this laboratory-scale work as mono-substrate, using a mesophilic biogas digester controlled by a fuzzy logic control (FLC) technique and without using any supplementing or buffering agent, despite the low pH of the substrate around 3.80. The temperature, pH, redox potential (ORP), daily biogas production and composition of digester biogas were continuously measured online. During the operation, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) varied between 24.8 and 9 days, as the organic loading rate (OLR) ranged from 2.6 to 4.7 g L -1 d -1 . The average pH, specific gas production rate (spec. GPR) and volumetric gas production rate (vol. GPR) were determined to be 7.12, 0.31 L g VS -1 d -1 and 1.084 L L -1 d -1 , respectively. The average methane (CH 4 ) content of digester biogas was about 56%. The FLC technique, which was developed at HAW Hamburg for anaerobic conversion of acidic energy crops to methane, determined the daily feeding volume (∼ OLR/HRT) for the biogas digester, depending on the feedback from online pH and methane measurements, and on the calculation of the spec. GPR. The spec. GPR was calculated by the corrected daily biogas production. Through online monitoring of pH, biogas production rate and composition, and by use of the FLC technique, the acidic beet silage could continuously be converted to biogas, without using manure or any other kind of buffering or supplementing agent(s). The lab-scale anaerobic biogas digester performed stable and safe, without encountering any problems of instability, as indicated by an adequate amount of buffering capacity, a VFA content below 0.5 g L -1 and a neutral pH range throughout the study.
Gorman, Shelley; Buckley, Alysia G; Ling, Kak-Ming; Berry, Luke J; Fear, Vanessa S; Stick, Stephen M; Larcombe, Alexander N; Kicic, Anthony; Hart, Prue H
In disease settings, vitamin D may be important for maintaining optimal lung epithelial integrity and suppressing inflammation, but less is known of its effects prior to disease onset. Female BALB/c dams were fed a vitamin D 3 -supplemented (2280 IU/kg, VitD + ) or nonsupplemented (0 IU/kg, VitD - ) diet from 3 weeks of age, and mated at 8 weeks of age. Male offspring were fed the same diet as their mother. Some offspring initially fed the VitD - diet were switched to a VitD + diet from 8 weeks of age (VitD -/+ ). At 12 weeks of age, signs of low-level inflammation were observed in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of VitD - mice (more macrophages and neutrophils), which were suppressed by subsequent supplementation with vitamin D 3 There was no difference in the level of expression of the tight junction proteins occludin or claudin-1 in lung epithelial cells of VitD + mice compared to VitD - mice; however, claudin-1 levels were reduced when initially vitamin D-deficient mice were fed the vitamin D 3 -containing diet (VitD -/+ ). Reduced total IgM levels were detected in BALF and serum of VitD -/+ mice compared to VitD + mice. Lung mRNA levels of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) were greatest in VitD -/+ mice. Total IgG levels in BALF were greater in mice fed the vitamin D 3 -containing diet, which may be explained by increased activation of B cells in airway-draining lymph nodes. These findings suggest that supplementation of initially vitamin D-deficient mice with vitamin D 3 suppresses signs of lung inflammation but has limited effects on the epithelial integrity of the lungs. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.
Estrada-Luna, D; Martínez-Hinojosa, E; Cancino-Diaz, J C; Belefant-Miller, H; López-Rodríguez, G; Betanzos-Cabrera, G
Studies have found that pomegranate juice (PJ) consumption increases the binding of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to paraoxonase 1 (PON1), thus increasing the catalytic activity of this enzyme. PON1 is an antioxidant arylesterase synthesized in the liver and transported in plasma in association with HDL. Decreased levels of PON1 are associated with higher levels of cholesterol. We determined the effects of PJ on body weight, cholesterol, and triacylglycerols through 5 months of supplementation. In addition, the effect of PJ on pon1 gene expression in the liver was also measured by RT-qPCR as well as the activity in serum by a semiautomated method using paraoxon as a substrate. CD-1 mice were either fed a control diet or were fed a high-fat diet 1.25% (wt/wt) cholesterol, 0.5% (wt/wt) sodium cholate, and 15% (wt/wt) saturated fat. 300 μL of PJ containing 0.35 mmol total polyphenols was administered by oral gavage to half of the high fat mice daily. The rest of the high fat mice and the control mice were administered with 300 μL of water. PJ-supplemented animals had significantly higher levels of expression of pon1 compared to the unsupplemented group. PJ-supplemented animals had twice the PON1 activity of the unsupplemented group. In addition, PJ-supplemented animals had the lowest body weight and significantly reduced cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, although the tricylglycerol levels were not consistently decreased. These results suggest that PJ protects against the effects of a high-fat diet in body weight, and cholesterol levels.
Conclusion: Exercise was the most effective treatment at improving cognitive function in both genotypes and sex, while antioxidants seemed to be effective only in the APOE4. In young adult mice only non-spatial learning and memory were improved. The combination of the two treatments did not yield further improvement in cognition, and there was no antagonistic action of the antioxidant supplementation on the beneficial effects of exercise.
Park, Bongkyun; Song, Hae Seong; Kwon, Jeong Eun; Cho, Se Min; Jang, Seon-A; Kim, Mi Yeon; Kang, Se Chan
Extracts from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge have been used in traditional Asian medicine to treat coronary heart disease, chronic renal failure, atherosclerosis, myocardial infraction, angina pectoris, myocardial ischemia, dysmenorrheal, neurasthenic insomnia, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the anti-RANK signal effect of the combination of S.miltiorrhiza Bunge (SME) and liquefied calcium (LCa) supplement with ovariectomized (OVX-SML) mice, a osteoporosis animal model. Results were compared to 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) treatment. A total of 70 female ICR strain mice (7 weeks) were randomly divided into 10 groups with 7 mice in each group as follows: (1) sham-operated control mice (sham) received daily oral phosphate-buffered-saline (PBS) of equal volumes through oral administration. (2) OVX mice received a daily oral administration of PBS (OVX). (3) OVX mice treated daily with 50 mg/kg b.w./ day of SME (4) with 100 mg/kg b.w./day of SME or (5) with 200 mg/kg b.w./day of SME via oral administration. (6) OVX mice treated daily with 50 mg/kg b.w./day of SML (7) with 100 mg/kg b.w./day of SML or (8) with 200 mg/kg b.w./day of SML via oral administration. (9) OVX mice treated daily with 10 ml/kg b.w./day of LCa (10) OVX mice received i.p. injections of 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) (0.1 mg/kg b.w./day) three times per week for 12 weeks. micro-CT analysis revealed that oral administration of SML inhibited tibial bone loss, sustained trabecular bone state, and ameliorated bone biochemical markers. In addition, SML administration compared to SEM and LCa reduced serum levels of RANKL, osteocalcin and BALP through increased serum levels of OPG and E 2 in OVX mice. SML also had more beneficial effects on protection of estrogen-dependent bone loss through blocking expression of TRAF6 and NFTAc1 and produces cathepsin K and calcitonin receptor to develop osteoclast differentiation. These data suggest that S. miltiorrhiza Bunge combined with
The aim of this investigation was to determine the effects of hydrochloric acid used as hygienic measure in drinking water (pH2) on teeth of conventional and germfree laboratory mice. Four groups of 10 animals each were used. Group 1 : Conventional animals (tap water) Group 2 : Conventional animals (tap water, acidified ) Group 3 : Germfree animals (tap water, sterilized ) Group 4 : Germfree animals (tap water , acidified, sterilized ) The application of acidified drinking ...
Hogenkamp, Astrid; Knippels, Leon M J; Garssen, Johan; van Esch, Betty C A M
BACKGROUND: The maternal environment and early life exposure affect immune development in offspring. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether development of food allergy in offspring is affected by supplementing pregnant or lactating sensitized or nonsensitized mice with a mixture of nondigestible
L. E. Gutiérrez-Pliego
Full Text Available Background. Diabetes mellitus is considered a chronic noncommunicable disease in which inflammation plays a main role in the progression of the disease and it is known that n-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties. One of the most recent approaches is the study of the fatty acids of microalgae as a substitute for fish oil and a source rich in fatty acids EPA and DHA. Objective. To analyze the effect of supplementation with n-3 fatty acids extracted from microalgae on the inflammatory markers from two different strains of mice. Methods. Mice of two strains, db/db and CD1, were supplemented with n-3 fatty acids extracted from microalgae in lyophilized form and added to food; the experiment was carried out from week 8 to 16 of life. Flow cytometry was performed to determine the percentage of TCD4+ cells producing Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Results. Supplementation with microalgae fatty acids decreased the percentage of TCD4+ cells producing IFN-γ and TNF-α and increased the ones producing IL-17A and IL-12 in both strains; on the other hand, supplementation decreased percentage of TCD4+ cells producing IL-4 and increased the ones producing TGF-β. Conclusions. Microalgae n-3 fatty acids could be a useful tool in the treatment of diabetes as well as in the prevention of the appearance of health complications caused by inflammatory states.
Smith, Daniel L; Nagy, Tim R; Wilson, Landon S; Dong, Shengli; Barnes, Stephen; Allison, David B
The prevalence of obesity in industrialized societies has become markedly elevated. In contrast, model organism research shows that reducing caloric intake below ad libitum levels provides many health and longevity benefits. Despite these benefits, few people are willing and able to reduce caloric intake over prolonged periods. Prior research suggests that mannooligosaccharide (MOS or mannan) supplementation can increase lifespan of some livestock and in rodents can reduce visceral fat without reducing caloric intake. Hence, we tested the effect of MOS supplementation as a possible calorie restriction (CR) mimetic (CRM) in mice. C57Bl/6J male mice were fed a high-fat "western" type diet with or without 1% MOS (by weight) supplementation (n = 24/group) from 8 to 20 weeks of age. Animals were housed individually and provided 95% of ad libitum food intake throughout the study. Body weight was measured weekly and body composition (lean and fat mass) measured noninvasively every 3 weeks. Individual fat depot weights were acquired by dissection at study completion. Supplementation of a high-fat diet with 1% MOS tended to reduce total food intake (mean +/- s.d.; control (CON): 293.69 +/- 10.53 g, MOS: 288.10 +/- 11.82 g; P = 0.09) during the study. Moreover, MOS supplementation had no significant effect on final body weight (CON: 25.21 +/- 2.31 g, MOS: 25.28 +/- 1.49 g; P = 0.91), total fat (CON: 4.72 +/- 0.90 g, MOS: 4.82 +/- 0.83 g; P = 0.69), or visceral fat (CON: 1.048 +/- 0.276 g, MOS: 1.004 +/- 0.247 g; P = 0.57). Contrary to previous research, MOS supplementation had no discernable effect on body weight gain or composition during this 12-week study, challenging the potential use of MOS as a CRM or body composition enhancer.
Vieira-Brock, Paula de Lima; Vaughan, Brent M.; Vollmer, David L.
Background: Certain food ingredients promote thermogenesis and fat loss. Similarly, whey protein improves body composition. Due to this potential synergistic effect, a blend of thermogenic food ingredients containing African mango, citrus fruit extract, Coleus forskohlii, dihydrocapsiate, and red pepper was tested alone and in combination with a whey protein supplement for its effects on body composition in sedentary mice during high-fat diet. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction of thermogenic foods on improving body composition during consumption of an unhealthy diet. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J young adult male mice (n = 12) were placed on a 60% high-fat diet for 4 weeks and subsequently randomly assigned to receive daily dosing by oral gavage of vehicle, the novel blend alone or with whey protein supplement for another 4 weeks. Body composition, thermal imaging of brown adipose tissue (BAT), mitochondrial BAT uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and plasma levels of leptin were assessed. Results: Novel blend alone and in combination with protein supplement attenuated body weight gain, fat, and increased surface BAT temperature in comparison to vehicle control and to baseline (P blend and whey protein supplement also significantly increased UCP1 protein expression in BAT mitochondria in comparison to vehicle control and novel blend alone (P blend stimulates thermogenesis and attenuates the gain in body weight and fat in response to high-fat diet in mice and these effects were improved when administered in combination with whey protein supplement. SUMMARY 30 days oral administration to mice of a novel blend containing African mango seed extract, citrus fruits extract, Coleus forskohlii root extract, dihydrocapsiate and red pepper fruit extract reduced body weight and fat gain in response to high-fat diet without impairing muscle mass.The novel blend stimulated thermogenesis as shown by the increased thermal imaging and UCP1 protein
Zhang Jinsong; Wang Huali; Yu Hanqing
Selenium reduction in cirrhosis is frequently reported. The known beneficial effect of selenium supplementation on cirrhosis is probably obtained from nutritionally selenium-deficient subjects. Whether selenium supplementation truly improves cirrhosis in general needs additional experimental investigation. Thioacetamide was used to induce cirrhosis in selenium-adequate and -deficient mice. Selenoenzyme activity and selenium content were measured and the influence of selenium supplementation was evaluated. In Se-adequate mice, thioacetamide-mediated rapid onset of hepatic oxidative stress resulted in an increase in thioredoxin reductase activity and a decrease in both glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium content. The inverse activity of selenoenzymes (i.e. TrxR activity goes up and GPx activity goes down) was persistent and mute to selenium supplementation during the progress of cirrhosis; accordingly, cirrhosis was not improved by selenium supplementation in any period. On the other hand, selenium supplementation to selenium-deficient mice always more efficiently increased hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium content compared with those treated with thioacetamide, indicating that thioacetamide impairs the liver bioavailability of selenium. Although thioacetamide profoundly affects hepatic selenium status in selenium-adequate mice, selenium supplementation does not modify the changes. Selenium supplementation to cirrhotic subjects with a background of nutritional selenium deficiency can improve selenium status but cannot restore hepatic glutathione peroxidase and selenium to normal levels
Zhang, Jianhai; Zhang, Yufang; Liang, Chen; Wang, Nasui; Zheng, Heping; Wang, Jundong
Fluoride is known to cause male reproductive toxicity, and the elucidation of its underlying mechanisms is an ongoing research focus in reproductive toxicology and epidemiology. Choline, an essential nutrient, has been extensively studied for its benefits in nervous system yet was rarely discussed for its prospective effect in male reproductive system. This study aims to explore the potential protective role of choline against NaF-induced male reproductive toxicity via MAPK pathway. The male mice were administrated by 150 mg/L NaF in drinking water, 5.75 g/kg choline in diet, and their combination respectively from maternal gestation to postnatal 15 weeks. The results showed that fluoride exposure reduced body weight growth, lowered sperm count and survival percentages, altered testicular histology, down-regulated the mRNA expressions of NGF, Ras, Raf, and MEK genes in testes, as well as significantly decreased the expressions of both NGF and phosphor-MEK proteins in testes. Examination of data from choline-treated mice revealed that choline supplementation ameliorated these fluoride-induced changes. Taken together, our findings suggest that choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and phosphor-MEK expression. The suitable dosage and supplementation periods of choline await further exploration. - Highlights: • Fluoride exposure altered the growth and development, sperm count and sperm survival percentages, testicular histology • Fluoride exposure decreased NGF, Ras, and Mek mRNA and NGF and p-MEK protein expressions in testis of mice. • Choline supplementation diminishes fluoride-induced testicular toxicity.
Zhang, Jianhai [Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801 (China); Zhang, Yufang [Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801 (China); Veterinary Station in Chen Villages of Lin Country, Linxian, Shanxi 033200 (China); Liang, Chen [Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801 (China); Wang, Nasui [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Zheng, Heping [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Wang, Jundong, E-mail: email@example.com [Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801 (China)
Fluoride is known to cause male reproductive toxicity, and the elucidation of its underlying mechanisms is an ongoing research focus in reproductive toxicology and epidemiology. Choline, an essential nutrient, has been extensively studied for its benefits in nervous system yet was rarely discussed for its prospective effect in male reproductive system. This study aims to explore the potential protective role of choline against NaF-induced male reproductive toxicity via MAPK pathway. The male mice were administrated by 150 mg/L NaF in drinking water, 5.75 g/kg choline in diet, and their combination respectively from maternal gestation to postnatal 15 weeks. The results showed that fluoride exposure reduced body weight growth, lowered sperm count and survival percentages, altered testicular histology, down-regulated the mRNA expressions of NGF, Ras, Raf, and MEK genes in testes, as well as significantly decreased the expressions of both NGF and phosphor-MEK proteins in testes. Examination of data from choline-treated mice revealed that choline supplementation ameliorated these fluoride-induced changes. Taken together, our findings suggest that choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and phosphor-MEK expression. The suitable dosage and supplementation periods of choline await further exploration. - Highlights: • Fluoride exposure altered the growth and development, sperm count and sperm survival percentages, testicular histology • Fluoride exposure decreased NGF, Ras, and Mek mRNA and NGF and p-MEK protein expressions in testis of mice. • Choline supplementation diminishes fluoride-induced testicular toxicity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Green tea was suggested as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes more than 70 years ago, but the mechanisms behind its antidiabetic effect remains elusive. In this work, we address this issue by feeding a green tea extract (TEAVIGO™ with a high content of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG or the thiazolidinedione PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone, as positive control, to db/db mice, an animal model for diabetes. Methods Young (7 week-old db/db mice were randomized and assigned to receive diets supplemented with or without EGCG or rosiglitazone for 10 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, body weight and food intake was measured along the treatment. Glucose and insulin levels were determined during an oral glucose tolerance test after 10 weeks of treatment. Pancreata were sampled at the end of the study for blinded histomorphometric analysis. Islets were isolated and their mRNA expression analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Results The results show that, in db/db mice, EGCG improves glucose tolerance and increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. EGCG supplementation reduces the number of pathologically changed islets of Langerhans, increases the number and the size of islets, and heightens pancreatic endocrine area. These effects occurred in parallel with a reduction in islet endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, possibly linked to the antioxidative capacity of EGCG. Conclusions This study shows that the green tea extract EGCG markedly preserves islet structure and enhances glucose tolerance in genetically diabetic mice. Dietary supplementation with EGCG could potentially contribute to nutritional strategies for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.
The effects of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a highly viscous nonfermentable soluble dietary fiber, were evaluated on global hepatic gene profiles, steatosis and insulin resistance in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. DIO C57BL/6J mice were fed a HF diet supplemented with either ...
Kohler, Maxie; Thomas, Andreas; Geyer, Hans; Petrou, Michael; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario
Doping control laboratories are frequently confronted with new substances that may be misused by athletes. Besides new pharmaceuticals, where method development for their detection is dependent on the availability of the substance and corresponding administration studies, some professional and amateur athletes are using illicit 'black market' products, which either differ from known pharmaceuticals but cause similar effects or still are undergoing clinical trials and are therefore rarely available to doping control laboratories. In the Cologne Doping Control Laboratory, different confiscated products and legally obtained nutritional supplements were analyzed in 2009, and various findings were reported including GH-labelled injection vials without any pharmacologically active content; combinations of products indicating the attempt to mask growth hormone abuse; unpurified long-R(3) -IGF-1; nutritional supplements containing the growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2); and ampoules containing the selective androgen receptor modulator Andarine (S-4). This review provides an overview on the substances that were analyzed in 2009. Ingredients relevant for doping control were identified by means of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry methods. The awareness of new products on the black market and in nutritional supplements is of utmost importance for laboratories to develop detection methods accordingly and screen for new substances as early as possible. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
lestari purba, Sri; Rini Saraswati, Tyas; Isdadiyanto, Sri
Background: Quail eggs contain a considerable amount of complete nutritional sources such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and micronutrients. However, they also have a high cholesterol level, which can potentially cause atherosclerosis and chronic heart diseases. The response of the body to foods containing is influenced by factors such as ethnicity, genetics, and hormonal and nutrient status of the consumer. The cholesterol level of quail eggs can be reduced by manipulating the feed using supplemental organic feed. Organic quail eggs have been believed to correct the lipid profile of white mice during the lactation phase. Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of feed containing organic quail eggs on the blood lipid profile of white mice (Rattus norvegicus L.) during the lactation phase. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted using a completely randomized design with four experiments and five repetitions. Experimental mice: T0 mice were used as control; T1 mice were supplemented with quail eggs produced by quails that were fed with standard feed; T2 mice were supplemented with eggs produced by quails fed with standard organic feed; and T3 mice were supplemented with eggs produced by quails fed with organic feed with the addition of cassava leaf flour, mackerel flour, and turmeric powder. Quail egg supplementation was administered to the mice from the early pregnancy period till the end of the lactation phase. The acquired data were analyzed using ANOVA. SPSS version 16.0 software for Windows was used for data analyses. Results and summary: Feeding the white mice with different compositions of organic quail egg supplements had no effect on the consumption of feed and water, body weight, and lipid profile (including total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglyceride) during the lactation phase (P > 0.05).
Zhang, Jianhai; Zhang, Yufang; Liang, Chen; Wang, Nasui; Zheng, Heping; Wang, Jundong
Fluoride is known to cause male reproductive toxicity, and the elucidation of its underlying mechanisms is an ongoing research focus in reproductive toxicology and epidemiology. Choline, an essential nutrient, has been extensively studied for its benefits in nervous system yet was rarely discussed for its prospective effect in male reproductive system. This study aims to explore the potential protective role of choline against NaF-induced male reproductive toxicity via MAPK pathway. The male mice were administrated by 150mg/L NaF in drinking water, 5.75g/kg choline in diet, and their combination respectively from maternal gestation to postnatal 15weeks. The results showed that fluoride exposure reduced body weight growth, lowered sperm count and survival percentages, altered testicular histology, down-regulated the mRNA expressions of NGF, Ras, Raf, and MEK genes in testes, as well as significantly decreased the expressions of both NGF and phosphor-MEK proteins in testes. Examination of data from choline-treated mice revealed that choline supplementation ameliorated these fluoride-induced changes. Taken together, our findings suggest that choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and phosphor-MEK expression. The suitable dosage and supplementation periods of choline await further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Antioxidant supplements are widely consumed by the general public; however, their effects of on exercise performance are controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an antioxidant cocktail (α-lipoic acid, vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 on exercise performance, muscle function and training adaptations in mice. C57Bl/J6 mice were placed on antioxidant supplement or placebo-control diets (n = 36/group and divided into trained (8 wks treadmill running (n = 12/group and untrained groups (n = 24/group. Antioxidant supplementation had no effect on the running performance of trained mice nor did it affect training adaptations; however, untrained female mice that received antioxidants performed significantly better than placebo-control mice (p ≤ 0.05. Furthermore, antioxidant-supplemented females (untrained showed elevated respiratory capacity in freshly excised muscle fibers (quadriceps femoris (p ≤ 0.05, reduced oxidative damage to muscle proteins (p ≤ 0.05, and increased expression of mitochondrial proteins (p ≤ 0.05 compared to placebo-controls. These changes were attributed to increased expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α (p ≤ 0.05 via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK (p ≤ 0.05 by antioxidant supplementation. Overall, these results indicate that this antioxidant supplement exerts gender specific effects; augmenting performance and mitochondrial function in untrained females, but does not attenuate training adaptations.
Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported neuroprotective effects of pyruvate when given in systemic injections. Impaired glucose uptake and metabolism are found in Alzheimer's disease (AD and in AD mouse models. We tested whether dietary pyruvate supplementation is able to provide added energy supply to brain and thereby attenuate aging- or AD-related cognitive impairment. Mice received ~ 800 mg/kg/day Na-pyruvate in their chow for 2- 6 months. In middle-aged wild-type mice and in 6.5-month-old APP/PS1 mice, pyruvate facilitated spatial learning and increased exploration of a novel odor. However, in passive avoidance task for fear memory, the treatment group was clearly impaired. Independent of age, long-term pyruvate increased explorative behavior, which likely explains the paradoxical impairment in passive avoidance. We also assessed pyruvate effects on body weight, muscle force and endurance, and found no effects. Metabolic post-mortem assays revealed increased energy compounds in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as increased brain glycogen storages in the pyruvate group. Pyruvate supplementation may counteract aging-related behavioral impairment but its beneficial effect seems related to increased explorative activity rather than direct memory enhancement.
The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Program proposes to provide additional access to the Kirschbaum Field construction laydown area. This additional access would alleviate traffic congestion at the East Gate entrance to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from Greenville Road during periods of heavy construction for the NIF. The new access would be located along the northeastern boundary of LLNL, about 305 m (1,000 ft) north of the East Gate entrance. The access road would extend from Greenville Road to the Kirschbaum Field construction laydown area and would traverse an existing storm water drainage channel. Two culverts, side by side, and a compacted road base would be installed across the channel. The security fence that runs parallel to Greenville Road would be modified to accommodate this new entrance and a vehicle gate would be installed at the entrance of Kirschbaum Field. The exiting shoulder along Greenville Road would be converted into a new turn lane for trucks entering the new gate. This analysis evaluates the impacts of constructing the Kirschbaum Field bridge and access gate at a different location than was analyzed in the NIF Project specific Analysis in the Final Programmatic environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (SS and M PEIS) published in September 1996 (DOE/EIS-0236) and the Record of Decision published on December 19, 1996. Issues of concern addressed in this supplement analysis include potential impacts to wetlands downstream of the access bridge, potential impacts to the California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) listed as threatened on the federal listing pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1974, and potential impacts on the 100-yr floodplain along the Arroyo Las Positas
Nogusa, Yoshihito; Mizugaki, Ami; Hirabayashi-Osada, Yuri; Furuta, Chie; Ohyama, Kana; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Hisamine
Carbohydrate supplementation is extremely important during prolonged exercise because it maintains blood glucose levels during later stages of exercise. In this study, we examined whether maintaining blood glucose levels by carbohydrate supplementation could be enhanced during long-term exercise by combining this supplementation with alanine and proline, which are gluconeogenic amino acids, and whether such a combination would affect exercise endurance performance. Male C57BL/6J mice were orally administered either maltodextrin (1.25 g/kg) or maltodextrin (1.0 g/kg) with alanine (0.225 g/kg) and proline (0.025 g/kg) 15 min before running for 170 min. Combined supplementation of maltodextrin, alanine, and proline induced higher blood glucose levels than isocaloric maltodextrin alone during the late exercise phase (100-170 min). The hepatic glycogen content of mice administered maltodextrin, alanine, and proline was higher than that of mice ingesting maltodextrin alone 60 min after beginning exercise, but the glycogen content of the gastrocnemius muscle showed no difference. We conducted a treadmill running test to determine the effect of alanine and proline on endurance performance. The test showed that running time to exhaustion of mice that were supplemented with maltodextrin (2.0 g/kg) was longer than that of mice that were supplemented with water alone. Maltodextrin supplementation (1.0 g/kg) with alanine (0.9 g/kg) and proline (0.1 g/kg) further increased running time to exhaustion compared to maltodextrin alone (2.0 g/kg). These results indicate that combined supplementation of carbohydrate, alanine, and proline is effective for maintaining blood glucose and hepatic glycogen levels and increasing endurance performance during long-term exercise in mice.
Full Text Available Several studies have indicated a positive influence of leucine supplementation and aerobic training on the aging skeletal muscle signaling pathways that control muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling. However, the effect of a combined intervention requires further clarification. Thirteen month old CD-1® mice were subjected to moderate aerobic exercise (45 min swimming per day with 3% body weight workload and fed a chow diet with 5% leucine or 3.4% alanine for 8 weeks. Serum and plasma were prepared for glucose, urea nitrogen, insulin and amino acid profile analysis. The white gastrocnemius muscles were used for determination of muscle size and signaling proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation. The results show that both 8 weeks of leucine supplementation and aerobic training elevated the activity of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin and its downstream target p70S6K and 4E-BP1, inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased fiber cross-sectional area (CSA in white gastrocnemius muscle. Moreover, leucine supplementation in combination with exercise demonstrated more significant effects, such as greater CSA, protein content and altered phosphorylation (suggestive of increased activity of protein synthesis signaling proteins, in addition to lower expression of proteins involved in protein degradation compared to leucine or exercise alone. The current study shows moderate aerobic training combined with 5% leucine supplementation has the potential to increase muscle size in fast-twitch skeletal muscle during aging, potentially through increased protein synthesis and decreased protein breakdown.
Valentini, Kelly J; Pickens, C Austin; Wiesinger, Jason A; Fenton, Jenifer I
Supplementation with omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids may improve cognitive performance and protect against cognitive decline. However, changes in brain phospholipid fatty acid composition after supplementation with n-3 fatty acids are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to feed increasing n-3 fatty acids and characterise the changes in brain phospholipid fatty acid composition and correlate the changes with red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma in mice. Increasing dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) did not alter brain DHA. Brain EPA increased and total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased across treatment groups, and correlated with fatty acid changes in the RBC (r > 0.7). Brain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids oleic and nervonic acid (p acids arachidic, behenic, and lignoceric acid (p acid changes upon increasing n-3 intake should be further investigated to determine their effects on cognition and neurodegenerative disease.
Kim, Hye Kyung
UV exposure is associated with oxidative stress and is the primary factor in skin photoaging. UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause the up-regulation of metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the degradation of dermal collagen and elastic fibers. Garlic and its components have been reported to exert antioxidative effects. The present study investigated the protective effect of garlic on UV-induced photoaging and MMPs regulation in hairless mice. Garlic was supplemented in the diet, and Skh-1 hairless mice were exposed to UV irradiation five days/week for eight weeks. Mice were divided into four groups; Non-UV, UV-irradiated control, UV+1% garlic powder diet group, and UV+2% garlic powder diet group. Chronic UV irradiation induced rough wrinkling of the skin with hyperkeratosis, and administration of garlic diminished the coarse wrinkle formation. UV-induced dorsal skin and epidermal thickness were also ameliorated by garlic supplementation. ROS generation, skin and serum malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased by UV exposure and were ameliorated by garlic administration although the effects were not dose-dependent. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in skin tissues were markedly reduced by UV irradiation and garlic treatment increased these enzyme activities. UV-induced MMP-1 and MMP-2 protein levels were suppressed by garlic administration. Furthermore, garlic supplementation prevented the UV-induced increase of MMP-1 mRNA expression and the UV-induced decrease of procollagen mRNA expression. These results suggest that garlic may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UV irradiation through the antioxidative system and MMP regulation.
Ohyama, Kana; Nogusa, Yoshihito; Suzuki, Katsuya; Shinoda, Kosaku; Kajimura, Shingo; Bannai, Makoto
Exercise effectively prevents the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Capsinoids (CSNs) are capsaicin analogs found in a nonpungent pepper that increase whole body energy expenditure. Although both exercise and CSNs have antiobesity functions, the effectiveness of exercise with CSN supplementation has not yet been investigated. Here, we examined whether the beneficial effects of exercise could be further enhanced by CSN supplementation in mice. Mice were randomly assigned to four groups: 1) high-fat diet (HFD, Control), 2) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs, 3) HFD with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise), and 4) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise + CSN). After 8 wk of ingestion, blood and tissues were collected and analyzed. Although CSNs significantly suppressed body weight gain under the HFD, CSN supplementation with exercise additively decreased body weight gain and fat accumulation and increased whole body energy expenditure compared with exercise alone. Exercise together with CSN supplementation robustly improved metabolic profiles, including the plasma cholesterol level. Furthermore, this combination significantly prevented diet-induced liver steatosis and decreased the size of adipocyte cells in white adipose tissue. Exercise and CSNs significantly increased cAMP levels and PKA activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT), indicating an increase of lipolysis. Moreover, they significantly activated both the oxidative phosphorylation gene program and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that CSNs efficiently promote the antiobesity effect of exercise, in part by increasing energy expenditure via the activation of fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and lipolysis in BAT. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Karim, Md Rezaul; Haque, Abedul; Islam, Khairul; Ali, Nurshad; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Hossain, Ekhtear; Fajol, Abul; Akhand, Anwarul Azim; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of turmeric powder on arsenic toxicity through mice model. Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. The first group was used as control, while groups 2, 3, and 4 were treated with turmeric powder (T, 50 mg/kg body weight/day), sodium arsenite (Sa, 10 mg/kg body weight/day) and turmeric plus Sa (T+Sa), respectively. Results showed that oral administration of Sa reduced the weight gain of the mice compared to the control group and food supplementation of turmeric prevented the reduction of weight gain. Turmeric abrogated the Sa-induced elevation of serum urea, glucose, triglyceride (TG) level and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity except the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Turmeric also prevented the Sa-induced perturbation of serum butyryl cholinesterase activity (BChE). Therefore, ameliorating effect of turmeric on Sa-treated mice suggested the future application of turmeric to reduce or to prevent arsenic toxicity in human.
Osadchuk, L V; Salomacheva, I N; Osadchuk, A V
The study was designed to investigate genetic differences in reproductive consequences of social hierarchy using inbred mice strains BALB/cLac, PT and CBA/Lac. Two adult males of different genotypes were housed together for 5 days. Hierarchical status of both partners was determined by asymmetry in agonistic behavior. The number of epididymal sperm and a proportion of abnormal sperm, weights of reproductive organs, serum concentration and testicular content of testosterone, and the testosterone response to introduction of a receptive female were determined. The testosterone measures were significantly decreased in the PT strain, the epididymal sperm number was significantly decreased in the BALB/cLac strain and a proportion of abnormal sperm heads was significantly increase in the CBA/Lac (in both dominants and subordinates) as compared to control mice. The testicular testosterone response to a receptive female and precopulatory behavior was unchanged in dominants and suppressed in subordinates of the BALB/cLac strain. The results indicate that in laboratory mice the pattern of reproductive response to social hierarchy is determined by genetic background.
Richard A. Perry, Jr.
Full Text Available The data described herein is related to the article “Differential Effects of Leucine Supplementation in Young and Aged Mice at the Onset of Skeletal Muscle Regeneration” . Aging is associated with a decreased ability of skeletal muscle to regenerate following injury. Leucine supplementation has been extensively shown, in young subjects, to promote protein synthesis during regeneration; however, the effects of leucine supplementation on the Akt/mTOR pathway in aged mice at the onset of muscle regeneration are not fully elucidated. In this article, we present data on the Akt/mTOR protein synthesis pathway at the onset of muscle regeneration in young and aged C57BL/6J mice that are and are not receiving leucine supplementation. More specifically, protein content of total Akt, mTOR, p70S6K and 4EBP-1 are presented. Additionally, we provide relative (phosphorylated:total protein content comparisons of these targets as they present themselves in young and aged mice who have neither been injured nor received leucine supplementation. Lastly, markers of atrophy (FoxO1/O3, MuRF-1, Atrogin-1 are also reported in these young and aged control groups. Keywords: MTOR, Skeletal muscle, Regeneration, Leucine supplementation, Aging
Ma, Betty W; Bokulich, Nicholas A; Castillo, Patricia A; Kananurak, Anchasa; Underwood, Mark A; Mills, David A; Bevins, Charles L
The mammalian intestine harbors a vast, complex and dynamic microbial population, which has profound effects on host nutrition, intestinal function and immune response, as well as influence on physiology outside of the alimentary tract. Imbalance in the composition of the dense colonizing bacterial population can increase susceptibility to various acute and chronic diseases. Valuable insights on the association of the microbiota with disease critically depend on investigation of mouse models. Like in humans, the microbial community in the mouse intestine is relatively stable and resilient, yet can be influenced by environmental factors. An often-overlooked variable in research is basic animal husbandry, which can potentially alter mouse physiology and experimental outcomes. This study examined the effects of common husbandry practices, including food and bedding alterations, as well as facility and cage changes, on the gut microbiota over a short time course of five days using three culture-independent techniques, quantitative PCR, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and next generation sequencing (NGS). This study detected a substantial transient alteration in microbiota after the common practice of a short cross-campus facility transfer, but found no comparable alterations in microbiota within 5 days of switches in common laboratory food or bedding, or following an isolated cage change in mice acclimated to their housing facility. Our results highlight the importance of an acclimation period following even simple transfer of mice between campus facilities, and highlights that occult changes in microbiota should be considered when imposing husbandry variables on laboratory animals.
Stevens, Karen E; Choo, Kevin S; Stitzel, Jerry A; Marks, Michael J; Adams, Catherine E
Perinatal choline supplementation has produced several benefits in rodent models, from improved learning and memory to protection from the behavioral effects of fetal alcohol exposure. We have shown that supplemented choline through gestation and lactation produces long-term improvement in deficient sensory inhibition in DBA/2 mice which models a similar deficit in schizophrenia patients. The present study extends that research by feeding normal or supplemented choline diets to DBA/2 mice carrying the null mutation for the α7 nicotinic receptor gene (Chrna7). DBA/2 mice heterozygotic for Chrna7 were bred together. Dams were placed on supplemented (5 gm/kg diet) or normal (1.1 gm/kg diet) choline at mating and remained on the specific diet until offspring weaning. Thereafter, offspring were fed standard rodent chow. Adult offspring were assessed for sensory inhibition. Brains were obtained to ascertain hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor levels. Choline-supplemented mice heterozygotic or null-mutant for Chrna7 failed to show improvement in sensory inhibition. Only wildtype choline-supplemented mice showed improvement with the effect solely through a decrease in test amplitude. This supports the hypothesis that gestational-choline supplementation is acting through the α7 nicotinic receptor to improve sensory inhibition. Although there was a significant gene-dose-related change in hippocampal α7 receptor numbers, binding studies did not reveal any choline-dose-related change in binding in any hippocampal region, the interaction being driven by a significant genotype main effect (wildtype>heterozygote>null mutant). These data parallel a human study wherein the offspring of pregnant women receiving choline supplementation during gestation, showed better sensory inhibition than offspring of women on placebo. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Yanai, Shuichi; Semba, Yuki; Endo, Shogo
A devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Japan on March 11, 2011, followed by several long and intense aftershocks. Laboratory mice housed in the Tokyo, located approximately 330 km south of this earthquake's epicenter, displayed remarkable changes in a variety of behaviors and physiological measures. Although unusual pre-earthquake behaviors have been previously reported in laboratory animals, little is known about behavioral and physiological changes that occur after a great earthquake. In the present study, the effects of Tohoku earthquake on mice behavior were investigated. "Earthquake-experienced" mice displayed a marked increase in food consumption without gaining body weight in response to the earthquake. They also displayed enhanced anxiety, and in a formal fear memory task, showed significantly greater tone- and context-dependent conditioned freezing. Water maze performance of earthquake-experienced mice showed the quicker acquisition of the task, faster swim speed and longer swim distance than the naive mice. Serum corticosterone levels were elevated compared to the naive mice, indicating that the earthquake and aftershocks were stressful for the mice. These results demonstrate that great earthquakes strongly affect mouse behaviors and physiology. Although the effects of a variety of experimental manipulations on mouse behaviors in disease models or in models of higher cognitive functions have been extensively examined, researchers need to be aware how natural phenomena, such as earthquakes and perhaps other natural environmental factors, influence laboratory animal behaviors and physiology.
Full Text Available A devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Japan on March 11, 2011, followed by several long and intense aftershocks. Laboratory mice housed in the Tokyo, located approximately 330 km south of this earthquake's epicenter, displayed remarkable changes in a variety of behaviors and physiological measures. Although unusual pre-earthquake behaviors have been previously reported in laboratory animals, little is known about behavioral and physiological changes that occur after a great earthquake. In the present study, the effects of Tohoku earthquake on mice behavior were investigated. "Earthquake-experienced" mice displayed a marked increase in food consumption without gaining body weight in response to the earthquake. They also displayed enhanced anxiety, and in a formal fear memory task, showed significantly greater tone- and context-dependent conditioned freezing. Water maze performance of earthquake-experienced mice showed the quicker acquisition of the task, faster swim speed and longer swim distance than the naive mice. Serum corticosterone levels were elevated compared to the naive mice, indicating that the earthquake and aftershocks were stressful for the mice. These results demonstrate that great earthquakes strongly affect mouse behaviors and physiology. Although the effects of a variety of experimental manipulations on mouse behaviors in disease models or in models of higher cognitive functions have been extensively examined, researchers need to be aware how natural phenomena, such as earthquakes and perhaps other natural environmental factors, influence laboratory animal behaviors and physiology.
Yanai, Shuichi; Semba, Yuki; Endo, Shogo
A devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Japan on March 11, 2011, followed by several long and intense aftershocks. Laboratory mice housed in the Tokyo, located approximately 330 km south of this earthquake’s epicenter, displayed remarkable changes in a variety of behaviors and physiological measures. Although unusual pre-earthquake behaviors have been previously reported in laboratory animals, little is known about behavioral and physiological changes that occur after a great earthquake. In the present study, the effects of Tohoku earthquake on mice behavior were investigated. “Earthquake-experienced” mice displayed a marked increase in food consumption without gaining body weight in response to the earthquake. They also displayed enhanced anxiety, and in a formal fear memory task, showed significantly greater tone- and context-dependent conditioned freezing. Water maze performance of earthquake-experienced mice showed the quicker acquisition of the task, faster swim speed and longer swim distance than the naive mice. Serum corticosterone levels were elevated compared to the naive mice, indicating that the earthquake and aftershocks were stressful for the mice. These results demonstrate that great earthquakes strongly affect mouse behaviors and physiology. Although the effects of a variety of experimental manipulations on mouse behaviors in disease models or in models of higher cognitive functions have been extensively examined, researchers need to be aware how natural phenomena, such as earthquakes and perhaps other natural environmental factors, influence laboratory animal behaviors and physiology. PMID:22957073
Chen, Pei; Bryden, Noella
A single-laboratory validation was performed on a practical ultra-HPLC (UHPLC)-diode array detector (DAD)/tandem MS method for determination of yohimbine in yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements. Good separation was achieved using a Waters Acquity ethylene bridged hybrid C18 column with gradient elution using 0.1% (v/v) aqueous ammonium hydroxide and 0.1% ammonium hydroxide in methanol as the mobile phases. The method can separate corynanthine from yohimbine in yohimbe bark extract, which is critical for accurate quantitation of yohimbine in yohimbe bark and related dietary supplements. Accuracy of the method was demonstrated using standard addition methods. Both intraday and interday precisions of the method were good. The method can be used without MS since yohimbine concentration in yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements are usually high enough for DAD detection, which can make it an easy and economical method for routine analysis of yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements. On the other hand, the method can be used with MS if desired for more challenging work such as biological and/or clinical studies.
Scanlon, Christopher; Gebeyehu, Zewdu; Griffin, Kameron; Dabke, Rajeev B.
An undergraduate laboratory experiment for the volumetric quantitative analysis of ascorbic acid and iron in dietary supplement tablets is presented. Powdered samples of the dietary supplement tablets were volumetrically titrated against electrolytically generated reagents, and the mass of dietary reagent in the tablet was determined from the…
Castberg, Filip C; Maretty, Lasse; Staalsoe, Trine
infected mice had extramedullary splenic haematopoiesis, and iron-supplemented mice had visually detectable intracellular iron stores. CONCLUSIONS: Blood transfusions are the only currently available means to correct severe anaemia in children with malaria. The potential of carefully timed, short...... parts of the world. This has rendered interventions against iron deficiency in malaria-endemic areas controversial. METHODS: The effect of nutritional iron deficiency on the clinical outcome of Plasmodium chabaudi AS infection in A/J mice and the impact of intravenous iron supplementation with ferric...... deficiency was associated with increased mortality from P. chabaudi malaria. This increased mortality could be partially offset by carefully timed, short-duration adjunctive iron supplementation. Moribund animals were characterized by low levels of hepcidin and high levels of fibroblast growth factor 23. All...
Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute to body weight regulation. Adult mice were fed either a normal fat (NF, 12% kJ content as fat or a high-fat (HF, 43% kJ content as fat diet. In the latter case, half of the animals received daily oral supplementation of CLA. Expression and content of stomach proteins and specific bacterial populations from caecum were analysed. CLA supplementation was associated with an increase in stomach protein expression, and exerted a prebiotic action on both Bacteroidetes/Prevotella and Akkermansia muciniphila. However, CLA supplementation was not able to override the negative effects of HF diet on Bifidobacterium spp., which was decreased in both HF and HF+CLA groups. Our data show that CLA are able to modulate stomach protein expression and exert a prebiotic effect on specific gut bacterial species.
Chaplin, Alice; Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Palou, Andreu
The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute to body weight regulation. Adult mice were fed either a normal fat (NF, 12% kJ content as fat) or a high-fat (HF, 43% kJ content as fat) diet. In the latter case, half of the animals received daily oral supplementation of CLA. Expression and content of stomach proteins and specific bacterial populations from caecum were analysed. CLA supplementation was associated with an increase in stomach protein expression, and exerted a prebiotic action on both Bacteroidetes/Prevotella and Akkermansia muciniphila. However, CLA supplementation was not able to override the negative effects of HF diet on Bifidobacterium spp., which was decreased in both HF and HF+CLA groups. Our data show that CLA are able to modulate stomach protein expression and exert a prebiotic effect on specific gut bacterial species.
Omotoso, O.T.; Sanya, B.T.
Laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus. fed on poultry growers mash plus additional protein supplements and some heavy metals, was studied for the growth and the haematological parameters. All the dietary supplements resulted in an increase in the growth of the rats. The rats, fed on growers mash and prawn meal showed the best growth within 7 weeks. Effects of diets were significantly, correlated at 0.01 level. Weight loss was recorded in case of all heavy Metal-laced diets, however, calcium sulphate-laced diets resulted in an increase in growth. Mercurous chloride was the most toxic salt which resulted in the greatest weight loss. Haematological analysis of rats revealed that RBC/sub s/ were higher in the case of heavy metal-laced diets than heavy metal-free diets. Generally, RBC counts were higher in females than in males within a group. Fish meal and prawn meal feeding. (author)
Horvath, Deanna M; Murphy, Robyn M; Mollica, Janelle P; Hayes, Alan; Goodman, Craig A
This study investigated the effect of taurine and β-alanine supplementation on muscle function and muscle taurine transporter (TauT) protein expression in mdx mice. Wild-type (WT) and mdx mice (5 months) were supplemented with taurine or β-alanine for 4 weeks, after which in vitro contractile properties, fatigue resistance and force recovery, and the expression of the TauT protein and proteins involved in excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling were examined in fast-twitch muscle. There was no difference in basal TauT protein expression or basal taurine content between mdx than WT muscle. Supplementation with taurine and β-alanine increased and reduced taurine content, respectively, in muscle from WT and mdx mice but had no effect of TauT protein. Taurine supplementation reduced body and muscle mass, and enhanced fatigue resistance and force recovery in mdx muscle. β-Alanine supplementation enhanced fatigue resistance in WT and mdx muscle. There was no difference in the basal expression of key E-C coupling proteins [ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1), dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase 1 (SERCA1) or calsequestrin 1 (CSQ1)] between WT and mdx mice, and the expression of these proteins was not altered by taurine or β-alanine supplementation. These findings suggest that TauT protein expression is relatively insensitive to changes in muscle taurine content in WT and mdx mice, and that taurine and β-alanine supplementation may be viable therapeutic strategies to improve fatigue resistance of dystrophic skeletal muscle.
The previous studies reported that the tumor suppressor protein (P53) is not functioning correctly in most human cancers, and that it plays a crucial role in the prevention of tumor development. This study was designed to evaluate if exposure to fractionated dose of gamma radiation impair function of P53 by the administration of antioxidants. Group of control mice was used. Another groups treated with 3 mg/mouse/day of Antox drug which contains the three main antioxidant vitamins (A, C, and E) together with trace element selenium for 15 days. Another group subjected to 1 Gy of gamma radiation 5 times every other day either alone or combined with the Antox drug supplementation. Hepatic and renal functions were evaluated. Antioxidant markers (MDA and GSH) levels, histopathological changes and P53 expression were recorded in liver and kidney tissues. Animals treated with Antox showed some increase in liver transaminases, non significant changes in total protein and albumin levels, a non significant change in kidney function profiles, a non significant increase in MDA and a significant increase in GSH levels in liver and kidney tissues. However, the exposure of mice to fractionated dose of gamma radiation led to a significant increase in kidney function profiles, AST and ALT activity, a significant decrease in total protein and albumin level, a significant increase in MDA levels and a significant decrease in GSH levels in liver and kidney were observed. Exposure of experimental animals post treatment with Antox drug to fractionated dose of gamma radiation revealed a significant amelioration in liver and kidney function profiles, a highly significant decrease in MDA levels and a significant increase in GSH level in comparison with irradiated group. Histopathological changes in liver and kidney recorded the same alterations observed with the biochemical parameters. P53 expression negatively expressed in normal liver and kidney tissues. However, the exposure of mice to
Full Text Available Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD represent about 30% of all causes of death worldwide. The development of CVD is related in many cases with the previous existence of metabolic syndrome (MS. It is known that apple consumption has a cardiovascular protecting effect, containing phenolic compounds with antioxidant effect, which are concentrated in the fruit peel. The objective of this study was to test the effect of apple peel consumption in a murine model of MS and apoE−/− mice. Apple supplemented diets reduced the biochemical parameters (glycaemia, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ureic nitrogen, triglycerides, insulin, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA of MS model in CF1 mice significantly. The model apoE−/− mouse was used to evaluate the capacity of the apple peel to revert the progression of the atherogenesis. FD with HAP reverts cholesterol significantly and slows down the progression of the plate diminishing the cholesterol accumulation area. With these results, it can be concluded that the consumption of apple peel reduces several MS parameters and the atherogenic progression in mice.
DEWAYNE K. STENNETT
Full Text Available The Jamaican bitter yam (Dioscorea polygonoides (ITIS is known to possess potent antidiabetic and hypocholesterolemic properties and can therefore be exploited for associated nutraceutical/pharmaceutical purposes. It however possesses bioactive compounds known to promote organ damage when ingested in excess. This study investigates the effects of bitter yam consumption at a concentration of 5% on liver and kidney damage/function parameters. Normocholesterolemic mice fed bitter yam supplemented diets experienced significant increases in serum aspartate aminotransferase activity and bilirubin, magnesium and phosphorus concentrations. Significant increases were also observed in serum aspartate aminotransferase activity and blood urea nitrogen concentration of the genetically modified hypercholesterolemic mice fed supplemented diets. These results suggest mild kidney damage in both mice species and a significant increase in the rate of erythrocyte haemolysis in the normocholesterolemic mice.
Jurkowska, Halina; Niewiadomski, Julie; Hirschberger, Lawrence L; Roman, Heather B; Mazor, Kevin M; Liu, Xiaojing; Locasale, Jason W; Park, Eunkyue; Stipanuk, Martha H
The cysteine dioxygenase (Cdo1)-null and the cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (Csad)-null mouse are not able to synthesize hypotaurine/taurine by the cysteine/cysteine sulfinate pathway and have very low tissue taurine levels. These mice provide excellent models for studying the effects of taurine on biological processes. Using these mouse models, we identified betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) as a protein whose in vivo expression is robustly regulated by taurine. BHMT levels are low in liver of both Cdo1-null and Csad-null mice, but are restored to wild-type levels by dietary taurine supplementation. A lack of BHMT activity was indicated by an increase in the hepatic betaine level. In contrast to observations in liver of Cdo1-null and Csad-null mice, BHMT was not affected by taurine supplementation of primary hepatocytes from these mice. Likewise, CSAD abundance was not affected by taurine supplementation of primary hepatocytes, although it was robustly upregulated in liver of Cdo1-null and Csad-null mice and lowered to wild-type levels by dietary taurine supplementation. The mechanism by which taurine status affects hepatic CSAD and BHMT expression appears to be complex and to require factors outside of hepatocytes. Within the liver, mRNA abundance for both CSAD and BHMT was upregulated in parallel with protein levels, indicating regulation of BHMT and CSAD mRNA synthesis or degradation.
Rideout, Todd C; Movsesian, Cheryl; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Iqbal, Aadil; Raslawsky, Amy; Patel, Mulchand S
In utero exposure to excessive cholesterol has been shown to increase fetal plasma cholesterol concentration and predispose adult offspring to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Because lipid-lowering drugs are contraindicated during pregnancy, natural cholesterol-lowering compounds may be a safe and effective alternative to reduce CVD risk in offspring born to hypercholesterolemic mothers. This study used the hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mouse model to test the hypothesis that mothers supplemented with phytosterols during gestation and lactation would produce offspring with a more favorable lipid profile than offspring from unsupplemented mothers, despite having a genetic predisposition toward hypercholesterolemia. Sixteen female apoE(-/-) mice were randomly assigned to 2 diets fed throughout the gestation and lactation periods: a cholesterol-enriched diet (CH) (0.15%) or the cholesterol-enriched diet supplemented with phytosterols (CH/PS) (2%). Serum lipids and lipoproteins were measured by enzyme assay and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively, and liver cholesterol was analyzed by GC. Compared with the CH-fed dams at the end of lactation, phytosterol-supplemented dams displayed lower (P 0.05) in HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations. Pups from phytosterol-fed dams demonstrated lower (P 0.05) in HDL cholesterol compared with pups from CH-fed dams. Furthermore, compared with pups from CH-fed dams, pups from phytosterol-supplemented dams displayed a lower (P phytosterols during gestation and lactation exhibit favorable liver and serum lipid responses compared with pups from unsupplemented mothers. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Xu, Minjun; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Shindo, Daichi; Shimomura, Yoshiharu
Branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) kinase (BDK) suppresses the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism by inactivation of the BCKDH complex. The muscle-specific BDK-deficient (BDK-mKO) mice showed accelerated BCAA oxidation in muscle and decreased endurance capacity after training (Xu et al. PLoS One. 12 (2017) e0180989). We here report that BCAA supplementation overcompensated endurance capacity in BDK-mKO mice after training.
...) is to solicit applications from existing FERN Microbiology Laboratories to enhance current...). The isolates will be tested using methods agreed upon in consultation with the Center for Veterinary...
Ringholm, Stine; Olesen, Jesper; Pedersen, Jesper Thorhauge
The present study tested the hypothesis that lifelong resveratrol (RSV) supplementation counteracts an age-associated decrease in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α and that RSV combined with lifelong exercise training (ET...
Yu, Lixia; Chen, Yuan; Wang, Weiguang; Xiao, Zhonghai; Hong, Yan
Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) leads to reduced oxygen delivery to brain. It could trigger cognitive dysfunction and increase the risk of dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study was undertaken in order to examine whether B vitamins (B6, B12, folate, and choline) could exert protective effects on hypoxia-induced memory deficit and AD related molecular events in mice. Adult male Kunming mice were assigned to five groups: normoxic control, hypoxic model (HH), hypoxia+vitamin B6/B12/folate (HB), hypoxia+choline (HC), hypoxia+vitamin B6/B12/folate+choline (HBC). Mice in the hypoxia, HB, HC, and HBC groups were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia for 8 h/day for 28 days in a decompression chamber mimicking 5500 meters of high altitude. Spatial and passive memories were assessed by radial arm and step-through passive test, respectively. Levels of tau and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β phosphorylation were detected by western blot. Homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations were determined using enzymatic cycling assay. Mice in the HH group exhibited significant spatial working and passive memory impairment, increased tau phosphorylation at Thr181, Ser262, Ser202/Thr205, and Ser396 in the cortex and hippocampus, and elevated Hcy levels compared with controls. Concomitantly, the levels of Ser9-phosphorylated GSK-3β were significantly decreased in brain after hypoxic treatment. Supplementations of vitamin B6/B12/folate+choline could significantly ameliorate the hypoxia-induced memory deficits, observably decreased Hcy concentrations in serum, and markedly attenuated tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple AD-related sites through upregulating inhibitory Ser9-phosphorylated GSK-3β. Our finding give further insight into combined neuroprotective effects of vitamin B6, B12, folate, and choline on brain against hypoxia.
Full Text Available A body of evidence has accumulated indicating diabetes is associated with cognitive impairments. Effective strategies are therefore needed that will delay or prevent the onset of these diabetes-related deficits. In this regard, dietary modification with the naturally occurring compound, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, holds significant promise as it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties. The hippocampus, a limbic structure involved in cognitive functions such as memory formation, is particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects related to diabetes, and we have previously shown that streptozotocin-induced diabetes alters hippocampal gene expression, including genes involved in synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. In the present study, we explored the effects of dietary supplementation with DHA on hippocampal gene expression in C57Bl/6 diabetic mice. Diabetes was established using streptozotocin (STZ and once stable, the dietary intervention group received AIN93G diet supplemented with DHA (50 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks. Microarray based genome-wide expression analysis was carried out on the hippocampus of DHA supplemented diabetic mice and confirmed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. Genome-wide analysis identified 353 differentially expressed genes compared to non-supplemented diabetic mice. For example, six weeks of dietary DHA supplementation resulted in increased hippocampal expression of Igf II and Sirt1 and decreased expression of Tnf-α, Il6, Mapkapk2 and ApoE, compared to non-supplemented diabetic mice. Overall, DHA supplementation appears to alter hippocampal gene expression in a way that is consistent with it being neuroprotective in the context of the metabolic and inflammatory insults associated with diabetes.
Lopera Mesa, Margarita Maria; Penuela Mesa, Gustavo Antonio; Dominguez Gual, Maria Carolina; Mejia Zapata, Gloria Maria
Degradation of the insecticide chloropyrifos was investigated in sterilized soil samples supplemented by the white rot basidiomycetes Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Degradation rates were measured during 21-day incubation at pesticide concentrations of 0,95, 5,3, and 9,41 μ/g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium showed ability to biodegrade the insecticide in values of 96,3%, 82,4% and 62,2%, respectively, followed by rapid degradation at low initial concentration of chloropyrifos
Engelmann, Mario; Hädicke, Jana; Noack, Julia
Testing declarative memory in laboratory rodents can provide insights into the fundamental mechanisms underlying this type of learning and memory processing, and these insights are likely to be applicable to humans. Here we provide a detailed description of the social discrimination procedure used to investigate recognition memory in rats and mice, as established during the last 20 years in our laboratory. The test is based on the use of olfactory signals for social communication in rodents; this involves a direct encounter between conspecifics, during which the investigatory behavior of the experimental subject serves as an index for learning and memory performance. The procedure is inexpensive, fast and very reliable, but it requires well-trained human observers. We include recent modifications to the procedure that allow memory extinction to be investigated by retroactive and proactive interference, and that enable the dissociated analysis of the central nervous processing of the volatile fraction of an individual's olfactory signature. Depending on the memory retention interval under study (short-term memory, intermediate-term memory, long-term memory or long-lasting memory), the protocol takes ~10 min or up to several days to complete.
Kalliokoski, Otto; Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Teilmann, Anne Charlotte
/6 mice. Furthermore, throughout the experiment, the C57bl/6 mice excreted significantly higher levels of FCM compared to the BALB/c mice. The mice were also challenged with synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and dexamethasone (DEX). The effect of the challenges could readily be detected...
Adriaan A Van Beek
Full Text Available Although it is clear that probiotics improve intestinal barrier function, little is known about the effects of probiotics on the aging intestine. We investigated effects of 10-wk bacterial supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, Lactobacillus casei BL23, or Bifidobacterium breve DSM20213 on gut barrier and immunity in 16-week-old accelerated aging Ercc1-/Δ7 mice, which have a median lifespan of ~20wk, and their wild-type littermates. The colonic barrier in Ercc1-/Δ7 mice was characterized by a thin (<10µm mucus layer. L. plantarum prevented this decline in mucus integrity in Ercc1-/Δ7 mice, whereas B. breve exacerbated it. Bacterial supplementations affected the expression of immune-related genes, including Toll-like receptor 4. Regulatory T cell frequencies were increased in the mesenteric lymph nodes of L. plantarum- and L. casei-treated Ercc1-/Δ7 mice. L. plantarum- and L. casei-treated Ercc1-/Δ7 mice showed increased specific antibody production in a T cell-dependent immune response in vivo. By contrast, the effects of bacterial supplementation on wild-type control mice were negligible. Thus, supplementation with L. plantarum – but not with L. casei and B. breve – prevented the decline in the mucus barrier in Ercc1-/Δ7 mice. Our data indicate that age is an important factor influencing beneficial or detrimental effects of candidate probiotics. These findings also highlight the need for caution in translating beneficial effects of probiotics observed in young animals or humans to the elderly.
The cherry fruit is a nutrient-dense food with comparatively low caloric content and significant amounts of key nutrients and bioactive food chemicals. Much of the health benefit of cherries is attributed to their high amounts of anthocyanins, which have anti-oxidant and anticancer properties that contribute to changes in cell signaling pathways involved in inflammation, carcinogenesis and angiogenesis. In this project, we aimed to determine whether dietary supplementation with tart cherries ...
Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Borges, Maria Carolina; de Castro, Inar Alves; Pires, Ivanir S. O.; Borelli, Primavera; Tirapegui, Julio
Glutamine, one of the most abundant amino acids found in maternal milk, favors protein anabolism. Early-weaned babies are deprived of this source of glutamine, in a period during which endogenous biosynthesis may be insufficient for tissue needs in states of metabolic stress, mainly during infections. The objective of this study was to verify the effects of dietary glutamine supplementation on the body composition and visceral protein status of early-weaned mice inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Mice were weaned early on their 14th day of life and seperated into two groups, one of which was fed a glutamine-free diet (n = 16) and the other a glutamine-supplemented diet (40 g/kg diet) (n = 16). At 21 days of age, some mice were intraperitoneally injected with BCG. Euthanasia was performed at the 28th day of age. BCG inoculation significantly reduced body weight (P < 0.001), lean mass (P = 0.002), water (P = 0.006), protein (P = 0.007) and lipid content (P = 0.001) in the carcass. Dietary glutamine supplementation resulted in a significant increase in serum IGF-1 (P = 0.019) and albumin (P = 0.025) concentration, muscle protein concentration (P = 0.035) and lipid content (P = 0.002) in the carcass. In conclusion, dietary glutamine supplementation had a positive influence on visceral protein status but did not affect body composition in early-weaned mice inoculated with BCG. PMID:22254124
Ivanir S. O. Pires
Full Text Available Glutamine, one of the most abundant amino acids found in maternal milk, favors protein anabolism. Early-weaned babies are deprived of this source of glutamine, in a period during which endogenous biosynthesis may be insufficient for tissue needs in states of metabolic stress, mainly during infections. The objective of this study was to verify the effects of dietary glutamine supplementation on the body composition and visceral protein status of early-weaned mice inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG. Mice were weaned early on their 14th day of life and seperated into two groups, one of which was fed a glutamine-free diet (n = 16 and the other a glutamine-supplemented diet (40 g/kg diet (n = 16. At 21 days of age, some mice were intraperitoneally injected with BCG. Euthanasia was performed at the 28th day of age. BCG inoculation significantly reduced body weight (P < 0.001, lean mass (P = 0.002, water (P = 0.006, protein (P = 0.007 and lipid content (P = 0.001 in the carcass. Dietary glutamine supplementation resulted in a significant increase in serum IGF-1 (P = 0.019 and albumin (P = 0.025 concentration, muscle protein concentration (P = 0.035 and lipid content (P = 0.002 in the carcass. In conclusion, dietary glutamine supplementation had a positive influence on visceral protein status but did not affect body composition in early-weaned mice inoculated with BCG.
Monk, Jennifer M; Wu, Wenqing; McGillis, Laurel H; Wellings, Hannah R; Hutchinson, Amber L; Liddle, Danyelle M; Graf, Daniela; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A
The potential for a chickpea supplemented diet (rich in fermentable non-digestible carbohydrates and phenolic compounds) to modify the colonic microenvironment and attenuate the severity of acute colonic inflammation was investigated. C57Bl/6 male mice were fed a control basal diet (BD) or BD supplemented with 20% cooked chickpea flour for 3 weeks prior to acute colitis onset induced by 7-day exposure to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS, 2% w/v in drinking water) and colon and serum levels of inflammatory mediators were assessed. Despite an equal degree of DSS-induced epithelial barrier histological damage and clinical symptoms between dietary groups, biomarkers of the ensuing inflammatory response were attenuated by CK pre-feeding including reduced colon tissue activation of NFκB and inflammatory cytokine production (TNFα and IL-18). Additionally, colon protein expression of anti-inflammatory (IL-10) and epithelial repair (IL-22 and IL-27) cytokines were increased by CK pre-feeding. Furthermore, during acute colitis CK pre-feeding increased markers of enhanced colonic function including mRNA expression of Relmβ and IgA. Collectively, CK pre-feeding modulated the baseline function of the colonic microenvironment, whereby upon induction of acute colitis, the severity of the inflammatory response was attenuated.
Full Text Available Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and inflammation in obese animal. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks: a normal diet (ND, 5% fat, w/w, high-fat diet (HFD, 20% fat, w/w, or HFD supplemented with phlorizin (PH, 0.02%, w/w. The findings revealed that the PH group had significantly decreased visceral and total white adipose tissue (WAT weights, and adipocyte size compared to the HFD. Plasma and hepatic lipids profiles also improved in the PH group. The decreased levels of hepatic lipids in PH were associated with decreased activities of enzymes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and esterification. The PH also suppressed plasma pro-inflammatory adipokines levels such as leptin, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6, and prevented HFD-induced collagen accumulation in the liver and WAT. Furthermore, the PH supplementation also decreased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels. In conclusion, phlorizin is beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as insulin resistance.
Haug, M; Brain, P F; Kamis, A B
This brief review examines the roles of sex steroids in two forms of "aggression" in laboratory mice. The social conflict induced in male mice by individual housing or reproductive experience was contrasted with the attack shown by small groups of female mice on lactating intruders. Gonadectomy of males largely abolishes the former response but actually augments the latter activity in male subjects. Testosterone, estradiol and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone all restore social conflict in gonadectomized male mice but these sex steroids inhibit attack on lactating female intruders by gonadectomized males. The data clearly confirm that there is no simple relationship between a particular hormone and "aggression." These forms of attack may serve very different functions even though they involve similar action patterns and distributions of bites on the attacked animal. A tentative discussion is included about the roles of these activities.
Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications.
Janssen, Carola I F; Zerbi, Valerio; Mutsaers, Martina P C; Jochems, Mieke; Vos, Claudia A; Vos, Julle O; Berg, Brian M; van Tol, Eric A F; Gross, Gabriele; Jouni, Zeina E; Heerschap, Arend; Kiliaan, Amanda J
Evidence suggests that flavanol consumption can beneficially affect cognition in adults, but little is known about the effect of flavanol intake early in life. The present study aims to assess the effect of dietary flavanol intake during the gestational and postnatal period on brain structure, cerebral blood flow (CBF), cognition, and brain metabolism in C57BL/6J mice. Female wild-type C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to either a flavanol supplemented diet or a control diet at gestational day 0. Male offspring remained on the corresponding diets throughout life and performed cognitive and behavioral tests during puberty and adulthood assessing locomotion and exploration (Phenotyper and open field), sensorimotor integration (Rotarod and prepulse inhibition), and spatial learning and memory (Morris water maze, MWM). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging at 11.7T measured brain metabolism, CBF, and white and gray matter integrity in adult mice. Biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses evaluated inflammation, synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis, and vascular density. Cognitive and behavioral tests demonstrated increased locomotion in Phenotypers during puberty after flavanol supplementation (p = 0.041) but not in adulthood. Rotarod and prepulse inhibition demonstrated no differences in sensorimotor integration. Flavanols altered spatial learning in the MWM in adulthood (p = 0.039), while spatial memory remained unaffected. Additionally, flavanols increased diffusion coherence in the visual cortex (p = 0.014) and possibly the corpus callosum (p = 0.066) in adulthood. Mean diffusion remained unaffected, a finding that corresponds with our immunohistochemical data showing no effect on neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and vascular density. However, flavanols decreased CBF in the cortex (p = 0.001) and thalamus (p = 0.009) in adulthood. Brain metabolite levels and neuroinflammation remained unaffected by flavanols. These data suggest
Full Text Available Pei-Li Zhu,1 Si-Yuan Pan,1 Shu-Feng Zhou,2 Yi Zhang,1 Xiao-Yan Wang,1 Nan Sun,1 Zhu-Sheng Chu,1 Zhi-Ling Yu,3 Kam-Ming Ko41Department of Pharmacology, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 4Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Currently, combined therapy using herbs and synthetic drugs has become a feasible therapeutic intervention against some diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of supplementation with fenofibrate (FF, a chemical drug used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, and the aqueous extract of Schisandrae Fructus (SF, a Chinese herb pulp (AqSF-P or an SF-related synthetic analog, bicyclol (BY, on serum/hepatic lipid levels and liver status in normal and hypercholesterolemic (HCL mice.Methods: Male mice obtained from the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR were fed on a normal diet (ND or high cholesterol/bile salt (0.5%/0.15%, w/w diet (HCBD containing FF (0.03% or 0.1%, w/w with or without AqSF-P (0.3%-9.0%, based on crude herbal material, w/w or BY (0.025%, w/w for 10 days. Then serum lipid levels and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity, as well as hepatic triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, and glucose levels, were measured.Results: Oral supplementation with FF significantly reduced serum and hepatic TG, TC, and hepatic glucose levels (approximately 79% in mice fed with ND or HCBD. FF supplementation combined with AqSF-P or BY increased FF-induced reduction in hepatic TC and TG contents in ND-fed mice (up to 67% and in HCBD-fed mice (up to 54%, when compared with FF supplementation alone. Hepatic glucose-lowering effect of FF was
Full Text Available Human and experimental studies have revealed putative neuroprotective and pro-cognitive effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA in aging, evidencing positive correlations between peripheral n-3 PUFA levels and regional grey matter (GM volume, as well as negative correlations between dietary n-3 PUFA levels and cognitive deficits. We recently showed that n-3 PUFA supplemented aged mice exhibit better hippocampal-dependent mnesic functions, along with enhanced cellular plasticity and reduced neurodegeneration, thus supporting a role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in preventing cognitive decline during aging. To corroborate these initial results and develop new evidence on the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on brain substrates at macro-scale level, here we expanded behavioral analyses to the emotional domain (anxiety and coping skills, and carried out a fine-grained regional GM volumetric mapping by using high-resolution MRI-based voxel-based morphometry. The behavioral effects of 8 week n-3 PUFA supplementation were measured on cognitive (discriminative, spatial and social and emotional (anxiety and coping abilities of aged (19 month-old at the onset of study C57B6/J mice. n-3 PUFA supplemented mice showed better mnesic performances as well as increased active coping skills. Importantly, these effects were associated with enlarged regional hippocampal, retrosplenial and prefrontal GM volumes, and with increased post mortem n-3 PUFA brain levels. These findings indicate that increased dietary n-3 PUFA intake in normal aging can improve fronto-hippocampal GM structure and function, an effect present also when the supplementation starts at late age. Our data are consistent with a protective role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in counteracting cognitive decline, emotional dysfunctions and brain atrophy.
Brzęk, Paweł; Książek, Aneta; Ołdakowski, Łukasz; Konarzewski, Marek
Increased oxidative stress (OS) has been suggested as a physiological cost of reproduction. However, previous studies reported ambiguous results, with some even showing a reduction of oxidative damage during reproduction. We tested whether the link between reproduction and OS is mediated by basal metabolic rate (BMR), which has been hypothesized to affect both the rate of radical oxygen species production and antioxidative capacity. We studied the effect of reproduction on OS in females of laboratory mice divergently selected for high (H-BMR) and low (L-BMR) BMR, previously shown to differ with respect to parental investment. Non-reproducing L-BMR females showed higher oxidative damage to lipids (quantified as the level of malondialdehyde in internal organ tissues) and DNA (quantified as the level of 8-oxodG in blood serum) than H-BMR females. Reproduction did not affect oxidative damage to lipids in either line; however, it reduced damage to DNA in L-BMR females. Reproduction increased catalase activity in liver (significantly stronger in L-BMR females) and decreased it in kidneys. We conclude that the effect of reproduction on OS depends on the initial variation in BMR and varies between studied internal organs and markers of OS.
This Sampling and Analysis (SAP) presents the project requirements for proposed soil sampling to support the White Oak Creek Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. During the Data Quality Objectives process for the project, it was determined that limited surface soils sampling is need to supplement the historical environmental characterization database. The primary driver for the additional sampling is the need to identify potential human health and ecological risks at various sites that have not yet proceeded through a remedial investigation. These sites include Waste Area Grouping (WAG)3, WAG 4, WAG 7, and WAG 9. WAG 4 efforts are limited to nonradiological characterization since recent seep characterization activities at the WAG have defined the radiological problem there
Onaolapo, A Y; Oladipo, B P; Onaolapo, O J
Effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced gonadal toxicity in male mice were investigated. Mice were assigned to six treatment groups: Vehicle control, CYP control, CYP plus oral Maca (500 or 1,000 mg/kg), and oral Maca (500 or 1,000 mg/kg). CYP was administered via the intraperitoneal route (days 1-2), while vehicle or Maca were administered daily for 28 days. On day 28, half of the animals in each group were either sacrificed or paired with age-matched females for fertility assessment. Plasma testosterone assay, sperm analysis and assessment of tissue antioxidant/morphological status were also carried out. CYP administration was associated with oxidative stress, subfertility and morphometric/morphological indices of gonadal injury, while administration of Maca mitigated CYP-induced gonadal toxicity and subfertility. This study shows that Maca is beneficial in the mitigation of CYP-induced male gonadal insufficiency and/or testicular morphological changes; however, further studies will be needed to ascertain its usability for this purpose in humans. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Full Text Available Soybean, Glycine max (L. Merr. (Leguminoseae, is known as golden bean. It contains vegetable protein, oligosaccharide, dietary fiber, vitamins, isoflavones and minerals. Earlier studies have demonstrated a cholesterol lowering, skin protective, antitumour, antidiabetic and antioxidative potential of soybean. Soy isoflavones are also utilized as estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of soybean on memory of mice when consumed along with diet. Soybean was administered chronically for 60 consecutive days as three soybean diets viz. Soy2, Soy5, Soy10. These diet contains soybean in normal diet at concentration of 2%, 5%, 10% w/w respectively. Passive avoidance paradigm and elevated plus maze served as exteroceptive behavioral models for testing memory. Alprazolam (0.5 mg/kg; i.p. induced amnesia served as interoceptive behavioral model. The administration of soybean significantly reversed alprazolam-induced amnesia in a dose-dependent manner as indicated by the increased step down latency of mice using passive avoidance paradigm and increased transfer latency using elevated plus maze. Theses results suggest that consumption of soybean in diet may not only improve memory but also reverse the memory deficits, owing to its multifarious activities. It would be worthwhile to explore the potential of this nutrient in the management of Alzheimer′s disease.
Azzarito, Tommaso; Lugini, Luana; Spugnini, Enrico Pierluigi; Canese, Rossella; Gugliotta, Alessio; Fidanza, Stefano; Fais, Stefano
Tumor extracellular acidity is a hallmark of malignant cancers. Thus, in this study we evaluated the effects of the oral administration of a commercially available water alkalizer (Basenpulver®) (BP) on tumor growth in a syngenic melanoma mouse model. The alkalizer was administered daily by oral gavage starting one week after tumor implantation in CB57/BL mice. Tumors were calipered and their acidity measured by in vivo MRI guided 31P MRS. Furthermore, urine pH was monitored for potential metabolic alkalosis. BP administration significantly reduced melanoma growth in mice; the optimal dose in terms of tolerability and efficacy was 8 g/l (p< 0.05). The in vivo results were supported by in vitro experiments, wherein BP-treated human and murine melanoma cell cultures exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of tumor cell growth. This investigation provides the first proof of concept that systemic buffering can improve tumor control by itself and that this approach may represent a new strategy in prevention and/or treatment of cancers.
Adebayo, Abiodun Humphrey; Olasehinde, Grace Iyabo; Egbeola, Oluwaseun Ayodimeji; Yakubu, Omolara Faith; Adeyemi, Alaba Oladipupo; Adekeye, Bosede Temitope
The effect of the co-administration of artemether, lumefantrine and selenium was studied in mice infected with Plasmodium bergheiparasite. The mice were divided into seven groups of six animals per group. All groups except A were parasitized. Group A (unparasitized/untreated) and B (parasitized/untreated) served as the positive and negative control respectively, these were administered with olive oil. Animals in groups C and D were treated with 8 and 48 mg/kg/bw of artemether and lumefantrine respectively while group E was treated with a combination of artemether and lumefantrine (8: 48 mg/kg/bw). Animals in group F were treated with 0.945 mg/kg/bw of selenium only and group G was treated with a combination of artemether, lumefantrine and selenium (8:48:0.945 mg/kg/bw). All the treatment was done for a three day period. These animals were subsequently anaesthetized and the organs were excised. Homogenates were prepared for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, reduced Glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays. The results showed a significant (pcells in group G when compared with group B. It may be concluded that the combination of artemether, lumefantrine and selenium showed a more potent effect against the parasite than the group treated with artemether and lumefantrine, thus, helps to combat post-infection oxidative stress in susceptible cells.
Nair, S S; Manalil, J J; Ramavarma, S K; Suseela, I M; Thekkepatt, A; Raghavamenon, A C
Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is an unrefined kernal oil, prepared from Cocos nucifera L., having substantial nutritional and medicinal value. Experimental studies have suggested its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory and hypolipidemic effects. The present study assesses its effect on formalin-induced chronic inflammation and cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced systemic toxicity in murine models. Oral administration of VCO effectively reduced formalin-induced paw oedema in mice with more or less similar efficacy as that of diclofenac. The CTX-induced hike in blood urea, creatinine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and liver marker enzymes in mice was marginally decreased by VCO (8 g/kg body weight) ingestion orally. The liver and kidney catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, together with cellular glutathione and TBARS levels, were found to be improved in these animals. Overall the study reveals the protective efficacy of VCO against secondary toxicity induced by CTX possibly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Tumor extracellular acidity is a hallmark of malignant cancers. Thus, in this study we evaluated the effects of the oral administration of a commercially available water alkalizer (Basenpulver® (BP on tumor growth in a syngenic melanoma mouse model. The alkalizer was administered daily by oral gavage starting one week after tumor implantation in CB57/BL mice. Tumors were calipered and their acidity measured by in vivo MRI guided 31P MRS. Furthermore, urine pH was monitored for potential metabolic alkalosis. BP administration significantly reduced melanoma growth in mice; the optimal dose in terms of tolerability and efficacy was 8 g/l (p< 0.05. The in vivo results were supported by in vitro experiments, wherein BP-treated human and murine melanoma cell cultures exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of tumor cell growth. This investigation provides the first proof of concept that systemic buffering can improve tumor control by itself and that this approach may represent a new strategy in prevention and/or treatment of cancers.
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Meyer, L; Caston, J; Mensah-Nyagan, A G
Behavioural and hormonal seasonal changes are well documented in various vertebrate species living in their natural environment but circannual variations that may occur in laboratory animals reared in standard conditions are poorly investigated. This study shows that, in laboratory mice, the effects of stress on behavioural inhibition, investigatory behaviour and blood concentration of corticosterone are seasonally dependent. No consistency was observed between the reactivity of biological structures controlling the hormonal response to stress and the behavioural activities investigated at every period of the year. During the spring time, stress, which elicited a decrease of investigatory behaviour (estimated by the walking time in an open field), increased behavioural inhibition (estimated by the percentage of walking in the central area of the open field) as well as the blood corticosterone concentration in laboratory mice. In autumn, stress had no significant effect on behaviour despite the great hormonal concentration increase. The results reveal that, at certain period of the year, a stressful procedure is unable to affect behavioural parameters in laboratory mice which were maintained in constant 12-h dark/12-h light cycle. The report constitutes a novel piece of information suggesting a potential role of the endogenous biological clock in the modulation of stress response in mammals.
Sandra Lucinei Balbo
Full Text Available Studies show that physical exercise (PE is associated with a reduced fat accumulation and increased insulin sensitivity, and taurine (TAU improves glucose homeostasis in lean rodents. The aim in this work was evaluate the effects of supplementing TAU and practice of PE, associated or not, on obesity and glucose homeostasis on obese MSG-mice. Neonate male Swiss mice received injections of monosodium glutamate (MSG group or saline (CON group. From the 30th to the 90th day of life, one group of animals received TAU in drinking water (MSG TAU group, another was subjected to PE (MSG PE group and a third group underwent both procedures (MSG PE TAU group. Mice treated with MSG become obese, hypertriglyceridemic, glucose intolerant and insulin resistant. The supplementation with TAU and the PE, isolated or associated, reduced the triglycerides (38%, glucose intolerance (around 30% and KITT (79% in MSG-obese animals, but did not influence the accumulation of fat. Interestingly, the combination of both strategies significantly reduced the insulin resistance, compared to animals subjected to isolated strategies. In conclusion, the supplementation with TAU and PE, isolated or associated, did not influence the accumulation of fat in MSG-obese mice, however, reduce the triglycerides and insulin resistance.
Murtaza, Nida; Baboota, Ritesh K; Jagtap, Sneha; Singh, Dhirendra P; Khare, Pragyanshu; Sarma, Siddhartha M; Podili, Koteswaraiah; Alagesan, Subramanian; Chandra, T S; Bhutani, K K; Boparai, Ravneet K; Bishnoi, Mahendra; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran
Several epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of finger millet (FM) alleviates diabetes-related complications. In the present study, the effect of finger millet whole grain (FM-WG) and bran (FM-BR) supplementation was evaluated in high-fat diet-fed LACA mice for 12 weeks. Mice were divided into four groups: control group fed a normal diet (10 % fat as energy); a group fed a high-fat diet; a group fed the same high-fat diet supplemented with FM-BR; a group fed the same high-fat diet supplemented with FM-WG. The inclusion of FM-BR at 10 % (w/w) in a high-fat diet had more beneficial effects than that of FM-WG. FM-BR supplementation prevented body weight gain, improved lipid profile and anti-inflammatory status, alleviated oxidative stress, regulated the expression levels of several obesity-related genes, increased the abundance of beneficial gut bacteria (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria and Roseburia) and suppressed the abundance of Enterobacter in caecal contents (P≤ 0·05). In conclusion, FM-BR supplementation could be an effective strategy for preventing high-fat diet-induced changes and developing FM-BR-enriched functional foods.
Aye, Irving L M H; Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas
Mothers with obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus have low circulating levels of adiponectin (ADN) and frequently deliver large babies with increased fat mass, who are susceptible to perinatal complications and to development of metabolic syndrome later in life. It is currently unknown if the inverse correlation between maternal ADN and fetal growth reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. We tested the hypothesis that ADN supplementation in obese pregnant dams improves maternal insulin sensitivity, restores normal placental insulin/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and nutrient transport, and prevents fetal overgrowth. Compared with dams on a control diet, female C57BL/6J mice fed an obesogenic diet before mating and throughout gestation had increased fasting serum leptin, insulin, and C-peptide, and reduced high-molecular-weight ADN at embryonic day (E) 18.5. Placental insulin and mTORC1 signaling was activated, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) phosphorylation was reduced, placental transport of glucose and amino acids in vivo was increased, and fetal weights were 29% higher in obese dams. Maternal ADN infusion in obese dams from E14.5 to E18.5 normalized maternal insulin sensitivity, placental insulin/mTORC1 and PPARα signaling, nutrient transport, and fetal growth without affecting maternal fat mass. Using a mouse model with striking similarities to obese pregnant women, we demonstrate that ADN functions as an endocrine link between maternal adipose tissue and fetal growth by regulating placental function. Importantly, maternal ADN supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Improving maternal ADN levels may serve as an effective intervention strategy to prevent fetal overgrowth caused by maternal obesity.
Gore, B.F.; Davenport, L.C.
Factors affecting the safety of criticality experiments using heterogeneous assemblies are described and assessed. It is concluded that there is no substantial change in safety from experiments already being routinely performed at the Critical Mass Laboratory (CML), and that laboratory and personnel safety are adequately provided by the combination of engineered and administrative safety limits enforced at the CML. This conclusion is based on the analysis of operational controls, potential hazards, and the consequences of accidents. Contingencies considered that could affect nuclear criticality include manual changes in fuel loadings, water flooding, fire, explosion, loss of services, earthquake, windstorm, and flood. Other potential hazards considered include radiation exposure to personnel, and potential releases within the Assembly Room and outside to the environment. It is concluded that the Maximum Credible Nuclear Burst of 3 x 10 18 fissions (which served as the design basis for the CML) is valid for heterogeneous assemblies as well as homogeneous assemblies. This is based upon examination of the results of reactor destructive tests and the results of the SL-1 reactor destructive accident. The production of blast effects which might jeopardize the CML critical assembly room (of thick reinforced concrete) is not considered credible due to the extreme circumstances required to produce blast effects in reactor destructive tests. Consequently, it is concluded that, for experiments with heterogeneous assemblies, the consequences of the Maximum Credible Burst are unchanged from those previously estimated for experiments with homogeneous systems
Alston-Mills, Brenda; Lepri, J J; Martin, C A
The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of soya and whey milk protein, α-lactalbumin (α-LA), on mammary gland morphology and the structural support of the gland, in pre-pubertal mice after 7 d of treatment. In Expt 1, weaned (day 21) CD1 mice were given one of the four treatments, three included dietary supplements: (1) control diet, casein, (2) soya, (3) α-LA and (4) subcutaneous injection of 2·5 μg oestradiol benzoate in 20 μl maize oil and fed the control diet. All diets were isoenergetic with equal protein concentrations. All groups that were not treated with oestradiol received the vehicle. Whole-mount analyses were performed to determine longitudinal ductal growth and terminal end bud development. DNA was extracted from the gland and assessed by spectrophotometry (260/280 nm). Tissue extracts for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP(2)), tissue inhibitor of MMP(2) (TIMP(2)), and serum oestradiol and mammary tissue epidermal growth factors (EGF) were measured by immunoassays. Expt 2 utilised the Her2/neu transgenic strain, with the same protocols. Statistical significance was determined by one-way ANOVA. From Expt 1 and 2, soya and α-LA significantly increased ductal elongation when compared with the oestrogen and control groups. These results were corroborated by data on total DNA and the ratio of MMP(2):TIMP(2). The ratio of MMP(2):TIMP(2) was affected by α-LA. Serum oestradiol was decreased only in the oestradiol-treated groups in both experiments. Soya is known to be oestrogenic and can act on epithelia directly. The mechanism by which α-LA affects glandular development is by modulating the ECM or by promoting the synthesis/activity of EGF.
Hogan, Shelly; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Sun, Xiuxiu; Kadouh, Hoda; Zhou, Kequan
Dietary antioxidants may provide a cost-effective strategy to promote health in obesity by targeting oxidative stress and inflammation. We recently found that the antioxidant-rich grape skin extract (GSE) also exerts a novel anti-hyperglycemic activity. This study investigated whether 3-month GSE supplementation can improve oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia associated with a Western diet-induced obesity. Young diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were randomly divided to three treatment groups (n = 12): a standard diet (S group), a Western high fat diet (W group), and the Western diet plus GSE (2.4 g GSE/kg diet, WGSE group). By week 12, DIO mice in the WGSE group gained significantly more weight (24.6 g) than the W (20.2 g) and S groups (11.2 g); the high fat diet groups gained 80% more weight than the standard diet group. Eight of 12 mice in the W group, compared to only 1 of 12 mice in the WGSE group, had fasting blood glucose levels above 140 mg/dL. Mice in the WGSE group also had 21% lower fasting blood glucose and 17.1% lower C-reactive protein levels than mice in the W group (P < 0.05). However, the GSE supplementation did not affect oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity as determined by plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and liver lipid peroxidation. Collectively, the results indicated a beneficial role of GSE supplementation for improving glycemic control and inflammation in diet-induced obesity.
Martínez-Vargas, Jessica; Muñoz-Muñoz, Francesc; Martinez-Maza, Cayetana; Molinero, Amalia; Ventura, Jacint
Comparative information on the variation in the temporospatial patterning of mandible growth in wild and laboratory mice during early postnatal ontogeny is scarce but important to understand variation among wild rodent populations. Here, we compare mandible growth between two ontogenetic series from the second to the eighth week of postnatal life, corresponding to two different groups of mice reared under the same conditions: the classical inbred strain C57BL/6J, and Mus musculus domesticus. We characterize the ontogenetic patterns of bone remodeling of the mandibles belonging to these laboratory and wild mice by analyzing bone surface, as well as examine their ontogenetic form changes and bimodular organization using geometric morphometrics. Through ontogeny, the two mouse groups display similar directions of mandible growth, according to the temporospatial distribution of bone remodeling fields. The allometric shape variation of the mandibles of these mice entails the relative enlargement of the ascending ramus. The organization of the mandible into two modules is confirmed in both groups during the last postnatal weeks. However, especially after weaning, the mandibles of wild and laboratory mice differ in the timing and localization of several remodeling fields, in addition to exhibiting different patterns of shape variation and differences in size. The stimulation of dentary bone growth derived from the harder post-weaning diet might account for some features of postnatal mandible growth common to both groups. Nonetheless, a large component of the postnatal growth of the mouse mandible appears to be driven by the inherent genetic programs, which might explain between-group differences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Transmission is a matter of life or death for pathogen lineages and can therefore be considered as the main motor of their evolution. Gammaherpesviruses are archetypal pathogenic persistent viruses which have evolved to be transmitted in presence of specific immune response. Identifying their mode of transmission and their mechanisms of immune evasion is therefore essential to develop prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against these infections. As the known human gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus are host-specific and lack a convenient in vivo infection model; related animal gammaherpesviruses, such as murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68, are commonly used as general models of gammaherpesvirus infections in vivo. To date, it has however never been possible to monitor viral excretion or virus transmission of MHV-68 in laboratory mice population. In this study, we have used MHV-68 associated with global luciferase imaging to investigate potential excretion sites of this virus in laboratory mice. This allowed us to identify a genital excretion site of MHV-68 following intranasal infection and latency establishment in female mice. This excretion occurred at the external border of the vagina and was dependent on the presence of estrogens. However, MHV-68 vaginal excretion was not associated with vertical transmission to the litter or with horizontal transmission to female mice. In contrast, we observed efficient virus transmission to naïve males after sexual contact. In vivo imaging allowed us to show that MHV-68 firstly replicated in penis epithelium and corpus cavernosum before spreading to draining lymph nodes and spleen. All together, those results revealed the first experimental transmission model for MHV-68 in laboratory mice. In the future, this model could help us to better understand the biology of gammaherpesviruses and could also allow the development of strategies that could prevent
Full Text Available Abstract Background Long and persistent uncontrolled diabetes tends to degenerate the immune system and leads to an increased incidence of infection. Whey proteins (WPs enhance immunity during early life and have a protective role in some immune disorders. In this study, the effects of camel WP on the chemotaxis of B and T cells to CXCL12 and CCL21 in diabetic mice were investigated. Results Flow cytometric analysis of the surface expressions of CXCR4 (CXCL12 receptor and CCR7 (CCL21 receptor on B and T cells revealed that the surface expressions of CXCR4 and CCR7 were not significantly altered in diabetic and WP-supplemented diabetic mice compared with control mice. Nevertheless, B and T lymphocytes from diabetic mice were found to be in a stunned state, with a marked and significant (P Conclusion Our data revealed the benefits of WP supplementation in enhancing cytoskeletal rearrangement and chemotaxis in B and T cells, and subsequently improving the immune response in diabetic mice.
Yamanaka, Hitoki; Nakanishi, Tai; Takagi, Toshikazu; Ohsawa, Makiko; Kubo, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Naoto; Takemoto, Takahira; Ohsawa, Kazutaka
Helicobacter sp. MIT 01-6451 has been detected in SPF mice kept in Japan. To characterize strain MIT 01-6451, its infection route during fetal and neonatal life and effects on pregnancy were investigated using immunocompetent and immunodeficient mouse strains (BALB/c, C57BL/6, and SCID). MIT 01-6451 was detected in the uterus, vagina, and mammary glands of 50% of infected SCID mice, whereas these tissues were all negative in immunocompetent mice. No fetal infections with MIT 01-6451 were detected at 16-18 days after pregnancy in any mouse strain. In newborn mice, MIT 01-6451 was detected in intestinal tissue of C57BL/6 and SCID mice at 9-11 days after birth, but not in BALB/c mice. The IgA and IgG titers to MIT 01-6451 in sera of C57BL/6 female mice were significantly lower than those of BALB/c mice. Although no significant differences in the number of newborns per litter were observed between MIT 01-6451-infected and MIT 01-6451-free dams, the birth rate was lower in infected SCID mice than in control SCID mice. The present results indicated that MIT 01-6451 infects newborn mice after birth rather than by vertical transmission to the fetus via the placenta and that MIT 01-6451 infection shows opportunistically negative effects on the birth rate. In addition, the maternal immune response may affect infection of newborn mice with MIT 01-6451 through breast milk.
Joo Wan Kim
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the possible beneficial skeletal muscle preserving effects of ethanol extract of Schisandrae Fructus (EESF on sciatic neurectomy- (NTX- induced hindlimb muscle atrophy in mice. Here, calf muscle atrophy was induced by unilateral right sciatic NTX. In order to investigate whether administration of EESF prevents or improves sciatic NTX-induced muscle atrophy, EESF was administered orally. Our results indicated that EESF dose-dependently diminished the decreases in markers of muscle mass and activity levels, and the increases in markers of muscle damage and fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokines, and apoptotic events in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles are induced by NTX. Additionally, destruction of gastrocnemius antioxidant defense systems after NTX was dose-dependently protected by treatment with EESF. EESF also upregulated muscle-specific mRNAs involved in muscle protein synthesis but downregulated those involved in protein degradation. The overall effects of 500 mg/kg EESF were similar to those of 50 mg/kg oxymetholone, but it showed more favorable antioxidant effects. The present results suggested that EESF exerts a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by NTX, through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects related to muscle fiber protective effects and via an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation.
Kim, Joo Wan; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Sung Goo; Han, Min Ho; Kim, Gi-Young; Hwang, Hye Jin; Kim, Byung Woo; Kim, Cheol Min
The objective of this study was to assess the possible beneficial skeletal muscle preserving effects of ethanol extract of Schisandrae Fructus (EESF) on sciatic neurectomy- (NTX-) induced hindlimb muscle atrophy in mice. Here, calf muscle atrophy was induced by unilateral right sciatic NTX. In order to investigate whether administration of EESF prevents or improves sciatic NTX-induced muscle atrophy, EESF was administered orally. Our results indicated that EESF dose-dependently diminished the decreases in markers of muscle mass and activity levels, and the increases in markers of muscle damage and fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokines, and apoptotic events in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles are induced by NTX. Additionally, destruction of gastrocnemius antioxidant defense systems after NTX was dose-dependently protected by treatment with EESF. EESF also upregulated muscle-specific mRNAs involved in muscle protein synthesis but downregulated those involved in protein degradation. The overall effects of 500 mg/kg EESF were similar to those of 50 mg/kg oxymetholone, but it showed more favorable antioxidant effects. The present results suggested that EESF exerts a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by NTX, through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects related to muscle fiber protective effects and via an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation. PMID:26064425
Kokolus, Kathleen M; Spangler, Haley M; Povinelli, Benjamin J; Farren, Matthew R; Lee, Kelvin P; Repasky, Elizabeth A
The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to stimulate and regulate T cells is critical to effective anti-tumor immunity. Therefore, it is important to fully recognize any inherent factors which may influence DC function under experimental conditions, especially in laboratory mice since they are used so heavily to model immune responses. The goals of this report are to 1) briefly summarize previous work revealing how DCs respond to various forms of physiological stress and 2) to present new data highlighting the potential for chronic mild cold stress inherent to mice housed at the required standard ambient temperatures to influence baseline DCs properties in naïve and tumor-bearing mice. As recent data from our group shows that CD8(+) T cell function is significantly altered by chronic mild cold stress and since DC function is crucial for CD8(+) T cell activation, we wondered whether housing temperature may also be influencing DC function. Here we report that there are several significant phenotypical and functional differences among DC subsets in naïve and tumor-bearing mice housed at either standard housing temperature or at a thermoneutral ambient temperature, which significantly reduces the extent of cold stress. The new data presented here strongly suggests that, by itself, the housing temperature of mice can affect fundamental properties and functions of DCs. Therefore differences in basal levels of stress due to housing should be taken into consideration when interpreting experiments designed to evaluate the impact of additional variables, including other stressors on DC function.
Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus (Bull. Pers. is a medicinal mushroom capable of inducing a large number of modulatory effects on human physiology ranging from the strengthening of the immune system to the improvement of cognitive functions. In mice, dietary supplementation with H. erinaceus prevents the impairment of spatial short-term and visual recognition memory in an Alzheimer model. Intriguingly other neurobiological effects have recently been reported like the effect on neurite outgrowth and differentiation in PC12 cells. Until now no investigations have been conducted to assess the impact of this dietary supplementation on brain function in healthy subjects. Therefore, we have faced the problem by considering the effect on cognitive skills and on hippocampal neurotransmission in wild-type mice. In wild-type mice the oral supplementation with H. erinaceus induces, in behaviour test, a significant improvement in the recognition memory and, in hippocampal slices, an increase in spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic current in mossy fiber-CA3 synapse. In conclusion, we have produced a series of findings in support of the concept that H. erinaceus induces a boost effect onto neuronal functions also in nonpathological conditions.
Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Gregori, Andrej; Repetti, Margherita; Romano, Chiara; Orrù, Germano; Botta, Laura; Girometta, Carolina; Guglielminetti, Maria Lidia; Savino, Elena; Rossi, Paola
Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers. is a medicinal mushroom capable of inducing a large number of modulatory effects on human physiology ranging from the strengthening of the immune system to the improvement of cognitive functions. In mice, dietary supplementation with H. erinaceus prevents the impairment of spatial short-term and visual recognition memory in an Alzheimer model. Intriguingly other neurobiological effects have recently been reported like the effect on neurite outgrowth and differentiation in PC12 cells. Until now no investigations have been conducted to assess the impact of this dietary supplementation on brain function in healthy subjects. Therefore, we have faced the problem by considering the effect on cognitive skills and on hippocampal neurotransmission in wild-type mice. In wild-type mice the oral supplementation with H. erinaceus induces, in behaviour test, a significant improvement in the recognition memory and, in hippocampal slices, an increase in spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic current in mossy fiber-CA3 synapse. In conclusion, we have produced a series of findings in support of the concept that H. erinaceus induces a boost effect onto neuronal functions also in nonpathological conditions.
Hunsche, Caroline; Hernandez, Oskarina; Gheorghe, Alina; Díaz, Ligia Esperanza; Marcos, Ascensión; De la Fuente, Mónica
Obesity is associated with impaired immune defences and chronic low levels of inflammation and oxidation. In addition, this condition may lead to premature aging. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a nutritional supplementation with monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on several functions and oxidative stress parameters in peritoneal immune cells of obese mice, as well as on the life span of these animals. Obesity was induced in adult female ICR/CD1 by the administration of a high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks. During the last 6 weeks of HFD feeding, one group of obese mice received the same HFD, supplemented with 1500 mg of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2-OHOA) and another with 3000 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Several functions and oxidative stress parameters of peritoneal leukocytes were evaluated. The groups of obese mice treated with 2-OHOA or with EPA and DHA showed a significant improvement in several functions such as chemotaxis, phagocytosis, digestion capacity, Natural killer activity and lymphoproliferation in response to mitogens. All of these functions, which were decreased in obese mice, increased reaching similar levels to those found in non-obese controls. Both treatments also improved oxidative stress parameters such as xanthine oxidase activity, which decreased, catalase activity and glutathione levels, which increased. These data suggest that dietary supplementation with monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids could be an effective nutritional intervention to restore the immune response and oxidative stress state, which are impaired in obese mice.
Yakala, Gopala K; Wielinga, Peter Y; Suarez, Manuel; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Golde, Jolanda M; Arola, Lluis; Keijer, Jaap; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; Heeringa, Peter
Dietary intake of cocoa and/or chocolate has been suggested to exhibit protective cardiovascular effects although this is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Four groups of ApoE*3Leiden mice were exposed to the following diet regimens. Group 1: cholesterol-free control diet (CO). Group 2: high-dose (1.0% w/w) control cholesterol (CC). Group 3: CC supplemented chocolate A (CCA) and Group 4: CC supplemented chocolate B (CCB). Both chocolates differed in polyphenol and fiber content, CCA had a relatively high-polyphenol and low-fiber content compared to CCB. Mice fed a high-cholesterol diet showed increased plasma-cholesterol and developed atherosclerosis. Both chocolate treatments, particularly CCA, further increased plasma-cholesterol and increased atherosclerotic plaque formation. Moreover, compared to mice fed a high-cholesterol diet, both chocolate-treated groups displayed increased liver injury. Mice on high-cholesterol diet had elevated plasma levels of sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and SAA, which was further increased in the CCB group. Similar effects were observed for renal inflammation markers. The two chocolate preparations showed unfavorable, but different effects on cardiometabolic health in E3L mice, which dissimilarities may be related to differences in chocolate composition. We conclude that discrepancies reported on the effects of chocolate on cardiometabolic health may at least partly be due to differences in chocolate composition. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Xiao Rong Yang
Full Text Available Recent studies suggested that green tea has the potential to protect against diet-induced obesity. The presence of caffeine within green tea has caused limitations. Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla is a naturally decaffeinated tea plant. To determine whether cocoa tea supplementation results in an improvement in high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis, and whether such effects would be comparable to those of green tea extract, we studied six groups of C57BL/6 mice that were fed with (1 normal chow (N; (2 high-fat diet (21% butterfat + 0.15% cholesterol, wt/wt (HF; (3 a high-fat diet supplemented with 2% green tea extract (HFLG; (4 a high-fat diet supplemented with 4% green tea extract (HFHG; (5 a high-fat diet supplemented with 2% cocoa tea extract (HFLC; and (6 a high-fat diet supplemented with 4% cocoa tea extract (HFHC. From the results, 2% and 4% dietary cocoa tea supplementation caused a dose-dependent decrease in (a body weight, (b fat pad mass, (c liver weight, (d total liver lipid, (e liver triglyceride and cholesterol, and (f plasma lipids (triglyceride and cholesterol. These data indicate that dietary cocoa tea, being naturally decaffeinated, has a beneficial effect on high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis, and elevated plasma lipid levels in mice, which are comparable to green tea. The present findings have provided the proof of concept that dietary cocoa tea might be of therapeutic value and could therefore provide a safer and cost effective option for patients with diet-induced metabolic syndrome.
Lemon, J A; Aksenov, V; Samigullina, R; Aksenov, S; Rodgers, W H; Rollo, C D; Boreham, D R
Transgenic growth hormone mice (TGM) are a recognized model of accelerated aging with characteristics including chronic oxidative stress, reduced longevity, mitochondrial dysfunction, insulin resistance, muscle wasting, and elevated inflammatory processes. Growth hormone/IGF-1 activate the Target of Rapamycin known to promote aging. TGM particularly express severe cognitive decline. We previously reported that a multi-ingredient dietary supplement (MDS) designed to offset five mechanisms associated with aging extended longevity, ameliorated cognitive deterioration and significantly reduced age-related physical deterioration in both normal mice and TGM. Here we report that TGM lose more than 50% of cells in midbrain regions, including the cerebellum and olfactory bulb. This is comparable to severe Alzheimer's disease and likely explains their striking age-related cognitive impairment. We also demonstrate that the MDS completely abrogates this severe brain cell loss, reverses cognitive decline and augments sensory and motor function in aged mice. Additionally, histological examination of retinal structure revealed markers consistent with higher numbers of photoreceptor cells in aging and supplemented mice. We know of no other treatment with such efficacy, highlighting the potential for prevention or amelioration of human neuropathologies that are similarly associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and cellular dysfunction. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:382-404, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Animal testing plays a vital role in biomedical research. Stress reduction is important for improving research results and increasing the welfare and the quality of life of laboratory animals. To estimate stress we believe it is of great importance to develop non-invasive techniques for monitoring physiological signals during the transport of laboratory animals, thereby allowing the gathering of information on the transport conditions, and, eventually, the improvement of these conditions. Here, we study the suitability of commercially available electric potential integrated circuit (EPIC sensors, using both contact and contactless techniques, for monitoring the heart rate and breathing rate of non-restrained, non-sedated laboratory mice. The design has been tested under different scenarios with the aim of checking the plausibility of performing contactless capture of mouse heart activity (ideally with an electrocardiogram. First experimental results are shown.
González-Sánchez, Carlos; Fraile, Juan-Carlos; Pérez-Turiel, Javier; Damm, Ellen; Schneider, Jochen G; Zimmermann, Heiko; Schmitt, Daniel; Ihmig, Frank R
Animal testing plays a vital role in biomedical research. Stress reduction is important for improving research results and increasing the welfare and the quality of life of laboratory animals. To estimate stress we believe it is of great importance to develop non-invasive techniques for monitoring physiological signals during the transport of laboratory animals, thereby allowing the gathering of information on the transport conditions, and, eventually, the improvement of these conditions. Here, we study the suitability of commercially available electric potential integrated circuit (EPIC) sensors, using both contact and contactless techniques, for monitoring the heart rate and breathing rate of non-restrained, non-sedated laboratory mice. The design has been tested under different scenarios with the aim of checking the plausibility of performing contactless capture of mouse heart activity (ideally with an electrocardiogram). First experimental results are shown.
Wang, K W; Chueh, L L; Wang, M H; Huang, Y T; Fang, B H; Chang, C Y; Fang, M C; Chou, J Y; Hsieh, S C; Wan, C H
Mouse parvoviruses are among the most prevalent infectious pathogens in contemporary mouse colonies. To improve the efficiency of routine screening for mouse parvovirus infections, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the VP gene was developed. The assay detected minute virus of mice (MVM), mouse parvovirus (MPV) and a mouse housekeeping gene (α-actin) and was able to specifically detect MVM and MPV at levels as low as 50 copies. Co-infection with the two viruses with up to 200-fold differences in viral concentrations can easily be detected. The multiplex PCR assay developed here could be a useful tool for monitoring mouse health and the viral contamination of biological materials.
Kieffer, Dorothy A.; Piccolo, Brian D.; Marco, Maria L.
) associated with specific microbes may be involved. Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize ETWB-driven shifts in the cecal microbiome and to identify correlates between microbial changes and diet-related differences in liver metabolism in diet-induced obese mice that typically display......Background: Enzyme-treated wheat bran (ETWB) contains a fermentable dietary fiber previously shown to decrease liver triglycerides (TGs) and modify the gut microbiome in mice. It is not clear which mechanisms explain how ETWB feeding affects hepatic metabolism, but factors (i.e., xenometabolites...... steatosis. Methods: Five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice fed a 45%-lard based fat diet supplemented with ETWB (20% wt:wt) or rapidly digestible starch (control) (n = 15/group) for 10 wk were characterized by using a multi-omics approach. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to identify variables that were...
Epidemiological and experimental evidence indicated potential health benefits of vitamin E supplementation on coronary heart disease (CHD), but several clinical trials reported no benefit from vitamin E supplementation on CHD. We hypothesized that supplemental intake of vitamin E from early age may...
Cohn Jeffrey S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3-PUFA are known to ameliorate several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an association between elevated peripheral levels of endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors (endocannabinoids and the metabolic syndrome has been reported. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of dietary ω-3-PUFA supplementation, given as krill oil (KO, on metabolic parameters in high fat diet (HFD-fed mice and, in parallel, on the levels, in inguinal and epididymal adipose tissue (AT, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, kidneys and heart, of: 1 the endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, 2 two anandamide congeners which activate PPARα but not cannabinoid receptors, N-oleoylethanolamine and N-palmitoylethanolamine, and 3 the direct biosynthetic precursors of these compounds. Methods Lipids were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization single quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS or high resolution ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-ToF-MS. Results Eight-week HFD increased endocannabinoid levels in all tissues except the liver and epididymal AT, and KO reduced anandamide and/or 2-AG levels in all tissues but not in the liver, usually in a dose-dependent manner. Levels of endocannabinoid precursors were also generally down-regulated, indicating that KO affects levels of endocannabinoids in part by reducing the availability of their biosynthetic precursors. Usually smaller effects were found of KO on OEA and PEA levels. Conclusions Our data suggest that KO may promote therapeutic benefit by reducing endocannabinoid precursor availability and hence endocannabinoid biosynthesis.
Grundy, Trent; Toben, Catherine; Jaehne, Emily J.; Corrigan, Frances; Baune, Bernhard T.
Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) manipulation is being investigated as a potential therapeutic supplement to reduce the risk of developing age-related cognitive decline (ARCD). Animal studies suggest that high omega (Ω)-3 and low Ω-6 dietary content reduces cognitive decline by decreasing central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and modifying neuroimmune activity. However, no previous studies have investigated the long term effects of Ω-3 and Ω-6 dietary levels in healthy aging mice leaving the important question about the preventive effects of Ω-3 and Ω-6 on behavior and underlying molecular pathways unaddressed. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of long-term Ω-3 and Ω-6 PUFA dietary supplementation in mature adult C57BL/6 mice. We measured the effect of low, medium, and high Ω-3:Ω-6 dietary ratio, given from the age of 3–7 months, on anxiety and cognition-like behavior, hippocampal tissue expression of TNF-α, markers of neuronal progenitor proliferation and gliogenesis and serum cytokine concentration. Our results show that a higher Ω-3:Ω-6 PUFA diet ratio increased hippocampal PUFA, increased anxiety, improved hippocampal dependent spatial memory and reduced hippocampal TNF-α levels compared to a low Ω-3:Ω-6 diet. Furthermore, serum TNF-α concentration was reduced in the higher Ω-3:Ω-6 PUFA ratio supplementation group while expression of the neuronal progenitor proliferation markers KI67 and doublecortin (DCX) was increased in the dentate gyrus as opposed to the low Ω-3:Ω-6 group. Conversely, Ω-3:Ω-6 dietary PUFA ratio had no significant effect on astrocyte or microglia number or cell death in the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that supplementation of PUFAs may delay aging effects on cognitive function in unchallenged mature adult C57BL/6 mice. This effect is possibly induced by increasing neuronal progenitor proliferation and reducing TNF-α. PMID:25484856
Alizadeh, Hamid; Daryanoosh, Farhad; Moatari, Maryam; Hoseinzadeh, Khadijeh
Herein, we studied the effects of two different exercise protocols on IL-17 and CRP plasma levels along with the anti-inflammatory effects of fish oil. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) consumption along with two different types of physical activities on IL-17 and CRP plasma levels in trained male mice. A total of 130 adult male mice of Syrian race with the age of 2 months and the weight of 35±1 grams were selected. At the beginning, 10 mice were killed in order to determine the amounts of pre-test variables. The rest of the mice were randomly divided into 6 groups including control group (n=20), supplement (n=20), aerobic exercise (n=20), anaerobic exercise (n=20), supplementaerobic exercise (n=20), and supplement-anaerobic exercise (n=20). Blood samples were withdrawn from the tail under intraperitoneal ketamine and xylasine anaesthesia. The anaerobic training program included 8 weeks of running on treadmill, 3 sessions per week; the aerobic training program included 8 weeks of running on treadmill, 5 sessions per week. At the end of the training program, the blood sample from each group was taken in order to measure the CRP and IL-17 levels. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the differences among the groups. The results showed that there was a significant difference in IL-17 and CRP plasma levels between the groups after 8 weeks (Ptraining programs, both IL-17 and CRP plasma levels increased, although these observed increases were not same for two measured variables. The results might also show that the effect of the supplement depends on the type of training.
Hufeldt, Majbritt Ravn; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Vogensen, Finn Kvist
:NMRI stock. Comparing C57BL/6 mice from 2 vendors revealed significant differences in the microbial profile, whereas the profiles of C57BL/6Sca mice raised in separate rooms within the same breeding center were not significantly different. Furthermore, housing in individually ventilated cages did not lead......During recent years, the composition of the gut microbiota (GM) has received increasing attention as a factor in the development of experimental inflammatory disease in animal models. Because increased variation in the GM might lead to increased variation in disease parameters, determining...... microbiota in 8-wk-old NMRI and C57BL/6 mice by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to profile PCR-derived amplicons from bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Comparison of the cecal microbiotas revealed that the similarity index of the inbred C57BL/6Sca strain was 10% higher than that of the outbred Sca...
Allen-Worthington, Krystal H; Brice, Angela K; Marx, James O; Hankenson, F Claire
Compassion, professional ethics, and public sensitivity require that animals are euthanized humanely and appropriately under both planned and emergent situations. According to the 2013 AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals, intraperitoneal injection of ethanol is "acceptable with conditions" for use in mice. Because only limited information regarding this technique is available, we sought to evaluate ethanol by using ECG and high-definition video recording. Mice (n = 85) and rats (n = 16) were treated with intraperitoneal ethanol (70% or 100%), a positive-control agent (pentobarbital-phenytoin combination [Pe/Ph]), or a negative-control agent (saline solution). After injection, animals were assessed for behavioral and physiologic responses. Pain-assessment techniques in mice demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of ethanol was not more painful than was intraperitoneal Pe/Ph. Median time to loss of consciousness for all mice that received ethanol or Pe/Ph was 45 s. Median time to respiratory arrest was 2.75, 2.25, and 2.63 min, and time (mean ± SE) to cardiac arrest was 6.04 ± 1.3, 2.96 ± 0.6, and 4.03 ± 0.5 min for 70% ethanol, 100% ethanol, and Pe/Ph, respectively. No mouse that received ethanol or Pe/Ph regained consciousness. Although successful in mice, intraperitoneal ethanol at the doses tested (9.2 to 20.1 g/kg) was unsuitable for euthanasia of rats (age, 7 to 8 wk) because of the volume needed and prolonged time to respiratory effects. For mice, intraperitoneal injection of 70% or 100% ethanol induced rapid and irreversible loss of consciousness, followed by death, and should be considered as "acceptable with conditions."
Full Text Available Probiotics have been proposed as alternatives to pharmacological products in several medical conditions including the modulation of obesity, which is frequently associated with poor semen quality. However, effects of probiotics on male fertility have been less investigated. This study assessed the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus PB01 (DSM-14870 on sperm kinematic parameters in Normal-weight (NW and diet-induced obese (DIO models. NW and DIO C57BL/6NTac mice were divided into two subgroups with or without a single daily dose (1x109CFU of L. rhamnosus for four weeks. Sperm motility and kinematics together with blood lipid profiles and reproductive hormone levels were assessed using the sperm class analyzer system. Probiotic supplementation increased serum testosterone, LH and FSH levels in both NW and DIO groups resulting in significantly (P<0.05 higher velocity (VSL, VCL and VAP and percentages of progressively motile sperm and significantly lower percentages of immotile sperm. Other kinematic parameters (Lin, STR, ALH and BCF were also increased in both probiotic supplemented DIO and NW groups at the 10% level of significance. Probiotic supplemented DIO mice demonstrated significantly higher percentages of progressively motile sperm versus DIO controls. This study demonstrated the potential of L. rhamnosus PB01 as a regulatory agent with positive effects on weight loss and reproductive-hormones, significantly improving sperm motility and kinematic parameters in male DIO models.
Full Text Available Maintenance of circadian rhythms is essential to many aspects of human health, including metabolism and neurological and psychiatric well-being. Chronic disruption of circadian clock function is implicated in increasing the risk of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular events and development of cancers. However, there are little approaches to reinforce the function of circadian clock for prevention of these diseases. Essence of Chicken (EC is a nutritional supplement that is traditionally made by extracting water soluble substances derived from cooking the whole chicken. In this study, we found that dietary supplementation with EC enhanced circadian oscillation of glucocorticoid secretion in mice, and this was accompanied by enhancement of circadian oscillation in the adrenal expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR protein that mediates the rate-limiting step of glucocorticoid synthesis. Furthermore, EC facilitated re-entrainment of behavioral rhythm in mice when phase of the light–dark cycle was suddenly advanced. These results suggest that intake of EC has enhancement effect on circadian clock function in mice, which may contribute to sustain health and also offer new preventive strategies against circadian-related diseases.
Cláudio A. Cunha
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water; CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract; HW (high-fat diet and water; HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract. The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.. The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.
Volynets, Valentina; Louis, Sandrine; Pretz, Dominik; Lang, Lisa; Ostaff, Maureen J; Wehkamp, Jan; Bischoff, Stephan C
Background: The consumption of a Western-style diet (WSD) and high fructose intake are risk factors for metabolic diseases. The underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. Objective: To unravel the mechanisms by which a WSD and fructose promote metabolic disease, we investigated their effects on the gut microbiome and barrier function. Methods: Adult female C57BL/6J mice were fed a sugar- and fat-rich WSD or control diet (CD) for 12 wk and given access to tap water or fructose-supplemented water. The microbiota was analyzed with the use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Barrier function was studied with the use of permeability tests, and endotoxin, mucus thickness, and gene expressions were measured. Results: The WSD increased body weight gain but not endotoxin translocation compared with the CD. In contrast, high fructose intake increased endotoxin translocation 2.6- and 3.8-fold in the groups fed the CD + fructose and WSD + fructose, respectively, compared with the CD group. The WSD + fructose treatment also induced a loss of mucus thickness in the colon (-46%) and reduced defensin expression in the ileum and colon. The lactulose:mannitol ratio in the WSD + fructose mice was 1.8-fold higher than in the CD mice. Microbiota analysis revealed that fructose, but not the WSD, increased the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio by 88% for CD + fructose and 63% for WSD + fructose compared with the CD group. Bifidobacterium abundance was greater in the WSD mice than in the CD mice (63-fold) and in the WSD + fructose mice than in the CD + fructose mice (330-fold). Conclusions: The consumption of a WSD or high fructose intake differentially affects gut permeability and the microbiome. Whether these differences are related to the distinct clinical outcomes, whereby the WSD primarily promotes weight gain and high fructose intake causes barrier dysfunction, needs to be investigated in future studies. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Yamamuro, Yutaka; Shiraishi, Aya
To evaluate if loci responsible for coat color phenotypes contribute to behavioral characteristics, we specified novel gene loci associated with social exploratory behavior and examined the effects of the frequency of each allele at distinct loci on behavioral expression. We used the F2 generation, which arose from the mating of F1 mice obtained by interbreeding DBA/2 and ICR mice. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the agouti and albino loci affect behavioral traits. A genotype-based analysis revealed that novel exploratory activity was suppressed in a manner dependent on the frequency of the dominant wild-type allele at the agouti, but not albino, locus. The allele-dependent suppression was restricted to colored mice and was not seen in albino mice. The present results suggest that the agouti locus contributes to a particular behavioral trait in the presence of a wild-type allele at the albino locus, which encodes a structural gene for tyrosinase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Matsumiya, Lynn C; Sorge, Robert E; Sotocinal, Susana G; Tabaka, John M; Wieskopf, Jeffrey S; Zaloum, Austin; King, Oliver D; Mogil, Jeffrey S
Postoperative pain management in animals is complicated greatly by the inability to recognize pain. As a result, the choice of analgesics and their doses has been based on extrapolation from greatly differing pain models or the use of measures with unclear relevance to pain. We recently developed the Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS), a facial-expression–based pain coding system adapted directly from scales used in nonverbal human populations. The MGS has shown to be a reliable, highly accurate measure of spontaneous pain of moderate duration, and therefore is particularly useful in the quantification of postoperative pain. In the present study, we quantified the relative intensity and duration of postoperative pain after a sham ventral ovariectomy (laparotomy) in outbred mice. In addition, we compiled dose–response data for 4 commonly used analgesics: buprenorphine, carprofen, ketoprofen, and acetaminophen. We found that postoperative pain in mice, as defined by facial grimacing, lasts for 36 to 48 h, and appears to show relative exacerbation during the early dark (active) photophase. We find that buprenorphine was highly effective in inhibiting postoperative pain-induced facial grimacing in mice at doses equal to or lower than current recommendations, that carprofen and ketoprofen are effective only at doses markedly higher than those currently recommended, and that acetaminophen was ineffective at any dose used. We suggest the revision of practices for postoperative pain management in mice in light of these findings. PMID:22330867
Hovard, A. M. B.; Teilmann, A. C.; Hau, J.
have previously demonstrated sticky nut and chocolate paste to be well-liked by mice and readily ingested in most cases. However, a disadvantage with nut and chocolate paste is its high content of fat and sugar, which may have undesirable effects in some experimental models. Alternatively, a delivery...
Książek, Aneta; Konarzewski, Marek
To study whether dietary restriction (DR; 70% of ad lib. feeding)-elicited immunosuppression results from the trade-off between the costs of mounting an immune response and the metabolic costs of maintenance, we subjected mice from two divergent lines selected for high basal metabolic rate (H-BMR) and low BMR (L-BMR) to 4 wk of DR and then challenged them with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) antigen. Those line types differ genetically with respect to BMR and to the mass of metabolically expensive internal organs, which are larger in H-BMR mice. In mice of both line types, DR resulted in a significant reduction of body mass, an immune response, and the downsizing of spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, heart, and kidneys but not small intestines. DR resulted in a greater reduction of the spleen and lymph nodes in mice of the H-BMR line type, whereas the thymus was more affected in L-BMR line type. In contrast, immunization resulted in an increase of liver mass in DR mice of both line types. A comparison of the results of current and earlier studies on the same mouse line types suggests that metabolic trade-offs involving the costs of an immune response are more apparent when animals are forced to increase energy demands (e.g., by cold exposure) compared to when energy demands are decreased through DR. Our findings also suggest that divelrgent selection on BMR resulted in between-line-type differences in T-cell- and B-cell-mediated types of an immune response. More generally, our results indicate that production of a wide repertoire of antibodies is not correlated with high BMR.
Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Kawai, Misato; Togo, Yuki; Goda, Ryosei; Kawase, Takahiro; Matsuo, Haruka; Iwamoto, Ayaka; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Yasuo, Shinobu
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is characterized by depression during specific seasons, generally winter. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying SAD remain elusive due to a limited number of animal models with high availability and validity. Here we show that laboratory C57BL/6J mice display photoperiodic changes in depression-like behavior and brain serotonin content. C57BL/6J mice maintained under short-day conditions, as compared to those under long-day conditions, demonstrated prolonged immobility times in the forced swimming test with lower brain levels of serotonin and its precursor l-tryptophan. Furthermore, photoperiod altered multiple parameters reflective of peripheral metabolism, including the ratio of plasma l-tryptophan to the sum of other large neutral amino acids that compete for transport across the blood-brain barrier, responses of circulating glucose and insulin to glucose load, sucrose intake under restricted feeding condition, and sensitivity of the brain serotonergic system to peripherally administered glucose. These data suggest that the mechanisms underlying SAD involve the brain-peripheral tissue network, and C57BL/6J mice can serve as a powerful tool for investigating the link between seasons and mood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Makioka, Yuko; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Ijichi, Tetsuo; Inoue, Ryo
Effect on cecal microbiota and gene expression of various cytokines in ileal Peyer's patches and cecal tissues were compared between viable and heat-killed Bifidobacterium longum strain BR-108 (BR-108) using a mouse model. Irrespectively of viability, oral supplementation of BR-108 altered the cecal microbiota and stimulated gene expression of cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-10 in ileal Peyer's patches and cecal tissue of mice. In addition, BR-108 supplementation significantly affected the relative abundance of bacterial genera and family, Oscillospira, Bacteroides and S24-7. The abundance of these bacterial genera and family strongly correlated with gene expression induced by BR-108. This study demonstrated that the effect of heat-killed BR-108 on the mouse cecal microbiota is similar to that of viable BR-108, most likely due to stimulation of the gut immune system by both heat-killed and viable BR-108 is also similar.
Marques, Francine Z; Nelson, Erin; Chu, Po-Yin; Horlock, Duncan; Fiedler, April; Ziemann, Mark; Tan, Jian K; Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Rajapakse, Niwanthi W; El-Osta, Assam; Mackay, Charles R; Kaye, David M
Dietary intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with lower incidence of hypertension, but the mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. Here, we evaluated the effect of a high-fiber diet and supplementation with the short-chain fatty acid acetate on the gut microbiota and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Gut microbiome, cardiorenal structure/function, and blood pressure were examined in sham and mineralocorticoid excess-treated mice with a control diet, high-fiber diet, or acetate supplementation. We also determined the renal and cardiac transcriptome of mice treated with the different diets. We found that high consumption of fiber modified the gut microbiota populations and increased the abundance of acetate-producing bacteria independently of mineralocorticoid excess. Both fiber and acetate decreased gut dysbiosis, measured by the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, and increased the prevalence of Bacteroides acidifaciens . Compared with mineralocorticoid-excess mice fed a control diet, both high-fiber diet and acetate supplementation significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures, cardiac fibrosis, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Acetate had similar effects and markedly reduced renal fibrosis. Transcriptome analyses showed that the protective effects of high fiber and acetate were accompanied by the downregulation of cardiac and renal Egr1 , a master cardiovascular regulator involved in cardiac hypertrophy, cardiorenal fibrosis, and inflammation. We also observed the upregulation of a network of genes involved in circadian rhythm in both tissues and downregulation of the renin-angiotensin system in the kidney and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in the heart. A diet high in fiber led to changes in the gut microbiota that played a protective role in the development of cardiovascular disease. The favorable effects of fiber may be explained by the generation and distribution of one of the main metabolites of the gut
Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Patil, Girdhari Ramdas; Reddi, Srinu; Yadav, Vidhu; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Singh, Ram Ran Bijoy; Kapila, Suman
The aim of present work was to investigate preventive role of orally administered Aloe vera supplemented probiotic lassi (APL) on Shigella dysenteriae infection in mice. At the end of experimental period (2, 5 and 7 days of challenging), different organs such as spleen, liver, small intestine, large intestine, and peritoneal fluid were collected and assessed for Shigella colonization. Secretary IgA was estimated in intestinal fluid. Blood was collected in heparinized tubes for various haematological studies. Oral administration of APL showed a significant (p Shigella counts (log cfu/mL) in all organs as compared to other treatment groups at different intervals after post feeding. Similarly, secretary IgA antibody levels (μg/mL) in intestinal fluid were significantly (p Shigella dysenteriae induced infection in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There is growing evidence that severe decline of skeletal muscle mass and function with age may be mitigated by exercise and dietary supplementation with protein and amino acid ingredient technologies. The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of the leucine catabolite, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB, in C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes, and to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with HMB, the amino acid β-alanine and the combination thereof, on muscle contractility in a preclinical model of pre-sarcopenia. In C2C12 myotubes, HMB enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR calcium release beyond vehicle control in the presence of all SR agonists tested (KCl, P<0.01; caffeine, P = 0.03; ionomycin, P = 0.03. HMB also improved C2C12 myoblast viability (25 μM HMB, P = 0.03 and increased proliferation (25 μM HMB, P = 0.04; 125 μM HMB, P<0.01. Furthermore, an ex vivo muscle contractility study was performed on EDL and soleus muscle from 19 month old, male C57BL/6nTac mice. For 8 weeks, mice were fed control AIN-93M diet, diet with HMB, diet with β-alanine, or diet with HMB and β-alanine. In β-alanine fed mice, EDL muscle showed a 7% increase in maximum absolute force compared to the control diet (202 ± 3vs. 188± 5 mN, P = 0.02. At submaximal frequency of stimulation (20 Hz, EDL from mice fed HMB plus β-alanine showed an 11% increase in absolute force (88.6 ± 2.2 vs. 79.8 ± 2.4 mN, P = 0.025 and a 13% increase in specific force (12.2 ± 0.4 vs. 10.8 ± 0.4 N/cm2, P = 0.021. Also in EDL muscle, β-alanine increased the rate of force development at all frequencies tested (P<0.025, while HMB reduced the time to reach peak contractile force (TTP, with a significant effect at 80 Hz (P = 0.0156. In soleus muscle, all experimental diets were associated with a decrease in TTP, compared to control diet. Our findings highlight beneficial effects of HMB and β-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle function in aging mice.
Aissa, Alexandre Ferro; Amaral, Catia Lira do; Venancio, Vinicius Paula; Machado, Carla da Silva; Hernandes, Lívia Cristina; Santos, Patrick Wellington da Silva; Curi, Rui; Bianchi, Maria de Lourdes Pires; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi
Some important environmental factors that influence the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) include tobacco, excess alcohol, and unhealthy diet. Methionine obtained from the diet participates in the synthesis of DNA, proteins, lipids and affects homocysteine levels, which is associated with the elevated risk for CVD development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the manner in which dietary methionine might affect cellular mechanisms underlying CVD occurrence. Swiss albino mice were fed either control (0.3% DL-methionine), methionine-supplemented (2% DL-methionine), or a methionine-deprived diet (0% DL-methionine) over a 10-week period. The parameters measured included plasma homocysteine concentrations, oxidative stress by reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6, as well as expression of genes associated with CVD. The levels of apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5), a regulator of plasma triglycerides, were measured. The methionine-supplemented diet increased oxidative stress by lowering the GSH/GSSG ratio in heart tissues and decreased expression of the genes Apob, Ctgf, Serpinb2, Spp1, Il1b, and Sell, but elevated expression of Thbs4, Tgfb2, Ccr1, and Vegfa. Methionine-deprived diet reduced expression of Col3a1, Cdh5, Fabp3, Bax, and Hbegf and increased expression of Sell, Ccl5, Itga2, Birc3, Msr1, Bcl2a1a, Il1r2, and Selp. Methionine-deprived diet exerted pro-inflammatory consequences as evidenced by elevated levels of cytokines IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6 noted in liver. Methionine-supplemented diet increased hepatic IL-6 and cardiac TNF-α. Both methionine supplementation and deprivation lowered hepatic levels of APOA5. In conclusion, data demonstrated that a methionine-supplemented diet modulated important biological processes associated with high risk of CVD development.
Dobrzyńska, Małgorzata M; Tyrkiel, Ewa J; Hernik, Agnieszka; Derezińska, Edyta; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Ludwicki, Jan K
Phthalates are widely used as a plasticizers in manufacture of synthetic materials and as solvents in sanitary products, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Dibutylphthalate (DBP) is used as a plasticizers and as a textile lubricating agent and as solvent in printing ink. The study aimed the evaluation of the magnitude of DNA damage in liver and bone marrow cells and estimation of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) concentration in peripheral blood following prolonged exposure to DBP. Experiments were conducted an the Pzh:Sfis male mice. Animals were exposed 8 weeks, 3 days per week per os to DBP suspension in oil in doses of 500 mg/kg bw (1/16 LD50) and 2000 mg/kg bw (1/4 LD50). Following groups of mice were sacrificed 4 and 8 weeks after the start of exposure and 4 weeks after the end of exposure. Decreased body weight of mice and statistically significant decreased liver and relative liver weights were observed following 8-weeks exposure to 2000 mg/kg bw DBP. In the same time higher however not statistically significant level of DNA damage measured by Comet assay in liver cells were noted. DBP did not induce enhanced frequency of DNA damage in bone marrow cells. Following 8-weeks exposure to the dose of 2000 mg/kg bw DBP the increased level of DBP in peripheral blood was observed. Enhanced levels of DBP were still noted 4 weeks after the termination of exposure. Results confirmed that DBP acts as a weak mutagen for DNA of somatic cells. However, following prolonged exposure this compound seems to undergo slower metabolism and was reaching temporarily higher levels in peripheral blood.
Leroy, Toon; Silva, Mitchell; D'Hooge, Rudi; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Berckmans, Daniel
In this article, an automated and accurate mouse observation method, based on a conventional test for motor function evaluation, is outlined. The proposed measurement technique was integrated in a regular open-field test, where the trajectory and locomotion of a free-moving mouse were measured simultaneously. The system setup consisted of a transparent cage and a camera placed below it with its lens pointing upward, allowing for images to be captured from underneath the cage while the mouse was walking on the transparent cage floor. Thus, additional information was obtained about the position of the limbs of the mice for gait reconstruction. In a first step, the camera was calibrated as soon as it was fixed in place. A linear calibration factor, relating distances in image coordinates to real-world dimensions, was determined. In a second step, the mouse was located and its body contour segmented from the image by subtracting a previously taken "background" image of the empty cage from the camera image. In a third step, the movement of the mouse was analyzed and its speed estimated from its location in the past few images. If the speed was above a 1-sec threshold, the mouse was recognized to be running, and the image was further processed for footprint recognition. In a fourth step, color filtering was applied within the recovered mouse region to measure the position of the mouse's paws, which were visible in the image as small pink spots. Paws that were detected at the same location in a number of subsequent images were kept as footprints-that is, paws in contact with the cage floor. The footprints were classified by their position relative to the mouse's outline as corresponding to the front left or right paw or the hind left or right paw. Finally, eight parameters were calculated from the footprint pattern to describe the locomotion of the mouse: right/left overlap, front/hind base, right/left front limb stride, and right/left hind limb stride. As an application
Choi, Myung-Sook; Park, Hyo Jin; Kim, Sang Ryong; Kim, Do Yeon; Jung, Un Ju
This study evaluated whether long-term supplementation with dietary yerba mate has beneficial effects on adiposity and its related metabolic dysfunctions in diet-induced obese mice. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks as follows: (1) control group fed with high-fat diet (HFD) and (2) mate group fed with HFD plus yerba mate. Dietary yerba mate increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene mRNA expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) and decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA expression in WAT, which may be linked to observed decreases in body weight, WAT weight, epididymal adipocyte size, and plasma leptin level. Yerba mate also decreased levels of plasma lipids (free fatty acids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol) and liver aminotransferase enzymes, as well as the accumulation of hepatic lipid droplets and lipid content by inhibiting the activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes, such as FAS and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, and increasing fecal lipid excretion. Moreover, yerba mate decreased the levels of plasma insulin as well as the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and improved glucose tolerance. Circulating levels of gastric inhibitory polypeptide and resistin were also decreased in the mate group. These findings suggest that long-term supplementation of dietary yerba mate may be beneficial for improving diet-induced adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis.
Leffa, Daniela Dimer; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Daumann, Francine; Longaretti, Luiza Martins; Amaral, Livio; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Juliana; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes
We evaluated the impact of a supplemental acerola juice (unripe, ripe, and industrial) and its main pharmaceutically active components on the concentrations of minerals in the liver and kidney of mice fed with cafeteria diet. Swiss male mice were fed with a cafeteria (CAF) diet for 13 weeks. The CAF consisted of a variety of supermarket products with high energy content. Subsequently, animals received one of the following food supplements for 1 month: water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, vitamin C, or rutin. Mineral concentrations of the tissues were determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Our study suggests that the simultaneous intake of acerola juices, vitamin C, or rutin in association with a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet provides change in the mineral composition of organisms in the conditions of this study, which plays an important role in the antioxidant defenses of the body. This may help to reduce the metabolism of the fat tissue or even to reduce the oxidative stress.
Sorokina, Svetlana; Zaichkina, Svetlana; Dyukina, Alsu; Rozanova, Olga; Balakin, Vladimir; Peleshko, Vladimir; Romanchenko, Sergey; Smirnova, Helena; Aptikaeva, Gella; Shemyakov, Alexander
In recent ten years one of the major problems of modern radiobiology is the study of radiation protective mechanisms with the help of different substances as well as activation of internal resources of the organism. Internal resources mean such phenomena as hormesis and adaptive response which represent cell or body reaction on low doses of inducing factors and predetermine their further high dose effect resistance. At present special interest is attracted by studies of biological effects of low-dose-rate high-LET radiation because of searching for new types of radiation for more effective cancer therapy and searching for new methods of radiation protection. Since natural biologically active substances have low toxicity and are capable of affecting physiological processes taking place in human’s organism and increasing organism’s natural defense system, the interest to protective means of vegetal origin and search of special food supplements intensifies every year. The purpose of this study is to investigate the combined influence of food supplement, low dose rate high-LET radiation simulating high-altitude flight conditions and X-ray radiations on radiosensitivity, induction of radiation adaptive response (RAR) and growth of Ehrlich ascite carcinoma as well. Experiments were performed with males of SHK mice at the age of two months. The animals were being irradiated with low-dose-rate high-LET radiation with the dose of 11,6 cGy (0,5 cGy/day) behind the concrete shield of the 70 GeV protons accelerator (Protvino). The X-ray irradiation was carried out on the RTH device with a voltage of 200 kV (1 Gy/min; Pushchino). The diet composition included products containing big amount of biologically active substances, such as: soybeam meat, buckwheat, lettuce leaves and drug of cod-liver oil. Four groups of mice were fed with selected products mentioned above during the whole irradiation period of 22 days. The control groups received the same food without irradiation
Verweij, Mariëlle; van de Ven, Marieke; Mitchell, James R; van den Engel, Sandra; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Ijzermans, Jan N M; de Bruin, Ron W F
Preoperative fasting induces robust protection against renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice but is considered overcautious and possibly detrimental for postoperative recovery in humans. Furthermore, fasting seems to conflict with reported benefits of preoperative nutritional enhancement with carbohydrate-rich drinks. Here, we investigated whether preoperative ingestion of a glucose solution interferes with fasting-induced protection against renal I/R injury. Mice were randomized into the following groups: fasted for 3 days with access to water (fasted) or a glucose solution (fasted+glc) and fed ad libitum with water (fed) or a glucose solution (fed+glc). After induction of bilateral renal I/R injury, all animals had free access to food and water. Calorie intake, body weight, insulin sensitivity, kidney function, and animal survival were determined. Fed+glc mice had a comparable daily calorie intake as fed mice, but 50% of those calories were obtained from the glucose solution. Fasted+glc mice had a daily calorie intake of approximately 75% of the intake of both fed groups. This largely prevented the substantial body weight loss seen in fasted animals. Preoperative insulin sensitivity was significantly improved in fasted+glc mice versus fed mice. After I/R injury, kidney function and animal survival were superior in both fasted groups. The benefits of fasting and preoperative nutritional enhancement with carbohydrates are not mutually exclusive and may be a clinically feasible regimen to protect against renal I/R injury.
Koivisto, Hennariikka; Leinonen, Henri; Puurula, Mari
to brain and thereby attenuate aging- or AD-related cognitive impairment. Mice received ~800 mg/kg/day Na-pyruvate in their chow for 2-6 months. In middle-aged wild-type mice and in 6.5-month-old APP/PS1 mice, pyruvate facilitated spatial learning and increased exploration of a novel odor. However......, in passive avoidance task for fear memory, the treatment group was clearly impaired. Independent of age, long-term pyruvate increased explorative behavior, which likely explains the paradoxical impairment in passive avoidance. We also assessed pyruvate effects on body weight, muscle force, and endurance...
Arras, Margarete; Rettich, Andreas; Cinelli, Paolo; Kasermann, Hans P; Burki, Kurt
Background Pain of mild to moderate grade is difficult to detect in laboratory mice because mice are prey animals that attempt to elude predators or man by hiding signs of weakness, injury or pain. In this study, we investigated the use of telemetry to identify indicators of mild-to-moderate post-laparotomy pain. Results Adult mice were subjected to laparotomy, either combined with pain treatment (carprofen or flunixin, 5 mg/kg s/c bid, for 1 day) or without pain relief. Controls received anesthesia and analgesics or vehicle only. Telemetrically measured locomotor activity was undisturbed in all animals, thus confirming that any pain experienced was of the intended mild level. No symptoms of pain were registered in any of the groups by scoring the animals' outer appearance or spontaneous and provoked behavior. In contrast, the group receiving no analgesic treatment after laparotomy demonstrated significant changes in telemetry electrocardiogram recordings: increased heart rate and decreased heart rate variability parameters pointed to sympathetic activation and pain lasting for 24 hours. In addition, core body temperature was elevated. Body weight and food intake were reduced for 3 and 2 days, respectively. Moreover, unstructured cage territory and destroyed nests appeared for 1–2 days in an increased number of animals in this group only. In controls these parameters were not affected. Conclusion In conclusion, real-time telemetric recordings of heart rate and heart rate variability were indicative of mild-to-moderate post-laparotomy pain and could define its duration in our mouse model. This level of pain cannot easily be detected by direct observation. PMID:17683523
Kasermann Hans P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain of mild to moderate grade is difficult to detect in laboratory mice because mice are prey animals that attempt to elude predators or man by hiding signs of weakness, injury or pain. In this study, we investigated the use of telemetry to identify indicators of mild-to-moderate post-laparotomy pain. Results Adult mice were subjected to laparotomy, either combined with pain treatment (carprofen or flunixin, 5 mg/kg s/c bid, for 1 day or without pain relief. Controls received anesthesia and analgesics or vehicle only. Telemetrically measured locomotor activity was undisturbed in all animals, thus confirming that any pain experienced was of the intended mild level. No symptoms of pain were registered in any of the groups by scoring the animals' outer appearance or spontaneous and provoked behavior. In contrast, the group receiving no analgesic treatment after laparotomy demonstrated significant changes in telemetry electrocardiogram recordings: increased heart rate and decreased heart rate variability parameters pointed to sympathetic activation and pain lasting for 24 hours. In addition, core body temperature was elevated. Body weight and food intake were reduced for 3 and 2 days, respectively. Moreover, unstructured cage territory and destroyed nests appeared for 1–2 days in an increased number of animals in this group only. In controls these parameters were not affected. Conclusion In conclusion, real-time telemetric recordings of heart rate and heart rate variability were indicative of mild-to-moderate post-laparotomy pain and could define its duration in our mouse model. This level of pain cannot easily be detected by direct observation.
Gao, Xiaoyu; Xie, Qiuhong; Liu, Ling; Kong, Ping; Sheng, Jun; Xiang, Hongyu
The aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (LM-A) is reported to have many health beneficial bioactivities and no obvious toxicity, but have mild adverse effects. Little is known about the mechanism of these reported adverse effects. Notably, there has been no report about the influence of LM-A on intestinal microecology. In this study, animal experiments were performed to explore the relationships between metabolic adaptation to an LM-A-supplemented diet and gut microbiota changes. After 8-week feeding with normal chow diet, the body weight of mice entered a stable period, and one of the group received daily doses of 750-mg/kg body weight LM-A by gavage for 4 weeks (assigned as LM); the other group received the vehicle (assigned as NCD). The liver weight to body weight ratio was enhanced, and the ceca were enlarged in the LM group compared with the NCD group. LM-A-supplemented-diet mice elicited a uniform metabolic adaptation, including slightly influenced fasting glucose and blood lipid profiles, significantly reduced liver triglycerides content, enhanced serum lipopolysaccharide level, activated inflammatory responses in the intestine and liver, compromised gut barrier function, and broken intestinal homeostasis. Many metabolic changes in mice were significantly correlated with altered specific gut bacteria. Changes in Firmicutes, Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides group, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Akkermansia muciniphila, segmented filamentous bacteria, Enterococcus spp., and Sutterella spp. may play an important role in the process of host metabolic adaptation to LM-A administration. Our research provides an explanation of the adverse effects of LM-A administration on normal adult individuals in the perspective of microecology.
Full Text Available Skeletal muscle atrophy, the most prominent phenotypic feature of cancer cachexia, is often observed in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Magnolol (M extracted from Magnolia officinalis exhibits several pharmacological effects including anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we investigated whether magnolol supplementation protects against the development of cachexia symptoms in bladder cancer-bearing mice undergoing chemotherapy. Combined treatment of magnolol with chemotherapeutic drugs, such as gemcitabine and cisplatin (TGCM or gemcitabine (TGM, markedly attenuates the body weight loss and skeletal muscle atrophy compared with conventional chemotherapy (TGC. The antiatrophic effect of magnolol may be associated with inhibition of myostatin and activin A formation, as well as FoxO3 transcriptional activity resulting from Akt activation, thereby suppressing ubiquitin ligases MuRF-1 and MAFbx/atrogin-1 expression, as well as proteasomal enzyme activity. Notably, magnolol-induced insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 production and related protein synthesis may also contribute to its protective effects. The decreased food intake, and intestinal injury and dysfunction observed in the mice of TGC group were significantly improved in the TGCM and TGM groups. Moreover, the increased inflammatory responses evidenced by elevation of proinflammatory cytokine formation and NF-κB activation occurred in the atrophying muscle of TGC group were markedly inhibited in mice of combined treatment with magnolol. In summary, these findings support that magnolol is a promising chemopreventive supplement for preventing chemotherapy-induced skeletal muscle atrophy associated with cancer cachexia by suppressing muscle protein degradation, and inflammatory responses, as well as increasing IGF-1-mediated protein synthesis.
Shirali, Saeed; Barari, Alireza; Hosseini, Seyed Ahmad; Khodadi, Elaheh
The aim of this study was to determine effects of six weeks endurance training and Aloe Vera supplementation on COX-2 and VEGF levels in mice with breast cancer. For this purpose, 35 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control (healthy) and 4 cancer groups: control (cancer only), training, Aloe Vera and Aloe Vera + training. Breast cancer tumors were generated in mice by implantind. The training program comprised six weeks of swimming training accomplished in three sessions per week. Training time started with 10 minutes on the first day and increased to 60 minutes in the second week and the water flow rate was increased from 7 to 15 liters per minute at a constant rate. Aloe Vera extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg BW was administrated to rats by intraperitoneal injection. At the end of the study period, rats were anesthetized and blood samples were taken. Significant differences were concluded at pAloe Vera extract caused significant decrease in the COX-2 level in the cancer group. Also, in the training (swimming exercise) and Aloe Vera + training cancer groups, we observed significant decrease in the VEGF level as compared to controls. Our results suggest that Aloe Vera and training inhibit the COX pathway and cause decrease production of prostaglandin E2. Hence administration of Aloe Vera in combination with endurance training might synergistically improve the host milieu in mice bearing breast cancers. Creative Commons Attribution License
Rideout, Todd C; Movsesian, Cheryl; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Iqbal, Aadil; Raslawsky, Amy; Patel, Mulchand S
Background: In utero exposure to excessive cholesterol has been shown to increase fetal plasma cholesterol concentration and predispose adult offspring to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Because lipid-lowering drugs are contraindicated during pregnancy, natural cholesterol-lowering compounds may be a safe and effective alternative to reduce CVD risk in offspring born to hypercholesterolemic mothers. Objective: This study used the hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E–deficient (apoE−/−) mouse model to test the hypothesis that mothers supplemented with phytosterols during gestation and lactation would produce offspring with a more favorable lipid profile than offspring from unsupplemented mothers, despite having a genetic predisposition toward hypercholesterolemia. Methods: Sixteen female apoE−/− mice were randomly assigned to 2 diets fed throughout the gestation and lactation periods: a cholesterol-enriched diet (CH) (0.15%) or the cholesterol-enriched diet supplemented with phytosterols (CH/PS) (2%). Serum lipids and lipoproteins were measured by enzyme assay and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively, and liver cholesterol was analyzed by GC. Results: Compared with the CH-fed dams at the end of lactation, phytosterol-supplemented dams displayed lower (P 0.05) in HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations. Pups from phytosterol-fed dams demonstrated lower (P 0.05) in HDL cholesterol compared with pups from CH-fed dams. Furthermore, compared with pups from CH-fed dams, pups from phytosterol-supplemented dams displayed a lower (P phytosterols during gestation and lactation exhibit favorable liver and serum lipid responses compared with pups from unsupplemented mothers. PMID:26084365
Schulz, Daniel; Grumann, Dorothee; Trübe, Patricia; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen; Johnson, Sarah; Reppschläger, Kevin; Gumz, Janine; Sundaramoorthy, Nandakumar; Michalik, Stephan; Berg, Sabine; van den Brandt, Jens; Fister, Richard; Monecke, Stefan; Uy, Benedict; Schmidt, Frank; Bröker, Barbara M.; Wiles, Siouxsie; Holtfreter, Silva
Whether mice are an appropriate model for S. aureus infection and vaccination studies is a matter of debate, because they are not considered as natural hosts of S. aureus. We previously identified a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain, which caused infections in laboratory mice. This raised the question whether laboratory mice are commonly colonized with S. aureus and whether this might impact on infection experiments. Publicly available health reports from commercial vendors revealed that S. aureus colonization is rather frequent, with rates as high as 21% among specific-pathogen-free mice. In animal facilities, S. aureus was readily transmitted from parents to offspring, which became persistently colonized. Among 99 murine S. aureus isolates from Charles River Laboratories half belonged to the lineage CC88 (54.5%), followed by CC15, CC5, CC188, and CC8. A comparison of human and murine S. aureus isolates revealed features of host adaptation. In detail, murine strains lacked hlb-converting phages and superantigen-encoding mobile genetic elements, and were frequently ampicillin-sensitive. Moreover, murine CC88 isolates coagulated mouse plasma faster than human CC88 isolates. Importantly, S. aureus colonization clearly primed the murine immune system, inducing a systemic IgG response specific for numerous S. aureus proteins, including several vaccine candidates. Phospholipase C emerged as a promising test antigen for monitoring S. aureus colonization in laboratory mice. In conclusion, laboratory mice are natural hosts of S. aureus and therefore, could provide better infection models than previously assumed. Pre-exposure to the bacteria is a possible confounder in S. aureus infection and vaccination studies and should be monitored. PMID:28512627
Full Text Available Whether mice are an appropriate model for S. aureus infection and vaccination studies is a matter of debate, because they are not considered as natural hosts of S. aureus. We previously identified a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain, which caused infections in laboratory mice. This raised the question whether laboratory mice are commonly colonized with S. aureus and whether this might impact on infection experiments. Publicly available health reports from commercial vendors revealed that S. aureus colonization is rather frequent, with rates as high as 21% among specific-pathogen-free mice. In animal facilities, S. aureus was readily transmitted from parents to offspring, which became persistently colonized. Among 99 murine S. aureus isolates from Charles River Laboratories half belonged to the lineage CC88 (54.5%, followed by CC15, CC5, CC188, and CC8. A comparison of human and murine S. aureus isolates revealed features of host adaptation. In detail, murine strains lacked hlb-converting phages and superantigen-encoding mobile genetic elements, and were frequently ampicillin-sensitive. Moreover, murine CC88 isolates coagulated mouse plasma faster than human CC88 isolates. Importantly, S. aureus colonization clearly primed the murine immune system, inducing a systemic IgG response specific for numerous S. aureus proteins, including several vaccine candidates. Phospholipase C emerged as a promising test antigen for monitoring S. aureus colonization in laboratory mice. In conclusion, laboratory mice are natural hosts of S. aureus and therefore, could provide better infection models than previously assumed. Pre-exposure to the bacteria is a possible confounder in S. aureus infection and vaccination studies and should be monitored.
Sadowska, Julita; Gębczyński, Andrzej K.; Konarzewski, Marek
The assimilation capacity (AC) hypothesis for the evolution of endothermy predicts that the maternal basal metabolic rate (BMR) should be positively correlated with the capacity for parental investment. In this study, we provide a unique test of the AC model based on mice from a long-term selection experiment designed to produce divergent levels of BMR. By constructing experimental families with cross-fostered litters, we were able to control for the effect of the mother as well as the type of pup based on the selected lines. We found that mothers with genetically determined high levels of BMR were characterized by higher parental investment capacity, measured as the offspring growth rate. We also found higher food consumption and heavier visceral organs in the females with high BMR. These findings suggested that the high-BMR females have higher energy acquisition abilities. When the effect of the line type of a foster mother was controlled, the pup line type significantly affected the growth rate only in the first week of life, with young from the high-BMR line type growing more rapidly. Our results support the predictions of the AC model. PMID:23282996
AbuTaweel Qasim M; Ajarem Jamaan S
Lead ( Pb ) was given to Swiss-Webster female mice at the concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2% ( w/v ) , containing 550 and 1100 ppm of lead respectively, in their drinking water. Treatment started from day 1 of pregnancy until day 15 postnatally . Thereafter, the dams were switched to plain tap water. After the weaning period ( 21 days ), all male offspring were isolated (one animal per cage) for 14 days, and the isolated male offspring were subjected to 'Standard Opponenttest' at the age of 36 days . the results of this test showed a significant and dose-dependent increase in the non-social behaviour , whereas such results showed a significant decline in the social behaviour including naso-genital and naso-nasal contact, number of fights, rear, wall rear and displacement activities of the Pb exposed young adult male offspring. The present perinatal Pb effects in the male offspring are possibly via in utero exposure and/or via mother's milk. (author)
Vallejo, Julian; Spence, Madoka; Cheng, An-Lin; Brotto, Leticia; Edens, Neile K; Garvey, Sean M; Brotto, Marco
There is growing evidence that severe decline of skeletal muscle mass and function with age may be mitigated by exercise and dietary supplementation with protein and amino acid ingredient technologies. The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of the leucine catabolite, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), in C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes, and to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with HMB, the amino acid β-alanine and the combination thereof, on muscle contractility in a preclinical model of pre-sarcopenia. In C2C12 myotubes, HMB enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium release beyond vehicle control in the presence of all SR agonists tested (KCl, PHMB also improved C2C12 myoblast viability (25 μM HMB, P = 0.03) and increased proliferation (25 μM HMB, P = 0.04; 125 μM HMB, PHMB, diet with β-alanine, or diet with HMB and β-alanine. In β-alanine fed mice, EDL muscle showed a 7% increase in maximum absolute force compared to the control diet (202 ± 3vs. 188± 5 mN, P = 0.02). At submaximal frequency of stimulation (20 Hz), EDL from mice fed HMB plus β-alanine showed an 11% increase in absolute force (88.6 ± 2.2 vs. 79.8 ± 2.4 mN, P = 0.025) and a 13% increase in specific force (12.2 ± 0.4 vs. 10.8 ± 0.4 N/cm2, P = 0.021). Also in EDL muscle, β-alanine increased the rate of force development at all frequencies tested (PHMB reduced the time to reach peak contractile force (TTP), with a significant effect at 80 Hz (P = 0.0156). In soleus muscle, all experimental diets were associated with a decrease in TTP, compared to control diet. Our findings highlight beneficial effects of HMB and β-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle function in aging mice.
Christensen, Karen E; Hou, Wenyang; Bahous, Renata H; Deng, Liyuan; Malysheva, Olga V; Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Caudill, Marie A; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A; Rozen, Rima
Moderately high folic acid intake in pregnant women has led to concerns about deleterious effects on the mother and fetus. Common polymorphisms in folate genes, such as methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (MTHFD1) R653Q, may modulate the effects of elevated folic acid intake. We investigated the effects of moderate folic acid supplementation on reproductive outcomes and assessed the potential interaction of the supplemented diet with MTHFD1-synthetase (Mthfd1S) deficiency in mice, which is a model for the R653Q variant. Female Mthfd1S +/+ and Mthfd1S +/- mice were fed a folic acid-supplemented diet (FASD) (5-fold higher than recommended) or control diets before mating and during pregnancy. Embryos and placentas were assessed for developmental defects at embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5). Maternal folate and choline metabolites and gene expression in folate-related pathways were examined. The combination of FASD and maternal MTHFD1-synthetase deficiency led to a greater incidence of defects in E10.5 embryos (diet × maternal genotype, P = 0.0016; diet × embryonic genotype, P = 0.054). The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) protein and methylation potential [ratio of S-adenosylmethionine (major methyl donor):S-adenosylhomocysteine) were reduced in maternal liver. Although 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (methylTHF) was higher in maternal circulation, the methylation potential was lower in embryos. The presence of developmental delays and defects in Mthfd1S +/- embryos was associated with placental defects (P = 0.003). The labyrinth layer failed to form properly in the majority of abnormal placentas, which compromised the integration of the maternal and fetal circulation and presumably the transfer of methylTHF and other nutrients. Moderately higher folate intake and MTHFD1-synthetase deficiency in pregnant mice result in a lower methylation potential in maternal liver and embryos and a greater
Cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose (cHEC) , was fed to hamsters to determine if this new soluble fiber had an effect on hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia associated with cardiovascular disease. In this study, Golden Syrian hamsters were supplemented with 3-8% cHEC or microcrystalline cellulose (MC...
Yu, Lixia; Wang, Weiguang; Pang, Wei; Xiao, Zhonghai; Jiang, Yugang; Hong, Yan
Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies and participates in their development by promoting hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau. Lycopene, as an effective antioxidant, combined with vitamin E seemed to be additive against oxidative stress. The present study was undertaken to examine whether lycopene or lycopene/vitamin E could exert protective effects on memory deficit and oxidative stress in tau transgenic mice expressing P301L mutation. P301L transgenic mice were assigned to three groups: P301L group (P301L), P301L+lycopene (Lyc), and P301L+lycopene/vitamin E (Lyc+VE). Age-matched C57BL/6J mice as wild type controls (Con) were used in the present study. Spatial memory was assessed by radial arm while passive memories were evaluated by step-down and step-through tests. Levels of tau phosphorylation were detected by western blot. Oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in the serum using biochemical assay kits. Compared with the control group, P301L mice displayed significant spatial and passive memory impairments, elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and decreased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in serum, and increased tau phosphorylation at Thr231/Ser235, Ser262, and Ser396 in brain. Supplementations of lycopene or lycopene/vitamin E could significantly ameliorate the memory deficits, observably decreased MDA concentrations and increased GSH-Px activities, and markedly attenuated tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple AD-related sites. Our findings indicated that the combination of lycopene and vitamin E antioxidants acted in a synergistic fashion to bring significant effects against oxidative stress in tauopathies.
Full Text Available Most contacts with food protein and microbiota antigens occur at the level of the gut mucosa. In animal models where this natural stimulation is absent, such as germ-free and antigen-free mice, the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT and systemic immunological activities are underdeveloped. We have shown that food proteins play a critical role in the full development of the immune system. C57BL/6 mice weaned to a diet in which intact proteins are replaced by equivalent amounts of amino acids (Aa diet have a poorly developed GALT as well as low levels of serum immunoglobulins (total Ig, IgG, and IgA, but not IgM. In the present study, we evaluated whether the introduction of a protein-containing diet in 10 adult Aa-fed C57BL/6 mice could restore their immunoglobulin levels and whether this recovery was dependent on the amount of dietary protein. After the introduction of a casein-containing diet, Aa-fed mice presented a fast recovery (after 7 days of secretory IgA (from 0.33 to 0.75 mg/mL, while in casein-fed mice this value was 0.81 mg/mL and serum immunoglobulin levels (from 5.39 to 10.25 mg/mL of total Ig. Five percent dietary casein was enough to promote the restoration of secretory IgA and serum immunoglobulin levels to a normal range after 30 days feeding casein diet (as in casein-fed mice - 15% by weight of diet. These data suggest that the defect detected in the immunoglobulin levels was a reversible result of the absence of food proteins as an antigenic stimulus. They also indicate that the deleterious consequences of malnutrition at an early age for some immune functions may be restored by therapeutic intervention later in life.
Patient Pati Pyana
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleeping sickness due to Trypanosoma brucei (T.b. gambiense is still a major public health problem in some central African countries. Historically, relapse rates around 5% have been observed for treatment with melarsoprol, widely used to treat second stage patients. Later, relapse rates of up to 50% have been recorded in some isolated foci in Angola, Sudan, Uganda and Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC. Previous investigations are not conclusive on whether decreased sensitivity to melarsoprol is responsible for these high relapse rates. Therefore we aimed to establish a parasite collection isolated from cured as well as from relapsed patients for downstream comparative drug sensitivity profiling. A major constraint for this type of investigation is that T.b. gambiense is particularly difficult to isolate and adapt to classical laboratory rodents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 360 patients treated in Dipumba hospital, Mbuji-Mayi, D.R. Congo, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was collected before treatment. From patients relapsing during the 24 months follow-up, the same specimens were collected. Specimens with confirmed parasite presence were frozen in liquid nitrogen in a mixture of Triladyl, egg yolk and phosphate buffered glucose solution. Isolation was achieved by inoculation of the cryopreserved specimens in Grammomys surdaster, Mastomys natalensis and SCID mice. Thus, 85 strains were isolated from blood and CSF of 55 patients. Isolation success was highest in Grammomys surdaster. Forty strains were adapted to mice. From 12 patients, matched strains were isolated before treatment and after relapse. All strains belong to T.b. gambiense type I. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We established a unique collection of T.b. gambiense from cured and relapsed patients, isolated in the same disease focus and within a limited period. This collection is available for genotypic and phenotypic characterisation to investigate the
Springer, Danielle A.; Allen, Michele; Hoffman, Victoria; Brinster, Lauren; Starost, Matthew F.; Bryant, Mark; Eckhaus, Michael
Laboratory mice develop naturally occurring lesions that affect biomedical research. Hydronephrosis is a recognized pathologic abnormality of the mouse kidney. Acquired hydronephrosis can affect any mouse, as it is caused by any naturally occurring disease that impairs free urine flow. Many etiologies leading to this condition are of particular significance to aging mice. Non-invasive ultrasound imaging detects renal pelvic dilation, renal enlargement, and parenchymal loss for pre-mortem identification of this condition. High-frequency ultrasound transducers produce high-resolution images of small structures, ideal for detecting organ pathology in mice. Using a 40 MHz linear array transducer, we obtained high-resolution images of a diversity of pathologic lesions occurring within the abdomen of seven geriatric mice with acquired hydronephrosis that enabled a determination of the underlying etiology. Etiologies diagnosed from the imaging results include pyelonephritis, neoplasia, urolithiasis, mouse urologic syndrome, and spontaneous hydronephrosis, and were confirmed at necropsy. A retrospective review of abdominal scans from an additional 149 aging mice shows that the most common etiologies associated with acquired hydronephrosis are mouse urologic syndrome and abdominal neoplasia. This report highlights the utility of high-frequency ultrasound for surveying research mice for age-related pathology, and is the first comprehensive report of multiple cases of acquired hydronephrosis in mice. PMID:25143818
Thaddaeus May; Kevin C. Klatt; Jacob Smith; Eumenia Castro; Mark Manary; Marie A. Caudill; Farook Jahoor; Marta L. Fiorotto
Hepatic steatosis is a hallmark feature of kwashiorkor malnutrition. However, the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis in kwashiorkor is uncertain. Our objective was to develop a mouse model of childhood undernutrition in order to test the hypothesis that feeding a maize vegetable diet (MVD), like that consumed by children at risk for kwashiorkor, will cause hepatic steatosis which is prevented by supplementation with choline. A MVD was developed with locally sourced organic ingredients, and fed...
Josiane Morais Martin
Full Text Available Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs prevent cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to study whether a diet supplemented with a mixture of n-6/n-3 PUFAs, during perinatal life, attenuates outcomes of long-term metabolic dysfunction in prediabetic and obese mice. Seventy-day-old virgin female mice were mated. From the conception day, dams were fed a diet supplemented with sunflower oil and flaxseed powder (containing an n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio of 1.2 : 1.0 throughout pregnancy and lactation, while control dams received a commercial diet. Newborn mice were treated with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG, 4 mg g−1 body weight per day for the first 5 days of age. A batch of weaned pups was sacrificed to quantify the brain and pancreas total lipids; another batch were fed a commercial diet until 90 days of age, where glucose homeostasis and glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS as well as retroperitoneal fat and Lee index were assessed. MSG-treated mice developed obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, pancreatic islet dysfunction, and higher fat stores. Maternal flaxseed diet-supplementation decreased n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio in the brain and pancreas and blocked glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, GIIS impairment, and obesity development. The n-6/n-3 essential PUFAs in a ratio of 1.2 : 1.0 supplemented in maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation prevent metabolic dysfunction in MSG-obesity model.
Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported that post-exercise ingestion of carbohydrates with protein supplementation can enhance glycogen recovery. However, few reports have focused on the degrees of degradation of the ingested proteins due to post-exercise glycogen resynthesis. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to clarify the effects of differences in protein degradation on muscle glycogen recovery. Male seven-week-old C57BL/6J mice performed a single bout of 60-min treadmill running exercise and were then orally administered glucose (Glu; 1.5 mg/g body weight (BW, glucose with casein peptide (Glu + Pep; 1.5 + 0.5 mg/g BW or its constituent amino acid mixture (Glu + AA; 1.5 + 0.5 mg/g BW. At 120 min after supplementation, the soleus muscle glycogen content in the Glu and Glu + AA groups was significantly higher than that immediately after exercise; however, no such difference was observed in the Glu + Pep group. Blood substrate concentration and insulin signaling did not differ among the three groups. Furthermore, energy expenditure during the recovery period in the Glu + Pep group was significantly higher than that in the Glu and Glu + AA groups. These findings suggest that post-exercise co-ingestion of glucose and casein peptide might delay glycogen resynthesis, at least in part through increased energy expenditure caused by casein peptide ingestion.
A M Poff
Full Text Available The Warburg effect and tumor hypoxia underlie a unique cancer metabolic phenotype characterized by glucose dependency and aerobic fermentation. We previously showed that two non-toxic metabolic therapies - the ketogenic diet with concurrent hyperbaric oxygen (KD+HBOT and dietary ketone supplementation - could increase survival time in the VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer. We hypothesized that combining these therapies could provide an even greater therapeutic benefit in this model. Mice receiving the combination therapy demonstrated a marked reduction in tumor growth rate and metastatic spread, and lived twice as long as control animals. To further understand the effects of these metabolic therapies, we characterized the effects of high glucose (control, low glucose (LG, ketone supplementation (βHB, hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT, or combination therapy (LG+βHB+HBOT on VM-M3 cells. Individually and combined, these metabolic therapies significantly decreased VM-M3 cell proliferation and viability. HBOT, alone or in combination with LG and βHB, increased ROS production in VM-M3 cells. This study strongly supports further investigation into this metabolic therapy as a potential non-toxic treatment for late-stage metastatic cancers.
Kamei, Asuka; Watanabe, Yuki; Shinozaki, Fumika; Yasuoka, Akihito; Shimada, Kousuke; Kondo, Kaori; Ishijima, Tomoko; Toyoda, Tsudoi; Arai, Soichi; Kondo, Takashi; Abe, Keiko
Maple syrup contains various polyphenols and we investigated the effects of a polyphenol-rich maple syrup extract (MSXH) on the physiology of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD), an HFD, or an HFD supplemented with 0.02% (002MSXH) or 0.05% MSXH (005MSXH) for 4 weeks. Global gene expression analysis of the liver was performed, and the differentially expressed genes were classified into three expression patterns; pattern A (LFD 002MSXH = 005MSXH, LFD > HFD 005MSXH, LFD > HFD = 002MSXH 002MSXH HFD 005MSXH). Pattern A was enriched in glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism, and folate metabolism. Pattern B was enriched in tricarboxylic acid cycle while pattern C was enriched in gluconeogenesis, cholesterol metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related event. Our study suggested that the effects of MSXH ingestion showed (i) dose-dependent pattern involved in energy metabolisms and (ii) reversely pattern involved in stress responses. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Kim, Misung; Na, Woori; Sohn, Cheongmin
Several reports suggest that obesity is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Vitamin K plays an important role in improving bone metabolism. This study examined the effects of vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 supplementation on the biochemical markers of bone turnover and morphological microstructure of the bones by using an obese mouse model. Four-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were fed a 10% fat normal diet group or a 45% kcal high-fat diet group, with or without 200 mg/1000 g vitamin K1 (Normal diet + K1, high-fat diet + K1) and 200 mg/1000 g vitamin K2 (Normal diet + K2, high-fat diet + K2) for 12 weeks. Serum levels of osteocalcin were higher in the high-fat diet + K2 group than in the high-fat diet group. Serum OPG level of the high-fat diet group, high-fat diet + K1 group, and high-fat diet + K2 group was 2.31 ± 0.31 ng/ml, 2.35 ± 0.12 ng/ml, and 2.90 ± 0.11 ng/ml, respectively. Serum level of RANKL in the high-fat diet group was significantly higher than that in the high-fat diet + K1 group and high-fat diet + K2 group (p<0.05). Vitamin K supplementation seems to tend to prevent bone loss in high-fat diet induced obese state. These findings suggest that vitamin K supplementation reversed the high fat diet induced bone deterioration by modulating osteoblast and osteoclast activities and prevent bone loss in a high-fat diet-induced obese mice.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: in recent years, in order to improve power, speed, the increase in the volume of the musculature, preventing sports injuries and maintain the muscle performance athletes use from different resistance exercises and food supplements. In this regard, present study has been conducted with the aim of comparison the influence of an 8 week period consumption of creatine (2 gr.kg-1.day-1 in 1st week and 0.48 gr.kg-1.day-1during 2nd to 8th weeks and glutamine (1 gr.kg-1.day-1 from first to eighth weeks along with resistance exercise on level of ALP of female mice. Materials and methods: This experimental study was done on 80 Small adult female mice of Surrey species (28 ± 5 gram. The animals were randomly divided into 8 groups of: resistance exercise, resistance exercise + creatine, resistance exercise + glutamine, resistance exercise + glutamine + creatine, creatine, glutamine, creatine + glutamine and control groups (N= 10. Resistance exercise (5 days a week was including: climbing (4 sets, 5 times repetition with two minutes rest between the sets from a ladder (with the height of one meter and including 26 steps and bearing 30 percent of the weight of the Mouse body (hanging from tail in the first week and the increasing it up to 200 percent of body weight till the last week of the experiment. During 48 hours after the last practice session of resistance exercise, the blood sample was taken and the the level of ALP has been measured. Findings:The results showed that the level of ALP enzyme in creatine + glutamine + resistance exercise groug had been increased in comparison with the control group (144.3 ± 15.86 in comparison with 234.7 ± 25.69 U.L-1 P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this research indicate Creatine and Glutamine supplementation consumption along with resistance exercise increases in the level of ALP enzyme in the liver of mice.
This supplement analysis has been prepared to describe new information relevant to waste retrieval, handling, and characterization at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and to evaluate the need for additional documentation to satisfy the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The INEL proposes to characterize and repackage contact-handled transuranic waste to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Test Phase. Waste retrieval, handling and processing activities in support of test phase activities at the WIPP were addressed in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for the WIPP. To ensure that test-phase wastes are properly characterized and packaged, waste containers would be retrieved, nondestructively examined, and transported from the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) to the Hot-Fuel Examination Facility for headspace gas analysis, visual inspections to verify content code, and waste acceptance criteria compliance, then repackaging into WIPP experimental test bins or returned to drums. Following repackaging the characterized wastes would be returned to the RWMC. Waste characterization would help DOE determine WIPP compliance with US Environmental Protection Agency regulations governing disposal of transuranic waste and hazardous waste. Additionally, this program supports onsite compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, compliance with the terms of the No-Migration Variance at WIPP, and provides data to support future waste shipments to WIPP. This analysis will help DOE determine whether there have been substantial changes made to the proposed action at the INEL, or if preparation of a supplement to the WIPP Final Environmental Impact Statement (DOE, 1980) and SEIS (DOE, 1990a) is required. This analysis is based on current information and includes details not available to the SEIS
Becker, B. A.; Johnson, H. D.; Li, R.; Collier, R. J.
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bovine somatotropin (BST) supplementation in twelve lactating dairy cows maintained in cold environmental conditions. Six cows were injected daily with 25 mg of BST; the other six were injected with a control vehicle. Cows were maintained under standard dairy management during mid-winter for 30 days. Milk production was recorded twice daily, and blood samples were taken weekly. Animals were then transferred to environmentally controlled chambers and exposed to cycling thermoneutral (15° to 20° C) and cycling cold (-5° to +5° C) temperatures for 10 days in a split-reversal design. Milk production, feed and water intake, body weights and rectal temperatures were monitored. Blood samples were taken on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 10 of each period and analyzed for plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cortisol, insulin and prolactin. Under farm conditions, BST-treated cows produced 11% more milk than control-treated cows and in environmentally controlled chambers produced 17.4% more milk. No differences due to BST in feed or water intake, body weights or rectal temperatures were found under laboratory conditions. Plasma T3 and insulin increased due to BST treatment while no effect was found on cortisol, prolactin or T4. The results showed that the benefits of BST supplementation in lactating dairy cows were achieved under cold environmental conditions.
Ella M Poels
Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension and subsequent right ventricular (RV failure are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Prognosis is determined by occurrence of RV failure. Currently, adequate treatment for RV failure is lacking. Further research into the molecular basis for the development of RV failure as well as the development of better murine models of RV failure are therefore imperative. We hypothesize that adding a low-copper diet to chronic hypoxia in mice reinforces their individual effect and that the combination of mild pulmonary vascular remodeling and capillary rarefaction, induces RV failure.Six week old mice were subjected to normoxia (N; 21% O2 or hypoxia (H; 10% O2 during a period of 8 weeks and received either a normal diet (Cu+ or a copper depleted diet (Cu-. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and MRI analysis.Here, we characterized a mouse model of chronic hypoxia combined with a copper depleted diet and demonstrate that eight weeks of chronic hypoxia (10% is sufficient to induce RV hypertrophy and subsequent RV failure. Addition of a low copper diet to hypoxia did not have any further deleterious effects on right ventricular remodeling.
Full Text Available This work studied the effect of protein malnutrition on the hemato-immune response to the respiratory challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae and evaluated whether the dietary recovery with a probiotic strain has a beneficial effect in that response. Three important conclusions can be inferred from the results presented in this work: a protein-malnutrition significantly impairs the emergency myelopoiesis induced by the generation of the innate immune response against pneumococcal infection; b repletion of malnourished mice with treatments including nasally or orally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 are able to significantly accelerate the recovery of granulopoiesis and improve innate immunity and; c the immunological mechanisms involved in the protective effect of immunobiotics vary according to the route of administration. The study demonstrated that dietary recovery of malnourished mice with oral or nasal administration of L. rhamnosus CRL1505 improves emergency granulopoiesis and that CXCR4/CXCR12 signaling would be involved in this effect. Then, the results summarized here are a starting point for future research and open up broad prospects for future applications of probiotics in the recovery of immunocompromised malnourished hosts.
Supplementation with antioxidant-rich extra virgin olive oil prevents hepatic oxidative stress and reduction of desaturation capacity in mice fed a high-fat diet: Effects on fatty acid composition in liver and extrahepatic tissues.
Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Angel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Marambio, Macarena; Espinosa, Alejandra; Mayer, Susana; Romero, Nalda; Barrera M Sc, Cynthia; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Videla, Luis A
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in mice on the reduction of desaturase and antioxidant enzymatic activities in liver, concomitantly with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) profiles in liver and extrahepatic tissues induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male mice C57 BL/6 J were fed with a control diet (CD; 10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrates) or an HFD (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrates) for 12 wk. Animals were supplemented with 100 mg/d EVOO with different antioxidant contents (EVOO I, II, and III). After the intervention, blood and several tissues were analyzed. Dietary supplementation with EVOO with the highest antioxidant content and antioxidant capacity (EVOO III) significantly reduced fat accumulation in liver and the plasmatic metabolic alterations caused by HFD and produced a normalization of oxidative stress-related parameters, desaturase activities, and LCPUFA content in tissues. Data suggest that dietary supplementation with EVOO III may prevent oxidative stress and reduction of biosynthesis and accretion of ω-3 LCPUFA in the liver of HFD-fed mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chavali, S R; Forse, R A
The differences in the immune responses in mice fed sesame oil diets and those fed sesamin may be attributed to the presence of other lignans in the non-fat portion of the oil. The fatty acid composition (mean +/- SD mol. %) of liver membrane phospholipids and the levels of endotoxin-induced prostaglandin (PG) E2, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were determined in mice fed diets supplemented with 5% safflower oil (SO) in the absence or presence of 1% sesamol. The levels of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3omega6) were markedly higher (P<0.025) in the livers from mice fed sesamol supplemented SO diets (1.6 +/- 0.1) compared to the controls (1.4 +/- 0.1). These data suggest that sesamol or its metabolite could inhibit the in vivo delta-5 desaturation of omega6 fatty acids. Further, in animals fed sesamol supplemented SO diets, the levels of PGE2 (228 +/- 41 pg/ml) were markedly lower (P<0.01) compared to those fed SO diet alone (1355 +/- 188 pg/ml). Concomitantly, the concentrations of IL-6 were also lower (P<0.01) in mice fed sesamol diet (63 +/- 11 ng/ml) compared to the controls (143 +/- 22 ng/ml). A marked reduction in the levels of PGE2 in animals fed sesamol diets suggests that sesamol or its metabolite could inhibit the activity of cyclooxygenase enzyme.
Syphacia obvelata is a pinworm nematode parasite infecting man and laboratory animals in high abundance. This parasitological study was carried out during the period of March 2014-February 2015 to investigate the helminth parasites infecting the laboratory mice Mus musculus in the Animal House at Cairo University, Egypt. The prevalence of S. obvelata in M. musculus was 75.0 %. The extent of infection with S. obvelata is analyzed according to the sex of the host mice. It was shown that the prevalence of male infection was greater than female worms. Morphological characterization revealed that the present Oxyurid species possesses a rounded cephalic end with less developed lips, esophagus divided into cylindrical corpus, and globular bulb supported internally with valvular apparatus; three mamelons are located at the ventral surface with a single chitinized spicule and a gubernaculum provided with an accessory hook in males, and ovijector apparatus opens ventrally by the vulva surrounded by protruded lips in female worms. Body of the male was 0.623-1.130 (0.830 ± 0.11) mm long and 0.092-0.130 (0.110 ± 0.01) mm wide; the esophagus was 0.164-0.280 (0.210 ± 0.01) mm long; the nerve ring and excretory pore are located at 0.035-0.132 (0.073 ± 0.01) and 0.087-0.191 (0.145 ± 0.01) mm from the anterior end, respectively, while the female measured 2.930-4.650 (3.540 ± 0.1) mm long and 0.120-0.232 (0.156 ± 0.001) mm wide; the esophagus was 0.213-0.410 (0.342 ± 0.01) mm long; the nerve ring, excretory pore, and vulval opening are located at 0.026-0.157 (0.121 ± 0.01), 0.134-0.243 (0.195 ± 0.01), and 0.323-0.632 (0.546 ± 0.11) mm from the anterior end, respectively; eggs measured 0.120-0.139 (0.129 ± 0.001) mm long and 0.030-0.052 (0.045 ± 0.001) mm wide. It compared morphometrically with other Syphacia species described previously and showed little differences in
Fattahi, Amir; Darabi, Masoud; Farzadi, Laya; Salmassi, Ali; Latifi, Zeinab; Mehdizadeh, Amir; Shaaker, Maghsood; Ghasemnejad, Tohid; Roshangar, Leila; Nouri, Mohammad
Since fatty acid composition of uterus phospholipids is likely to influence embryo implantation, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary omega-3 and -6 fatty acids on implantation rate as well as uterine phospholipid fatty acids composition during mice pre-implantation period. Sixty female mice were randomly distributed into:1) control (standard pellet), 2) omega-3 (standard pellet + 10% w/w of omega-3 fatty acids) and 3) omega-6 (standard pellet + 10% w/w of omega-6 fatty acids). Uterine phospholipid fatty acid composition during the pre-implantation window (days 1-5 of pregnancy) was analyzed using gas-chromatography. The implantation rate on the fifth day of pregnancy was also determined. Our results showed that on days 1, 2 and 3 of pregnancy, the levels of arachidonic acid (ARA) as well as total omega-6 fatty acids were significantly higher and the levels of linolenic acid and total omega-3 fatty acids were statistically lower in the omega-6 group compared to the omega-3 group (p omega-6 fatty acids, and poly-unsaturated fatty acids levels were significantly different between the two dietary supplemented groups (p omega-6 fatty acids, especially ARA, with the implantation rate. The present study showed that diets rich in omega-3 and -6 fatty acids could differently modify uterine phospholipid fatty acid composition and uterine levels of phospholipid ARA, and that the total omega-6 fatty acids had a positive association with the implantation rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Supplement Analysis for Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory -- Modification of Management Methods for Transuranic Waste Characterization at Los Alamos National Laboratory
This Supplement Analysis (SA) has been prepared to determine if the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operations of Los Alamos National Laboratory (SWEIS) (DOE/EIS-0238) adequately addresses the environmental effects of a waste management proposal for installing and operating modular units for the characterization of transuranic (TRU) waste1 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area (TA)-54, Area G, or if the SWEIS needs to be supplemented. Council on Environmental Quality regulations at Title 40, Section 1502.9 (c) of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 1502.9[c]) require federal agencies to prepare a supplement to an EIS when an agency makes substantial changes in the proposed action that are relevant to environmental concerns or there are circumstances or information relevant to concerns and bearing on the proposed action or its impacts. This SA is prepared in accordance with Section 10 CFR 1021.314(c) of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) regulations for NEPA implementation stating that ''When it is unclear whether or not an EIS supplement is required, DOE shall prepare a Supplement Analysis.'' This SA specifically compares key impact assessment parameters of the waste management program evaluated in the SWEIS with those of a proposal that would change the approach of a portion of this management program. It also provides an explanation of any differences between the proposed action and activities described in the previous SWEIS analysis. DOE proposes to expedite the shipment of legacy TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The Cerro Grande Fire in 2000 and events of September 11, 2001, have focused attention on the potential risk to the public and the credible security hazard posed by the amount of plutonium stored above ground at LANL and the increased necessity to safeguard our nation's nuclear waste. The safest place for defense-generated TRU waste has been determined to be DOE
Rafaela V. Silva
Full Text Available Fish oil (FO is the main source of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs, which display relevant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Peripheral nerve injury is driven by degeneration, neuroinflammation, and neuronal plasticity which results in neuropathic pain (NP symptoms such as allodynia and hyperalgesia. We tested the preventive effect of an EPA/DHA-concentrate fish oil (CFO on NP development and regenerative features. Swiss mice received daily oral treatment with CFO 4.6 or 2.3 g/kg for 10 days after NP was induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hypernociception were assessed 5 days after injury. CFO 2.3 g/kg significantly prevented mechanical and thermal sensitization, reduced TNF levels in the spinal cord, sciatic MPO activity, and ATF-3 expression on DRG cells. CFO improved Sciatic Functional Index (SFI as well as electrophysiological recordings, corroborating the increased GAP43 expression and total number of myelinated fibers observed in sciatic nerve. No locomotor activity impairment was observed in CFO treated groups. These results point to the regenerative and possibly protective properties of a combined EPA and DHA oral administration after peripheral nerve injury, as well as its anti-neuroinflammatory activity, evidencing ω-3 PUFAs promising therapeutic outcomes for NP treatment.
Skogestad, Ingrid Johansen; Martinsen, Liv; Børsting, Tove Elisabet; Granheim, Tove Irene; Ludvigsen, Eirin Sigurdssøn; Gay, Caryl L; Lerdal, Anners
To evaluate medical inpatients' symptom experience and selected laboratory blood results as indicators of their pressure ulcer risk as measured by the Braden scale. Pressure ulcers reduce quality of life and increase treatment costs. The prevalence of pressure ulcers is 6-23% in hospital populations, but literature suggests that most pressure ulcers are avoidable. Prospective, cross-sectional survey. Three hundred and twenty-eight patients admitted to medical wards in an acute hospital in Oslo, Norway consented to participate. Data were collected on 10 days between 2012-2014 by registered nurses and nursing students. Pressure ulcer risk was assessed using the Braden scale, and scores indicated pressure ulcer risk. Skin examinations were categorised as normal or stages I-IV using established definitions. Comorbidities were collected by self-report. Self-reported symptom occurrence and distress were measured with 15 items from the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, and pain was assessed using two numeric rating scales. Admission laboratory data were collected from medical records. Prevalence of pressure ulcers was 11·9, and 20·4% of patients were identified as being at risk for developing pressure ulcers. Multivariable analysis showed that pressure ulcer risk was positively associated with age ≥80 years, vomiting, severe pain at rest, urination problems, shortness of breath and low albumin and was negatively associated with nervousness. Our study indicates that using patient-reported symptoms and standard laboratory results as supplemental indicators of pressure ulcer risk may improve identification of vulnerable patients, but replication of these findings in other study samples is needed. Nurses play a key role in preventing pressure ulcers during hospitalisation. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms may improve the quality of care. Knowledge about symptoms associated with pressure ulcer risk may contribute to a faster clinical judgment of
Su, Chieh-Shou; Lai, Hui-Chin; Wang, Chih-Yen; Lee, Wen-Lieng; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Yang, Ya-Ling; Wang, Li-Chun; Liu, Chia-Ning; Liu, Tsun-Jui
Tracheal intubation of laboratory mice remains essential yet challenging for most researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this procedure can be more efficiently and safely accomplished by a novel method using slim and torqueable guidewires to guide access to the trachea. This study was carried out in an animal laboratory affiliated to a tertiary medical center. Mice weighing 22 to 28 g were subjected to various open-chest experiments after being anesthetized with intraperitoneal ketamine (100 mg/kg) and lidocaine hydrochloride (10 mg/kg). The oropharyngeal cavity was opened with angled tissue forceps, and the trachea was transilluminated using an external light. The vocal cords were then crossed using either the Conventional method with a 38-mm-long, end-blunted stiff needle as a guide for insertion of a 22-gauge, 25-mm-long intravenous catheter into the trachea, or the Modified method utilizing using a 0.014-inch-thin torqueable wire as the guide to introduce an identical tube over it into the trachea. The epithelial integrity of the trachea was later examined histologically when the animals were sacrificed either immediately after the surgery or at 28 days post-surgery, depending on the corresponding research protocols. Orotracheal intubation was successfully completed in all mice using either the Conventional (N = 42) or the Modified method (N = 50). With the Modified method, intubation took less time (1.73 vs. 2.17 min, Modified vs. Conventional, p Conventional method. Histological analysis revealed a significantly lower incidence of immediate (0% vs. 39%, p Conventional method. Tracheal intubation for laboratory mice can be completed efficiently, safely and atraumatically using the proposed Modified method employing readily available inexpensive instruments.
Brett, S J; Cox, F E
The intestinal flagellates, Giardia muris and Spironucleus muris, cause similar infections in CBA mice as determined by trophozoite and cyst counts. Both parasites occur all along the small intestine with G. muris, being mainly present in the anterior part and S. muris towards the posterior. The early stages of infection are similar in all strains of mice examined and peak levels of both trophozoites and cysts occur 1-2 weeks after infection. All strains of mice overcome the infection but the rate of recovery varies considerably between strains, being most rapid in BALB/c and slowest in A and C57BL.B10. Outbred mice are more variable in their recovery than inbred mice. After recovery, mice are partially resistant to reinfection with the homologous but not the heterologous parasite. Resistance to reinfection with S. muris is greatest in those strains that eliminate the primary infection most rapidly. Giardia muris and S. muris cause similar changes in the mucosa of the small intestine of BALB/c mice with increased intra-epithelial lymphocyte counts from 3 weeks onwards corresponding with the start of the elimination of the parasites from the gut. A reduction in villus height and increase in crypt depth is also characteristic of these infections.
Fresquez, Philip R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
Field mice (mostly Peromyscus spp.) were collected at two open-detonation (high explosive) firing sites - Minie at Technical Area (TA) 36 and Point 6 at TA-39 - at Los Alamos National Laboratory in August of 2010 and in February of 2011 for chemical analysis. Samples of whole body field mice from both sites were analyzed for target analyte list elements (mostly metals), dioxin/furans, polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, high explosives, and perchlorate. In addition, uranium isotopes were analyzed in a composite sample collected from TA-36 Minie. In general, all constituents, with the exception of lead at TA-39 Point 6, in whole body field mice samples collected from these two open-detonation firing sites were either not detected or they were detected below regional statistical reference levels (99% confidence level), biota dose screening levels, and/or soil ecological chemical screening levels. The amount of lead in field mice tissue collected from TA-39 Point 6 was higher than regional background, and some lead levels in the soil were higher than the ecological screening level for the field mouse; however, these levels are not expected to affect the viability of the populations over the site as a whole.
Friedman, Michael A.; Bailey, Alyssa M.; Rondon, Matthew J.; McNerny, Erin M.; Sahar, Nadder D.; Kohn, David H.
Exercise has long-lasting benefits to bone health that may help prevent fractures by increasing bone mass, bone strength, and tissue quality. Long-term exercise of 6–12 weeks in rodents increases bone mass and bone strength. However, in growing mice, a short-term exercise program of 3 weeks can limit increases in bone mass and structural strength, compared to non-exercised controls. Short-term exercise can, however, increase tissue strength, suggesting that exercise may create competition for minerals that favors initially improving tissue-level properties over structural-level properties. It was therefore hypothesized that adding calcium and phosphorus supplements to the diet may prevent decreases in bone mass and structural strength during a short-term exercise program, while leading to greater bone mass and structural strength than exercise alone after a long-term exercise program. A short-term exercise experiment was done for 3 weeks, and a long-term exercise experiment was done for 8 weeks. For each experiment, male 16-week old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 4 weight-matched groups–exercise and non-exercise groups fed a control or mineral-supplemented diet. Exercise consisted of treadmill running at 12 m/min, 30 min/day for 7 days/week. After 3 weeks, exercised mice fed the supplemented diet had significantly increased tibial tissue mineral content (TMC) and cross-sectional area over exercised mice fed the control diet. After 8 weeks, tibial TMC, cross-sectional area, yield force, and ultimate force were greater from the combined treatments than from either exercise or supplemented diet alone. Serum markers of bone formation (PINP) and resorption (CTX) were both decreased by exercise on day 2. In exercised mice, day 2 PINP was significantly positively correlated with day 2 serum Ca, a correlation that was weaker and negative in non-exercised mice. Increasing dietary mineral consumption during an exercise program increases bone mass after 3 weeks and
Friedman, Michael A; Bailey, Alyssa M; Rondon, Matthew J; McNerny, Erin M; Sahar, Nadder D; Kohn, David H
Exercise has long-lasting benefits to bone health that may help prevent fractures by increasing bone mass, bone strength, and tissue quality. Long-term exercise of 6-12 weeks in rodents increases bone mass and bone strength. However, in growing mice, a short-term exercise program of 3 weeks can limit increases in bone mass and structural strength, compared to non-exercised controls. Short-term exercise can, however, increase tissue strength, suggesting that exercise may create competition for minerals that favors initially improving tissue-level properties over structural-level properties. It was therefore hypothesized that adding calcium and phosphorus supplements to the diet may prevent decreases in bone mass and structural strength during a short-term exercise program, while leading to greater bone mass and structural strength than exercise alone after a long-term exercise program. A short-term exercise experiment was done for 3 weeks, and a long-term exercise experiment was done for 8 weeks. For each experiment, male 16-week old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 4 weight-matched groups-exercise and non-exercise groups fed a control or mineral-supplemented diet. Exercise consisted of treadmill running at 12 m/min, 30 min/day for 7 days/week. After 3 weeks, exercised mice fed the supplemented diet had significantly increased tibial tissue mineral content (TMC) and cross-sectional area over exercised mice fed the control diet. After 8 weeks, tibial TMC, cross-sectional area, yield force, and ultimate force were greater from the combined treatments than from either exercise or supplemented diet alone. Serum markers of bone formation (PINP) and resorption (CTX) were both decreased by exercise on day 2. In exercised mice, day 2 PINP was significantly positively correlated with day 2 serum Ca, a correlation that was weaker and negative in non-exercised mice. Increasing dietary mineral consumption during an exercise program increases bone mass after 3 weeks and increases
Muhammad-Baqir M-R. Fakhrildin
Full Text Available Successful oocyte fertilization and normal embryonic development of mice were considered the most important diagnostic criteria for the safety of materials and tools used for human in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET. Therefore, we studied the influence of cumulus cells co-culture and protein supplement within culture medium on percentages of in vitro fertilization (IVF and normal development of early stages of mouse embryo later. Oocytes were collected and treated with hyaluronidase to remove cumulus cells. Oocytes were divided into four groups namely: Group-1: Oocytes incubated within modified Earl’s medium (MEM supplied with 10% inactivated bovine amniotic fluid as a protein source and cumulus cells; Group-2: Oocytes incubated with MEM supplied with cumulus cells only; Group-3: Oocytes incubated with MEM supplied with 10% inactivated bovine amniotic fluid only; and Group-4: Oocytes incubated with MEM free of both protein source and cumulus cells. For IVF, 5-6 oocytes were incubated with active spermatozoa under paraffin oil for 18-20 hours at 37° oC in 5% CO2. Percentages of IVF and embryonic development were then recorded. Best results for IVF and normal embryonic development were achieved from oocytes of Group-1 when compared to the other groups. As compared to Group-1, the percentage of IVF for Group-2 and Group-3 were decreased insignificantly and significantly (P<0.002, respectively. Significant (P<0.01 reduction in the percentages of IVF and normal embryonic development were reported in Group-4 as compared to Group-1. Therefore, it was concluded that the presence of cumulus cells co-culture and bovine amniotic fluid as a protein source within culture medium may have an important role on the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa and oocytes and normal development of pre-implanted mouse embryo later.
Tucci, Sara; Behringer, Sidney; Spiekerkoetter, Ute
An even medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-based diet is the mainstay of treatment in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency (VLCADD). Previous studies with magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown an impact of MCT on the average fatty acid chain length in abdominal fat. We therefore assume that medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are elongated and accumulate in tissue as long-chain fatty acids. In this study, we explored the hepatic effects of long-term supplementation with MCT or triheptanoin, an odd-chain C7-based triglyceride, in wild-type and VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD(-/-) ) mice after 1 year of supplementation as compared with a control diet. The de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids, and peroxisomal β-oxidation, were quantified by RT-PCR. This was followed by a comprehensive analysis of hepatic and cardiac fatty acid profiles by GC-MS. Long-term application of even and odd MCFAs strongly induced de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids in both wild-type and VLCAD(-/-) mice, leading to an alteration of the hepatic fatty acid profiles. We detected de novo-synthesized and elongated fatty acids, such as heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n9), eicosanoic acid (C20:1n9), erucic acid (C22:1n9), and mead acid (C20:3n9), that were otherwise completely absent in mice under control conditions. In parallel, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids was massively increased. Furthermore, we observed strong upregulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation in VLCAD(-/-) mice, especially when they were fed an MCT diet. Our data raise the question of whether long-term MCFA supplementation represents the most efficient treatment in the long term. Studies on the hepatic toxicity of triheptanoin are still ongoing. © 2015 FEBS.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...
Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Stoeger, Tobias; van den Brule, Sybille
Inhalation is the main pathway of ZnO exposure in the occupational environment but only few studies have addressed toxic effects after pulmonary exposure to ZnO nanoparticles (NP). Here we present results from three studies of pulmonary exposure and toxicity of ZnO NP in mice. The studies were...
Teilmann, Anne Charlotte; Nygaard Madsen, Andreas; Holst, Birgitte
weight following blood sampling, but the body weight loss was higher in mice subjected to facial vein phlebotomy. The food consumption was not significantly different between the two groups. At gross necropsy, subcutaneous hematomas were found in both groups and the histopathological analyses revealed...
Książek, Aneta; Konarzewski, Marek
The capacity for heat dissipation is considered to be one of the most important constraints on rates of energy expenditure in mammals. To date, the significance of this constraint has been tested exclusively under peak metabolic demands, such as during lactation. Here, we used a different set of metabolic stressors, which do not induce maximum energy expenditures and yet are likely to expose the potential constraining effect of heat dissipation. We compared the physiological responses of mice divergently selected for high (H-BMR) and low basal metabolic rate (L-BMR) to simultaneous exposure to the keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) antigen and high ambient temperature (Ta). At 34°C (and at 23°C, used as a control), KLH challenge resulted in a transient increase in core body temperature (Tb) in mice of both line types (by approximately 0.4°C). Warm exposure did not produce line-type-dependent differences in Tb (which was consistently higher by ca. 0.6°C in H-BMR mice across both Ta values), nor did it result in the suppression of antibody synthesis. These findings were also supported by the lack of between-line-type differences in the mass of the thymus, spleen or lymph nodes. Warm exposure induced the downsizing of heat-generating internal organs (small intestine, liver and kidneys) and an increase in intrascapular brown adipose tissue mass. However, these changes were similar in scope in both line types. Mounting a humoral immune response in selected mice was therefore not affected by ambient temperature. Thus, a combined metabolic challenge of high Ta and an immune response did not appreciably compromise the capacity to dissipate heat, even in the H-BMR mice. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Neely, Caroline; Lane, Christina; Torres, Julio; Flinn, Jane
Environmental factors play a significant role in well-being of laboratory animals. Regulations and guidelines recommend, if not require, that stressors such as bright lighting, smells, and noises are eliminated or reduced to maximize animal well-being. A factor that is often overlooked is handling and how researchers interact with their animals. Researchers, lab assistants, and husbandry staff in animal facilities may use inconsistent handling methods when interacting with rodents, but humans should be considered a part of the animal's social environment. This study examined the effects of different handling techniques on depressive-like behavior, measured by the Porsolt forced swim test, in adult C57BL/6J male mice. The same two researchers handled the mice in a gentle, aggressive, or minimal (control) fashion over approximately two weeks prior to testing. The results demonstrated a beneficial effect of gentle handling: gentle handling reduced swimming immobility in the forced swim test compared to mice that were aggressively or minimally handled. We argue that gentle handling, rather than methodical handling, can foster a better relationship between the handlers and rodents. Although handling is not standardized across labs, consistent gentle handling allows for less challenging behavioral testing, better data collection, and overall improved animal welfare.
Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da geleia real sobre os parâmetros morfofisiológicos testiculares de camundongos (Mus musculus. Utilizaram-se 57 machos Swiss, com quatro meses de idade, distribuídos aleatoriamente em seis tratamentos: T1: solução fisiológica, via intraperitoneal; T2: 0,1mg de geleia real, via intraperitoneal; T3: 0,2mg de geleia real, via intraperitoneal; T4: água destilada, via oral; T5: 0,1mg de geleia real, via oral; e T6: 0,2mg de geleia real, via oral. Após 45 dias de suplementação com geleia real, os animais sacrificados e pesados tiveram seus testículos coletados, incluídos em parafina e corados com hematoxilina/eosina. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos quanto aos: pesos corporal e testicular, índice gonadossomático, diâmetro tubular, altura do epitélio, comprimento total dos túbulos seminíferos, comprimento tubular por grama de testículo, índices tubulossomático e leydigossomático e valores de proporção volumétrica referentes à túnica própria, epitélio seminífero, vaso sanguíneo e vaso linfático. Foi encontrada diferença entre T1 e T3 em relação aos túbulos seminíferos e ao espaço intertubular.The effects of royal jelly on the morphophysiological parameters of mice (Mus musculus testicles were studied. Fifty-eight male Swiss mice were evaluated. They were four-month old and were randomly distributed in six treatments: T1: physiological solution, intraperitonial route; T2: 0.1mg of royal jelly, intraperitonial route; T3: 0.2mg of royal jelly, intraperitonial route; T4: distilled water, orally; T5: 0.1mg of royal jelly, orally; and T6: 0.2mg of royal jelly, orally. After 45 days of supplementation with royal jelly, the animals were weighted, slaughtered, and the testicles collected, included in paraffin, and stained with haematoxylin-eosin. No differences among treatments were observed for: body and testicular weights, gonadossomatic index, tubular diameter, epithelial height, total
Salem, Ghadi H; Dennis, John U; Krynitsky, Jonathan; Garmendia-Cedillos, Marcial; Swaroop, Kanchan; Malley, James D; Pajevic, Sinisa; Abuhatzira, Liron; Bustin, Michael; Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Gottesman, Michael M; Mitchell, James B; Pohida, Thomas J
The System for Continuous Observation of Rodents in Home-cage Environment (SCORHE) was developed to demonstrate the viability of compact and scalable designs for quantifying activity levels and behavior patterns for mice housed within a commercial ventilated cage rack. The SCORHE in-rack design provides day- and night-time monitoring with the consistency and convenience of the home-cage environment. The dual-video camera custom hardware design makes efficient use of space, does not require home-cage modification, and is animal-facility user-friendly. Given the system's low cost and suitability for use in existing vivariums without modification to the animal husbandry procedures or housing setup, SCORHE opens up the potential for the wider use of automated video monitoring in animal facilities. SCORHE's potential uses include day-to-day health monitoring, as well as advanced behavioral screening and ethology experiments, ranging from the assessment of the short- and long-term effects of experimental cancer treatments to the evaluation of mouse models. When used for phenotyping and animal model studies, SCORHE aims to eliminate the concerns often associated with many mouse-monitoring methods, such as circadian rhythm disruption, acclimation periods, lack of night-time measurements, and short monitoring periods. Custom software integrates two video streams to extract several mouse activity and behavior measures. Studies comparing the activity levels of ABCB5 knockout and HMGN1 overexpresser mice with their respective C57BL parental strains demonstrate SCORHE's efficacy in characterizing the activity profiles for singly- and doubly-housed mice. Another study was conducted to demonstrate the ability of SCORHE to detect a change in activity resulting from administering a sedative.
Fikrig, E; Barthold, S W; Marcantonio, N; Deponte, K; Kantor, F S; Flavell, R A
Vaccination with recombinant outer surface protein A (OspA) has been shown to protect mice from infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent. To determine whether antibodies to B. burgdorferi proteins other than OspA are involved in protective immunity, antibodies to OspA were removed from protective anti-B. burgdorferi serum; the residual serum was still protective. Absorption of OspA and OspB antibodies from anti-B. burgdorferi serum eliminated the protective effect. Therefor...
Chourbaji, Sabine; Brandwein, Christiane; Gass, Peter
According to the "neurotrophin hypothesis", brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important candidate gene in depression. Moreover, environmental stress is known to represent a risk factor in the pathophysiology and treatment of this disease. To elucidate, whether changes of BDNF availability signify cause or consequence of depressive-like alterations, it is essential to look for endophenotypes under distinct genetic conditions (e.g. altered BDNF expression). Furthermore it is crucial to examine environment-driven BDNF regulation and its effect on depressive-linked features. Consequently, gene × environment studies investigating prospective genetic mouse models of depression in different environmental contexts become increasingly important. The present review summarizes recent findings in BDNF-mutant mice, which have been controversially discussed as models of depression and anxiety. It furthermore illustrates the potential of environment to serve as naturalistic stressor with the potential to modulate the phenotype in wildtype and mutant mice. Moreover, environment may exert protective effects by regulating BDNF levels as attributed to "environmental enrichment". The effect of this beneficial condition will also be discussed with regard to probable "curative/therapeutic" approaches. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grahn, D.; Fritz, T.E.
This document describes studies on chronic radiation injury in experimental animals and the extrapolation of derived injury parameters to man. Most of the large studies have used mice given single, weekly, or continuous exposure to cobalt-60 gamma rays, or, more recently, single or weekly exposure to fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor. Primary measures of injury have been life shortening and the associated major pathological changes, particularly neoplastic diseases. Recent and ongoing studies compare the effects of extremely low neutron exposures with gamma irradiations delivered as a single dose or in 60 equal weekly increments. Total neutron doses range from 1 to 40 rads; gamma-ray doses range from 22.5 to 600 rads. Selected genetic studies are performed concurrently to provide a nearly complete matrix of somatic and genetic effects of these low exposures. Studies with the beagle have complemented those with mice and have shown a strong parallelism in the responses of the two species. Present exposures are at 0.3, 0.75, and 1.88 rads per day of continuous gamma irradiation to test a model for the prediction of life shortening in man which has evolved from Argonne's long-term studies. The dog offers the opportunity for longitudinal clinical evaluations that are not possible in the mouse, to develop a broader view of the neoplastic disease spectrum, and to study the mechanisms of radiation induction of leukemia. Diverse statistical approaches have been used to measure excess risk, dose-response functions, and rates of injury and repair. Actuarial statistical methods have been favored since they permit a more direct means of extrapolation to man. 50 refs., 4 figs
Full Text Available To investigate the functional effects of probiotic treatment on the gut microbiota, as well as liver and adipose gene expression in diet-induced obese mice.Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD for 8 weeks to induce obesity, and then randomized to receive HFD+probiotic (Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032, n = 9 or HFD+placebo (n = 9 for another 10 weeks. Normal diet (ND fed mice (n = 9 served as non-obese controls.Diet-induced obese mice treated with probiotics showed reduced body weight gain and fat accumulation as well as lowered plasma insulin, leptin, total-cholesterol and liver toxicity biomarkers. A total of 151,061 pyrosequencing reads for fecal microbiota were analyzed with a mean of 6,564, 5,274 and 4,464 reads for the ND, HFD+placebo and HFD+probiotic groups, respectively. Gut microbiota species were shared among the experimental groups despite the different diets and treatments. The diversity of the gut microbiota and its composition were significantly altered in the diet-induced obese mice and after probiotic treatment. We observed concurrent transcriptional changes in adipose tissue and the liver. In adipose tissue, pro-inflammatory genes (TNFα, IL6, IL1β and MCP1 were down-regulated in mice receiving probiotic treatment. In the liver, fatty acid oxidation-related genes (PGC1α, CPT1, CPT2 and ACOX1 were up-regulated in mice receiving probiotic treatment.The gut microbiota of diet-induced obese mice appears to be modulated in mice receiving probiotic treatment. Probiotic treatment might reduce diet-induced obesity and modulate genes associated with metabolism and inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue.
Conclusions: SLF, without changing total calorie intake, increases atherosclerosis, visceral adipose tissue and cholesterol burden in a background of overweight LDL receptor knockout mice consuming an unhealthy, Western-type solid rodent chow.
Lukasewycz, O.A.; Kolquist, K.L.; Prohaska, J.R.
Copper deficiency (-Cu) was produced in C57 BL and C58 mice by feeding a low copper diet (modified AIN-76A) from birth. Mice given supplemental copper in the drinking water (+Cu) served as controls. Copper status was monitored by assay of ceruloplasmin (CP) activity. Macrophages (M0) were obtained from matched +Cu and -Cu male 7 week-old mice by peritoneal lavage 3 days after thioglycollate stimulation. M0 were assayed in terms of lipopolysaccharide-induced hexose monophosphate shunt activity by monitoring 14 CO 2 production from [1- 14 C]-glucose and by the determination of phagocytic index using fluorescein labelled latex bead ingestion. M0 from -Cu mice were equivalent to those of +Cu mice in both these parameters. However, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome oxidase activities were both significantly lower in -Cu M0, confirming a functional copper deficiency. Previous results from this laboratory have shown that -Cu mice have a decreased antibody response to sheep erythrocyte antigens and a diminished reactivity to B and T cell mitogens. These immunological insufficiencies appear to be proportional to the severity of copper depletion as determined by CP levels. Furthermore, -Cu lymphocytes exhibit depressed mixed lymphocyte reactivity consistent with alterations at the membrane surface. The present results suggest that M0/monocytes are less severely affected than lymphocytes in copper deficiency states
Carriglio, Nicola; Klapwijk, Jan; Hernandez, Raisa Jofra; Vezzoli, Michela; Chanut, Franck; Lowe, Rhiannon; Draghici, Elena; Nord, Melanie; Albertini, Paola; Cristofori, Patrizia; Richards, Jane; Staton, Hazel; Appleby, Jonathan; Aiuti, Alessandro; Sauer, Aisha V
GSK2696273 (autologous CD34+ cells transduced with retroviral vector that encodes for the human adenosine deaminase [ADA] enzyme) is a gamma-retroviral ex vivo gene therapy of bone marrow-derived CD34+ cells for the treatment of adenosine deaminase deficiency severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID). ADA-SCID is a severe monogenic disease characterized by immunologic and nonimmunologic symptoms. Bone-marrow transplant from a matched related donor is the treatment of choice, but it is available for only a small proportion of patients. Ex vivo gene therapy of patient bone-marrow CD34+ cells is an alternative treatment. In order to prepare for a marketing authorization application in the European Union, preclinical safety studies in mice were requested by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). A pilot study and a main biodistribution study were performed according to Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) at the San Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy test facility. In the main study, human umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived CD34+ cells were transduced with gamma-retroviral vector used in the production of GSK2696273. Groups of 10 male and 10 female NOD-SCID gamma (NSG) mice were injected intravenously with a single dose of transduced- or mock-transduced UCB CD34+ cells, and they were observed for 4 months. Engraftment and multilineage differentiation of blood cells was observed in the majority of animals in both groups. There was no significant difference in the level of chimerism between the two groups. In the gene therapy group, vector was detectable in lymphohemopoietic and nonlymphohemopoietic tissues, consistent with the presence of gene-modified human hematopoietic donor cells. Given the absence of relevant safety concerns in the data, the nonclinical studies and the clinical experience with GSK2696273 supported a successful application for market authorization in the European Union for the treatment of ADA-SCID patients, for whom no suitable human leukocyte
Yakala, G.K.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Suarez, M.; Bunschoten, A.; Golde, J.M. van; Arola, L.; Keijer, J.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Heeringa, P.
Scope: Dietary intake of cocoa and/or chocolate has been suggested to exhibit protective cardiovascular effects although this is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Methods and results:
Yakala, Gopala K.; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Suarez, Manuel; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Golde, Jolanda M.; Arola, Lluis; Keijer, Jaap; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; Heeringa, Peter
ScopeDietary intake of cocoa and/or chocolate has been suggested to exhibit protective cardiovascular effects although this is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Methods and resultsFour
Yakala, G.K.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Suarez, M.; Bunschoten, A.; Golde, J.M.; Arola, L.; Keijer, J.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Heeringa, P.
SCOPE: Dietary intake of cocoa and/or chocolate has been suggested to exhibit protective cardiovascular effects although this is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. METHODS AND RESULTS:
Draft and final Supplemental Environmental Impact Report for the proposed renewal of the contract between the United States Department of Energy and the Regents of the University of California for operation and management of the Lawrence berkeley Laboratory
This Supplemental Environmental Impact Report (SEIR) has been prepared in conformance with the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) and the University of California Procedures for the Implementation of CEQA (UC Procedures) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with the University of California`s operation of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the next five years. The specific project under consideration in this SEIR is the renewal of a five-year contract between the University and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to manage and operate the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. As the California agency responsible for carrying out the proposed project, the University is the lead agency responsible for CEQA compliance. Environmental impacts, mitigation, and a site overview are presented.
Draft and final Supplemental Environmental Impact Report for the proposed renewal of the contract between the United States Department of Energy and the Regents of the University of California for operation and management of the Lawrence berkeley Laboratory
This Supplemental Environmental Impact Report (SEIR) has been prepared in conformance with the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) and the University of California Procedures for the Implementation of CEQA (UC Procedures) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with the University of California's operation of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the next five years. The specific project under consideration in this SEIR is the renewal of a five-year contract between the University and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to manage and operate the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. As the California agency responsible for carrying out the proposed project, the University is the lead agency responsible for CEQA compliance. Environmental impacts, mitigation, and a site overview are presented.
Enzyme-treated wheat bran (ETWB) is a fermentable dietary fiber previously shown to decrease liver triglycerides and modify the gut microbiome in mice. It is not clear which mechanisms explain how ETWB feeding impacts hepatic metabolism, but factors (i.e., metabolites) associated with specific micro...
Sport supplementation is essential for athletes performance and achievements. The well balanced and structured supplementation is a challenge for sport medicine because must be done a balance between potential benefits and potential risks (anti-doping rule violations and others). In this review are structured the most used categories sport supplementations. Nutritional supplements used in sport could be divided in some main categories like: amino acids, vitamins, proteins and antioxidants. Fo...
Cai, Zhe; Wong, Chun Kwok; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Delong; Chu, Man; Leung, Ping Chung; Lau, Clara Bik San; Lau, Ching Po; Tam, Lai Shan; Lam, Christopher Wai Kei
Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi; LZ) and San-Miao-San (SMS) are Chinese medicines (CMs) used to treat inflammatory ailments and numbing syndrome/arthralgia syndrome (Bi Zheng), respectively. Given that the main symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) include inflammation of the joints, joint pain, edema and palpitations of the heart because of problems associated with Bi Zheng, it was envisaged that LZ and SMS could be used as potential treatments for this autoimmune disease. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of a combination formulation containing LZ and SMS (LZ-SMS) in SLE mice. Female adult Balb/c mice of 20-24 weeks of age were used as normal mice (n = 10), whereas female MRL/lpr mice of 12-24 weeks of age were divided into three groups (n = 10 in each group), including mild, moderate and severe SLE mice groups. The clinical characteristics of the SLE and Babl/c mice (i.e., body weight, joint thickness, lupus flare, proteinuria, leukocyturia and lymphadenopathy) were assessed. The plasma concentrations of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-double stranded DNA antibody (anti-ds-DNA) were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas the concentration of several key cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-2, IL-27, IL-12P70, IL-17A and IL-21) were analyzed by a Luminex multiplex assay. The gene expression profiles for differentiation of the T helper (Th) lymphocytes in splenic CD4(+) Th cells were assessed by RT-qPCR. Flow cytometry was used to measure the percentages of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells and CD19(+)CD5(+)CD1d(+)IL-10(+) regulatory B (Breg) cells (IL-10(+) Bregs). Concentrations of anti-ds-DNA in the plasma samples collected from the LZ-SMS-treated (500 mg/kg/day oral administration for 7 days followed with 50 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal administration for 7 days), moderate and severe SLE mice decreased significantly compared with the PBS treated mice (P < 0.05). The gene expression levels
Yano, Michiko; Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Sugita, Satoshi; Ota, Noriyasu
Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function attenuates physical performance, and maintaining fine muscle innervation is known to play an important role in its prevention. We had previously shown that consumption of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) with habitual exercise improves the muscle mass and motor function in humans and mice. Improvement of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) was suggested as one of the mechanisms underlying these effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of MFGM intake combined with voluntary running (MFGM-VR) on morphological changes of NMJ and motor function in aging mice. Seven months following the intervention, the MFGM-VR group showed a significantly improved motor coordination in the rotarod test and muscle force in the grip strength test compared with the control group at 13 and 14months of age, respectively. In 14-month old control mice, the extensor digitorum longus muscle showed increased abnormal NMJs, such as fragmentation and denervation, compared with 6-month old young mice. However, such age-related deteriorations of NMJs were significantly suppressed in the MFGM-VR group. Increase in the expression of NMJ formation-related genes, such as agrin and LDL Receptor Related Protein 4 (LRP4), might contribute to this beneficial effect. Rotarod performance and grip strength showed significant negative correlation with the status of denervation and fragmentation of NMJs. These results suggest that MFGM intake with voluntary running exercise effectively suppresses age-related morphological deterioration of NMJ, thus contributing to improvement of motor function. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tan, Long; Yang, Hong Peng; Pang, Wei; Lu, Hao; Hu, Yan Dan; Li, Jing; Lu, Shi Jun; Zhang, Wan Qi; Jiang, Yu Gang
To investigate whether the antioxidation and the regulation on the Extracellular Regulated Protein Kinases (ERK) signaling pathway are involved in the protective effects of blueberry on central nervous system. 30 Senescence-accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were divided into three groups and treated with normal diet, blueberry extracts (200 mg/kg•bw/day) and cyaniding-3-O-galactoside (Cy-3-GAL) (50 mg/kg•bw/day) from blueberry for 8 weeks. 10 SAMR1 mice were set as control group. The capacity of spatial memory was assessed by Passive avoidance task and Morris water maze. Histological analyses on hippocampus were completed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity and the expression of ERK were detected. Both Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts were shown effective functions to relieve cellular injury, improve hippocampal neurons survival and inhibit the pyramidal cell layer damage. Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts also increased SOD activity and reduced MDA content in brain tissues and plasma, and increased hippocampal phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) expression in SAMP8 mice. Further more, the passive avoidance task test showed that both the latency time and the number of errors were improved by Cy-3-GAL treatment, and the Morris Water Maze test showed significant decreases of latency were detected by Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts treatment on day 4. Blueberry extracts may reverse the declines of cognitive and behavioral function in the ageing process through several pathways, including enhancing the capacity of antioxidation, altering stress signaling. Cy-3-GAL may be an important active ingredient for these biological effects. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.
Kim, Jungmin; Cho, Yunhi
We have previously reported that dietary gromwell (Lithospermum erythrorhizon; LE) prevents the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) with increased epidermal levels of total ceramide (Cer), the major lipid maintaining epidermal barrier. In this study, we investigated whether the increased level of total Cer induced by dietary LE would be related to the altered metabolism of glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and sphingomyelin (SM), two major precursor lipids in Cer generation. NC/Nga mice, an animal ...
Rezende, Enrico L; Kelly, Scott A; Gomes, Fernando R; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore
Selective breeding for over 35 generations has led to four replicate (S) lines of laboratory house mice (Mus domesticus) that run voluntarily on wheels about 170% more than four random-bred control (C) lines. We tested whether S lines have evolved higher running performance by increasing running economy (i.e., decreasing energy spent per unit of distance) as a correlated response to selection, using a recently developed method that allows for nearly continuous measurements of oxygen consumption (VO2) and running speed in freely behaving animals. We estimated slope (incremental cost of transport [COT]) and intercept for regressions of power (the dependent variable, VO2/min) on speed for 49 males and 47 females, as well as their maximum VO2 and speeds during wheel running, under conditions mimicking those that these lines face during the selection protocol. For comparison, we also measured COT and maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max) during forced exercise on a motorized treadmill. As in previous studies, the increased wheel running of S lines was mainly attributable to increased average speed, with males also showing a tendency for increased time spent running. On a whole-animal basis, combined analysis of males and females indicated that COT during voluntary wheel running was significantly lower in the S lines (one-tailed P=0.015). However, mice from S lines are significantly smaller and attain higher maximum speeds on the wheels; with either body mass or maximum speed (or both) entered as a covariate, the statistical significance of the difference in COT is lost (one-tailed P> or =0.2). Thus, both body size and behavior are key components of the reduction in COT. Several statistically significant sex differences were observed, including lower COT and higher resting metabolic rate in females. In addition, maximum voluntary running speeds were negatively correlated with COT in females but not in males. Moreover, males (but not females) from the S lines exhibited
Sorenson, Wendy R; Sullivan, Darryl
In conjunction with an AOAC Presidential Task Force on Dietary Supplements, a method was validated for measurement of 3 plant sterols (phytosterols) in saw palmetto raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements. AOAC Official Method 994.10, "Cholesterol in Foods," was modified for purposes of this validation. Test samples were saponified at high temperature with ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution. The unsaponifiable fraction containing phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol) was extracted with toluene. Phytosterols were derivatized to trimethylsilyl ethers and then quantified by gas chromatography with a hydrogen flame ionization detector. The presence of the phytosterols was detected at concentrations greater than or equal to 1.00 mg/100 g based on 2-3 g of sample. The standard curve range for this assay was 0.00250 to 0.200 mg/mL. The calibration curves for all phytosterols had correlation coefficients greater than or equal to 0.995. Precision studies produced relative standard deviation values of 1.52 to 7.27% for campesterol, 1.62 to 6.48% for stigmasterol, and 1.39 to 10.5% for beta-sitosterol. Recoveries for samples fortified at 100% of the inherent values averaged 98.5 to 105% for campesterol, 95.0 to 108% for stigmasterol, and 85.0 to 103% for beta-sitosterol.
Kyle J. Beauchemin
Full Text Available To characterize temporal patterns of transcriptional activity during normal lung development, we generated genome wide gene expression data for 26 pre- and post-natal time points in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice (C57BL/6J, A/J, and C3H/HeJ. Using Principal Component Analysis and least squares regression modeling, we identified both strain-independent and strain-dependent patterns of gene expression. The 4,683 genes contributing to the strain-independent expression patterns were used to define a murine Developing Lung Characteristic Subtranscriptome (mDLCS. Regression modeling of the Principal Components supported the four canonical stages of mammalian embryonic lung development (embryonic, pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular defined previously by morphology and histology. For postnatal alveolar development, the regression model was consistent with four stages of alveolarization characterized by episodic transcriptional activity of genes related to pulmonary vascularization. Genes expressed in a strain-dependent manner were enriched for annotations related to neurogenesis, extracellular matrix organization, and Wnt signaling. Finally, a comparison of mouse and human transcriptomics from pre-natal stages of lung development revealed conservation of pathways associated with cell cycle, axon guidance, immune function, and metabolism as well as organism-specific expression of genes associated with extracellular matrix organization and protein modification. The mouse lung development transcriptome data generated for this study serves as a unique reference set to identify genes and pathways essential for normal mammalian lung development and for investigations into the developmental origins of respiratory disease and cancer. The gene expression data are available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO archive (GSE74243. Temporal expression patterns of mouse genes can be investigated using a study specific web resource (http://lungdevelopment.jax.org.
Beauchemin, Kyle J; Wells, Julie M; Kho, Alvin T; Philip, Vivek M; Kamir, Daniela; Kohane, Isaac S; Graber, Joel H; Bult, Carol J
To characterize temporal patterns of transcriptional activity during normal lung development, we generated genome wide gene expression data for 26 pre- and post-natal time points in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice (C57BL/6J, A/J, and C3H/HeJ). Using Principal Component Analysis and least squares regression modeling, we identified both strain-independent and strain-dependent patterns of gene expression. The 4,683 genes contributing to the strain-independent expression patterns were used to define a murine Developing Lung Characteristic Subtranscriptome (mDLCS). Regression modeling of the Principal Components supported the four canonical stages of mammalian embryonic lung development (embryonic, pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular) defined previously by morphology and histology. For postnatal alveolar development, the regression model was consistent with four stages of alveolarization characterized by episodic transcriptional activity of genes related to pulmonary vascularization. Genes expressed in a strain-dependent manner were enriched for annotations related to neurogenesis, extracellular matrix organization, and Wnt signaling. Finally, a comparison of mouse and human transcriptomics from pre-natal stages of lung development revealed conservation of pathways associated with cell cycle, axon guidance, immune function, and metabolism as well as organism-specific expression of genes associated with extracellular matrix organization and protein modification. The mouse lung development transcriptome data generated for this study serves as a unique reference set to identify genes and pathways essential for normal mammalian lung development and for investigations into the developmental origins of respiratory disease and cancer. The gene expression data are available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) archive (GSE74243). Temporal expression patterns of mouse genes can be investigated using a study specific web resource (http://lungdevelopment.jax.org).
Santos, Izabelle Barcellos; de Bem, Graziele Freitas; Cordeiro, Viviane Silva Cristino; da Costa, Cristiane Aguiar; de Carvalho, Lenize Costa Reis Marins; da Rocha, Ana Paula Machado; da Costa, Gisele França; Ognibene, Dayane Teixeira; de Moura, Roberto Soares; Resende, Angela Castro
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most common complications of obesity. The Vitis vinifera L. grape skin extract (ACH09) is an important source of polyphenols, which are related to its antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activities. We hypothesized that ACH09 could also exert beneficial effects on metabolic disorders associated with obesity and evaluated ACH09's influence on high-fat (HF) diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in C57BL/6 mice. The animals were fed a standard diet (10% fat, control) or an HF diet (60% fat, HF) with or without ACH09 (200mg/[kg d]) for 12weeks. Our results showed that ACH09 reduced HF diet-induced body weight gain, prevented hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis, and improved hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. The underlying mechanisms of these beneficial effects of ACH09 may involve the activation of hepatic insulin-signaling pathway because the expression of phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phosphorylated Akt serine/threonine kinase 1, and glucose transporter 2 was increased by ACH09 and correlated with improvement of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. ACH09 reduced the expression of the lipogenic factor sterol regulatory-element binding protein-1c in the liver and upregulated the lipolytic pathway (phosphorylated liver kinase B1/phosphorylated adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase), which was associated with normal hepatic levels of triglyceride and cholesterol and prevention of steatosis. ACH09 prevented the hepatic oxidative damage in HF diet-fed mice probably by restoration of antioxidant activity. In conclusion, ACH09 protected mice from HF diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. The regulation of hepatic insulin signaling pathway, lipogenesis, and oxidative stress may contribute to ACH09's protective effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dardmeh, Fereshteh; Alipour, Hiva; Gazerani, Parisa
Probiotics have been proposed as alternatives to pharmacological products in several medical conditions including the modulation of obesity, which is frequently associated with poor semen quality. However, effects of probiotics on male fertility have been less investigated. This study assessed...... the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus PB01 (DSM-14870) on sperm kinematic parameters in Normal-weight (NW) and diet-induced obese (DIO) models. NW and DIO C57BL/6NTac mice were divided into two subgroups with or without a single daily dose (1x109CFU) of L. rhamnosus for four weeks. Sperm motility...
Niu, Linpeng; Shao, Mengjiao; Liu, Yuan; Hu, Jinfeng; Li, Ruofan; Xie, Heran; Zhou, Lixiao; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Rong; Niu, Yujie
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) are widely used to additives in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, paints and foods. Recent studies have demonstrated that TiO 2 NPs increased the risk of cancer and the mechanism might relate with oxidative stress. Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) is a natural compound which has been demonstrated to possess a wide array of pharmacological and biochemical actions, including anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and antioxidant properties. Our data show that GSPE prevents the changes of histopathology and biomarkers in heart, liver and kidney that occur in mice exposed to TiO 2 NPs. After pretreatment with GSPE, the DNA damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in mice exposed to TiO 2 NPs had statistically significant decreases in dose dependent manners. GSPE increased the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase[quinine] 1(NQO1), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC). We conclude that grape seed procyanidin extract prevents the majority of tissue and molecular damage resulting from nanoparticle treatment. The protective effect of GSPE may be due to its strong antioxidative activities which related with the activated Nrf2 and its down-regulated genes including NQO1, HO-1 and GCLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...
Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob
Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to…
Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Rather, Sarver Ahmed; Singh, Satvinder
The aim of the present study was to investigate, anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera (AV), and Gymnema sylvestre (GS) whole extract powders administration to high-fat diet (HFD) fed C57BL/6J mice for 12 weeks. At the end of experiment, different parameters such as body weight, feed intake, organ weights, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, plasma lipid levels, and expression analysis of adipocytokines were evaluated. At the end of experimental period, oral administration of both herbs showed a significant ( P E. fat) weight in the HFD group was significantly ( P E. fat tissue of HFD fed group. The anti-obesity and other metabolic studies depend on the type of diet, different parts of herbal extractions, and animal models used. Further studies are required in this area to strengthen the anti-obesity effects of herbs with active component, and it can be used a pro-drug instead of whole extract.
Full Text Available Quercetin (Q and green tea extract (E are reported to counter insulin resistance and inflammation and favorably alter fat metabolism. We investigated whether a mixture of E + Q (EQ could synergistically influence metabolic and inflammation endpoints in a high-fat diet (HFD fed to mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (n = 40 were put on HFD (fat = 60%kcal for 12 weeks and randomly assigned to Q (25 mg/kg of body weight (BW/day, E (3 mg of epigallocatechin gallate/kg BW/day, EQ, or control groups for four weeks. At 16 weeks, insulin sensitivity was measured via the glucose tolerance test (GTT, followed by area-under-the-curve (AUC estimations. Plasma cytokines and quercetin were also measured, along with whole genome transcriptome analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR on adipose, liver, and skeletal muscle tissues. Univariate analyses were conducted via analysis of variance (ANOVA, and whole-genome expression profiles were examined via gene set enrichment. At 16 weeks, plasma quercetin levels were higher in Q and EQ groups vs. the control and E groups (p < 0.05. Plasma cytokines were similar among groups (p > 0.05. AUC estimations for GTT was 14% lower for Q vs. E (p = 0.0311, but non-significant from control (p = 0.0809. Genes for cholesterol metabolism and immune and inflammatory response were downregulated in Q and EQ groups vs. control in adipose tissue and soleus muscle tissue. These data support an anti-inflammatory role for Q and EQ, a result best captured when measured with tissue gene downregulation in comparison to changes in plasma cytokine levels.
Turner, Andrew D; Waack, Julia; Lewis, Adam; Edwards, Christine; Lawton, Linda
A simple, rapid UHPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and optimised for the quantitation of microcystins and nodularin in wide variety of sample matrices. Microcystin analogues targeted were MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-LA, MC-LY, MC-LF, LC-LW, MC-YR, MC-WR, [Asp3] MC-LR, [Dha7] MC-LR, MC-HilR and MC-HtyR. Optimisation studies were conducted to develop a simple, quick and efficient extraction protocol without the need for complex pre-analysis concentration procedures, together with a rapid sub 5min chromatographic separation of toxins in shellfish and algal supplement tablet powders, as well as water and cyanobacterial bloom samples. Validation studies were undertaken on each matrix-analyte combination to the full method performance characteristics following international guidelines. The method was found to be specific and linear over the full calibration range. Method sensitivity in terms of limits of detection, quantitation and reporting were found to be significantly improved in comparison to LC-UV methods and applicable to the analysis of each of the four matrices. Overall, acceptable recoveries were determined for each of the matrices studied, with associated precision and within-laboratory reproducibility well within expected guidance limits. Results from the formalised ruggedness analysis of all available cyanotoxins, showed that the method was robust for all parameters investigated. The results presented here show that the optimised LC-MS/MS method for cyanotoxins is fit for the purpose of detection and quantitation of a range of microcystins and nodularin in shellfish, algal supplement tablet powder, water and cyanobacteria. The method provides a valuable early warning tool for the rapid, routine extraction and analysis of natural waters, cyanobacterial blooms, algal powders, food supplements and shellfish tissues, enabling monitoring labs to supplement traditional microscopy techniques and report toxicity results within a short timeframe of sample receipt. The new
Giovanna Arcaro de Lima
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A ingestão adequada de folato é essencial durante a embriogênese, e sua deficiência está associada à ocorrência de defeitos no fechamento do tubo neural. OBJETIVO: Determinar se a sacarose é um bom veículo para a suplementação de folato em camundongos. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Quarenta camundongos Swiss fêmeas foram divididos nos grupos: C: ração comercial + água ad libitum; DS: ração balanceada isenta de folato + folato adicionado à sacarose diluída na água por 14 dias; D/DS: ração balanceada isenta de folato + água com sacarose sem folato por 14 dias seguida de ração balanceada isenta de folato + folato adicionado à sacarose diluída na água por mais 14 dias; D: ração balanceada isenta de folato + água com sacarose sem folato por 14 dias. Os animais de todos os grupos experimentais receberam ração balanceada isenta de folato + folato adicionado à sacarose diluída na água durante os três dias do acasalamento e nos 15 dias restantes até o sacrifício. RESULTADOS: Os animais dos grupos D e D/DS apresentaram alopecia, palidez ocular e adinamia enquanto consumiam água com sacarose sem folato, sinais que foram revertidos quando receberam folato adicionado à sacarose diluída na água. Não houve diferença entre os grupos em relação a prenhez, implantes, fetos vivos, reabsorção, morte fetal tardia, nível sérico de folato e contagem de hemácias ao final do experimento, não tendo sido observadas anomalias congênitas em nenhum dos grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A sacarose é um meio adequado para a suplementação de folato na dieta.Adequate folate intake is essential during embryogenesis and its deficiency is associated with neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if saccharose is a good vehicle for the supplementation of folate in mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 40 Swiss female mice were allocated into the following groups: C (commercial mouse food + ad libitum water; DS (folate-free balanced diet
Otto, Christoph; Kaemmerer, Ulrike; Illert, Bertram; Muehling, Bettina; Pfetzer, Nadja; Wittig, Rainer; Voelker, Hans Ullrich; Thiede, Arnulf; Coy, Johannes F
Among the most prominent metabolic alterations in cancer cells are the increase in glucose consumption and the conversion of glucose to lactic acid via the reduction of pyruvate even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, may provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies that inhibit tumour growth by administration of a ketogenic diet with average protein but low in carbohydrates and high in fat enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). Twenty-four female NMRI nude mice were injected subcutaneously with tumour cells of the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line 23132/87. The animals were then randomly split into two feeding groups and fed either a ketogenic diet (KD group; n = 12) or a standard diet (SD group; n = 12) ad libitum. Experiments were ended upon attainment of the target tumor volume of 600 mm 3 to 700 mm 3 . The two diets were compared based on tumour growth and survival time (interval between tumour cell injection and attainment of target tumour volume). The ketogenic diet was well accepted by the KD mice. The tumour growth in the KD group was significantly delayed compared to that in the SD group. Tumours in the KD group reached the target tumour volume at 34.2 ± 8.5 days versus only 23.3 ± 3.9 days in the SD group. After day 20, tumours in the KD group grew faster although the differences in mean tumour growth continued significantly. Importantly, they revealed significantly larger necrotic areas than tumours of the SD group and the areas with vital tumour cells appear to have had fewer vessels than tumours of the SD group. Viable tumour cells in the border zone surrounding the necrotic areas of tumours of both groups exhibited a glycolytic phenotype with expression of glucose transporter-1 and transketolase-like 1 enzyme. Application of an unrestricted ketogenic diet enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and MCT delayed tumour growth in a mouse xenograft model. Further
Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the most prominent metabolic alterations in cancer cells are the increase in glucose consumption and the conversion of glucose to lactic acid via the reduction of pyruvate even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, may provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies that inhibit tumour growth by administration of a ketogenic diet with average protein but low in carbohydrates and high in fat enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT. Methods Twenty-four female NMRI nude mice were injected subcutaneously with tumour cells of the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line 23132/87. The animals were then randomly split into two feeding groups and fed either a ketogenic diet (KD group; n = 12 or a standard diet (SD group; n = 12 ad libitum. Experiments were ended upon attainment of the target tumor volume of 600 mm3 to 700 mm3. The two diets were compared based on tumour growth and survival time (interval between tumour cell injection and attainment of target tumour volume. Results The ketogenic diet was well accepted by the KD mice. The tumour growth in the KD group was significantly delayed compared to that in the SD group. Tumours in the KD group reached the target tumour volume at 34.2 ± 8.5 days versus only 23.3 ± 3.9 days in the SD group. After day 20, tumours in the KD group grew faster although the differences in mean tumour growth continued significantly. Importantly, they revealed significantly larger necrotic areas than tumours of the SD group and the areas with vital tumour cells appear to have had fewer vessels than tumours of the SD group. Viable tumour cells in the border zone surrounding the necrotic areas of tumours of both groups exhibited a glycolytic phenotype with expression of glucose transporter-1 and transketolase-like 1 enzyme. Conclusion Application of an unrestricted ketogenic diet enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and MCT
Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth
The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt
Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplemental information showing results of inter-comparison between C-PORT, AERMOD and R-LINE dispersion algorithms. This dataset is associated with the following...
Madsen, Kirsten; Reddy, Ramesh N; Price, S Russ
to thrive and early lethality of most null pups. Work in our laboratory led to the rescue of CnAα-/- mice by supplemental feeding to compensate for a defect in salivary enzyme secretion. The data revealed that, without intervention, knockout mice suffer from severe caloric restriction. Since nutritional...... deprivation is known to significantly alter development, it is imperative that previous conclusions based on CnAα-/- mice are revisited to determine which aspects of the phenotype were attributable to caloric restriction versus a direct role for CnAα. In this study, we find that defects in renal development...... and function persist in adult CnAα-/- mice including a significant decrease in glomerular filtration rate and an increase in blood urea nitrogen levels. These data indicate that impaired renal development we previously reported was not due to caloric restriction but rather a specific role for CnAα in renal...
Emely L. Bortel
Full Text Available This data article contains high resolution (1.2 µm effective pixel size lab-based micro-computed tomography (µCT reconstructed volume data of the femoral mid-shafts from young C57BL/6 mice. This data formed the basis for the analyses of bone structural development in healthy mice, including closed and open porosity as reported in Bortel et al. . The data reveals changes seen in bone material and porosity distribution observed when mouse bones transform from porous scaffolds into solid structures during normal organogenesis.
Bem, Reinout A.; van den Berg, Elske; Suidgeest, Ernst; van der Weerd, Louise; van Woensel, Job B. M.; Grotenhuis, Heynric B.
To determine biventricular cardiac function in pneumovirus-induced acute lung injury in spontaneously breathing mice. Experimental animal study. Animal laboratory. C57Bl/6 mice. Mice were inoculated with the rodent pneumovirus, pneumonia virus of mice. Pneumonia virus of mice-infected mice were
Full Text Available Background: Experimental unilateral cryptorchidism (ULC and bilateral cryptorchidism (BLC are excellent methods to study undescended testis in relation to spermatogenesis against a temperature gradient. Objectives: In case of ULC, it is possible to compare the testicular functions between normal condition and cryptorchidism in the same animal, whereas BLC shows the necessity of testicular androgens for proper maintenance of reproductive structures and functions. Materials and Methods: In the present study, experimental ULC and BLC was done on same-aged adult mature male mice and kept for 15 days and 30 days, respectively, to observe the changes due to the induced cryptorchidism on the different reproductive organs, viz., the testis and accessory sex organs along with epididymal sperm count. Reproductive tissues were collected from individual animals and histopathological studies of testis were done to investigate different cytological changes. Results: The size of the testes and accessory sex organs were found to be significantly reduced in BLC mice, whereas only testicular weight reduction was observed in ULC mice. Histopathological studies showed degenerative changes throughout the seminiferous tubules. Conclusion: Thus, the present investigation showed compensatory androgen production in ULC mice, whereas absence of androgen mediated reproductive functions in BLC animals.
Teresa G. Valencak
Full Text Available Linking peak energy metabolism to lifespan and aging remains a major question especially when focusing on lactation in females. We studied, if and how lactation affects in vitro mitochondrial oxygen consumption and mitochondrial fatty acid composition. In addition, we assessed DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls to extrapolate on oxidative stress in mothers. As model system we used C57BL/6NCrl mice and exposed lactating females to two ambient temperatures (15 °C and 22 °C while they nursed their offspring until weaning. We found that state II and state IV respiration rates of liver mitochondria were significantly higher in the lactating animals than in non-lactating mice. Fatty acid composition of isolated liver and heart mitochondria differed between lactating and non-lactating mice with higher n-6, and lower n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the lactating females. Surprisingly, lactation did not affect protein carbonyls, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, nor did moderate cold exposure of 15 °C. We conclude that lactation increases rates of mitochondrial uncoupling and alters mitochondrial fatty acid composition thus supporting the “uncoupling to survive” hypothesis. Regarding oxidative stress, we found no impact of lactation and lower ambient temperature and contribute to growing evidence that there is no linear relationship between oxidative damage and lactation.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leucine supplementation might have therapeutic potential in preventing diet-induced obesity and improving insulin sensitivity. However, the underlying mechanisms are at present unclear. Additionally, it is unclear whether leucine supplementation might be equally efficacious once obesity has developed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed chow or a high-fat diet (HFD, supplemented or not with leucine for 17 weeks. Another group of HFD-fed mice (HFD-pairfat group was food restricted in order to reach an adiposity level comparable to that of HFD-Leu mice. Finally, a third group of mice was exposed to HFD for 12 weeks before being chronically supplemented with leucine. Leucine supplementation in HFD-fed mice decreased body weight and fat mass by increasing energy expenditure, fatty acid oxidation and locomotor activity in vivo. The decreased adiposity in HFD-Leu mice was associated with increased expression of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP-3 in the brown adipose tissue, better insulin sensitivity, increased intestinal gluconeogenesis and preservation of islets of Langerhans histomorphology and function. HFD-pairfat mice had a comparable improvement in insulin sensitivity, without changes in islets physiology or intestinal gluconeogenesis. Remarkably, both HFD-Leu and HFD-pairfat mice had decreased hepatic lipid content, which likely helped improve insulin sensitivity. In contrast, when leucine was supplemented to already obese animals, no changes in body weight, body composition or glucose metabolism were observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that leucine improves insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice by primarily decreasing adiposity, rather than directly acting on peripheral target organs. However, beneficial effects of leucine on intestinal gluconeogenesis and islets of Langerhans's physiology might help prevent type 2 diabetes development. Differently, metabolic benefit of leucine supplementation
Wielinga, P.Y.; Harthoorn, L.F.; Verschuren, L.; Schoemaker, M.H.; Jouni, Z.E.; Tol, E.A.F. van; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.
Scope: This study addresses whether early life arachidonic acid (ARA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/DHA (Omacor) supplementation affects body weight gain, lipid metabolism, and adipose tissue quantity and quality in later life in ApoE*3Leiden-transgenic
Hawkins, Ian; Phelps, Amy J.
The use of virtual laboratories has become an increasing issue regarding science laboratories due to the increasing cost of hands-on laboratories, and the increase in distance education. Recent studies have looked at the use of virtual tools for laboratory to be used as supplements to the regular hands-on laboratories but many virtual tools have…
Neely, Caroline; Lane, Christina; Torres, Julio; Flinn, Jane
Environmental factors play a significant role in well-being of laboratory animals. Regulations and guidelines recommend, if not require, that stressors such as bright lighting, smells, and noises are eliminated or reduced to maximize animal well-being. A factor that is often overlooked is handling and how researchers interact with their animals. Researchers, lab assistants, and husbandry staff in animal facilities may use inconsistent handling methods when interacting with rodents, but humans...
Viable and fertile mice can be generated by somatic nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes, presumably because the transplanted somatic cell genome becomes reprogrammed by factors in the oocyte. The first somatic cloned offspring of mice were obtained by directly injecting donor nuclei into recipient enucleated oocytes. When this method is used (the so-called Honolulu method of somatic cell nuclear transfer [SCNT]), the donor nuclei readily and completely condense within the enucleated metaphase II-arrested oocytes, which contain high levels of M-phase-promoting factor (MPF). It is believed that the condensation of the donor chromosomes promotes complete reprogramming of the donor genome within the mouse oocytes. Another key to the success of mouse cloning is the use of blunt micropipettes attached to a piezo impact-driving micromanipulation device. This system saves a significant amount of time during the micromanipulation of oocytes and thus minimizes the loss of oocyte viability in vitro. For example, a group of 20 oocytes can be enucleated within 10 min by an experienced operator. This protocol is composed of seven parts: (1) preparing micropipettes, (2) setting up the enucleation and injection micropipettes, (3) collecting and enucleating oocytes, (4) preparing nucleus donor cells, (5) injecting donor nuclei, (6) activating embryos and culturing, and (7) transferring cloned embryos. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Garthe, Ina; Maughan, Ronald J
In elite sport, where opponents are evenly matched, small factors can determine the outcome of sporting contests. Not all athletes know the value of making wise nutrition choices, but anything that might give a competitive edge, including dietary supplements, can seem attractive. Between 40% and 100% of athletes typically use supplements, depending on the type of sport, level of competition, and the definition of supplements. However, unless the athlete has a nutrient deficiency, supplementation may not improve performance and may have a detrimental effect on both performance and health. Dietary supplements are classified as a subcategory of food, so manufacturers are not required to provide evidence of product safety and efficacy, nor obtain approval from regulatory bodies before marketing supplements. This creates the potential for health risks, and serious adverse effects have been reported from the use of some dietary supplements. Athletes who compete in sports under an anti-doping code must also realize that supplement use exposes them to a risk of ingesting banned substances or precursors of prohibited substances. Government systems of regulations do not include specific laboratory testing for banned substances according to the WADA list, so a separate regulatory framework to evaluate supplements for their risk of provoking a failed doping test is needed. In the high-performance culture typical of elite sport, athletes may use supplements regardless of possible risks. A discussion around medical, physiological, cultural, and ethical questions may be warranted to ensure that the athlete has the information needed to make an informed choice.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics LaboratoryThe Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose of...
Redução do peso e da glicemia resultante da suplementação de ácido linoleico conjugado e fitosteróis à dieta hiperlipídica de camundongos Weight and blood glucose reduction resulting from conjugated linoleic acid and phytosterols supplementation on hiperlipidic diets of mice
Anne y Castro Marques
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as possíveis alterações causadas pela ingestão de ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA e de fitosteróis no ganho de peso, na glicemia e no perfil lipídico de camundongos alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica. Durante nove semanas, vinte e cinco camundongos Swiss machos receberam dietas hiperlipídicas suplementadas com CLA e/ou fitosteróis, na concentração de 2%. Foram aferidos consumo alimentar, ganho de peso, glicemia em jejum, além dos níveis séricos de colesterol total, triglicérides, HDL colesterol e ácidos graxos livres. O grupo suplementado com CLA e fitosteróis apresentou menor ganho de peso e bom controle glicêmico, quando comparado aos demais grupos. Os resultados encontrados incentivam a continuação de pesquisas que investiguem os efeitos biológicos causados pela suplementação concomitante de CLA e fitosteróis, com possível aplicação na indústria de alimentos.The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible changes caused by conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and phytosterols intake in weight gain, blood glucose levels and lipid profile on mice fed with high fat diet. Twenty-five male Swiss mice received for nine weeks high fat diets supplemented with 2% of CLA and/or phytosterols. Feed intake, weight gain, blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and free fatty acids were determined. The group supplemented with CLA and phytosterols gained less weight and showed better glycemic control compared to other groups. The results encourage further research to investigate the biological effects caused by supplementation of CLA and phytosterols, with possible application in food industry.
Kawakami, Sakura; Han, Kyu-Ho; Nakamura, Yumi; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; Kitano, Tomoko; Aritsuka, Tsutomu; Nagura, Taizo; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Kimihide; Fukushima, Michihiro
The effects of betaine supplementation on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice were examined by measuring the accumulation of fat in the livers of NASH model mice compared to a control. Betaine from sugar beets was provided to the model mice as a dietary supplement. After 3 wk of dietary supplementation, there were no significant differences in body weight or liver weight between the groups. However, the liver to body weight ratio in the high-fat diet with betaine (HFB) group was significantly (pNASH model mice.
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Full Text Available Duzentos camundongos suíços foram alojados em um biotério com instalações e condições de manejo adequadas para uma criação de animais convencionais sadios. Após 14 dias de alojamento, dois animais tiveram morte súbita, e em 74 animais (37% foram observados sintomas clínicos como edema da face e das patas. Uma semana após foram observadas lesões generalizadas na pele ou somente no dorso, na face, no focinho e nas patas, nódulos na cauda, e em cinco animais conjuntivite. A necropsia de 10 camundongos indicou alterações como hepatomegalia, esplenomegalia e hiperplasia dos gânglios. Amostras do fígado, baço e de lesões da cauda foram inoculadas em membrana corioalantóide (MCA de ovos embrionados de galinha. Após 72 horas foram detectadas lesões necróticas típicas denominadas "pocks". As MCAs foram maceradas e inoculadas em culturas de células Vero e detectado efeito citopático após 72 horas. O diagnóstico da varíola murina foi baseado nos sinais clínicos, lesões, cultivo e na identificação do vírus.Two hundred Swiss mice were housed following the requirements to produce healthy laboratory animals. After 14 days two mice had an acute lethal infection and one week later 74 animals (37% presented multiple skin lesions some of them associated with conjunctivitis. Necropsy of 10 mice with clinical signs (swelling of feet and facial area revealed alterations in the spleen, liver and lymphonodes. Samples of hepatic and splenic tissues and of tail lesions were inoculated on chorioallantoic membrane (MCA of embrionated chicken eggs and pocks lesions were detected. The MCAs were grinded and inoculated in Vero cell cultures and the cytophatic effect was detected after 72 hours. Diagnosis of mousepox was based on clinical signs, lesions and virus isolation and identification.
Full Text Available Mice lacking the α isoform of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin (CnAα were first reported in 1996 and have been an important model to understand the role of calcineurin in the brain, immune system, bones, muscle, and kidney. Research using the mice has been limited, however, by failure to thrive and early lethality of most null pups. Work in our laboratory led to the rescue of CnAα-/- mice by supplemental feeding to compensate for a defect in salivary enzyme secretion. The data revealed that, without intervention, knockout mice suffer from severe caloric restriction. Since nutritional deprivation is known to significantly alter development, it is imperative that previous conclusions based on CnAα-/- mice are revisited to determine which aspects of the phenotype were attributable to caloric restriction versus a direct role for CnAα. In this study, we find that defects in renal development and function persist in adult CnAα-/- mice including a significant decrease in glomerular filtration rate and an increase in blood urea nitrogen levels. These data indicate that impaired renal development we previously reported was not due to caloric restriction but rather a specific role for CnAα in renal development and function. In contrast, we find that rather than being hypoglycemic, rescued mice are mildly hyperglycemic and insulin resistant. Examination of muscle fiber types shows that previously reported reductions in type I muscle fibers are no longer evident in rescued null mice. Rather, loss of CnAα likely alters insulin response due to a reduction in insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS2 expression and signaling in muscle. This study illustrates the importance of re-examining the phenotypes of CnAα-/- mice and the advances that are now possible with the use of adult, rescued knockout animals.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Photometrics Laboratory provides the capability to measure, analyze and characterize radiometric and photometric properties of light sources and filters,...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...
Wang, Kening; Hoshino, Yo; Dowdell, Kennichi; Bosch-Marce, Marta; Myers, Timothy G; Sarmiento, Mayra; Pesnicak, Lesley; Krause, Philip R; Cohen, Jeffrey I
Chronic viral infections are difficult to treat, and new approaches are needed, particularly those aimed at reducing reactivation by enhancing immune responses. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes latency and reactivates frequently, and breakthrough reactivation can occur despite suppressive antiviral therapy. Virus-specific T cells are important to control HSV, and proliferation of activated T cells requires increased metabolism of glutamine. Here, we found that supplementation with oral glutamine reduced virus reactivation in latently HSV-1-infected mice and HSV-2-infected guinea pigs. Transcriptome analysis of trigeminal ganglia from latently HSV-1-infected, glutamine-treated WT mice showed upregulation of several IFN-γ-inducible genes. In contrast to WT mice, supplemental glutamine was ineffective in reducing the rate of HSV-1 reactivation in latently HSV-1-infected IFN-γ-KO mice. Mice treated with glutamine also had higher numbers of HSV-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8 T cells in latently infected ganglia. Thus, glutamine may enhance the IFN-γ-associated immune response and reduce the rate of reactivation of latent virus infection.
Clinical Procedures Training for Veterinary Technicians and Investigators using Common Laboratory Animal Species, including: Mice (Mus musculus), Rats (Rattus norvegicus), Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), Guinea Pigs (Gavia porcellus), Rabbits (Otyctolagus cuniculus), Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo), Pigs (Sus scrofa), Sheep (Ovis aries), and Goats (Capra hircus)
60th Medical Group (AMC), Travis AFB, CA INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL CARE AND USE COMMITTEE (IACUC) FINAL REPORT SUMMARY (Please !ml all information. Use...Technicians and Investigators using Common Laboratory Animal Species, including: Mice (Mus muscu/us), Rats (Rattus norvegicus), Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus...DATE: 14 November 2016 FUNDING SOURCE: SG O&M funds LAST TRIENNIAL REVISION DATE: 15 October 2015 1. RECORD OF ANIMAL USAGE: Animal Species: Total
Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS supplementation on intestinal and systemic markers of inflammation in ApoE*3Leiden mice consuming a high-fat diet.
Oksaharju, Anna; Kooistra, Teake; Kleemann, Robert; van Duyvenvoorde, Wim; Miettinen, Minja; Lappalainen, Jani; Lindstedt, Ken A; Kovanen, Petri T; Korpela, Riitta; Kekkonen, Riina A
A high-fat diet disturbs the composition and function of the gut microbiota and generates local gut-associated and also systemic responses. Intestinal mast cells, for their part, secrete mediators which play a role in the orchestration of physiological and immunological functions of the intestine. Probiotic bacteria, again, help to maintain the homeostasis of the gut microbiota by protecting the gut epithelium and regulating the local immune system. In the present study, we explored the effects of two probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) and Propionibacterium freudenreichii spp. shermanii JS (PJS), on high fat-fed ApoE*3Leiden mice by estimating the mast cell numbers and the immunoreactivity of TNF-α and IL-10 in the intestine, as well as plasma levels of several markers of inflammation and parameters of lipid metabolism. We found that mice that received GG and PJS exhibited significantly lower numbers of intestinal mast cells compared with control mice. PJS lowered intestinal immunoreactivity of TNF-α, while GG increased intestinal IL-10. PJS was also observed to lower the plasma levels of markers of inflammation including vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and also the amount of gonadal adipose tissue. GG lowered alanine aminotransferase, a marker of hepatocellular activation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that probiotic GG and PJS tend to down-regulate both intestinal and systemic pro-inflammatory changes induced by a high-fat diet in this humanised mouse model.
... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...
Effects of taurine supplementation and swimming, associated or not, on obesity and glucose homeostasis in mice = Efeito da suplementação com taurina e da natação, associadas ou não, sobre a obesidade e homeostase glicêmica em camundongos
Full Text Available . Studies show that physical exercise (PE is associated with a reduced fat accumulation and increased insulin sensitivity, and taurine (TAU improves glucose homeostasis in lean rodents. The aim in this work was evaluate the effects of supplementing TAU and practice of PE, associated or not, on obesity and glucose homeostasis on obese MSG-mice. Neonate male Swiss mice received injections of monosodium glutamate (MSG group or saline (CON group. From the 30th to the 90th day of life, one group of animals received TAU in drinking water (MSG TAU group, another was subjected to PE (MSG PE group and a third group underwent both procedures (MSG PE TAU group. Mice treated with MSG become obese, hypertriglyceridemic, glucose intolerant and insulin resistant. The supplementation with TAU and the PE, isolated or associated, reduced the triglycerides (38%, glucose intolerance (around 30% and KITT (79% in MSG-obese animals, but did not influence the accumulation of fat. Interestingly, the combination of both strategies significantly reduced the insulin resistance, compared to animals subjected to isolated strategies. In conclusion, the supplementation with TAU and PE, isolated or associated, did not influence the accumulation of fat in MSG-obese mice, however, reduce the triglycerides and insulin resistance. O exercício físico (EF está associado à redução do acúmulo de gordura e aumento na sensibilidade à insulina e a taurina (TAU melhora a homeostase glicêmica em roedores magros. Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da suplementação com TAU e do EF, associados ou não, sobre a obesidade e a homeostase glicêmica em camundongos obesos-MSG. Camundongos Swiss machos neonatos receberam injeções de glutamato monossódico (grupo MSG ou salina (grupo CON. Do 30º ao 90º dia de vida, um grupo de animais MSG recebeu TAU na água de beber (MSG TAU; outro foi submetido ao EF (MSG EX e um terceiro grupo foi submetido aos dois procedimentos (MSG EX TAU
Wood, Craig [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Halpern, Jonathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wrons, Ralph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reiser, Anita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mond, Michael du [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shain, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
This Supplemental Information Source Document for Waste Management was prepared in support of future analyses including those that may be performed as part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement. This document presents information about waste management practices at SNL/NM, including definitions, inventory data, and an overview of current activities.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains a number of commercial off-the-shelf and in-house software packages allowing for both statistical analysis as well as mathematical modeling...
The foundation of a 'National Laboratory' which would support a Research center in synchrotron radiation applications is proposed. The essential features of such a laboratory differing of others centers in Brazil are presented. (L.C.) [pt
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geomechanics Laboratory allows its users to measure rock properties under a wide range of simulated service conditions up to very high pressures and complex load...
, diet or faulty functioning of a process. Laboratory animals are prone to some of these diseases. This study was undertaken to evaluate common diseases found in laboratory animals in our environment. 200 animals consisting of rats, mice, ...
Kurihara, Shigekazu; Hiraoka, Takenori; Akutsu, Masahisa; Sukegawa, Eiji; Bannai, Makoto; Shibahara, Susumu
The common cold is one of the most frequent illnesses caused by viral infection. Recently, we have reported that oral administration of cystine and theanine (CT) to mice enhanced the humoral immune response associated with antibody production. Based on this mouse study, we investigated the effects of CT supplementation on the common cold in humans as a pilot study. A total of 176 healthy male volunteers were randomized to receive either placebo or CT (490 mg) tablets twice daily for 35 days. The incidence outcome was assessed using the definition in our laboratory based on questionnaires regarding cold symptoms. The incidence of subjects with colds during the trial was significantly lower in the CT group than in the placebo group, although the duration of the colds was not significantly different between the groups. These results suggest that CT supplementation may be useful for the prevention of the common cold. PMID:22331996
Conclusions: It is strongly advised that there should be some concerns about possible supplement-induced changes in the laboratory exams for bodybuilders. The available supplements are unchecked and not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA. More studies should be designed for a better and precise administration of each supplement in athletes.
Yamamoto, Kazushi; E, Shuang; Hatakeyama, Yu; Sakamoto, Yu; Honma, Taro; Jibu, Yuri; Kawakami, Yuki; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi
Life expectancy in Japan is high, suggesting that the Japanese diet, Nihon shoku (Japanese food), has significant health benefits. However, these benefits have been called into question over the past 50 y, during which time the Japanese diet has become increasingly Westernized. The aim of the present study was to focus on senescence delay and to examine the effects of Japanese diets from different years to identify which Japanese diet is most effective in enhancing life expectancy and delaying senescence. Weekly menus from the years 1960, 1975, 1990, and 2005 were reproduced based on the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan and prepared as powdered foods. The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were fed standard laboratory chow supplemented with a 30% mix of Japanese meals from various years ad libitum throughout their lifetime. Additionally, the control group was given standard laboratory chow only, to examine the development of mice reared under standard conditions. In the group that ingested the traditional 1975 Japanese diet, life span was prolonged, senescence was delayed, and learning and memory capacities were maintained compared with the group fed the 2005 Japanese diet. The life span of the group that ingested the 1990 Japanese diet showed a tendency to be longer than SAMP8 mice fed the 2005 diet. The results of the present study suggested that the traditional Japanese diet is more effective in enhancing life expectancy and delaying senescence than the current Japanese diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A. M. Aleisa
Full Text Available Commercially available St. JohnÃ¢Â€Â™s wort supplement (SJWS composed of an herbal mixture of St. JohnÃ¢Â€Â™s Wort (SJW, Rosemary (RM and Spirulina (SP is used as a dietary supplement for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Although the minor ingredients, (RM and SP are proven antioxidants, their quantity is quite insignificant as compared to the SJW, which is the major ingredient. Most of the toxic effects of SJWS are attributed to the main constituents of SJW which differ due to the influence of light (hypericin and variations in temperature above freezing point (hyperforin. However, there are no reports on toxicity of SJWS maintained at room temperature in pharmacies and supermarkets. In view of the folkloric importance, immense (prescribed or unprescribed use and a paucity of literature on SJWS, it was found worthwhile to (1 determine the genotoxic effects of SJWS in somatic and germ cells of mice and (2 investigate the role of biochemical changes, as a possible mechanism. The protocol included the oral treatment of mice with different doses (380, 760 and 1520 mg/kg/day of SJWS for 7 days. The following experiments were conducted: (i cytological studies on micronucleus test, (ii cytogenetic analysis for meiotic chromosomes, (iii cytological analysis of spermatozoa abnormalities, (iv quantification of proteins and nucleic acids in hepatic and testicular cells and (v estimation of malondialdehyde (MDA and nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH in hepatic and testicular cells. The treatment increased the frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE in the femora. It caused aberrations in chromosomes of testes and induced spermatozoa abnormalities. These changes might be attributed to the epigenetic mechanisms as revealed by an increase in concentrations of MDA and depletion of nucleic acids and NP-SH levels in both hepatic and testicular cells observed in the present study. Since, the samples of SJWS used were not drawn
El Idrissi, Abdeslem; El Hilali, Fatiha; Rotondo, Salvatore; Sidime, Francoise
In this study we examined the role of chronic taurine supplementation on plasma glucose homeostasis and brain excitability through activation of the insulin receptor. FVB/NJ male mice were supplemented with taurine in drinking water (0.05% w/v) for 4 weeks and subjected to a glucose tolerance test (7.5 mg/kg BW) after 12 h fasting. We found that taurine-fed mice were slightly hypoglycemic prior to glucose injection and showed significantly reduced plasma glucose at 30 and 60 min post-glucose injection when compared to control mice. Previously, we reported that taurine supplementation induces biochemical changes that target the GABAergic system. Those studies show that taurine-fed mice are hyperexcitable, have reduced GABA A receptors expression and increased GAD and somatostatin expression in the brain. In this study, we found that taurine-fed mice had a significant increase in insulin receptor (IR) immuno-reactivity in the pancreas and all brain regions examined. At the mRNA level, we found that the IR showed differential regional expression. Surprisingly, we found that neurons express the gene for insulin and that taurine had a significant role in regulating insulin gene expression. We propose that increased insulin production and secretion in taurine-fed mice cause an increase activation of the central IR and may be partially responsible for the increased neuronal excitability observed in taurine supplemented mice. Furthermore, the high levels of neuronal insulin expression and its regulation by taurine implicates taurine in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis.
Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NWFSC conducts critical fisheries science research at its headquarters in Seattle, WA and at five research stations throughout Washington and Oregon. The unique...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides testing stations for computer-based assessment of cognitive and behavioral Warfighter performance. This 500 square foot configurable space can...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...
Jose F. Garcia-Mazcorro
Full Text Available The digestive tract of mammals and other animals is colonized by trillions of metabolically-active microorganisms. Changes in the gut microbiota have been associated with obesity in both humans and laboratory animals. Dietary modifications can often modulate the obese gut microbial ecosystem towards a more healthy state. This phenomenon should preferably be studied using dietary ingredients that are relevant to human nutrition. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of whole-wheat, a food ingredient with several beneficial properties, on gut microorganisms of obese diabetic mice. Diabetic (db/db mice were fed standard (obese-control or whole-wheat isocaloric diets (WW group for eight weeks; non-obese mice were used as control (lean-control. High-throughput sequencing using the MiSeq platform coupled with freely-available computational tools and quantitative real-time PCR were used to analyze fecal bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Short-chain fatty acids were measured in caecal contents using quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography photo-diode array analysis. Results showed no statistical difference in final body weights between the obese-control and the WW group. The bacterial richness (number of Operational Taxonomic Units did not differ among the treatment groups. The abundance of Ruminococcaceae, a family containing several butyrate-producing bacteria, was found to be higher in obese (median: 6.9% and WW-supplemented mice (5.6% compared to lean (2.7%, p = 0.02, Kruskal-Wallis test. Caecal concentrations of butyrate were higher in obese (average: 2.91 mmol/mg of feces but especially in WW-supplemented mice (4.27 mmol/mg compared to lean controls (0.97 mmol/mg, while caecal succinic acid was lower in the WW group compared to obese but especially to the lean group. WW consumption was associated with ∼3 times higher abundances of Lactobacillus spp. compared to both obese and lean control mice. Analysis of weighted Uni
Cathy C Laurie
Full Text Available Crosses between laboratory strains of mice provide a powerful way of detecting quantitative trait loci for complex traits related to human disease. Hundreds of these loci have been detected, but only a small number of the underlying causative genes have been identified. The main difficulty is the extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD in intercross progeny and the slow process of fine-scale mapping by traditional methods. Recently, new approaches have been introduced, such as association studies with inbred lines and multigenerational crosses. These approaches are very useful for interval reduction, but generally do not provide single-gene resolution because of strong LD extending over one to several megabases. Here, we investigate the genetic structure of a natural population of mice in Arizona to determine its suitability for fine-scale LD mapping and association studies. There are three main findings: (1 Arizona mice have a high level of genetic variation, which includes a large fraction of the sequence variation present in classical strains of laboratory mice; (2 they show clear evidence of local inbreeding but appear to lack stable population structure across the study area; and (3 LD decays with distance at a rate similar to human populations, which is considerably more rapid than in laboratory populations of mice. Strong associations in Arizona mice are limited primarily to markers less than 100 kb apart, which provides the possibility of fine-scale association mapping at the level of one or a few genes. Although other considerations, such as sample size requirements and marker discovery, are serious issues in the implementation of association studies, the genetic variation and LD results indicate that wild mice could provide a useful tool for identifying genes that cause variation in complex traits.
Laura P Hale
Full Text Available The incidence and severity of allergic asthma have increased over the last century, particularly in the United States and other developed countries. This time frame was characterized by marked environmental changes, including enhanced hygiene, decreased pathogen exposure, increased exposure to inhaled pollutants, and changes in diet. Although iron is well-known to participate in critical biologic processes such as oxygen transport, energy generation, and host defense, iron deficiency remains common in the United States and world-wide. The purpose of these studies was to determine how dietary iron supplementation affected the severity of allergic inflammation in the lungs, using a classic model of IgE-mediated allergy in mice. Results showed that mice fed an iron-supplemented diet had markedly decreased allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity, eosinophil infiltration, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, compared with control mice on an unsupplemented diet that generated mild iron deficiency but not anemia. In vitro, iron supplementation decreased mast cell granule content, IgE-triggered degranulation, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines post-degranulation. Taken together, these studies show that iron supplementation can decrease the severity of allergic inflammation in the lung, potentially via multiple mechanisms that affect mast cell activity. Further studies are indicated to determine the potential of iron supplementation to modulate the clinical severity of allergic diseases in humans.
Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G
Background: Consumers increasingly choose food supplements in addition to their diet. Research on supplement users finds they are likely to be female, older and well-educated; Furthermore, supplement users are often characterised as being especially health-oriented, an observation which is termed...... the ‘inverse supplement hypothesis’. However, results are dependent on the substance in question. Little is known so far about botanicals in general, and more specifically, little is known about resveratrol. The psychographic variables of food supplement users are yet relatively underexplored. By comparing US...... and Danish respondents, we aimed to identify whether sociodemographic variables, health status, health beliefs and behaviour and interest in food aspects specifically relevant to resveratrol (e.g., naturalness, indulgence, and Mediterranean food) explain favourable attitudes and adoption intentions toward...
Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment (LTDE-SD). Supporting laboratory program - Sorption diffusion experiments and rock material characterisation. With supplement of adsorption studies on intact rock samples from the Forsmark and Laxemar site investigations
Widestrand, Henrik; Byegaard, Johan; Selnert, Eva; Skaalberg, Mats; Hoeglund, Susanne; Gustafsson, Erik (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden))
The LTDE-SD experiment, (Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment) aims at increasing the scientific knowledge of sorption and diffusion under in situ conditions and to provide data for performance and safety assessment calculations. In this report, performance and results of laboratory sorption and diffusion experiments and porosity investigations using site-specific crushed and intact rock materials are presented, including a geological and mineralogical characterization of the samples. A synthetic groundwater and a part of the radionuclide tracer cocktail that was used for the in situ experiment were used also in the laboratory experiments. 13 radionuclide tracers were analysed in the laboratory experiments. The method descriptions from SKB Site Investigations were applied in order to enable comparisons with Site Investigations data. The water saturation porosity of 10 unaltered matrix rock samples from KA3065A02 and A03 is 0.26 +- 0.08% and two fracture material samples show porosities of 2.4% and 5.2% respectively. 14C-methylmethacrylate impregnation (the PMMA-method) show that the unaltered rock matrix porosity is relatively homogeneous with grain boundary porosity, while the porosity of fracture samples is heterogeneous and have increased porosity up to more than 10% in some parts. Through-diffusion experiments using tritiated water (H3HO) give a matrix diffusivity in the range from 2.7centre dot10-14 to 6.5centre dot10-14 m2/s in four samples from KA3065A02 and A03. The results of the porosity and diffusion measurements are coherent in ranges with earlier LTDE-SD measurements and are also in line with the SKB Site Investigations results. In the batch sorption experiments using crushed rock material, two matrix rock samples of Aevroe granodiorite, one red-stained altered Aevroe granodiorite sample and two chlorite-calcite dominated fracture samples were analysed for three different size fractions as a function of time up to 186 days contact time. The
Royal, P D
Accreditation or certification is a recognition given to an operation or product that has been evaluated against a standard; be it regulatory or voluntary. The purpose of accreditation is to provide the consumer with a level of confidence in the quality of operation (process) and the product of an organization. Environmental Protection Agency/OCM has proposed the development of an accreditation program under National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program for Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) laboratories as a supplement to the current program. This proposal was the result of the Inspector General Office reports that identified weaknesses in the current operation. Several accreditation programs can be evaluated and common components identified when proposing a structure for accrediting a GLP system. An understanding of these components is useful in building that structure. Internationally accepted accreditation programs provide a template for building a U.S. GLP accreditation program. This presentation will discuss the traditional structure of accreditation as presented in the Organization of Economic Cooperative Development/GLP program, ISO-9000 Accreditation and ISO/IEC Guide 25 Standard, and the Canadian Association for Environmental Analytical Laboratories, which has a biological component. Most accreditation programs are managed by a recognized third party, either privately or with government oversight. Common components often include a formal review of required credentials to evaluate organizational structure, a site visit to evaluate the facility, and a performance evaluation to assess technical competence. Laboratory performance is measured against written standards and scored. A formal report is then sent to the laboratory indicating accreditation status. Usually, there is a scheduled reevaluation built into the program. Fee structures vary considerably and will need to be examined closely when building a GLP program.
... A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get vitamins and minerals ... this section Medication Other Treatments Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Types of Dietary Supplements Side Effects and Drug ...
Objective: A discrepancy exists between the preferred ambient temperature range for mice (26 to 32°C) and the current recommendations (20 to 26°C) that can result in mild hypothermia. As a consequence, animal welfare may be reduced and physiological state can be altered, which can impact research ...
Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L
Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed
McCary, Christine A.; Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Cook-Mills, Joan M.
We have reported that supplemental doses of the α- and γ-tocopherol isoforms of vitamin E decrease and increase, respectively, allergic lung inflammation. We have now assessed whether these effects of tocopherols are reversible. For these studies, mice were treated with antigen and supplemental tocopherols in a first phase of treatment followed by a 4 week clearance phase and then the mice received a second phase of antigen and tocopherol treatments. The pro-inflammatory effects of supplement...
This supplement contains summaries of the projects, both DOE and non-DOE, that the Argonne National Laboratory conducts. DOE projects include nuclear energy, energy research, energy efficiency, fossil energy, defense programs, non-proliferation and national security, environmental management, and civilian radioactive waste management. The second part of this report contains descriptions of the Argonne National Lab site and facilities. Budget information is also presented.
... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... What are lab tests? Laboratory tests are medical devices that are intended for use on samples of blood, urine, or other tissues ...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment and facilities for auditory display research. A primary focus is the performance use of binaurally rendered 3D sound in conjunction...
Ephraim, D.C.; Pednekar, A.R.
A target laboratory to make stripper foils for the accelerator and various targets for use in the experiments is set up in the pelletron accelerator facility. The facilities available in the laboratory are: (1) D.C. glow discharge setup, (2) carbon arc set up, and (3) vacuum evaporation set up (resistance heating), electron beam source, rolling mill - all for target preparation. They are described. Centrifugal deposition technique is used for target preparation. (author). 3 figs
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...
Thang Cin L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow's milk allergy (CMA is one of the most prevalent human food-borne allergies, particularly in infants and young children from developed countries. Our study aims to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG administration on CMA development using whole cow's milk proteins (CMP sensitized Balb/C mice by two different sensitization methods. Methods LGG supplemented mice were either sensitized orally with CMP and cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB as adjuvant, or intraperitoneally (IP with CMP but without the adjuvant. Mice were then orally challenged with CMP and allergic responses were accessed by monitoring hypersensitivity scores, measuring the levels of CMP-specific immunoglobulins (IgG1, IgG2a and IgG and total IgE from sera, and cytokines (IL-4 and IFN-γ from spleen lysates. Results Sensitization to CMP was successful only in IP sensitized mice, but not in orally sensitized mice with CMP and CTB. Interestingly, LGG supplementation appeared to have reduced cow's milk allergy (CMA in the IP group of mice, as indicated by lowered allergic responses. Conclusions Adjuvant-free IP sensitization with CMP was successful in inducing CMA in the Balb/C mice model. LGG supplementation favourably modulated immune reactions by shifting Th2-dominated trends toward Th1-dominated responses in CMP sensitized mice. Our results also suggest that oral sensitization by the co-administration of CMP and CTB, as adjuvant, might not be appropriate to induce CMA in mice.
The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.
... dietary supplements, making it hard to identify any benefits from the MVMs. Should I take an MVM? MVMs cannot take the place of eating a variety of foods that are important to a healthy diet. Foods ...
Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)
... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...
... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...
Zampolli, Antonella; Bysted, Anette; Leth, Torben
Objective: Increased fish oil intake is associated with protection against coronary heart disease and sudden death, while effects on atherosclerosis are controversial. We explored the effects of supplementing fish oil (rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, PUFA) or corn oil (rich in n-6 PUFA......) in two different models of atherosclerosis. Methods and Results: Sixty-three low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice and sixty-nine apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice were fed diets without supplementations or supplemented with either 1% fish oil or 1% corn oil. In apo......E(-/-) mice, neither fish oil nor corn oil had any major impact on plasma lipids or atherosclerosis. In LDLR-/- mice, conversely, the fish oil and the corn oil group had lower levels of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and had lesser atherosclerosis in the aortic root and in the entire aorta (P
Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian
Oxidative damage to cells and tissues is considered involved in the aging process and in the development of chronic diseases in humans, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the leading causes of death in high-income countries. This has stimulated interest in the preventive potential of a...... of antioxidant supplements. Today, more than one half of adults in high-income countries ingest antioxidant supplements hoping to improve their health, oppose unhealthy behaviors, and counteract the ravages of aging....
A. V. Tsybulsky
Full Text Available The article presents some data concerning antigenic and immunogenic properties of the lethal heat-stable toxin (HST from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, a protein with molecular weight of 45 kDa. The mice,following double immunization with HST at a dose of 0.1 mg per mouse, displayed higher antibody production, in comparison with a dose of 0.01 mg/mouse. The appropriate differences were revealed with regard ofleukocyte responses, i.e., development of leukopenia, neutropenia, lymphopenia upon immunization with the 0.01 mg of HST per mouse, whereas leukocytosis, and increase in lymphocytes and monocytes was detected after a dose of 0.1 mg/mouse. We detected some doseependent differences in cytokine-modulating activity. I.e., at HST dose of 0.01 mg per mouse, we detected mostly proinflammatory, acutehase responses, whereas a dose of 0.1 mg/mice caused induction of . IFNγ and cytokines promoting lymphocyte proliferation and antibody production by day +17. Upon double immunization of mice, the toxin showed protective properties when injecting them with lethal dose of Y. pseudotuberculosis. A lagging activation of antibody producers duringHST response suggests a need for searching effective adjuvant tools of enhancement and acceleration of specific humoral immune reactions against this antigen.
... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...
Siemelink M; Jansen EHJM; Piersma AH; Opperhuizen A; LEO
The growing food supplement market, where supplements are both more diverse and more easily available (e.g. through Internet) formed the backdrop to the inventory of the active components in food supplements. The safety of an increased intake of food components via supplements was also at issue
This report from the Dutch Ministry of Health is an advisory document concerned with isotope laboratories in hospitals, in connection with the Dutch laws for hospitals. It discusses which hospitals should have isotope laboratories and concludes that as many hospitals as possible should have small laboratories so that emergency cases can be dealt with. It divides the Netherlands into regions and suggests which hospitals should have these facilities. The questions of how big each lab. is to be, what equipment each has, how each lab. is organised, what therapeutic and diagnostic work should be carried out by each, etc. are discussed. The answers are provided by reports from working groups for in vivo diagnostics, in vitro diagnostics, therapy, and safety and their results form the criteria for the licences of isotope labs. The results of a questionnaire for isotope labs. already in the Netherlands are presented, and their activities outlined. (C.F.)
Roager, Henrik Munch; Sulek, Karolina; Skov, Kasper
(NCFM) on the intestinal metabolome (jejunum, caecum, and colon) in mice by comparing NCFM mono-colonized (MC) mice with GF mice using liquid chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry (LC-MS). The study adds to existing evidence that NCFM in vivo affects the bile acid signature of mice......-tocopherol acetate) in higher levels in the intestine of GF mice compared to MC mice, suggesting that NCFM either metabolizes the compound or indirectly affects the absorption by changing the metabolome in the intestine. The use of NCFM to increase the uptake of vitamin E supplements in humans and animals...
Full Text Available Richter Adam, Anwalt Liebling und William, der Detektiv. Die Rechtspraxis setzt etwas voraus, das sie nicht nur begründet oder ergänzt, sondern grundsätzlich in Frage stellt. So macht der Zwang, in einem Verfahren zu entscheiden und zu begründen, zugleich deutlich, dass jede Form der Entscheidung unangemessen, unbegründet und in ganz anderer Weise neu herzustellen ist. Das ist das juridische Supplement im Geiste von Jacques Derrida. Supplementiert wird die Wahrheit des Rechts in anderen Medien: in Drama, Film und Literatur etwa. Dort wird in Szene gesetzt, was in der real erlebbaren Rechtswelt nicht wirklich erlebt werden kann, was aber doch – wie kein Amtsträger bestreiten würde – zum Verfahrensergebnis gehört. Judge Adam, Advocate “Liebling” and William, the Detective. Legal practice is based on something that is not only an integral part of it and complements it, but also puts it into question generally. The compulsion to argue and reach decisions in a legal trial clarifies simultaneously that all forms of decision are inapproprate, unreasonable, and can be recreated in an entirely new manner [to suit the needs of the trial]. This is the legalistic supplement in the spirit of Jacques Derrida. The legal truth is supplemented by other forms of media such as drama, film and literature, which are able to stage scenes that cannot be experienced in a real life legal world, but – as no legal official would deny – are an integral part of the trial and verdict procedure.
The paper concerns the work of the Kingsbury Laboratories of Fairey Engineering Company, for the nuclear industry. The services provided include: monitoring of nuclear graphite machining, specialist welding, non-destructive testing, and metallurgy testing; and all are briefly described. (U.K.)
Full Text Available Pharmacological concentrations of biotin have pleiotropic effects. Several reports have documented that biotin supplementation decreases hyperglycemia. We have shown that a biotin-supplemented diet increased insulin secretion and the mRNA abundance of proteins regulating insulin transcription and secretion. We also found enlarged pancreatic islets and modified islet morphology. Other studies have shown that pharmacological concentrations of biotin modify tissue structure. Although biotin administration is considered safe, little attention has been given to its effect on tissue structure. In this study, we investigated the effect of biotin supplementation on hepatic morphology and liver toxicity markers. Male BALB/cAnN Hsd mice were fed a control or a biotin-supplemented diet for 8 weeks. Versus the control mice, biotin-supplemented mice had an altered portal triad with dilated sinusoids, increased vascularity, and bile conducts. Furthermore, we observed an increased proportion of nucleomegaly and binucleated hepatocytes. In spite of the liver morphological changes, no differences were observed in the serum liver damage indicators, oxidative stress markers, or antioxidant enzymes. Our data demonstrate for the first time that biotin supplementation affects liver morphology in normal mice, and that these modifications are not paralleled with damage markers.
Riverón-Negrete, Leticia; Sicilia-Argumedo, Gloria; Álvarez-Delgado, Carolina; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Alcántar-Fernández, Jonathan; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina
Pharmacological concentrations of biotin have pleiotropic effects. Several reports have documented that biotin supplementation decreases hyperglycemia. We have shown that a biotin-supplemented diet increased insulin secretion and the mRNA abundance of proteins regulating insulin transcription and secretion. We also found enlarged pancreatic islets and modified islet morphology. Other studies have shown that pharmacological concentrations of biotin modify tissue structure. Although biotin administration is considered safe, little attention has been given to its effect on tissue structure. In this study, we investigated the effect of biotin supplementation on hepatic morphology and liver toxicity markers. Male BALB/cAnN Hsd mice were fed a control or a biotin-supplemented diet for 8 weeks. Versus the control mice, biotin-supplemented mice had an altered portal triad with dilated sinusoids, increased vascularity, and bile conducts. Furthermore, we observed an increased proportion of nucleomegaly and binucleated hepatocytes. In spite of the liver morphological changes, no differences were observed in the serum liver damage indicators, oxidative stress markers, or antioxidant enzymes. Our data demonstrate for the first time that biotin supplementation affects liver morphology in normal mice, and that these modifications are not paralleled with damage markers.
Li, D.; DeMello, A.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Summers, D.
Normal conducting RF cavities must be used for the cooling section of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), currently under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. Eight 201-MHz cavities are needed for the MICE cooling section; fabrication of the first five cavities is complete. We report the cavity fabrication status including cavity design, fabrication techniques and preliminary low power RF measurements.
Maeda, Nobuyo; Hagihara, Hiroyuki; Nakata, Yukiko; Hiller, Sylvia; Wilder, Jennifer; Reddick, Robert
By inactivating the gene for l-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase, a key enzyme in ascorbic acid synthesis, we have generated mice that, like humans, depend on dietary vitamin C. Regular chow, containing about 110 mg/kg of vitamin C, is unable to support the growth of the mutant mice, which require l-ascorbic acid supplemented in their drinking water (330 mg/liter). Upon withdrawal of supplementation, plasma and tissue ascorbic acid levels decreased to 10–15% of normal within 2 weeks, and after 5 weeks...
Lisa R. Hoving; Margreet R. de Vries; Rob C. M. de Jong; Saeed Katiraei; Amanda Pronk; Paul H. A. Quax; Vanessa van Harmelen; Ko Willems van Dijk
The prebiotic inulin has proven effective at lowering inflammation and plasma lipid levels. As atherosclerosis is provoked by both inflammation and hyperlipidemia, we aimed to determine the effect of inulin supplementation on atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden (E3L) mice. Male E3L mice were fed a high-cholesterol (1%) diet, supplemented with or without 10% inulin for 5 weeks. At week 3, a non-constrictive cuff was placed around the right femoral artery to induce...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...
Our task is to design mined-repository systems that will adequately secure high-level nuclear waste for at least 10,000 yr and that will be mechanically stable for 50 to 100-yr periods of retrievability during which mistakes could be corrected and a valuable source of energy could be reclaimed, should national policy on the reprocessing of spent fuel ever change. The only credible path for the escape of radionuclides from the repository to the biosphere is through ground-water, and in hard rock, bulk permeability is largely governed by natural and artificial fracture systems. Catastrophic failure of an excavation in hard rock is likely to occur at the weakest links - the discontinuities in the rock mass that is perturbed first by mining and then by radiogenic heating. The laboratory can contribute precise measurements of the pertinent thermomechanical, hydrological and chemical properties and improve our understanding of the fundamental processes through careful experiments under well controlled conditions that simulate the prototype environment. Thus laboratory investigations are necessary, but they are not sufficient, for conventional sample sizes are small relative to natural defects like joints - i.e., the rock mass is not a continuum - and test durations are short compared to those that predictive modeling must take into account. Laboratory investigators can contribute substantially more useful data if they are provided facilities for testing large specimens(say one cubic meter) and for creep testing of all candidate host rocks. Even so, extrapolations of laboratory data to the field in neither space nor time are valid without the firm theoretical foundations yet to be built. Meanwhile in-situ measurements of structure-sensitive physical properties and access to direct observations of rock-mass character will be absolutely necessary
The report contains summaries of work carried out under the following headings: fusion research experiments; U.K. contribution to the JET project; supporting studies; theoretical plasma physics, computational physics and computing; fusion reactor studies; engineering and technology; contract research; external relations; staff, finance and services. Appendices cover main characteristics of Culham fusion experiments, staff, extra-mural projects supported by Culham Laboratory, and a list of papers written by Culham staff. (U.K.)
Seamster, A.G.; Weitkamp, W.G.
The lead plating of the prototype resonator has been conducted entirely in the plating laboratory at SUNY Stony Brook. Because of the considerable cost and inconvenience in transporting personnel and materials to and from Stony Brook, it is clearly impractical to plate all the resonators there. Furthermore, the high-beta resonator cannot be accommodated at Stony Brook without modifying the set up there. Consequently the authors are constructing a plating lab in-house
Bettini, A., E-mail: Bettini@pd.infn.i [Padua University and INFN Section, Dipartimento di Fisca G. Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Plaza Ayuntamiento n1 2piso, Canfranc (Huesca) (Spain)
Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to frontier experiments in particle and nuclear astrophysics and other disciplines, geology and biology, that can profit of their unique characteristics. The cosmic silence allows to explore the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators by searching for extremely rare phenomena. I will briefly review the facilities that are operational or in an advanced status of approval around the world.
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Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Brashaw, T.W.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Blondel, A.; De Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Blackmore, V.J.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Booth, C.N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Bravar, U.
The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240 MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than ∼1% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is f π < 1.4% at 90% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling
Bogomilov, M.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Chignoli, F.; Mazza, R.; Palladino, V.; de Bari, A.; Cecchet, G.; Capponi, M.; Iaciofano, A.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tortora, L.; Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Ishimoto, S.; Japan, Ibaraki; Filthaut, F.; Hansen, O.M.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Blondel, A.; Drielsma, F.; Karadzhov, Y.; Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Gallagher, A.; Grant, A.; Griffiths, S.; Hartnett, T.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Oates, A.; Owens, P.; Stokes, G.; Warburton, P.; White, C.; Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Courthold, M.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Lintern, A.; Macwaters, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Stanley, T.; Tarrant, J.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A.; Bayes, R.; Nugent, J.C.; Soler, F.J.P.; Cooke, P.; Gamet, R.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Colling, D.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Hunt, C.; Lagrange, J-B.; Long, K.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Pasternak, J.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Uchida, M.A.; Blackmore, V.J.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.A.; Tunnell, C.D.; Booth, C.N.; Hodgson, P.; Langlands, J.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.J.; Dick, A.; Ronald, K.; Speirs, D.; Whyte, C.G.; Young, A.; Boyd, S.; Franchini, P.; Greis, J.R.; Pidcott, C.; Taylor, I.; Gardener, R.; Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J.J.; Bross, A.D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Roberts, T.J.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Drews, M.; Hanlet, P.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rajaram, D.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y.; Winter, M.; Blot, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Bravar, U.; Onel, Y.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Hart, T.L.; Luo, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Summers, D.J.; Cline, D.; Yang, X.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.G.; Heidt, C.
The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240\\,MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than $\\sim$1\\% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is $f_\\pi < 1.4\\%$ at 90\\% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.
This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…
We therefore designed this study to measure thoracic aortic ring .... contraction obtained from pilot study (1 x 10-6. M for control and 1 x .... muscle cell hyperpolarisation20. Similarly, several reports have suggested that potassium supplementation enhances endothelium- dependent relaxations, increased vascular activity of ...
Lowry, Peter P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
A supplemental hazard analysis was conducted and quantitative risk assessment performed in response to an independent review comment received by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) from the U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Northwest Field Office (PNSO) against the Hydrotreater/Distillation Column Hazard Analysis Report issued in April 2013. The supplemental analysis used the hazardous conditions documented by the previous April 2013 report as a basis. The conditions were screened and grouped for the purpose of identifying whether additional prudent, practical hazard controls could be identified, using a quantitative risk evaluation to assess the adequacy of the controls and establish a lower level of concern for the likelihood of potential serious accidents. Calculations were performed to support conclusions where necessary.
Eckerson, Joan M.
Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.
... 2013 Print this issue Should You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More ... Gut in Check Wise Choices Safe Use of Supplements Tell all of your health care providers about ...
Lauer, E. A; Houtenville, A. J.
The "Annual Disability Statistics Supplement" is a companion report to the "Annual Disability Statistics Compendium." The "Supplement" presents statistics on the same topics as the "Compendium," with additional categorizations by demographic characteristics including age, gender and race/ethnicity. In…
Dyck, D. J.
Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been
We present a case of a previously healthy male admitted with acute hepatitis while using a body building supplement. An exhaustive laboratory workup for causes of hepatitis was unrevealing. He responded well to withdrawal of the supplement and a course of corticosteroids.
Nutrition methods and dietary supplements have been studied for prostate cancer prevention or treatment. Read about the history of research, laboratory, and human studies on various prostate supplements, such as calcium, green tea, lycopene, pomegranate, selenium, soy, and vitamin E in this expert-reviewed summary.
Full Text Available More than 1400 herbal products or herbal-derived compounds are commonly commercialised for health uses worldwide (Tyler, 1996. Herbs are considered dietary supplements, and therefore are subjected to a very limited form of regulation, and advertisements normally highlight their potential activities without mentioning any side effect. Also, herbs are generally believed to be 'natural', and hence safe. Many nutritional supplements contains herb compounds usually not present in the diet (e.g. Ginko biloba, horse- chestnut, and only 10% of the herbs used in nutritional supplements are commonly present in the food (e.g. garlic, soy, blueberry, green the, ginger, curcuma (Eisenberg et al., 1993. There is much interest in "alternative natural approaches" in sport. It is appealing for athletes to use 'natural' substances with similar activity to 'pharmacological' ones in term of improving performance, are not considered doping, and are considered side-effects free (Table 1. Indeed, many herbal dietary supplements marketed on internet are presented as legal alternative to illicit drugs (Denneey et al., 2005. EcdysteroidsEcdysteroids are the steroid hormones of arthropods (Figure 1. They also occur in some plants, where they are known as phytoecdysteroids, and are believed to contribute to deter invertebrate predators. In insects, they regulate moulting and metamorphosis, may regulate reproduction and diapause. Most actions of ecdysteroids are mediated by intracellular receptor complexes, which regulate gene expression in a tissue- and development-specific manner (Lehmann et al 1989.Several phytoecdysteroids have anabolic growth-promoting effects on mice, rats, pigs and Japanese quails. Ecdysteroids stimulate muscle growth, and this anabolic effect promotes increased physical performance without training. Ecdysteroids are also able to increase muscle ATP content in vitamin D-deprived rats (Báthori, 2002. Ecdysteroids stimulate protein synthesis in the
Webster, Diana; Wildgoose, Joanne
Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease for which the main treatment is the dietary restriction of the amino acid phenylalanine. The diet has to be initiated in the neonatal period to prevent or reduce mental handicap. However, the diet is very restrictive and unpalatable and can be difficult to follow. A deficiency of the amino acid tyrosine has been suggested as a cause of some of the neuropsychological problems exhibited in phenylketonuria. Therefore, this review aims to assess the efficacy of tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria. To assess the effects of tyrosine supplementation alongside or instead of a phenylalanine-restricted diet for people with phenylketonuria, who commenced on diet at diagnosis and either continued on the diet or relaxed the diet later in life. To assess the evidence that tyrosine supplementation alongside, or instead of a phenylalanine-restricted diet improves intelligence, neuropsychological performance, growth and nutritional status, mortality rate and quality of life. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register which is comprised of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Additional studies were identified from handsearches of the Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease (from inception in 1978 to 1998). The manufacturers of prescribable dietary products used in the treatment of phenylketonuria were also contacted for further references.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register: 28 June 2012. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials investigating the use of tyrosine supplementation versus placebo in people with phenylketonuria in addition to, or instead of, a phenylalanine-restricted diet. People treated for maternal phenylketonuria were excluded. Two authors independently assessed the trial eligibility, methodological quality
The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with curcumin on bone microstructural changes in female C57BL/6 mice in the presence or absence of Lewis lung carcinoma. Morphometric analysis showed that in tumor-bearing mice curcumin at 2% and 4% dietary levels (w/w) significa...
Pritchett, K.; Corrow, D.; Stockwell, J.; Smith, A.
Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent method used to euthanize rodents in biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the time of CO2 exposure required to euthanize neonatal mice (0 to 10 days old). Multiple groups of mice were exposed to 100% CO 2 for time periods between 5 and 60 min. Mice were placed in room air for 10 or 20 min after CO2 exposure, to allow for the chance of recovery. If mice recovered at one time point, a longer exposure was examined. Inbred and outbred mice were compared. Results of the study indicated that time to death varied with the age of the animals and could be as long as 50 min on the day of birth and differed between inbred and outbred mice. Institutions euthanizing neonatal mice with CO2 may wish to adjust their CO 2 exposure time periods according the age of the mice and their genetic background. Copyright 2005 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.
Aslam, Muhammad N; Bergin, Ingrid; Naik, Madhav; Hampton, Anna; Allen, Ron; Kunkel, Steven L; Rush, Howard; Varani, James
C57BL/6 mice were maintained for up to 18 months on high-fat and low-fat diets with or without a multi-mineral supplement derived from the skeletal remains of the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum. Numerous grossly observable liver masses were visible in animals on the "western-style" high-fat diet sacrificed at 12 and 18 months. The majority of the masses were in male mice (20 out of 100 males versus 3 out of 100 females; p = 0.0002). There were more liver masses in animals on the high-fat diet than on the low-fat diet (15 out of 50 on high-fat versus 5 out of 50 on low-fat; p = 0.0254). The multi-mineral supplement reduced the number of liver masses in mice on both diets (3 out of 25 male mice in the low-fat diet group without the supplement versus 1 out of 25 mice with supplement; 12 of 25 male mice in the high-fat diet group without the supplement versus 3 of 25 mice with supplement [p = 0.0129]). Histological evaluation revealed a total of 17 neoplastic lesions (9 adenomas and 8 hepatocellular carcinomas), and 18 pre-neoplastic lesions. Out of eight hepatocellular carcinomas, seven were found in unsupplemented diet groups. Steatosis was widely observed in livers with and without grossly observable masses, but the multi-mineral supplement had no effect on the incidence of steatosis or its severity. Taken together, these findings suggest that a multi-mineral-rich natural product can protect mice against neoplastic and pre-neoplastic proliferative liver lesions that may develop in the face of steatosis.
The Agency for Health Research and Quality funded the Electronic Data Methods Forum (EDM Forum) to share the experiences and learnings from 11 research teams funded through three different grant programs, each of which involve the use of electronic clinical data in Comparative Effectiveness Research and Patient-Centered Outcomes Research. This overview is meant to describe the context in which the EDM forum was created and to introduce the set of papers in this supplement to Medical Care that describe the challenges and approaches to the use of electronic clinical data in the three key areas of analytic methods, clinical informatics and data governance. The participants in the EDM Forum are providing innovative approaches to generate information that can support the building of a "learning health care system." The compilation of papers presented in this supplement should serve as a resource to others working to develop the infrastructure for collecting, validating and using electronic data for research.
Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.
Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.
Gartner, Sarah N; Aidney, Fraser; Klockars, Anica; Prosser, Colin; Carpenter, Elizabeth A; Isgrove, Kiriana; Levine, Allen S; Olszewski, Pawel K
Human and laboratory animal studies suggest that dietary supplementation of a free essential amino acid, l-tryptophan (TRP), reduces food intake. It is unclear whether an acute gastric preload of TRP decreases consumption and whether central mechanisms underlie TRP-driven hypophagia. We examined the effect of TRP administered via intragastric gavage on energy- and palatability-induced feeding in mice. We sought to identify central mechanisms through which TRP suppresses appetite. Effects of TRP on consumption of energy-dense and energy-dilute tastants were established in mice stimulated to eat by energy deprivation or palatability. A conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm was used to assess whether hypophagia is unrelated to sickness. c-Fos immunohistochemistry was employed to detect TRP-induced activation of feeding-related brain sites and of oxytocin (OT) neurons, a crucial component of satiety circuits. Also, expression of OT mRNA was assessed with real-time PCR. The functional importance of OT in mediating TRP-driven hypophagia was substantiated by showing the ability of OT receptor blockade to abolish TRP-induced decrease in feeding. TRP reduced intake of energy-dense standard chow in deprived animals and energy-dense palatable chow in sated mice. Anorexigenic doses of TRP did not cause a CTA. TRP failed to affect intake of palatable yet calorie-dilute or noncaloric solutions (10% sucrose, 4.1% Intralipid or 0.1% saccharin) even for TRP doses that decreased water intake in thirsty mice. Fos analysis revealed that TRP increases activation of several key feeding-related brain areas, especially in the brain stem and hypothalamus. TRP activated hypothalamic OT neurons and increased OT mRNA levels, whereas pretreatment with an OT antagonist abolished TRP-driven hypophagia. We conclude that intragastric TRP decreases food and water intake, and TRP-induced hypophagia is partially mediated via central circuits that encompass OT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All
Shi, Hongjun; Enriquez, Annabelle; Rapadas, Melissa; Martin, Ella M M A; Wang, Roni; Moreau, Julie; Lim, Chai K; Szot, Justin O; Ip, Eddie; Hughes, James N; Sugimoto, Kotaro; Humphreys, David T; McInerney-Leo, Aideen M; Leo, Paul J; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Halliday, Jake; Smith, Janine; Colley, Alison; Mark, Paul R; Collins, Felicity; Sillence, David O; Winlaw, David S; Ho, Joshua W K; Guillemin, Gilles J; Brown, Matthew A; Kikuchi, Kazu; Thomas, Paul Q; Stocker, Roland; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Chapman, Gavin; Duncan, Emma L; Sparrow, Duncan B; Dunwoodie, Sally L
Congenital malformations can be manifested as combinations of phenotypes that co-occur more often than expected by chance. In many such cases, it has proved difficult to identify a genetic cause. We sought the genetic cause of cardiac, vertebral, and renal defects, among others, in unrelated patients. We used genomic sequencing to identify potentially pathogenic gene variants in families in which a person had multiple congenital malformations. We tested the function of the variant by using assays of in vitro enzyme activity and by quantifying metabolites in patient plasma. We engineered mouse models with similar variants using the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas9 system. Variants were identified in two genes that encode enzymes of the kynurenine pathway, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid 3,4-dioxygenase (HAAO) and kynureninase (KYNU). Three patients carried homozygous variants predicting loss-of-function changes in the HAAO or KYNU proteins (HAAO p.D162*, HAAO p.W186*, or KYNU p.V57Efs*21). Another patient carried heterozygous KYNU variants (p.Y156* and p.F349Kfs*4). The mutant enzymes had greatly reduced activity in vitro. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is synthesized de novo from tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway. The patients had reduced levels of circulating NAD. Defects similar to those in the patients developed in the embryos of Haao-null or Kynu-null mice owing to NAD deficiency. In null mice, the prevention of NAD deficiency during gestation averted defects. Disruption of NAD synthesis caused a deficiency of NAD and congenital malformations in humans and mice. Niacin supplementation during gestation prevented the malformations in mice. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia and others.).
Full Text Available Abstract Background Leucine may function as a signaling molecule to regulate metabolism. We have previously shown that dietary leucine supplementation significantly improves glucose and energy metabolism in diet-induced obese mice, suggesting that leucine supplementation could potentially be a useful adjuvant therapy for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Since the underlying cause for obesity and type 2 diabetes is multifold, we further investigated metabolic effects of leucine supplementation in obese/diabetes mouse models with different etiologies, and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods Leucine supplementation was carried out in NONcNZO10/LtJ (RCS10 - a polygenic model predisposed to beta cell failure and type 2 diabetes, and in B6.Cg-Ay/J (Ay - a monogenic model for impaired central melanocortin receptor signaling, obesity, and severe insulin resistance. Mice in the treatment group received the drinking water containing 1.5% leucine for up to 8 months; control mice received the tap water. Body weight, body composition, blood HbA1c levels, and plasma glucose and insulin levels were monitored throughout and/or at the end of the study period. Indirect calorimetry, skeletal muscle gene expression, and adipose tissue inflammation were also assessed in Ay mice. Results Leucine supplementation significantly reduced HbA1c levels throughout the study period in both RCS10 and Ay mice. However, the treatment had no long term effect on body weight or adiposity. The improvement in glycemic control was associated with an increased insulin response to food challenge in RCS10 mice and decreased plasma insulin levels in Ay mice. In leucine-treated Ay mice, energy expenditure was increased by ~10% (p y mice whereas the expression levels of MCP-1 and TNF-alpha and macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue were significantly reduced. Conclusions Chronic leucine supplementation significantly improves glycemic control in multiple mouse models of
Kuroishi, Toshinobu; Kinbara, Masayuki; Sato, Naoki; Tanaka, Yukinori; Nagai, Yasuhiro; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Endo, Yasuo; Sugawara, Shunji
Biotin, a water-soluble B complex vitamin, is possibly involved in chronic inflammatory diseases, although the detailed mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of biotin status on nickel (Ni) allergy in mice. Mice were fed a basal or biotin-deficient (BD) diet for 8 wk and sensitized with an intraperitoneal injection of NiCl(2) and lipopolysaccharide. Ten days after sensitization, NiCl(2) was intradermally injected into pinnas and ear swelling was measured. For in vitro analysis, we cultured a murine macrophage cell line, J774.1, under a biotin-sufficient (C, meaning control) or BD condition for 4 wk and analyzed interleukin (IL)-1 production. Significantly higher ear swelling was induced in BD mice than C mice. Adaptive transfer of splenocytes from both C and BD mice induced Ni allergy in unsensitized mice. Regardless of donor mice, ear swelling was significantly higher in BD recipient mice than C recipient mice. Ni allergy was not induced in either C or BD IL-1(-/-) mice. Splenocytes from BD mice produced a significantly higher amount of IL-1beta than those from C mice. Production and mRNA expression of IL-1beta were significantly higher in BD J774.1 cells than in C cells. Biotin supplementation inhibited the augmentation of IL-1beta production in vitro. In vivo supplementation of biotin in drinking water dose-dependently decreased ear swelling in C and BD mice. These results indicate that biotin status affects Ni allergy in the elicitation phase via the upregulation of IL-1beta production in mice, suggesting that biotin supplementation may have therapeutic effects on human metal allergy.
Snodgrass, Meagan A.; Lux, Nicholas; Metz, Anneke M.
There is a continuing need for engaging inquiry-based laboratory experiences for advanced high school and undergraduate biology courses. The authors describe a guided-inquiry exercise investigating the pH-dependence of lactase enzyme that uses an inexpensive, wide-range buffering system, lactase dietary supplement, over-the-counter glucose test…
Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove
influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratoriesThe Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory provides biomechanical and physical analyses for both military and commercial footwear. The laboratory contains equipment that is integral to the us...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research performs preclinical characterization of nanomaterials...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL's Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL) houses 22 research laboratories for conducting a wide-range of research including catalyst formulation, chemical analysis,...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...
Zubrzycki, Igor Z; Ossowski, Zbigniew; Przybylski, Stanislaw; Wiacek, Magdalena; Clarke, Anna; Trabka, Bartosz
Background Previous animal study has shown that supplementation with silk amino acid hydrolysate (SAA) increases stamina in mice. The presented study was the first formal evaluation of the influence of SAA supplementation on parameters defining physiological fitness level in humans. Methods It was a randomized controlled trial with a parallel-group design on elite male fin-swimmers. The experimental group was supplemented with 500 mg of SAA per kg of body mass, dissolved in 250 ml of a Carbor...
Li, D.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Green, M.; Li, N.; Niinikoski, T.; Pan, H.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Bross, A.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.; Sylvester, C.; Chen, A. B.; Guo, Bin; Li, Liyi; Xu, Fengyu; Cao, Y.; Sun, S.; Wang, Li; Yin, Lixin; Luo, Tianhuan; Summers, Don; Smith, B.; Radovinsky, A.; Zhukovsky, A.; Kaplan, D.
Recent progress on the design and fabrication of the RFCC (RF and superconducting Coupling Coil) module for the international MICE (Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment) are reported. The MICE ionization cooling channel has two RFCC modules, each having four 201- MHz normal conducting RF cavities surrounded by one superconducting coupling coil (solenoid) magnet. The magnet is designed to be cooled by three cryocoolers. Fabrication of the RF cavities is complete; preparation for the cavity electro-polishing, low power RF measurements, and tuning are in progress at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Fabrication of the cold mass of the first coupling coil magnet has been completed in China and the cold mass arrived at LBNL in late 2011. Preparations for testing the cold mass are currently under way at Fermilab. Plans for the RFCC module assembly and integration are being developed and are described.
This thesis aimed at developing a better understanding on how mice perceive their own emotional state. Next to extending on previous research on the adaptive capacities laboratory mice, we aimed at approaching the emotional perceptions of mice by establishing a behavioural test for the assessment of
Rivalan, Marion; Winter, York; Nachev, Vladislav
Humans and non-human animals frequently violate principles of economic rationality, such as transitivity, independence of irrelevant alternatives, and regularity. The conditions that lead to these violations are not completely understood. Here we report a study on mice tested in automated home-cage setups using rewards of drinking water. Rewards differed in one of two dimensions, volume or probability. Our results suggest that mouse choice conforms to the principles of economic rationality for options that differ along a single reward dimension. A psychometric analysis of mouse choices further revealed that mice responded more strongly to differences in probability than to differences in volume, despite equivalence in return rates. This study also demonstrates the synergistic effect between the principles of economic rationality and psychophysics in making quantitative predictions about choices of healthy laboratory mice. This opens up new possibilities for the analyses of multi-dimensional choice and the use of mice with cognitive impairments that may violate economic rationality.
Janus, Lydia M; Bleich, Andre
Parvoviruses of mice, minute virus of mice (MVM) and mouse parvovirus (MPV), are challenging pathogens to eradicate from laboratory animal facilities. Due to the impediment on rodent-based research, recent studies have focused on the assessment of re-derivation techniques and parvoviral potential to induce persistent infections. Summarizing recent data, this review gives an overview on studies associated with parvoviral impact on research, diagnostic methods, parvoviral persistence and re-derivation techniques, demonstrating the complex nature of parvovirus infection in mice and unfolding the challenge of controlling parvovirus infections in laboratory animal facilities.
Natalia A. Casanova
Full Text Available Watercress (Nasturtium officinale, Cruciferae; W. Aiton is a vegetable widely consumed in our country, with nutritional and potentially chemopreventive properties. Previous reports from our laboratory demonstrated the protective effect of watercress juice against DNA damage induced by cyclophosphamide in vivo. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo effect of cress plant on the oxidative stress in mice. Animals were treated by gavage with different doses of watercress juice (0.5 and 1g/kg body weight for 15 consecutive days before intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg body weight. After 24 h, mice were killed by cervical dislocation. The effect of watercress was investigated by assessing the following oxidative stress biomarkers: catalase activity, superoxide dismutase activity, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione balance. Intake of watercress prior to cyclophosphamide administration enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes with no effect on catalase activity. In bone marrow and liver tissues, watercress juice counteracted the effect of cyclophosphamide. Glutathione balance rose by watercress supplementation and lipid oxidation diminished in all matrixes when compared to the respective control groups. Our results support the role of watercress as a diet component with promising properties to be used as health promoter or protective agent against oxidative damage
Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta
Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested.
P. Annécie Benatrehina
Full Text Available In view of the continuous growth of the botanical dietary supplement industry and the increased popularity of lesser known or exotic botanicals, recent findings are described on the phytochemical composition and biological activities of five selected fruits consumed in the United States, namely, açaí, noni, mangosteen, black chokeberry, and maqui berry. A review of the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants has revealed some similarities ranging from wound-healing to the treatment of fever and infectious diseases. Laboratory studies on açaí have shown both its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro, and more importantly, its neuroprotective properties in animals. Anthraquinones and iridoid glucosides isolated from noni fruit induce the phase II enzyme quinone reductase (QR, and noni fruit juice exhibited antitumor and antidiabetic activities in certain animal models. Antitumorigenic effects of mangosteen in animal xenograft models of human cancers have been attributed to its xanthone content, and pure α-mangostin was shown to display antineoplastic activity in mice despite a reported low oral bioavailability. Work on the less extensively investigated black chokeberry and maqui berry has focused on recent isolation studies and has resulted in the identification of bioactive secondary metabolites with QR-inducing and hydroxyl-radical scavenging properties. On the basis of the safety studies and toxicity case reports described herein, these fruits may be generally considered as safe. However, cases of adulteration found in a commercialized açaí product and some conflicting results from mangosteen safety studies warrant further investigation on the safety of these marketed botanical dietary supplements. Keywords: Açaí, Noni, Mangosteen, Black chokeberry, Maqui berry
Rehman, S.; Khalid, N.
Lead present in calcium supplements is of grave concern as some lead levels have been measured up to the extent of regulatory limit set by the United States. Calcium supplements inevitably get contaminated with lead as both are naturally occurring elements. Therefore, it is imperative to indicate its level in these supplements in order to create awareness among consumers. In this study, a sophisticated analytical technique, atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyze Pb contents in 27 commonly consumed Ca supplements manufactured by different national and multinational companies. The daily intake of lead through these supplements was calculated. Only 10% of the calcium supplements analyzed met the criteria of acceptable Pb levels (1.5 mu g/daily dose) in supplements/consumer products set by the United States. It was also found that Pb intake was highest in chelated calcium supplements 28.5 mu g/daily dose, whereas lowest 0.47 mu g/daily dose through calcium supplements with vitamin D formulation. In order to validate our results from the study conducted, IAEA-certified reference material (animal bone, H-5) was analyzed for its Pb levels. The levels of Pb determined were quite in good agreement with the certified values. (author)
Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F
Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries.
van Vliet, Danique; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Mazzola, Priscila N; van Faassen, Martijn Hjr; de Blaauw, Pim; Pascucci, Tiziana; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Kema, Ido P; Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Zee, Eddy A; van Spronsen, Francjan J
Phenylketonuria treatment consists mainly of a Phe-restricted diet, which leads to suboptimal neurocognitive and psychosocial outcomes. Supplementation of large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) has been suggested as an alternative dietary treatment strategy to optimize neurocognitive outcome in phenylketonuria and has been shown to influence 3 brain pathobiochemical mechanisms in phenylketonuria, but its optimal composition has not been established. In order to provide additional pathobiochemical insight and develop optimal LNAA treatment, several targeted LNAA supplements were investigated with respect to all 3 biochemical disturbances underlying brain dysfunction in phenylketonuria. Pah-enu2 (PKU) mice received 1 of 5 different LNAA-supplemented diets beginning at postnatal day 45. Control groups included phenylketonuria mice receiving an isonitrogenic and isocaloric high-protein diet or the AIN-93M diet, and wild-type mice receiving the AIN-93M diet. After 6 wk, brain and plasma amino acid profiles and brain monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations were measured. Brain Phe concentrations were most effectively reduced by supplementation of LNAAs, such as Leu and Ile, with a strong affinity for the LNAA transporter type 1. Brain non-Phe LNAAs could be restored on supplementation, but unbalanced LNAA supplementation further reduced brain concentrations of those LNAAs that were not (sufficiently) included in the LNAA supplement. To optimally ameliorate brain monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations, LNAA supplementation should include Tyr and Trp together with LNAAs that effectively reduce brain Phe concentrations. The requirement for Tyr supplementation is higher than it is for Trp, and the relative effect of brain Phe reduction is higher for serotonin than it is for dopamine and norepinephrine. The study shows that all 3 biochemical disturbances underlying brain dysfunction in phenylketonuria can be targeted by specific LNAA supplements. The study thus
Methods were developed using flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and chemometrics for the comparison of spectral similarities and differences of 3 botanical ingredients and their supplements: Echinacea purpurea aerial samples and solid and liquid supplements, E. purpurea root samples and solid s...
Veigas, Jyothi M.; Williams, Paul J.; Halade, Ganesh; Rahman, Mizanur M.; Yoneda, Toshiyuki; Fernandes, Gabriel
Fish oil has been used to alleviate pain associated with inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. The anti-inflammatory property of fish oil is attributed to the n-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Contrarily, vegetable oils such as safflower oil are rich in n-6 fatty acids which are considered to be mediators of inflammation. This study investigates the effect of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids rich oils as dietary supplements on the thermally induced pain sensitivity in healthy mice. C57Bl/6J mice were fed diet containing regular fish oil, concentrated fish oil formulation (CFO) and safflower oil (SO) for 6 months. Pain sensitivity was measured by plantar test and was correlated to the expression of acid sensing ion channels (ASICs), transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and c-fos in dorsal root ganglion cells. Significant delay in sensitivity to thermal nociception was observed in mice fed CFO compared to mice fed SO (p<0.05). A significant diminution in expression of ion channels such as ASIC1a (64%), ASIC13 (37%) and TRPV1 (56%) coupled with reduced expression of c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, was observed in the dorsal root ganglion cells of mice fed CFO compared to that fed SO. In conclusion, we describe here the potential of fish oil supplement in reducing sensitivity to thermal nociception in normal mice. PMID:21345372
The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides......, and alcohol), minerals, and micronutrients. The latter category comprises 13 vitamins and a hand full of trace elements. Many micronutrients are used as food supplements and are ingested at doses exceeding the amounts that can be consumed along with food by a factor of 10–100. Both macro- and micronutrients...... can interact with enzyme systems related to xenobiotic metabolism either by regulation of their expression or direct interference with their enzymatic activity. During food consumption, we consume a wide range of xenobiotics along with the consumable food, either as an original part of the food (e...
acting as carcinogens) to health-protective effects (e.g., flavonoids ameliorating detrimental effects of mitochondrial oxidative stress). In particular, secondary plant metabolites along with vitamins, specific types of macronutrients and live bacteria (probiotics) as well as substances promoting.......g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines....... The supplements and contaminants can compete directly with drug oxidation, induce or suppress the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, change the bioavailability of drugs, and, in the case of live bacteria, bring in their own xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity. In numerous...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements for laboratory control... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System: Requirements for Laboratory Operations § 111.315 What are the requirements for laboratory control...
Rasmussen, Christopher J.
Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.
The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year's objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report
Sharma, Garima; Sisodia, Rashmi
To study the biochemical, quantitative histopathological and behavioural changes after 5 Gy whole body irradiation and its modulation by supplementation of Prunus domestica extract (PDE) for 15 consecutive days on male Swiss albino. For this study healthy mice from an inbred colony were divided into five groups: (i) Control; (ii) PDE treated - mice in this group were orally supplemented with PDE (400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) once daily for 15 consecutive days; (iii) Irradiated-mice were whole body exposed to 5 Gy irradiated; (iv) PDE + irradiated-mice in this group were orally supplemented PDE for 15 days (once a day) prior to irradiation; and (v) irradiated+PDE -mice in this group were administered PDE orally for 15 days (once a day) consequently after irradiation. Marked radiation induced changes in the amount of cerebellar lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH), protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and histopathological changes (molecular layer, granular layer and purkinje cell numbers) could be significantly ameliorated supplementation of PDE prior/post irradiation. Radiation induced deficits in learning and memory were also significantly ameliorated. PDE was found to have strong radical scavenging activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and also showed in vitro radioprotective activity. The result of present study showed that prior/post-supplementation of Prunus domestica has radioprotective potential as well as neuroprotective properties against the radiation. (author)
Malnutrition prevalence in patients on dialysis is well established. The protein requirements for both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis have been documented elsewhere, including the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure. The clinical challenge is to assist patients in meeting these targets, especially in those with anorexia. Traditional supplements have included fluid, which is an issue for patients who are fluid restricted. The study objectives were to (1) investigate the range of sports protein supplements that may be suitable for patients on hemodialysis to use and (2) trial nonfluid protein supplements in patients on hemodialysis. Known manufacturers of sports protein bars and other sports supplements available in Australia were contacted for the nutrient breakdown of high-protein products, specifically potassium, protein, and phosphorus contents. As a result, selected high-protein sports bars (Protein FX, Aussie Bodies, Port Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) were used as an alternative to the more commonly used renal-specific fluid supplements (Nepro, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL; Novasource Renal, Novartis Nutrition Corporation, Fremont, MI; and Renilon, Nutricia, Wiltshire, UK) in patients with poor nutritional status requiring supplementation. Patient satisfaction and clinical nutrition markers were investigated. The study took place at inpatient, in-center, and satellite hemodialysis settings in Adelaide, South Australia. A total of 32 patients (16 females and 16 males) with an average age of 62.9 years (range 32-86 years) undergoing hemodialysis (acute and maintenance) were included. Subjects were selected by the author as part of routine clinical nutrition care. Patients trialed sports protein bars as a protein supplement alone or in conjunction with other supplementary products. All patients were in favor of the trial, with 22 of 32 patients continuing with the protein
Larsen, Lea Hüche; Sandø-Pedersen, Sofie; Ørstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten
Taurine ameliorates changes occurring in newborn skeletal muscle as a result of gestational protein restriction in C57BL/6 mice, but taurine supplementation effects may be exaggerated in C57BL/6 mice due to their inherent excessive taurinuria.We examined if maternal taurine supplementation could...... by taurine supplementation (LP-Tau). LP-Tau offspring had significantly lower birth weight compared to controls. Gene expression profiling revealed 895 significantly changed genes, mainly an LP-induced down-regulation of genes involved in protein translation. Taurine fully or partially rescued 32......% of these changes, but with no distinct pattern as to which genes were rescued.Skeletal muscle taurine content in LP-Tau offspring was increased, but no changes in mRNA levels of the taurine synthesis pathway were observed. Taurine transporter mRNA levels, but not protein levels, were increased by LP diet...
... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... and nutrients you personally need. What are dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, ...
This handbook provides guidance in the application of quality assurance to measurement activities. It is intended to help those persons making measurements in applying quality assurance to their work activities by showing how laboratory practices and quality assurance requirements are integrated to provide control within those activities. The use of the guidance found in this handbook should help provide consistency in the interpretation of quality assurance requirements across all types of measurement laboratories. This handbook also can assist quality assurance personnel in understanding the relationships between laboratory practices and quality assurance requirements. The handbook is composed of three chapters and several appendices. Basic guidance is provided by the three chapters. In Chapter 1, the role of quality assurance in obtaining quality data and the importance of such data are discussed. Chapter 2 presents the elements of laboratory quality assurance in terms of practices that can be used in controlling work activities to assure the acquisition of quality data. Chapter 3 discusses the implementation of laboratory quality assurance. The appendices provide supplemental information to give the users a better understanding of the following: what is quality assurance; why quality assurance is required; where quality assurance requirements come from; how those requirements are interpreted for application to laboratory operations; how the elements of laboratory quality assurance relate to various laboratory activities; and how a quality assurance program can be developed
Mitchell, Sarah J; Bernier, Michel; Aon, Miguel A; Cortassa, Sonia; Kim, Eun Young; Fang, Evandro F; Palacios, Hector H; Ali, Ahmed; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Di Francesco, Andrea; Kaiser, Tamzin A; Waltz, Tyler B; Zhang, Ning; Ellis, James L; Elliott, Peter J; Frederick, David W; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Schmidt, Mark S; Brenner, Charles; Sinclair, David A; Sauve, Anthony A; Baur, Joseph A; de Cabo, Rafael
The role in longevity and healthspan of nicotinamide (NAM), the physiological precursor of NAD + , is elusive. Here, we report that chronic NAM supplementation improves healthspan measures in mice without extending lifespan. Untargeted metabolite profiling of the liver and metabolic flux analysis of liver-derived cells revealed NAM-mediated improvement in glucose homeostasis in mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) that was associated with reduced hepatic steatosis and inflammation concomitant with increased glycogen deposition and flux through the pentose phosphate and glycolytic pathways. Targeted NAD metabolome analysis in liver revealed depressed expression of NAM salvage in NAM-treated mice, an effect counteracted by higher expression of de novo NAD biosynthetic enzymes. Although neither hepatic NAD + nor NADP + was boosted by NAM, acetylation of some SIRT1 targets was enhanced by NAM supplementation in a diet- and NAM dose-dependent manner. Collectively, our results show health improvement in NAM-supplemented HFD-fed mice in the absence of survival effects. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Dutta, Sulagna; Sengupta, Pallav
Since the late 18th century, the murine model has been widely used in biomedical research (about 59% of total animals used) as it is compact, cost-effective, and easily available, conserving almost 99% of human genes and physiologically resembling humans. Despite the similarities, mice have a diminutive lifespan compared to humans. In this study, we found that one human year is equivalent to nine mice days, although this is not the case when comparing the lifespan of mice versus humans taking the entire life at the same time without considering each phase separately. Therefore, the precise correlation of age at every point in their lifespan must be determined. Determining the age relation between mice and humans is necessary for setting up experimental murine models more analogous in age to humans. Thus, more accuracy can be obtained in the research outcome for humans of a specific age group, although current outcomes are based on mice of an approximate age. To fill this gap between approximation and accuracy, this review article is the first to establish a precise relation between mice age and human age, following our previous article, which explained the relation in ages of laboratory rats with humans in detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
...] Notice of Approval of a Supplemental New Animal Drug Application; Penicillin G Procaine Suspension AGENCY... Laboratories, Ltd. The supplemental NADA provides for a revised formulation of penicillin G procaine injectable... of NOROCILLIN (penicillin G procaine) Injectable Suspension by intramuscular injection in cattle...
Liu, Ying-Juan; Li, Lai-Fu; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Guo, Hui-Fen; Xia, Min; Zhang, Meng-Wei; Jing, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Xu
Rats are predators of mice in nature. Nevertheless, it is a common practice to house mice and rats in a same room in some laboratories. In this study, we investigated the behavioral and physiological responsively of mice in long-term co-species housing conditions. Twenty-four male mice were randomly assigned to their original raising room (control) or a rat room (co-species-housed) for more than 6 weeks. In the open-field and light-dark box tests, the behaviors of the co-species-housed mice and controls were not different. In a 2-choice test of paired urine odors [rabbit urine (as a novel odor) vs. rat urine, cat urine (as a natural predator-scent) vs. rabbit urine, and cat urine vs. rat urine], the co-species-housed mice were more ready to investigate the rat urine odor compared with the controls and may have adapted to it. In an encounter test, the rat-room-exposed mice exhibited increased aggression levels, and their urines were more attractive to females. Correspondingly, the levels of major urinary proteins were increased in the co-species-housed mouse urine, along with some volatile pheromones. The serum testosterone levels were also enhanced in the co-species-housed mice, whereas the corticosterone levels were not different. The norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-HT levels in the right hippocampus and striatum were not different between the 2. Our findings indicate that chronic co-species housing results in adaptation in male mice; furthermore, it appears that long-term rat-odor stimuli enhance the competitiveness of mice, which suggests that appropriate predator-odor stimuli may be important to the fitness of prey animals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Haller, Christine; Kearney, Tom; Bent, Stephen; Ko, Richard; Benowitz, Neal; Olson, Kent
The safety and efficacy of dietary supplements is of growing concern to regulators, health-care providers and consumers. Few scientific data exist on clinical effects and potential toxicities of marketed products. Harmful supplements may not be identified for months or years with existing adverse event monitoring mechanisms. Retrospective review of poison center statistics to capture supplement-associated toxicity also has limitations. We collaborated with the FDA Center for Food Safety and Nutrition (CFSAN) to conduct a 1-year prospective surveillance study of dietary supplement-related poison control center calls in 2006. Prompt follow-up of symptomatic cases, laboratory analysis of implicated dietary supplements, and causality assessment by a case review expert panel were performed. Of 275 dietary supplements calls, 41% involved symptomatic exposures; and two-thirds were rated as probably or possibly related to supplement use. Eight adverse events required hospital admission. Sympathomimetic toxicity was most common, with caffeine products accounting for 47%, and yohimbe products accounting for 18% of supplement-related symptomatic cases. Suspected drug-herb interactions occurred in 6 cases, including yohimbe co-ingested with buproprion (1) and methamphetamine (3), and additive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects of NSAIDs taken with fish oils (1) and ginkgo (1). Laboratory analysis identified a pharmacologically active substance in 4 cases; supplement toxicity was ruled unlikely when analytical testing was negative in 5 cases. Most supplement-related adverse events were minor. Clinically significant toxic effects were most frequently reported with caffeine and yohimbe-containing products. Active surveillance of poison control center reports of dietary supplement adverse events enables rapid detection of potentially harmful products, which may facilitate regulatory oversight.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Lincoln Laboratory Grid (LLGrid) is an interactive, on-demand parallel computing system that uses a large computing cluster to enable Laboratory researchers to...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Gun Dynamics Laboratory is a research multi-task facility, which includes two firing bays, a high bay area and a second floor laboratory space. The high bay area...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a NASA funded facility, delivering heavy ion beams to a target area where scientists...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesDEN-DO Laboratory is a multi-functional laboratory capable of analyzing most chemical analytes and pathogenic/non-pathogenic microorganisms found...
Full Text Available Genetic suppression of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS can extend longevity in worms, insects, and mammals. In laboratory mice, mutations with the greatest, most consistent, and best documented positive impact on lifespan are those that disrupt growth hormone (GH release or actions. These mutations lead to major alterations in IIS but also have a variety of effects that are not directly related to the actions of insulin or insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1. Long-lived GH-resistant GHRKO mice with targeted disruption of the GH receptor gene, as well as Ames dwarf (Prop1df and Snell dwarf (Pit1dw mice lacking GH (along with prolactin and TSH, are diminutive in size and have major alterations in body composition and metabolic parameters including increased subcutaneous adiposity, increased relative brain weight, small liver, hypoinsulinemia, mild hypoglycemia, increased adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity, and reduced serum lipids. Body temperature is reduced in Ames, Snell, and female GHRKO mice. Indirect calorimetry revealed that both Ames dwarf and GHRKO mice utilize more oxygen per gram (g of body weight than sex- and age-matched normal animals from the same strain. They also have reduced respiratory quotient (RQ, implying greater reliance on fats, as opposed to carbohydrates, as an energy source. Differences in oxygen consumption (VO2 were seen in animals fed or fasted during the measurements as well as in animals that had been exposed to 30% calorie restriction or every-other-day feeding. However, at the thermoneutral temperature of 30°C, VO2 did not differ between GHRKO and normal mice. Thus, the increased metabolic rate of the GHRKO mice, at a standard animal room temperature of 23°C, is apparently related to increased energy demands for thermoregulation in these diminutive animals. We suspect that increased oxidative metabolism combined with enhanced fatty acid oxidation contribute to the extended longevity of
Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Urban, S. E.
"The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac" (hereafter "The Explanatory Supplement") is a comprehensive reference book on the topic of positional astronomy, covering the theories and algorithms used to produce "The Astronomical Almanac" (AsA), an annual publication produced jointly by the Nautical Almanac Office of the US Naval Observatory (USNO) and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO) of the UK Hydrographic Office. The first edition of The Explanatory Supplement appeared in 1961 and was reprinted with amendments during the 1970s. The second edition was printed in 1992 and reprinted until 2006. Since the second edition, several changes have taken place in positional astronomy regarding reference systems and internationally accepted models, data sets, and computational methods; these have been incorporated into the AsA. Additionally, the data presented in the AsA have been modified over the years, with new tables being added and some being discontinued. Given these changes, a new edition of The Explanatory Supplement is appropriate. The third edition has been in development for the last few years and will be available in 2010. The book is organized similarly to the second (1991) edition, with each chapter written by subject matter experts. Authors from USNO and HMNAO contributed to the majority of the book, but there are authors from Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Technical University of Dresden, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, University of Texas Austin, and University of Virginia. This paper will discuss this latest edition of the Explanatory Supplement.
Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.
Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...
Fix, N. J.
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers are working on the Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Project. This project is a U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies, and technologies for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Technologies Project staff.
Full Text Available The growing popularity of botanical dietary supplements (BDS has been accompanied by concerns regarding the quality of commercial products. Health care providers, in particular, have an interest in knowing about product quality, in view of the issues related to herb-drug interactions and potential side effects. This study assessed whether commercial formulations of saw palmetto, kava kava, echinacea, ginseng and St. John's wort had consistent labeling and whether quantities of marker compounds agreed with the amounts stated on the label. We purchased six bottles each of two lots of supplements from nine manufacturers and analyzed the contents using established commercial methodologies at an independent laboratory. Product labels were found to vary in the information provided, such as serving recommendations and information about the herb itself (species, part of the plant, marker compound, etc. With regard to marker compound content, little variability was observed between different lots of the same brand, while the content did vary widely between brands (e.g. total phenolic compounds in Echinacea ranged from 3.9–15.3 mg per serving; total ginsenosides in ginseng ranged from 5.3–18.2 mg per serving. Further, the amounts recommended for daily use also differed between brands, increasing the potential range of a consumer's daily dose. Echinacea and ginseng were the most variable, while St. John's wort and saw palmetto were the least variable. This study highlights some of the key issues in the botanical supplement market, including the importance of standardized manufacturing practices and reliable labeling information. In addition, health care providers should keep themselves informed regarding product quality in order to be able to appropriately advise patients utilizing both conventional and herbal medicines.
The growing popularity of botanical dietary supplements (BDS) has been accompanied by concerns regarding the quality of commercial products. Health care providers, in particular, have an interest in knowing about product quality, in view of the issues related to herb-drug interactions and potential side effects. This study assessed whether commercial formulations of saw palmetto, kava kava, echinacea, ginseng and St. John's wort had consistent labeling and whether quantities of marker compounds agreed with the amounts stated on the label. We purchased six bottles each of two lots of supplements from nine manufacturers and analyzed the contents using established commercial methodologies at an independent laboratory. Product labels were found to vary in the information provided, such as serving recommendations and information about the herb itself (species, part of the plant, marker compound, etc.) With regard to marker compound content, little variability was observed between different lots of the same brand, while the content did vary widely between brands (e.g. total phenolic compounds in Echinacea ranged from 3.9–15.3 mg per serving; total ginsenosides in ginseng ranged from 5.3–18.2 mg per serving). Further, the amounts recommended for daily use also differed between brands, increasing the potential range of a consumer's daily dose. Echinacea and ginseng were the most variable, while St. John's wort and saw palmetto were the least variable. This study highlights some of the key issues in the botanical supplement market, including the importance of standardized manufacturing practices and reliable labeling information. In addition, health care providers should keep themselves informed regarding product quality in order to be able to appropriately advise patients utilizing both conventional and herbal medicines. PMID:15841264
Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST's PV characterization laboratory is used to measure the electrical performance and opto-electronic properties of solar cells and modules. This facility consists...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TVA Central Laboratories Services is a comprehensive technical support center, offering you a complete range of scientific, engineering, and technical services....
Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 60 years, Sandia has delivered essential science and technology to resolve the nation's most challenging security issues.Sandia National Laboratories...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Wireless Emulation Laboratory (WEL) is a researchtest bed used to investigate fundamental issues in networkscience. It is a research infrastructure that emulates...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory develops screening assays, tests and modifies biosensor equipment, and optimizes food safety testing protocols for the military and civilian sector...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Embedded Processor Laboratory provides the means to design, develop, fabricate, and test embedded computers for missile guidance electronics systems in support...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems.DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains an electro-magnetic worldwide data collection and field measurement capability in the area of acoustic technology. Outfitted by NASA Langley...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts basic and applied human research studies to characterize cognitive performance as influenced by militarily-relevant contextual and physical...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose of the Composites Characterization Laboratory is to investigate new and/or modified matrix materials and fibers for advanced composite applications both...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microgravity Emissions Laboratory (MEL) utilizes a low-frequency acceleration measurement system for the characterization of rigid body inertial forces generated...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Fuels Processing Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, provides researchers with the equipment they need to thoroughly explore the catalytic issues associated with...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory at the University of Maryland provides the state of the art facilities for realizing next generation products and educating the...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Training Devices (VTD) Laboratory at the Life Cycle Software Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, provides a software testing and support environment...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Intelligent Optics Laboratory supports sophisticated investigations on adaptive and nonlinear optics; advancedimaging and image processing; ground-to-ground and...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...
Pritchard, Jack; Braker, Clifton
Pritchard discusses the opportunities for applied learning afforded by laboratories. Braker describes the evaluation of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills in the agricultural mechanics laboratory. (SK)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides office space for industry researchers, experimental laboratories, computer facilities for analytical work, and space for assembling components...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: To process, store, and disseminate geospatial data to the Department of Defense and other Federal agencies.DESCRIPTION: The Geospatial Services Laboratory...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, researchers study how chemical looping combustion (CLC) can be applied to fossil energy systems....
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) develops aerospace propulsion technology by performing tests on propulsion components and materials. Altitudes up to 137,000...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Current research in the Laboratory of Chemical Physics is primarily concerned with experimental, theoretical, and computational problems in the structure, dynamics,...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory is used to design and integrate computer hardware and software and related electronic subsystems for tactical vehicles....
Federal Laboratory Consortium — As part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and The Institute for System Research, the Neural Systems Laboratory studies the functionality of the...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, located in Bldg. 644 provides a dual-gas respirometer for measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution...
Timcheh-Hariri, Alireza; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Aryan, Ehsan; Sadeghi, Mahmood; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad
Dietary supplements have been used for decades for enhancing muscle growth. The harm caused by some of these products is well documented. We investigated and reported toxic hepatitis in 20 male athletes following self-prescribing of a number of dietary supplements which are lesser known. The patients' ages ranged from 24 to 32 with a mean of 28 years. They had taken three kinds of supplements for 1 year including testosterone optimizer agent T Bomb II, a creatine supplement Phosphagen and an amino acid based supplement Cell-Tech. Based on the history, clinical examination, and laboratory findings the cases were diagnosed as toxic hepatitis. After discontinuation of taking the supplements, clinical recovery and improvement of liver function tests were achieved within 30 days. Causality assessment with the CIOMS (Council for International Organization Medical Sciences) scale showed a "possible" grade of causality (+5 points) for these supplements. It can be concluded that these newer anabolic supplements may induce toxic hepatitis. Since the health risks of them may be severe, the use of these kinds of dietary supplements should be discouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ciguateric carnivorous fishes in concentrations ranging from I to 10 ppb. Its molecular structure has been elucidated. It has been isolated from toxic...American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1984, pp 217-329. 6. Med. J. Australia 1986, 145 (11/12), 558; 584-5M). 7. "Toxic Plants and Animals A Guide...isolated and grown in the laboratory. Lethality of crude acetone and methanol extracts were assa~ed by ip injection into mice. In vitro cytotoxicity and
Maeda, N; Hagihara, H; Nakata, Y; Hiller, S; Wilder, J; Reddick, R
By inactivating the gene for L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, a key enzyme in ascorbic acid synthesis, we have generated mice that, like humans, depend on dietary vitamin C. Regular chow, containing about 110 mg/kg of vitamin C, is unable to support the growth of the mutant mice, which require L-ascorbic acid supplemented in their drinking water (330 mg/liter). Upon withdrawal of supplementation, plasma and tissue ascorbic acid levels decreased to 10-15% of normal within 2 weeks, and after 5 weeks the mutants became anemic, began to lose weight, and die. Plasma total antioxidative capacities were approximately 37% normal in homozygotes after feeding the unsupplemented diet for 3-5 weeks. As plasma ascorbic acid decreased, small, but significant, increases in total cholesterol and decreases in high density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed. The most striking effects of the marginal dietary vitamin C were alterations in the wall of aorta, evidenced by the disruption of elastic laminae, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and focal endothelial desquamation of the luminal surface. Thus, marginal vitamin C deficiency affects the vascular integrity of mice unable to synthesize ascorbic acid, with potentially profound effects on the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Breeding the vitamin C-dependent mice with mice carrying defined genetic mutations will provide numerous opportunities for systematic studies of the role of antioxidants in health and disease.
with information regarding dietary supplements and be advised to minimise risks for ... to promote strength and muscle mass, ... selective oestrogen receptor modulators or .... It has also come to the attention of the WADA that another sub-.
Curriculum Review, 1979
This review of selected social studies texts, series, and supplements, mainly for the secondary level, includes a special section examining eight titles on warfare and terrorism for grades 4-12. (SJL)
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics (OEDA) produced an annual Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement report providing detailed statistical...
Zhao, Ruozhi; Ghazzawi, Nora; Wu, Jiansu; Le, Khuong; Li, Chunyang; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Siow, Yaw L; Apea-Bah, Franklin B; Beta, Trust; Yin, Zhengfeng; Shen, Garry X
The present study investigates the impact of germinated brown rice (GBR) on atherosclerosis and the underlying mechanism in low-density lipoprotein receptor-knockout (LDLr-KO) mice. The intensity of atherosclerosis in aortas of LDLr-KO mice receiving diet supplemented with 60% GBR (weight/weight) was significantly less than that in mice fed with 60% white rice (WR) or control diet ( p mice fed with WR diet was significantly more than that from mice receiving the control diet ( p mice in comparison to the WR diet ( p mice compared to WR. The anti-atherosclerotic effect of GBR in LDLr-KO mice at least in part results from its anti-inflammatory activity.
The elements (principles) of quality assurance can be applied to the operation of the analytical chemistry laboratory to provide an effective tool for indicating the competence of the laboratory and for helping to upgrade competence if necessary. When used, those elements establish the planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence in each analytical result reported by the laboratory (the definition of laboratory quality assurance). The elements, as used at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), are discussed and they are qualification of analysts, written methods, sample receiving and storage, quality control, audit, and documentation. To establish a laboratory quality assurance program, a laboratory QA program plan is prepared to specify how the elements are to be implemented into laboratory operation. Benefits that can be obtained from using laboratory quality assurance are given. Experience at HEDL has shown that laboratory quality assurance is not a burden, but it is a useful and valuable tool for the analytical chemistry laboratory
Paolo Borrione; Luigi Di Luigi; Nicola Maffulli; Fabio Pigozzi
More than 1400 herbal products or herbal-derived compounds are commonly commercialised for health uses worldwide (Tyler, 1996). Herbs are considered dietary supplements, and therefore are subjected to a very limited form of regulation, and advertisements normally highlight their potential activities without mentioning any side effect. Also, herbs are generally believed to be 'natural', and hence safe. Many nutritional supplements contains herb compounds usually not present in the diet (e.g. G...
Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J
Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Christine H. J.; Mitchell, James B.; Bursill, Christina A.
and a decrease in adiponectin. TEMPOL supplementation reversed these effects. When compared to HFD-fed mice, TEMPOL supplementation increased plaque collagen content, decreased lipid content and increased macrophage numbers. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that in a well-established model of obesity-associated......OBJECTIVE: The nitroxide compound TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl radical) has been shown to prevent obesity-induced changes in adipokines in cell and animal systems. In this study we investigated whether supplementation with TEMPOL inhibits inflammation and atherosclerosis...... in apoE(-/-) mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). METHODS: ApoE(-/-) mice were fed for 12 weeks on standard chow diet or a high-fat diet. Half the mice were supplemented with 10 mg/g TEMPOL in their food. Plasma samples were analysed for triglycerides, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein...
McDowell, L.R.; Conrad, J.H.; Ellis, G.L.
Grazing ruminants to which concentrate feeds cannot be economically fed must rely on self-feeding of mineral supplements. A number of factors affect mineral consumption of free-choice mixtures. Livestock exhibit little nutritional wisdom and will select palatable mixtures in preference to mixtures designed to meet their requirements. Palatability and appetite stimulators are often used to achieve a more uniform herd-wide consumption. It is best to formulate free-choice mixtures on the basis of analyses or other available data. However, when no information on mineral status is known, a free-choice complete mineral supplement is warranted. A 'complete' mineral mixture usually includes salt, a low fluoride P source, Ca, Co, Cu, I, Mn and Zn. Selenium, Mg, K, S, Fe or additional elements can be incorporated into a mineral supplement as new information suggests a need. The detriment to ruminant production caused by providing Ca, Se and Cu in excess can be greater than any benefit derived by providing a mineral supplement. In regions where high forage Mo predominates, three to five times the Cu content in mineral mixtures is needed to counteract Mo toxicity. Supplemental minerals are most critical during the wet season, when cattle are gaining weight rapidly and energy and protein supplies are adequate. Economic return on mineral supplementation is high. (author)
Ian R. Reid
Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.