Sample records for mice exhibited increased

  1. Mice deficient in Sfrp1 exhibit increased adiposity, dysregulated glucose metabolism, and enhanced macrophage infiltration.

    Kelly J Gauger

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms involved in the development of obesity and related complications remain unclear. Wnt signaling plays an important role in preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis. The expression of a Wnt antagonist, secreted frizzled related protein 1 (SFRP1, is increased in response to initial weight gain, then levels are reduced under conditions of extreme obesity in both humans and animals. Here we report that loss of Sfrp1 exacerbates weight gain, glucose homeostasis and inflammation in mice in response to diet induced obesity (DIO. Sfrp1(-/- mice fed a high fat diet (HFD exhibited an increase in body mass accompanied by increases in body fat percentage, visceral white adipose tissue (WAT mass, and adipocyte size. Moreover, Sfrp1 deficiency increases the mRNA levels of key de novo lipid synthesis genes (Fasn, Acaca, Acly, Elovl, Scd1 and the transcription factors that regulate their expression (Lxr-α, Srebp1, Chreb, and Nr1h3 in WAT. Fasting glucose levels are elevated, glucose clearance is impaired, hepatic gluconeogenesis regulators are aberrantly upregulated (G6pc and Pck1, and glucose transporters are repressed (Slc2a2 and Slc2a4 in Sfrp1(-/- mice fed a HFD. Additionally, we observed increased steatosis in the livers of Sfrp1(-/- mice. When there is an expansion of adipose tissue there is a sustained inflammatory response accompanied by adipokine dysregulation, which leads to chronic subclinical inflammation. Thus, we assessed the inflammatory state of different tissues and revealed that Sfrp1(-/- mice fed a HFD exhibited increased macrophage infiltration and expression of pro-inflammatory markers including IL-6, Nmnat, Tgf-β2, and SerpinE1. Our findings demonstrate that the expression of Sfrp1 is a critical factor required for maintaining appropriate cellular signaling in response to the onset of obesity.

  2. Apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice exhibit an increased susceptibility to disseminated candidiasis.

    Vonk, A.G.; Bont, N. de; Netea, M.G.; Demacker, P.N.M.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Kullberg, B.J.


    The effect of hyperlipoproteinemia on systemic candidiasis was investigated by assessing the susceptibility of hyperlipoproteinemic, apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient (ApoE -/-) mice to a systemic Candida albicans infection. The absence of ApoE in these mice resulted in an eightfold increase in

  3. Adult male mice conceived by in vitro fertilization exhibit increased glucocorticoid receptor expression in fat tissue.

    Simbulan, R K; Liu, X; Feuer, S K; Maltepe, E; Donjacour, A; Rinaudo, P


    Prenatal development is highly plastic and readily influenced by the environment. Adverse conditions have been shown to alter organ development and predispose offspring to chronic diseases, including diabetes and hypertension. Notably, it appears that the changes in glucocorticoid hormones or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels in peripheral tissues could play a role in the development of chronic diseases. We have previously demonstrated that in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation embryo culture is associated with growth alterations and glucose intolerance in mice. However, it is unknown if GR signaling is affected in adult IVF offspring. Here we show that GR expression is increased in inbred (C57Bl6/J) and outbred (CF-1× B6D2F1/J) blastocysts following in vitro culture and elevated levels are also present in the adipose tissue of adult male mice. Importantly, genes involved in lipolysis and triglyceride synthesis and responsive to GR were also increased in adipose tissue, indicating that increased GR activates downstream gene pathways. The promoter region of GR, previously reported to be epigenetically modified by perinatal manipulation, showed no changes in DNA methylation status. Our findings demonstrate that IVF results in a long-term change in GR gene expression in a sex- and tissue-specific manner. These changes in adipose tissues may well contribute to the metabolic phenotype in mice conceived by IVF.

  4. Mx1-cre mediated Rgs12 conditional knockout mice exhibit increased bone mass phenotype.

    Yang, Shuying; Li, Yi-Ping; Liu, Tongjun; He, Xiaoning; Yuan, Xue; Li, Chunyi; Cao, Jay; Kim, Yunjung


    Regulators of G-protein Signaling (Rgs) proteins are the members of a multigene family of GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAP) for the Galpha subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins. Rgs proteins play critical roles in the regulation of G protein couple receptor (GPCR) signaling in normal physiology and human diseases such as cancer, heart diseases, and inflammation. Rgs12 is the largest protein of the Rgs protein family. Some in vitro studies have demonstrated that Rgs12 plays a critical role in regulating cell differentiation and migration; however its function and mechanism in vivo is largely unknown. Here, we generated a floxed Rgs12 allele (Rgs12(flox/flox) ) in which the exon 2, containing both PDZ and PTB_PID domains of Rgs12, was flanked with two loxp sites. By using the inducible Mx1-cre and Poly I:C system to specifically delete Rgs12 at postnatal 10 days in interferon-responsive cells including monocyte and macrophage cells, we found that Rgs12 mutant mice had growth retardation with the phenotype of increased bone mass. We further found that deletion of Rgs12 reduced osteoclast numbers and had no significant effect on osteoblast formation. Thus, Rgs12(flox/flox) conditional mice provide a valuable tool for in vivo analysis of Rgs12 function and mechanism through time- and cell-specific deletion of Rgs12.

  5. GPR40/FFAR1 deficient mice increase noradrenaline levels in the brain and exhibit abnormal behavior

    Fuka Aizawa


    Full Text Available The free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is activated by long chain fatty acids. We have previously demonstrated that activation of brain GPR40/FFAR1 exerts an antinociceptive effect that is mediated by the modulation of the descending pain control system. However, it is unclear whether brain GPR40/FFAR1 contributes to emotional function. In this study, we investigated the involvement of GPR40/FFAR1 in emotional behavior using GPR40/FFAR1 deficient (knockout, KO mice. The emotional behavior in wild and KO male mice was evaluated at 9–10 weeks of age by the elevated plus-maze test, open field test, social interaction test, and sucrose preference test. Brain monoamines levels were measured using LC–MS/MS. The elevated plus-maze test and open field tests revealed that the KO mice reduced anxiety-like behavior. There were no differences in locomotor activity or social behavior between the wild and KO mice. In the sucrose preference test, the KO mice showed reduction in sucrose preference and intake. The level of noradrenaline was higher in the hippocampus, medulla oblongata, hypothalamus and midbrain of KO mice. Therefore, these results suggest that brain GPR40/FFAR1 is associated with anxiety- and depression-related behavior regulated by the increment of noradrenaline in the brain.

  6. AMPD3-deficient mice exhibit increased erythrocyte ATP levels but anemia not improved due to PK deficiency.

    Cheng, Jidong; Morisaki, Hiroko; Toyama, Keiko; Ikawa, Masahito; Okabe, Masaru; Morisaki, Takayuki


    AMP deaminase (AMPD) catalyzes AMP to IMP and plays an important role in energy charge and nucleotide metabolism. Human AMPD3 deficiency is a type of erythrocyte-specific enzyme deficiency found in individuals without clinical symptoms, although an increased level of ATP in erythrocytes has been reported. To better understand the physiological and pathological roles of AMPD3 deficiency, we established a line of AMPD3-deficient [A3(-/-)] mice. No AMPD activity and a high level of ATP were observed in erythrocytes of these mice, similar to human RBC-AMPD3 deficiency, while other characteristics were unremarkable. Next, we created AMPD3 and pyruvate kinase (PK) double-deficient [PKA(-/-,-/-)] mice by mating A3(-/-) mice with CBA-Pk-1slc/Pk-1slc mice [PK(-/-)], a spontaneous PK-deficient strain showing hemolytic anemia. In PKA(-/-,-/-) mice, the level of ATP in red blood cells was increased 1.5 times as compared to PK(-/-) mice, although hemolytic anemia in those animals was not improved. In addition, we observed osmotic fragility of erythrocytes in A3(-/-) mice under fasting conditions. In contrast, the ATP level in erythrocytes was elevated in A3(-/-) mice as compared to the control. In conclusion, AMPD3 deficiency increases the level of ATP in erythrocytes, but does not improve anemia due to PK deficiency and leads to erythrocyte dysfunction.

  7. Dopamine D3 receptor knock-out mice exhibit increased behavioral sensitivity to the anxiolytic drug diazepam.

    Leggio, Gian Marco; Micale, Vincenzo; Le Foll, Bernard; Mazzola, Carmen; Nobrega, José N; Drago, Filippo


    Dopamine D(3) receptors (DRsD3) seem to have a pivotal role in mood disorders. Using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the novelty-induced grooming test (NGT), we assessed the responses of DRD3-deficient (D(3)(-/-)) mice to the acute treatment (different testing time) with the anxiolytic drug, diazepam. D(3)(-/-) mice treated with diazepam (0.1 or 0.5mg/kg) exhibited a better behavioral response in the EPM than their wild type (WT). Furthermore, in D(3)(-/-) mice, but not in WT, 1mg/kg diazepam induced anxiolytic effects at all testing times. The contribution of DRsD3 in the anxiolytic effects of diazepam was confirmed by similar results obtained in EPM by using the selective DRD3 antagonist U99194A (10mg/kg) in combination with diazepam, in WT animals. D(3)(-/-) mice treated with diazepam (all doses), also showed a decrease in grooming behavior. However, the [(3)H]flunitrazepam autoradiographic analysis revealed no significant changes in D(3)(-/-) mice compared to WT, suggesting that if γ-aminobutyric acid receptor GABA(A) changes are involved, they do not occur at the level of binding to benzodiazepine site. These data suggest that D(3)(-/-) mice exhibit low baseline anxiety levels and provide the evidence that the DRD3 is involved in the modulation of benzodiazepine anxiolytic effects.

  8. C57BL/KsJ-db/db-ApcMin/+ Mice Exhibit an Increased Incidence of Intestinal Neoplasms

    Yoshinobu Hirose


    Full Text Available The numbers of obese people and diabetic patients are ever increasing. Obesity and diabetes are high-risk conditions for chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer, such as colorectal cancer (CRC. The aim of this study was to develop a novel animal model in order to clarify the pathobiology of CRC development in obese and diabetic patients. We developed an animal model of obesity and colorectal cancer by breeding the C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db mouse, an animal model of obesity and type II diabetes, and the C57BL/6J-ApcMin/+ (Min/+ mouse, a model of familial adenomatous polyposis. At 15 weeks of age, the N9 backcross generation of C57BL/KsJ-db/db-ApcMin/+ (db/db-Min/+ mice developed an increased incidence and multiplicity of adenomas in the intestinal tract when compared to the db/m-Min/+ and m/m-Min/+ mice. Blood biochemical profile showed significant increases in insulin (8.3-fold to 11.7-fold, cholesterol (1.2-fold to 1.7-fold, and triglyceride (1.2-fold to 1.3-fold in the db/db-Min/+ mice, when compared to those of the db/m-Min/+ and m/m-Min/+ mice. Increases (1.4-fold to 2.6-fold in RNA levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1, IRF-1R, and IGF-2 were also observed in the db/db-Min/+ mice. These results suggested that the IGFs, as well as hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia, promoted adenoma formation in the db/db-Min/+ mice. Our results thus suggested that the db/db-Min/+ mice should be invaluable for studies on the pathogenesis of CRC in obese and diabetes patients and the therapy and prevention of CRC in these patients.

  9. Senescence marker protein-30/superoxide dismutase 1 double knockout mice exhibit increased oxidative stress and hepatic steatosis

    Yoshitaka Kondo


    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 is an antioxidant enzyme that converts superoxide anion radicals into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. The senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30 is a gluconolactonase that functions as an antioxidant protein in mammals due to its involvement in ascorbic acid (AA biosynthesis. SMP30 also participates in Ca2+ efflux by activating the calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-pump. To reveal the role of oxidative stress in lipid metabolism defects occurring in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease pathogenesis, we generated SMP30/SOD1-double knockout (SMP30/SOD1-DKO mice and investigated their survival curves, plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, amounts of hepatic oxidative stress, and hepatic protein levels expressed by genes related to lipid metabolism. While SMP30/SOD1-DKO pups had no growth retardation by 14 days of age, they did have low plasma and hepatic AA levels. Thereafter, 39% and 53% of male and female pups died by 15–24 and 89 days of age, respectively. Compared to wild type, SMP30-KO and SOD1-KO mice, by 14 days SMP30/SOD1-DKO mice exhibited: (1 higher plasma levels of triglyceride and aspartate aminotransferase; (2 severe accumulation of hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol; (3 higher levels of superoxide anion radicals and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in livers; and (4 decreased mRNA and protein levels of Apolipoprotein B (ApoB in livers – ApoB is an essential component of VLDL secretion. These results suggest that high levels of oxidative stress due to concomitant deficiency of SMP30 and/or AA, and SOD1 cause abnormal plasma lipid metabolism, hepatic lipid accumulation and premature death resulting from impaired VLDL secretion.

  10. Ts1Cje Down syndrome model mice exhibit environmental stimuli-triggered locomotor hyperactivity and sociability concurrent with increased flux through central dopamine and serotonin metabolism.

    Shimohata, Atsushi; Ishihara, Keiichi; Hattori, Satoko; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Morishita, Hiromasa; Ornthanalai, Guy; Raveau, Matthieu; Ebrahim, Abdul Shukkur; Amano, Kenji; Yamada, Kazuyuki; Sago, Haruhiko; Akiba, Satoshi; Mataga, Nobuko; Murphy, Niall P; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro


    Ts1Cje mice have a segmental trisomy of chromosome 16 that is orthologous to human chromosome 21 and display Down syndrome-like cognitive impairments. Despite the occurrence of affective and emotional impairments in patients with Down syndrome, these parameters are poorly documented in Down syndrome mouse models, including Ts1Cje mice. Here, we conducted comprehensive behavioral analyses, including anxiety-, sociability-, and depression-related tasks, and biochemical analyses of monoamines and their metabolites in Ts1Cje mice. Ts1Cje mice showed enhanced locomotor activity in novel environments and increased social contact with unfamiliar partners when compared with wild-type littermates, but a significantly lower activity in familiar environments. Ts1Cje mice also exhibited some signs of decreased depression like-behavior. Furthermore, Ts1Cje mice showed monoamine abnormalities, including increased extracellular dopamine and serotonin, and enhanced catabolism in the striatum and ventral forebrain. This study constitutes the first report of deviated monoamine metabolism that may help explain the basis for abnormal behaviors, including the environmental stimuli-triggered hyperactivity, increased sociability and decreased depression-like behavior in Ts1Cje mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II knockout mice exhibit working memory impairments, decreased repetitive behavior, and increased anxiety-like traits.

    Wincott, Charlotte M; Abera, Sinedu; Vunck, Sarah A; Tirko, Natasha; Choi, Yoon; Titcombe, Roseann F; Antoine, Shannon O; Tukey, David S; DeVito, Loren M; Hofmann, Franz; Hoeffer, Charles A; Ziff, Edward B


    Neuronal activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking, a process that mediates changes in synaptic strength, a key component of learning and memory. This form of plasticity may be induced by stimulation of the NMDA receptor which, among its activities, increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) through the nitric oxide synthase pathway. cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II (cGKII) is ultimately activated via this mechanism and AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 is phosphorylated at serine 845. This phosphorylation contributes to the delivery of GluA1 to the synapse, a step that increases synaptic strength. Previous studies have shown that cGKII-deficient mice display striking spatial learning deficits in the Morris Water Maze compared to wild-type littermates as well as lowered GluA1 phosphorylation in the postsynaptic density of the prefrontal cortex (Serulle et al., 2007; Wincott et al., 2013). In the current study, we show that cGKII knockout mice exhibit impaired working memory as determined using the prefrontal cortex-dependent Radial Arm Maze (RAM). Additionally, we report reduced repetitive behavior in the Marble Burying task (MB), and heightened anxiety-like traits in the Novelty Suppressed Feeding Test (NSFT). These data suggest that cGKII may play a role in the integration of information that conveys both anxiety-provoking stimuli as well as the spatial and environmental cues that facilitate functional memory processes and appropriate behavioral response.

  12. Lepr(db/db Mice with senescence marker protein-30 knockout (Lepr(db/dbSmp30(Y/- exhibit increases in small dense-LDL and severe fatty liver despite being fed a standard diet.

    Yoshitaka Kondo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: The senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30 is a 34 kDa protein originally identified in rat liver that shows decreased levels with age. Several functional studies using SMP30 knockout (Smp30(Y/- mice established that SMP30 functions as an antioxidant and protects against apoptosis. To address the potential role of SMP30 in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD pathogenesis, we established Smp30(Y/- mice on a Lepr(db/db background (Lepr(db/dbSmp30(Y/- mice. RESEARCH DESIGN/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male Lepr(db/dbSmp30(Y/- mice were fed a standard diet (340 kcal/100 g, fat 5.6% for 16 weeks whereupon the lipid/lipoprotein profiles, hepatic expression of genes related to lipid metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers were analyzed by HPLC, quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Changes in the liver at a histological level were also investigated. The amount of SMP30 mRNA and protein in livers was decreased in Lepr(db/dbSmp30(Y/+ mice compared with Lepr(db/+Smp30(Y/+ mice. Compared with Lepr(db/dbSmp30(Y/+ mice, 24 week old Lepr(db/dbSmp30(Y/- mice showed: i increased small dense LDL-cho and decreased HDL-cho levels; ii fatty liver accompanied by numerous inflammatory cells and increased oxidative stress; iii decreased mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation (PPARα and lipoprotein uptake (LDLR and VLDLR but increased CD36 levels; and iv increased endoplasmic reticulum stress. CONCLUSION: Our data strongly suggest that SMP30 is closely associated with NAFLD pathogenesis, and might be a possible therapeutic target for NAFLD.

  13. Implementing Mobile Virtual Exhibition to Increase Cultural Heritage Visibility

    Cristian Ciurea; Alin Zamfiroiu; Alin Grosu


      The paper presents an implementation of iOS mobile application designed as a virtual exhibition, which aims to increase the accessibility and visibility of physical objects that composite cultural heritage elements...

  14. Obese mice exhibit an altered behavioural and inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide

    Catherine B. Lawrence


    Obesity is associated with an increase in the prevalence and severity of infections. Genetic animal models of obesity (ob/ob and db/db mice display altered centrally-mediated sickness behaviour in response to acute inflammatory stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS. However, the effect of diet-induced obesity (DIO on the anorectic and febrile response to LPS in mice is unknown. This study therefore determined how DIO and ob/ob mice respond to a systemic inflammatory challenge. C57BL/6 DIO and ob/ob mice, and their respective controls, were given an intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of LPS. Compared with controls, DIO and ob/ob mice exhibited an altered febrile response to LPS (100 μg/kg over 8 hours. LPS caused a greater and more prolonged anorexic effect in DIO compared with control mice and, in ob/ob mice, LPS induced a reduction in food intake and body weight earlier than it did in controls. These effects of LPS in obese mice were also seen after a fixed dose of LPS (5 μg. LPS (100 μg/kg induced Fos protein expression in several brain nuclei of control mice, with fewer Fos-positive cells observed in the brains of obese mice. An altered inflammatory response to LPS was also observed in obese mice compared with controls: changes in cytokine expression and release were detected in the plasma, spleen, liver and peritoneal macrophages in obese mice. In summary, DIO and ob/ob mice displayed an altered behavioural response and cytokine release to systemic inflammatory challenge. These findings could help explain why obese humans show increased sensitivity to infections.

  15. Sickle cell mice exhibit mechanical allodynia and enhanced responsiveness in light touch cutaneous mechanoreceptors

    Garrison Sheldon R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickle cell disease (SCD is associated with both acute vaso-occlusive painful events as well as chronic pain syndromes, including heightened sensitivity to touch. We have previously shown that mice with severe SCD (HbSS mice; express 100% human sickle hemoglobin in red blood cells; RBCs have sensitized nociceptors, which contribute to increased mechanical sensitivity. Yet, the hypersensitivity in these neural populations alone may not fully explain the mechanical allodynia phenotype in mouse and humans. Findings Using the Light Touch Behavioral Assay, we found HbSS mice exhibited increased responses to repeated application of both innocuous punctate and dynamic force compared to control HbAA mice (100% normal human hemoglobin. HbSS mice exhibited a 2-fold increase in percent response to a 0.7mN von Frey monofilament when compared to control HbAA mice. Moreover, HbSS mice exhibited a 1.7-fold increase in percent response to the dynamic light touch “puffed” cotton swab stimulus. We further investigated the mechanisms that drive this behavioral phenotype by focusing on the cutaneous sensory neurons that primarily transduce innocuous, light touch. Low threshold cutaneous afferents from HbSS mice exhibited sensitization to mechanical stimuli that manifested as an increase in the number of evoked action potentials to suprathreshold force. Rapidly adapting (RA Aβ and Aδ D-hair fibers showed the greatest sensitization, each with a 75% increase in suprathreshold firing compared to controls. Slowly adapting (SA Aβ afferents had a 25% increase in suprathreshold firing compared to HbAA controls. Conclusions These novel findings demonstrate mice with severe SCD exhibit mechanical allodynia to both punctate and dynamic light touch and suggest that this behavioral phenotype may be mediated in part by the sensitization of light touch cutaneous afferent fibers to suprathreshold force. These findings indicate that Aβ fibers can be

  16. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 knockout mice exhibit enhanced energy expenditure through thermogenesis.

    Yohsuke Hanaoka

    Full Text Available Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs regulate matrix metalloproteinase activity and maintain extracellular matrix homeostasis. Although TIMP-3 has multiple functions (e.g., apoptosis, inhibition of VEGF binding to VEGF receptor, and inhibition of TNFα converting enzyme, its roles in thermogenesis and metabolism, which influence energy expenditure and can lead to the development of metabolic disorders when dysregulated, are poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether TIMP-3 is implicated in metabolism by analyzing TIMP-3 knockout (KO mice. TIMP-3 KO mice had higher body temperature, oxygen consumption, and carbon dioxide production than wild-type (WT mice, although there were no differences in food intake and locomotor activity. These results suggest that metabolism is enhanced in TIMP-3 KO mice. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of PPAR-δ, UCP-2, NRF-1 and NRF-2 in soleus muscle, and PGC-1α and UCP-2 in gastrocnemius muscle, was higher in TIMP-3 KO mice than in WT mice, suggesting that TIMP-3 deficiency may increase mitochondrial activity. When exposed to cold for 8 hours to induce thermogenesis, TIMP-3 KO mice had a higher body temperature than WT mice. In the treadmill test, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were higher in TIMP-3 KO mice both before and after starting exercise, and the difference was more pronounced after starting exercise. Our findings suggest that TIMP-3 KO mice exhibit enhanced metabolism, as reflected by a higher body temperature than WT mice, possibly due to increased mitochondrial activity. Given that TIMP-3 deficiency increases energy expenditure, TIMP-3 may present a novel therapeutic target for preventing metabolic disorders.

  17. Mice with a targeted deletion of the tetranectin gene exhibit a spinal deformity

    Iba, K; Durkin, M E; Johnsen, L;


    and muscle. To test the functional role of tetranectin directly, we have generated mice with a targeted disruption of the gene. We report that the tetranectin-deficient mice exhibit kyphosis, a type of spinal deformity characterized by an increased curvature of the thoracic spine. The kyphotic angles were...... in the morphology of the vertebrae. Histological analysis of the spines of these mice revealed an apparently asymmetric development of the growth plate and of the intervertebral disks of the vertebrae. In the most advanced cases, the growth plates appeared disorganized and irregular, with the disk material...... protruding through the growth plate. Tetranectin-null mice had a normal peak bone mass density and were not more susceptible to ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis than were their littermates as determined by dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry scanning. These results demonstrate that tetranectin plays a role...

  18. Weaver mutant mice exhibit long-term learning deficits under several measures of instrumental behavior.

    Derenne, Adam; Arsenault, Matthew L; Austin, David P; Weatherly, Jeffrey N


    Homozygous weaver mutant mice (wv/wv) exhibit symptoms that parallel Parkinson's disease, including motor deficits and the destruction of dopaminergic neurons as well as degeneration in the cerebellum and hippocampus. To develop a more complete behavioral profile of these organisms, groups of wv/wv, wv/+ mice and C57BL/6 mice were observed on a within-subjects basis under a fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement, a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate-of-responding schedule, and a discrimination task in which a saccharin solution and tap water were concurrently available from two food cups. Under both reinforcement schedules, the wv/wv mice responded as frequently as the comparison subjects, but they responded in a manner that was inappropriate to the contingencies. Rather than respond with increasing frequency as the upcoming reinforcer became temporally proximate, wv/wv mice responded with decreasing probability as a function of the time since the previous reinforcer. Under the discrimination task, the wv/wv mice, unlike the controls, obtained saccharin over tap water at the level of chance. The findings suggest that weaver mutant mice express learning deficits similar to those found in other dopamine-deficient organisms.

  19. Motor Neurons Exhibit Sustained Loss of Atrophy Reversal in Immunodeficent Mice.

    Huang, Zhi; Petitto, John M


    Our lab showed previously that whereas a substantial portion of chronically resected facial motor neurons reside in an atrophied state that can be reversed at 14 days following reinjury in wild-type (WT) mice, atrophy reversal was altered in immunodeficient mice. It was unclear, however, if the abnormal response at day 14 post-reinjury in immunodeficient mice might be due to differences in the kinetics of the reversal response or impaired regeneration. We sought to address this question, and test our working hypothesis that the normal regeneration of atrophied motor neurons is dependent on normal adaptive immunity, by comparing WT and immunodeficient recombination activating gene-2 knockout (RAG2-KO) mice that lack a mature T and B lymphocytes, at 3 and 28 days following reinjury. In WT mice, facial motor neurons that were resected for 10 weeks and subsequently reinjured for 3 days were able to regain fully an apparent 40% loss of countable neurons, and nearly 45% of that robust increase in neurons was sustained at 28 days post-reinjury in the WT mice. By contrast, at both 3 and 28 days post-reinjury RAG2-KO mice failed to show any increase in neuronal number. Size measurements showed that the surviving neurons of WT and RAG2-KO mice exhibited substantial motor neuron hypertrophy at 3 days post-reinjury, and similar levels of normal size motor neurons by 28 days post-reinjury. Among the WT mice, small numbers of T lymphocytes where found in the reinjured facial motor nucleus (FMN), and were significantly higher at 3 days, but not 28 days, in the reinjury compared to sham-reinjury groups. No differences were seen between the WT and RAG2-KO mice in overall microglial cell activity using CD11b expression following reinjury. These data suggest that many resected motor neurons did not survive the initial resection in RAG2-KO mice, whereas in WT mice they atrophied and could be restimulated by reinjury to regenerate their phenotype. Moreover, they indicate that normal T

  20. C1galt1-deficient mice exhibit thrombocytopenia due to abnormal terminal differentiation of megakaryocytes.

    Kudo, Takashi; Sato, Takashi; Hagiwara, Kozue; Kozuma, Yukinori; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Hamada, Michito; Matsumoto, Ken; Ema, Masatsugu; Murata, Soichiro; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Takahashi, Satoru


    C1galt1 is essential for synthesis of the core 1 structure of mucin-type O-glycans. To clarify the physiological role of O-glycans in adult hematopoiesis, we exploited the interferon-inducible Mx1-Cre transgene to conditionally ablate the C1galt(flox) allele (Mx1-C1). Mx1-C1 mice exhibit severe thrombocytopenia, giant platelets, and prolonged bleeding times. Both the number and DNA ploidy of megakaryocytes in Mx1-C1 bone marrow were similar to those in wild-type (WT) mice. However, there were few proplatelets in Mx1-C1 primary megakaryocytes. Conversely, bone marrow transplanted from Mx1-C1 to WT and splenectomized Mx1-C1 mice gave rise to observations similar to those described above. The expression of GPIbα messenger RNA was unchanged in Mx1-C1 bone marrow, whereas flow cytometric and western blot analyses using megakaryocytes and platelets revealed that the expression of GPIbα protein was significantly reduced in Mx1-C1 mice. Moreover, circulating Mx1-C1 platelets exhibited an increase in the number of microtubule coils, despite normal levels of α- and β-tubulin. Our observations suggest that O-glycan is required for terminal megakaryocyte differentiation and platelet production and that the decrease in GPIbα in cells lacking O-glycan might be caused by increased proteolysis.

  1. Exhibition


    China[Guangzheu] International Trade Fair for Home Textiles Date:March 18th- March 21st,2011 Venue:China Import and Export Fair Complex(Guangzhou,China) Organizers:China National Textile&Apparel Council China Foreign Trade Center(Group) China Home Textile Association China Foreign Trade Guangzhou Exhibition Corp.

  2. IL-5-overexpressing mice exhibit eosinophilia and altered wound healing through mechanisms involving prolonged inflammation.

    Leitch, Victoria D; Strudwick, Xanthe L; Matthaei, Klaus I; Dent, Lindsay A; Cowin, Allison J


    Leucocytes are essential in healing wounds and are predominantly involved in the inflammatory and granulation stages of wound repair. Eosinophils are granulocytic leucocytes and are specifically regulated by interleukin-5 (IL-5), a cytokine produced by T helper 2 (Th2) cells. To characterize more clearly the role of the IL-5 and eosinophils in the wound healing process, IL-5-overexpressing and IL-5-deficient mice were used as models of eosinophilia and eosinophil depletion, respectively. Our results reveal a significantly altered inflammatory response between IL-5-overexpressing and IL-5 knockout mice post-wounding. Healing was significantly delayed in IL-5-overexpressing mice with wounds gaping wider and exhibiting impaired re-epithelialization. A delay in collagen deposition was observed suggesting a direct effect on matrix synthesis. A significant increase in inflammatory cell infiltration, particularly eosinophils and CD4(+) cells, one of the main cell types which secrete IL-5, was observed in IL-5-overexpressing mice wounds suggesting that one of the main roles of IL-5 in wound repair may be to promote the infiltration of eosinophils into healing wounds. Healing is delayed in IL-5-overexpressing mice and this corresponds to significantly increased levels of eosinophils and CD4(+) cells within the wound site that may contribute to and exacerbate the inflammatory response, resulting in detrimental wound repair.

  3. Mice Lacking the Inhibitory Collagen Receptor LAIR-1 Exhibit a Mild Thrombocytosis and Hyperactive Platelets.

    Smith, Christopher W; Thomas, Steven G; Raslan, Zaher; Patel, Pushpa; Byrne, Maxwell; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Bem, Danai; Meyaard, Linde; Senis, Yotis A; Watson, Steve P; Mazharian, Alexandra


    Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1) is a collagen receptor that belongs to the inhibitory immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif-containing receptor family. It is an inhibitor of signaling via the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-containing collagen receptor complex, glycoprotein VI-FcRγ-chain. It is expressed on hematopoietic cells, including immature megakaryocytes, but is not detectable on platelets. Although the inhibitory function of LAIR-1 has been described in leukocytes, its physiological role in megakaryocytes and in particular in platelet formation has not been explored. In this study, we investigate the role of LAIR-1 in megakaryocyte development and platelet production by generating LAIR-1-deficient mice. Mice lacking LAIR-1 exhibit a significant increase in platelet counts, a prolonged platelet half-life in vivo, and increased proplatelet formation in vitro. Interestingly, platelets from LAIR-1-deficient mice exhibit an enhanced reactivity to collagen and the glycoprotein VI-specific agonist collagen-related peptide despite not expressing LAIR-1, and mice showed enhanced thrombus formation in the carotid artery after ferric chloride injury. Targeted deletion of LAIR-1 in mice results in an increase in signaling downstream of the glycoprotein VI-FcRγ-chain and integrin αIIbβ3 in megakaryocytes because of enhanced Src family kinase activity. Findings from this study demonstrate that ablation of LAIR-1 in megakaryocytes leads to increased Src family kinase activity and downstream signaling in response to collagen that is transmitted to platelets, rendering them hyper-reactive specifically to agonists that signal through Syk tyrosine kinases, but not to G-protein-coupled receptors. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Exhibition

    Staff Association


    A Look of Hope Islam Mahmoud Sweity From 19 to 30 June 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Islam Mahmoud Sweity Islam Mahmoud Sweity was born in 1997 at Beit Awwa, Palestine. She is currently following a course to get an Art diploma of Painting at the college of Fine Arts at An-Najah National University under the supervision of Esmat Al As'aad. Her portraits, landscapes and still life paintings are full of life and shining colours. Charged of emotional empathy they catch the attention of the viewer and are reminding us that life is beautiful and worth living in spite of all difficulties we have to go through. She participated in many exhibitions and has exposed her drawings in 2015 at CERN and in France in the framework of the exhibition "The Origin“, and in 2017 in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Palestina and Jordan. In this exhibition the oil paintings made in the past year will be presented. For more information : | T&eacu...

  5. Artificially reared mice exhibit anxiety-like behavior in adulthood


    It is important to establish experimental animal techniques that are applicable to the newborn and infant phases for nutrition and pharmacological studies. Breeding technology using the artificial suckling method without breast milk is very effective for the study of newborn nutrition. Using this method, we separated newborn mice from dams within 48 h of birth and provided them with artificial milk. We evaluated mouse anxiety levels after early postnatal maternal separation. Artificially rear...

  6. Exhibition

    Staff Association


    Encounters Hanne Blitz From February 1st to 12th 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building What is our reaction to a first encounter with a tourist attraction? Contemporary Dutch painter Hanne Blitz captures visitors' responses to art and architecture, sweeping vistas and symbolic memorials. Encounters, a series of oil paintings curated specially for this CERN exhibition, depicts tourists visiting cultural highlights around the world. A thought-provoking journey not to be missed, and a tip of the hat to CERN's large Hadron Collider.

  7. Exhibition

    Staff Association


    Sintropie Flavio Pellegrini From 13 to 24 March 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Energia imprigionata - Flavio Pellegrini. The exhibition is composed by eleven wood artworks with the expression of movement as theme. The artworks are the result of harmonics math applied to sculpture. The powerful black colour is dominated by the light source, generating reflexes and modulations. The result is a continuous variation of perspective visions. The works generate, at a first approach, an emotion of mystery and incomprehension, only a deeper contemplation lets one discover entangling and mutative details, evidencing the elegance of the lines and letting the meaning emerge. For more information : | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  8. BACE1-Deficient Mice Exhibit Alterations in Immune System Pathways.

    Stertz, L; Contreras-Shannon, V; Monroy-Jaramillo, N; Sun, J; Walss-Bass, C


    BACE1 encodes for the beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 or β-secretase. Genetic deletion of Bace1 leads to behavioral alterations and affects midbrain dopaminergic signaling and memory processes. In order to further understand the role of BACE1 in brain function and behavior, we performed microarray transcriptome profiling and gene pathway analysis in the hippocampus of BACE1-deficient mice compared to wild type. We identified a total of 91 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), mostly enriched in pathways related to the immune and inflammation systems, particularly IL-9 and NF-κB activation pathways. Serum levels of IL-9 were elevated in BACE1-deficient mice. Our network analysis supports an intimate connection between immune response via NF-κB and BACE1 signaling through the NRG1/Akt1 pathway. Our findings warrant future mechanistic studies to determine if BACE1 signaling and the IL-9 pathway interact to alter behavior and brain function. This study opens new avenues in the investigation of hippocampus-related neuroimmunological and neuroinflammation-associated disorders.

  9. Laminin α4 deficient mice exhibit decreased capacity for adipose tissue expansion and weight gain.

    Marcella K Vaicik

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to the increasing medical burdens related to type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating adipose tissue expansion could lead to therapeutics that eliminate or reduce obesity-associated morbidity and mortality. The extracellular matrix (ECM has been shown to regulate the development and function of numerous tissues and organs. However, there is little understanding of its function in adipose tissue. In this manuscript we describe the role of laminin α4, a specialized ECM protein surrounding adipocytes, on weight gain and adipose tissue function. Adipose tissue accumulation, lipogenesis, and structure were examined in mice with a null mutation of the laminin α4 gene (Lama4-/- and compared to wild-type (Lama4+/+ control animals. Lama4-/- mice exhibited reduced weight gain in response to both age and high fat diet. Interestingly, the mice had decreased adipose tissue mass and altered lipogenesis in a depot-specific manner. In particular, epididymal adipose tissue mass was specifically decreased in knock-out mice, and there was also a defect in lipogenesis in this depot as well. In contrast, no such differences were observed in subcutaneous adipose tissue at 14 weeks. The results suggest that laminin α4 influences adipose tissue structure and function in a depot-specific manner. Alterations in laminin composition offers insight into the roll the ECM potentially plays in modulating cellular behavior in adipose tissue expansion.

  10. Laminin α4 deficient mice exhibit decreased capacity for adipose tissue expansion and weight gain.

    Vaicik, Marcella K; Thyboll Kortesmaa, Jill; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Soininen, Raija; Bergström, Göran; Ohlsson, Claes; Chong, Li Yen; Rozell, Björn; Emont, Margo; Cohen, Ronald N; Brey, Eric M; Tryggvason, Karl


    Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to the increasing medical burdens related to type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating adipose tissue expansion could lead to therapeutics that eliminate or reduce obesity-associated morbidity and mortality. The extracellular matrix (ECM) has been shown to regulate the development and function of numerous tissues and organs. However, there is little understanding of its function in adipose tissue. In this manuscript we describe the role of laminin α4, a specialized ECM protein surrounding adipocytes, on weight gain and adipose tissue function. Adipose tissue accumulation, lipogenesis, and structure were examined in mice with a null mutation of the laminin α4 gene (Lama4-/-) and compared to wild-type (Lama4+/+) control animals. Lama4-/- mice exhibited reduced weight gain in response to both age and high fat diet. Interestingly, the mice had decreased adipose tissue mass and altered lipogenesis in a depot-specific manner. In particular, epididymal adipose tissue mass was specifically decreased in knock-out mice, and there was also a defect in lipogenesis in this depot as well. In contrast, no such differences were observed in subcutaneous adipose tissue at 14 weeks. The results suggest that laminin α4 influences adipose tissue structure and function in a depot-specific manner. Alterations in laminin composition offers insight into the roll the ECM potentially plays in modulating cellular behavior in adipose tissue expansion.

  11. Akita spontaneously type 1 diabetic mice exhibit elevated vascular arginase and impaired vascular endothelial and nitrergic function.

    Haroldo A Toque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated arginase (Arg activity is reported to be involved in diabetes-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction. It can reduce L-arginine availability to nitric oxide (NO synthase (NOS and NO production. Akita mice, a genetic non-obese type 1 diabetes model, recapitulate human diabetes. We determined the role of Arg in a time-course of diabetes-associated endothelial dysfunction in aorta and corpora cavernosa (CC from Akita mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Endothelium-dependent relaxation, Arg and NOS activity, and protein expression levels of Arg and constitutive NOS were assessed in aortas and CC from Akita and non-diabetic wild type (WT mice at 4, 12 and 24 wks of age. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was assessed by tail cuff. In aorta and CC, Akita mice exhibited a progressive impairment of vascular endothelial and nitrergic function increased Arg activity and expression (Arg1 in aorta and both Arg1 and Arg2 in CC compared with that of age-matched WT mice. Treatment of aorta and CC from Akita mice with an Arg inhibitor (BEC or ABH reduced diabetes-induced elevation of Arg activity and restored endothelial and nitrergic function. Reduced levels of phospho-eNOS at Ser(1177 (in aorta and CC and nNOS expression (in CC were observed in Akita mice at 12 and 24 wks. Akita mice also had decreased NOS activity in aorta and CC at 12 and 24 wks that was restored by BEC treatment. Further, Akita mice exhibited moderately increased SBP at 24 wks and increased sensitivity to PE-induced contractions in aorta and sympathetic nerve stimulation in CC at 12 and 24 wks. CONCLUSIONS: Over 24 wks of diabetes in Akita mice, both aortic and cavernosal tissues exhibited increased Arg activity/expression, contributing to impaired endothelial and nitrergic function and reduced NO production. Our findings demonstrate involvement of Arg activity in diabetes-induced impairment of vascular function in Akita mouse.

  12. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout mice exhibit aberrant gastrointestinal microbiota.

    Lynch, Susan V; Goldfarb, Katherine C; Wild, Yvette K; Kong, Weidong; De Lisle, Robert C; Brodie, Eoin L


    The composition of the gastrointestinal microbiome is increasingly recognized as a crucial contributor to immune and metabolic homeostasis-deficiencies in which are characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The murine model (CFTR (-/-) , CF), has, in previous studies, demonstrated characteristic CF gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations including slowed transit and significant upregulation of genes associated with inflammation. To determine if characteristics of the microbiome are associated with these phenotypes we used a phylogenetic microarray to compare small intestine bacterial communities of wild type and congenic CF mice. Loss of functional CFTR is associated with significant decreases in GI bacterial community richness, evenness and diversity and reduced relative abundance of putative protective species such as Acinetobacter lwoffii and a multitude of Lactobacilliales members. CF mice exhibited significant enrichment of Mycobacteria species and Bacteroides fragilis, previously associated with GI infection and immunomodulation. Antibiotic administration to WT and CF animals resulted in convergence of their microbiome composition and significant increases in community diversity in CF mice. These communities were characterized by enrichment of members of the Lactobacillaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae and reduced abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridiaceae. These data suggest that Enterobacteria and Clostridia species, long associated with small intestinal overgrowth and inflammatory bowel disease, may suppress both ileal bacterial diversity and the particular species which maintain motility and immune homeostasis in this niche. Thus, these data provide the first indications that GI bacterial colonization is strongly impacted by the loss of functional CFTR and opens up avenues for alternative therapeutic approaches to improve CF disease management.

  13. Mice Lacking Brinp2 or Brinp3, or Both, Exhibit Behaviors Consistent with Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Berkowicz, Susan R.; Featherby, Travis J.; Whisstock, James C.; Bird, Phillip I.


    Background: Brinps 1–3, and Astrotactins (Astn) 1 and 2, are members of the Membrane Attack Complex/Perforin (MACPF) superfamily that are predominantly expressed in the mammalian brain during development. Genetic variation at the human BRINP2/ASTN1 and BRINP1/ASTN2 loci has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. We, and others, have previously shown that Brinp1−/− mice exhibit behavior reminiscent of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: We created Brinp2−/− mice and Brinp3−/− mice via the Cre-mediated LoxP system to investigate the effect of gene deletion on anatomy and behavior. Additionally, Brinp2−/−Brinp3−/− double knock-out mice were generated by interbreeding Brinp2−/− and Brinp3−/− mice. Genomic validation was carried out for each knock-out line, followed by histological, weight and behavioral examination. Brinp1−/−Brinp2−/−Brinp3−/− triple knock-out mice were also generated by crossing Brinp2/3 double knock-out mice with previously generated Brinp1−/− mice, and examined by weight and histological analysis. Results: Brinp2−/− and Brinp3−/− mice differ in their behavior: Brinp2−/− mice are hyperactive, whereas Brinp3−/− mice exhibit marked changes in anxiety-response on the elevated plus maze. Brinp3−/− mice also show evidence of altered sociability. Both Brinp2−/− and Brinp3−/− mice have normal short-term memory, olfactory responses, pre-pulse inhibition, and motor learning. The double knock-out mice show behaviors of Brinp2−/− and Brinp3−/− mice, without evidence of new or exacerbated phenotypes. Conclusion: Brinp3 is important in moderation of anxiety, with potential relevance to anxiety disorders. Brinp2 dysfunction resulting in hyperactivity may be relevant to the association of ADHD with chromosome locus 1q25.2. Brinp2−/− and Brinp3−/− genes do not compensate in the mammalian brain and likely have

  14. Abnormal nociception and opiate sensitivity of STOP null mice exhibiting elevated levels of the endogenous alkaloid morphine

    Aunis Dominique


    Full Text Available Abstract Background- Mice deficient for the stable tubule only peptide (STOP display altered dopaminergic neurotransmission associated with severe behavioural defects including disorganized locomotor activity. Endogenous morphine, which is present in nervous tissues and synthesized from dopamine, may contribute to these behavioral alterations since it is thought to play a role in normal and pathological neurotransmission. Results- In this study, we showed that STOP null brain structures, including cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and spinal cord, contain high endogenous morphine amounts. The presence of elevated levels of morphine was associated with the presence of a higher density of mu opioid receptor with a higher affinity for morphine in STOP null brains. Interestingly, STOP null mice exhibited significantly lower nociceptive thresholds to thermal and mechanical stimulations. They also had abnormal behavioural responses to the administration of exogenous morphine and naloxone. Low dose of morphine (1 mg/kg, i.p. produced a significant mechanical antinociception in STOP null mice whereas it has no effect on wild-type mice. High concentration of naloxone (1 mg/kg was pronociceptive for both mice strain, a lower concentration (0.1 mg/kg was found to increase the mean mechanical nociceptive threshold only in the case of STOP null mice. Conclusions- Together, our data show that STOP null mice displayed elevated levels of endogenous morphine, as well as an increase of morphine receptor affinity and density in brain. This was correlated with hypernociception and impaired pharmacological sensitivity to mu opioid receptor ligands.

  15. Conditional calcineurin knockout mice exhibit multiple abnormal behaviors related to schizophrenia.

    Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Leiter, Lorene M; Gerber, David J; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Sotnikova, Tatyana D; Zeng, Hongkui; Caron, Marc G; Tonegawa, Susumu


    Calcineurin (CN), a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, plays a significant role in the central nervous system. Previously, we reported that forebrain-specific CN knockout mice (CN mutant mice) have impaired working memory. To further analyze the behavioral effects of CN deficiency, we subjected CN mutant mice to a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Mutant mice showed increased locomotor activity, decreased social interaction, and impairments in prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition. In addition, CN mutant mice displayed an increased response to the locomotor stimulating effects of MK-801. Collectively, the abnormalities of CN mutant mice are strikingly similar to those described for schizophrenia. We propose that alterations affecting CN signaling could comprise a contributing factor in schizophrenia pathogenesis.

  16. Chronic Co-species Housing Mice and Rats Increased the Competitiveness of Male Mice.

    Liu, Ying-Juan; Li, Lai-Fu; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Guo, Hui-Fen; Xia, Min; Zhang, Meng-Wei; Jing, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Xu


    Rats are predators of mice in nature. Nevertheless, it is a common practice to house mice and rats in a same room in some laboratories. In this study, we investigated the behavioral and physiological responsively of mice in long-term co-species housing conditions. Twenty-four male mice were randomly assigned to their original raising room (control) or a rat room (co-species-housed) for more than 6 weeks. In the open-field and light-dark box tests, the behaviors of the co-species-housed mice and controls were not different. In a 2-choice test of paired urine odors [rabbit urine (as a novel odor) vs. rat urine, cat urine (as a natural predator-scent) vs. rabbit urine, and cat urine vs. rat urine], the co-species-housed mice were more ready to investigate the rat urine odor compared with the controls and may have adapted to it. In an encounter test, the rat-room-exposed mice exhibited increased aggression levels, and their urines were more attractive to females. Correspondingly, the levels of major urinary proteins were increased in the co-species-housed mouse urine, along with some volatile pheromones. The serum testosterone levels were also enhanced in the co-species-housed mice, whereas the corticosterone levels were not different. The norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-HT levels in the right hippocampus and striatum were not different between the 2. Our findings indicate that chronic co-species housing results in adaptation in male mice; furthermore, it appears that long-term rat-odor stimuli enhance the competitiveness of mice, which suggests that appropriate predator-odor stimuli may be important to the fitness of prey animals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  17. Mice Deficient in Proglucagon-Derived Peptides Exhibit Glucose Intolerance on a High-Fat Diet but Are Resistant to Obesity.

    Yusuke Takagi

    Full Text Available Homozygous glucagon-GFP knock-in mice (Gcggfp/gfp lack proglucagon derived-peptides including glucagon and GLP-1, and are normoglycemic. We have previously shown that Gcggfp/gfp show improved glucose tolerance with enhanced insulin secretion. Here, we studied glucose and energy metabolism in Gcggfp/gfp mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Male Gcggfp/gfp and Gcggfp/+ mice were fed either a normal chow diet (NCD or an HFD for 15-20 weeks. Regardless of the genotype, mice on an HFD showed glucose intolerance, and Gcggfp/gfp mice on HFD exhibited impaired insulin secretion whereas Gcggfp/+ mice on HFD exhibited increased insulin secretion. A compensatory increase in β-cell mass was observed in Gcggfp/+mice on HFD, but not in Gcggfp/gfp mice on the same diet. Weight gain was significantly lower in Gcggfp/gfp mice than in Gcggfp/+mice. Oxygen consumption was enhanced in Gcggfp/gfp mice compared to Gcggfp/+ mice on an HFD. HFD feeding significantly increased uncoupling protein 1 mRNA expression in brown adipose and inguinal white adipose tissues of Gcggfp/gfp mice, but not of Gcggfp/+mice. Treatment with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide (200 mg/kg improved glucose tolerance in Gcggfp/gfp mice and insulin content in Gcggfp/gfp and Gcggfp/+ mice was similar after liraglutide treatment. Our findings demonstrate that Gcggfp/gfp mice develop diabetes upon HFD-feeding in the absence of proglucagon-derived peptides, although they are resistant to diet-induced obesity.

  18. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    Elias Gebara


    Full Text Available Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging.

  19. Mice with Dab1 or Vldlr insufficiency exhibit abnormal neonatal vocalization patterns.

    Fraley, E R; Burkett, Z D; Day, N F; Schwartz, B A; Phelps, P E; White, S A


    Genetic and epigenetic changes in components of the Reelin-signaling pathway (RELN, DAB1) are associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk. Social communication deficits are a key component of the ASD diagnostic criteria, but the underlying neurogenetic mechanisms remain unknown. Reln insufficient mice exhibit ASD-like behavioral phenotypes including altered neonatal vocalization patterns. Reelin affects multiple pathways including through the receptors, Very low-density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr), Apolipoprotein receptor 2 (Apoer2), and intracellular signaling molecule Disabled-1 (Dab1). As Vldlr was previously implicated in avian vocalization, here we investigate vocalizations of neonatal mice with a reduction or absence of these components of the Reelin-signaling pathway. Mice with low or no Dab1 expression exhibited reduced calling rates, altered call-type usage, and differential vocal development trajectories. Mice lacking Vldlr expression also had altered call repertoires, and this effect was exacerbated by deficiency in Apoer2. Together with previous findings, these observations 1) solidify a role for Reelin in vocal communication of multiple species, 2) point to the canonical Reelin-signaling pathway as critical for development of normal neonatal calling patterns in mice, and 3) suggest that mutants in this pathway could be used as murine models for Reelin-associated vocal deficits in humans.

  20. Fgf8-deficient mice compensate for reduced GnRH neuronal population and exhibit normal testicular function

    Wei eZhang


    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is critical for the onset and maintenance of reproduction in vertebrates. The development of GnRH neurons is highly dependent on fibroblast growth factor (Fgf signaling. Mice with a hypomorphic Fgf8 allele (Fgf8 Het exhibited a ~50% reduction in GnRH neuron number at birth. Female Fgf8 Het mice were fertile but showed significantly delayed puberty. However, it was unclear if these mice suffered additional loss of GnRH neurons after birth, and if male Fgf8 Het mice had normal pubertal transition and testicular function. In this study, we examined postnatal GnRH neuron number and hypothalamic GnRH content in Fgf8 Het mice from birth to 120 days of age. Further, we examined seminal vesicle and testicular growth, testicular histology, and circulating luteinizing hormone (LH around and after pubertal transition. Our results showed that GnRH neuron numbers were significantly and consistently reduced in Fgf8 Het mice of both sexes in all ages examined, suggesting these animals were born with an inherently defective GnRH system, and no further postnatal loss of GnRH neurons had occurred. Despite an innately compromised GnRH system, male and female Fgf8 mice exhibited normal levels of immunoassayable hypothalamic GnRH peptide at all ages examined except on 60 days of age, suggesting increased GnRH synthesis or reduced turnover as a compensatory mechanism. Fgf8 Het males also had normal seminal vesicle and testicular mass/body mass ratios, testicular histology, and circulating LH. Overall, our data speak to the extraordinary ability of a GnRH system permanently compromised by developmental defect to overcome pre-existing deficiencies to ensure pubertal progression and reproduction.

  1. Diacylglycerol kinase β knockout mice exhibit lithium-sensitive behavioral abnormalities.

    Kenichi Kakefuda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK is an enzyme that phosphorylates diacylglycerol (DG to produce phosphatidic acid (PA. DGKβ is widely distributed in the central nervous system, such as the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. Recent studies reported that the splice variant at the COOH-terminal of DGKβ was related to bipolar disorder, but its detailed mechanism is still unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we performed behavioral tests using DGKβ knockout (KO mice to investigate the effects of DGKβ deficits on psychomotor behavior. DGKβ KO mice exhibited some behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperactivity, reduced anxiety, and reduced depression. Additionally, hyperactivity and reduced anxiety were attenuated by the administration of the mood stabilizer, lithium, but not haloperidol, diazepam, or imipramine. Moreover, DGKβ KO mice showed impairment in Akt-glycogen synthesis kinase (GSK 3β signaling and cortical spine formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that DGKβ KO mice exhibit lithium-sensitive behavioral abnormalities that are, at least in part, due to the impairment of Akt-GSK3β signaling and cortical spine formation.

  2. Complexin 1 knockout mice exhibit marked deficits in social behaviours but appear to be cognitively normal.

    Drew, Cheney J G; Kyd, Rachel J; Morton, A Jennifer


    Complexins are presynaptic proteins that modulate neurotransmitter release. Abnormal expression of complexin 1 (Cplx1) is seen in several neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders in which disturbed social behaviour is commonplace. These include Parkinsons's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, major depressive illness and bipolar disorder. We wondered whether changes in Cplx1 expression contribute to the psychiatric components of the diseases in which Cplx1 is dysregulated. To investigate this, we examined the cognitive and social behaviours of complexin 1 knockout mice (Cplx1(-/-)) mice. Cplx1(-/-) mice have a profound ataxia that limits their ability to perform co-ordinated motor tasks. Nevertheless, when we taught juvenile Cplx1(-/-) mice to swim, they showed no evidence of cognitive impairment in the two-choice swim tank. In contrast, although olfactory discrimination in Cplx1(-/-) mice was normal, Cplx1(-/-) mice failed in the social transmission of food preference task, another cognitive paradigm. This was due to abnormal social interactions rather than cognitive impairments, increased anxiety or neophobia. When we tested social behaviour directly, Cplx1(-/-) mice failed to demonstrate a preference for social novelty. Further, in a resident-intruder paradigm, male Cplx1(-/-) mice failed to show the aggressive behaviour that is typical of wild-type males towards an intruder mouse. Together our results show that in addition to the severe motor and exploratory deficits already described, Cplx1(-/-) mice have pronounced deficits in social behaviours. Abnormalities in complexin 1 levels in the brain may therefore contribute to the psycho-social aspects of human diseases in which this protein is dysregulated.

  3. Antioxidants can increase melanoma metastasis in mice.

    Le Gal, Kristell; Ibrahim, Mohamed X; Wiel, Clotilde; Sayin, Volkan I; Akula, Murali K; Karlsson, Christin; Dalin, Martin G; Akyürek, Levent M; Lindahl, Per; Nilsson, Jonas; Bergo, Martin O


    Antioxidants in the diet and supplements are widely used to protect against cancer, but clinical trials with antioxidants do not support this concept. Some trials show that antioxidants actually increase cancer risk and a study in mice showed that antioxidants accelerate the progression of primary lung tumors. However, little is known about the impact of antioxidant supplementation on the progression of other types of cancer, including malignant melanoma. We show that administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) increases lymph node metastases in an endogenous mouse model of malignant melanoma but has no impact on the number and size of primary tumors. Similarly, NAC and the soluble vitamin E analog Trolox markedly increased the migration and invasive properties of human malignant melanoma cells but did not affect their proliferation. Both antioxidants increased the ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione in melanoma cells and in lymph node metastases, and the increased migration depended on new glutathione synthesis. Furthermore, both NAC and Trolox increased the activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) RHOA, and blocking downstream RHOA signaling abolished antioxidant-induced migration. These results demonstrate that antioxidants and the glutathione system play a previously unappreciated role in malignant melanoma progression. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Adipocytes from New Zealand Obese Mice Exhibit Aberrant Proinflammatory Reactivity to the Stress Signal Heat Shock Protein 60

    Tina Märker


    Full Text Available Adipocytes release immune mediators that contribute to diabetes-associated inflammatory processes. As the stress protein heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60 induces proinflammatory adipocyte activities, we hypothesized that adipocytes of diabetes-predisposed mice exhibit an increased proinflammatory reactivity to Hsp60. Preadipocytes and mature adipocytes from nonobese diabetic (NOD, New Zealand obese (NZO, and C57BL/6J mice were analyzed for Hsp60 binding, Hsp60-activated signaling pathways, and Hsp60-induced release of the chemokine CXCL-1 (KC, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1. Hsp60 showed specific binding to (pre-adipocytes of NOD, NZO, and C57BL/6J mice. Hsp60 binding involved conserved binding structure(s and Hsp60 epitopes and was strongest to NZO mouse-derived mature adipocytes. Hsp60 exposure induced KC, IL-6, and MCP-1 release from (pre-adipocytes of all mouse strains with a pronounced increase of IL-6 release from NZO mouse-derived adipocytes. Compared to NOD and C57BL/6J mouse derived cells, Hsp60-induced formation of IL-6, KC, and MCP-1 from NZO mouse-derived (pre-adipocytes strongly depended on NFκB-activation. Increased Hsp60 binding and Hsp60-induced IL-6 release by mature adipocytes of NZO mice suggest that enhanced adipocyte reactivity to the stress signal Hsp60 contributes to inflammatory processes underlying diabetes associated with obesity and insulin resistance.

  5. Targeted Mybpc3 Knock-Out Mice with Cardiac Hypertrophy Exhibit Structural Mitral Valve Abnormalities

    Daniel P. Judge


    Full Text Available MYBPC3 mutations cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which is frequently associated with mitral valve (MV pathology. We reasoned that increased MV size is caused by localized growth factors with paracrine effects. We used high-resolution echocardiography to compare Mybpc3-null, heterozygous, and wild-type mice (n = 84, aged 3–6 months and micro-CT for MV volume (n = 6, age 6 months. Mybpc3-null mice showed left ventricular hypertrophy, dilation, and systolic dysfunction compared to heterozygous and wild-type mice, but no systolic anterior motion of the MV or left ventricular outflow obstruction. Compared to wild-type mice, echocardiographic anterior leaflet length (adjusted for left ventricular size was greatest in Mybpc3-null mice (1.92 ± 0.08 vs. 1.72 ± 0.08 mm, p < 0.001, as was combined leaflet thickness (0.23 ± 0.04 vs. 0.15 ± 0.02 mm, p < 0.001. Micro-CT analyses of Mybpc3-null mice demonstrated increased MV volume (0.47 ± 0.06 vs. 0.15 ± 0.06 mm3, p = 0.018 and thickness (0.35 ± 0.04 vs. 0.12 ± 0.04 mm, p = 0.002, coincident with increased markers of TGFβ activity compared to heterozygous and wild-type littermates. Similarly, excised MV from a patient with MYBPC3 mutation showed increased TGFβ activity. We conclude that MYBPC3 deficiency causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with increased MV leaflet length and thickness despite the absence of left ventricular outflow-tract obstruction, in parallel with increased TGFβ activity. MV changes in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may be due to paracrine effects, which represent targets for therapeutic studies.

  6. Romk1 Knockout Mice Do Not Produce Bartter Phenotype but Exhibit Impaired K Excretion.

    Dong, Ke; Yan, Qingshang; Lu, Ming; Wan, Laxiang; Hu, Haiyan; Guo, Junhua; Boulpaep, Emile; Wang, WenHui; Giebisch, Gerhard; Hebert, Steven C; Wang, Tong


    Romk knock-out mice show a similar phenotype to Bartter syndrome of salt wasting and dehydration due to reduced Na-K-2Cl-cotransporter activity. At least three ROMK isoforms have been identified in the kidney; however, unique functions of any of the isoforms in nephron segments are still poorly understood. We have generated a mouse deficient only in Romk1 by selective deletion of the Romk1-specific first exon using an ES cell Cre-LoxP strategy and examined the renal phenotypes, ion transporter expression, ROMK channel activity, and localization under normal and high K intake. Unlike Romk(-/-) mice, there was no Bartter phenotype with reduced NKCC2 activity and increased NCC expression in Romk1(-/-) mice. The small conductance K channel (SK) activity showed no difference of channel properties or gating in the collecting tubule between Romk1(+/+) and Romk1(-/-) mice. High K intake increased SK channel number per patch and increased the ROMK channel intensity in the apical membrane of the collecting tubule in Romk1(+/+), but such regulation by high K intake was diminished with significant hyperkalemia in Romk1(-/-) mice. We conclude that 1) animal knockouts of ROMK1 do not produce Bartter phenotype. 2) There is no functional linking of ROMK1 and NKCC2 in the TAL. 3) ROMK1 is critical in response to high K intake-stimulated K(+) secretion in the collecting tubule.

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor-deficient mice exhibit a hippocampal hyperserotonergic phenotype.

    Guiard, Bruno P; David, Denis J P; Deltheil, Thierry; Chenu, Franck; Le Maître, Erwan; Renoir, Thibault; Leroux-Nicollet, Isabelle; Sokoloff, Pierre; Lanfumey, Laurence; Hamon, Michel; Andrews, Anne M; Hen, René; Gardier, Alain M


    Growing evidence supports the involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mood disorders and the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs. However, the relationship between BDNF and serotonergic signalling is poorly understood. Heterozygous mutants BDNF +/- mice were utilized to investigate the influence of BDNF on the serotonin (5-HT) system and the activity of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in the hippocampus. The zero net flux method of quantitative microdialysis revealed that BDNF +/- heterozygous mice have increased basal extracellular 5-HT levels in the hippocampus and decreased 5-HT reuptake capacity. In keeping with these results, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine failed to increase hippocampal extracellular 5-HT levels in BDNF +/- mice while it produced robust effects in wild-type littermates. Using in-vitro autoradiography and synaptosome techniques, we investigated the causes of attenuated 5-HT reuptake in BDNF +/- mice. A significant decrease in [3H]citalopram-binding-site density in the CA3 subregion of the ventral hippocampus and a significant reduction in [3H]5-HT uptake in hippocampal synaptosomes, revealed mainly a decrease in SERT function. However, 5-HT1A autoreceptors were not desensitized in BDNF +/- mice. These results provide evidence that constitutive reductions in BDNF modulate SERT function reuptake in the hippocampus.

  8. Intestine-specific deletion of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein increases mortality in aged mice.

    Zhe Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mice with conditional, intestine-specific deletion of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp-IKO exhibit a complete block in chylomicron assembly together with lipid malabsorption. Young (8-10 week Mttp-IKO mice have improved survival when subjected to a murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced sepsis. However, 80% of deaths in sepsis occur in patients over age 65. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age impacts outcome in Mttp-IKO mice subjected to sepsis. METHODS: Aged (20-24 months Mttp-IKO mice and WT mice underwent intratracheal injection with P. aeruginosa. Mice were either sacrificed 24 hours post-operatively for mechanistic studies or followed seven days for survival. RESULTS: In contrast to young septic Mttp-IKO mice, aged septic Mttp-IKO mice had a significantly higher mortality than aged septic WT mice (80% vs. 39%, p = 0.005. Aged septic Mttp-IKO mice exhibited increased gut epithelial apoptosis, increased jejunal Bax/Bcl-2 and Bax/Bcl-XL ratios yet simultaneously demonstrated increased crypt proliferation and villus length. Aged septic Mttp-IKO mice also manifested increased pulmonary myeloperoxidase levels, suggesting increased neutrophil infiltration, as well as decreased systemic TNFα compared to aged septic WT mice. CONCLUSIONS: Blocking intestinal chylomicron secretion alters mortality following sepsis in an age-dependent manner. Increases in gut apoptosis and pulmonary neutrophil infiltration, and decreased systemic TNFα represent potential mechanisms for why intestine-specific Mttp deletion is beneficial in young septic mice but harmful in aged mice as each of these parameters are altered differently in young and aged septic WT and Mttp-IKO mice.

  9. NRMT1 knockout mice exhibit phenotypes associated with impaired DNA repair and premature aging.

    Bonsignore, Lindsay A; Tooley, John G; Van Hoose, Patrick M; Wang, Eugenia; Cheng, Alan; Cole, Marsha P; Schaner Tooley, Christine E


    Though defective genome maintenance and DNA repair have long been known to promote phenotypes of premature aging, the role protein methylation plays in these processes is only now emerging. We have recently identified the first N-terminal methyltransferase, NRMT1, which regulates protein-DNA interactions and is necessary for both accurate mitotic division and nucleotide excision repair. To demonstrate if complete loss of NRMT1 subsequently resulted in developmental or aging phenotypes, we constructed the first NRMT1 knockout (Nrmt1(-/-)) mouse. The majority of these mice die shortly after birth. However, the ones that survive, exhibit decreased body size, female-specific infertility, kyphosis, decreased mitochondrial function, and early-onset liver degeneration; phenotypes characteristic of other mouse models deficient in DNA repair. The livers from Nrmt1(-/-) mice produce less reactive oxygen species (ROS) than wild type controls, and Nrmt1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts show a decreased capacity for handling oxidative damage. This indicates that decreased mitochondrial function may benefit Nrmt1(-/-) mice and protect them from excess internal ROS and subsequent DNA damage. These studies position the NRMT1 knockout mouse as a useful new system for studying the effects of genomic instability and defective DNA damage repair on organismal and tissue-specific aging.

  10. ars1, an Arabidopsis mutant exhibiting increased tolerance to arsenate and increased phosphate uptake.

    Lee, David A; Chen, Alice; Schroeder, Julian I


    Arsenic is one of the most toxic pollutants at contaminated sites, yet little is known about the mechanisms by which certain plants survive exposure to high arsenic levels. To gain insight into the mechanisms of arsenic tolerance in plants, we developed a genetic screen to isolate Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with altered tolerance to arsenic. We report here on the isolation of a mutant arsenic resisant 1 (ars1) with increased tolerance to arsenate. ars1 germinates and develops under conditions that completely inhibit growth of wild-type plants and shows a semi-dominant arsenic resistance phenotype. ars1 accumulates levels of arsenic similar to that accumulated by wild-type plants, suggesting that ars1 plants have an increased ability to detoxify arsenate. However, ars1 plants produce phytochelatin levels similar to levels produced by the wild type, and the enhanced resistance of ars1 is not abolished by the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor l-buthionine sulfoxime (BSO). Furthermore, ars1 plants do not show resistance to arsenite or other toxic metals such as cadmium and chromium. However, ars1 plants do show a higher rate of phosphate uptake than that shown by wild-type plants, and wild-type plants grown with an excess of phosphate show increased tolerance to arsenate. Traditional models of arsenate tolerance in plants are based on the suppression of phosphate uptake pathways and consequently on the reduced uptake of arsenate. Our data suggest that arsenate tolerance in ars1 could be due to a new mechanism mediated by increased phosphate uptake in ars1. Models discussing how increased phosphate uptake could contribute to arsenate tolerance are discussed.

  11. Transgenic mice overexpressing renin exhibit glucose intolerance and diet-genotype interactions

    Sarah J. Fletcher


    Full Text Available Numerous animal and clinical investigations have pointed to a potential role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes in conditions of expanded fat mass. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. We used a transgenic mouse model overexpressing renin in the liver (RenTgMK to examine the effects of chronic activation of RAS on adiposity and insulin sensitivity. Hepatic overexpression of renin resulted in constitutively elevated plasma angiotensin II (4-6-fold increase vs. wild type. Surprisingly, RenTgMK mice developed glucose intolerance despite low levels of adiposity and insulinemia. The transgenics also had lower plasma triglyceride levels. Glucose intolerance in transgenic mice fed a low-fat diet was comparable to that observed in high fat-fed wild type mice. Glucose intolerance was exacerbated by high-fat feeding, only in female transgenic mice. These studies demonstrate that overexpression of renin and associated hyperangiotensinemia impair glucose tolerance in a diet-dependent manner and further support a consistent role of RAS in the pathogenesis of diabetes and insulin resistance, independent of changes in fat mass.

  12. Increased adiposity in annexin A1-deficient mice.

    Rand T Akasheh

    Full Text Available Production of Annexin A1 (ANXA1, a protein that mediates the anti-inflammatory action of glucocorticoids, is altered in obesity, but its role in modulation of adiposity has not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate modulation of ANXA1 in adipose tissue in murine models of obesity and to study the involvement of ANXA1 in diet-induced obesity in mice. Significant induction of ANXA1 mRNA was observed in adipose tissue of both C57BL6 and Balb/c mice with high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity versus mice on chow diet. Upregulation of ANXA1 mRNA was independent of leptin or IL-6, as demonstrated by use of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and IL-6 KO mice. Compared to WT mice, female Balb/c ANXA1 KO mice on HFD had increased adiposity, as indicated by significantly elevated body weight, fat mass, leptin levels, and adipocyte size. Whereas Balb/c WT mice upregulated expression of enzymes involved in the lipolytic pathway in response to HFD, this response was absent in ANXA1 KO mice. A significant increase in fasting glucose and insulin levels as well as development of insulin resistance was observed in ANXA1 KO mice on HFD compared to WT mice. Elevated plasma corticosterone levels and blunted downregulation of 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adipose tissue was observed in ANXA1 KO mice compared to diet-matched WT mice. However, no differences between WT and KO mice on either chow or HFD were observed in expression of markers of adipose tissue inflammation. These data indicate that ANXA1 is an important modulator of adiposity in mice, with female ANXA1 KO mice on Balb/c background being more susceptible to weight gain and diet-induced insulin resistance compared to WT mice, without significant changes in inflammation.

  13. Mice deficient of glutamatergic signaling from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells exhibit abnormal circadian photoentrainment.

    Purrier, Nicole; Engeland, William C; Kofuji, Paulo


    Several aspects of behavior and physiology, such as sleep and wakefulness, blood pressure, body temperature, and hormone secretion exhibit daily oscillations known as circadian rhythms. These circadian rhythms are orchestrated by an intrinsic biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus which is adjusted to the daily environmental cycles of day and night by the process of photoentrainment. In mammals, the neuronal signal for photoentrainment arises from a small subset of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) that send a direct projection to the SCN. ipRGCs also mediate other non-image-forming (NIF) visual responses such as negative masking of locomotor activity by light, and the pupillary light reflex (PLR) via co-release of neurotransmitters glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) from their synaptic terminals. The relative contribution of each neurotransmitter system for the circadian photoentrainment and other NIF visual responses is still unresolved. We investigated the role of glutamatergic neurotransmission for circadian photoentrainment and NIF behaviors by selective ablation of ipRGC glutamatergic synaptic transmission in mice. Mutant mice displayed delayed re-entrainment to a 6 h phase shift (advance or delay) in the light cycle and incomplete photoentrainment in a symmetrical skeleton photoperiod regimen (1 h light pulses between 11 h dark periods). Circadian rhythmicity in constant darkness also was reduced in some mutant mice. Other NIF responses such as the PLR and negative masking responses to light were also partially attenuated. Overall, these results suggest that glutamate from ipRGCs drives circadian photoentrainment and negative masking responses to light.

  14. Mice deficient of glutamatergic signaling from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells exhibit abnormal circadian photoentrainment.

    Nicole Purrier

    Full Text Available Several aspects of behavior and physiology, such as sleep and wakefulness, blood pressure, body temperature, and hormone secretion exhibit daily oscillations known as circadian rhythms. These circadian rhythms are orchestrated by an intrinsic biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN of the hypothalamus which is adjusted to the daily environmental cycles of day and night by the process of photoentrainment. In mammals, the neuronal signal for photoentrainment arises from a small subset of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs that send a direct projection to the SCN. ipRGCs also mediate other non-image-forming (NIF visual responses such as negative masking of locomotor activity by light, and the pupillary light reflex (PLR via co-release of neurotransmitters glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP from their synaptic terminals. The relative contribution of each neurotransmitter system for the circadian photoentrainment and other NIF visual responses is still unresolved. We investigated the role of glutamatergic neurotransmission for circadian photoentrainment and NIF behaviors by selective ablation of ipRGC glutamatergic synaptic transmission in mice. Mutant mice displayed delayed re-entrainment to a 6 h phase shift (advance or delay in the light cycle and incomplete photoentrainment in a symmetrical skeleton photoperiod regimen (1 h light pulses between 11 h dark periods. Circadian rhythmicity in constant darkness also was reduced in some mutant mice. Other NIF responses such as the PLR and negative masking responses to light were also partially attenuated. Overall, these results suggest that glutamate from ipRGCs drives circadian photoentrainment and negative masking responses to light.

  15. Neuropeptide FF receptors exhibit direct and anti-opioid effects on mice dorsal raphe nucleus neurons.

    Ding, Zhong; Zajac, Jean-Marie


    By using acutely dissociated dorsal raphe nucleus neurons (DRN) from young mice, direct and anti-opioid effects of Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors were measured. The NPFF analog 1 DMe (10 µM) had no effect on resting Ca2+ channels but reduced the magnitude of Ca2+ transients induced by depolarization in 83.3% neurons tested, of which the inhibition rate is 45.4±2.9%. Pertussis toxin treatment reduced to 18.9% the number of responding neurons and attenuated by 47% the response of 1 DMe. In contrast, cholera toxin treatment had no significant effect. Eighteen minute perfusion with 1 DMe at a very low 10 nM concentration, that did not directly inhibit Ca2+ transients triggered by depolarization in every neuron, attenuated by 78% the inhibitory effect of Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) on Ca2+ transients, but not that of by serotonin. These results demonstrated for the first time that NPFF receptors on mice DRN inhibit Ca2+ transients induced by depolarization via Gi/o protein and also exhibit a specific anti-opioid activity on nociceptin receptors, and that their specific anti-opioid activity is not a direct consequence of their activity on Ca2+ transients.

  16. Mice lacking the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α exhibit alterations in inhibitory synaptic transmission in the motor cortex.

    Dougherty, S E; Bartley, A F; Lucas, E K; Hablitz, J J; Dobrunz, L E; Cowell, R M


    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a transcriptional coactivator known to regulate gene programs in a cell-specific manner in energy-demanding tissues, and its dysfunction has been implicated in numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders. Previous work from the Cowell laboratory indicates that PGC-1α is concentrated in inhibitory interneurons and is required for the expression of the calcium buffer parvalbumin (PV) in the cortex; however, the impact of PGC-1α deficiency on inhibitory neurotransmission in the motor cortex is not known. Here, we show that mice lacking PGC-1α exhibit increased amplitudes and decreased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in layer V pyramidal neurons. Upon repetitive train stimulation at the gamma frequency, decreased GABA release is observed. Furthermore, PV-positive interneurons in PGC-1α -/- mice display reductions in intrinsic excitability and excitatory input without changes in gross interneuron morphology. Taken together, these data show that PGC-1α is required for normal inhibitory neurotransmission and cortical PV-positive interneuron function. Given the pronounced motor dysfunction in PGC-1α -/- mice and the essential role of PV-positive interneurons in maintenance of cortical excitatory:inhibitory balance, it is possible that deficiencies in PGC-1α expression could contribute to cortical hyperexcitability and motor abnormalities in multiple neurological disorders.

  17. db/db Mice Exhibit Features of Human Type 2 Diabetes That Are Not Present in Weight-Matched C57BL/6J Mice Fed a Western Diet

    Susan J. Burke


    Full Text Available To understand features of human obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D that can be recapitulated in the mouse, we compared C57BL/6J mice fed a Western-style diet (WD to weight-matched genetically obese leptin receptor-deficient mice (db/db. All mice were monitored for changes in body composition, glycemia, and total body mass. To objectively compare diet-induced and genetic models of obesity, tissue analyses were conducted using mice with similar body mass. We found that adipose tissue inflammation was present in both models of obesity. In addition, distinct alterations in metabolic flexibility were evident between WD-fed mice and db/db mice. Circulating insulin levels are elevated in each model of obesity, while glucagon was increased only in the db/db mice. Although both WD-fed and db/db mice exhibited adaptive increases in islet size, the db/db mice also displayed augmented islet expression of the dedifferentiation marker Aldh1a3 and reduced nuclear presence of the transcription factor Nkx6.1. Based on the collective results put forth herein, we conclude that db/db mice capture key features of human T2D that do not occur in WD-fed C57BL/6J mice of comparable body mass.

  18. 3xTg-AD Mice Exhibit an Activated Central Stress Axis during Early-Stage Pathology

    Hebda-Bauer, Elaine K.; Simmons, Tracy A.; Sugg, Andrew; Ural, Eren; Stewart, James A.; Beals, James L.; Wei, Qiang; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda


    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis occurs in response to the organism’s innate need for homeostasis. The glucocorticoids (GCs) that are released into the circulation upon acute activation of the HPA axis perform stress-adaptive functions and provide negative feedback to turn off the HPA axis, but can be detrimental when in excess. Long-term activation of the HPA axis (such as with chronic stress) enhances susceptibility to neuronal dysfunction and death, and increases vulnerability to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, little is known how components of the HPA axis, upstream of GCs, impact vulnerability to AD. This study examined basal gene expression of stress-related molecules in brains of 3xTg-AD mice during early-stage pathology. Basal glucocorticoid levels and mRNA expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and corticotropic releasing hormone (CRH) in several stress- and emotionality-related brain regions were measured in 3–4-month-old 3xTg-AD mice. Despite normal glucocorticoid levels, young 3xTg-AD mice exhibit an activated central HPA axis, with altered mRNA levels of MR and GR in the hippocampus, GR and CRH in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, GR and CRH in the central nucleus of the amygdala, and CRH in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This HPA axis activation is present during early-stage neuropathology when 3xTg-AD mice show mild behavioral changes, suggesting an ongoing neuroendocrine regulation that precedes the onset of severe AD-like pathology and behavioral deficits. PMID:22976078

  19. Increased ZAP70 Is Involved in Dry Skin Pruritus in Aged Mice

    Nan Zhao


    Full Text Available Dry skin pruritus is common in the elderly. Recent reports show that T-cell signal path is involved in dry skin pruritus. Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP70, as a T-cell receptor, may induce interleukin 2 (IL-2 secretion and promote nerve growth factor (NGF secretion in skin. This study aimed to detect the alteration of ZAP70 in a mice model with dry skin pruritus. The C57BL mice with 5 months and 22 months were used as experimental animal. Following a 5-day period of treatment of back with a mixture of acetone-diethyl-ether-water (AEW, mice exhibited a significant increase in spontaneous scratching behavior directed to the treated back compared to control animals in which back was similarly treated with water only (W. After AEW process, spontaneous scratching in 22-month AEW mice was increased compared to 5-month AEW mice. Western blot and real-time quantitative PCR data analysis showed that ZAP70 expression was significantly increased in 22-month AEW mice compared with 5-month AEW mice. ELISA data showed that secretions of IL-2 and NGF in 22-month AEW mice were higher than 5-month AEW mice. Our results indicate that increased ZAP70 is involved in dry skin in elderly pruritus. Increased secretion of IL-2 and NGF may induce dry skin itch.

  20. Mice lacking neuropeptide Y show increased sensitivity to cocaine

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Woldbye, David Paul Drucker


    There is increasing data implicating neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the neurobiology of addiction. This study explored the possible role of NPY in cocaine-induced behavior using NPY knockout mice. The transgenic mice showed a hypersensitive response to cocaine in three animal models of cocaine addiction...

  1. Corticotropin-releasing factor-overexpressing mice exhibit reduced neuronal activation in the arcuate nucleus and food intake in response to fasting.

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Million, Mulugeta; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P; Kobelt, Peter; Mönnikes, Hubert; Taché, Yvette; Wang, Lixin


    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) overexpressing (OE) mice are a genetic model that exhibits features of chronic stress. We investigated whether the adaptive feeding response to a hypocaloric challenge induced by food deprivation is impaired under conditions of chronic CRF overproduction. Food intake response to a 16-h overnight fast and ip injection of gut hormones regulating food intake were compared in CRF-OE and wild type (WT) littermate mice along with brain Fos expression, circulating ghrelin levels, and gastric emptying of a nonnutrient meal. CRF-OE mice injected ip with saline showed a 47 and 44% reduction of 30-min and 4-h cumulative food intake response to an overnight fast, respectively, compared with WT. However, the 30-min food intake decrease induced by ip cholecystokinin (3 microg/kg) and increase by ghrelin (300 microg/kg) were similar in CRF-OE and WT mice. Overnight fasting increased the plasma total ghrelin to similar levels in CRF-OE and WT mice, although CRF-OE mice had a 2-fold reduction of nonfasting ghrelin levels. The number of Fos-immunoreactive cells induced by fasting in the arcuate nucleus was reduced by 5.9-fold in CRF-OE compared with WT mice whereas no significant changes were observed in other hypothalamic nuclei. In contrast, fasted CRF-OE mice displayed a 5.6-fold increase in Fos-immunoreactive cell number in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve and a 34% increase in 20-min gastric emptying. These findings indicate that sustained overproduction of hypothalamic CRF in mice interferes with fasting-induced activation of arcuate nucleus neurons and the related hyperphagic response.

  2. C57BL/6 Substrains Exhibit Different Responses to Acute Carbon Tetrachloride Exposure: Implications for Work Involving Transgenic Mice.

    McCracken, Jennifer M; Chalise, Prabhakar; Briley, Shawn M; Dennis, Katie L; Jiang, Lu; Duncan, Francesca E; Pritchard, Michele T


    Biological differences exist between strains of laboratory mice, and it is becoming increasingly evident that there are differences between substrains. In the C57BL/6 mouse, the primary substrains are called 6J and 6N. Previous studies have demonstrated that 6J and 6N mice differ in response to many experimental models of human disease. The aim of our study was to determine if differences exist between 6J and 6N mice in terms of their response to acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) exposure. Mice were given CCl4 once and were euthanized 12 to 96 h later. Relative to 6J mice, we found that 6N mice had increased liver injury but more rapid repair. This was because of the increased speed with which necrotic hepatocytes were removed in 6N mice and was directly related to increased recruitment of macrophages to the liver. In parallel, enhanced liver regeneration was observed in 6N relative to 6J mice. Hepatic stellate cell activation occurred earlier in 6N mice, but there was no difference in matrix metabolism between substrains. Taken together, these data demonstrate specific and significant differences in how the C57BL/6 substrains respond to acute CCl4, which has important implications for all mouse studies utilizing this model.

  3. Increased seizure susceptibility in mice 30 days after fluid percussion injury.

    Sanjib eMukherjee


    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI has been reported to increase seizure susceptibility and also contribute to the development of epilepsy. However, the mechanistic basis of the development of increased seizure susceptibility and epilepsy is not clear. Though there is substantial work done using rats, data are lacking regarding the use of mice in the fluid percussion injury (FPI model. It is unclear if mice, like rats, will experience increased seizure susceptibility following FPI. The availability of a mouse model of increased seizure susceptibility after FPI would provide a basis for the use of genetically modified mice to study mechanism(s of the development of post-traumatic epilepsy. Therefore, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that, mice subjected to a FPI develop increased seizure susceptibility to a subconvulsive dose of the chemoconvulsant, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. Three groups of mice were used: FPI, sham and naïve controls. On day thirty after FPI, mice from the three groups were injected with PTZ. The results showed that FPI mice exhibited an increased severity, frequency and duration of seizures in response to PTZ injection compared with the sham and naïve control groups. Histopathological assessment was used to characterize the injury at one, three, seven and thirty days after FPI. The results show that mice subjected to the FPI had a pronounced lesion and glial response that was centered at the FPI focus and peaked at three days. By thirty days, only minimal evidence of a lesion is observed, although there is evidence of a chronic glial response. These data are the first to demonstrate an early increase in seizure susceptibility following fluid percussion injury in mice. Therefore, future studies can incorporate transgenic mice into this model to further elucidate mechanisms of TBI-induced increases in seizure susceptibility.

  4. Ly9 (CD229)-deficient mice exhibit T cell defects yet do not share several phenotypic characteristics associated with SLAM- and SAP-deficient mice.

    Graham, Daniel B; Bell, Michael P; McCausland, Megan M; Huntoon, Catherine J; van Deursen, Jan; Faubion, William A; Crotty, Shane; McKean, David J


    Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family receptors are critically involved in modulating innate and adaptive immune responses. Several SLAM family receptors have been shown to interact with the adaptor molecule SAP; however, subsequent intracellular signaling is poorly defined. Notably, mutations in SLAM-associated protein (SAP) lead to X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, a rare but fatal immunodeficiency. Although the SLAM family member Ly9 (CD229) is known to interact with SAP, the functions of this receptor have remained elusive. Therefore, we have generated Ly9-/- mice and compared their phenotype with that of SLAM-/- and SAP-/- mice. We report that Ly9-/- T cells exhibit a mild Th2 defect associated with reduced IL-4 production after stimulation with anti-TCR and anti-CD28 in vitro. This defect is similar in magnitude to the previously reported Th2 defect in SLAM-/- mice but is more subtle than that observed in SAP-/- mice. In contrast to SLAM-/- and SAP-/- mice, T cells from Ly9-/- mice proliferate poorly and produce little IL-2 after suboptimal stimulation with anti-CD3 in vitro. We have also found that Ly9-/- macrophages exhibit no defects in cytokine production or bacterial killing as was observed in SLAM-/- macrophages. Additionally, Ly9-/- mice differ from SAP-/- mice in that they foster normal development of NKT cells and mount appropriate T and B cell responses to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. We have identified significant phenotypic differences between Ly-9-/- mice as compared with both SLAM-/- and SAP-/- mice. Although Ly9, SLAM, and SAP play a common role in promoting Th2 polarization, Ly-9 is uniquely involved in enhancing T cell activation.

  5. Fucoidan Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Exhibits Anti-Fatigue Action in Mice

    Yi-Ming Chen


    Full Text Available Fucoidan (FCD is a well-known bioactive constituent of seaweed extract that possess a wide spectrum of activities in biological systems, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammation and modulation of immune systems. However, evidence on the effects of FCD on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. Therefore, we investigated the potential beneficial effects of FCD on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR mice from three groups (n = 8 per group were orally administered FCD for 21 days at 0, 310 and 620 mg/kg/day, which were, respectively, designated the vehicle, FCD-1X and FCD-2X groups. The results indicated that the FCD supplementations increased the grip strength (p = 0.0002 and endurance swimming time (p = 0.0195 in a dose-depend manner. FCD treatments also produced dose-dependent decreases in serum levels of lactate (p < 0.0001 and ammonia (p = 0.0025, and also an increase in glucose level (p < 0.0001 after the 15-min swimming test. In addition, FCD supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. Therefore, we suggest that long-term supplementation with FCD can have a wide spectrum of bioactivities on health promotion, performance improvement and anti-fatigue.

  6. Increased sensitivity to kindling in mice lacking TSP1.

    Mendus, D; Rankin-Gee, E K; Mustapha, M; Porter, B E


    The development of a hyperexcitable neuronal network is thought to be a critical event in epilepsy. Thrombospondins (TSPs) regulate synaptogenesis by binding the neuronal α2δ subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel. TSPs regulate synapse formation during development and in the mature brain following injury. It is unclear if TSPs are involved in hyperexcitability that contributes to the development of epilepsy. Here we explore the development of epilepsy using a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model in mice lacking TSP1 and TSP2. Unexpectedly, we found increased sensitivity to PTZ kindling in mice lacking TSP1, while mice lacking TSP2 kindled similar to wild-type. We found that the increased seizure susceptibility in the TSP1 knockout (KO) mice was not due to a compensatory increase in TSP2 mRNA as TSP1/2 KO mice were sensitive to PTZ, similar to the TSP1 KO mice. Furthermore, there were similar levels of TGF-B signal activation during kindling in the TSP1 KO mice compared to wild-type. We observed decreased expression of voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit CACNA2D1 mRNA in TSP1, TSP2, and TSP1/2 KO mice. Decreased CACNA2D2 mRNA was only detected in mice that lacked TSP1 and α2δ-1/2 protein levels in the cortex were lower in the TSP 1/2 KO mice. CACNA2D2 knockout mice have spontaneous seizures and increased PTZ seizure susceptibility. Here we report similar findings, TSP1, and TSP1/2 KO mice have low levels of CACNA2D2 mRNA expression and α2δ-1/2 receptor level in the cortex, and are more susceptible to seizures. CACNA2D2 mutations in mice and humans can cause epilepsy. Our data suggest TSP1 in particular may control CACNA2D2 levels and could be a modifier of seizure susceptibility.

  7. Mice that lack the C-terminal region of Reelin exhibit behavioral abnormalities related to neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Sakai, Kaori; Shoji, Hirotaka; Kohno, Takao; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Hattori, Mitsuharu


    The secreted glycoprotein Reelin is believed to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The highly basic C-terminal region (CTR) of Reelin is necessary for efficient activation of its downstream signaling, and the brain structure of knock-in mice that lack the CTR (ΔC-KI mice) is impaired. Here, we performed a comprehensive behavioral test battery on ΔC-KI mice, in order to evaluate the effects of partial loss-of-function of Reelin on brain functions. The ΔC-KI mice were hyperactive and exhibited reduced anxiety-like and social behaviors. The working memory in ΔC-KI mice was impaired in a T-maze test. There was little difference in spatial reference memory, depression-like behavior, prepulse inhibition, or fear memory between ΔC-KI and wild-type mice. These results suggest that CTR-dependent Reelin functions are required for some specific normal brain functions and that ΔC-KI mice recapitulate some aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorder.

  8. Functionally Distinct Tendons From Elastin Haploinsufficient Mice Exhibit Mild Stiffening and Tendon-Specific Structural Alteration.

    Eekhoff, Jeremy D; Fang, Fei; Kahan, Lindsey G; Espinosa, Gabriela; Cocciolone, Austin J; Wagenseil, Jessica E; Mecham, Robert P; Lake, Spencer P


    Elastic fibers are present in low quantities in tendon, where they are located both within fascicles near tenocytes and more broadly in the interfascicular matrix (IFM). While elastic fibers have long been known to be significant in the mechanics of elastin-rich tissue (i.e., vasculature, skin, lungs), recent studies have suggested a mechanical role for elastic fibers in tendons that is dependent on specific tendon function. However, the exact contribution of elastin to properties of different types of tendons (e.g., positional, energy-storing) remains unknown. Therefore, this study purposed to evaluate the role of elastin in the mechanical properties and collagen alignment of functionally distinct supraspinatus tendons (SSTs) and Achilles tendons (ATs) from elastin haploinsufficient (HET) and wild type (WT) mice. Despite the significant decrease in elastin in HET tendons, a slight increase in linear stiffness of both tendons was the only significant mechanical effect of elastin haploinsufficiency. Additionally, there were significant changes in collagen nanostructure and subtle alteration to collagen alignment in the AT but not the SST. Hence, elastin may play only a minor role in tendon mechanical properties. Alternatively, larger changes to tendon mechanics may have been mitigated by developmental compensation of HET tendons and/or the role of elastic fibers may be less prominent in smaller mouse tendons compared to the larger bovine and human tendons evaluated in previous studies. Further research will be necessary to fully elucidate the influence of various elastic fiber components on structure-function relationships in functionally distinct tendons.

  9. Increased susceptibility of Nrf2-null mice to 1-bromopropane-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Liu, Fang; Ichihara, Sahoko; Valentine, William M; Itoh, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Sheik Mohideen, Sahabudeen; Kitoh, Junzoh; Ichihara, Gaku


    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) was introduced as an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents. However, it was found to exhibit neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and hepatotoxicity in rodents and neurotoxicity in human. However, the mechanisms underlying the toxicities of 1-BP remain elusive. The present study investigated the role of oxidative stress in 1-BP-induced hepatotoxicity using nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-null mice. Groups of 24 male Nrf2-null mice and 24 male wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice were each divided into three groups of eight and exposed to 1-BP at 0, 100, or 300 ppm for 8 h/day for 28 days by inhalation. Liver histopathology showed significantly larger area of necrosis in Nrf2-null mice relative to WT mice at the same exposure level. Nrf2-null mice also had greater malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, higher ratio of oxidized glutathione/reduced form of glutathione, and lower total glutathione content. The constitutive level and the increase in ratio per exposure level of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity were lower in the liver of Nrf2-null mice than WT mice. Exposure to 1-BP at 300 ppm increased the messenger RNA levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GcLm), glutamate-cysteine synthetase (GcLc), glutathione reductase, and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in WT mice but not in Nrf2-null mice except for GST Yc2. Nrf2-null mice were more susceptible to 1-BP-induced hepatotoxicity. That oxidative stress plays a role in 1-BP hepatotoxicity is deduced from the low expression levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes and high MDA levels in Nrf2-null mice.

  10. Increased hepcidin in transferrin-treated thalassemic mice correlates with increased liver BMP2 expression and decreased hepatocyte ERK activation.

    Chen, Huiyong; Choesang, Tenzin; Li, Huihui; Sun, Shuming; Pham, Petra; Bao, Weili; Feola, Maria; Westerman, Mark; Li, Guiyuan; Follenzi, Antonia; Blanc, Lionel; Rivella, Stefano; Fleming, Robert E; Ginzburg, Yelena Z


    Iron overload results in significant morbidity and mortality in β-thalassemic patients. Insufficient hepcidin is implicated in parenchymal iron overload in β-thalassemia and approaches to increase hepcidin have therapeutic potential. We have previously shown that exogenous apo-transferrin markedly ameliorates ineffective erythropoiesis and increases hepcidin expression in Hbb(th1/th1) (thalassemic) mice. We utilize in vivo and in vitro systems to investigate effects of exogenous apo-transferrin on Smad and ERK1/2 signaling, pathways that participate in hepcidin regulation. Our results demonstrate that apo-transferrin increases hepcidin expression in vivo despite decreased circulating and parenchymal iron concentrations and unchanged liver Bmp6 mRNA expression in thalassemic mice. Hepatocytes from apo-transferrin-treated mice demonstrate decreased ERK1/2 pathway and increased serum BMP2 concentration and hepatocyte BMP2 expression. Furthermore, hepatocyte ERK1/2 phosphorylation is enhanced by neutralizing anti-BMP2/4 antibodies and suppressed in vitro in a dose-dependent manner by BMP2, resulting in converse effects on hepcidin expression, and hepatocytes treated with MEK/ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 in combination with BMP2 exhibit an additive increase in hepcidin expression. Lastly, bone marrow erythroferrone expression is normalized in apo-transferrin treated thalassemic mice but increased in apo-transferrin injected wild-type mice. These findings suggest that increased hepcidin expression after exogenous apo-transferrin is in part independent of erythroferrone and support a model in which apo-transferrin treatment in thalassemic mice increases BMP2 expression in the liver and other organs, decreases hepatocellular ERK1/2 activation, and increases nuclear Smad to increase hepcidin expression in hepatocytes.

  11. RAP-011, an activin receptor ligand trap, increases hemoglobin concentration in hepcidin transgenic mice.

    Langdon, Jacqueline M; Barkataki, Sangjucta; Berger, Alan E; Cheadle, Chris; Xue, Qian-Li; Sung, Victoria; Roy, Cindy N


    Over expression of hepcidin antimicrobial peptide is a common feature of iron-restricted anemia in humans. We investigated the erythroid response to either erythropoietin or RAP-011, a "murinized" ortholog of sotatercept, in C57BL/6 mice and in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide 1 over expressing mice. Sotatercept, a soluble, activin receptor type IIA ligand trap, is currently being evaluated for the treatment of anemias associated with chronic renal disease, myelodysplastic syndrome, β-thalassemia, and Diamond Blackfan anemia and acts by inhibiting signaling downstream of activin and other Transforming Growth Factor-β superfamily members. We found that erythropoietin and RAP-011 increased hemoglobin concentration in C57BL/6 mice and in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide 1 over expressing mice. While erythropoietin treatment depleted splenic iron stores in C57BL/6 mice, RAP-011 treatment did not deplete splenic iron stores in mice of either genotype. Bone marrow erythroid progenitors from erythropoietin-treated mice exhibited iron-restricted erythropoiesis, as indicated by increased median fluorescence intensity of transferrin receptor immunostaining by flow cytometry. In contrast, RAP-011-treated mice did not exhibit the same degree of iron-restricted erythropoiesis. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that RAP-011 can improve hemoglobin concentration in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide 1 transgenic mice. Our data support the hypothesis that RAP-011 has unique biologic effects which prevent or circumvent depletion of mouse splenic iron stores. RAP-011 may, therefore, be an appropriate therapeutic for trials in human anemias characterized by increased expression of hepcidin antimicrobial peptide and iron-restricted erythropoiesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Dietary sugar intake increases liver tumor incidence in female mice

    Marin E. Healy; Sujoy Lahiri; Hargett, Stefan R.; Chow, Jenny D.Y.; Byrne, Frances L.; Breen, David S.; Kenwood, Brandon M.; Taddeo, Evan P.; Carolin Lackner; Caldwell, Stephen H.; Hoehn, Kyle L.


    Overnutrition can promote liver cancer in mice and humans that have liver damage caused by alcohol, viruses, or carcinogens. However, the mechanism linking diet to increased liver tumorigenesis remains unclear in the context of whether tumorigenesis is secondary to obesity, or whether nutrients like sugar or fat drive tumorigenesis independent of obesity. In male mice, liver tumor burden was recently found to correlate with sugar intake, independent of dietary fat intake and obesity. However,...

  13. CYP4F18-Deficient Neutrophils Exhibit Increased Chemotaxis to Complement Component C5a

    Rachel Vaivoda


    Full Text Available CYP4Fs were first identified as enzymes that catalyze hydroxylation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4. CYP4F18 has an unusual expression in neutrophils and was predicted to play a role in regulating LTB4-dependent inflammation. We compared chemotaxis of wild-type and Cyp4f18 knockout neutrophils using an in vitro assay. There was no significant difference in the chemotactic response to LTB4, but the response to complement component C5a increased 1.9–2.25-fold in knockout cells compared to wild-type (P < 0.01. This increase was still observed when neutrophils were treated with inhibitors of eicosanoid synthesis. There were no changes in expression of other CYP4 enzymes in knockout neutrophils that might compensate for loss of CYP4F18 or lead to differences in activity. A mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate colitis was used to investigate the consequences of increased C5a-dependent chemotaxis in vivo, but there was no significant difference in weight loss, disease activity, or colonic tissue myeloperoxidase between wild-type and Cyp4f18 knockout mice. This study demonstrates the limitations of inferring CYP4F function based on an ability to use LTB4 as a substrate, points to expanding roles for CYP4F enzymes in immune regulation, and underscores the in vivo challenges of CYP knockout studies.

  14. A Modified Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG Vaccine with Reduced Activity of Antioxidants and Glutamine Synthetase Exhibits Enhanced Protection of Mice despite Diminished in Vivo Persistence

    Douglas S. Kernodle


    Full Text Available Early attempts to improve BCG have focused on increasing the expression of prominent antigens and adding recombinant toxins or cytokines to influence antigen presentation. One such modified BCG vaccine candidate has been withdrawn from human clinical trials due to adverse effects. BCG was derived from virulent Mycobacterium bovis and retains much of its capacity for suppressing host immune responses. Accordingly, we have used a different strategy for improving BCG based on reducing its immune suppressive capacity. We made four modifications to BCG Tice to produce 4dBCG and compared it to the parent vaccine in C57Bl/6 mice. The modifications included elimination of the oxidative stress sigma factor SigH, elimination of the SecA2 secretion channel, and reductions in the activity of iron co-factored superoxide dismutase and glutamine synthetase. After IV inoculation of 4dBCG, 95% of vaccine bacilli were eradicated from the spleens of mice within 60 days whereas the titer of BCG Tice was not significantly reduced. Subcutaneous vaccination with 4dBCG produced greater protection than vaccination with BCG against dissemination of an aerosolized challenge of M. tuberculosis to the spleen at 8 weeks post-challenge. At this time, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice also exhibited altered lung histopathology compared to BCG-vaccinated mice and control mice with less well-developed lymphohistiocytic nodules in the lung parenchyma. At 26 weeks post-challenge, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice but not BCG-vaccinated mice had significantly fewer challenge bacilli in the lungs than control mice. In conclusion, despite reduced persistence in mice a modified BCG vaccine with diminished antioxidants and glutamine synthetase is superior to the parent vaccine in conferring protection against M. tuberculosis. The targeting of multiple immune suppressive factors produced by BCG is a promising strategy for simultaneously improving vaccine safety and effectiveness.

  15. A Modified Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccine with Reduced Activity of Antioxidants and Glutamine Synthetase Exhibits Enhanced Protection of Mice despite Diminished in Vivo Persistence.

    Shoen, Carolyn M; DeStefano, Michelle S; Hager, Cynthia C; Tham, Kyi-Toe; Braunstein, Miriam; Allen, Alexandria D; Gates, Hiriam O; Cynamon, Michael H; Kernodle, Douglas S


    Early attempts to improve BCG have focused on increasing the expression of prominent antigens and adding recombinant toxins or cytokines to influence antigen presentation. One such modified BCG vaccine candidate has been withdrawn from human clinical trials due to adverse effects. BCG was derived from virulent Mycobacterium bovis and retains much of its capacity for suppressing host immune responses. Accordingly, we have used a different strategy for improving BCG based on reducing its immune suppressive capacity. We made four modifications to BCG Tice to produce 4dBCG and compared it to the parent vaccine in C57Bl/6 mice. The modifications included elimination of the oxidative stress sigma factor SigH, elimination of the SecA2 secretion channel, and reductions in the activity of iron co-factored superoxide dismutase and glutamine synthetase. After IV inoculation of 4dBCG, 95% of vaccine bacilli were eradicated from the spleens of mice within 60 days whereas the titer of BCG Tice was not significantly reduced. Subcutaneous vaccination with 4dBCG produced greater protection than vaccination with BCG against dissemination of an aerosolized challenge of M. tuberculosis to the spleen at 8 weeks post-challenge. At this time, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice also exhibited altered lung histopathology compared to BCG-vaccinated mice and control mice with less well-developed lymphohistiocytic nodules in the lung parenchyma. At 26 weeks post-challenge, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice but not BCG-vaccinated mice had significantly fewer challenge bacilli in the lungs than control mice. In conclusion, despite reduced persistence in mice a modified BCG vaccine with diminished antioxidants and glutamine synthetase is superior to the parent vaccine in conferring protection against M. tuberculosis. The targeting of multiple immune suppressive factors produced by BCG is a promising strategy for simultaneously improving vaccine safety and effectiveness.

  16. PSAPP mice exhibit regionally selective reductions in gliosis and plaque deposition in response to S100B ablation

    Young Keith A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have reported that increased expression of S100B, an intracellular Ca2+ receptor protein and secreted neuropeptide, exacerbates Alzheimer's disease (AD pathology. However, the ability of S100B inhibitors to prevent/reverse AD histopathology remains controversial. This study examines the effect of S100B ablation on in vivo plaque load, gliosis and dystrophic neurons. Methods Because S100B-specific inhibitors are not available, genetic ablation was used to inhibit S100B function in the PSAPP AD mouse model. The PSAPP/S100B-/- line was generated by crossing PSAPP double transgenic males with S100B-/- females and maintained as PSAPP/S100B+/- crosses. Congo red staining was used to quantify plaque load, plaque number and plaque size in 6 month old PSAPP and PSAPP/S100B-/- littermates. The microglial marker Iba1 and astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP were used to quantify gliosis. Dystrophic neurons were detected with the phospho-tau antibody AT8. S100B immunohistochemistry was used to assess the spatial distribution of S100B in the PSAPP line. Results PSAPP/S100B-/- mice exhibited a regionally selective decrease in cortical but not hippocampal plaque load when compared to PSAPP littermates. This regionally selective reduction in plaque load was accompanied by decreases in plaque number, GFAP-positive astrocytes, Iba1-positive microglia and phospho-tau positive dystrophic neurons. These effects were not attributable to regional variability in the distribution of S100B. Hippocampal and cortical S100B immunoreactivity in PSAPP mice was associated with plaques and co-localized with astrocytes and microglia. Conclusions Collectively, these data support S100B inhibition as a novel strategy for reducing cortical plaque load, gliosis and neuronal dysfunction in AD and suggest that both extracellular as well as intracellular S100B contribute to AD histopathology.

  17. Increased osteopontin contributes to inhibition of bone mineralization in FGF23-deficient mice.

    Yuan, Quan; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Xuefeng; Sato, Tadatoshi; Densmore, Michael; Schüler, Christiane; Erben, Reinhold G; McKee, Marc D; Lanske, Beate


    Excessive FGF23 has been identified as a pivotal phosphaturic factor leading to renal phosphate-wasting and the subsequent development of rickets and osteomalacia. In contrast, loss of FGF23 in mice (Fgf23(-/-) ) leads to high serum phosphate, calcium, and 1,25-vitamin D levels, resulting in early lethality attributable to severe ectopic soft-tissue calcifications and organ failure. Paradoxically, Fgf23(-/-) mice exhibit a severe defect in skeletal mineralization despite high levels of systemic mineral ions and abundant ectopic mineralization, an abnormality that remains largely unexplained. Through use of in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and immunogold labeling coupled with electron microscopy of bone samples, we discovered that expression and accumulation of osteopontin (Opn/OPN) was markedly increased in Fgf23(-/-) mice. These results were confirmed by qPCR analyses of Fgf23(-/-) bones and ELISA measurements of serum OPN. To investigate whether elevated OPN levels were contributing to the bone mineralization defect in Fgf23(-/-) mice, we generated Fgf23(-/-) /Opn(-/-) double-knockout mice (DKO). Biochemical analyses showed that the hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia observed in Fgf23(-/-) mice remained unchanged in DKO mice; however, micro-computed tomography (µCT) and histomorphometric analyses showed a significant improvement in total mineralized bone volume. The severe osteoidosis was markedly reduced and a normal mineral apposition rate was present in DKO mice, indicating that increased OPN levels in Fgf23(-/-) mice are at least in part responsible for the osteomalacia. Moreover, the increased OPN levels were significantly decreased upon lowering serum phosphate by feeding a low-phosphate diet or after deletion of NaPi2a, indicating that phosphate levels contribute in part to the high OPN levels in Fgf23(-/-) mice. In summary, our results suggest that increased OPN is an important pathogenic factor mediating the mineralization defect and the

  18. [The peroperative isotopic location of osteoid osteomas and other lesions exhibiting increased uptake on scintigraphy].

    Augereau, B; Wioland, M; De Labriolle-Vaylet, C; Padovani, J P; Martin, T; Verneret, C; Apoil, A; Milhaud, G


    The technique, advantages and pitfalls of the isotopic localization and control during operation in orthopaedic surgery were evaluated throughout 28 interventions on lesions, which exhibited an increased uptake of a radioactive bone-seeker: the dimethyl-aminodiphosphonate, provisionally designated SF44 (Laboratoires Solabco, Coutras, France). For bone scanning, following the injection of this radiopharmaceutical that increased by 25% the lesion to normal bone ratio compared to the data for the diphosphonates in current use, the localization of lesions at surgical sites was carried out with the use of a sterilisable small radiation probe of a circular cross section 2 mm in diameter (Quartz et Silice, Paris, France). The probe was connected to a portable electronic device that converted the rates of radioactive disintegration into an acoustic signal, which increased with increasing radioactivity (Novelec, Meylan, France). The method was atraumatic and has proved to be useful at various times of the operation. More often, it was used to locate the lesion on the exposed bone. It enabled monitoring the progress of excisions and allowed to shorten their dimensions. The method was of great value at the end of the intervention for ensuring a complete excision as indicated by the lack of any residual focus of increased uptake detectable on the periphery of the operative site. Isotopic control during an operation is fully efficient to locate osteoid osteomas and other circumscribed lesions of the skeleton that give rise to an increased uptake of radioactivity.

  19. Impaired macrophage autophagy increases the immune response in obese mice by promoting proinflammatory macrophage polarization.

    Liu, Kun; Zhao, Enpeng; Ilyas, Ghulam; Lalazar, Gadi; Lin, Yu; Haseeb, Muhammad; Tanaka, Kathryn E; Czaja, Mark J


    Recent evidence that excessive lipid accumulation can decrease cellular levels of autophagy and that autophagy regulates immune responsiveness suggested that impaired macrophage autophagy may promote the increased innate immune activation that underlies obesity. Primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and peritoneal macrophages from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice had decreased levels of autophagic flux indicating a generalized impairment of macrophage autophagy in obese mice. To assess the effects of decreased macrophage autophagy on inflammation, mice with a Lyz2-Cre-mediated knockout of Atg5 in macrophages were fed a HFD and treated with low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Knockout mice developed systemic and hepatic inflammation with HFD feeding and LPS. This effect was liver specific as knockout mice did not have increased adipose tissue inflammation. The mechanism by which the loss of autophagy promoted inflammation was through the regulation of macrophage polarization. BMDM and Kupffer cells from knockout mice exhibited abnormalities in polarization with both increased proinflammatory M1 and decreased anti-inflammatory M2 polarization as determined by measures of genes and proteins. The heightened hepatic inflammatory response in HFD-fed, LPS-treated knockout mice led to liver injury without affecting steatosis. These findings demonstrate that autophagy has a critical regulatory function in macrophage polarization that downregulates inflammation. Defects in macrophage autophagy may underlie inflammatory disease states such as the decrease in macrophage autophagy with obesity that leads to hepatic inflammation and the progression to liver injury.

  20. To the universe and back: Increasing earth and space science literacy through a deep time exhibition

    Brock, Laci Shea

    Fostering a scientifically literate citizenry and ensuring the sustainability of our planet includes educating the American public on concepts within Earth and Space Science (ESS) so they can make informed decisions and contributions to society. ESS concepts are often excluded from primary and secondary classrooms, and although ongoing formal educational reform has targeted this issue, implementation is lengthy, does not impact students participating in higher education, and has been suggested as an ineffective method for increasing the public understanding and knowledge of science. Informal science-learning centers and their collaborations with formal education may play an important role in increasing knowledge in this discipline. This thesis research focused on the interdisciplinary nature of ESS and utilized deep time education as a medium to develop the pedagogical framework for a museum exhibition relating Earth's biological, geological, and climatological history to the cosmological time of the Universe. Two studies were conducted with undergraduate students---a pilot classroom-based evaluation and a final deep time assessment---to better understand students' awareness, understanding, and misconceptions regarding deep time and related phenomena. Results were compared with previous research data, and the sum of all findings was analyzed and incorporated into an exhibition proposal. The results from the studies indicated that many students enter college with a general lack of awareness and possess misconceptions or alternative conceptions regarding fundamental ESS concepts related to deep time. These findings were similar to data from larger and national studies and suggest students may be entering higher education without a proper foundation in this discipline. It is recommended that all undergraduate students have an exposure to ESS and a general understanding of the discipline before they graduate. However, students enter college with a vast array of

  1. Increased fecal viral content associated with obesity in mice

    Hariom; Yadav; Shalini; Jain; Ravinder; Nagpal; Francesco; Marotta


    AIM: To investigate the presence of total gut viral content in obese mice, and establish correlation with obesity associated metabolic measures and gut microbiome.METHODS: Fresh fecal samples were collected from normal and obese(Leptin deficient Lepob/ob) mice. Total viral DNA and RNA was isolated and quantified for establishing the correlation with metabolic measures and composition of gut bacterial communities.RESULTS: In this report, we found that obese mice feces have higher viral contents in terms of total viral DNA and RNA(P 0.6), whilst negatively correlated with bacteroidetes and bifidobacteria. CONCLUSION: This study suggests the strong correlation of increased viral population into the gut of obese mice and opens new avenues to explore the role of gut virome in pathophysiology of obesity.

  2. Kv1.1 knock-in ataxic mice exhibit spontaneous myokymic activity exacerbated by fatigue, ischemia and low temperature

    Brunetti, Orazio; Imbrici, Paola; Botti, Fabio Massimo; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico; D'Adamo, Maria Cristina; Valentino, Mario; Zammit, Christian; Mora, Marina; Gibertini, Sara; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Muscat, Richard; Pessia, Mauro


    Episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) is an autosomal dominant neurological disorder characterized by myokymia and attacks of ataxic gait often precipitated by stress. Several genetic mutations have been identified in the Shaker-like K+ channel Kv1.1 (KCNA1) of EA1 individuals, including V408A, which result in remarkable channel dysfunction. By inserting the heterozygous V408A, mutation in one Kv1.1 allele, a mouse model of EA1 has been generated (Kv1.1V408A/+). Here, we investigated the neuromuscular transmission of Kv1.1V408A/+ ataxic mice and their susceptibility to physiologically relevant stressors. By using in vivo preparations of lateral gastrocnemius (LG) nerve–muscle from Kv1.1+/+ and Kv1.1V408A/+ mice, we show that the mutant animals exhibit spontaneous myokymic discharges consisting of repeated singlets, duplets or multiplets, despite motor nerve axotomy. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy from the motor nerve, ex vivo, revealed spontaneous Ca2 + signals that occurred abnormally only in preparations dissected from Kv1.1V408A/+ mice. Spontaneous bursting activity, as well as that evoked by sciatic nerve stimulation, was exacerbated by muscle fatigue, ischemia and low temperatures. These stressors also increased the amplitude of compound muscle action potential. Such abnormal neuromuscular transmission did not alter fiber type composition, neuromuscular junction and vascularization of LG muscle, analyzed by light and electron microscopy. Taken together these findings provide direct evidence that identifies the motor nerve as an important generator of myokymic activity, that dysfunction of Kv1.1 channels alters Ca2 + homeostasis in motor axons, and also strongly suggest that muscle fatigue contributes more than PNS fatigue to exacerbate the myokymia/neuromyotonia phenotype. More broadly, this study points out that juxtaparanodal K+ channels composed of Kv1.1 subunits exert an important role in dampening the excitability of motor nerve axons during fatigue or

  3. Skeletal muscle-specific HMG-CoA reductase knockout mice exhibit rhabdomyolysis: A model for statin-induced myopathy.

    Osaki, Yoshinori; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Miyahara, Shoko; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Ishii, Akiko; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yatoh, Shigeru; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Yahagi, Naoya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Sone, Hirohito; Ohashi, Ken; Ishibashi, Shun; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi


    HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonic acid (MVA); this is the rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway that synthesizes cholesterol. Statins, HMGCR inhibitors, are widely used as cholesterol-reducing drugs. However, statin-induced myopathy is the most adverse side effect of statins. To eludicate the mechanisms underlying statin the myotoxicity and HMGCR function in the skeletal muscle, we developed the skeletal muscle-specific HMGCR knockout mice. Knockout mice exhibited postnatal myopathy with elevated serum creatine kinase levels and necrosis. Myopathy in knockout mice was completely rescued by the oral administration of MVA. These results suggest that skeletal muscle toxicity caused by statins is dependent on the deficiencies of HMGCR enzyme activity and downstream metabolites of the mevalonate pathway in skeletal muscles rather than the liver or other organs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cancer cells recovering from damage exhibit mitochondrial restructuring and increased aerobic glycolysis

    Akakura, Shin; Ostrakhovitch, Elena; Sanokawa-Akakura, Reiko [Frontiers in Bioscience Research Institute in Aging and Cancer, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Tabibzadeh, Siamak, E-mail: [Frontiers in Bioscience Research Institute in Aging and Cancer, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Dept of Oncologic Radiology, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)


    Highlights: • Some cancer cells recover from severe damage that causes cell death in majority of cells. • Damage-Recovered (DR) cancer cells show reduced mitochondria, mDNA and mitochondrial enzymes. • DR cells show increased aerobic glycolysis, ATP, cell proliferation, and resistance to damage. • DR cells recovered from in vivo damage also show increased glycolysis and proliferation rate. - Abstract: Instead of relying on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most cancer cells rely heavily on aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon termed as “the Warburg effect”. We considered that this effect is a direct consequence of damage which persists in cancer cells that recover from damage. To this end, we studied glycolysis and rate of cell proliferation in cancer cells that recovered from severe damage. We show that in vitro Damage-Recovered (DR) cells exhibit mitochondrial structural remodeling, display Warburg effect, and show increased in vitro and in vivo proliferation and tolerance to damage. To test whether cancer cells derived from tumor microenvironment can show similar properties, we isolated Damage-Recovered (T{sup DR}) cells from tumors. We demonstrate that T{sup DR} cells also show increased aerobic glycolysis and a high proliferation rate. These findings show that Warburg effect and its consequences are induced in cancer cells that survive severe damage.

  5. Increasing awareness and preparedness by an exhibition and studying the effect of visuals

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik


    Damages caused by natural hazards can be reduced not only by protection, management and intervention activities, but also by information and communication to improve awareness and preparedness of local communities and tourists. Risk communication is particularly crucial for mountainous areas, such as the Ubaye Valley (France), as they are affected by multiple hazards and are particularly sensitive to the potential effects of climate and socio-economic changes which may increase the risk associated with natural hazards significantly. An exhibition is a powerful tool to communicate with the general public. It allows1: (1) targeting specific audiences, (2) transmitting technical and scientific knowledge using a suitable language, (3) anchoring the collective memory of past events, (4) visualize and emotionalize the topic of natural hazards, (5) strengthening the communication between peers, and (6) highlighting local resources and knowledge. In addition to these theoretical advantages, an exhibition may fulfill the requirements of a community. In the Ubaye Valley (France), this tool was proposed by the stakeholders themselves to increase awareness and preparedness of the general public. To meet this demand, the exhibition was designed following three general topics: (1) the natural phenomena and their potential consequences on the elements at risk, (2) the management and protection measures (individual and collective) and (3) the evolution of events and knowledge throughout past up to the present and the anticipation of the future situations. Besides being a real risk communication practice, this exhibition will be the setting for an extensive research project studying the effect of the use of visualization tools on the awareness and preparedness of a community. A wide range of visuals (photos, videos, maps, models, animations, multimedia, etc.) will present many dimensions of locally occurring natural hazards and risk problems. The aim of the research is (1) to

  6. ENU-mutagenesis mice with a non-synonymous mutation in Grin1 exhibit abnormal anxiety-like behaviors, impaired fear memory, and decreased acoustic startle response.

    Umemori, Juzoh; Takao, Keizo; Koshimizu, Hisatsugu; Hattori, Satoko; Furuse, Tamio; Wakana, Shigeharu; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi


    The Grin1 (glutamate receptor, ionotropic, NMDA1) gene expresses a subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that is considered to play an important role in excitatory neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and brain development. Grin1 is a candidate susceptibility gene for neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In our previous study, we examined an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-generated mutant mouse strain (Grin1(Rgsc174)/Grin1+) that has a non-synonymous mutation in Grin1. These mutant mice showed hyperactivity, increased novelty-seeking to objects, and abnormal social interactions. Therefore, Grin1(Rgsc174)/Grin1+ mice may serve as a potential animal model of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, other behavioral characteristics related to these disorders, such as working memory function and sensorimotor gating, have not been fully explored in these mutant mice. In this study, to further investigate the behavioral phenotypes of Grin1(Rgsc174)/Grin1+ mice, we subjected them to a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests. There was no significant difference in nociception between Grin1(Rgsc174)/Grin1+ and wild-type mice. The mutants did not display any abnormalities in the Porsolt forced swim and tail suspension tests. We confirmed the previous observations that the locomotor activity of these mutant mice increased in the open field and home cage activity tests. They displayed abnormal anxiety-like behaviors in the light/dark transition and the elevated plus maze tests. Both contextual and cued fear memory were severely deficient in the fear conditioning test. The mutant mice exhibited slightly impaired working memory in the eight-arm radial maze test. The startle amplitude was markedly decreased in Grin1(Rgsc174)/Grin1+ mice, whereas no significant differences between genotypes were detected in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) test. The mutant mice showed no obvious deficits

  7. Polytrauma Increases Susceptibility to Pseudomonas Pneumonia in Mature Mice.

    Turnbull, Isaiah R; Ghosh, Sarbani; Fuchs, Anja; Hilliard, Julia; Davis, Christopher G; Bochicchio, Grant V; Southard, Robert E


    Pneumonia is the most common complication observed in patients with severe injuries. Although the average age of injured patients is 47 years, existing studies of the effect of injury on the susceptibility to infectious complications have focused on young animals, equivalent to a late adolescent human. We hypothesized that mature adult animals are more susceptible to infection after injury than younger counterparts. To test this hypothesis, we challenged 6 to 8-month-old mature mice to a polytrauma injury followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and compared them to young (8-10-week-old) animals. We demonstrate that polytrauma injury increases mortality from pneumonia in mature animals (sham-pneumonia 21% vs. polytrauma-pneumonia 62%) but not younger counterparts. After polytrauma, pneumonia in mature mice is associated with higher bacterial burden in lung, increased incidence of bacteremia, and elevated levels of bacteria in the blood, demonstrating that injury decreases the ability to control the infectious challenge. We further find that polytrauma did not induce elevations in circulating cytokine levels (TNF-alpha, IL-6, KC, and IL-10) 24  h after injury. However, mature mice subjected to polytrauma demonstrated an exaggerated circulating inflammatory cytokine response to subsequent Pseudomonas pneumonia. Additionally, whereas prior injury increases LPS-stimulated IL-6 production by peripheral blood leukocytes from young (8-10-week-old) mice, injury does not prime IL-6 production by cell from mature adult mice. We conclude that in mature mice polytrauma results in increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas pneumonia while priming an exaggerated but ineffective inflammatory response.

  8. Offspring of prenatal IV nicotine exposure exhibit increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine

    Steven Brown Harrod


    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased substance abuse in offspring. Preclinical research shows that in utero exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive compound in tobacco smoke, influences the neurodevelopment of reward systems and alters motivated behavior in offspring. The present study determined if prenatal nicotine (PN exposure altered the sensitivity to the reinforcing and aversive effects of methamphetamine (METH in offspring using a low dose, intravenous (IV exposure method. Pregnant dams were administered nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection or prenatal saline (PS 3×/day on gestational days 8-21, and adult offspring were tested using METH self-administration (experiment 1 or METH-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA; experiment 2 procedures. For METH self-administration, animals were trained to respond for IV METH (0.05 mg/kg/injection; fixed-ratio 3 and they were tested on varying doses the reinforcer (0.0005-1.0 mg/kg/injection. For METH CTA, rats received three saccharin and METH pairings (0, 0.3, or 0.5 mg/kg, sc followed by fourteen daily extinction trials. Experiment 1: PN and PS animals exhibited inverted U-shaped dose-response curves; however, the PN animal’s curve was shifted to the left, suggesting PN animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of METH. Experiment 2: METH CTA was acquired in a dose-dependent manner and the factor of PN exposure was not related to the acquisition or extinction of METH-induced CTA. There were no sex differences in either experiment. These results indicate that adult offspring of IV PN exposure exhibited altered motivation for the reinforcing effects of METH. This suggests that PN exposure, via maternal smoking, will alter the reinforcing effects of METH during later stages of development, and furthermore, will influence substance use vulnerability in adult human offspring.

  9. TASK-3 knockout mice exhibit exaggerated nocturnal activity, impairments in cognitive functions, and reduced sensitivity to inhalation anesthetics.

    Linden, Anni-Maija; Sandu, Cristina; Aller, M Isabel; Vekovischeva, Olga Y; Rosenberg, Per H; Wisden, William; Korpi, Esa R


    The TASK-3 channel is an acid-sensitive two-pore-domain K+ channel, widely expressed in the brain and probably involved in regulating numerous neuronal populations. Here, we characterized the behavioral and pharmacological phenotypes of TASK-3 knockout (KO) mice. Circadian locomotor activity measurements revealed that the nocturnal activity of the TASK-3 KO mice was increased by 38% (P walking on a rotating rod or along a 1.2-cm-diameter beam. However, they fell more frequently from a narrower 0.8-cm beam. The KO mice showed impaired working memory in the spontaneous alternation task, with the alternation percentage being 62 +/- 3% for the wild-type mice and 48 +/- 4% (P rhythms, cognitive functions, and mediating specific pharmacological effects.

  10. Tellurite-exposed Escherichia coli exhibits increased intracellular {alpha}-ketoglutarate

    Reinoso, Claudia A. [Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Auger, Christopher; Appanna, Vasu D. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario (Canada); Vasquez, Claudio C., E-mail: [Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago (Chile)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tellurite-exposed E. coli exhibits decreased {alpha}-KG dehydrogenase activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cells lacking {alpha}-KGDH genes are more sensitive to ROS than isogenic, wt E. coli. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KG accumulation may serve to face tellurite-mediated oxidative damage in E. coli. -- Abstract: The tellurium oxyanion tellurite is toxic to most organisms because of its ability to generate oxidative stress. However, the detailed mechanism(s) how this toxicant interferes with cellular processes have yet to be fully understood. As part of our effort to decipher the molecular interactions of tellurite with living systems, we have evaluated the global metabolism of {alpha}-ketoglutarate a known antioxidant in Escherichia coli. Tellurite-exposed cells displayed reduced activity of the KG dehydrogenase complex (KGDHc), resulting in increased intracellular KG content. This complex's reduced activity seems to be due to decreased transcription in the stressed cells of sucA, a gene that encodes the E1 component of KGDHc. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the increase in total reactive oxygen species and superoxide observed upon tellurite exposure was more evident in wild type cells than in E. coli with impaired KGDHc activity. These results indicate that KG may be playing a pivotal role in combating tellurite-mediated oxidative damage.

  11. Social defeat in adolescent mice increases vulnerability to alcohol consumption.

    Rodriguez-Arias, Marta; Navarrete, Francisco; Blanco-Gandia, Maria Carmen; Arenas, Maria Carmen; Bartoll-Andrés, Adrián; Aguilar, Maria A; Rubio, Gabriel; Miñarro, José; Manzanares, Jorge


    This study employs an oral operant conditioning paradigm to evaluate the effects of repeated social defeat during adolescence on the reinforcing and motivational actions of ethanol in adult OF1 mice. Social interaction, emotional and cognitive behavioral aspects were also analyzed, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments were performed to study gene expression changes in the mesocorticolimbic and hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal (HHA) axis. Social defeat did not alter anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze or cognitive performance in the passive avoidance and Hebb-Williams tests. A social interaction test revealed depression-like symptoms and social subordination behavior in defeated OF1 mice. Interestingly, social defeat in adolescence significantly increased the number of effective responses, ethanol consumption values and motivation to drink. Finally, real-time PCR analyses revealed that social defeat significantly increased tyrosine hydroxylase and corticotropin-releasing hormone in the ventral tegmental area and paraventricular nucleus, respectively. In contrast, mu-opioid receptor gene expression was decreased in the nucleus accumbens of socially defeated mice. In summary, these findings suggest that exposure to social defeat during adolescence increases vulnerability to the rewarding effects of ethanol without affecting emotional or cognitive performance. The gene expression alterations we have observed in the mesocorticolimbic and HHA axis systems of defeated mice could be related with their increased ethanol consumption. These results endorse future research into pharmacological strategies that modulate these systems for the treatment of social stress-related alcohol consumption problems.

  12. Overactivation of Intestinal SREBP2 in Mice Increases Serum Cholesterol

    Soni, Vinay; Hedroug, Omar; Annaba, Fadi; Dudeja, Amish; Shen, Le; Turner, Jerrold R.; Khramtsova, Ekaterina A.; Saksena, Seema; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Gill, Ravinder K.; Alrefai, Waddah A.


    Sterol Response Element Binding Protein 2 (SREBP2) transcription factor is a master regulator of cholesterol homeostasis. Treatment with statins, inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis, activates intestinal SREBP2, which may hinder their cholesterol-lowering effects. Overactivation of SREBP2 in mouse liver was shown to have no effect on plasma cholesterol. However, the influence of activating intestinal SREBP2 on plasma cholesterol is not known. We have generated a novel transgenic mouse model with intestine specific overexpression of active SREBP2 (ISR2) driven by villin promoter. ISR2 mice showed overexpression of active SREBP2 specifically in the intestine. Microarray analysis of jejunal RNA from ISR2 mice showed a significant increase in genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) in jejunum and liver (mg/g protein) were significantly increased in ISR2 vs wild type mice. Serum Cholesterol was significantly increased in VLDL and LDL fractions whereas the level of serum triglycerides was decreased in ISR2 vs wild type mice. In conclusion, activation of intestinal SREBP2 alone seems to be sufficient to increase plasma cholesterol, highlighting the essential role of intestine in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in the body. PMID:24465397

  13. Mice deficient in the ALS2 gene exhibit lymphopenia and abnormal hematopietic function


    One form of juvenile onset autosomal recessive amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS2) has been linked to the dysfunction of the ALS2 gene. The ALS2 gene is expressed in lymphoblasts, however, whether ALS2-deficiency affects periphery blood is unclear. Here we report that ALS2 knockout (ALS2−/−) mice developed peripheral lymphopenia but had higher proportions of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in which the stem cell factor-induced cell proliferation was up-regulated. Our findings reveal ...

  14. Mice deficient in the ALS2 gene exhibit lymphopenia and abnormal hematopietic function.

    Erie, Elizabeth A; Shim, Hoon; Smith, Aleah L; Lin, Xian; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Xie, Chengsong; Chen, Jichun; Cai, Huaibin


    One form of juvenile onset autosomal recessive amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS2) has been linked to the dysfunction of the ALS2 gene. The ALS2 gene is expressed in lymphoblasts, however, whether ALS2-deficiency affects periphery blood is unclear. Here we report that ALS2 knockout (ALS2(-/-)) mice developed peripheral lymphopenia but had higher proportions of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in which the stem cell factor-induced cell proliferation was up-regulated. Our findings reveal a novel function of the ALS2 gene in the lymphopoiesis and hematopoiesis, suggesting that the immune system is involved in the pathogenesis of ALS2.

  15. Lymphocytes from P2X7-deficient mice exhibit enhanced P2X7 responses

    Simon R.J. Taylor; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Sojka, Dorothy K.; Richardson, Jill C.; Sheardown, Steven A.; Harrison, Stephen M; Pusey, Charles D.; Tam, Frederick W. K.; Elliott, James I


    The purinergic receptor P2X7 is expressed on immune cells, and its stimulation results in the release of IL-1β from macrophages. Its absence, as evidenced from the analysis of two independent strains of P2X7-deficient mice, results in reduced susceptibility to inflammatory disease, and the molecule is an important, potential therapeutic target in autoimmunity. However, P2X7 has also been detected in several neuronal cell types, although its function and even its presence in these cells are hi...

  16. Transgenic alfalfa plants expressing AtNDPK2 exhibit increased growth and tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Hongbing; Ke, Qingbo; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Xu, Bingcheng; Deng, Xi-Ping; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kwak, Sang-Soo


    In this study, we generated and evaluated transgenic alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa L. cv. Xinjiang Daye) expressing the Arabidopsis nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 (AtNDPK2) gene under the control of the oxidative stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter (referred to as SN plants) to develop plants with enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses. We selected two SN plants (SN4 and SN7) according to the expression levels of AtNDPK2 and the enzyme activity of NDPK in response to methyl viologen (MV)-mediated oxidative stress treatment using leaf discs for further characterization. SN plants showed enhanced tolerance to high temperature, NaCl, and drought stress on the whole-plant level. When the plants were subjected to high temperature treatment (42 °C for 24 h), the non-transgenic (NT) plants were severely wilted, whereas the SN plants were not affected because they maintained high relative water and chlorophyll contents. The SN plants also showed significantly higher tolerance to 250 mM NaCl and water stress treatment than the NT plants. In addition, the SN plants exhibited better plant growth through increased expression of auxin-related indole acetic acid (IAA) genes (MsIAA3, MsIAA5, MsIAA6, MsIAA7, and MsIAA16) under normal growth conditions compared to NT plants. The results suggest that induced overexpression of AtNDPK2 in alfalfa will be useful for increasing biomass production under various abiotic stress conditions.

  17. Analysis of the intestinal microbiota of oligo-saccharide fed mice exhibiting reduced resistance to Salmonella infection

    Petersen, Anne; Bergström, Anders; Andersen, Jens Bo


    the observed effects on the pathogenesis of Salmonella. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the microbiota in faecal samples from mice fed FOS or XOS were different from faecal samples collected before the feeding trial as well as from faecal profiles generated from control animals....... This difference was not seen for caecal profiles. Further analysis of faecal samples by real-time PCR demonstrated a significant increase in the Bacteroidetes phylum, the Bacteroides fragilis group and in Bifidobacterium spp. in mice fed FOS or XOS. The observed bifidogenic effect was more pronounced for XOS than...... of short-chain fatty acids was recorded. In conclusion, diets supplemented with FOS or XOS induced a number of microbial changes in the faecal microbiota of mice. The observed effects of XOS were qualitatively similar to those of FOS, but the most prominent bifidogenic effect was seen for XOS. An increased...

  18. HdhQ111 Mice Exhibit Tissue Specific Metabolite Profiles that Include Striatal Lipid Accumulation.

    Jeffrey B Carroll

    Full Text Available The HTT CAG expansion mutation causes Huntington's Disease and is associated with a wide range of cellular consequences, including altered metabolism. The mutant allele is expressed widely, in all tissues, but the striatum and cortex are especially vulnerable to its effects. To more fully understand this tissue-specificity, early in the disease process, we asked whether the metabolic impact of the mutant CAG expanded allele in heterozygous B6.HdhQ111/+ mice would be common across tissues, or whether tissues would have tissue-specific responses and whether such changes may be affected by diet. Specifically, we cross-sectionally examined steady state metabolite concentrations from a range of tissues (plasma, brown adipose tissue, cerebellum, striatum, liver, white adipose tissue, using an established liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry pipeline, from cohorts of 8 month old mutant and wild-type littermate mice that were fed one of two different high-fat diets. The differential response to diet highlighted a proportion of metabolites in all tissues, ranging from 3% (7/219 in the striatum to 12% (25/212 in white adipose tissue. By contrast, the mutant CAG-expanded allele primarily affected brain metabolites, with 14% (30/219 of metabolites significantly altered, compared to wild-type, in striatum and 11% (25/224 in the cerebellum. In general, diet and the CAG-expanded allele both elicited metabolite changes that were predominantly tissue-specific and non-overlapping, with evidence for mutation-by-diet interaction in peripheral tissues most affected by diet. Machine-learning approaches highlighted the accumulation of diverse lipid species as the most genotype-predictive metabolite changes in the striatum. Validation experiments in cell culture demonstrated that lipid accumulation was also a defining feature of mutant HdhQ111 striatal progenitor cells. Thus, metabolite-level responses to the CAG expansion mutation in vivo were tissue specific and

  19. D-penicillamine exhibits a higher radioprotective effect in suckling mice than in grown-up animals

    Oroszlan, Gy.; Lakatos, L.; Dezsi, Z.; Hatvani, I.; Pintye, E.; Karmazsin, L. (Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Debrecen (Hungary). Cyermekklinika; Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Debrecen (Hungary). Radiologiai Intezet; Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Debrecen (Hungary). Szemklinika)


    Grown-up and suckling mice were exposed to whole-body /sup 60/Co-irradiation of 6-10 Gy. The survival time was significantly increased in suckling animals by 3000 mg per kg body weight D-penicillamine applied intraperitoneally 60 min before irradiation, whereas the same treatment had no significant effect in grown-up animals.

  20. Mice lacking TrkB in parvalbumin-positive cells exhibit sexually dimorphic behavioral phenotypes.

    Lucas, Elizabeth K; Jegarl, Anita; Clem, Roger L


    Activity-dependent brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) is required for cued fear memory consolidation and extinction. Although BDNF is primarily secreted from glutamatergic neurons, TrkB is expressed by other genetically defined cells whose contributions to the behavioral effects of BDNF remain poorly understood. Parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons, which are highly enriched in TrkB, are emerging as key regulators of fear memory expression. We therefore hypothesized that activity-dependent BDNF signaling in PV-interneurons may modulate emotional learning. To test this hypothesis, we utilized the LoxP/Cre system for conditional deletion of TrkB in PV-positive cells to examine the impact of cell-autonomous BDNF signaling on Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction. However, behavioral abnormalities indicative of vestibular dysfunction precluded the use of homozygous conditional knockouts in tests of higher cognitive functioning. While vestibular dysfunction was apparent in both sexes, female conditional knockouts exhibited an exacerbated phenotype, including extreme motor hyperactivity and circling behavior, compared to their male littermates. Heterozygous conditional knockouts were spared of vestibular dysfunction. While fear memory consolidation was unaffected in heterozygotes of both sexes, males exhibited impaired extinction consolidation compared to their littermate controls. Our findings complement evidence from human and rodent studies suggesting that BDNF signaling promotes consolidation of extinction and point to PV-positive neurons as a discrete population that mediates these effects in a sex-specific manner.

  1. Balanced Diet-Fed Fat-1 Transgenic Mice Exhibit Lower Hindlimb Suspension-Induced Soleus Muscle Atrophy.

    Marzuca-Nassr, Gabriel Nasri; Murata, Gilson Masahiro; Martins, Amanda Roque; Vitzel, Kaio Fernando; Crisma, Amanda Rabello; Torres, Rosângela Pavan; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Kang, Jing Xuan; Curi, Rui


    The consequences of two-week hindlimb suspension (HS) on skeletal muscle atrophy were investigated in balanced diet-fed Fat-1 transgenic and C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Body composition and gastrocnemius fatty acid composition were measured. Skeletal muscle force, cross-sectional area (CSA), and signaling pathways associated with protein synthesis (protein kinase B, Akt; ribosomal protein S6, S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, 4EBP1; glycogen synthase kinase3-beta, GSK3-beta; and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2, ERK 1/2) and protein degradation (atrophy gene-1/muscle atrophy F-box, atrogin-1/MAFbx and muscle RING finger 1, MuRF1) were evaluated in the soleus muscle. HS decreased soleus muscle wet and dry weights (by 43% and 26%, respectively), muscle isotonic and tetanic force (by 29% and 18%, respectively), CSA of the soleus muscle (by 36%), and soleus muscle fibers (by 45%). Fat-1 transgenic mice had a decrease in the ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ratio as compared with C57BL/6 wild-type mice (56%, p Fat-1 mice had lower soleus muscle dry mass loss (by 10%) and preserved absolute isotonic force (by 17%) and CSA of the soleus muscle (by 28%) after HS as compared with C57BL/6 wild-type mice. p-GSK3B/GSK3B ratio was increased (by 70%) and MuRF-1 content decreased (by 50%) in the soleus muscle of Fat-1 mice after HS. Balanced diet-fed Fat-1 mice are able to preserve in part the soleus muscle mass, absolute isotonic force and CSA of the soleus muscle in a disuse condition.

  2. Erythrocytes encapsulated with phenylalanine hydroxylase exhibit improved pharmacokinetics and lowered plasma phenylalanine levels in normal mice.

    Yew, Nelson S; Dufour, Emmanuelle; Przybylska, Malgorzata; Putelat, Julie; Crawley, Cristin; Foster, Meta; Gentry, Sarah; Reczek, David; Kloss, Alla; Meyzaud, Aurélien; Horand, Françoise; Cheng, Seng H; Godfrin, Yann


    Enzyme replacement therapy is often hampered by the rapid clearance and degradation of the administered enzyme, limiting its efficacy and requiring frequent dosing. Encapsulation of therapeutic molecules into red blood cells (RBCs) is a clinically proven approach to improve the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of biologics and small molecule drugs. Here we evaluated the ability of RBCs encapsulated with phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) to metabolize phenylalanine (Phe) from the blood and confer sustained enzymatic activity in the circulation. Significant quantities of PAH were successfully encapsulated within murine RBCs (PAH-RBCs) with minimal loss of endogenous hemoglobin. While intravenously administered free PAH enzyme was rapidly eliminated from the blood within a few hours, PAH-RBCs persisted in the circulation for at least 10days. A single injection of PAH-RBCs was able to decrease Phe levels by nearly 80% in normal mice. These results demonstrate the ability of enzyme-loaded RBCs to metabolize circulating amino acids and highlight the potential to treat disorders of amino acid metabolism.

  3. Dietary sugar intake increases liver tumor incidence in female mice.

    Healy, Marin E; Lahiri, Sujoy; Hargett, Stefan R; Chow, Jenny D Y; Byrne, Frances L; Breen, David S; Kenwood, Brandon M; Taddeo, Evan P; Lackner, Carolin; Caldwell, Stephen H; Hoehn, Kyle L


    Overnutrition can promote liver cancer in mice and humans that have liver damage caused by alcohol, viruses, or carcinogens. However, the mechanism linking diet to increased liver tumorigenesis remains unclear in the context of whether tumorigenesis is secondary to obesity, or whether nutrients like sugar or fat drive tumorigenesis independent of obesity. In male mice, liver tumor burden was recently found to correlate with sugar intake, independent of dietary fat intake and obesity. However, females are less susceptible to developing liver cancer than males, and it remains unclear how nutrition affects tumorigenesis in females. Herein, female mice were exposed to the liver carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and fed diets with well-defined sugar and fat content. Mice fed diets with high sugar content had the greatest liver tumor incidence while dietary fat intake was not associated with tumorigenesis. Diet-induced postprandial hyperglycemia and fasting hyperinsulinemia significantly correlated with tumor incidence, while tumor incidence was not associated with obesity and obesity-related disorders including liver steatosis, glucose intolerance, or elevated serum levels of estrogen, ALT, and lipids. These results simplify the pathophysiology of diet-induced liver tumorigenesis by focusing attention on the role of sugar metabolism and reducing emphasis on the complex milieu associated with obesity.

  4. Intake of chocolate liquor increases vascular lesions in apoE-knockout mice.

    Yazdekhasti, Narges; Brandsch, Corinna; Hirche, Frank; Kühn, Julia; Schloesser, Anke; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Huebbe, Patricia; Wolffram, Sigfried; Rimbach, Gerald; Stangl, Gabriele I


    Cocoa polyphenols are thought to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, cocoa-containing foods may have significant health benefits. Here, we studied the impact of chocolate liquor on vascular lesion development and plaque composition in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E (apoE)-knockout mice were assigned to two groups and fed a Western diet that contained 250 g/kg of either chocolate liquor or a polyphenol-free isoenergetic control paste for 16 weeks. In addition to fat, protein and fibers, the chocolate liquor contained 2 g/kg of polyphenols. Compared to the control group, mice fed the chocolate liquor had larger plaque areas in the descending aorta and aortic root, which were attributed to a higher mass of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and collagen. Vascular lipid deposits and calcification areas did not differ between the two groups. The aortic tissue level of IL-6 mRNA was 5-fold higher in the mice fed chocolate liquor than in the control mice. Chocolate fed mice exhibited an increased hepatic saturated to polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio than the controls. Although the chocolate liquor contained 14 µg/kg of vitamin D2, the chocolate liquor-fed mice did not have measurable 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 in the serum. These mice even showed a 25% reduction in the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 compared to the control mice. To conclude, chocolate liquor, in comparison with the control paste, increased the aortic lesion area and VSMC mass and stimulated the vascular IL-6 mRNA expression. Present data do not support the notion that chocolate promotes vascular health. ©2017 The Author(s).

  5. AHNAK deficiency promotes browning and lipolysis in mice via increased responsiveness to β-adrenergic signalling.

    Shin, Jae Hoon; Lee, Seo Hyun; Kim, Yo Na; Kim, Il Yong; Kim, Youn Ju; Kyeong, Dong Soo; Lim, Hee Jung; Cho, Soo Young; Choi, Junhee; Wi, Young Jin; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Bae, Yun Soo; Seong, Je Kyung


    In adipose tissue, agonists of the β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) regulate lipolysis, lipid oxidation, and thermogenesis. The deficiency in the thermogenesis induced by neuroblast differentiation-associated protein AHNAK in white adipose tissue (WAT) of mice fed a high-fat diet suggests that AHNAK may stimulate energy expenditure via development of beige fat. Here, we report that AHNAK deficiency promoted browning and thermogenic gene expression in WAT but not in brown adipose tissue of mice stimulated with the ADRB3 agonist CL-316243. Consistent with the increased thermogenesis, Ahnak(-/-) mice exhibited an increase in energy expenditure, accompanied by elevated mitochondrial biogenesis in WAT depots in response to CL-316243. Additionally, AHNAK-deficient WAT contained more eosinophils and higher levels of type 2 cytokines (IL-4/IL-13) to promote browning of WAT in response to CL-316243. This was associated with enhanced sympathetic tone in the WAT via upregulation of adrb3 and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in response to β-adrenergic activation. CL-316243 activated PKA signalling and enhanced lipolysis, as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase and release of free glycerol in Ahnak(-/-) mice compared to wild-type mice. Overall, these findings suggest an important role of AHNAK in the regulation of thermogenesis and lipolysis in WAT via β-adrenergic signalling.

  6. Humanized Tau Mice with Regionalized Amyloid Exhibit Behavioral Deficits but No Pathological Interaction

    Yetman, Michael J.; Fowler, Stephanie W.; Jankowsky, Joanna L.


    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) researchers have struggled for decades to draw a causal link between extracellular Aβ aggregation and intraneuronal accumulation of microtubule-associated protein tau. The amyloid cascade hypothesis posits that Aβ deposition promotes tau hyperphosphorylation, tangle formation, cell loss, vascular damage, and dementia. While the genetics of familial AD and the pathological staging of sporadic disease support this sequence of events, attempts to examine the molecular mechanism in transgenic animal models have largely relied on models of other inherited tauopathies as the basis for testing the interaction with Aβ. In an effort to more accurately model the relationship between Aβ and wild-type tau in AD, we intercrossed mice that overproduce human Aβ with a tau substitution model in which all 6 isoforms of the human protein are expressed in animals lacking murine tau. We selected an amyloid model in which pathology was biased towards the entorhinal region so that we could further examine whether the anticipated changes in tau phosphorylation occurred at the site of Aβ deposition or in synaptically connected regions. We found that Aβ and tau had independent effects on locomotion, learning, and memory, but found no behavioral evidence for an interaction between the two transgenes. Moreover, we saw no indication of amyloid-induced changes in the phosphorylation or aggregation of human tau either within the entorhinal area or elsewhere. These findings suggest that robust amyloid pathology within the medial temporal lobe has little effect on the metabolism of wild type human tau in this model. PMID:27070146

  7. A mechanistic study to increase understanding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-increased plasma glucose in mice.

    Hu, Hailong; Li, Li; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning


    Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) is an authorized food additive. Previous studies determined oral administration of TiO2 NPs increases plasma glucose in mice via inducing insulin resistance. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered the possible mechanism of increasing plasma glucose. However, persistently high plasma glucose is also a mechanism of increasing ROS. This study aims to explore whether TiO2 NPs increase plasma glucose via ROS. We found after oral administration of TiO2 NPs, an increase in ROS preceded an increase in plasma glucose. Subsequently, mice were treated with two antioxidants (resveratrol and vitamin E) at the same time as oral administration of TiO2 NPs. Results showed resveratrol and vitamin E reduced TiO2 NPs-increased ROS. An increase in plasma glucose was also inhibited. Further research showed resveratrol and vitamin E inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, resulting in improved insulin resistance. These results suggest TiO2 NPs increased ROS levels, and then ROS activated inflammatory cytokines and phosphokinases, and thus induced insulin resistance, resulting in an increase in plasma glucose. Resveratrol and vitamin E can reduce TiO2 NPs-increased ROS and thereby inhibit an increase in plasma glucose in mice.

  8. Cancer-initiating cells derived from established cervical cell lines exhibit stem-cell markers and increased radioresistance

    López Jacqueline


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer-initiating cells (CICs are proposed to be responsible for the generation of metastasis and resistance to therapy. Accumulating evidences indicates CICs are found among different human cancers and cell lines derived from them. Few studies address the characteristics of CICs in cervical cancer. We identify biological features of CICs from four of the best-know human cell lines from uterine cervix tumors. (HeLa, SiHa, Ca Ski, C-4 I. Methods Cells were cultured as spheres under stem-cell conditions. Flow cytometry was used to detect expression of CD34, CD49f and CD133 antigens and Hoechst 33342 staining to identify side population (SP. Magnetic and fluorescence-activated cell sorting was applied to enrich and purify populations used to evaluate tumorigenicity in nude mice. cDNA microarray analysis and in vitro radioresistance assay were carried out under standard conditions. Results CICs, enriched as spheroids, were capable to generate reproducible tumor phenotypes in nu-nu mice and serial propagation. Injection of 1 × 103 dissociated spheroid cells induced tumors in the majority of animals, whereas injection of 1 × 105 monolayer cells remained nontumorigenic. Sphere-derived CICs expressed CD49f surface marker. Gene profiling analysis of HeLa and SiHa spheroid cells showed up-regulation of CICs markers characteristic of the female reproductive system. Importantly, epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT transition-associated markers were found highly expressed in spheroid cells. More importantly, gene expression analysis indicated that genes required for radioresistance were also up-regulated, including components of the double-strand break (DSB DNA repair machinery and the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Dose-dependent radiation assay indicated indeed that CICs-enriched populations exhibit an increased resistance to ionizing radiation (IR. Conclusions We characterized a self-renewing subpopulation of CICs found among

  9. Follicle-stimulating hormone increases bone mass in female mice.

    Allan, Charles M; Kalak, Robert; Dunstan, Colin R; McTavish, Kirsten J; Zhou, Hong; Handelsman, David J; Seibel, Markus J


    Elevated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) activity is proposed to directly cause bone loss independent of estradiol deficiency in aging women. Using transgenic female mice expressing human FSH (TgFSH), we now reveal that TgFSH dose-dependently increased bone mass, markedly elevating tibial and vertebral trabecular bone volume. Furthermore, TgFSH stimulated a striking accrual of bone mass in hypogonadal mice lacking endogenous FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) function, showing that FSH-induced bone mass occurred independently of background LH or estradiol levels. Higher TgFSH levels increased osteoblast surfaces in trabecular bone and stimulated de novo bone formation, filling marrow spaces with woven rather than lamellar bone, reflective of a strong anabolic stimulus. Trabecular bone volume correlated positively with ovarian-derived serum inhibin A or testosterone levels in TgFSH mice, and ovariectomy abolished TgFSH-induced bone formation, proving that FSH effects on bone require an ovary-dependent pathway. No detectable FSH receptor mRNA in mouse bone or cultured osteoblasts or osteoclasts indicated that FSH did not directly stimulate bone. Therefore, contrary to proposed FSH-induced bone loss, our findings demonstrate that FSH has dose-dependent anabolic effects on bone via an ovary-dependent mechanism, which is independent of LH activity, and does not involve direct FSH actions on bone cells.

  10. Transgenic mice expressing mutant Pinin exhibit muscular dystrophy, nebulin deficiency and elevated expression of slow-type muscle fiber genes

    Wu, Hsu-Pin; Hsu, Shu-Yuan [Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University Medical College, Taiwan (China); Wu, Wen-Ai; Hu, Ji-Wei [Transgenic Mouse Core Laboratory, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Ouyang, Pin, E-mail: [Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University Medical College, Taiwan (China); Transgenic Mouse Core Laboratory, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)


    Highlights: •Pnn CCD domain functions as a dominant negative mutant regulating Pnn expression and function. •Pnn CCD mutant Tg mice have a muscle wasting phenotype during development and show dystrophic histological features. •Pnn mutant muscles are susceptible to slow fiber type gene transition and NEB reduction. •The Tg mouse generated by overexpression of the Pnn CCD domain displays many characteristics resembling NEB{sup +/−} mice. -- Abstract: Pinin (Pnn) is a nuclear speckle-associated SR-like protein. The N-terminal region of the Pnn protein sequence is highly conserved from mammals to insects, but the C-terminal RS domain-containing region is absent in lower species. The N-terminal coiled-coil domain (CCD) is, therefore, of interest not only from a functional point of view, but also from an evolutionarily standpoint. To explore the biological role of the Pnn CCD in a physiological context, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Pnn mutant in skeletal muscle. We found that overexpression of the CCD reduces endogenous Pnn expression in cultured cell lines as well as in transgenic skeletal muscle fibers. Pnn mutant mice exhibited reduced body mass and impaired muscle function during development. Mutant skeletal muscles show dystrophic histological features with muscle fibers heavily loaded with centrally located myonuclei. Expression profiling and pathway analysis identified over-representation of genes in gene categories associated with muscle contraction, specifically those related to slow type fiber. In addition nebulin (NEB) expression level is repressed in Pnn mutant skeletal muscle. We conclude that Pnn downregulation in skeletal muscle causes a muscular dystrophic phenotype associated with NEB deficiency and the CCD domain is incapable of replacing full length Pnn in terms of functional capacity.

  11. Glucagon-like peptide-2 but not imipramine exhibits antidepressant-like effects in ACTH-treated mice.

    Iwai, Takashi; Ohnuki, Tomoko; Sasaki-Hamada, Sachie; Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Sugiyama, Azusa; Oka, Jun-Ichiro


    We investigated the effectiveness of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) against refractory depression in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-treated mice as a model of tricyclic antidepressant (TCA)-resistant depression. Chronic ACTH treatment (0.45 mg/kg, s.c., 14 days) weakened the antidepressant-like effects of imipramine (20 mg/kg, i.p., 6 days) in the forced-swim test (FST). Conversely, GLP-2 (3 μg/mice, i.c.v., 6 days) induced antidepressant-like effects in the ACTH-treated mice in the FST. ACTH-treatment increased basal serum corticosterone levels, with an additional increase induced by the FST. Imipramine or GLP-2 had no effect on the basal corticosterone level, but GLP-2 attenuated the additional increase caused by the FST. Moreover, GLP-2 increased 5-HT levels, but not 5-HIAA. These results suggest that GLP-2 induced antidepressant-like effects under imipramine-resistant conditions through increase in 5-HT levels.

  12. Suppression of serotonin neuron firing increases aggression in mice.

    Audero, Enrica; Mlinar, Boris; Baccini, Gilda; Skachokova, Zhiva K; Corradetti, Renato; Gross, Cornelius


    Numerous studies link decreased serotonin metabolites with increased impulsive and aggressive traits. However, although pharmacological depletion of serotonin is associated with increased aggression, interventions aimed at directly decreasing serotonin neuron activity have supported the opposite association. Furthermore, it is not clear if altered serotonin activity during development may contribute to some of the observed associations. Here, we used two pharmacogenetic approaches in transgenic mice to selectively and reversibly reduce the firing of serotonin neurons in behaving animals. Conditional overexpression of the serotonin 1A receptor (Htr1a) in serotonin neurons showed that a chronic reduction in serotonin neuron firing was associated with heightened aggression. Overexpression of Htr1a in adulthood, but not during development, was sufficient to increase aggression. Rapid suppression of serotonin neuron firing by agonist treatment of mice expressing Htr1a exclusively in serotonin neurons also led to increased aggression. These data confirm a role of serotonin activity in setting thresholds for aggressive behavior and support a direct association between low levels of serotonin homeostasis and increased aggression.

  13. Cherubism mice also deficient in c-Fos exhibit inflammatory bone destruction executed by macrophages that express MMP14 despite the absence of TRAP+ osteoclasts.

    Kittaka, Mizuho; Mayahara, Kotoe; Mukai, Tomoyuki; Yoshimoto, Tetsuya; Yoshitaka, Teruhito; Gorski, Jeffrey P; Ueki, Yasuyoshi


    Currently, it is believed that osteoclasts positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP +) are the exclusive bone-resorbing cells responsible for focal bone destruction in inflammatory arthritis. Recently, a mouse model of cherubism (Sh3bp2(KI/KI) ) with a homozygous gain-of-function mutation in the SH3-domain binding protein 2 (SH3BP2) was shown to develop auto-inflammatory joint destruction. Here, we demonstrate that Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice also deficient in the FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene (c-Fos) still exhibit noticeable bone erosion at the distal tibia even in the absence of osteoclasts at 12 weeks old. Levels of serum ICTP, a marker of bone resorption generated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), were elevated, while levels of serum CTX, another resorption marker produced by cathepsin K, were not increased. Collagenolytic MMP levels were increased in the inflamed joints of the Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice deficient in c-Fos. Resorption pits contained a large number of F4/80+ macrophages and genetic depletion of macrophages rescued these erosive changes. Importantly, administration of NSC405020, an MMP14 inhibitor targeted to the hemopexin (PEX) domain, suppressed bone erosion in c-Fos-deficient Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice. After activation of the NF-κB pathway, M-CSF-dependent macrophages from c-Fos-deficient Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice expressed increased amounts of MMP14 compared to wild-type macrophages. Interestingly, RANKL-deficient Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice failed to show notable bone erosion, while c-Fos deletion did restore bone erosion to the RANKL-deficient Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice, suggesting that osteolytic transformation of macrophages requires both loss-of-function of c-Fos and gain-of-function of SH3BP2 in this model. These data provide the first genetic evidence that cells other than osteoclasts can cause focal bone destruction in inflammatory bone disease and suggest that MMP14 is a key mediator conferring pathological bone-resorbing capacity on c-Fos-deficient Sh3bp2(KI

  14. Pseudouridine synthase 1 deficient mice, a model for Mitochondrial Myopathy with Sideroblastic Anemia, exhibit muscle morphology and physiology alterations

    Mangum, Joshua E.; Hardee, Justin P.; Fix, Dennis K.; Puppa, Melissa J.; Elkes, Johnathon; Altomare, Diego; Bykhovskaya, Yelena; Campagna, Dean R.; Schmidt, Paul J.; Sendamarai, Anoop K.; Lidov, Hart G. W.; Barlow, Shayne C.; Fischel-Ghodsian, Nathan; Fleming, Mark D.; Carson, James A.; Patton, Jeffrey R.


    Mitochondrial myopathy with lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA) is an oxidative phosphorylation disorder, with primary clinical manifestations of myopathic exercise intolerance and a macrocytic sideroblastic anemia. One cause of MLASA is recessive mutations in PUS1, which encodes pseudouridine (Ψ) synthase 1 (Pus1p). Here we describe a mouse model of MLASA due to mutations in PUS1. As expected, certain Ψ modifications were missing in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs from Pus1−/− animals. Pus1−/− mice were born at the expected Mendelian frequency and were non-dysmorphic. At 14 weeks the mutants displayed reduced exercise capacity. Examination of tibialis anterior (TA) muscle morphology and histochemistry demonstrated an increase in the cross sectional area and proportion of myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIB and low succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) expressing myofibers, without a change in the size of MHC IIA positive or high SDH myofibers. Cytochrome c oxidase activity was significantly reduced in extracts from red gastrocnemius muscle from Pus1−/− mice. Transmission electron microscopy on red gastrocnemius muscle demonstrated that Pus1−/− mice also had lower intermyofibrillar mitochondrial density and smaller mitochondria. Collectively, these results suggest that alterations in muscle metabolism related to mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity may account for the reduced exercise capacity in Pus1−/− mice. PMID:27197761

  15. Corneal kindled C57BL/6 mice exhibit saturated dentate gyrus long-term potentiation and associated memory deficits in the absence of overt neuron loss.

    Remigio, Gregory J; Loewen, Jaycie L; Heuston, Sage; Helgeson, Colin; White, H Steve; Wilcox, Karen S; West, Peter J


    Memory deficits have a significant impact on the quality of life of patients with epilepsy and currently no effective treatments exist to mitigate this comorbidity. While these cognitive comorbidities can be associated with varying degrees of hippocampal cell death and hippocampal sclerosis, more subtle changes in hippocampal physiology independent of cell loss may underlie memory dysfunction in many epilepsy patients. Accordingly, animal models of epilepsy or epileptic processes exhibiting memory deficits in the absence of cell loss could facilitate novel therapy discovery. Mouse corneal kindling is a cost-effective and non-invasive model of focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures that may exhibit memory deficits in the absence of cell loss. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that corneal kindled C57BL/6 mice exhibit spatial pattern processing and memory deficits in a task reliant on DG function and that these impairments would be concurrent with physiological remodeling of the DG as opposed to overt neuron loss. Following corneal kindling, C57BL/6 mice exhibited deficits in a DG-associated spatial memory test - the metric task. Compatible with this finding, we also discovered saturated, and subsequently impaired, LTP of excitatory synaptic transmission at the perforant path to DGC synapse. This saturation of LTP was consistent with evidence suggesting that perforant path to DGC synapses in kindled mice had previously experienced LTP-like changes to their synaptic weights: increased postsynaptic depolarizations in response to equivalent presynaptic input and significantly larger amplitude AMPA receptor mediated spontaneous EPSCs. Additionally, there was evidence for kindling-induced changes in the intrinsic excitability of DGCs: reduced threshold to population spikes under extracellular recording conditions and significantly increased membrane resistances observed in DGCs. Importantly, quantitative immunohistochemical analysis revealed hippocampal astrogliosis

  16. Diabetic mice exhibited a peculiar alteration in body composition with exaggerated ectopic fat deposition after muscle injury due to anomalous cell differentiation.

    Mogi, Masaki; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-No, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Wang, Xiao-Li; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Miki, Tetsuro; Horiuchi, Masatsugu


    Sarcopenic obesity, age-related muscle loss, which is compensated by an increase in fat mass, impairs quality of life in elderly people. Although the increase in intramuscular fat is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity and increased metabolic risk factors, the origin of diabetes-associated intramuscular fat has not been elucidated. Here, we investigated intramuscular fat deposition using a muscle injury model in type 2 diabetic mice. Male 8-week-old C57BL/6 and 8-week-old and 26-week-old KKAy underwent intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin (Ctx) (100 μL/10 μM) into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. After 2 weeks, the muscles were removed and evaluated. KKAy exhibited impaired muscle regeneration and ectopic fat deposition. Such impairment was more marked in older KKAy. These changes were also observed in another diabetic mouse model, db/db and diet-induced obese mice but not in streptozocin-induced diabetic mice. Deposited fat was platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor alpha positive and its cytoskeleton was stained with Masson's trichrome, indicating it to be of fibro-adipocyte progenitor cell origin. Expression of a myogenic marker, myoD, was lower and that of PDGF receptor alpha and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CEBP) alpha was higher in Ctx-injured TA of KKAy compared with that of C57BL/6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) was highly expressed in fat-forming lesions in older KKAy. Treatment with all-trans retinoic acid prevented the formation of intramuscular fat; however, treatment with GW9662, a PPARγ antagonist, increased the fibrotic change in muscle. Diabetic mice showed impaired muscle regeneration with fat deposition, suggesting that diabetes may enhance sarcopenic obesity through a mechanism involving anomalous fibro-adipocyte progenitor cell differentiation.

  17. Diet induced obesity increases the risk of colonic tumorigenesis in mice.

    Sikalidis, Angelos K; Fitch, Mark D; Fleming, Sharon E


    A large body of epidemiological data indicates that obesity increases the risk of colon cancer in humans. There are limited studies using rodent models where the relationship between obesity and colon cancer has been studied. In this study, wild-type diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and lean wild-type controls were used to investigate the influence of obesity on the risk of colon cancer. We hypothesized that the obese phenotype would exhibit increased colonic tumorigenesis. Colon cancer was chemically induced by injecting the mice with azoxymethane (AOM) at levels that we experimentally determined to result in equivalent AOM concentrations in circulating blood. Risk of colon cancer was assessed via microscopic examination of entire colons for aberrant crypts, aberrant crypt foci and proliferation levels. The DIO mice were found to have significantly more aberrant crypts and aberrant crypt foci as well as increased proliferation of colonocytes per mouse compared to wild-type control mice, supporting the epidemiological data that obesity increases the risk of colonic tumorigenesis.

  18. Cardiac Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Exhibit High Differentiation Potential to Cardiovascular Cells in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Nagata, Hiroki; Ii, Masaaki; Kohbayashi, Eiko; Hoshiga, Masaaki; Hanafusa, Toshiaki; Asahi, Michio


    Adipose-derived stem cells (AdSCs) have recently been shown to differentiate into cardiovascular lineage cells. However, little is known about the fat tissue origin-dependent differences in AdSC function and differentiation potential. AdSC-rich cells were isolated from subcutaneous, visceral, cardiac (CA), and subscapular adipose tissue from mice and their characteristics analyzed. After four different AdSC types were cultured with specific differentiation medium, immunocytochemical analysis was performed for the assessment of differentiation into cardiovascular cells. We then examined the in vitro differentiation capacity and therapeutic potential of AdSCs in ischemic myocardium using a mouse myocardial infarction model. The cell density and proliferation activity of CA-derived AdSCs were significantly increased compared with the other adipose tissue-derived AdSCs. Immunocytochemistry showed that CA-derived AdSCs had the highest appearance rates of markers for endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes among the AdSCs. Systemic transfusion of CA-derived AdSCs exhibited the highest cardiac functional recovery after myocardial infarction and the high frequency of the recruitment to ischemic myocardium. Moreover, long-term follow-up of the recruited CA-derived AdSCs frequently expressed cardiovascular cell markers compared with the other adipose tissue-derived AdSCs. Cardiac adipose tissue could be an ideal source for isolation of therapeutically effective AdSCs for cardiac regeneration in ischemic heart diseases. Significance: The present study found that cardiac adipose-derived stem cells have a high potential to differentiate into cardiovascular lineage cells (i.e., cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells) compared with stem cells derived from other adipose tissue such as subcutaneous, visceral, and subscapular adipose tissue. Notably, only a small number of supracardiac adipose-derived stem cells that were

  19. Dietary Chitosan Supplementation Increases Microbial Diversity and Attenuates the Severity of Citrobacter rodentium Infection in Mice

    Wang, Hongbing; Xiong, Xia; Tan, Bie; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Fang, Jun


    C57BL/6 mice were tested in order to investigate the effects of dietary chitosan (COS) supplements on intestinal microflora and resistance to Citrobacter rodentium infection. The findings reveal that, after consuming a 300 mg/kg COS diet for 14 days, microflora became more diverse as a result of the supplement. Mice receiving COS exhibited an increase in the percentage of Bacteroidetes phylum and a decrease in the percentage of Firmicutes phylum. After Citrobacter rodentium infection, the histopathology scores indicated that COS feeding resulted in less severe colitis. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly lower in colon from COS-feeding mice than those in the control group. Furthermore, mice in COS group were also found to experience inhibited activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in the colonic tissue. Overall, the findings revealed that adding 300 mg/kg COS to the diet changed the composition of the intestinal microflora of mice, resulting in suppressed NF-κB activation and less production of TNF-α and IL-6; and these changes led to better control of inflammation and resolution of infection with C. rodentium. PMID:27761062

  20. Dietary Chitosan Supplementation Increases Microbial Diversity and Attenuates the Severity of Citrobacter rodentium Infection in Mice

    Guiping Guan


    Full Text Available C57BL/6 mice were tested in order to investigate the effects of dietary chitosan (COS supplements on intestinal microflora and resistance to Citrobacter rodentium infection. The findings reveal that, after consuming a 300 mg/kg COS diet for 14 days, microflora became more diverse as a result of the supplement. Mice receiving COS exhibited an increase in the percentage of Bacteroidetes phylum and a decrease in the percentage of Firmicutes phylum. After Citrobacter rodentium infection, the histopathology scores indicated that COS feeding resulted in less severe colitis. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly lower in colon from COS-feeding mice than those in the control group. Furthermore, mice in COS group were also found to experience inhibited activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB in the colonic tissue. Overall, the findings revealed that adding 300 mg/kg COS to the diet changed the composition of the intestinal microflora of mice, resulting in suppressed NF-κB activation and less production of TNF-α and IL-6; and these changes led to better control of inflammation and resolution of infection with C. rodentium.

  1. Prohormone convertase 2 activity is increased in the hippocampus of Wfs1 knockout mice

    Karin eTein


    Full Text Available BackgroundMutations in WFS1 gene cause Wolfram syndrome, which is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic nerve atrophy and deafness (DIDMOAD. The WFS1 gene product wolframin is located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mice lacking this gene exhibit disturbances in the processing and secretion of peptides, such as vasopressin and insulin. In the brain, high levels of the wolframin protein have been observed in the hippocampus, amygdala and limbic structures. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Wfs1 knockout on peptide processing in mouse hippocampus. A peptidomic approach was used to characterize individual peptides in the hippocampus of wild-type and Wfs1 knockout mice. ResultsWe identified 126 peptides in hippocampal extracts and the levels of 10 peptides differed between Wfs1 KO and wild-type mice at P<0.05. The peptide with the largest alteration was little-LEN, which level was 25 times higher in the hippocampus of Wfs1 KO mice compared to wild-type mice. Processing (cleavage of little-LEN from the Pcsk1n gene product proSAAS involves prohormone convertase 2 (PC2. Thus, PC2 activity was measured in extracts prepared from the hippocampus of Wfs1 knockout mice. The activity of PC2 in Wfs1 mutant mice was significantly higher (149.9±2.3%, p<0.0001, n=8 than in wild-type mice (100.0±7.0%, n=8. However, Western blot analysis showed that protein levels of 7B2, proPC2 and PC2 were same in both groups, and so were gene expression levels.ConclusionsProcessing of proSAAS is altered in the hippocampus of Wfs1-KO mice, which is caused by increased activity of PC2. Increased activity of PC2 in Wfs1 knockout mice is not caused by alteration in the levels of PC2 protein. Our results suggest a functional link between Wfs1 and PC2. Thus, the detailed molecular mechanism of the role of Wfs1 in the regulation of PC2 activity needs further investigation.

  2. Pharmacological inhibition of PPARγ increases osteoblastogenesis and bone mass in male C57BL/6 mice.

    Duque, Gustavo; Li, Wei; Vidal, Christopher; Bermeo, Sandra; Rivas, Daniel; Henderson, Janet


    Infiltration of bone marrow with fat is a prevalent feature in people with age-related bone loss and osteoporosis, which correlates inversely with bone formation and positively with high expression levels of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Inhibition of PPARγ thus represents a potential therapeutic approach for age-related bone loss. In this study, we examined the effect of PPARγ inhibition on bone in skeletally mature C57BL/6 male mice. Nine-month-old mice were treated with a PPARγ antagonist, bisphenol-A-diglycidyl ether (BADGE), alone or in combination with active vitamin D (1,25[OH](2) D(3) ) for 6 weeks. Micro-computed tomography and bone histomorphometry indicated that mice treated with either BADGE or BADGE + 1,25(OH)(2) D(3) had significantly increased bone volume and improved bone quality compared with vehicle-treated mice. This phenotype occurred in the absence of alterations in osteoclast number. Furthermore, the BADGE + 1,25(OH)(2) D(3) -treated mice exhibited higher levels of unmineralized osteoid. All of the treated groups showed a significant increase in circulating levels of bone formation markers without changes in bone resorption markers, while blood glucose, parathyroid hormone, and Ca(+) remained normal. Furthermore, treatment with BADGE induced higher levels of expression of vitamin D receptor within the bone marrow. Overall, treated mice showed higher levels of osteoblastogenesis and bone formation concomitant with decreased marrow adiposity and ex vivo adipogenesis. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of PPARγ may represent an effective anabolic therapy for osteoporosis in the near future.

  3. Increased proximal bifurcation of CA1 pyramidal apical dendrites in sema3A mutant mice.

    Nakamura, Fumio; Ugajin, Kozue; Yamashita, Naoya; Okada, Takako; Uchida, Yutaka; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Ohshima, Toshio; Goshima, Yoshio


    Semaphorin-3A (Sema3A) is an attractive guidance molecule for cortical apical dendrites. To elucidate the role of Sema3A in hippocampal dendritic formation, we examined the Sema3A expression pattern in the perinatal hippocampal formation and analyzed hippocampal dendrites of the brains from young adult sema3A mutant mice. Sema3A protein was predominantly expressed in the hippocampal plate and the inner marginal zone at the initial period of apical dendritic growth. Neuropilin-1 and plexin-A, the receptor components for Sema3A, were also localized in the same regions. The Golgi impregnation method revealed that in wildtype mice more than 90% of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons extended a single trunk or apical trunks bifurcated in stratum radiatum. Seven percent of the pyramidal neurons showed proximal bifurcation of apical trunks in stratum pyramidale or at the border of the stratum pyramidale and stratum radiatum. In sema3A mutant mice, proximally bifurcated apical dendrites were increased to 32%, while the single apical dendritic pyramidal neurons were decreased. We designate this phenotype in sema3A mutant mice as "proximal bifurcation." In the dissociated culture system, approximately half of the hippocampal neurons from wildtype mice resembled pyramidal neurons, which possess a long, thick, and tapered dendrite. In contrast, only 30% of the neurons from sema3A mutants exhibited pyramidal-like morphology. Proximal bifurcation of CA1 pyramidal neurons was also increased in the mutant mice of p35, an activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5). Thus, Sema3A may facilitate the initial growth of CA1 apical dendrites via the activation of p35/Cdk5, which may in turn signal hippocampal development.

  4. Ts65Dn, a mouse model of Down syndrome, exhibits increased GABAB-induced potassium current.

    Best, Tyler K; Siarey, Richard J; Galdzicki, Zygmunt


    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common nonheritable cause of mental retardation. DS is the result of the presence of an extra chromosome 21 and its phenotype may be a consequence of overexpressed genes from that chromosome. One such gene is Kcnj6/Girk2, which encodes the G-protein-coupled inward rectifying potassium channel subunit 2 (GIRK2). We have recently shown that the DS mouse model, Ts65Dn, overexpresses GIRK2 throughout the brain and in particular the hippocampus. Here we report that this overexpression leads to a significant increase ( approximately 2-fold) in GABA(B)-mediated GIRK current in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. The dose response curves for peak and steady-state GIRK current density is significantly shifted left toward lower concentrations of baclofen in Ts65Dn neurons compared with diploid controls, consistent with increased functional expression of GIRK channels. Stationary fluctuation analysis of baclofen-induced GIRK current from Ts65Dn neurons indicated no significant change in single-channel conductance compared with diploid. However, significant increases in GIRK channel density was found in Ts65Dn neurons. In normalized baclofen-induced GIRK current and GIRK current kinetics no difference was found between diploid and Ts65Dn neurons, which suggests unimpaired mechanisms of interaction between GIRK channel and GABA(B) receptor. These results indicate that increased expression of GIRK2 containing channels have functional consequences that likely affect the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neuronal transmission.

  5. Mice deficient in cryptochrome 1 (Cry1-/- exhibit resistance to obesity induced by a high fat diet

    Guy eGriebel


    Full Text Available Disruption of circadian clock enhances the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Circadian clocks rely on a highly regulated network of transcriptional and translational loops that drive clock-controlled gene expression. Among these transcribed clock genes are cryptochrome (CRY family members, which comprise Cry1 and Cry2. While the metabolic effects of deletion of several core components of the clock gene machinery have been well characterized, those of selective inactivation of Cry1 or Cry2 genes have not been described. In this study we demonstrate that ablation of Cry1, but not Cry2, prevents high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity in mice. Despite similar caloric intake, Cry1-/- mice on HFD gained markedly less weight (-18 % at the end of the 16-week experiment and displayed reduced fat accumulation compared to wild-type (WT littermates (-61 %, suggesting increased energy expenditure. Analysis of serum lipid and glucose profiles showed no difference between Cry1-/- and WT mice. Both Cry1-/- and Cry2-/- mice are indistinguishable from WT controls in body weight, fat and protein contents, and food consumption when they are allowed unlimited access to a standard rodent diet. We conclude that although CRY signaling may not be essential for the maintenance of energy homeostasis under steady-state nutritional conditions, Cry1 may play a role in readjusting energy balance under changing nutritional circumstances. These studies reinforce the important role of circadian clock genes in energy homeostasis and suggest that Cry1 is a plausible target for antiobesity therapy.

  6. Cell cycle-arrested tumor cells exhibit increased sensitivity towards TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    Ehrhardt, H; Wachter, F; Grunert, M; Jeremias, I


    Resting tumor cells represent a huge challenge during anticancer therapy due to their increased treatment resistance. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a putative future anticancer drug, currently in phases I and II clinical studies. We recently showed that TRAIL is able to target leukemia stem cell surrogates. Here, we tested the ability of TRAIL to target cell cycle-arrested tumor cells. Cell cycle arrest was induced in tumor cell lines and xenografted tumor cells in G0, G1 or G2 using cytotoxic drugs, phase-specific inhibitors or RNA interference against cyclinB and E. Biochemical or molecular arrest at any point of the cell cycle increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Accordingly, when cell cycle arrest was disabled by addition of caffeine, the antitumor activity of TRAIL was reduced. Most important for clinical translation, tumor cells from three children with B precursor or T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia showed increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis upon knockdown of either cyclinB or cyclinE, arresting the cell cycle in G2 or G1, respectively. Taken together and in contrast to most conventional cytotoxic drugs, TRAIL exerts enhanced antitumor activity against cell cycle-arrested tumor cells. Therefore, TRAIL might represent an interesting drug to treat static-tumor disease, for example, during minimal residual disease. PMID:23744361

  7. Increased renal renin content in mice lacking the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE2.

    Hanner, Fiona; Chambrey, Régine; Bourgeois, Soline; Meer, Elliott; Mucsi, István; Rosivall, László; Shull, Gary E; Lorenz, John N; Eladari, Dominique; Peti-Peterdi, János


    Macula densa (MD) cells express the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) isoform NHE2 at the apical membrane, which may play an important role in tubular salt sensing through the regulation of cell volume and intracellular pH. These studies aimed to determine whether NHE2 participates in the MD control of renin synthesis. Renal renin content and activity and elements of the MD signaling pathway were analyzed using wild-type (NHE2(+/+)) and NHE2 knockout (NHE2(-/-)) mice. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that NHE2(-/-) mice lack NHE3 at the MD apical membrane, so the other apical NHE isoform has not compensated for the lack of NHE2. Importantly, the number of renin-expressing cells in the afferent arteriole in NHE2(-/-) mice was increased approximately 2.5-fold using renin immunohistochemistry. Western blotting confirmed approximately 20% higher renal cortical renin content in NHE2(-/-) mice compared with wild type. No-salt diet for 1 wk significantly increased renin content and activity in NHE2(+/+) mice, but the response was blunted in NHE2(-/-) mice. Renal tissue renin activity and plasma renin concentration were elevated three- and twofold, respectively, in NHE2(-/-) mice compared with wild type. NHE2(-/-) mice also exhibited a significantly increased renal cortical cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES) expression, indicating MD-specific mechanisms responsible for the increased renin content. Significant and chronic activation of ERK1/2 was observed in MD cells of NHE2(-/-) kidneys. Removal of salt or addition of NHE inhibitors to cultured mouse MD-derived (MMDD1) cells caused a time-dependent activation of ERK1/2. In conclusion, the NHE2 isoform appears to be important in the MD feedback control of renin secretion, and the signaling pathway likely involves MD cell shrinkage and activation of ERK1/2, COX-2, and mPGES, all well-established elements of the MD-PGE(2)-renin release pathway.

  8. TEMPOL increases NAD+ and improves redox imbalance in obese mice

    Mayumi Yamato


    Full Text Available Continuous energy conversion is controlled by reduction–oxidation (redox processes. NAD+ and NADH represent an important redox couple in energy metabolism. 4-Hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPOL is a redox-cycling nitroxide that promotes the scavenging of several reactive oxygen species (ROS and is reduced to hydroxylamine by NADH. TEMPOL is also involved in NAD+ production in the ascorbic acid–glutathione redox cycle. We utilized the chemical properties of TEMPOL to investigate the effects of antioxidants and NAD+/NADH modulators on the metabolic imbalance in obese mice. Increases in the NAD+/NADH ratio by TEMPOL ameliorated the metabolic imbalance when combined with a dietary intervention, changing from a high-fat diet to a normal diet. Plasma levels of the superoxide marker dihydroethidium were higher in mice receiving the dietary intervention compared with a control diet, but were normalized with TEMPOL consumption. These findings provide novel insights into redox regulation in obesity.

  9. Cell cycle-arrested tumor cells exhibit increased sensitivity towards TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    Ehrhardt, H.; Wachter, F; Grunert, M.; Jeremias, I


    Resting tumor cells represent a huge challenge during anticancer therapy due to their increased treatment resistance. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a putative future anticancer drug, currently in phases I and II clinical studies. We recently showed that TRAIL is able to target leukemia stem cell surrogates. Here, we tested the ability of TRAIL to target cell cycle-arrested tumor cells. Cell cycle arrest was induced in tumor cell lines and xenografted tumor cells in G0, G1 o...

  10. Areas of normal pulmonary parenchyma on HRCT exhibit increased FDG PET signal in IPF patients

    Win, Thida [Lister Hospital, Respiratory Medicine, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Thomas, Benjamin A.; Lambrou, Tryphon; Hutton, Brian F.; Endozo, Raymondo; Shortman, Robert I.; Afaq, Asim; Ell, Peter J.; Groves, Ashley M. [University College London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Screaton, Nicholas J. [Papworth Hospital, Radiology Department, Papworth Everard (United Kingdom); Porter, Joanna C. [University College London, Centre for Respiratory Diseases, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Maher, Toby M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, London (United Kingdom); Lukey, Pauline [GSK, Fibrosis DPU, Research and Development, Stevenage (United Kingdom)


    Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) show increased PET signal at sites of morphological abnormality on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). The purpose of this investigation was to investigate the PET signal at sites of normal-appearing lung on HRCT in IPF. Consecutive IPF patients (22 men, 3 women) were prospectively recruited. The patients underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/HRCT. The pulmonary imaging findings in the IPF patients were compared to the findings in a control population. Pulmonary uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG (mean SUV) was quantified at sites of morphologically normal parenchyma on HRCT. SUVs were also corrected for tissue fraction (TF). The mean SUV in IPF patients was compared with that in 25 controls (patients with lymphoma in remission or suspected paraneoplastic syndrome with normal PET/CT appearances). The pulmonary SUV (mean ± SD) uncorrected for TF in the controls was 0.48 ± 0.14 and 0.78 ± 0.24 taken from normal lung regions in IPF patients (p < 0.001). The TF-corrected mean SUV in the controls was 2.24 ± 0.29 and 3.24 ± 0.84 in IPF patients (p < 0.001). IPF patients have increased pulmonary uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG on PET in areas of lung with a normal morphological appearance on HRCT. This may have implications for determining disease mechanisms and treatment monitoring. (orig.)

  11. Single-walled carbon nanotube-conjugated chemotherapy exhibits increased therapeutic index in melanoma

    Chaudhuri, Padmaparna; Soni, Shivani; Sengupta, Shiladitya, E-mail: [BWH-HST Center for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Harvard-MIT Division of Health Science and Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    The incidence of malignant melanoma is increasing at an alarming rate globally. Poor prognosis and extraordinarily low survival rates of malignant melanoma necessitates the development of new chemotherapeutic strategies. An emerging approach is to harness nanotechnology to optimize the existing chemotherapies. In the present study we have demonstrated that the delivery of doxorubicin using a nanotechnology-based platform significantly reduces the systemic toxicity of the drug, keeping unchanged its therapeutic efficacy in a mouse melanoma tumor model. Specifically we modified single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to conjugate a doxorubicin prodrug via a carbamate linker that cleaves enzymatically to cause temporal release of the active drug. The CNT-doxorubicin conjugate (CNT-Dox) induced time-dependent cell death in B16-F10 melanoma cells in vitro. The nanoparticle was rapidly internalized into the lysosome of melanoma cells and was retained in the subcellular compartment for over 24 h. In an in vivo melanoma model, treatment with the nanotube-doxorubicin conjugate abrogated tumor growth without the systemic side-effects associated with free doxorubicin. Our studies demonstrate that a simple and versatile CNT-based nanovector can be harnessed for the delivery of chemotherapy to melanoma, with increased therapeutic index.

  12. Increased spring flooding of agricultural fields will exhibit altered production of greenhouse gases

    Paul, R. F.; Smith, C. M.; Smyth, E. M.; Kantola, I. B.; DeLucia, E. H.


    The U.S. Corn Belt currently is a net source of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, but is also a sink of methane. Among the proposed effects of climate change in the North American Midwest region is an increase in the frequency and duration of spring flooding events. This would cause ponding in fields which may change the greenhouse gas balance of the region, especially by providing a suitable anoxic environment for the proliferation of methanogens, increasing methane emissions. To determine whether methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural soils of the Midwest and how other gas fluxes are affected, we installed collars into the ground of a research field located in central Illinois. The control group was maintained at the same conditions as the surrounding field. Two groups of collars were sustained with water flooding the headspaces via a drip irrigation system; one treatment was analyzed for gas fluxes of CH4, N2O, and CO2 evolving from the collars, and a separate treatment of flooded collars was used for soil sampling. Comparing flooded soils versus control we measured reduced N2O fluxes (-3.12 x 10-6 × 6.8 x 10-7 g N m-2 min-1), reduced CO2 fluxes (-6.13 x 10-3 × 9.3 x 10-4 g CO2 m-2 min-1), and increased methane fluxes (+2.72 x 10-6 × 5.8 x 10-7 g CH4 m-2 min-1). After only one week of treatment the flooded soils switched from being sinks to sources of methane, which continued across the duration of the experiment. These preliminary results indicate that methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural fields, and suggest including regional modeling into further study. Although the global warming potential of methane is 25 times greater than CO2, our measured rates of methane production were compensated by reductions in nitrous oxide and CO2 fluxes, reducing the total 100-year horizon global warming potential of the flooded soils we studied by 64.8%. This indicates that accounting for more frequent seasonal ponding would significantly

  13. Inoperable Pancreatic Cancer Patients Who Have Prolonged Survival Exhibit an Increased Risk of Cholangitis

    Buxbaum, James L; Biggins, Scott W; Bagatelos, Karen C; Inadomi, John M; Ostroff, James W


    Context Endoscopically placed metal stents, which are patent for 4-9 months, have been the favored decompressive strategy for biliary obstruction due to inoperable pancreatic cancer in order to minimize interventions. However, in the past decade chemotherapeutic options have improved survival. This raises the question of whether metal stents will continue to be the optimal method of decompression. Objective We performed a study to determine the outcome of patients with non-operatively managed pancreatic adenocarcinoma with regards to the development of cholangitis. Design We reviewed all ERCP performed for malignant distal biliary obstruction in between December 1999 and December 2005 at University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Patients Only patients who received chemotherapy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma were included. Patients who underwent surgical biliary diversion procedures were excluded. Primary outcome measurement The primary outcome was the development of cholangitis requiring hospitalization. Results Among 200 patients with malignant distal biliary obstruction who underwent endoscopic biliary decompression procedures, 54 met study criterion. Metal stents were employed in 90.7% of these cases. The median survival of this population was 12.7 months (range: 2.6-34.6 months). Only 3 of 26 patients (11.5%) surviving one year or less developed cholangitis compared to 13 of 28 (46.5%) who survived more than one year. Thus patients surviving greater than one year had a five fold increase in the odds of developing cholangitis (odds ratio: 4.92; P=0.017). Conclusions This cohort of inoperable pancreatic cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy survived longer than the expected patent period of metal stents employed for biliary decompression. The occurrence of cholangitis requiring hospitalization does increase markedly among long term survivors. PMID:21737900

  14. Adipose-specific deletion of TFAM increases mitochondrial oxidation and protects mice against obesity and insulin resistance

    Vernochet, Cecile; Mourier, Arnaud; Bezy, Olivier


    oxygen consumption and uncoupling. As a result, F-TFKO mice exhibit higher energy expenditure and are protected from age- and diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis, despite a greater food intake. Thus, TFAM deletion in the adipose tissue increases mitochondrial oxidation that has...

  15. Oxidative profile exhibited by Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA patients at diagnosis: Increased keratan urinary levels.

    Donida, Bruna; Marchetti, Desirèe P; Jacques, Carlos Eduardo Diaz; Ribas, Graziela; Deon, Marion; Manini, Paula; da Rosa, Helen Tais; Moura, Dinara Jaqueline; Saffi, Jenifer; Giugliani, Roberto; Vargas, Carmen Regla


    Morquio A disease (Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA, MPS IVA) is one of the 11 mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs), a heterogeneous group of inherited lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) caused by deficiency in enzymes need to degrade glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Morquio A is characterized by a decrease in N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase activity and subsequent accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate in cells and body fluids. As the pathophysiology of this LSD is not completely understood and considering the previous results of our group concerning oxidative stress in Morquio A patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), the aim of this study was to investigate oxidative stress parameters in Morquio A patients at diagnosis. It was studied 15 untreated Morquio A patients, compared with healthy individuals. The affected individuals presented higher lipid peroxidation, assessed by urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane levels and no protein damage, determined by sulfhydryl groups in plasma and di-tyrosine levels in urine. Furthermore, Morquio A patients showed DNA oxidative damage in both pyrimidines and purines bases, being the DNA damage positively correlated with lipid peroxidation. In relation to antioxidant defenses, affected patients presented higher levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), while superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were similar to controls. Our findings indicate that Morquio A patients present at diagnosis redox imbalance and oxidative damage to lipids and DNA, reinforcing the idea about the importance of antioxidant therapy as adjuvant to ERT, in this disorder.

  16. Coscinaraea marshae corals that have survived prolonged bleaching exhibit signs of increased heterotrophic feeding

    Bessell-Browne, Pia; Stat, Michael; Thomson, Damian; Clode, Peta L.


    Colonies of Coscinaraea marshae corals from Rottnest Island, Western Australia have survived for more than 11 months in various bleached states following a severe heating event in the austral summer of 2011. These colonies are situated in a high-latitude, mesophotic environment, which has made their long-term survival of particular interest as such environments typically suffer from minimal thermal pressures. We have investigated corals that remain unbleached, moderately bleached, or severely bleached to better understand potential survival mechanisms utilised in response to thermal stress. Specifically, Symbiodinium (algal symbiont) density and genotype, chlorophyll- a concentrations, and δ13C and δ15N levels were compared between colonies in the three bleaching categories. Severely bleached colonies housed significantly fewer Symbiodinium cells ( p coral in both severely and moderately bleached colonies, with clade C and a mixed clade population detected. In unbleached colonies, only clade B was observed. Levels of δ15N indicate that severely bleached colonies are utilising heterotrophic feeding mechanisms to aid survival whilst bleached. Collectively, these results suggest that these C. marshae colonies can survive with low symbiont and chlorophyll densities, in response to prolonged thermal stress and extended bleaching, and increase heterotrophic feeding levels sufficiently to meet energy demands, thus enabling some colonies to survive and recover over long time frames. This is significant as it suggests that corals in mesophotic and high-latitude environments may possess considerable plasticity and an ability to tolerate and adapt to large environmental fluctuations, thereby improving their chances of survival as climate change impacts coral ecosystems worldwide.

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa AES-1 exhibits increased virulence gene expression during chronic infection of cystic fibrosis lung.

    Sharna Naughton

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in people with cystic fibrosis (CF, adapts for survival in the CF lung through both mutation and gene expression changes. Frequent clonal strains such as the Australian Epidemic Strain-1 (AES-1, have increased ability to establish infection in the CF lung and to superimpose and replace infrequent clonal strains. Little is known about the factors underpinning these properties. Analysis has been hampered by lack of expression array templates containing CF-strain specific genes. We sequenced the genome of an acute infection AES-1 isolate from a CF infant (AES-1R and constructed a non-redundant micro-array (PANarray comprising AES-1R and seven other sequenced P. aeruginosa genomes. The unclosed AES-1R genome comprised 6.254Mbp and contained 6957 putative genes, including 338 not found in the other seven genomes. The PANarray contained 12,543 gene probe spots; comprising 12,147 P. aeruginosa gene probes, 326 quality-control probes and 70 probes for non-P. aeruginosa genes, including phage and plant genes. We grew AES-1R and its isogenic pair AES-1M, taken from the same patient 10.5 years later and not eradicated in the intervening period, in our validated artificial sputum medium (ASMDM and used the PANarray to compare gene expression of both in duplicate. 675 genes were differentially expressed between the isogenic pairs, including upregulation of alginate, biofilm, persistence genes and virulence-related genes such as dihydroorotase, uridylate kinase and cardiolipin synthase, in AES-1M. Non-PAO1 genes upregulated in AES-1M included pathogenesis-related (PAGI-5 genes present in strains PACS2 and PA7, and numerous phage genes. Elucidation of these genes' roles could lead to targeted treatment strategies for chronically infected CF patients.

  18. Inhibition of activin receptor type IIB increases strength and lifespan in myotubularin-deficient mice.

    Lawlor, Michael W; Read, Benjamin P; Edelstein, Rachel; Yang, Nicole; Pierson, Christopher R; Stein, Matthew J; Wermer-Colan, Ariana; Buj-Bello, Anna; Lachey, Jennifer L; Seehra, Jasbir S; Beggs, Alan H


    X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a congenital disorder caused by deficiency of the lipid phosphatase, myotubularin. Patients with XLMTM often have severe perinatal weakness that requires mechanical ventilation to prevent death from respiratory failure. Muscle biopsy specimens from patients with XLMTM exhibit small myofibers with central nuclei and central aggregations of organelles in many cells. It was postulated that therapeutically increasing muscle fiber size would cause symptomatic improvement in myotubularin deficiency. Recent studies have elucidated an important role for the activin-receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) in regulation of muscle growth and have demonstrated that ActRIIB inhibition results in significant muscle hypertrophy. To evaluate whether promoting muscle hypertrophy can attenuate symptoms resulting from myotubularin deficiency, the effect of ActRIIB-mFC treatment was determined in myotubularin-deficient (Mtm1δ4) mice. Compared with wild-type mice, untreated Mtm1δ4 mice have decreased body weight, skeletal muscle hypotrophy, and reduced survival. Treatment of Mtm1δ4 mice with ActRIIB-mFC produced a 17% extension of lifespan, with transient increases in weight, forelimb grip strength, and myofiber size. Pathologic analysis of Mtm1δ4 mice during treatment revealed that ActRIIB-mFC produced marked hypertrophy restricted to type 2b myofibers, which suggests that oxidative fibers in Mtm1δ4 animals are incapable of a hypertrophic response in this setting. These results support ActRIIB-mFC as an effective treatment for the weakness observed in myotubularin deficiency. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced humoral immunity in mice lacking CB1 and CB2 receptors (Cnr1-/-/Cnr2-/- mice) is not due to increased splenic noradrenergic neuronal activity.

    Simkins, Tyrell; Crawford, Robert B; Goudreau, John L; Lookingland, Keith J; Kaplan, Barbara L F


    Peripheral sympathetic noradrenergic neurons originating in the celiac mesenteric plexus have axons that terminate in close proximity to antibody-producing B cells in the spleen. Norepinephrine (NE) released from these neurons is reported to augment antibody production in response to an immune challenge via an action at the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR). Cannabinoids are immunosuppressive, and mice lacking CB1 and CB2 receptors (Cnr1(-/-)/Cnr2(-/-) mice) have augmented cell-mediated immune responses. The purpose of this study was to determine if Cnr1(-/-)/Cnr2(-/-) mice also exhibit enhanced humoral immunity and if that is associated with corresponding changes in noradrenergic neurons terminating in the spleen. The results reveal that IgM and IgG are enhanced in Cnr1(-/-)/Cnr2(-/-) mice as compared to WT both in immunologically naïve and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice. While the elevated antibody production was correlated with increased expression of β2AR on splenic B cells and increased splenic capsule NE concentrations, the activity of noradrenergic neurons was suppressed in spleens from Cnr1(-/-)/Cnr2(-/-) mice as compared with WT controls. Together, these results suggest that Cnr1(-/-)/Cnr2(-/-) mice exhibit enhanced NE vesicular storage in axon terminals in these neurons, which might limit the NE available to bind β2AR on target cells, such as B cells. The results also demonstrate that enhanced antibody responses in the absence of CB1 and CB2 receptors are not due to increased sympathetic noradrenergic neuronal activity in the spleen.

  20. Kharon1 null mutants of Leishmania mexicana are avirulent in mice and exhibit a cytokinesis defect within macrophages.

    Khoa D Tran

    Full Text Available In a variety of eukaryotes, flagella play important roles both in motility and as sensory organelles that monitor the extracellular environment. In the parasitic protozoan Leishmania mexicana, one glucose transporter isoform, LmxGT1, is targeted selectively to the flagellar membrane where it appears to play a role in glucose sensing. Trafficking of LmxGT1 to the flagellar membrane is dependent upon interaction with the KHARON1 protein that is located at the base of the flagellar axoneme. Remarkably, while Δkharon1 null mutants are viable as insect stage promastigotes, they are unable to survive as amastigotes inside host macrophages. Although Δkharon1 promastigotes enter macrophages and transform into amastigotes, these intracellular parasites are unable to execute cytokinesis and form multinucleate cells before dying. Notably, extracellular axenic amastigotes of Δkharon1 mutants replicate and divide normally, indicating a defect in the mutants that is only exhibited in the intra-macrophage environment. Although the flagella of Δkharon1 amastigotes adhere to the phagolysomal membrane of host macrophages, the morphology of the mutant flagella is often distorted. Additionally, these null mutants are completely avirulent following injection into BALB/c mice, underscoring the critical role of the KHARON1 protein for viability of intracellular amastigotes and disease in the animal model of leishmaniasis.

  1. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibits UVB-induced skin inflammation and oxidative stress in hairless mice and exhibits antioxidant activity in vitro.

    Ivan, Ana L M; Campanini, Marcela Z; Martinez, Renata M; Ferreira, Vitor S; Steffen, Vinicius S; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Vilela, Fernanda M P; Martins, Frederico S; Zarpelon, Ana C; Cunha, Thiago M; Fonseca, Maria J V; Baracat, Marcela M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Verri, Waldiceu A; Casagrande, Rúbia


    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation may cause oxidative stress- and inflammation-dependent skin cancer and premature aging. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is an antioxidant and inhibits nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. In the present study, the mechanisms of PDTC were investigated in cell free oxidant/antioxidant assays, in vivo UVB irradiation in hairless mice and UVB-induced NFκB activation in keratinocytes. PDTC presented the ability to scavenge 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical (OH); and also efficiently inhibited iron-dependent and -independent lipid peroxidation as well as chelated iron. In vivo, PDTC treatment significantly decreased UVB-induced skin edema, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), increase of reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and antioxidant capacity of the skin tested by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ABTS assays. PDTC also reduced UVB-induced IκB degradation in keratinocytes. These results demonstrate that PDTC presents antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, which line up well with the PDTC inhibition of UVB irradiation-induced skin inflammation and oxidative stress in mice. These data suggest that treatment with PDTC may be a promising approach to reduce UVB irradiation-induced skin damages and merits further pre-clinical and clinical studies.

  2. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor-Overexpressing Mice Exhibit Reduced Neuronal Activation in the Arcuate Nucleus and Food Intake in Response to Fasting


    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) overexpressing (OE) mice are a genetic model that exhibits features of chronic stress. We investigated whether the adaptive feeding response to a hypocaloric challenge induced by food deprivation is impaired under conditions of chronic CRF overproduction. Food intake response to a 16-h overnight fast and ip injection of gut hormones regulating food intake were compared in CRF-OE and wild type (WT) littermate mice along with brain Fos expression, circulatin...

  3. Increased vascular sympathetic modulation in mice with Mas receptor deficiency.

    Rabello Casali, Karina; Ravizzoni Dartora, Daniela; Moura, Marina; Bertagnolli, Mariane; Bader, Michael; Haibara, Andrea; Alenina, Natalia; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Santos, Robson A


    The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas axis could modulate the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure variabilities (BPV) which are important predictors of cardiovascular risk and provide information about the autonomic modulation of the cardiovascular system. Therefore we investigated the effect of Mas deficiency on autonomic modulation in wild type and Mas-knockout (KO) mice. Blood pressure was recorded at high sample rate (4000 Hz). Stationary sequences of 200-250 beats were randomly chosen. Frequency domain analysis of HR and BPV was performed with an autoregressive algorithm on the pulse interval sequences and on respective systolic sequences. The KO group presented an increase of systolic arterial pressure (SAP; 127.26±11.20 vs 135.07±6.98 mmHg), BPV (3.54±1.54 vs 5.87±2.12 mmHg(2)), and low-frequency component of systolic BPV (0.12±0.11 vs 0.47±0.34 mmHg(2)). The deletion of Mas receptor is associated with an increase of SAP and with an increased BPV, indicating alterations in autonomic control. Increase of sympathetic vascular modulation in absence of Mas evidences the important role of Ang-(1-7)/Mas on cardiovascular regulation. Moreover, the absence of significant changes in HR and HRV can indicate an adaptation of autonomic cardiac balance. Our results suggest that the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis seems more important in autonomic modulation of arterial pressure than HR. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Increased intracellular Th1 cytokines in scid mice with inflammatory bowel disease

    Bregenholt, S; Claesson, Mogens Helweg


    by intracellular staining. A 4-5-fold increase in the fraction of IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ lamina propria T cells was found in moderately and severely diseased mice when compared to healthy congenic C.B-17 control mice. The number of IL-2-producing T cells was increased by approximately 2-fold when comparing mice...

  5. Mice with neuropathic pain exhibit morphine tolerance due to a decrease in the morphine concentration in the brain.

    Ochiai, Wataru; Kaneta, Mitsumasa; Nagae, Marina; Yuzuhara, Ami; Li, Xin; Suzuki, Haruka; Hanagata, Mika; Kitaoka, Satoshi; Suto, Wataru; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Kon, Risako; Miyashita, Kazuhiko; Masukawa, Daiki; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Narita, Minoru; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi


    The chronic administration of morphine to patients with neuropathic pain results in the development of a gradual tolerance to morphine. Although the detailed mechanism of this effect has not yet been elucidated, one of the known causes is a decrease in μ-opioid receptor function with regard to the active metabolite of morphine, M-6-G(morphine-6-glucuronide), in the ventrotegmental area of the midbrain. In this study, the relationship between the concentration of morphine in the brain and its analgesic effect was examined after the administration of morphine in the presence of neuropathic pain. Morphine was orally administered to mice with neuropathic pain, and the relationship between morphine's analgesic effect and its concentration in the brain was analysed. In addition, the expression levels of the conjugation enzyme, UGT2B (uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase), which has morphine as its substrate, and P-gp, which is a transporter involved in morphine excretion, were examined. In mice with neuropathic pain, the concentration of morphine in the brain was significantly decreased, and a correlation was found between this decrease and the decrease in the analgesic effect. It was considered possible that this decrease in the brain morphine concentration may be due to an increase in the expression level of P-gp in the small intestine and to an increase in the expression level and binding activity of UGT2B in the liver. The results of this study suggest the possibility that a sufficient analgesic effect may not be obtained when morphine is administered in the presence of neuropathic pain due to a decrease in the total amount of morphine and M-6-G that reach the brain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Increasing fat content from 20 to 45 wt% in a complex diet induces lower endotoxemia in parallel with an increased number of intestinal goblet cells in mice.

    Benoit, Bérengère; Laugerette, Fabienne; Plaisancié, Pascale; Géloën, Alain; Bodennec, Jacques; Estienne, Monique; Pineau, Gaëlle; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Vidal, Hubert; Michalski, Marie-Caroline


    The impacts of high-fat diets (HFDs) on the onset of metabolic endotoxemia and low-grade inflammation are well established in rodent models. However, the dose-effect of dietary lipid intakes on these parameters is not known. We hypothesized that increasing dietary lipid amounts could be linked to parallel increases of endotoxemia, low-grade inflammation, and metabolic and intestinal alterations. Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD, 2.6 wt% of lipids), a moderate HFD (mHFD, 22 wt% of lipids), or a very HFD (vHFD, 45 wt% of lipids) formulated mainly using chow ingredients and milk fat. After 12 weeks, white adipose tissues, liver, intestine, distal colon contents, and plasma were collected. Only vHFD mice significantly increased body weight and fat mass vs LFD mice. This was associated with increases of plasma concentrations of triglycerides, leptin and adiponectin, and liver lipids. No such differences were observed between LFD and mHFD mice. However, mHFD developed metabolic endotoxemia and inflammation, unlike vHFD mice. In turn, vHFD mice showed more goblet cells in all intestine segments vs both other groups and a decrease of Bacteroides-Prevotella in their microbiota vs LFD mice. Finally, mHFD mice colon exhibited a decrease in lactobacilli and in the levels of occludin phosphorylation. Altogether, using complex HFD, no associations were observed between dietary lipid amounts and the magnitude of endotoxemia, inflammation, and physiological alterations developed. These results reveal the impact of the diet composition on intestinal goblet cells and mucus coat, bringing new insights about further consequences on HFD-induced metabolic disorders.

  7. EAAC1 Gene Deletion Increases Neuronal Death and Blood Brain Barrier Disruption after Transient Cerebral Ischemia in Female Mice

    Bo Young Choi


    Full Text Available EAAC1 is important in modulating brain ischemic tolerance. Mice lacking EAAC1 exhibit increased susceptibility to neuronal oxidative stress in mice after transient cerebral ischemia. EAAC1 was first described as a glutamate transporter but later recognized to also function as a cysteine transporter in neurons. EAAC1-mediated transport of cysteine into neurons contributes to neuronal antioxidant function by providing cysteine substrates for glutathione synthesis. Here we evaluated the effects of EAAC1 gene deletion on hippocampal blood vessel disorganization after transient cerebral ischemia. EAAC1−/− female mice subjected to transient cerebral ischemia by common carotid artery occlusion for 30 min exhibited twice as much hippocampal neuronal death compared to wild-type female mice as well as increased reduction of neuronal glutathione, blood–brain barrier (BBB disruption and vessel disorganization. Pre-treatment of N-acetyl cysteine, a membrane-permeant cysteine prodrug, increased basal glutathione levels in the EAAC1−/− female mice and reduced ischemic neuronal death, BBB disruption and vessel disorganization. These findings suggest that cysteine uptake by EAAC1 is important for neuronal antioxidant function under ischemic conditions.

  8. Mice deficient in N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase exhibit enhanced liver fibrosis and delayed recovery from fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice

    Hiroko Habuchi


    Results and conclusion: On 2 days after cessation of CCl4 administration, higher fibrosis was observed in KO mice than in WT mice by Sirius Red staining. Serum alanine aminotransferase activity was higher in KO mice than in WT mice. Hydroxyproline contents and Sirius Red staining showed that repair of liver fibrosis in the recovery stages appeared to be delayed in KO mice. Expression of mRNA of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2, MMP-13 and versican peaked at 2 days after cessation of CCl4 administration and was higher in KO mice than in WT mice. Expression of MMP-9 in the recovery stage was lower in KO mice than in WT mice. Our findings demonstrate that defect in GalNAc4S-6ST, which resulted in disappearance of CS/DS containing GalNAc(4,6SO4, appear to contribute to progression of liver fibrosis, delayed recovery from fibrosis, and various changes in the expression of proteoglycans and MMPs in carbon tetrachloride–treated mice.

  9. Aberrant neural stem cell proliferation and increased adult neurogenesis in mice lacking chromatin protein HMGB2.

    Ariel B Abraham

    Full Text Available Neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs are distinct groups of cells found in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS. Previously we determined that members of the High Mobility Group (HMG B family of chromatin structural proteins modulate NSC proliferation and self-renewal. Among them HMGB2 was found to be dynamically expressed in proliferating and differentiating NSCs, suggesting that it may regulate NSC maintenance. We report now that Hmgb2(-/- mice exhibit SVZ hyperproliferation, increased numbers of SVZ NSCs, and a trend towards aberrant increases in newly born neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB granule cell layer. Increases in the levels of the transcription factor p21 and the Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM, along with down-regulation of the transcription/pluripotency factor Oct4 in the Hmgb2-/- SVZ point to a possible pathway for this increased proliferation/differentiation. Our findings suggest that HMGB2 functions as a modulator of neurogenesis in young adult mice through regulation of NSC proliferation, and identify a potential target via which CNS repair could be amplified following trauma or disease-based neuronal degeneration.

  10. Dietary psyllium fiber increases intestinal heat shock protein 25 expression in mice.

    Ogata, Miyuki; Van Hung, Tran; Tari, Hiroyuki; Arakawa, Teruaki; Suzuki, Takuya


    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect intestinal epithelial cell function, integrity and viability against many forms of stress. We hypothesized that dietary fibers (DFs) in the diet may increase HSP expression, since DFs are known to exhibit beneficial effects on intestinal health. The present study investigated the regulation of intestinal HSP expression by DFs, particularly psyllium fiber. Feeding psyllium fiber for 5 d increased HSP25 expression, but not HSP32 and HSP70 expression in the jejunum, ileum, and colon of mice at both the protein and mRNA levels. The increases in HSP25 expression did not correlate with cecal organic acid production by microbial fermentation. The water-insoluble fraction of psyllium fiber largely contributed to the induction of HSP25 expression, but feeding with other water-insoluble DFs from beet, wheat, and oats failed to induce intestinal HSP25 expression. Although the water-holding capacity of psyllium fiber was much higher than those of the other water-insoluble DFs examined, the increase in HSP25 expression induced by feeding polycarbophil, which possesses a high water-holding capacity similar to that of psyllium fiber, was much lower than that induced by psyllium fiber. Finally, induction of malondialdehyde production by hydrogen peroxide, an oxidant, in the colon of mice fed psyllium fiber was lower than that in mice fed with the control diets. Taken together, feeding psyllium fiber, especially the water-insoluble fraction, increases intestinal HSP25 expression and suppresses oxidant-induced malondialdehyde production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lactonic Sophorolipids Increase Tumor Burden in Apcmin+/- Mice.

    Breedge Callaghan

    Full Text Available Sophorolipids (SL are amphiphilic biosurfactant molecules consisting of a disaccharide sophorose with one fatty acid at the C1 position and optional acetylation at the C6'and C6" positions. They exist in a closed ring lactonic (LSL or open acidic (ASL structure Sophorolipids are produced in crude mixtures in economically viable amounts by the yeast Starmerella bombicola and used in a variety of consumer products. Varying levels of anti- proliferative and anti-cancer activity of crude sophorolipid mixtures are described in a number of tumor cell lines in vitro. However, significant inter-study variation exists in the composition of sophorolipid species as well as other biologically active compounds in these mixtures, which makes interpretation of in vitro and in vivo studies difficult. We produced a 96% pure C18:1 lactonic sophorolipid that dose-dependently reduces the viability of colorectal cancer, as well as normal human colonic and lung cell lines in vitro. Oral administration of vehicle-only; or lactonic sophorolipids (50 mg/kg for 70 days, to Apcmin+/- mice resulted in an increase in the number (55.5 ± 3.3 vs 70.50 ± 7.8: p < 0.05 and size (modal size 2mm vs 4mm of intestinal polyps. Lactonic administration resulted in a systematic effect via reduced hematocrit (49.5 ± 1.0 vs 28.2 ± 2.0 vs: p<0.03 and splenomegaly (0.56 ± 0.03g vs 0.71 ± 0.04g; p<0.01 confirming exacerbation of disease progression in this model.

  12. Bone-derived mesenchymal stromal cells from HIV transgenic mice exhibit altered proliferation, differentiation capacity and paracrine functions along with impaired therapeutic potential in kidney injury

    Cheng, Kang; Rai, Partab; Lan, Xiqian; Plagov, Andrei; Malhotra, Ashwani [Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhassett, NY (United States); Gupta, Sanjeev [Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Diabetes Center, Cancer Center, Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research, Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Singhal, Pravin C., E-mail: [Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhassett, NY (United States)


    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete paracrine factors that could be cytoprotective and serve roles in immunoregulation during tissue injury. Although MSCs express HIV receptors, and co-receptors, and are susceptible to HIV infection, whether HIV-1 may affect biological properties of MSCs needs more study. We evaluated cellular proliferation, differentiation and paracrine functions of MSCs isolated from compact bones of healthy control mice and Tg26 HIV-1 transgenic mice. The ability of MSCs to protect against cisplatin toxicity was studied in cultured renal tubular cells as well as in intact mice. We successfully isolated MSCs from healthy mice and Tg26 HIV-1 transgenic mice and found the latter expressed viral Nef, Vpu, NL4-3 and Vif genes. The proliferation and differentiation of Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs was inferior to MSCs from healthy mice. Moreover, transplantation of Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs less effectively improved outcomes compared with healthy MSCs in mice with acute kidney injury. Also, Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs secreted multiple cytokines, but at significantly lower levels than healthy MSCs, which resulted in failure of conditioned medium from these MSCs to protect cultured renal tubular cells from cisplatin toxicity. Therefore, HIV-1 had adverse biological effects on MSCs extending to their proliferation, differentiation, function, and therapeutic potential. These findings will help in advancing mechanistical insight in renal injury and repair in the setting of HIV-1 infection. -- Highlights: •MSCs isolated from HIV mice displayed HIV genes. •MSCs isolated from HIV mice exhibited attenuated growth and paracrine functions. •AKI mice with transplanted HIV-MSC displayed poor outcome. •HIV-1 MSC secreted multiple cytokines but at a lower level.

  13. The influence of snakehead (Channa striata) fish extract to increase hyperglycemic mice fertility based on spermatogenic cell composition

    Hidayati, Dewi; Abdulgani, Nurlita; Ashuri, Nova Maulidina; Sa'adah, Noor Nailis; Lukitasari, Maharani


    Reproductive dysfunction is recognized as a consequence of diabetes mellitus. Previous study revealed that snakehead (Channa striata) fish extract can repairing the pancreas histological structure which by that decreasing the blood glucose levels. Further research was conducted to determine the influence of snakehead fish extract (SHFE) to increasing the fertility of hyperglycemic mice based on spermatogenic cell composition. Twenty five adult mice (Mus musculus) were induced intraperitoneally to be hyperglycemic using alloxan monohydrate single dose of 190 mg/kg body weight. Hyperglycemic mice treated orally for 14 days using SHFE which grouped into five treatment dosages. Testicular histology were prepared using the paraffin methods and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin. According to ANOVA and Tukey's test, it was found that spermatogenic cells population as well as its composition in the testis of mice that treated with SHFE are significantly higher than hyperglichemic mice. The highest dose of SHFE (0.15 ml/day), showed highest spermatogenic cell. All hyperglichemic mice that treated with SHFE exhibited the ratio composition of spermatogonia: spermatocytes: spermatids as same as with control (healthy mice) i.e. 1:1:3 respectively.

  14. Muscle Fatigue Increases the Probability of Developing Hyperalgesia in Mice

    Yokoyama, Takeshi; Lisi, Tammy L.; Moore, Steven A.; Sluka, Kathleen A.


    Chronic muscle pain is a major clinical problem that is often associated with fatigue. Conversely, chronic fatigue conditions are commonly associated with muscle pain. We tested the hypothesis that muscle fatigue enhances hyperalgesia associated with injection of acidic saline into muscle. We evaluated mechanical sensitivity of the paw (von Frey) in mice after 2 intramuscular injections of saline (20 µL; pH 4, pH 5, pH 6, pH 7.2) in a fatigue and a control group. To induce fatigue, mice were ...

  15. Mice that lack the C-terminal region of Reelin exhibit behavioral abnormalities related to neuropsychiatric disorders

    Kaori Sakai; Hirotaka Shoji; Takao Kohno; Tsuyoshi Miyakawa; Mitsuharu Hattori


    The secreted glycoprotein Reelin is believed to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The highly basic C-terminal region (CTR) of Reelin is necessary for efficient activation of its downstream signaling, and the brain structure of knock-in mice that lack the CTR (?C-KI mice) is impaired. Here, we performed a comprehensive behavioral test battery on ?C-KI mice, in order to evaluate the effects of partial loss-of-function of Reelin on brain functions. Th...

  16. Lifelong caloric restriction increases working memory in mice.

    Angela Kuhla

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR is argued to positively affect general health, longevity and the normally occurring age-related reduction of cognition. This issue is well examined, but most studies investigated the effect of short-term periods of CR. Herein, 4 weeks old female mice were fed caloric restricted for 4, 20 and especially for 74 weeks. CR mice received 60% of food eaten by their ad libitum (AL fed littermates, and all age-matched groups were behaviorally analyzed. The motor coordination, which was tested by rotarod/accelerod, decreased age-related, but was not influenced by the different periods of CR. In contrast, the age-related impairment of spontaneous locomotor activity and anxiety, both being evaluated by open field and by elevated plus maze test, was found aggravated by a lifelong CR. Measurement of cognitive performance with morris water maze showed that the working memory decreased age-related in AL mice, while a lifelong CR caused a better cognitive performance and resulted in a significantly better spatial memory upon 74 weeks CR feeding. However, a late-onset CR feeding in 66 weeks old mice did not ameliorate the working memory. Therefore, a lifelong CR seems to be necessary to improve working memory.

  17. Lifelong caloric restriction increases working memory in mice.

    Kuhla, Angela; Lange, Sophie; Holzmann, Carsten; Maass, Fabian; Petersen, Jana; Vollmar, Brigitte; Wree, Andreas


    Caloric restriction (CR) is argued to positively affect general health, longevity and the normally occurring age-related reduction of cognition. This issue is well examined, but most studies investigated the effect of short-term periods of CR. Herein, 4 weeks old female mice were fed caloric restricted for 4, 20 and especially for 74 weeks. CR mice received 60% of food eaten by their ad libitum (AL) fed littermates, and all age-matched groups were behaviorally analyzed. The motor coordination, which was tested by rotarod/accelerod, decreased age-related, but was not influenced by the different periods of CR. In contrast, the age-related impairment of spontaneous locomotor activity and anxiety, both being evaluated by open field and by elevated plus maze test, was found aggravated by a lifelong CR. Measurement of cognitive performance with morris water maze showed that the working memory decreased age-related in AL mice, while a lifelong CR caused a better cognitive performance and resulted in a significantly better spatial memory upon 74 weeks CR feeding. However, a late-onset CR feeding in 66 weeks old mice did not ameliorate the working memory. Therefore, a lifelong CR seems to be necessary to improve working memory.

  18. Mice deficient in the putative phospholipid flippase ATP11C exhibit altered erythrocyte shape, anemia, and reduced erythrocyte life span.

    Yabas, Mehmet; Coupland, Lucy A; Cromer, Deborah; Winterberg, Markus; Teoh, Narci C; D'Rozario, James; Kirk, Kiaran; Bröer, Stefan; Parish, Christopher R; Enders, Anselm


    Transmembrane lipid transporters are believed to establish and maintain phospholipid asymmetry in biological membranes; however, little is known about the in vivo function of the specific transporters involved. Here, we report that developing erythrocytes from mice lacking the putative phosphatidylserine flippase ATP11C showed a lower rate of PS translocation in vitro compared with erythrocytes from wild-type littermates. Furthermore, the mutant mice had an elevated percentage of phosphatidylserine-exposing mature erythrocytes in the periphery. Although erythrocyte development in ATP11C-deficient mice was normal, the mature erythrocytes had an abnormal shape (stomatocytosis), and the life span of mature erythrocytes was shortened relative to that in control littermates, resulting in anemia in the mutant mice. Thus, our findings uncover an essential role for ATP11C in erythrocyte morphology and survival and provide a new candidate for the rare inherited blood disorder stomatocytosis with uncompensated anemia. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Diacylglycerol kinase β knockout mice exhibit attention-deficit behavior and an abnormal response on methylphenidate-induced hyperactivity.

    Mitsue Ishisaka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK is an enzyme that phosphorylates diacylglycerol to produce phosphatidic acid. DGKβ is one of the subtypes of the DGK family and regulates many intracellular signaling pathways in the central nervous system. Previously, we demonstrated that DGKβ knockout (KO mice showed various dysfunctions of higher brain function, such as cognitive impairment (with lower spine density, hyperactivity, reduced anxiety, and careless behavior. In the present study, we conducted further tests on DGKβ KO mice in order to investigate the function of DGKβ in the central nervous system, especially in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DGKβ KO mice showed attention-deficit behavior in the object-based attention test and it was ameliorated by methylphenidate (MPH, 30 mg/kg, i.p.. In the open field test, DGKβ KO mice displayed a decreased response to the locomotor stimulating effects of MPH (30 mg/kg, i.p., but showed a similar response to an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p., when compared to WT mice. Examination of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, which is involved in regulation of locomotor activity, indicated that ERK1/2 activation induced by MPH treatment was defective in the striatum of DGKβ KO mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that DGKβ KO mice showed attention-deficit and hyperactive phenotype, similar to ADHD. Furthermore, the hyporesponsiveness of DGKβ KO mice to MPH was due to dysregulation of ERK phosphorylation, and that DGKβ has a pivotal involvement in ERK regulation in the striatum.

  20. Diacylglycerol Kinase β Knockout Mice Exhibit Attention-Deficit Behavior and an Abnormal Response on Methylphenidate-Induced Hyperactivity

    Ishisaka, Mitsue; Kakefuda, Kenichi; Oyagi, Atsushi; Ono, Yoko; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Kitaichi, Kiyoyuki; Hara, Hideaki


    Background Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is an enzyme that phosphorylates diacylglycerol to produce phosphatidic acid. DGKβ is one of the subtypes of the DGK family and regulates many intracellular signaling pathways in the central nervous system. Previously, we demonstrated that DGKβ knockout (KO) mice showed various dysfunctions of higher brain function, such as cognitive impairment (with lower spine density), hyperactivity, reduced anxiety, and careless behavior. In the present study, we conducted further tests on DGKβ KO mice in order to investigate the function of DGKβ in the central nervous system, especially in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methodology/Principal Findings DGKβ KO mice showed attention-deficit behavior in the object-based attention test and it was ameliorated by methylphenidate (MPH, 30 mg/kg, i.p.). In the open field test, DGKβ KO mice displayed a decreased response to the locomotor stimulating effects of MPH (30 mg/kg, i.p.), but showed a similar response to an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.), when compared to WT mice. Examination of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which is involved in regulation of locomotor activity, indicated that ERK1/2 activation induced by MPH treatment was defective in the striatum of DGKβ KO mice. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that DGKβ KO mice showed attention-deficit and hyperactive phenotype, similar to ADHD. Furthermore, the hyporesponsiveness of DGKβ KO mice to MPH was due to dysregulation of ERK phosphorylation, and that DGKβ has a pivotal involvement in ERK regulation in the striatum. PMID:22590645

  1. IL-23 p19 knockout mice exhibit minimal defects in responses to primary and secondary infection with Francisella tularensis LVS.

    Sherry L Kurtz

    Full Text Available Our laboratory's investigations into mechanisms of protective immunity against Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS have uncovered mediators important in host defense against primary infection, as well as those correlated with successful vaccination. One such potential correlate was IL-12p40, a pleiotropic cytokine that promotes Th1 T cell function as part of IL-12p70. LVS-infected IL-12p40 deficient knockout (KO mice maintain a chronic infection, but IL-12p35 KO mice clear LVS infection; thus the role that IL-12p40 plays in immunity to LVS is independent of the IL-12p70 heterodimer. IL-12p40 can also partner with IL-23p19 to create the heterodimeric cytokine IL-23. Here, we directly tested the role of IL-23 in LVS resistance, and found IL-23 to be largely dispensable for immunity to LVS following intradermal or intranasal infection. IL-23p19 KO splenocytes were fully competent in controlling intramacrophage LVS replication in an in vitro overlay assay. Further, antibody responses in IL-23p19 KO mice were similar to those of normal wild type mice after LVS infection. IL-23p19 KO mice or normal wild type mice that survived primary LVS infection survived maximal doses of LVS secondary challenge. Thus p40 has a novel role in clearance of LVS infection that is unrelated to either IL-12 or IL-23.

  2. Delayed wound healing due to increased interleukin-10 expression in mice with lymphatic dysfunction.

    Kimura, Takayuki; Sugaya, Makoto; Blauvelt, Andrew; Okochi, Hitoshi; Sato, Shinichi


    Skin wound healing is an interactive process involving soluble mediators, ECM, resident cells, and infiltrating cells. Little is known about wound healing in the presence of lymphedema. In this study, we investigated wound healing using kCYC⁺/⁻ mice, which demonstrate severe lymphatic dysfunction. Wound healing was delayed significantly in kCYC⁺/⁻ mice when compared with WT mice. In wounded skin of kCYC⁺/⁻ mice, mast cell numbers were increased compared with WT mice, whereas macrophage numbers were decreased. Moreover, IL-10 expression by mast cells was increased, and expression of bFGF, mainly produced by macrophages, was decreased in wounded skin of kCYC⁺/⁻ mice compared with WT mice. We next crossed kCYC⁺/⁻ mice with IL-10⁻/⁻ mice, which were reported to show accelerated wound closure. In kCYC⁺/⁻ IL-10⁺/⁻ mice, time course of wound healing, numbers of macrophages, and IL-10 mRNA expression levels in wounded skin were comparable with WT IL-10⁺/⁻ mice. Similar results were obtained using a different lymphedema model, in which circumferential skin excision was performed on the tails of mice to remove the superficial lymphatics. In summary, these findings suggest that IL-10 plays an important role in delayed wound healing in the setting of lymphatic dysfunction.

  3. An apoA-I mimetic peptide increases LCAT activity in mice through increasing HDL concentration

    Xun Chen, Charlotte Burton, Xuelei Song, Lesley Mcnamara, Annunziata Langella, Simona Cianetti, Ching H. Chang, Jun Wang


    Full Text Available Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT plays a key role in the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT process by converting cholesterol to cholesteryl ester to form mature HDL particles, which in turn deliver cholesterol back to the liver for excretion and catabolism. HDL levels in human plasma are negatively correlated with cardiovascular risk and HDL functions are believed to be more important in atheroprotection. This study investigates whether and how D-4F, an apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I mimetic peptide, influences LCAT activity in the completion of the RCT process. We demonstrated that the apparent rate constant value of the LCAT enzyme reaction gives a measure of LCAT activity and determined the effects of free metals and a reducing agent on LCAT activity, showing an inhibition hierarchy of Zn2+>Mg2+>Ca2+ and no inhibition with β-mercaptoethanol up to 10 mM. We reconstituted nano-disc particles using apoA-I or D-4F with phospholipids. These particles elicited good activity in vitro in the stimulation of cholesterol efflux from macrophages through the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1. With these particles we studied the LCAT activity and demonstrated that D-4F did not activate LCAT in vitro. Furthermore, we have done in vivo experiments with apoE-null mice and demonstrated that D-4F (20 mg/kg body weight, once daily subcutaneously increased LCAT activity and HDL level as well as apoA-I concentration at 72 hours post initial dosing. Finally, we have established a correlation between HDL concentration and LCAT activity in the D-4F treated mice.

  4. Neurons exhibit Lyz2 promoter activity in vivo: Implications for using LysM-Cre mice in myeloid cell research.

    Orthgiess, Johannes; Gericke, Martin; Immig, Kerstin; Schulz, Angela; Hirrlinger, Johannes; Bechmann, Ingo; Eilers, Jens


    To characterize LysM-Cre mediated gene targeting in mice, we crossed LysM-Cre mice to two independent reporter-mouse lines (tdTomato or YFP). Surprisingly, we found that more than 90% of cells with LysM-Cre mediated recombination in the brain were neurons, rather than myeloid cells, such as microglia. Hence, by using the LysM-Cre mouse line for conditional knockout approaches, a significant neuronal recombination needs to be considered. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Early Postnatal Administration of Growth Hormone Increases Tuberoinfundibular Dopaminergic Neuron Numbers in Ames Dwarf Mice

    Khodr, Christina E; Clark, Sara; Bokov, Alex F.; Richardson, Arlan; Strong, Randy; Hurley, David L.; Phelps, Carol J.


    Hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons secrete dopamine, which inhibits pituitary prolactin (PRL) secretion. PRL has demonstrated neurotrophic effects on TIDA neuron development in PRL-, GH-, and TSH-deficient Ames (df/df) and Snell (dw/dw) dwarf mice. However, both PRL and PRL receptor knockout mice exhibit normal-sized TIDA neuron numbers, implying GH and/or TSH influence TIDA neuron development. The current study investigated the effect of porcine (p) GH on TIDA neuron...

  6. Loss of dysbindin-1 in mice impairs reward-based operant learning by increasing impulsive and compulsive behavior.

    Carr, Gregory V; Jenkins, Kimberly A; Weinberger, Daniel R; Papaleo, Francesco


    The dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1) gene, which encodes the dysbindin-1 protein, is a potential schizophrenia susceptibility gene. Polymorphisms in the DTNBP1 gene have been associated with altered cognitive abilities. In the present study, dysbindin-1 null mutant (dys-/-), heterozygous (dys+/-), and wild-type (dys+/+) mice, on a C57BL/6J genetic background, were tested in either a match to sample or nonmatch to sample visual discrimination task. This visual discrimination task was designed to measure rule learning and detect any changes in response timing over the course of testing. Dys-/- mice displayed significant learning deficits and required more trials to acquire this task. However, once criterion was reached, there were no differences between the genotypes on any behavioral measures. Dys-/- mice exhibited increased compulsive and impulsive behaviors compared to control littermates suggesting the inability to suppress incorrectly-timed responses underlies their increased time to acquisition. Indeed, group comparisons of behavior differences between the first and last day of testing showed that only dys-/- mice consistently decreased measures of perseverative, premature, timeout, and total responses. These findings illustrate how some aspects of altered cognitive performance in dys-/- mice might be related to increased impulsive and compulsive behaviors, analogous to cognitive deficits in some individuals with psychiatric disorders.

  7. An increased number of mast cells in the sclerae of alloxan-diabetic mice.

    Jansson, L; Naeser, P


    The number of mast cells in the sclerae and retinae has been investigated in alloxan-diabetic mice, in obese-hyperglycaemic mice and in non-diabetic, lean control animals. In contrast to the alloxan-diabetic mice the obese-hyperglycaemic animals have increased circulating inulin levels. In the sclerae of alloxan-diabetic mice the number of mast cells was significantly (P less than 0.05) increased. No increase in mast cell content could be observed in the sclerae of the obese-hyperglycaemic mice. No mast cells could be observed in the retina in any of the experimental groups. It is concluded that lack of insulin may be of importance for the accumulation of mast cells in the sclerae of mice with hyperglycaemia.

  8. Sheep-passaged bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent exhibits altered pathobiological properties in bovine-PrP transgenic mice

    Espinosa, J.C.; Andreoletti, O.; Castilla, J.; Herva, M.E.; Morales, M.; Alamillo, E.; San-Segundo, F.D.; Lacroux, C.; Lugan, S.; Salguero, F.J.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Torres, J.M.


    Sheep can be experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and the ensuing disease is similar to scrapie in terms of pathogenesis and clinical signs. BSE infection in sheep is an animal and human health concern. In this study, the transmission in BoPrP-Tg110 mice of prions fro

  9. Female mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA mice exhibit hyperactivity and a reduced sense of danger in the open field test.

    Alex Langford-Smith

    Full Text Available Reliable behavioural tests in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases allow us to study the natural history of disease and evaluate the efficacy of novel therapies. Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA or Sanfilippo A, is a severe, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the heparan sulphate catabolising enzyme, sulfamidase. Undegraded heparan sulphate accumulates, resulting in lysosomal enlargement and cellular dysfunction. Patients suffer a progressive loss of motor and cognitive function with severe behavioural manifestations and premature death. There is currently no treatment. A spontaneously occurring mouse model of the disease has been described, that has approximately 3% of normal enzyme activity levels. Behavioural phenotyping of the MPS IIIA mouse has been previously reported, but the results are conflicting and variable, even after full backcrossing to the C57BL/6 background. Therefore we have independently backcrossed the MPS IIIA model onto the C57BL/6J background and evaluated the behaviour of male and female MPS IIIA mice at 4, 6 and 8 months of age using the open field test, elevated plus maze, inverted screen and horizontal bar crossing at the same circadian time point. Using a 60 minute open field, we have demonstrated that female MPS IIIA mice are hyperactive, have a longer path length, display rapid exploratory behaviour and spend less time immobile than WT mice. Female MPS IIIA mice also display a reduced sense of danger and spend more time in the centre of the open field. There were no significant differences found between male WT and MPS IIIA mice and no differences in neuromuscular strength were seen with either sex. The altered natural history of behaviour that we observe in the MPS IIIA mouse will allow more accurate evaluation of novel therapeutics for MPS IIIA and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders.

  10. Time-Dependent Increase of Chitinase1 in APP/PS1 Double Transgenic Mice.

    Xiao, Qian; Shi, Rui; Yang, Wenxiu; Zou, Yan; Du, Yinshi; Zhang, Man; Yu, Weihua; Lü, Yang


    It is reported that chitinase1 increases in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the alteration of chitinase1 in the progress of AD is still unclear. Thus, we designed the present study to detect chitinase1 level in different stages of APP/PS1 double transgenic mice. Experimental models were APP/PS1 double transgenic mice with 4, 12 and 22 months. Cognitive function was detected by Morris water maze test in APP/PS1 mice as well as controls. ELISA and the quantitative RT-PCR were used to detect chitinase1 level in different groups. The study displayed that expression of chitinase1 gradually increased in a time-dependent manner in APP/PS1 mice, while there were no statistical differences among the wild-type mice in varies ages. Moreover, chitnase1 increased significantly in APP/PS1 mice aged 12 and 22 months compared with the age matched wild-type group, respectively. However, no difference of chitnase1 was found between 4 months-old APP/PS1 mice and wild-type mice. Comparing with the age matched wild type group, the consequences of mRNA on the increase in chitnase1 is in accordance with protein in APP/PS1 mice. Furthermore, Morris water maze showed that 4 months-old APP/PS1 mice have normal spatial learning and impaired spatial memory; both spatial learning and spatial memory in 12 and 22 months-old APP/PS1 mice were declined. Time-dependent increase of chitnase1 in APP/PS1 double transgenic mice indicates that the level of chitinase1 is associated with decline of cognition. Therefore, chitinase1 might be a biomarker of disease progression in AD.

  11. Biofilm-Forming Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Survive in Kupffer Cells and Exhibit High Virulence in Mice

    Takuto Oyama


    Full Text Available Although Staphylococcus aureus is part of the normal body flora, heavy usage of antibiotics has resulted in the emergence of methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA. MRSA can form biofilms and cause indwelling foreign body infections, bacteremia, soft tissue infections, endocarditis, and osteomyelitis. Using an in vitro assay, we screened 173 clinical blood isolates of MRSA and selected 20 high-biofilm formers (H-BF and low-biofilm formers (L-BF. These were intravenously administered to mice and the general condition of mice, the distribution of bacteria, and biofilm in the liver, lung, spleen, and kidney were investigated. MRSA count was the highest in the liver, especially within Kupffer cells, which were positive for acid polysaccharides that are associated with intracellular biofilm. After 24 h, the general condition of the mice worsened significantly in the H-BF group. In the liver, bacterial deposition and aggregation and the biofilm-forming spot number were all significantly greater for H-BF group than for L-BF. CFU analysis revealed that bacteria in the H-BF group survived for long periods in the liver. These results indicate that the biofilm-forming ability of MRSA is a crucial factor for intracellular persistence, which could lead to chronic infections.

  12. Increased mandibular condylar growth in mice with estrogen receptor beta deficiency

    Yosuke, Kamiya; JING, Chen; Manshan, Xu; Achint, Utreja; Thomas, Choi; Hicham, Drissi; Sunil, Wadhwa


    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders predominantly afflict women of childbearing age, suggesting a role for female hormones in the disease process. In long bones, estrogen acting via estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) inhibits axial skeletal growth in female mice. However, the role of ERβ in the mandibular condyle is largely unknown. We hypothesize that female ERβ deficient mice will have increased mandibular condylar growth compared with wild type (WT) female mice. This study examined female 7-...

  13. β-Lactotensin derived from bovine β-lactoglobulin exhibits anxiolytic-like activity as an agonist for neurotensin NTS(2) receptor via activation of dopamine D(1) receptor in mice.

    Hou, I-Ching; Suzuki, Chihiro; Kanegawa, Norimasa; Oda, Ayako; Yamada, Ayako; Yoshikawa, Masaaki; Yamada, Daisuke; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Wada, Etsuko; Wada, Keiji; Ohinata, Kousaku


    β-Lactotensin (His-Ile-Arg-Leu) is a bioactive peptide derived from bovine milk β-lactoglobulin, acting as a natural agonist for neurotensin receptors. We found that β-lactotensin exhibited anxiolytic-like activity in an elevated plus-maze test after its intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice. β-Lactotensin was also orally active. The anxiolytic-like activity of β-lactotensin after i.p. administration was blocked by levocabastine, an antagonist for the neurotensin NTS(2) receptor. β-Lactotensin had anxiolytic-like activity in wild-type but not Ntsr2-knockout mice. β-Lactotensin increased intracellular Ca(2+) flux in glial cells derived from wild-type mice but not Ntsr2 knockout mice. These results suggest that β-lactotensin acts as an NTS(2) receptor agonist having anxiolytic-like activity. The anxiolytic-like activity of β-lactotensin was also blocked by SCH23390 and SKF83566, antagonists for dopamine D(1) receptor, but not by raclopride, an antagonist for D(2) receptor. Taken together, β-lactotensin may exhibit anxiolytic-like activity via NTS(2) receptor followed by D(1) receptor.

  14. GPR39 (zinc receptor) knockout mice exhibit depression-like behavior and CREB/BDNF down-regulation in the hippocampus

    Młyniec, Katarzyna; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Holst, Birgitte


    Background: Zinc may act as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system by activation of the GPR39 metabotropic receptors. Methods: In the present study, we investigated whether GPR39 knockout would cause depressive-like and/or anxiety-like behavior, as measured by the forced swim test, tail...... to the forced swim test, as measured by Western-blot analysis. Results: In this study, GPR39 knockout mice showed an increased immobility time in both the forced swim test and tail suspension test, indicating depressive-like behavior and displayed anxiety-like phenotype. GPR39 knockout mice had lower CREB...... mice in comparison with the wild-type control mice, which does not support a role of GPR39 in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation. The results of this study indicate the involvement of the GPR39 Zn2+-sensing receptor in the pathophysiology of depression with component of anxiety....

  15. Delayed and transient increase of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by physical exercise in DBA/2 mice.

    Rupert W Overall

    Full Text Available This study builds on the findings that physical activity, such as wheel running in mice, enhances cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus of the common mouse strain C57BL/6, and that the baseline level of neurogenesis varies by strain, being considerably lower in DBA/2. Because C57BL/6 and DBA/2 are important as the parental strains of the BXD recombinant inbred cross which allows the detection of genetic loci regulating phenotypes such as adult neurogenesis, we performed the current study to investigate the gene x environment interactions regulating neurogenesis. At equal distances and times run DBA/2J mice lacked the acute increase in precursor cell proliferation known from C57BL/6. In DBA/2J proliferation even negatively correlated with the distance run. This was neither due to a stress response (to running itself or single housing nor differences in estrous cycle. DBA/2 animals exhibited a delayed and weaker pro-neurogenic response with a significant increase in numbers of proliferating cells first detectable after more than a week of wheel running. The proliferative response to running was transient in both strains, the effect being undetectable by 6 weeks. There was also a small transient increase in the production of new neurons in DBA/2J, although these extra cells did not survive. These findings indicate that the comparison between C57BL/6 and DBA/2, and by extension the BXD genetic reference population derived from these strains, should provide a powerful tool for uncovering the complex network of modifier genes affecting the activity-dependent regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. More generally, our findings also describe how the external physical environment interacts with the internal genetic environment to produce different responses to the same behavioral stimuli.

  16. REM sleep deprivation increases the expression of interleukin genes in mice hypothalamus.

    Kang, Won Sub; Park, Hae Jeong; Chung, Joo-Ho; Kim, Jong Woo


    Recently, evidence has suggested the possible involvement of inflammatory cytokines in sleep deprivation (SD). In this study, we assessed the patterns of inflammatory gene regulation in the hypothalamus of REM SD mice. C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to two groups, SD (n=15) and control groups (n=15). Mice in the SD group were sleep-deprived for 72h using modified multiple platforms. Microarray analysis on inflammatory genes was performed in mice hypothalamus. In addition, interleukin 1 beta (IL1β) protein expression was analyzed by the immunochemistry method. Through microarray analysis, we found that expressions of IL subfamily genes, such as IL1β (2.55-fold), IL18 (1.92-fold), IL11 receptor alpha chain 1 (1.48-fold), IL5 (1.41-fold), and IL17E genes (1.31-fold), were up-regulated in the hypothalamus of SD mice compared to the control. The increase in the expression of these genes was also confirmed by RT-PCR. Among these genes, the expression of IL1β was particularly increased in the hypothalamus of SD mice. Interestingly, we found that the protein expression of endogenous IL1β was also elevated in the hypothalamus of SD mice compared to the control mice. These results implicate that IL subfamily genes, and in particular, IL1β, may play a role in sleep regulation in the hypothalamus of REM SD mice.

  17. Rhein lysinate increases the median survival time of SAMP10 mice: protective role in the kidney

    Gang HU; Jiang LIU; Yong-zhan ZHEN; Rong XU; Yu QIAO; Jie WEI; Ping TU


    Aim:To investigate the protective effects of rhein lysinate (RHL),a major bioactive constituent of the rhizome of rhubarb (Rheum palmatum Linn or Rheum tanguticum Maxim),against kidney impairment in senescence-prone inbred strain 10 (SAMP10) mice.Methods:SAMP10 mice were orally administered RHL (25 or 50 mg/kg) daily until 50% of the mice died.Senescence-resistant inbred strain 1 (SAMR1) mice administered no drug were taken as control.The kidneys were harvested after animal death,and examined morphologically and with immunochemical assays.The levels of MAD,SOD and GSH-px in the kidneys were measured with a photometric method.The expression of inflammatory factors and related proteins in the kidneys was analyzed using Western blotting.Results:Treatment of SAMP10 mice with RHL had no effect on the body weight or phenotype.However,RHL significantly prolonged the median survival time of SAMP10 mice by approximately 25%,as compared to untreated SAMP10 mice.Compared SAMR1 mice,SAMP10 mice had a significantly lower level of SOD in the kidneys,but had no significant difference in the MDA or GSH-px levels.Treatment of SAMP10 mice with RHL significantly reduced the MAD level,and increased the SOD and GSH-px levels in the kidneys.Glomerulonephritis was observed in SAMP10 mice but not in SAMR1 mice.RHL decreased the incidence of glomerulonephritis,and significantly decreased the levels of TNF-α,IL-6,NF-κB,collagen types Ⅰ and Ⅲ in the kidneys.Conclusion:Accelerated senescence is associated with glomerulonephritis in SAMP10 mice,and RHL prolongs their median survival time by red ucing the severity of glomeruloneph ritis.

  18. Some putative prebiotics increase the severity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in mice

    Petersen, Anne; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Pedersen, Anna Lovmand;


    : The mice fed with diets containing fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) or xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS) had significantly higher (P spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes when compared to the mice fed with the cornstarch-based control diet. Significantly...... increased amounts (P spleen and lymph nodes than animals from the control group (P

  19. Transgenic poplar expressing Arabidopsis YUCCA6 exhibits auxin-overproduction phenotypes and increased tolerance to abiotic stress.

    Ke, Qingbo; Wang, Zhi; Ji, Chang Yoon; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Li, Hongbing; Xu, Bingcheng; Deng, Xiping; Kwak, Sang-Soo


    YUCCA6, a member of the YUCCA family of flavin monooxygenase-like proteins, is involved in the tryptophan-dependent IAA biosynthesis pathway and responses to environmental cues in Arabidopsis. However, little is known about the role of the YUCCA pathway in auxin biosynthesis in poplar. Here, we generated transgenic poplar (Populus alba × P. glandulosa) expressing the Arabidopsis YUCCA6 gene under the control of the oxidative stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter (referred to as SY plants). Three SY lines (SY7, SY12 and SY20) were selected based on the levels of AtYUCCA6 transcript. SY plants displayed auxin-overproduction morphological phenotypes, such as rapid shoot growth and retarded main root development with increased root hair formation. In addition, SY plants had higher levels of free IAA and early auxin-response gene transcripts. SY plants exhibited tolerance to drought stress, which was associated with reduced levels of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, SY plants showed delayed hormone- and dark-induced senescence in detached leaves due to higher photosystem II efficiency and less membrane permeability. These results suggest that the conserved IAA biosynthesis pathway mediated by YUCCA family members exists in poplar.

  20. Ulcerative dermatitis in C57BL/6 mice exhibits an oxidative stress response consistent with normal wound healing.

    Williams, Lisa K; Csaki, Lauren S; Cantor, Rita M; Reue, Karen; Lawson, Greg W


    Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is a common syndrome of unknown etiology that results in profound morbidity in C57BL/6 mice and lines on a C57BL/6 background. The lesions are due to severe pruritus-induced self-trauma, progressing from superficial excoriations to deep ulcerations. UD may be behavioral in origin, with ulcerative lesions resulting from self-mutilating behavior in response to unresolved inflammation or compulsion. Alternatively, abnormal oxidative damage may be a mechanism underlying UD. To evaluate whether UD behaves similarly to normal wounds, consistent with a secondary self-inflicted lesion, or is a distinct disorder with abnormal wound response, we evaluated expression levels of genes representing various arms of the oxidative stress response pathway UD-affected and unwounded C57BL/6J mice. No evidence indicated that UD wounds have a defect in the oxidative stress response. Our findings are consistent with an understanding of C57BL/6 UD lesions as typical rather than atypical wounds.

  1. periostin null mice exhibit dwarfism, incisor enamel defects, and an early-onset periodontal disease-like phenotype.

    Rios, Hector; Koushik, Shrinagesh V; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Jian; Zhou, Hong-Ming; Lindsley, Andrew; Rogers, Rhonda; Chen, Zhi; Maeda, Manabu; Kruzynska-Frejtag, Agnieszka; Feng, Jian Q; Conway, Simon J


    Periostin was originally identified as an osteoblast-specific factor and is highly expressed in the embryonic periosteum, cardiac valves, placenta, and periodontal ligament as well as in many adult cancerous tissues. To investigate its role during development, we generated mice that lack the periostin gene and replaced the translation start site and first exon with a lacZ reporter gene. Surprisingly, although periostin is widely expressed in many developing organs, periostin-deficient (peri(lacZ)) embryos are grossly normal. Postnatally, however, approximately 14% of the nulls die before weaning and all of the remaining peri(lacZ) nulls are severely growth retarded. Skeletal analysis revealed that trabecular bone in adult homozygous skeletons was sparse, but overall bone growth was unaffected. Furthermore, by 3 months, the nulls develop an early-onset periodontal disease-like phenotype. Unexpectedly, these mice also show a severe incisor enamel defect, although there is no apparent change in ameloblast differentiation. Significantly, placing the peri(lacZ) nulls on a soft diet that alleviated mechanical strain on the periodontal ligament resulted in a partial rescue of both the enamel and periodontal disease-like phenotypes. Combined, these data suggest that a healthy periodontal ligament is required for normal amelogenesis and that periostin is critically required for maintenance of the integrity of the periodontal ligament in response to mechanical stresses.

  2. Acetic acid enhances endurance capacity of exercise-trained mice by increasing skeletal muscle oxidative properties.

    Pan, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyung Min; Lee, Eui Seop; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Seongpil; Shin, Minkyeong; Kim, Sang Ho; Lee, Jin Hyup; Kim, Young Jun


    Acetic acid has been shown to promote glycogen replenishment in skeletal muscle during exercise training. In this study, we investigated the effects of acetic acid on endurance capacity and muscle oxidative metabolism in the exercise training using in vivo mice model. In exercised mice, acetic acid induced a significant increase in endurance capacity accompanying a reduction in visceral adipose depots. Serum levels of non-esterified fatty acid and urea nitrogen were significantly lower in acetic acid-fed mice in the exercised mice. Importantly, in the mice, acetic acid significantly increased the muscle expression of key enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation and glycolytic-to-oxidative fiber-type transformation. Taken together, these findings suggest that acetic acid improves endurance exercise capacity by promoting muscle oxidative properties, in part through the AMPK-mediated fatty acid oxidation and provide an important basis for the application of acetic acid as a major component of novel ergogenic aids.

  3. Pneumocystis Pneumonia Increases the Susceptibility of Mice to Sublethal Hyperoxia

    Beck, James M.; Preston, Angela M.; Wilcoxen, Steven E.; Morris, Susan B.; White, Eric S.; Paine, Robert


    Patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia often develop respiratory failure after entry into medical care, and one mechanism for this deterioration may be increased alveolar epithelial cell injury. In vitro, we previously demonstrated that Pneumocystis is not cytotoxic for alveolar epithelial cells. In vivo, however, infection with Pneumocystis could increase susceptibility to injury by stressors that, alone, would be sublethal. We examined transient exposure to hyperoxia as a prototypical stress ...

  4. Activated T cells exhibit increased uptake of silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 and increased susceptibility to Pc 4-photodynamic therapy-mediated cell death.

    Soler, David C; Ohtola, Jennifer; Sugiyama, Hideaki; Rodriguez, Myriam E; Han, Ling; Oleinick, Nancy L; Lam, Minh; Baron, Elma D; Cooper, Kevin D; McCormick, Thomas S


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging treatment for malignant and inflammatory dermal disorders. Photoirradiation of the silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 photosensitizer with red light generates singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species to induce cell death. We previously reported that Pc 4-PDT elicited cell death in lymphoid-derived (Jurkat) and epithelial-derived (A431) cell lines in vitro, and furthermore that Jurkat cells were more sensitive than A431 cells to treatment. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of Pc 4-PDT on primary human CD3(+) T cells in vitro. Fluorometric analyses of lysed T cells confirmed the dose-dependent uptake of Pc 4 in non-stimulated and stimulated T cells. Flow cytometric analyses measuring annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) demonstrated a dose-dependent increase of T cell apoptosis (6.6-59.9%) at Pc 4 doses ranging from 0-300 nM. Following T cell stimulation through the T cell receptor using a combination of anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies, activated T cells exhibited increased susceptibility to Pc 4-PDT-induced apoptosis (10.6-81.2%) as determined by Pc 4 fluorescence in each cell, in both non-stimulated and stimulated T cells, Pc 4 uptake increased with Pc 4 dose up to 300 nM as assessed by flow cytometry. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of Pc 4 uptake measured in stimulated T cells was significantly increased over the uptake of resting T cells at each dose of Pc 4 tested (50, 100, 150 and 300 nM, p PDT exerts an enhanced apoptotic effect on activated CD3(+) T cells that may be exploited in targeting T cell-mediated skin diseases, such as cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) or psoriasis.

  5. Increased mandibular condylar growth in mice with estrogen receptor beta deficiency.

    Kamiya, Yosuke; Chen, Jing; Xu, Manshan; Utreja, Achint; Choi, Thomas; Drissi, Hicham; Wadhwa, Sunil


    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders predominantly afflict women of childbearing age, suggesting a role for female hormones in the disease process. In long bones, estrogen acting via estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) inhibits axial skeletal growth in female mice. However, the role of ERβ in the mandibular condyle is largely unknown. We hypothesize that female ERβ-deficient mice will have increased mandibular condylar growth compared to wild-type (WT) female mice. This study examined female 7-day-old, 49-day-old, and 120-day-old WT and ERβ knockout (KO) mice. There was a significant increase in mandibular condylar cartilage thickness as a result of an increased number of cells, in the 49-day-old and 120-day-old female ERβ KO compared with WT controls. Analysis in 49-day-old female ERβ KO mice revealed a significant increase in collagen type X, parathyroid hormone-related protein (Pthrp), and osteoprotegerin gene expression and a significant decrease in receptor activator for nuclear factor κ B ligand (Rankl) and Indian hedgehog (Ihh) gene expression, compared with WT controls. Subchondral bone analysis revealed a significant increase in total condylar volume and a decrease in the number of osteoclasts in the 49-day-old ERβ KO compared with WT female mice. There was no difference in cell proliferation in condylar cartilage between the genotypes. However, there were differences in the expression of proteins that regulate the cell cycle; we found a decrease in the expression of Tieg1 and p57 in the mandibular condylar cartilage from ERβ KO mice compared with WT mice. Taken together, our results suggest that ERβ deficiency increases condylar growth in female mice by inhibiting the turnover of fibrocartilage.

  6. Macrophage ABCA5 deficiency influences cellular cholesterol efflux and increases susceptibility to atherosclerosis in female LDLr knockout mice

    Ye, Dan, E-mail: [Division of Biopharmaceutics, LACDR, Leiden University (Netherlands); Meurs, Illiana [Division of Biopharmaceutics, LACDR, Leiden University (Netherlands); Ohigashi, Megumi [Department of Cell Membrane Biology, Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University (Japan); Calpe-Berdiel, Laura; Habets, Kim L.L.; Zhao, Ying [Division of Biopharmaceutics, LACDR, Leiden University (Netherlands); Kubo, Yoshiyuki [Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akihito [Department of Cell Membrane Biology, Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University (Japan); Van Berkel, Theo J.C. [Division of Biopharmaceutics, LACDR, Leiden University (Netherlands); Nishi, Tsuyoshi [Department of Cell Membrane Biology, Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University (Japan); Van Eck, Miranda [Division of Biopharmaceutics, LACDR, Leiden University (Netherlands)


    Objectives: To determine the role of macrophage ATP-binding cassette transporter A5 (ABCA5) in cellular cholesterol homeostasis and atherosclerotic lesion development. Methods and results: Chimeras with dysfunctional macrophage ABCA5 (ABCA5{sup -M/-M}) were generated by transplantation of bone marrow from ABCA5 knockout (ABCA5{sup -/-}) mice into irradiated LDLr{sup -/-} mice. In vitro, bone marrow-derived macrophages from ABCA5{sup -M/-M} chimeras exhibited a 29% (P < 0.001) decrease in cholesterol efflux to HDL, whereas a 21% (P = 0.07) increase in cholesterol efflux to apoA-I was observed. Interestingly, expression of ABCA1, but not ABCG1, was up-regulated in absence of functional ABCA5 in macrophages. To induce atherosclerosis, the transplanted LDLr{sup -/-} mice were fed a high-cholesterol Western-type diet (WTD) for 6, 10, or 18 weeks, allowing analysis of effects on initial as well as advanced lesion development. Atherosclerosis development was not affected in male ABCA5{sup -M/-M} chimeras after 6, 10, and 18 weeks WTD feeding. However, female ABCA5{sup -M/-M} chimeras did develop significantly (P < 0.05) larger aortic root lesions as compared with female controls after 6 and 10 weeks WTD feeding. Conclusions: ABCA5 influences macrophage cholesterol efflux, and selective disruption of ABCA5 in macrophages leads to increased atherosclerotic lesion development in female LDLr{sup -/-} mice.

  7. Ageing Fxr deficient mice develop increased energy expenditure, improved glucose control and liver damage resembling NASH.

    Mikael Bjursell

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (Nr1h4, FXR is a bile acid activated nuclear receptor mainly expressed in the liver, intestine, kidney and adrenal glands. Upon activation, the primary function is to suppress cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1, the rate-limiting enzyme in the classic or neutral bile acid synthesis pathway. In the present study, a novel Fxr deficient mouse line was created and studied with respect to metabolism and liver function in ageing mice fed chow diet. The Fxr deficient mice were similar to wild type mice in terms of body weight, body composition, energy intake and expenditure as well as behaviours at a young age. However, from 15 weeks of age and onwards, the Fxr deficient mice had almost no body weight increase up to 39 weeks of age mainly because of lower body fat mass. The lower body weight gain was associated with increased energy expenditure that was not compensated by increased food intake. Fasting levels of glucose and insulin were lower and glucose tolerance was improved in old and lean Fxr deficient mice. However, the Fxr deficient mice displayed significantly increased liver weight, steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning degeneration and lobular inflammation together with elevated plasma levels of ALT, bilirubin and bile acids, findings compatible with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and cholestasis. In conclusion, ageing Fxr deficient mice display late onset leanness associated with elevated energy expenditure and improved glucose control but develop severe NASH-like liver pathology.

  8. Combining metformin and nelfinavir exhibits synergistic effects against the growth of human cervical cancer cells and xenograft in nude mice

    Xia, Chenglai; Chen, Ruihong; Chen, Jinman; Qi, Qianqian; Pan, Yanbin; Du, Lanying; Xiao, Guohong; Jiang, Shibo


    Human cervical cancer is the fourth most common carcinoma in women worldwide. However, the emergence of drug resistance calls for continuously developing new anticancer drugs and combination chemotherapy regimens. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-cervical cancer effects of metformin, a first-line therapeutic drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus, and nelfinavir, an HIV protease inhibitor, when used alone or in combination. We found that both metformin and nelfinavir, when used alone, were moderately effective in inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis and suppressing migration and invasion of human cervical cell lines HeLa, SiHa and CaSki. When used in combination, these two drugs acted synergistically to inhibit the growth of human cervical cancer cells in vitro and cervical cancer cell xenograft in vivo in nude mice, and suppress cervical cancer cell migration and invasion. The protein expression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase catalytic subunit PI3K(p110α), which can promote tumor growth, was remarkably downregulated, while the tumor suppressor proteins p53 and p21 were substantially upregulated following the combinational treatment in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that clinical use of metformin and nelfinavir in combination is expected to have synergistic antitumor efficacy and significant potential for the treatment of human cervical cancer. PMID:28252027

  9. Neutrophils from p40phox-/- mice exhibit severe defects in NADPH oxidase regulation and oxidant-dependent bacterial killing.

    Ellson, Chris D; Davidson, Keith; Ferguson, G John; O'Connor, Rod; Stephens, Len R; Hawkins, Phillip T


    The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex plays a critical role in the antimicrobial functions of the phagocytic cells of the immune system. The catalytic core of this oxidase consists of a complex between gp91(phox), p22(phox), p47(phox), p67(phox), p40(phox), and rac-2. Mutations in each of the phox components, except p40(phox), have been described in cases of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), defining their essential role in oxidase function. We sought to establish the role of p40(phox) by investigating the NADPH oxidase responses of neutrophils isolated from p40(phox-/-) mice. In the absence of p40(phox), the expression of p67(phox) is reduced by approximately 55% and oxidase responses to tumor necrosis factor alpha/fibrinogen, immunoglobulin G latex beads, Staphylococcus aureus, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, and zymosan were reduced by approximately 97, 85, 84, 75, and 30%, respectively. The defect in ROS production by p40(phox-/-) neutrophils in response to S. aureus translated into a severe, CGD-like defect in the killing of this organism both in vitro and in vivo, defining p40(phox) as an essential component in bacterial killing.

  10. A model of sensitivity: 1,3-butadiene increases mutant frequencies and genomic damage in mice lacking a functional microsomal epoxide hydrolase gene.

    Wickliffe, Jeffrey K; Ammenheuser, Marinel M; Salazar, James J; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z; Hastings-Smith, Darlene A; Postlethwait, Edward M; Lloyd, R Stephen; Ward, Jonathan B


    The specific role that polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes play in modulating sensitivity to 1,3-butadiene (BD) genotoxicity has been relatively unexplored. The enzyme microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is important in detoxifying the mutagenic epoxides of BD (butadiene monoepoxide [BDO], butadiene diepoxide [BDO(2)]). Polymorphisms in the human mEH gene appear to affect the function of the enzyme. We exposed mice with normal mEH activity (WT) and knockout mice without mEH activity (KO) to 20 ppm BD (inhalation) or 30 mg/kg BDO(2) (intraperitoneal [IP] injection). We then compared Hprt mutant frequencies (MFs) among these groups. KO mice exposed to BD exhibited a significant (P damage in WT and KO mice (comet tail moment) following IP exposure to 3 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg BDO(2). KO mice exposed to 3 mg/kg exhibited significantly more DNA damage than controls (7.5-12.1-fold increase) and exposed WT mice (3 mg/kg; 4.8-fold increase). KO mice exposed to 30 mg/kg BDO(2) exhibited significantly more DNA damage than all other groups (2.3-27.9-fold increase). Correlation analysis indicated that a significant, positive relationship (r(2) = 0.92) exists between comet-measured damage and Hprt MFs. The lack of mEH activity increases the genetic sensitivity of mice exposed to BD and BDO(2). This model should facilitate a mechanistic understanding of the observed variation in human genetic sensitivity following exposure to BD.

  11. Increases in PKC gamma expression in trigeminal spinal nucleus is associated with orofacial thermal hyperalgesia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Xie, Hong-Ying; Xu, Fei; Li, Yue; Zeng, Zhao-Bin; Zhang, Ran; Xu, Hui-Jun; Qian, Nian-Song; Zhang, Yi-Guan


    Painful diabetic polyneuropathy (PDN) at the early phrase of diabetes frequently exhibits increased responsiveness to nociception. In diabetic patients and animal models, alterations in the transmission of orofacial sensory information have been demonstrated in trigeminal system. Herein, we examined the changes of protein kinase Cγ subunit (PKCγ) in trigeminal spinal nucleus (Sp5C) and observed the development of orofacial thermal sensitivity in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mice. With hyperglycemia and body weight loss, STZ mice exhibited orofacial thermal hyperalgesia, along with increased PKCγ expression in Sp5C. Insulin treatment at the early stage of diabetes could alleviate the orofacial thermal hyperalgesia and impaired increased PKCγ in Sp5C in diabetic mice. In summary, our results demonstrate that PKCγ might be involved in orofacial thermal hyperalgesia of diabetes, and early insulin treatment might be effective way to treat orofacial PDN.

  12. Increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein concentrations in mice lacking brain serotonin.

    Kronenberg, Golo; Mosienko, Valentina; Gertz, Karen; Alenina, Natalia; Hellweg, Rainer; Klempin, Friederike


    The interplay between BDNF signaling and the serotonergic system remains incompletely understood. Using a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we studied BDNF concentrations in hippocampus and cortex of two mouse models of altered serotonin signaling: tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph)2-deficient (Tph2 (-/-)) mice lacking brain serotonin and serotonin transporter (SERT)-deficient (SERT(-/-)) mice lacking serotonin re-uptake. Surprisingly, hippocampal BDNF was significantly elevated in Tph2 (-/-) mice, whereas no significant changes were observed in SERT(-/-) mice. Furthermore, BDNF levels were increased in the prefrontal cortex of Tph2 (-/-) but not of SERT(-/-) mice. Our results emphasize the interaction between serotonin signaling and BDNF. Complete lack of brain serotonin induces BDNF expression.

  13. Lotus Seed Resistant Starch Regulates Gut Microbiota and Increases SCFAs Production and Mineral Absorption in Mice.

    Zeng, Hongliang; Huang, Cancan; Lin, Shan; Zheng, Mingjing; Chen, Chuanjie; Zheng, Baodong; Zhang, Yi


    Lotus seed resistant starch, known as resistant starch type 3 (LRS3), was orally administered to mice to investigate its effects on the gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production, and mineral absorption. The results showed that mice fed LRS3 displayed a lower level of gut bacterial diversity than other groups. The numbers of starch-utilizing and butyrate-producing bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridium, respectively, in mice increased after the administration of medium and high doses of LRS3, while those of Rikenellaceae and Porphyromonadaceae decreased. Furthermore, SCFAs and lactic acid in mice feces were affected by LRS3, and lactate was fermented to butyrate by gut microbiota. LRS3 enhanced the intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and iron, and this was dependent on the type and concentration of SCFAs, especially butyrate. Thus, LRS3 promoted the production of SCFAs and mineral absorption by regulating gut microbiota in mice.

  14. Mice lacking the serotonin transporter exhibit 5-HT(1A) receptor-mediated abnormalities in tests for anxiety-like behavior.

    Holmes, Andrew; Yang, Rebecca J; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Murphy, Dennis L


    The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) regulates serotonergic neurotransmission via clearance of extracellular serotonin. Abnormalities in 5-HTT expression or function are found in mood and anxiety disorders, and the 5-HTT is a major target for antidepressants and anxiolytics. The 5-HTT is further implicated in the pathophysiology of these disorders by evidence that genetic variation in the promoter region of the HTT (SLC6A4) is associated with individual differences in anxiety and neural responses to fear. To further evaluate the role of the 5-HTT in anxiety, we employed a mouse model in which the 5-HTT gene (htt) was constitutively inactivated. 5-HTT -/- mice were characterized for anxiety-related behaviors using a battery of tests (elevated plus maze, lightdark exploration test, emergence test, and open field test). Male and female 5-HTT -/- mice showed robust phenotypic abnormalities as compared to +/+ littermates, suggestive of increased anxiety-like behavior and inhibited exploratory locomotion. The selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, WAY 100635 (0.05-0.3 mg/kg), produced a significant anxiolytic-like effect in the elevated plus maze in 5-HTT -/- mice, but not +/+ controls. The present findings demonstrate abnormal behavioral phenotypes in 5-HTT null mutant mice in tests for anxiety-like and exploratory behavior, and suggest a role for the 5-HT(1A) receptor in mediating these abnormalities. 5-HTT null mutant mice provide a model to investigate the role of the 5-HTT in mood and anxiety disorders.

  15. Some putative prebiotics increase the severity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in mice

    Lahtinen Sampo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients believed to beneficially affect host health by selectively stimulating the growth of the beneficial bacteria residing in the gut. Such beneficial bacteria have been reported to protect against pathogenic infections. However, contradicting results on prevention of Salmonella infections with prebiotics have been published. The aim of the present study was to examine whether S. Typhimurium SL1344 infection in mice could be prevented by administration of dietary carbohydrates with different structures and digestibility profiles. BALB/c mice were fed a diet containing 10% of either of the following carbohydrates: inulin, fructo-oligosaccharide, xylo-oligosaccharide, galacto-oligosaccharide, apple pectin, polydextrose or beta-glucan for three weeks prior to oral Salmonella challenge (107 CFU and compared to mice fed a cornstarch-based control diet. Results The mice fed with diets containing fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS or xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS had significantly higher (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 numbers of S. Typhimurium SL1344 in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes when compared to the mice fed with the cornstarch-based control diet. Significantly increased amounts (P < 0.01 of Salmonella were detected in ileal and fecal contents of mice fed with diets supplemented with apple pectin, however these mice did not show significantly higher numbers of S. Typhimyrium in liver, spleen and lymph nodes than animals from the control group (P < 0.20. The acute-phase protein haptoglobin was a good marker for translocation of S. Typhimurium in mice. In accordance with the increased counts of Salmonella in the organs, serum concentrations of haptoglobin were significantly increased in the mice fed with FOS or XOS (P < 0.001. Caecum weight was increased in the mice fed with FOS (P < 0.01, XOS (P < 0.01, or polydextrose (P < 0.001, and caecal pH was reduced in the mice fed with polydextrose (P < 0

  16. Increased Intimal Hyperplasia After Vascular Injury in Male Androgen Receptor-Deficient Mice

    Wilhelmson, Anna S; Fagman, Johan B; Johansson, Inger


    replacement to castrated male mice increased p27 mRNA in an AR-dependent manner. In conclusion, AR deficiency in male mice increases intimal hyperplasia in response to vascular injury, potentially related to the effects of androgens/AR to inhibit proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells......., there was no difference in the reendothelialization in ARKO compared with control mice. Ex vivo, we observed increased outgrowth of vascular smooth muscle cells from ARKO compared with control aortic tissue explants; the number of outgrown cells was almost doubled in ARKO. In vitro, stimulation of human aortic vascular...... smooth muscle cells with a physiological T concentration inhibited both migration and proliferation of the cells. Analyzing the expression of central regulators of cell proliferation and migration, we found that mRNA and protein levels of p27 were lower in uninjured arteries from ARKO mice and that T...

  17. Mice with Tak1 deficiency in neural crest lineage exhibit cleft palate associated with abnormal tongue development.

    Song, Zhongchen; Liu, Chao; Iwata, Junichi; Gu, Shuping; Suzuki, Akiko; Sun, Cheng; He, Wei; Shu, Rong; Li, Lu; Chai, Yang; Chen, YiPing


    Cleft palate represents one of the most common congenital birth defects in humans. TGFβ signaling, which is mediated by Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways, plays a crucial role in regulating craniofacial development and patterning, particularly in palate development. However, it remains largely unknown whether the Smad-independent pathway contributes to TGFβ signaling function during palatogenesis. In this study, we investigated the function of TGFβ activated kinase 1 (Tak1), a key regulator of Smad-independent TGFβ signaling in palate development. We show that Tak1 protein is expressed in both the epithelium and mesenchyme of the developing palatal shelves. Whereas deletion of Tak1 in the palatal epithelium or mesenchyme did not give rise to a cleft palate defect, inactivation of Tak1 in the neural crest lineage using the Wnt1-Cre transgenic allele resulted in failed palate elevation and subsequently the cleft palate formation. The failure in palate elevation in Wnt1-Cre;Tak1(F/F) mice results from a malformed tongue and micrognathia, resembling human Pierre Robin sequence cleft of the secondary palate. We found that the abnormal tongue development is associated with Fgf10 overexpression in the neural crest-derived tongue tissue. The failed palate elevation and cleft palate were recapitulated in an Fgf10-overexpressing mouse model. The repressive effect of the Tak1-mediated noncanonical TGFβ signaling on Fgf10 expression was further confirmed by inhibition of p38, a downstream kinase of Tak1, in the primary cell culture of developing tongue. Tak1 thus functions to regulate tongue development by controlling Fgf10 expression and could represent a candidate gene for mutation in human PRS clefting.

  18. Age-related increase in food spilling by laboratory mice may lead to significant overestimation of actual food consumption: implications for studies on dietary restriction, metabolism, and dose calculations.

    Starr, Marlene E; Saito, Hiroshi


    It is widely accepted that food consumption in humans declines with advanced age; however, data from mice remain controversial. Based on our previous observation that mice spill a considerable amount of food while eating, we hypothesized that increased food spillage in old mice masks actual food intake. To investigate whether mice exhibit age-associated declines in food consumption, we evaluated the actual food consumption of C57BL/6 mice at various ages by measuring both the amount of food in the food receptacle and the amount dropped to the cage bottom during feeding. We found that old mice dropped significantly more food (36% ± 8%) than young mice (18% ± 5%), which led to overestimations of food consumption, particularly in old mice. Although actual food consumption decreased in very old mice, food intake per body weight did not significantly change. These findings suggest that caution should be taken to accurately quantify food consumption by aged animals.

  19. The Parvalbumin/Somatostatin Ratio Is Increased in Pten Mutant Mice and by Human PTEN ASD Alleles

    Daniel Vogt


    Full Text Available Mutations in the phosphatase PTEN are strongly implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Here, we investigate the function of Pten in cortical GABAergic neurons using conditional mutagenesis in mice. Loss of Pten results in a preferential loss of SST+ interneurons, which increases the ratio of parvalbumin/somatostatin (PV/SST interneurons, ectopic PV+ projections in layer I, and inhibition onto glutamatergic cortical neurons. Pten mutant mice exhibit deficits in social behavior and changes in electroencephalogram (EEG power. Using medial ganglionic eminence (MGE transplantation, we test for cell-autonomous functional differences between human PTEN wild-type (WT and ASD alleles. The PTEN ASD alleles are hypomorphic in regulating cell size and the PV/SST ratio in comparison to WT PTEN. This MGE transplantation/complementation assay is efficient and is generally applicable for functional testing of ASD alleles in vivo.

  20. Altered emotionality leads to increased pain tolerance in amyloid beta (Abeta1-40) peptide-treated mice.

    Pamplona, Fabrício A; Pandolfo, Pablo; Duarte, Filipe S; Takahashi, Reinaldo N; Prediger, Rui D S


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the decline in cognitive functions, but it is also related to emotional disturbances. Since pain experience results from a complex integration of sensory, cognitive and affective processes, it is not surprising that AD patients display a distinct pattern of pain responsivity. We evaluated whether mice treated with amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide-thought to be critical in the pathogenesis of AD-exhibit altered pain responses and its relation to altered emotionality. Mice received a single i.c.v. injection of vehicle (PBS) or Abeta fragment (1-40) (400pmol/mice) and after 30 days, they were evaluated in tests of pain (hotplate, footshock-sensitivity), learning/memory (water-maze), emotionality (elevated plus-maze, forced swim) and locomotion (open-field). Abeta(1-40)-treated mice presented similar latencies to the control group in the hotplate test and similar nociceptive flinch threshold in the footshock-sensitivity test. However, they presented an increased jump threshold in footshock-sensitivity, suggesting increased pain tolerance. Altered emotionality was observed in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and forced-swim tests (FST), suggesting anxiogenic-like and depressive-like states, respectively. A multifactorial principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that jump threshold of the footshock-sensitivity test falls within 'Emotionality' and 'Pain', showing moderate correlation with each one of the components of behavior. Acute treatment with the antidepressant desipramine (10mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the jump threshold (i.e. pain tolerance) and time of immobility in FST (i.e. depressive-like state). Flinch threshold (i.e. pain sensitivity), locomotion and anxiety were not altered with desipramine treatment. These results suggest that Abeta(1-40) peptide increases pain tolerance, but not pain sensitivity in mice, which seems to be linked to alterations in cognitive/emotional components of pain

  1. Lifetime Increased Cancer Risk in Mice Following Exposure to Clinical Proton Beam–Generated Neutrons

    Gerweck, Leo E., E-mail:; Huang, Peigen; Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Paganetti, Harald; Zhou, Yenong


    Purpose: To evaluate the life span and risk of cancer following whole-body exposure of mice to neutrons generated by a passively scattered clinical spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) proton beam. Methods and Materials: Three hundred young adult female FVB/N mice, 152 test and 148 control, were entered into the experiment. Mice were placed in an annular cassette around a cylindrical phantom, which was positioned lateral to the mid-SOBP of a 165-MeV, clinical proton beam. The average distance from the edge of the mid-SOBP to the conscious active mice was 21.5 cm. The phantom was irradiated with once-daily fractions of 25 Gy, 4 days per week, for 6 weeks. The age at death and cause of death (ie, cancer and type vs noncancer causes) were assessed over the life span of the mice. Results: Exposure of mice to a dose of 600 Gy of proton beam–generated neutrons, reduced the median life span of the mice by 4.2% (Kaplan-Meier cumulative survival, P=.053). The relative risk of death from cancer in neutron exposed versus control mice was 1.40 for cancer of all types (P=.0006) and 1.22 for solid cancers (P=.09). For a typical 60 Gy dose of clinical protons, the observed 22% increased risk of solid cancer would be expected to decrease by a factor of 10. Conclusions: Exposure of mice to neutrons generated by a proton dose that exceeds a typical course of radiation therapy by a factor of 10, resulted in a statistically significant increase in the background incidence of leukemia and a marginally significant increase in solid cancer. The results indicate that the risk of out-of-field second solid cancers from SOBP proton-generated neutrons and typical treatment schedules, is 6 to 10 times less than is suggested by current neutron risk estimates.

  2. Aldosterone inhibits the fetal program and increases hypertrophy in the heart of hypertensive mice.

    Feriel Azibani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arterial hypertension (AH induces cardiac hypertrophy and reactivation of "fetal" gene expression. In rodent heart, alpha-Myosin Heavy Chain (MyHC and its micro-RNA miR-208a regulate the expression of beta-MyHC and of its intronic miR-208b. However, the role of aldosterone in these processes remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: RT-PCR and western-blot were used to investigate the genes modulated by arterial hypertension and cardiac hyperaldosteronism. We developed a model of double-transgenic mice (AS-Ren with cardiac hyperaldosteronism (AS mice and systemic hypertension (Ren. AS-Ren mice had increased (x2 angiotensin II in plasma and increased (x2 aldosterone in heart. Ren and AS-Ren mice had a robust and similar hypertension (+70% versus their controls. Anatomical data and echocardiography showed a worsening of cardiac hypertrophy (+41% in AS-Ren mice (P<0.05 vs Ren. The increase of ANP (x 2.5; P<0.01 mRNA observed in Ren mice was blunted in AS-Ren mice. This non-induction of antitrophic natriuretic peptides may be involved in the higher trophic cardiac response in AS-Ren mice, as indicated by the markedly reduced cardiac hypertrophy in ANP-infused AS-Ren mice for one month. Besides, the AH-induced increase of ßMyHC and its intronic miRNA-208b was prevented in AS-Ren. The inhibition of miR 208a (-75%, p<0.001 in AS-Ren mice compared to AS was associated with increased Sox 6 mRNA (x 1.34; p<0.05, an inhibitor of ßMyHC transcription. Eplerenone prevented all aldosterone-dependent effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that increased aldosterone in heart inhibits the induction of atrial natriuretic peptide expression, via the mineralocorticoid receptor. This worsens cardiac hypertrophy without changing blood pressure. Moreover, this work reveals an original aldosterone-dependent inhibition of miR-208a in hypertension, resulting in the inhibition of β-myosin heavy chain expression through the induction

  3. Increased B Cell ADAM10 in Allergic Patients and Th2 Prone Mice.

    Lauren Folgosa Cooley

    Full Text Available ADAM10, as the sheddase of the low affinity IgE receptor (CD23, promotes IgE production and thus is a unique target for attenuating allergic disease. Herein, we describe that B cell levels of ADAM10, specifically, are increased in allergic patients and Th2 prone WT mouse strains (Balb/c and A/J. While T cell help augments ADAM10 expression, Balb WT B cells exhibit increased ADAM10 in the naïve state and even more dramatically increased ADAM10 after anti-CD40/IL4 stimulation compared C57 (Th1 prone WT B cells. Furthermore, ADAM17 and TNF are reduced in allergic patients and Th2 prone mouse strains (Balb/c and A/J compared to Th1 prone controls. To further understand this regulation, ADAM17 and TNF were studied in C57Bl/6 and Balb/c mice deficient in ADAM10. C57-ADAM10B-/- were more adept at increasing ADAM17 levels and thus TNF cleavage resulting in excess follicular TNF levels and abnormal secondary lymphoid tissue architecture not noted in Balb-ADAM10B-/-. Moreover, the level of B cell ADAM10 as well as Th context is critical for determining IgE production potential. Using a murine house dust mite airway hypersensitivity model, we describe that high B cell ADAM10 level in a Th2 context (Balb/c WT is optimal for disease induction including bronchoconstriction, goblet cell metaplasia, mucus, inflammatory cellular infiltration, and IgE production. Balb/c mice deficient in B cell ADAM10 have attenuated lung and airway symptoms compared to Balb WT and are actually most similar to C57 WT (Th1 prone. C57-ADAM10B-/- have even further reduced symptomology. Taken together, it is critical to consider both innate B cell levels of ADAM10 and ADAM17 as well as Th context when determining host susceptibility to allergic disease. High B cell ADAM10 and low ADAM17 levels would help diagnostically in predicting Th2 disease susceptibility; and, we provide support for the use ADAM10 inhibitors in treating Th2 disease.

  4. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) increases susceptibility of transgenic rasH2 mice to lung carcinogenesis.

    Umemura, T; Kodama, Y; Hioki, K; Inoue, T; Nomura, T; Kurokawa, Y


    Transgenic mice carrying the human prototype c-Ha-ras gene (rasH2 mice) are highly susceptible to lung carcinogens. In order to investigate the possibility of developing a rapid in vivo assay for lung carcinogens, we examined whether the tumor-promoting activity of butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) is efficacious in rasH2 mice. rasH2 mice and wild littermates of both genders were pre-treated with carcinogens [urethane (UR), 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) or diethylnitrosamine (DEN)], and, one day later, given a 400 mg/kg dose of BHT. Six weeks after the initiation treatment, evidence of carcinogenicity could be detected in male and female rasH2 mice that had received UR doses of > or = 250 mg/kg and > or = 125 mg/kg, respectively, prior to exposure to BHT, whereas only 500 mg/kg of UR was sufficient to induce tumors in female rasH2 mice given the carcinogen alone. The carcinogenicity of 15 mg/kg of 4NQO could be detected after 9 weeks in male rasH2 mice given the carcinogen followed by BHT. Similarly, the carcinogenicity of 60 mg/kg of DEN could be detected after 9 weeks and 6 weeks, respectively, in male and female rasH2 mice given the carcinogen followed by BHT. No carcinogenicity could be demonstrated through the experimental period with doses of 4NQO or DEN given alone. These results indicate that BHT administration increases the susceptibility of rasH2 mice to lung carcinogens, and suggest that the use of BHT in rasH2 mice might lead to the establishment of a rapid in vivo assay for lung carcinogens.

  5. Chronic psychosocial stress increases the risk for inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis in male mice.

    Peters, Sebastian; Grunwald, Nicole; Rümmele, Petra; Endlicher, Esther; Lechner, Anja; Neumann, Inga D; Obermeier, Florian; Reber, Stefan O


    Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) have a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) than the general population. Furthermore, chronic psychosocial stress increases the likelihood of developing IBD and multiple types of malignant neoplasms, including CRC. Here, for the first time, we investigate the effects of chronic psychosocial stress in male mice on an artificially induced CRC, by employing the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) housing paradigm in combination with the reliable azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) CRC model. Colonoscopy revealed that CSC mice showed accelerated macroscopic suspect lesions. In addition, more CSC mice developed low-grade dysplasia (LGD) and/or high-grade dysplasia (HGD) in the colonic tissue compared to the single-housed control mice (SHC). CSC mice showed an increased number of Ki67+ and a decreased number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling epithelial cells in colonic tissue. Colonic liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1), cyclooxygenase II (COXII), tumor necrosis factor, forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) mRNA as well as colonic ß-catenin, COXII, and LRH-1 protein expression were also increased in CSC compared with SHC mice. Although the number of CD4+ Th cells was increased, a tendency toward a decreased colonic interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA expression was observed. Furthermore, despite an increased percentage of CD3+ cells and CD3+/FoxP3+ double-positive cells within mesenteric lymph node cells of CSC mice, IFN-γ secretion from these cells was unaffected. Altogether, our results suggest that chronic psychosocial stress increases the risk for AOM/DSS-induced and, thus, inflammation-related CRC. Finally, assessment of additional time points may test whether the shift from tumor-protective Th1 cell to regulatory T-cell immunity represents a consequence of increased carcinogenesis or a causal factor involved in its development.

  6. Wfs1-deficient mice display altered function of serotonergic system and increased behavioural response to antidepressants

    Tanel eVisnapuu


    Full Text Available It has been shown that mutations in the WFS1 gene make humans more susceptible to mood disorders. Besides that, mood disorders are associated with alterations in the activity of serotonergic and noradrenergic systems. Therefore, in this study, the effects of imipramine, an inhibitor of serotonin (5-HT and noradrenaline (NA reuptake, and paroxetine, a selective inhibitor of 5-HT reuptake, were studied in tests of behavioural despair. The tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST were performed in Wfs1-deficient mice. Simultaneously, gene expression and monoamine metabolism studies were conducted to evaluate changes in 5-HT- and NA-ergic systems of Wfs1-deficient mice. The basal immobility time of Wfs1-deficient mice in TST and FST did not differ from that of their wild-type littermates. However, a significant reduction of immobility time in response to lower doses of imipramine and paroxetine was observed in homozygous Wfs1-deficient mice, but not in their wild-type littermates. In gene expression studies, the levels of 5-HT transporter (SERT were significantly reduced in the pons of homozygous animals. Monoamine metabolism was assayed separately in the dorsal and ventral striatum of naive mice and mice exposed for 30 minutes tobrightly lit motility boxes. We found that this aversive challenge caused a significant increase in the levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA, a metabolite of 5-HT, in the ventral and dorsal striatum of wild-type mice, but not in their homozygous littermates. Taken together, the blunted 5-HT metabolism and reduced levels of SERT are a likely reason for the elevated sensitivity of these mice to the action of imipramine and paroxetine. These changes in the pharmacological and neurochemical phenotype of Wfs1-deficient mice may help to explain the increased susceptibility of Wolfram syndrome patients to depressive states.

  7. Intermittent long-wavelength red light increases the period of daily locomotor activity in mice

    Hughes Amanda M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We observed that a dim, red light-emitting diode (LED triggered by activity increased the circadian periods of lab mice compared to constant darkness. It is known that the circadian period of rats increases when vigorous wheel-running triggers full-spectrum lighting; however, spectral sensitivity of photoreceptors in mice suggests little or no response to red light. Thus, we decided to test the following hypotheses: dim red light illumination triggered by activity (LEDfb increases the circadian period of mice compared to constant dark (DD; covering the LED prevents the effect on period; and DBA2/J mice have a different response to LEDfb than C57BL6/J mice. Methods The irradiance spectra of the LEDs were determined by spectrophotometer. Locomotor activity of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice was monitored by passive-infrared sensors and circadian period was calculated from the last 10 days under each light condition. For constant dark (DD, LEDs were switched off. For LED feedback (LEDfb, the red LED came on when the mouse was active and switched off seconds after activity stopped. For taped LED the red LED was switched on but covered with black tape. Single and multifactorial ANOVAs and post-hoc t-tests were done. Results The circadian period of mice was longer under LEDfb than under DD. Blocking the light eliminated the effect. There was no difference in period change in response to LEDfb between C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. Conclusion An increase in mouse circadian period due to dim far-red light (1 lux at 652 nm exposure was unexpected. Since blocking the light stopped the response, sound from the sensor's electronics was not the impetus of the response. The results suggest that red light as background illumination should be avoided, and indicator diodes on passive infrared motion sensors should be switched off.

  8. Sensitivity of mice to lipopolysaccharide is increased by a high saturated fat and cholesterol diet

    Stevens Rachel L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was hypothesized that a pro-atherogenic, high saturated fat and cholesterol diet (HCD would increase the inflammatory response to E. coli endotoxin (LPS and increase its concentration in plasma after administration to mice. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were fed a HCD or a control diet (CD for 4 weeks, and then treated with saline, 0.5, 1 or 2 mg LPS/kg, ip. Liver injury (alanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, collagen staining, circulating cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and interferon-γ, factors that can bind LPS (serum amyloid A, apolipoprotein A1, LPS binding protein, and CD14, and plasma levels of LPS were measured. The hepatic response was assessed by measuring vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 proteins, and VCAM-1 and iNOS mRNAs. Hepatic mRNA encoding the LPS receptor, Toll like receptor 4, was also determined. Results Two mg LPS/kg killed 100% of mice fed HCD within 5 d, while no mice fed CD died. All mice treated with 0 to 1 mg LPS/kg survived 24 h. HCD increased plasma alanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and the enzymes were increased more by LPS in HCD than CD mice. Induction of plasma tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interferon-γ by LPS was greater with HCD than CD. Hepatic VCAM-1 and iNOS protein and mRNA were induced by LPS more in mice fed HCD than CD. Tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 caused by LPS was prolonged in HCD compared with CD mice. Despite the hepatic effects of HCD, diet had no effect on the LPS plasma concentration-time profile. HCD alone did not affect circulating levels of plasma apolipoprotein A1 or LPS binding protein. However, plasma concentrations of serum amyloid A and CD14, and hepatic toll-like receptor-4 mRNA were increased in mice fed HCD. Conclusion

  9. Low ascorbic acid and increased oxidative stress in gulo(-/-) mice during development.

    Harrison, Fiona E; Meredith, M Elizabeth; Dawes, Sean M; Saskowski, Jeanette L; May, James M


    Vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA) depletion during prenatal and postnatal development can lead to oxidative stress in the developing brain and other organs. Such damage may lead to irreversible effects on later brain function. We studied the relationship between AA deficiency and oxidative stress during development in gulonolactone oxidase (gulo) knockout mice that are unable to synthesize their own ascorbic acid. Heterozygous gulo(+/-) mice can synthesize AA and typically have similar tissue levels to wild-type mice. Gulo(+/-) dams were mated with gulo(+/-) males to provide offspring of each possible genotype. Overall, embryonic day 20 (E20) and postnatal day 1 (P1) pups were protected against oxidative stress by sufficient AA transfer during pregnancy. On postnatal day 10 (P10) AA levels were dramatically lower in liver and cerebellum in gulo(-/-) mice and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly increased. In postnatal day 18 pups (P18) AA levels decreased further in gulo(-/-) mice and oxidative stress was observed in the accompanying elevations in MDA in liver, and F(2)-isoprostanes in cortex. Further, total glutathione levels were higher in gulo(-/-) mice in cortex, cerebellum and liver, indicating that a compensatory antioxidant system was activated. These data show a direct relationship between AA level and oxidative stress in the gulo(-/-) mice. They reinforce the critical role of ascorbic acid in preventing oxidative stress in the developing brain in animals that, like humans, cannot synthesize their own AA.

  10. Increased bacterial putrescine has no impact on gut morphology and physiology in gnotobiotic adolescent mice.

    Slezak, K; Hanske, L; Loh, G; Blaut, M


    Gut bacteria influence host anatomy and physiology. It has been proposed that bacterial metabolites including polyamines are responsible for intestinal maturation and mucosal growth. We have hypothesised that bacterially produced polyamines act as trophic factors and thereby influence large intestinal crypt depth and thickness of the different gut layers. For that purpose, germ-free mice were associated with two different microbial consortia. One group was colonised with a simplified human microbiota (SIHUMI). The second group was associated with SIHUMI + Fusobacterium varium (SIHUMI + Fv), which is known to produce high amounts of polyamines. Polyamine concentrations were measured by HPLC and morphological parameters were determined microscopically. Germ-free and conventional mice served as controls. The caecal putrescine concentration of the SIHUMI + Fv was 61.8 μM (47.6-75.5 μM), whereas that of conventional and SIHUMI mice was 28.8 μM (1.3-41.7 μM) and 24.5 μM (16.8-29.1 μM), respectively. The caecal putrescine concentration of germ-free mice was only 0.6 μM (0-1.0 μM). Caecal crypt depth and thickness of the different caecal layers revealed no significant differences between SIHUMI and SIHUMI + Fv mice. However, the crypt depth in the caeca of conventional, SIHUMI and SIHUMI + Fv mice was increased by 48.6% (Pputrescine concentrations do not influence gut morphology in our gnotobiotic adolescent mice.

  11. Metformin, besides exhibiting strong in vivo anti-inflammatory properties, increases mptp-induced damage to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system.

    Ismaiel, Afrah A K; Espinosa-Oliva, Ana M; Santiago, Martiniano; García-Quintanilla, Albert; Oliva-Martín, María J; Herrera, Antonio J; Venero, José L; de Pablos, Rocío M


    Metformin is a widely used oral antidiabetic drug with known anti-inflammatory properties due to its action on AMPK protein. This drug has shown a protective effect on various tissues, including cortical neurons. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of metformin on the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra of mice using the animal model of Parkinson's disease based on the injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial complex I. In vivo and in vitro experiments were used to study the activation of microglia and the damage of the dopaminergic neurons. Our results show that metformin reduced microglial activation measured both at cellular and molecular levels. Rather than protecting, metformin exacerbated dopaminergic damage in response to MPTP. Our data suggest that, contrary to other brain structures, metformin treatment could be deleterious for the dopaminergic system. Hence, metformin treatment may be considered as a risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease.

  12. Cholesterol Synthesis Increased in the MMI-Induced Subclinical Hypothyroidism Mice Model

    Zhang, Xiujuan; Chen, Wenbin


    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is defined as increased serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations and normal serum thyroid hormone (TH) levels as well as an increased serum cholesterol level, which is an important cause of secondary hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular diseases. Some studies have demonstrated a direct effect of TSH on cholesterol metabolism via in vivo and in vitro experiments. However, because no suitable SCH model has been established until now, the changes in cholesterol synthesis that occur in SCH patients remain unknown. Here, we establish an SCH mouse model by using long-term low-dose MMI administered in drinking water. Compared with the control group, the MMI-treated mice had elevated circulating TSH levels, but the serum FT3 levels in these mice did not change. Additionally, the TC levels increased in both the serum and liver of the experimental mice. Both the protein expression and activity of hepatic HMGCR, the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis in the liver, increased in these mice. We also found that the SCH mice had decreased phospho-HMGCR and phospho-AMPK expression, while the expression of AMPK showed no change. In conclusion, we established a suitable SCH model in which cholesterol synthesis is increased. PMID:28386276

  13. Direct stimulation of bone mass by increased GH signalling in the osteoblasts of Socs2-/- mice.

    Dobie, R; MacRae, V E; Huesa, C; van't Hof, R; Ahmed, S F; Farquharson, C


    The suppressor of cytokine signalling (Socs2(-/-))-knockout mouse is characterised by an overgrowth phenotype due to enhanced GH signalling. The objective of this study was to define the Socs2(-/-) bone phenotype and determine whether GH promotes bone mass via IGF1-dependent mechanisms. Despite no elevation in systemic IGF1 levels, increased body weight in 4-week-old Socs2(-/-) mice following GH treatment was associated with increased cortical bone area (Ct.Ar) (PGH. Indeed, male Socs2(-/-) mice had increased Ct.Ar (PGH action. Mechanistic studies showed that in osteoblasts and bone of Socs2(-/-) mice, STAT5 phosphorylation was significantly increased in response to GH. Conversely, overexpression of SOCS2 decreased GH-induced STAT5 signalling. Although an increase in Igf1 expression was observed in Socs2(-/-) osteoblasts following GH, it was not evident in vivo. Igf1 expression levels were not elevated in response to GH in 4-week-old mice and no alterations in expression was observed in bone samples of 6-week-old Socs2(-/-) mice. These studies emphasise the critical role of SOCS2 in controlling the local GH anabolic bone effects. We provide compelling evidence implicating SOCS2 in the regulation of GH osteoblast signalling and ultimately bone accrual, which maybe via mechanisms that are independent of IGF1 production in vivo.

  14. Niacin increases adiponectin and decreases adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Desiree Wanders

    Full Text Available AIMS: To determine the effects of niacin on adiponectin and markers of adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were placed on a control or high-fat diet (HFD and were maintained on such diets for the duration of the study. After 6 weeks on the control or high fat diets, vehicle or niacin treatments were initiated and maintained for 5 weeks. Identical studies were conducted concurrently in HCA2 (-/- (niacin receptor(-/- mice. RESULTS: Niacin increased serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin by 21% in HFD-fed wild-type mice, but had no effect on lean wild-type or lean or HFD-fed HCA2 (-/- mice. Niacin increased adiponectin gene and protein expression in the HFD-fed wild-type mice only. The increases in adiponectin serum concentrations, gene and protein expression occurred independently of changes in expression of PPARγ C/EBPα or SREBP-1c (key transcription factors known to positively regulate adiponectin gene transcription in the adipose tissue. Further, niacin had no effect on adipose tissue expression of ERp44, Ero1-Lα, or DsbA-L (key ER chaperones involved in adiponectin production and secretion. However, niacin treatment attenuated HFD-induced increases in adipose tissue gene expression of MCP-1 and IL-1β in the wild-type HFD-fed mice. Niacin also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage marker CD11c in HFD-fed wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS: Niacin treatment attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation through increased adiponectin and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a niacin receptor-dependent manner.

  15. Lepidium meyenii (Maca increases litter size in normal adult female mice

    Gasco Manuel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, grows exclusively in the Peruvian Andes over 4000 m altitude. It has been used traditionally to increase fertility. Previous scientific studies have demonstrated that Maca increases spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm count. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Maca on several fertility parameters of female mice at reproductive age. Methods Adult female Balb/C mice were divided at random into three main groups: i Reproductive indexes group, ii Implantation sites group and iii Assessment of uterine weight in ovariectomized mice. Animals received an aqueous extract of lyophilized Yellow Maca (1 g/Kg BW or vehicle orally as treatment. In the fertility indexes study, animals received the treatment before, during and after gestation. The fertility index, gestation index, post-natal viability index, weaning viability index and sex ratio were calculated. Sexual maturation was evaluated in the female pups by the vaginal opening (VO day. In the implantation study, females were checked for implantation sites at gestation day 7 and the embryos were counted. In ovariectomized mice, the uterine weight was recorded at the end of treatment. Results Implantation sites were similar in mice treated with Maca and in controls. All reproductive indexes were similar in both groups of treatment. The number of pups per dam at birth and at postnatal day 4 was significantly higher in the group treated with Maca. VO day occurred earlier as litter size was smaller. Maca did not affect VO day. In ovariectomized mice, the treatment with Maca increased significantly the uterine weights in comparison to their respective control group. Conclusion Administration of aqueous extract of Yellow Maca to adult female mice increases the litter size. Moreover, this treatment increases the uterine weight in ovariectomized animals. Our study confirms for the first time some of the traditional uses of Maca to

  16. Resveratrol increases F508del-CFTR dependent salivary secretion in cystic fibrosis mice

    Dhooghe, Barbara; Bouckaert, Charlotte; Capron, Arnaud; Wallemacq, Pierre; Leal, Teresinha; Noel, Sabrina


    ABSTRACT Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a fatal genetic disease associated with widespread exocrine gland dysfunction. Studies have suggested activating effects of resveratrol, a naturally-occurring polyphenol compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, on CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein function. We assayed, in F508del-CFTR homozygous (CF) and in wild-type mice, the effect of resveratrol on salivary secretion in basal conditions, in response to inhibition by atropine (basal β-adrenergic-dependent component) and to stimulation by isoprenaline (CFTR-dependent component). Both components of the salivary secretion were smaller in CF mice than in controls. Two hours after intraperitoneal administration of resveratrol (50 mg/kg) dissolved in DMSO, the compound was detected in salivary glands. As in both CF and in wild-type mice, DMSO alone increased the response to isoprenaline in males but not in females, the effect of resveratrol was only measured in females. In wild-type mice, isoprenaline increased secretion by more than half. In CF mice, resveratrol rescued the response to isoprenaline, eliciting a 2.5-fold increase of β-adrenergic-stimulated secretion. We conclude that the salivary secretion assay is suitable to test DMSO-soluble CFTR modulators in female mice. We show that resveratrol applied in vivo to mice reaches salivary glands and increases β-adrenergic secretion. Immunolabelling of CFTR in human bronchial epithelial cells suggests that the effect is associated with increased CFTR protein expression. Our data support the view that resveratrol is beneficial for treating CF. The salivary secretion assay has a potential application to test efficacy of novel CF therapies. PMID:26092868

  17. Resveratrol increases F508del-CFTR dependent salivary secretion in cystic fibrosis mice

    Barbara Dhooghe


    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is a fatal genetic disease associated with widespread exocrine gland dysfunction. Studies have suggested activating effects of resveratrol, a naturally-occurring polyphenol compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, on CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR protein function. We assayed, in F508del-CFTR homozygous (CF and in wild-type mice, the effect of resveratrol on salivary secretion in basal conditions, in response to inhibition by atropine (basal β-adrenergic-dependent component and to stimulation by isoprenaline (CFTR-dependent component. Both components of the salivary secretion were smaller in CF mice than in controls. Two hours after intraperitoneal administration of resveratrol (50 mg/kg dissolved in DMSO, the compound was detected in salivary glands. As in both CF and in wild-type mice, DMSO alone increased the response to isoprenaline in males but not in females, the effect of resveratrol was only measured in females. In wild-type mice, isoprenaline increased secretion by more than half. In CF mice, resveratrol rescued the response to isoprenaline, eliciting a 2.5-fold increase of β-adrenergic-stimulated secretion. We conclude that the salivary secretion assay is suitable to test DMSO-soluble CFTR modulators in female mice. We show that resveratrol applied in vivo to mice reaches salivary glands and increases β-adrenergic secretion. Immunolabelling of CFTR in human bronchial epithelial cells suggests that the effect is associated with increased CFTR protein expression. Our data support the view that resveratrol is beneficial for treating CF. The salivary secretion assay has a potential application to test efficacy of novel CF therapies.

  18. Disruption of c-Kit Signaling in Kit(W-sh/W-sh) Growing Mice Increases Bone Turnover.

    Lotinun, Sutada; Krishnamra, Nateetip


    c-Kit tyrosine kinase receptor has been identified as a regulator of bone homeostasis. The c-Kit loss-of-function mutations in WBB6F1/J-Kit(W/W-v) mice result in low bone mass. However, these mice are sterile and it is unclear whether the observed skeletal phenotype is secondary to a sex hormone deficiency. In contrast, C57BL/6J-Kit(W-sh)/(W-sh) (W(sh)/W(sh)) mice, which carry an inversion mutation affecting the transcriptional regulatory elements of the c-Kit gene, are fertile. Here, we showed that W(sh)/W(sh) mice exhibited osteopenia with elevated bone resorption and bone formation at 6- and 9-week-old. The c-Kit W(sh) mutation increased osteoclast differentiation, the number of committed osteoprogenitors, alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization. c-Kit was expressed in both osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and c-Kit expression was decreased in W(sh)/W(sh)osteoclasts, but not osteoblasts, suggesting an indirect effect of c-Kit on bone formation. Furthermore, the osteoclast-derived coupling factor Wnt10b mRNA was increased in W(sh)/W(sh) osteoclasts. Conditioned medium from W(sh)/W(sh) osteoclasts had elevated Wnt10b protein levels and induced increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization in osteoblast cultures. Antagonizing Wnt10b signaling with DKK1 or Wnt10b antibody inhibited these effects. Our data suggest that c-Kit negatively regulates bone turnover, and disrupted c-Kit signaling couples increased bone resorption with bone formation through osteoclast-derived Wnt 10 b.

  19. Conditional transgenic mice expressing C-terminally truncated human α-synuclein (αSyn119 exhibit reduced striatal dopamine without loss of nigrostriatal pathway dopaminergic neurons

    Flint Beal M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Missense mutations and multiplications of the α-synuclein gene cause autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD. α-Synuclein protein is also a major component of Lewy bodies, the hallmark pathological inclusions of PD. Therefore, α-synuclein plays an important role in the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic PD. To model α-synuclein-linked disease in vivo, transgenic mouse models have been developed that express wild-type or mutant human α-synuclein from a variety of neuronal-selective heterologous promoter elements. These models exhibit a variety of behavioral and neuropathological features resembling some aspects of PD. However, an important deficiency of these models is the observed lack of robust or progressive nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal degeneration that is characteristic of PD. Results We have developed conditional α-synuclein transgenic mice that can express A53T, E46K or C-terminally truncated (1–119 human α-synuclein pathological variants from the endogenous murine ROSA26 promoter in a Cre recombinase-dependent manner. Using these mice, we have evaluated the expression of these α-synuclein variants on the integrity and viability of nigral dopaminergic neurons with age. Expression of A53T α-synuclein or truncated αSyn119 selectively in nigrostriatal pathway dopaminergic neurons for up to 12 months fails to precipitate dopaminergic neuronal loss in these mice. However, αSyn119 expression in nigral dopaminergic neurons for up to 12 months causes a marked reduction in the levels of striatal dopamine and its metabolites together with other subtle neurochemical alterations. Conclusion We have developed and evaluated novel conditional α-synuclein transgenic mice with transgene expression directed selectively to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons as a potential new mouse model of PD. Our data support the pathophysiological relevance of C-terminally truncated α-synuclein species in vivo. The

  20. Increased consumption of ethanol and sugar water in mice lacking the dopamine D2 long receptor.

    Bulwa, Zachary B; Sharlin, Jordan A; Clark, Peter J; Bhattacharya, Tushar K; Kilby, Chessa N; Wang, Yanyan; Rhodes, Justin S


    Individual differences in dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression in the brain are thought to influence motivation and reinforcement for ethanol and other rewards. D2R exists in two isoforms, D2 long (D2LR) and D2 short (D2SR), produced by alternative splicing of the same gene. The relative contributions of D2LR versus D2SR to ethanol and sugar water drinking are not known. Genetic engineering was used to produce a line of knockout (KO) mice that lack D2LR and consequently have increased expression of D2SR. KO and wild-type (WT) mice of both sexes were tested for intake of 20% ethanol, 10% sugar water and plain tap water using established drinking-in-the-dark procedures. Mice were also tested for effects of the D2 antagonist eticlopride on intake of ethanol to determine whether KO responses were caused by lack of D2LR or overrepresentation of D2SR. Locomotor activity on running wheels and in cages without wheels was also measured for comparison. D2L KO mice drank significantly more ethanol than WT in both sexes. KO mice drank more sugar water than WT in females but not in males. Eticlopride dose dependently decreased ethanol intake in all groups except male KO. KO mice were less physically active than WT in cages with or without running wheels. Results suggest that overrepresentation of D2SR contributes to increased intake of ethanol in the KO mice. Decreasing wheel running and general levels of physical activity in the KO mice rules out the possibility that higher intake results from higher motor activity. Results extend the literature implicating altered expression of D2R in risk for addiction by delineating the contribution of individual D2R isoforms. These findings suggest that D2LR and D2SR play differential roles in consumption of alcohol and sugar rewards.

  1. Carrageenan-Induced Colonic Inflammation Is Reduced in Bcl10 Null Mice and Increased in IL-10-Deficient Mice

    Sumit Bhattacharyya


    Full Text Available The common food additive carrageenan is a known activator of inflammation in mammalian tissues and stimulates both the canonical and noncanonical pathways of NF-κB activation. Exposure to low concentrations of carrageenan (10 μg/mL in the water supply has produced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and impaired insulin signaling in C57BL/6 mice. B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 10 (Bcl10 is a mediator of inflammatory signals from Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 in myeloid and epithelial cells. Since the TLR4 signaling pathway is activated in diabetes and by carrageenan, we addressed systemic and intestinal inflammatory responses following carrageenan exposure in Bcl10 wild type, heterozygous, and null mice. Fecal calprotectin and circulating keratinocyte chemokine (KC, nuclear RelA and RelB, phospho(Thr559-NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK, and phospho(Ser36-IκBα in the colonic epithelial cells were significantly less (P<0.001 in the carrageenan-treated Bcl10 null mice than in controls. IL-10-deficient mice exposed to carrageenan in a germ-free environment showed an increase in activation of the canonical pathway of NF-κB (RelA activation, but without increase in RelB or phospho-Bcl10, and exogenous IL-10 inhibited only the canonical pathway of NF-κB activation in cultured colonic cells. These findings demonstrate a Bcl10 requirement for maximum development of carrageenan-induced inflammation and lack of complete suppression by IL-10 of carrageenan-induced inflammation.

  2. Telomerase-Deficient Mice Exhibit Bone Loss Owing to Defects in Osteoblasts and Increased Osteoclastogenesis by Inflammatory Microenvironment

    Saeed, H.; Abdallah, B. M.; Ditzel, N.


    Telomere shortening owing to telomerase deficiency leads to accelerated senescence of human skeletal (mesenchymal) stem cells (MSCs) in vitro, whereas overexpression leads to telomere elongation, extended life span, and enhanced bone formation. To study the role of telomere shortening in vivo, we...... osteoblastic defects and creation of a proinflammatory osteoclast-activating microenvironment. Thus telonnerization of MSCs may provide a novel approach for abolishing age-related bone loss. (C) 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research....

  3. High-fat feeding increases hepatic vitamin C synthesis and its circulatory mobilization in mice

    Christensen, Britt Tranberg; Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup; Lykkesfeldt, Jens


    PURPOSE: Vitamin C (vitC) deficiency has been linked to obesity and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Whereas humans are unable to synthesize vitC and therefore to compensate for increased turnover, we investigated whether mice-independent of dietary vitC-are able...

  4. Inhibition of HDAC9 increases T regulatory cell function and prevents colitis in mice.

    de Zoeten, Edwin F; Wang, Liqing; Sai, Hong; Dillmann, Wolfgang H; Hancock, Wayne W


    Foxp3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) help prevent autoimmunity, and increases in their numbers of functions could decrease the development of inflammatory bowel disease. Like other cells, Foxp3+ Tregs express histone/protein deacetylases (HDACs), which regulate chromatin remodeling and gene expression. We investigated whether disruption of a specific class IIa HDAC, HDAC9, activity in Tregs affects the pathogenesis of colitis in mice. We tested the effects of various HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) in models of colitis using wild-type mice. We also transferred Tregs and non-Treg cells from HDAC9-/- or wild-type mice to immunodeficient mice. HDAC9 contributions to the functions of Tregs were determined during development and progression of colitis. Pan-HDACi, but not class I-specific HDACi, increased the functions of Foxp3+ Tregs, prevented colitis, and reduced established colitis in mice, indicating the role of class II HDACs in controlling Treg function. The abilities of pan-HDACi to prevent/reduce colitis were associated with increased numbers of Foxp3+ Tregs and their suppressive functions. Colitis was associated with increased local expression of HDAC9; HDAC9-/- mice resistant to development of colitis. HDAC9-/- Tregs expressed increased levels of the heat shock protein (HSP) 70, compared with controls. Immunoprecipitation experiments indicated an interaction between HSP70 and Foxp3. Inhibition of HSP70 reduced the suppressive functions of HDAC9-/- Tregs; Tregs that overexpressed HSP70 had increased suppressive functions. Strategies to decrease HDAC9 expression or function in Tregs or to increase expression of HSP70 might be used to treat colitis and other autoimmune disorders.

  5. Selective inbreeding does not increase gut microbiota similarity in BALB/c mice

    Pang, Wanyong; Stradiotto, Damiano; Krych, Lukasz;


    Inflammatory diseases in mouse models are under strong impact from the gut microbiota. Therefore increased interindividual gut microbiota similarity may be seen as a way to reduce group sizes in mouse experiments. The composition of the gut microbiota is to a high extent defined by genetics......, and it is known that selecting siblings as mothers even in inbred colonies may increase the gut microbiota similarity among the mice with 3-4%. We therefore hypothesized that selective breeding of mice aiming at a high similarity in the gut microbiota would increase the interindividual similarity of the gut...... microbiota. BALB/cCrl mice were, however, found to have a mean heterozygosity of only 0.8% in their genome, and selection of breeders with a high similarity in the gut microbiota for three generations did not change the overall gut microbiota similarity, which was 66% in the P generation and 66%, 64% and 63...

  6. Early nocturnal meal skipping alters the peripheral clock and increases lipogenesis in mice

    Yoshida Chika


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, skipping meals, especially breakfast, has been associated with obesity and other related syndromes. Recent studies in rodents suggest that fasting and feeding times are potential factors that affect the peripheral circadian clocks and metabolism. However, the link between fasting and obesity in rodents has yet to be fully demonstrated. Method We conducted early nocturnal fasting (ENF from zeitgeber time (ZT 12 to 18 for 4 consecutive days in C57B6 mice. The first set of experiments was performed under ad libitum conditions, where ENF and free-feeding (FF control groups were compared. The second set was performed under isocaloric adjustment by restricting the diet to 90% of the basal intake of ENF mice. Calorie-restricted ENF (ENF-CR mice were then compared with isocaloric controls (IC-control. Body weight, food intake, core body temperature, activity, adiposity, and clock-related gene expression levels in the liver and adipose tissues were investigated. A stable isotopic analysis was also conducted to estimate de novo lipogenesis fluxes. Results In the ad libitum condition, the ENF mice ate more during the day, increased their overall daily food intake and gained more weight than FF-control mice. The amplitude of the body core temperature rhythm in ENF mice was also lower than in the FF-controls. Under isocaloric conditions, ENF-CR attenuated the CR-induced body weight loss, compared with the IC-control. ENF-CR also altered the acrophase time of the expression of the clock genes, which is associated with time-shift of genes involved in lipid metabolism and increased lipogenesis, compared with the IC-control. Conclusions ENF in nocturnal mice disturbs the peripheral clock and increases de novo lipid synthesis and results in a predisposition to obesity.

  7. Neutral sulfate berberine modulates cytokine secretion and increases survival in endotoxemic mice

    Fei LI; Hua-dong WANG; Da-xiang LU; Yan-ping WANG; Ren-bin QI; Yong-mei FU; Chu-jie LI


    Aim: Berberine is thought to be an immunomodulator, so the present study aimed to investigate the effect of berberine on mortality, lung and intestine injury in endotoxemic mice, and the mechanism of its action. Methods: Mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 28 mg/kg, ip), and neutral sulfate berberine was administrated intragastrically. Mortality was monitored every 12 h, and histology of the lungs and intestine as well as the plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-10, and nitric oxide (NO) levels were examined. Results: Pretreatment with 50 mg/kg neutral sulfate berberine once a day for 5 days significantly decreased the mortality rate and attenuated tissue injury of the lungs and small intestine in mice challenged with LPS. LPS stimulated a marked increase in plasma levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-10, and NO. The administration of berberine significantly reduced plasma TNF-α, IFN-γ, and NO levels, but did not suppress plasma IL-12 levels in mice exposed to LPS. Furthermore, pretreatment with neutral sulfate berberine augmented IL-10 secretion stimulated by LPS in mice. Conclusion: Pretreatment with neutral sulfate berberine attenuates tissue injury and improves survival in endotoxemic mice, which may be mediated, at least in part, by the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediator production and upregulation of IL-10 release. These findings might provide a new strategy for the treatment of endotoxemia.

  8. Increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in histamine-deficient mice

    Jørgensen, Emilie A; Vogelsang, Thomas W; Knigge, Ulrich


    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The neurotransmitter histamine is involved in the regulation of appetite and in the development of age-related obesity in mice. Furthermore, histamine is a mediator of the anorexigenic action of leptin. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible role of histamine...... in the development of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. METHODS: Histamine-deficient histidine decarboxylase knock-out (HDC-KO) mice and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice were given either a standard diet (STD) or HFD for 8 weeks. Body weight, 24-hour caloric intake, epididymal adipose tissue size, plasma leptin...... concentration and quantitative expression of leptin receptor (Ob-R) mRNA were measured. RESULTS: Both HDC-KO and WT mice fed an HFD for 8 weeks increased their body weight significantly more than STD-fed mice. A significant difference in body weight gain between HDC-KO mice fed an HFD or an STD was seen after 2...

  9. Cadmium Increases the Sensitivity of Adolescent Female Mice to Nicotine-Related Behavioral Deficits

    Philip Adeyemi Adeniyi


    Full Text Available This study investigates spatial and nonspatial working memory, anxiety related behavior, and motor activities in cadmium and/or nicotine exposed female adolescent mice. P28 female adolescent mice (albino strain were divided into four groups of five (n=5 mice each. A set of mice (Nic received subcutaneous nicotine (2.0 mg/kg while a separate set (Cd was treated with 2.0 mg/kg cadmium (subcutaneous. For the combined treatments of cadmium and nicotine, we administered 2.0 mg/kg Nicotine and 2.0 mg/kg of Cd. Subsequently, a separate group of animals (n=5; control received normal saline. The total duration of treatment for all groups was 28 days (P28–P56. At P56, the treatment was discontinued, after which the animals were examined in behavioural tests. Nicotine and cadmium increased the metabolism and food intake in the female adolescent mice. This also corresponded to an increase in weight when compared with the control. However, a combined nicotine-cadmium treatment induced a decline in weight of the animals versus the control. Also, nicotine administration increased the motor function, while cadmium and nicotine-cadmium treatment caused a decline in motor activity. Both nicotine and cadmium induced a reduction in memory index; however, nicotine-cadmium treatment induced the most significant decrease in nonspatial working memory.

  10. Mice deficient in transmembrane prostatic acid phosphatase display increased GABAergic transmission and neurological alterations.

    Heidi O Nousiainen

    Full Text Available Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, the first diagnostic marker and present therapeutic target for prostate cancer, modulates nociception at the dorsal root ganglia (DRG, but its function in the central nervous system has remained unknown. We studied expression and function of TMPAP (the transmembrane isoform of PAP in the brain by utilizing mice deficient in TMPAP (PAP-/- mice. Here we report that TMPAP is expressed in a subpopulation of cerebral GABAergic neurons, and mice deficient in TMPAP show multiple behavioral and neurochemical features linked to hyperdopaminergic dysregulation and altered GABAergic transmission. In addition to increased anxiety, disturbed prepulse inhibition, increased synthesis of striatal dopamine, and augmented response to amphetamine, PAP-deficient mice have enlarged lateral ventricles, reduced diazepam-induced loss of righting reflex, and increased GABAergic tone in the hippocampus. TMPAP in the mouse brain is localized presynaptically, and colocalized with SNARE-associated protein snapin, a protein involved in synaptic vesicle docking and fusion, and PAP-deficient mice display altered subcellular distribution of snapin. We have previously shown TMPAP to reside in prostatic exosomes and we propose that TMPAP is involved in the control of GABAergic tone in the brain also through exocytosis, and that PAP deficiency produces a distinct neurological phenotype.

  11. Fas/CD95 deficiency in ApcMin/+ mice increases intestinal tumor burden.

    Hector Guillen-Ahlers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fas, a member of the tumor necrosis family, is responsible for initiating the apoptotic pathway when bound to its ligand, Fas-L. Defects in the Fas-mediated apoptotic pathway have been reported in colorectal cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, a variant of the Apc(Min/+ mouse, a model for the human condition, Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP, was generated with an additional deficiency of Fas (Apc(Min/+/Fas(lpr by cross-breeding Apc(Min/+ mice with Fas deficient (Fas(lpr mice. One of the main limitations of the Apc(Min/+ mouse model is that it only develops benign polyps. However, Apc(Min/+/Fas(lpr mice presented with a dramatic increase in tumor burden relative to Apc(Min/+ mice and invasive lesions at advanced ages. Proliferation and apoptosis markers revealed an increase in cellular proliferation, but negligible changes in apoptosis, while p53 increased at early ages. Fas-L was lower in Apc(Min/+/Fas(lpr mice relative to Apc(Min/+ cohorts, which resulted in enhanced inflammation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrated that imposition of a Fas deletion in an Apc(Min/+ background results in a more aggressive phenotype of the Apc(Min/+ mouse model, with more rapid development of invasive intestinal tumors and a decrease in Fas-L levels.

  12. Cohabitation with a sick partner increases allergic lung inflammatory response in mice.

    Hamasato, Eduardo Kenji; de Lima, Ana Paula Nascimento; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Ligeiro; dos Santos Franco, Adriana Lino; de Lima, Wothan Tavares; Palermo-Neto, João


    The bidirectional relationship between the nervous system and the immune system is relevant for homeostatic organism maintenance. Studies from our laboratory showed that 14days of cohabitation with a sick partner (injected with Ehrlich tumor cells-TAE) produced behavioral, neurochemical, endocrinological and immunological changes. This study analyzes the effects of cohabitation with an Ehrlich tumor-bearing animal on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced lung inflammatory response in mice. Pairs of male mice were divided into three groups: naïve, control and experimental. Animals of the naïve group were kept undisturbed being used for the assessment of basal parameters. One animal of each experimental and control pair of mice was immunized with OVA. On ED(0), these OVA-immunized animals received an OVA booster. At this day (D(0)) the experimental mice that were kept undisturbed were inoculated with 5×10(6) Ehrlich tumor cells; their immunized cage-mates were then referred as to CSP ("companion of sick partner"). The undisturbed mice of each control pair were i.p. treated on D(0) with 0.9% NaCl; their sensitized cage-mates were subsequently referred as CHP ("companion of health partner"). The OVA challenge was performed on CSP and CHP mice on ED(12) and ED(13); blood and tissue collection were performed on ED(14). Fourteen days after cohabitation, in comparison to the CHP mice, the CSP mice displayed the following: (1) an increased number of eosinophils and neutrophils in the BAL, (2) a decreased bone marrow cell count, (3) increased levels of IL-4 and IL-5 and decreased levels of IL-10 and IFN-γ in the BAL supernatant, (5) increased levels of IgG1-OVA, decreased levels of IgG2a-OVA and no changes in OVA-specific IgE in the peripheral blood, (6) increased expression of L-selectin in the BAL granulocytes, (7) decreased tracheal reactivity to methacholine measured in vitro, (8) no changes in plasma corticosterone levels and (9) increased levels of plasmatic noradrenaline. These

  13. Increased susceptibility to experimental steatohepatitis induced by methionine-choline deficiency in HBs-Tg mice

    Miao-MiaoFu; RuiSun; Zhi-GangTian; Hai-MingWei


    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, about 25% of individuals with chronic hepatitis B have fatty liver disease. Lipogenic diets that are completely devoid of methionine and choline induce nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, no animal model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis associated with HBV infection is available, and the influence of viral infection on nutritional hepatic steatosis is unclear. METHODS: We used HBV surface antigen transgenic mice (HBs-Tg mice), which mimic healthy human carriers with hepatitis B surface antigen. The mice were fed with a high-fat methionine-choline-deficient diet (MCD) to build a reliable rodent nutritional model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis associated with HBV infection, and the changes in body weight and serum triglycerides were measured. Hepatocyte ballooning changes were determined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The extent of hepatic fat accumulation was evaluated by oil red O staining. Immunohistochemical assays were performed to detect proliferating cell nuclear antigen as an index of cell proliferation. RESULTS: MCD feeding provoked systemic weight loss and liver injury. MCD feeding caused more macrovesicular fat droplets and fat accumulation in the livers of HBs-Tg mice than in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. In addition, within 30 days of MCD exposure, more PCNA-positive nuclei were found in the livers of HBs-Tg mice. CONCLUSIONS: HBs-Tg mice fed with a lipogenic MCD form more macrovesicular fat droplets earlier, coincident with more hepatocyte proliferation, resulting in the appearance of increased susceptibility to experimental steatohepatitis in these mice.

  14. Leptin Administration Downregulates the Increased Expression Levels of Genes Related to Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in the Skeletal Muscle of ob/ob Mice

    Sáinz, Neira; Rodríguez, Amaia; Catalán, Victoria; Becerril, Sara; Ramírez, Beatriz; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema


    Obese leptin-deficient ob/ob mice exhibit a low-grade chronic inflammation together with a low muscle mass. Our aim was to analyze the changes in muscle expression levels of genes related to oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in leptin deficiency and to identify the effect of in vivo leptin administration. Ob/ob mice were divided in three groups as follows: control ob/ob, leptin-treated ob/ob (1 mg/kg/d) and leptin pair-fed ob/ob mice. Gastrocnemius weight was lower in control ob/ob than in wild type mice (P < .01) exhibiting an increase after leptin treatment compared to control and pair-fed (P < .01) ob/ob animals. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, markers of oxidative stress, were higher in serum (P < .01) and gastrocnemius (P = .05) of control ob/ob than in wild type mice and were significantly decreased (P < .01) by leptin treatment. Leptin deficiency altered the expression of 1,546 genes, while leptin treatment modified the regulation of 1,127 genes with 86 of them being involved in oxidative stress, immune defense and inflammatory response. Leptin administration decreased the high expression of Crybb1, Hspb3, Hspb7, Mt4, Cat, Rbm9, Serpinc1 and Serpinb1a observed in control ob/ob mice, indicating that it improves inflammation and muscle loss. PMID:20671928

  15. Voluntary exercise and increased food intake after mild chronic stress improve social avoidance behavior in mice.

    Otsuka, Airi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Séi, Hiroyoshi


    It is well-established that exercise can influence psychological conditions, cognitive function, and energy metabolism in peripheral tissues including the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether exercise can influence social interaction with others and alleviate defeat stress. This study investigated the effect of voluntary wheel running on impaired social interaction induced by chronic social defeat stress (SDS) using the resident-intruder social defeat model. Mice were divided into three groups: control, stress alone, and stress+exercise. SDS was performed by exposing C57BL/6 mice to retired ICR mice for 2.5 min. The C57BL/6 mice were continuously defeated by these resident (aggressor) mice and, following 5 days of SDS, experienced 2 days of rest with no SDS. Mice in the stress+exercise group were allowed to voluntarily run on a wheel for 2h after every SDS exposure. Two weeks later, compared to the control group, the stress group showed a higher ratio of time spent in the corner zone of a social interaction paradigm even though SDS did not elicit depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. We also observed that voluntary exercise, which did not affect muscle weight and gene expression, decreased social avoidance behavior of stressed mice without clear changes in brain monoamine levels. Interestingly, food intake in the stress+exercise group was the greatest among the three groups. To test the effect of the exercise-induced increase in food intake on social behavior, we set up a pair-fed group where food intake was restricted. We then compared these mice to mice in the stress alone group. We found that the ratio of time spent in the corner zone of the social interaction test was not different between ad libitum- and pair-fed groups, although pair-fed mice spent more time in the corner zone when an aggressor mouse was present than when it was absent. In addition, pair-feeding did not show exercise-induced reductions of adrenal gland weight and enhanced the

  16. Increased susceptibility to pentylenetetrazol following survival of cerebral malaria in mice.

    Grauncke, Ana C B; Souza, Thaíze L; Ribeiro, Leandro R; Brant, Fátima; Machado, Fabiana S; Oliveira, Mauro S


    Malaria is considered a neglected disease and public health problem, affecting >200 million people worldwide. In the present study we used the Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) model of experimental cerebral malaria (CM) in C57BL/6 mice. After rescue from CM and parasite clearance, animals were submitted to a seizure susceptibility test (45 days after infection) using a low dose of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 30 mg/kg) and monitored with use of behavioral and electroencephalography (EEG) methods. Mice rescued from CM presented a reduced latency to myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures and an increased duration of tonic-clonic seizures. In addition, quantitative analysis of EEG revealed a decrease in relative power at beta frequency band in PbA-infected animals after PTZ injection. Our results suggest that CM may lead to increased susceptibility to seizures in mice.

  17. 2-heptyl-formononetin increases cholesterol and induces hepatic steatosis in mice

    Andersen, Charlotte; Schjoldager, Janne Gram; Tortzen, Christian


    Consumption of isoflavones may prevent adiposity, hepatic steatosis, and dyslipidaemia. However, studies in the area are few and primarily with genistein. This study investigated the effects of formononetin and its synthetic analogue, 2-heptyl-formononetin (C7F), on lipid and cholesterol metabolism...... in C57BL/6J mice. The mice were fed a cholesterol-enriched diet for five weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and were then fed either the cholesterol-enriched diet or the cholesterol-enriched diet-supplemented formononetin or C7F for three weeks. Body weight and composition, glucose homeostasis......, and plasma lipids were compared. In another experiment, mice were fed the above diets for five weeks, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation and gene expression and histology of adipose tissue and liver were examined. Supplementation with C7F increased plasma HDL-cholesterol thereby increasing the plasma...

  18. Agmatine increases proliferation of cultured hippocampal progenitor cells and hippocampal neurogenesis in chronically stressed mice

    Yun-feng LI; Hong-xia CHEN; Ying LIU; You-zhi ZHANG; Yan-qin LIU; Jin LI


    Aim:To explore the mechanism of agmatine's antidepressant action.Methods: Male mice were subjected to a variety of unpredictable stressors on a daily basis over a 24-d period.The open-field behaviors of the mice were displayed and recorded using a Videomex-V image analytic system automatically.For bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU;thymidine analog as a marker for dividing cells) labeling,the mice were injected with BrdU (100 mg/kg,ip,twice per d for 2 d),and the hippocampal neurogenesis in stressed mice was measured by immunohistochemistry.The proliferation of cultured hippocampal progenitor cells from neonatal rats was determined by colorimetric assay (cell counting kit-8) and 3H-thymidine incorporation assay.Results:After the onset of chronic stress,the locomotor activity of the mice in the open field significantly decreased,while coadministration of agmatine 10 mg/kg (po) blocked it.Furthermore,the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus significantly decreased in chronically stressed mice, which was also blocked by chronic coadministration with agmatine 10 mg/kg (po). Four weeks after the BrdU injection, some of the new born cells matured and became neurons, as determined by double labeling for BrdU and neuron specific enolase (NSE), a marker for mature neurons.In vitro treatment with agmatine 0.1-10 μmo1/L for 3 d significantly increased the proliferation of the cultured hippocampal progenitor cells in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusion:We have found that agmatine increases proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells in vitro and the hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo in chronically stressed mice.This may be one of the important mechanisms involved in agmatine's antidepressant action.

  19. Increased abscess formation and defective chemokine regulation in CREB transgenic mice.

    Andy Y Wen

    Full Text Available Cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein (CREB is a transcription factor implicated in growth factor-dependent cell proliferation and survival, glucose homeostasis, spermatogenesis, circadian rhythms, and synaptic plasticity associated with memory. To study the phenotype of CREB overexpression in vivo, we generated CREB transgenic (TG mice in which a myeloid specific hMRP8 promoter drives CREB expression. CREB TG mice developed spontaneous skin abscesses more frequently than wild type (WT mice. To understand the role of CREB in myeloid function and innate immunity, chemokine expression in bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs from CREB TG mice were compared with BMDMs from WT mice. Our results demonstrated decreased Keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC in CREB TG BMDMs but not TNFα protein production in response to lipid A (LPA. In addition, mRNA expression of KC and IL-1β (Interleukin-1β was decreased in CREB TG BMDMs; however, there was no difference in the mRNA expression of TNFα, MCP-1, IL-6 and IL-12p40. The mRNA expression of IL-1RA and IL-10 was decreased in response to LPA. Nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB expression and a subset of its target genes were upregulated in CREB TG mouse BMDMs. Although neutrophil migration was the same in both CREB TG and WT mice, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase activity was significantly increased in neutrophils from CREB TG mice. Taken together, CREB overexpression in myeloid cells results in increased abscess formation in vivo and aberrant cytokine and chemokine response, and neutrophil function in vitro.

  20. Ileal mucosal bile acid absorption is increased in Cftr knockout mice

    Somasundaram Sivagurunathan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive loss of bile acids in stool has been reported in patients with cystic fibrosis. Some data suggest that a defect in mucosal bile acid transport may be the mechanism of bile acid malabsorption in these individuals. However, the molecular basis of this defect is unknown. This study examines the expression of the ileal bile acid transporter protein (IBAT and rates of diffusional (sodium independent and active (sodium dependent uptake of the radiolabeled bile acid taurocholate in mice with targeted disruption of the cftr gene. Methods Wild-type, heterozygous cftr (+/- and homozygous cftr (-/- mice were studied. Five one-cm segments of terminal ileum were excised, everted and mounted onto thin stainless steel rods and incubated in buffer containing tracer 3H-taurocholate. Simultaneously, adjacent segments of terminal ileum were taken and processed for immunohistochemistry and Western blots using an antibody against the IBAT protein. Results In all ileal segments, taurocholate uptake rates were fourfold higher in cftr (-/- and two-fold higher in cftr (+/- mice compared to wild-type mice. Passive uptake was not significantly higher in cftr (-/- mice than in controls. IBAT protein was comparably increased. Immuno-staining revealed that the greatest increases occurred in the crypts of cftr (-/- animals. Conclusions In the ileum, IBAT protein densities and taurocholate uptake rates are elevated in cftr (-/- mice > cftr (+/- > wild-type mice. These findings indicate that bile acid malabsorption in cystic fibrosis is not caused by a decrease in IBAT activity at the brush border. Alternative mechanisms are proposed, such as impaired bile acid uptake caused by the thick mucus barrier in the distal small bowel, coupled with a direct negative regulatory role for cftr in IBAT function.

  1. Cattle with increased severity of bovine respiratory disease complex exhibit decreased capacity to protect against histone cytotoxicity.

    Matera, J A; Wilson, B K; Hernandez Gifford, J A; Step, D L; Krehbiel, C R; Gifford, C A


    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. Significant inflammation and lesions are often observed in lungs of infected cattle. During acute inflammatory responses, histones contribute to mortality in rodents and humans and serum proteins can protect against histone-induced cytotoxicity. We hypothesized that cattle experiencing chronic or fatal cases of BRDC have reduced ability to protect against cytotoxic effects of histones. Serum samples were collected from 66 bull calves at the time of normal feedlot processing procedures. Animals were retrospectively assigned to groups consisting of calves never treated for BRDC (control [CONT]; n = 10), calves treated with antimicrobials once for BRDC (1T; n = 16), calves treated twice for BRDC (2T; n = 13), calves treated 3 times for BRDC (3T; n = 14), or calves treated 4 times for BRDC (4T; n = 13). Samples were also collected each time animals received antimicrobial treatment; animals within a group were further sorted by calves that recovered and calves that died to test histone cytotoxicity. Bovine kidney cells were cultured in duplicate in 96-well plates and exposed to 0 or 50 μg/mL of total histones for 18 h with 1% serum from each animal. Cell viability was assessed by the addition of resazurin for 6 h followed by fluorescent quantification. Fluorescent values from serum alone were subtracted from values obtained for histone treatment for each animal. Serum from CONT, 1T, and 2T at initial processing all exhibited a similar (P > 0.10) response to histone treatment with fluorescent values of -312 ± 557, -1,059 ± 441, and -975 ± 489, respectively. However, 3T and 4T demonstrated an impaired capacity (P < 0.05) to protect against histones (-2,778 ± 471 and -3,026 ± 489) at initial processing when compared to the other groups. When sorted by mortality within group, calves that were treated twice and recovered (-847 ± 331) demonstrated a greater (P

  2. Increased angiogenic response in aortic explants of collagen XVIII/endostatin-null mice.

    Li, Qing; Olsen, Bjorn R


    Endostatin, a proteolytic fragment of basement membrane-associated collagen XVIII, has been shown to be a potent angiogenesis inhibitor both in vivo and in vitro when given at high concentrations. The precise molecular mechanisms by which it functions and whether or not it plays a role in physiological regulation of angiogenesis are not clear. In mice with targeted null alleles of Col18a1, there appears to be no major abnormality in vascular patterns or capillary density in most organs. Furthermore, the growth of experimental tumors is not increased. However, a detailed analysis of induced angiogenesis in these mice has not been performed. Therefore, we compared the angiogenic responses induced by in vitro culture of aortic explants from collagen XVIII/endostatin-null mice (ko) to wild-type (wt) littermates. We found a twofold increase in microvessel outgrowth in explants from ko mice, relative to wt explants. This increased angiogenesis was reduced to the wt level by the addition of low levels (0.1 microg/ml) of recombinant mouse or human endostatin during the culture period. To address cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying this difference in angiogenic response between ko and wt mice, we isolated endothelial cells from both strains and compared their biological behavior. Proliferation assays showed no difference between the two types of endothelial cells. In contrast, adhesion assays showed a striking difference in their ability to adhere to fibronectin suggesting that collagen XVIII/endostatin may regulate interactions between endothelial cells and underlying basement membrane-associated components, including fibronectin, such that in the absence of collagen XVIII/endostatin, endothelial cells are more adhesive to fibronectin. In the aortic explant assay, characterized by dynamic processes of microvessel elongation and regression, this may result in stabilization of newly formed vessels, reduced regression, and a net increase in microvessel outgrowth in

  3. Respiratory syncytial virus increases lung cellular bioenergetics in neonatal C57BL/6 mice

    Alsuwaidi, Ahmed R., E-mail: [Departments of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Albawardi, Alia, E-mail: [Departments of Pathology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Almarzooqi, Saeeda, E-mail: [Departments of Pathology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Benedict, Sheela, E-mail: [Departments of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Othman, Aws R., E-mail: [Departments of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Hartwig, Stacey M., E-mail: [Department of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Varga, Steven M., E-mail: [Department of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Souid, Abdul-Kader, E-mail: [Departments of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)


    We have previously reported that lung cellular bioenergetics (cellular respiration and ATP) increased in 4–10 week-old BALB/c mice infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study examined the kinetics and changes in cellular bioenergetics in ≤2-week-old C57BL/6 mice following RSV infection. Mice (5–14 days old) were inoculated intranasally with RSV and the lungs were examined on days 1–10 post-infection. Histopathology and electron microscopy revealed preserved pneumocyte architectures and organelles. Increased lung cellular bioenergetics was noted from days 1–10 post-infection. Cellular GSH remained unchanged. These results indicate that the increased lung cellular respiration (measured by mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption) and ATP following RSV infection is independent of either age or genetic background of the host. - Highlights: • RSV infection increases lung cellular respiration and ATP in neonatal C57BL/6 mice. • Increased lung cellular bioenergetics is a biomarker of RSV infection. • Lung cellular glutathione remains unchanged in RSV infection.

  4. Glucagon-producing cells are increased in Mas-deficient mice.

    Felix Braga, Janaína; Ravizzoni Dartora, Daniela; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza


    It has been shown that angiotensin(1-7) (Ang(1-7)) produces several effects related to glucose homeostasis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of genetic deletion of Ang(1-7), the GPCR Mas, on the glucagon-producing cells. C57BL6/N Mas(-/-) mice presented a significant and marked increase in pancreatic α-cells (number of cells: 146 ± 21 vs 67 ± 8 in WT; P Mas(-/-) mice (0.25 ± 0.01 vs 0.31 ± 56.45 pg/mL in WT; P = 0.02). In order to eliminate the possibility of a background-related phenotype, we determined the number of glucagon-producing cells in FVB/N Mas(-/-) mice. In keeping with the observations in C57BL6/N Mas(-/-) mice, the number and percentage of pancreatic α-cells were also significantly increased in these mice (number of α-cells: 260 ± 22 vs 156 ± 12 in WT, P Mas has a previously unexpected role on the pancreatic glucagon production. © 2017 The authors.

  5. Utilizing avidity to improve antifreeze protein activity: a type III antifreeze protein trimer exhibits increased thermal hysteresis activity.

    Can, Özge; Holland, Nolan B


    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are ice growth inhibitors that allow the survival of several species living at temperatures colder than the freezing point of their bodily fluids. AFP activity is commonly defined in terms of thermal hysteresis, which is the difference observed for the solution freezing and melting temperatures. Increasing the thermal hysteresis activity of these proteins, particularly at low concentrations, is of great interest because of their wide range of potential applications. In this study, we have designed and expressed one-, two-, and three-domain antifreeze proteins to improve thermal hysteresis activity through increased binding avidity. The three-domain type III AFP yielded significantly greater activity than the one- and two-domain proteins, reaching a thermal hysteresis of >1.6 °C at a concentration of hysteresis activity.

  6. Tumorigenic lung tumorospheres exhibit stem-like features with significantly increased expression of CD133 and ABCG2

    Zhao, Wensi; Luo, Yi; Li, Boyi; Zhang, Tao


    Accumulating evidence supports the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in human tumors, and the successful certification of CSCs may lead to the identification of therapeutic targets, which are more effective for the treatment of cancer. The use of spherical cancer models has increased in popularity in cancer stem cell investigations. Tumorospheres, which are used as a model of CSCs and are established in serum-free medium supplemented with growth factors under non-adherent conditions, are ...

  7. CD22 x Siglec-G double-deficient mice have massively increased B1 cell numbers and develop systemic autoimmunity.

    Jellusova, Julia; Wellmann, Ute; Amann, Kerstin; Winkler, Thomas H; Nitschke, Lars


    CD22 and Siglec-G are inhibitory coreceptors for BCR-mediated signaling. Although CD22-deficient mice show increased calcium signaling in their conventional B2 cells and a quite normal B cell maturation, Siglec-G-deficient mice have increased calcium mobilization just in B1 cells and show a large expansion of the B1 cell population. Neither CD22-deficient, nor Siglec-G-deficient mice on a pure C57BL/6 or BALB/c background, respectively, develop autoimmunity. Using Siglec-G x CD22 double-deficient mice, we addressed whether Siglec-G and CD22 have redundant functions. Siglec-G x CD22 double-deficient mice show elevated calcium responses in both B1 cells and B2 cells, increased serum IgM levels and an enlarged population of B1 cells. The enlargement of B1 cell numbers is even higher than in Siglecg(-/-) mice. This expansion seems to happen at the expense of B2 cells, which are reduced in absolute cell numbers, but show an activated phenotype. Furthermore, Siglec-G x CD22 double-deficient mice show a diminished immune response to both thymus-dependent and thymus-independent type II Ags. In contrast, B cells from Siglec-G x CD22 double-deficient mice exhibit a hyperproliferative response to stimulation with several TLR ligands. Aged Siglec-G x CD22 double-deficient mice spontaneously develop anti-DNA and antinuclear autoantibodies. These resulted in a moderate form of immune complex glomerulonephritis. These results show that Siglec-G and CD22 have partly compensatory functions and together are crucial in maintaining the B cell tolerance.

  8. Men with Sickle Cell Anemia and Priapism Exhibit Increased Hemolytic Rate, Decreased Red Blood Cell Deformability and Increased Red Blood Cell Aggregate Strength.

    Kizzy-Clara Cita

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between priapism in men with sickle cell anemia (SCA and hemorheological and hemolytical parameters.Fifty-eight men with SCA (median age: 38 years were included; 28 who had experienced priapism at least once during their life (priapism group and 30 who never experienced this complication (control group. Twenty-two patients were treated with hydroxycarbamide, 11 in each group. All patients were at steady state at the time of inclusion. Hematological and biochemical parameters were obtained through routine procedures. The Laser-assisted Optical Rotational Cell Analyzer was used to measure red blood cell (RBC deformability at 30 Pa (ektacytometry and RBC aggregation properties (laser backscatter versus time. Blood viscosity was measured at a shear rate of 225 s-1 using a cone/plate viscometer. A principal component analysis was performed on 4 hemolytic markers (i.e., lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT, total bilirubin (BIL levels and reticulocyte (RET percentage to calculate a hemolytic index.Compared to the control group, patients with priapism exhibited higher ASAT (p = 0.01, LDH (p = 0.03, RET (p = 0.03 levels and hemolytic indices (p = 0.02. Higher RBC aggregates strength (p = 0.01 and lower RBC deformability (p = 0.005 were observed in patients with priapism compared to controls. After removing the hydroxycarbamide-treated patients, RBC deformability (p = 0.01 and RBC aggregate strength (p = 0.03 were still different between the two groups, and patients with priapism exhibited significantly higher hemolytic indices (p = 0.01 than controls.Our results confirm that priapism in SCA is associated with higher hemolytic rates and show for the first time that this complication is also associated with higher RBC aggregate strength and lower RBC deformability.

  9. Increased Oocyte Degeneration and Follicular Atresia during the Estrous Cycle in Anti-Müllerian Hormone Null Mice

    Visser, Jenny A.; Durlinger, Alexandra L.L.; Peters, Isolde J.J.; Heuvel, Edwin R. van den; Rose, Ursula M.; Kramer, Piet; Jong, Frank H. de; Themmen, Axel P.N.


    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) plays an important role in folliculogenesis. AMH null mice display an increased recruitment of primordial follicles. Nevertheless, these mice do not have proportionally more preovulatory follicles. Therefore, AMH null mice provide an interesting genetic model to study

  10. Impaired inflammatory response and increased oxidative stress and neurodegeneration after brain injury in interleukin-6-deficient mice

    Penkowa, M; Giralt, M; Carrasco, J;


    showed higher levels of MDA, NITT, and iNOS than did normal mice. Concomitantly, in IL-6KO mice the number of apoptotic neurons was significantly increased as judged by TUNEL staining, and regeneration of the tissue was delayed relative to normal mice. The changes in neuronal tissue damage and in brain...

  11. CD1d knockout mice exhibit aggravated contact hypersensitivity responses due to reduced interleukin-10 production predominantly by regulatory B cells

    Fjelbye, Jonas; Antvorskov, Julie C; Buschard, Karsten


    Conflicting observations have been reported concerning the role of CD1d-dependent natural killer T (NKT) cells in contact hypersensitivity (CHS), supporting either a disease-promoting or downregulatory function. We studied the role of NKT cells in CHS by comparing the immune response in CD1d.......5% DNCB (w/v) on the ears fifteen days later. We demonstrate that CD1d KO mice, as compared with Wt littermates, have more pronounced infiltration of mononuclear cells in the skin (29.1% increase; P

  12. Dietary phytoestrogens present in soy dramatically increase cardiotoxicity in male mice receiving a chemotherapeutic tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

    Harvey, Pamela Ann; Leinwand, Leslie Anne


    Use of soy supplements to inhibit cancer cell growth is increasing among patients due to the perception that phytoestrogens in soy inhibit carcinogenesis via induction of apoptosis. Genistein, the most prevalent phytoestrogen in soy, is a potent endocrine disruptor and tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that causes apoptosis in many cells types. Chemotherapeutic TKIs limit cancer cell growth via the same mechanisms. However, TKIs such as Sunitinib cause cardiotoxicity in a significant number of patients. Molecular interactions between Sunitinib and dietary TKIs like genistein have not been examined in cardiomyocytes. Significant lethality occurred in mice treated with Sunitinib and fed a phytoestrogen-supplemented diet. Isolated cardiomyocytes co-treated with genistein and Sunitinib exhibited additive inhibition of signaling molecules important for normal cardiac function and increased apoptosis compared with Sunitinib alone. Thus, dietary soy supplementation should be avoided during administration of Sunitinib due to exacerbated cardiotoxicity, despite evidence for positive effects in cancer.

  13. Ozone increases airway hyperreactivity and mucus hyperproduction in mice previously exposed to allergen

    Larsen, Søren T; Matsubara, Shigeki; McConville, Glen


    Acute exacerbations of asthma represent a common clinical problem with major economic impact. Air pollutants including ozone have been shown to contribute to asthma exacerbation, but the mechanisms underlying ozone-induced asthma exacerbation are only partially understood. The present study aimed...... exposure to clean air or 100, 250, or 500 ppb ozone. Ozone induced AHR in mice previously exposed to OVA when compared to non-exposed (saline) control mice. After a 10-d exposure to OVA, a single exposure to a low (100 ppb) ozone concentration was sufficient to induce AHR. The AHR response was associated...... with goblet-cell metaplasia. Even the lowest concentration of ozone tested, 100 ppb, which may be exceeded in urban environments and in the workplace, resulted in a significant increase in AHR, most prominent 24 h after exposure in the OVA-exposed mice....

  14. EPO reverses defective wound repair in hypercholesterolaemic mice by increasing functional angiogenesis.

    Elsherbiny, Ahmed; Högger, Dominik C; Borozadi, Meisam Khorrami; Schmidt, Christian A; Plock, Jan; Largo, Rene D; Lindenblatt, Nicole; Giovanoli, Pietro; Contaldo, Claudio


    This study aims to elucidate the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on the microcirculation during wound healing in mice genetically depleted of apolipoprotein E (ApoE(-/-)). The skinfold chamber in mice was used for intravital microscopy, whereby an incisional wound was created within the chamber. Animals received Recormon(®) 1000 U kg(-1) body weight (BW) intra-peritoneally (i.p.) at day 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 post-wounding at a concentration of 100 Uml(-1) (n=42). Normal healing and vehicle-treated wild type animals (WT) served as controls. The microcirculation of the wound was analysed quantitatively in vivo using epi-illumination intravital fluorescence microscopy. Microtomography (micro-CT) analysis of casted wound microvessels was performed allowing three-dimensional (3D) histomorphometric analysis. Tissue samples were examined ex vivo for wound scoring and for expression analysis of EPO-Receptor (Epo-R) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Upon EPO treatment, the total wound score in ApoE(-/-) mice was increased by 23% on day 3, by 26% on day 7 and by 18% on day 13 when compared to untreated ApoE(-/-) mice (all PEpo-R expression (4.6-fold on day 3 and 13.5-fold on day 7) and eNOS expression (2.4-fold on day 7) (all PEPO treatment reverses microvascular dysfunction during wound healing in hypercholesterolaemic mice by inducing new vessel formation and by providing the wound with more oxygen.

  15. Ascorbate availability affects tumor implantation-take rate and increases tumor rejection in Gulo(-/-) mice.

    Campbell, Elizabeth J; Vissers, Margreet Cm; Dachs, Gabi U


    In solid tumors, HIF1 upregulates the expression of hundreds of genes involved in cell survival, tumor growth, and adaptation to the hypoxic microenvironment. HIF1 stabilization and activity are suppressed by prolyl and asparagine hydroxylases, which require oxygen as a substrate and ascorbate as a cofactor. This has led us to hypothesize that intracellular ascorbate availability could modify the hypoxic HIF1 response and influence tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the effect of variable intracellular ascorbate levels on HIF1 induction in cancer cells in vitro, and on tumor-take rate and growth in the Gulo(-/-) mouse. These mice depend on dietary ascorbate, and were supplemented with 3,300 mg/L, 330 mg/L, or 33 mg/L ascorbate in their drinking water, resulting in saturating, medium, or low plasma and tissue ascorbate levels, respectively. In Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LL/2) in culture, optimal ascorbate supplementation reduced HIF1 accumulation under physiological but not pathological hypoxia. LL/2, B16-F10 melanoma, or CMT-93 colorectal cancer cells were implanted subcutaneously into Gulo(-/-) mice at a range of cell inocula. Establishment of B16-F10 tumors in mice supplemented with 3,300 mg/L ascorbate required an increased number of cancer cells to initiate tumor growth compared with the number of cells required in mice on suboptimal ascorbate intake. Elevated ascorbate intake was also associated with decreased tumor ascorbate levels and a reduction in HIF1α expression and transcriptional activity. Following initial growth, all CMT-93 tumors regressed spontaneously, but mice supplemented with 33 mg/L ascorbate had lower plasma ascorbate levels and grew larger tumors than optimally supplemented mice. The data from this study indicate that improved ascorbate intake is consistent with increased intracellular ascorbate levels, reduced HIF1 activity and reduced tumor initiation and growth, and this may be advantageous in the management of cancer.

  16. Increased PKC activity and altered GSK3β/NMDAR function drive behavior cycling in HINT1-deficient mice: bipolarity or opposing forces.

    Garzón-Niño, Javier; Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Cortés-Montero, Elsa; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar


    Mice with histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) deletion exhibit manic-like symptoms that evolve into depressive-like behavior in response to stressful paradigms. Molecular and electrophysiological studies have indicated that HINT1(-/-) mice exhibit increased PKC, PKA, and GSK3β activities, as well as glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)/α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic receptor (AMPAR) and NR2B/NR2A subunit ratios. Pharmacological interventions stabilized their behavior but through different mechanisms. GSK3β inhibitors and valproate directly attenuated the expression of the manic-like symptoms, whereas PKC inhibition, lamotrigine, or risperidone promoted NMDAR-mediated depressive-like behaviors that counterbalanced the preexisting manic-like symptoms. Naïve HINT1(-/-) mice exposed to stressful paradigms rapidly manifested depressive-like behaviors in subsequent stressful situations, a capacity that persisted for a couple of weeks thereafter. During the depressive-like phase, citalopram, amitriptyline and MK801 precipitated manic-like behaviors in stressed HINT1(-/-) mice. Notably, the antagonism of NMDARs prevented HINT1(-/-) mice from alternating behaviors in response to stress. A comparison with "manic" Black Swiss mice indicated that in HINT1(-/-) mice, PKC supports manic-like symptoms and reduces the expression of depressive-like behaviors via activation of GSK3β and regulation of NR2B-enriched NMDARs. HINT1(-/-) mice represent a suitable model for studying human BPD and may facilitate the identification of novel targets and drugs to treat this mental disorder.

  17. 2-Heptyl-Formononetin Increases Cholesterol and Induces Hepatic Steatosis in Mice

    Charlotte Andersen


    Full Text Available Consumption of isoflavones may prevent adiposity, hepatic steatosis, and dyslipidaemia. However, studies in the area are few and primarily with genistein. This study investigated the effects of formononetin and its synthetic analogue, 2-heptyl-formononetin (C7F, on lipid and cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mice. The mice were fed a cholesterol-enriched diet for five weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and were then fed either the cholesterol-enriched diet or the cholesterol-enriched diet-supplemented formononetin or C7F for three weeks. Body weight and composition, glucose homeostasis, and plasma lipids were compared. In another experiment, mice were fed the above diets for five weeks, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation and gene expression and histology of adipose tissue and liver were examined. Supplementation with C7F increased plasma HDL-cholesterol thereby increasing the plasma level of total cholesterol. Supplementation with formononetin did not affect plasma cholesterol but increased plasma triglycerides levels. Supplementation with formononetin and C7F induced hepatic steatosis. However, formononetin decreased markers of inflammation and liver injury. The development of hepatic steatosis was associated with deregulated expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. In conclusion, supplementation with formononetin and C7F to a cholesterol-enriched diet adversely affected lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in C57BL/6J mice.

  18. Intrinsic stiffness of extracellular matrix increases with age in skeletal muscles of mice.

    Wood, Lauren K; Kayupov, Erdan; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Mendias, Christopher L; Claflin, Dennis R; Brooks, Susan V


    Advanced age is associated with increases in muscle passive stiffness, but the contributors to the changes remain unclear. Our purpose was to determine the relative contributions of muscle fibers and extracellular matrix (ECM) to muscle passive stiffness in both adult and old animals. Passive mechanical properties were determined for isolated individual muscle fibers and bundles of muscle fibers that included their associated ECM, obtained from tibialis anterior muscles of adult (8-12 mo old) and old (28-30 mo old) mice. Maximum tangent moduli of individual muscle fibers from adult and old muscles were not different at any sarcomere length tested. In contrast, the moduli of bundles of fibers from old mice was more than twofold greater than that of fiber bundles from adult muscles at sarcomere lengths >2.5 μm. Because ECM mechanical behavior is determined by the composition and arrangement of its molecular constituents, we also examined the effect of aging on ECM collagen characteristics. With aging, muscle ECM hydroxyproline content increased twofold and advanced glycation end-product protein adducts increased threefold, whereas collagen fibril orientation and total ECM area were not different between muscles from adult and old mice. Taken together, these findings indicate that the ECM of tibialis anterior muscles from old mice has a higher modulus than the ECM of adult muscles, likely driven by an accumulation of densely packed extensively crosslinked collagen.

  19. 2-Heptyl-Formononetin Increases Cholesterol and Induces Hepatic Steatosis in Mice

    Andersen, Charlotte; Schjoldager, Janne G.; Tortzen, Christian G.; Vegge, Andreas; Hufeldt, Majbritt R.; Skaanild, Mette T.; Vogensen, Finn K.; Kristiansen, Karsten; Hansen, Axel K.; Nielsen, John


    Consumption of isoflavones may prevent adiposity, hepatic steatosis, and dyslipidaemia. However, studies in the area are few and primarily with genistein. This study investigated the effects of formononetin and its synthetic analogue, 2-heptyl-formononetin (C7F), on lipid and cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mice. The mice were fed a cholesterol-enriched diet for five weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and were then fed either the cholesterol-enriched diet or the cholesterol-enriched diet-supplemented formononetin or C7F for three weeks. Body weight and composition, glucose homeostasis, and plasma lipids were compared. In another experiment, mice were fed the above diets for five weeks, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation and gene expression and histology of adipose tissue and liver were examined. Supplementation with C7F increased plasma HDL-cholesterol thereby increasing the plasma level of total cholesterol. Supplementation with formononetin did not affect plasma cholesterol but increased plasma triglycerides levels. Supplementation with formononetin and C7F induced hepatic steatosis. However, formononetin decreased markers of inflammation and liver injury. The development of hepatic steatosis was associated with deregulated expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. In conclusion, supplementation with formononetin and C7F to a cholesterol-enriched diet adversely affected lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in C57BL/6J mice. PMID:23738334

  20. Increased lipolysis in adipose tissues is associated with elevation of systemic free fatty acids and insulin resistance in perilipin null mice.

    Zhai, W; Xu, C; Ling, Y; Liu, S; Deng, J; Qi, Y; Londos, C; Xu, G


    Elevated plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) are thought to restrict glucose utilization and induce insulin resistance. Plasma FFA concentrations are primarily governed by lipolysis in adipocytes. Perilipin surrounds the lipid droplet in adipocytes and has a dual role in lipolysis regulation. Perilipin null mice studied by two independent laboratories exhibited similar phenotypes of reduced adipose mass and resistance to diet-induced obesity, but have inconsistent metabolic parameters such as plasma levels of FFA, glucose, and insulin. This discrepancy may be due to differences in genetic background, generation, and nutritional status of the animals examined. In this study, we examined the major metabolic parameters in 129/SvEv perilipin null mice fasted for 4 h and observed increased plasma concentrations of FFA, glycerol, glucose, and insulin. An increase in the score for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index confirmed the insulin resistance in perilipin null mice, which may be attributed to the plasma FFA elevation. Basal lipolysis was increased in adipose tissues or primary adipocytes isolated from perilipin null mice with increased mass and activity of hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase. The increased lipolytic action may accelerate FFA efflux from the adipose tissues to the bloodstream, thereby accounting for systemic FFA elevation and, hence, insulin resistance in perilipin null mice. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  1. Brain mitochondria from DJ-1 knockout mice show increased respiration-dependent hydrogen peroxide consumption

    Pamela Lopert


    Full Text Available Mutations in the DJ-1 gene have been shown to cause a rare autosomal-recessive genetic form of Parkinson’s disease (PD. The function of DJ-1 and its role in PD development has been linked to multiple pathways, however its exact role in the development of PD has remained elusive. It is thought that DJ-1 may play a role in regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS formation and overall oxidative stress in cells through directly scavenging ROS itself, or through the regulation of ROS scavenging systems such as glutathione (GSH or thioredoxin (Trx or ROS producing complexes such as complex I of the electron transport chain. Previous work in this laboratory has demonstrated that isolated brain mitochondria consume H2O2 predominantly by the Trx/Thioredoxin Reductase (TrxR/Peroxiredoxin (Prx system in a respiration dependent manner (Drechsel et al., Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2010. Therefore we wanted to determine if mitochondrial H2O2 consumption was altered in brains from DJ-1 deficient mice (DJ-1−/−. Surprisingly, DJ-1−/− mice showed an increase in mitochondrial respiration-dependent H2O2 consumption compared to controls. To determine the basis of the increased H2O2 consumption in DJ1−/− mice, the activities of Trx, Thioredoxin Reductase (TrxR, GSH, glutathione disulfide (GSSG and glutathione reductase (GR were measured. Compared to control mice, brains from DJ-1−/− mice showed an increase in (1 mitochondrial Trx activity, (2 GSH and GSSG levels and (3 mitochondrial glutaredoxin (GRX activity. Brains from DJ-1−/− mice showed a decrease in mitochondrial GR activity compared to controls. The increase in the enzymatic activities of mitochondrial Trx and total GSH levels may account for the increased H2O2 consumption observed in the brain mitochondria in DJ-1−/− mice perhaps as an adaptive response to chronic DJ-1 deficiency.

  2. Mice that are fed a high-fat diet display increased hepcidin expression in adipose tissue.

    Gotardo, Érica Martins Ferreira; dos Santos, Aline Noronha; Miyashiro, Renan Akira; Gambero, Sheley; Rocha, Thalita; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Gambero, Alessandra


    Since the discovery that hepcidin is expressed in the adipose tissue of obese subjects, attention has been increasingly focused on alterations in iron homeostasis that are associated with adiposity. We examined the production of hepcidin, the expression of hepcidin-related genes and the iron content of the adipose tissue in obesity using Swiss mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The mice were maintained on a control diet or HFD for 12 or 24 wk, and body weight, adiposity and glucose homeostasis were evaluated. The expression of several genes (hepcidin, TfR1, TfR2, DMT1, FT-heavy, ferroportin, IRP-1, IRP-2 and HIF-1) and the protein expression of hepcidin and IL-6 were quantified. The iron level was assessed using a Prussian blue reaction in paraffin-embedded tissue. After 24 wk on the HFD, we observed increases in the levels of hepcidin in the serum and the visceral adipose tissue. The IL-6 levels also increased in the visceral adipose tissue. Adipocytes isolated from the visceral adipose tissues of lean and obese mice expressed hepcidin at comparable levels; however, isolated macrophages from the stromal vascular fraction expressed higher hepcidin levels. Adipose tissues from obese mice displayed increased tfR2 expression and the presence of iron. Our results indicate that IL-6 and iron may affect the signaling pathways governing hepcidin expression. Thus, the mice fed HFD for 24 wk represent a suitable model for the study of obesity-linked hepcidin alterations. In addition, hepcidin may play local roles in controlling iron availability and interfering with inflammation in adipose tissue.

  3. A mineral and antioxidant-rich extract from the red marine Algae Alsidium corallinum exhibits cytoprotective effects against potassium bromate-induced erythrocyte oxidative damages in mice.

    Ben Saad, Hajer; Nasri, Imen; Elwej, Awatef; Krayem, Najeh; Jarraya, Raoudha; Kallel, Choumous; Zeghal, Najiba; Amara, Ibtissem Ben


    The present study was carried out to investigate potassium bromate toxicity in mice and the corrective effects of marine algae Alsidium corallinum. The red algae demonstrated its rich composition in phenols, triterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, tropolones, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, and zinc. To confirm its antioxidant potential, an in vivo study was performed on adult mice. The animals were divided into four groups: group I were used as controls, group II received potassium bromate (0.5 g/L) via drinking water, group III received potassium bromate (0.5 g/L) by the same route as group II and 7% of A. corallinum ethanolic extract via their diet, and group IV received only 7% of algae. The potassium bromate-treated group showed a significant decrease in erythrocyte, platelet, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values and a significant increase in total white blood cells, compared to those of controls. While, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and vitamin C values were decreased by potassium bromate treatment, lipid peroxidation (as malondialdehyde) and erythrocyte osmotic fragility values were increased. Interestingly, potassium bromate treatment showed significant genotoxic effects, as demonstrated by DNA degradation. These changes were confirmed by blood smears histopathological observations which were marked by a necrosis and a decrease of erythrocytes number. A. corallinum extract appeared to be effective against hematotoxic and genotoxic changes induced by potassium bromate, as evidenced by the improvement of the parameters cited above.

  4. Rapamycin increases fetal hemoglobin and ameliorates the nociception phenotype in sickle cell mice.

    Khaibullina, Alfia; Almeida, Luis E F; Wang, Li; Kamimura, Sayuri; Wong, Edward C C; Nouraie, Mehdi; Maric, Irina; Albani, Sarah; Finkel, Julia; Quezado, Zenaide M N


    Fetal hemoglobin-inducing therapies are disease-modifying and ameliorate the pain phenotype in sickle cell disease (SCD). Rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, increases HbF in erythroid precursor cells in vitro. We hypothesized that rapamycin would increase HbF levels and improve nociception phenotype in SCD mice. We used sine-wave electrical stimulation to examine nocifensive phenotype and evaluate myelinated [2000Hz (Aβ-fiber) and 250Hz (Aδ-fiber)] and unmyelinated (5Hz C-fibers)] sensory fiber function. Rapamycin significantly increased γ-globin mRNA and HbF levels [+2.3% (0.7, 3.9), mean increase (95% confidence interval, CI), p=0.006]. In homozygous (sickling) mice, long- (16 weeks), but not short-term (6 weeks), rapamycin treatment increased 2000Hz and 250Hz current thresholds in a pattern that varied according to sex. In male, but not female mice, rapamycin (compared with vehicle) was associated with increases in 2000Hz [21Units (7, 35), mean difference (95% CI), p=0.009 for sex∗treatment interaction] and 250Hz [9Units (1, 16), p=0.01] current thresholds. In rapamycin-treated homozygotes, HbF levels directly correlated with myelinated [2000Hz(Aβ-fiber, r=0.58, p=0.01) and 250Hz(Aδ-fiber, r=0.6, p=0.01)] but not unmyelinated sensory fiber current thresholds. These findings suggest that in SCD mice, rapamycin increases HbF and modulates current thresholds of myelinated fibers. Therefore, mTOR signaling might be implicated in the pathobiology of SCD.

  5. Mice fed rapamycin have an increase in lifespan associated with major changes in the liver transcriptome.

    Wilson C Fok

    Full Text Available Rapamycin was found to increase (11% to 16% the lifespan of male and female C57BL/6J mice most likely by reducing the increase in the hazard for mortality (i.e., the rate of aging term in the Gompertz mortality analysis. To identify the pathways that could be responsible for rapamycin's longevity effect, we analyzed the transcriptome of liver from 25-month-old male and female mice fed rapamycin starting at 4 months of age. Few changes (4,500 changed significantly in females. Using multidimensional scaling and heatmap analyses, the male mice fed rapamycin were found to segregate into two groups: one group that is almost identical to control males (Rapa-1 and a second group (Rapa-2 that shows a change in gene expression (>4,000 transcripts with more than 60% of the genes shared with female mice fed Rapa. Using ingenuity pathway analysis, 13 pathways were significantly altered in both Rapa-2 males and rapamycin-fed females with mitochondrial function as the most significantly changed pathway. Our findings show that rapamycin has a major effect on the transcriptome and point to several pathways that would likely impact the longevity.

  6. Increased motor drive and sleep loss in mice lacking Kv3-type potassium channels.

    Espinosa, F; Marks, G; Heintz, N; Joho, R H


    The voltage-gated potassium channels Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 are widely expressed in the brain, including areas implicated in the control of motor activity and in areas thought to regulate arousal states. Although Kv3.1 and Kv3.3-single mutants show some physiological changes, previous studies revealed relatively subtle behavioral alterations suggesting that Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 channel subunits may be encoded by a pair of redundant genes. In agreement with this hypothesis, Kv3.1/Kv3.3-deficient mice display a 'strong' mutant phenotype that includes motor dysfunction (ataxia, myoclonus, tremor) and hyperactivity when exposed to a novel environment. In this paper we report that Kv3.1/Kv3.3-deficient mice are also constitutively hyperactive. Compared to wildtype mice, double mutants display 'restlessness' that is particularly prominent during the light period, when mice are normally at rest, characterized by more than a doubling of ambulatory and stereotypic activity, and accompanied by a 40% sleep reduction. When we reinvestigated both single mutants, we observed constitutive increases of ambulatory and stereotypic activity in conjunction with sleep loss in Kv3.1-single mutants but not in Kv3.3-single mutants. These findings indicate that the absence of Kv3.1-channel subunits is primarily responsible for the increased motor drive and the reduction in sleep time.

  7. Cystatin B-deficient mice have increased expression of apoptosis and glial activation genes

    Lieuallen, Kimberly; Pennacchio, Len A.; Park, Morgan; Myers, Richard M.; Lennon, Gregory G.


    Loss-of-function mutations in the cystatin B (Cstb) gene cause a neurological disorder known as Unverricht Lundborg disease (EPM1) in human patients. Mice that lack Cstb provide a mammalian model for EPM1 by displaying progressive ataxia and myoclonic seizures. We analyzed RNAs from brains of Cstb-deficient mice by using modified differential display, oligonucleotide microarray hybridization and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to examine the molecular consequences of the lack of Cstb. We identified seven genes that have consistently increased transcript levels in neurological tissues from the knockout mice. These genes are cathepsin S, C1q B-chain of complement (C1qB), beta-2-microglobulin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap), apolipoprotein D, fibronectin 1 and metallothionein II, which are expected to be involved in increased proteolysis, apoptosis and glial activation. The molecular changes in Cstb-deficient mice are consistent with the pathology found in the mouse model and may provide clues towards the identification of therapeutic points of intervention for EPM1 patients.

  8. Excess Maternal Fructose Consumption Increases Fetal Loss and Impairs Endometrial Decidualization in Mice.

    Saben, Jessica L; Asghar, Zeenat; Rhee, Julie S; Drury, Andrea; Scheaffer, Suzanne; Moley, Kelle H


    The most significant increase in metabolic syndrome over the previous decade occurred in women of reproductive age, which is alarming given that metabolic syndrome is associated with reproductive problems including subfertility and early pregnancy loss. Individuals with metabolic syndrome often consume excess fructose, and several studies have concluded that excess fructose intake contributes to metabolic syndrome development. Here, we examined the effects of increased fructose consumption on pregnancy outcomes in mice. Female mice fed a high-fructose diet (HFrD) for 6 weeks developed glucose intolerance and mild fatty liver but did not develop other prominent features of metabolic syndrome such as weight gain, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia. Upon mating, HFrD-exposed mice had lower pregnancy rates and smaller litters at midgestation than chow-fed controls. To explain this phenomenon, we performed artificial decidualization experiments and found that HFrD consumption impaired decidualization. This appeared to be due to decreased circulating progesterone as exogenous progesterone administration rescued decidualization. Furthermore, HFrD intake was associated with decreased bone morphogenetic protein 2 expression and signaling, both of which were restored by exogenous progesterone. Finally, expression of forkhead box O1 and superoxide dismutase 2 [Mn] proteins were decreased in the uteri of HFrD-fed mice, suggesting that HFrD consumption promotes a prooxidative environment in the endometrium. In summary, these data suggest that excess fructose consumption impairs murine fertility by decreasing steroid hormone synthesis and promoting an adverse uterine environment.

  9. Increased Skeletal Muscle GLUT4 Expression in Obese Mice After Voluntary Wheel Running Exercise Is Posttranscriptional.

    Gurley, Jami M; Griesel, Beth A; Olson, Ann Louise


    Exercise promotes glucose clearance by increasing skeletal muscle GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake. Importantly, exercise upregulates muscle GLUT4 expression in an insulin-independent manner under conditions of insulin resistance, such as with type 2 diabetes. However, the insulin-independent mechanism responsible for rescued muscle GLUT4 expression is poorly understood. We used voluntary wheel running (VWR) in mice to test the prevailing hypothesis that insulin-independent upregulation of skeletal muscle GLUT4 protein expression with exercise is through increased Glut4 transcription. We demonstrate that 4 weeks of VWR exercise in obese mice rescued high-fat diet-induced decreased muscle GLUT4 protein and improved both fasting plasma insulin and hepatic triacylglyceride levels, but did not rescue muscle Glut4 mRNA. Persistent reduction in Glut4 mRNA suggests that a posttranscriptional mechanism regulated insulin-independent muscle GLUT4 protein expression in response to exercise in lean and obese mice. Reduction of GLUT4 protein in sedentary animals upon treatment with rapamycin revealed mTORC1-dependent GLUT4 regulation. However, no difference in GLUT4 protein expression was observed in VWR-exercised mice treated with either rapamycin or Torin 1, indicating that exercise-dependent regulation on GLUT4 was mTOR independent. The findings provide new insight into the mechanisms responsible for exercise-dependent regulation of GLUT4 in muscle.

  10. Food restriction increases long-term memory persistence in adult or aged mice.

    Talhati, F; Patti, C L; Zanin, K A; Lopes-Silva, L B; Ceccon, L M B; Hollais, A W; Bizerra, C S; Santos, R; Tufik, S; Frussa-Filho, R


    Food restriction (FR) seems to be the unique experimental manipulation that leads to a remarkable increase in lifespan in rodents. Evidences have suggested that FR can enhance memory in distinct animal models mainly during aging. However, only few studies systemically evaluated the effects FR on memory formation in both adult (3-month-old) and aged (18-24-month-old) mice. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute (12h) or repeated (12h/day for 2days) FR protocols on learning and memory of adult and aged mice evaluated in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PM-DAT), an animal model that concurrently (but independently) evaluates learning and memory, anxiety and locomotion. We also investigated the possible role of FR-induced stress by the corticosterone concentration in adult mice. Male mice were kept at home cage with food ad libitum (CTRL-control condition) or subjected to FR during the dark phase of the cycle for 12h/day or 12h/2days. The FR protocols were applied before training, immediately after it or before testing. Our results demonstrated that only FR for 2days enhanced memory persistence when applied before training in adults and before testing in aged mice. Conversely, FR for 2days impaired consolidation and exerted no effects on retrieval irrespective of age. These effects do not seem to be related to corticosterone concentration. Collectively, these results indicate that FR for 2days can promote promnestic effects not only in aged mice but also in adults.

  11. Increased adiposity, dysregulated glucose metabolism and systemic inflammation in Galectin-3 KO mice.

    Jingbo Pang

    Full Text Available Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased production of Galectin-3 (Gal-3, a protein that modulates inflammation and clearance of glucose adducts. We used Lean and Diet-induced Obese (DIO WT and Gal-3 KO mice to investigate the role of Gal-3 in modulation of adiposity, glucose metabolism and inflammation. Deficiency of Gal-3 lead to age-dependent development of excess adiposity and systemic inflammation, as indicated by elevated production of acute-phase proteins, number of circulating pro-inflammatory Ly6C(high monocytes and development of neutrophilia, microcytic anemia and thrombocytosis in 20-week-old Lean and DIO male Gal-3 KO mice. This was associated with impaired fasting glucose, heightened response to a glucose tolerance test and reduced adipose tissue expression of adiponectin, Gal-12, ATGL and PPARγ, in the presence of maintained insulin sensitivity and hepatic expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in 20-week-old Gal-3 KO mice compared to their diet-matched WT controls. Expression of PGC-1α and FGF-21 in the liver of Lean Gal-3 KO mice was comparable to that observed in DIO animals. Impaired fasting glucose and altered responsiveness to a glucose load preceded development of excess adiposity and systemic inflammation, as demonstrated in 12-week-old Gal-3 KO mice. Finally, a role for the microflora in mediating the fasting hyperglycemia, but not the excessive response to a glucose load, of 12-week-old Gal-3 KO mice was demonstrated by administration of antibiotics. In conclusion, Gal-3 is an important modulator of glucose metabolism, adiposity and inflammation.

  12. Chronic use of pravastatin reduces insulin exocytosis and increases β-cell death in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    Lorza-Gil, Estela; Salerno, Alessandro G; Wanschel, Amarylis C B A; Vettorazzi, Jean F; Ferreira, Mônica S; Rentz, Thiago; Catharino, Rodrigo R; Oliveira, Helena C F


    We have previously demonstrated that hypercholesterolemic LDL receptor knockout (LDLr(-/-)) mice secrete less insulin than wild-type mice. Removing cholesterol from isolated islets using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin reversed this defect. In this study, we hypothesized that in vivo treatment of LDLr(-/-) mice with the HMGCoA reductase inhibitor pravastatin would improve glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Female LDLr(-/-) mice were treated with pravastatin (400mg/L) for 1-3 months. Isolated pancreatic islets were assayed for insulin secretion rates, intracellular calcium oscillations, cholesterol levels, NAD(P)H and SNARE protein levels, apoptosis indicators and lipidomic profile. Two months pravastatin treatment reduced cholesterol levels in plasma, liver and islets by 35%, 25% and 50%, respectively. Contrary to our hypothesis, pravastatin treatment increased fasting and fed plasma levels of glucose and decreased markedly (40%) fed plasma levels of insulin. In addition, ex vivo glucose stimulated insulin secretion was significantly reduced after two and three months (36-48%, pinsulin secretion and insulinemia, two months pravastatin treatment did not affect glucose tolerance because it improved global insulin sensitivity. Pravastatin induced islet dysfunction was associated with marked reductions of exocytosis-related SNARE proteins (SNAP25, Syntaxin 1A, VAMP2) and increased apoptosis markers (Bax/Bcl2 protein ratio, cleaved caspase-3 and lower NAD(P)H production rates) observed in pancreatic islets from treated mice. In addition, several oxidized phospholipids, tri- and diacylglycerols and the proapoptotic lipid molecule ceramide were identified as markers of pravastatin-treated islets. Cell death and oxidative stress (H2O2 production) were confirmed in insulin secreting INS-1E cells treated with pravastatin. These results indicate that chronic treatment with pravastatin impairs the insulin exocytosis machinery and increases β-cell death. These findings suggest

  13. Prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) null mice have increased mu opioid receptor levels accompanied by altered morphine-induced antinociception, tolerance and dependence.

    Lutfy, K; Parikh, D; Lee, D L; Liu, Y; Ferrini, M G; Hamid, A; Friedman, T C


    Chronic morphine treatment increases the levels of prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) in brain regions involved in nociception, tolerance and dependence. Thus, we tested if PC2 null mice exhibit altered morphine-induced antinociception, tolerance and dependence. PC2 null mice and their wild-type controls were tested for baseline hot plate latency, injected with morphine (1.25-10mg/kg) and tested for antinociception 30min later. For tolerance studies, mice were tested in the hot plate test before and 30min following morphine (5mg/kg) on day 1. Mice then received an additional dose so that the final dose of morphine was 10mg/kg on this day. On days 2-4, mice received additional doses of morphine (20, 40 and 80mg/kg on days 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively). On day 5, mice were tested in the hot plate test before and 30min following morphine (5mg/kg). For withdrawal studies, mice were treated with the escalating doses of morphine (10, 20, 40 and 80mg/kg) for 4days, implanted with a morphine pellet on day 5 and 3 days later injected with naloxone (1mg/kg) and signs of withdrawal were recorded. Morphine dose-dependently induced antinociception and the magnitude of this response was greater in PC2 null mice. Tolerance to morphine was observed in wild-type mice and this phenomenon was blunted in PC2 null mice. Withdrawal signs were also reduced in PC2 null mice. Immunohistochemical studies showed up-regulation of the mu opioid receptor (MOP) protein expression in the periaqueductal gray area, ventral tegmental area, lateral hypothalamus, medial hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and somatosensory cortex in PC2 null mice. Likewise, naloxone specific binding was increased in the brains of these mice compared to their wild-type controls. The results suggest that the PC2-derived peptides may play a functional role in morphine-induced antinociception, tolerance and dependence. Alternatively, lack of opioid peptides led to up-regulation of the MOP and altered morphine

  14. Increased Persistent Sodium Current Causes Neuronal Hyperexcitability in the Entorhinal Cortex of Fmr1 Knockout Mice.

    Deng, Pan-Yue; Klyachko, Vitaly A


    Altered neuronal excitability is one of the hallmarks of fragile X syndrome (FXS), but the mechanisms underlying this critical neuronal dysfunction are poorly understood. Here, we find that pyramidal cells in the entorhinal cortex of Fmr1 KO mice, an established FXS mouse model, display a decreased AP threshold and increased neuronal excitability. The AP threshold changes in Fmr1 KO mice are caused by increased persistent sodium current (INaP). Our results indicate that this abnormal INaP in Fmr1 KO animals is mediated by increased mGluR5-PLC-PKC (metabotropic glutamate receptor 5/phospholipase C/protein kinase C) signaling. These findings identify Na(+) channel dysregulation as a major cause of neuronal hyperexcitability in cortical FXS neurons and uncover a mechanism by which abnormal mGluR5 signaling causes neuronal hyperexcitability in a FXS mouse model.

  15. Increased Persistent Sodium Current Causes Neuronal Hyperexcitability in the Entorhinal Cortex of Fmr1 Knockout Mice

    Pan-Yue Deng


    Full Text Available Altered neuronal excitability is one of the hallmarks of fragile X syndrome (FXS, but the mechanisms underlying this critical neuronal dysfunction are poorly understood. Here, we find that pyramidal cells in the entorhinal cortex of Fmr1 KO mice, an established FXS mouse model, display a decreased AP threshold and increased neuronal excitability. The AP threshold changes in Fmr1 KO mice are caused by increased persistent sodium current (INaP. Our results indicate that this abnormal INaP in Fmr1 KO animals is mediated by increased mGluR5-PLC-PKC (metabotropic glutamate receptor 5/phospholipase C/protein kinase C signaling. These findings identify Na+ channel dysregulation as a major cause of neuronal hyperexcitability in cortical FXS neurons and uncover a mechanism by which abnormal mGluR5 signaling causes neuronal hyperexcitability in a FXS mouse model.

  16. Increases in Physical Activity Result in Diminishing Increments in Daily Energy Expenditure in Mice.

    O'Neal, Timothy J; Friend, Danielle M; Guo, Juen; Hall, Kevin D; Kravitz, Alexxai V


    Exercise is a common component of weight loss strategies, yet exercise programs are associated with surprisingly small changes in body weight [1-4]. This may be due in part to compensatory adaptations, in which calories expended during exercise are counteracted by decreases in other aspects of energy expenditure [1, 5-10]. Here we examined the relationship between a rodent model of voluntary exercise- wheel running- and total daily energy expenditure. Use of a running wheel for 3 to 7 days increased daily energy expenditure, resulting in a caloric deficit of ∼1 kcal/day; however, total daily energy expenditure remained stable after the first week of wheel access, despite further increases in wheel use. We hypothesized that compensatory mechanisms accounted for the lack of increase in daily energy expenditure after the first week. Supporting this idea, we observed a decrease in off-wheel ambulation when mice were using the wheels, indicating behavioral compensation. Finally, we asked whether individual variation in wheel use within a group of mice would be associated with different levels of daily energy expenditure. Despite a large variation in wheel running, we did not observe a significant relationship between the amount of daily wheel running and total daily energy expenditure or energy intake across mice. Together, our experiments support a model in which the transition from sedentary to light activity is associated with an increase in daily energy expenditure, but further increases in physical activity produce diminishingly small increments in daily energy expenditure.

  17. Increased bile acids in enterohepatic circulation by short-term calorie restriction in male mice

    Fu, Zidong Donna [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 66160 (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 66160 (United States)


    Previous studies showed glucose and insulin signaling can regulate bile acid (BA) metabolism during fasting or feeding. However, limited knowledge is available on the effect of calorie restriction (CR), a well-known anti-aging intervention, on BA homeostasis. To address this, the present study utilized a “dose–response” model of CR, where male C57BL/6 mice were fed 0, 15, 30, or 40% CR diets for one month, followed by BA profiling in various compartments of the enterohepatic circulation by UPLC-MS/MS technique. This study showed that 40% CR increased the BA pool size (162%) as well as total BAs in serum, gallbladder, and small intestinal contents. In addition, CR “dose-dependently” increased the concentrations of tauro-cholic acid (TCA) and many secondary BAs (produced by intestinal bacteria) in serum, such as tauro-deoxycholic acid (TDCA), DCA, lithocholic acid, ω-muricholic acid (ωMCA), and hyodeoxycholic acid. Notably, 40% CR increased TDCA by over 1000% (serum, liver, and gallbladder). Interestingly, 40% CR increased the proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs (CA and DCA), which correlated with improved glucose tolerance and lipid parameters. The CR-induced increase in BAs correlated with increased expression of BA-synthetic (Cyp7a1) and conjugating enzymes (BAL), and the ileal BA-binding protein (Ibabp). These results suggest that CR increases BAs in male mice possibly through orchestrated increases in BA synthesis and conjugation in liver as well as intracellular transport in ileum. - Highlights: • Dose response effects of short-term CR on BA homeostasis in male mice. • CR increased the BA pool size and many individual BAs. • CR altered BA composition (increased proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs). • Increased mRNAs of BA enzymes in liver (Cyp7a1 and BAL) and ileal BA binding protein.

  18. Exhibit Engineering

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    ) a synthesis of the findings from the first two studies with findings from the literature to generate two types of results: a coherent series of suggestions for a design iteration of the studied exhibit as well as a more general normative model for exhibit engineering. Finally, another perspective...

  19. Abnormal social behavior, hyperactivity, impaired remote spatial memory, and increased D1-mediated dopaminergic signaling in neuronal nitric oxide synthase knockout mice

    Tanda Koichi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS is involved in the regulation of a diverse population of intracellular messenger systems in the brain. In humans, abnormal NOS/nitric oxide metabolism is suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of some neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Mice with targeted disruption of the nNOS gene exhibit abnormal behaviors. Here, we subjected nNOS knockout (KO mice to a battery of behavioral tests to further investigate the role of nNOS in neuropsychiatric functions. We also examined the role of nNOS in dopamine/DARPP-32 signaling in striatal slices from nNOS KO mice and the effects of the administration of a dopamine D1 receptor agonist on behavior in nNOS KO mice. Results nNOS KO mice showed hyperlocomotor activity in a novel environment, increased social interaction in their home cage, decreased depression-related behavior, and impaired spatial memory retention. In striatal slices from nNOS KO mice, the effects of a dopamine D1 receptor agonist, SKF81297, on the phosphorylation of DARPP-32 and AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 at protein kinase A sites were enhanced. Consistent with the biochemical results, intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of SKF81297 significantly decreased prepulse inhibition in nNOS KO mice, but not in wild-type mice. Conclusion These findings indicate that nNOS KO upregulates dopamine D1 receptor signaling, and induces abnormal social behavior, hyperactivity and impaired remote spatial memory. nNOS KO mice may serve as a unique animal model of psychiatric disorders.

  20. Recombinant acylation stimulating protein administration to C3-/- mice increases insulin resistance via adipocyte inflammatory mechanisms.

    Mercedes Nancy Munkonda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complement 3 (C3, a key component of the innate immune system, is involved in early inflammatory responses. Acylation stimulating protein (ASP; aka C3adesArg, a C3 cleavage product, is produced in adipose tissue and stimulates lipid storage. We hypothesized that, depending on the diet, chronic ASP administration in C3(-/- mice would affect lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity via an adaptive adipose tissue inflammatory response. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C3(-/- mice on normal low fat diet (ND or high fat diet (HFD were chronically administered recombinant ASP (rASP for 25 days via an osmotic mini-pump. While there was no effect on food intake, there was a decrease in activity, with a relative increase in adipose tissue weight on ND, and a shift in adipocyte size distribution. While rASP administration to C3(-/- mice on a ND increased insulin sensitivity, on a HFD, rASP administration had the opposite effect. Specifically, rASP administration in C3(-/- HFD mice resulted in decreased gene expression of IRS1, GLUT4, SREBF1 and NFκB in muscle, and decreased C5L2 but increased JNK, CD36, CD11c, CCR2 and NFκB gene expression in adipose tissue as well as increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (Rantes, KC, MCP-1, IL-6 and G-CSF. In adipose tissue, although IRS1 and GLUT4 mRNA were unchanged, insulin response was reduced. CONCLUSION: The effects of chronic rASP administration are tissue and diet specific, rASP administration enhances the HFD induced inflammatory response leading to an insulin-resistant state. These results suggest that, in humans, the increased plasma ASP associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease could be an additional factor directly contributing to development of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and diabetes.

  1. Female Nur77-deficient mice show increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity.

    Sonia Perez-Sieira

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is essential in the regulation of body weight. The key process in fat catabolism and the provision of energy substrate during times of nutrient deprivation or enhanced energy demand is the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the release of fatty acids and glycerol. Nur77 is a member of the NR4A subfamily of nuclear receptors that plays an important metabolic role, modulating hepatic glucose metabolism and lipolysis in muscle. However, its endogenous role on white adipose tissue, as well as the gender dependency of these mechanisms, remains largely unknown. Male and female wild type and Nur77 deficient mice were fed with a high fat diet (45% calories from fat for 4 months. Mice were analyzed in vivo with the indirect calorimetry system, and tissues were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Female, but not male Nur77 deficient mice, gained more weight and fat mass when compared to wild type mice fed with high fat diet, which can be explained by decreased energy expenditure. The lack of Nur77 also led to a decreased pHSL/HSL ratio in white adipose tissue and increased expression of CIDEA in brown adipose tissue of female Nur77 deficient mice. Overall, these findings suggest that Nur77 is an important physiological modulator of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and that there are gender differences in the sensitivity to deletion of the Nur77 signaling. The decreased energy expenditure and the actions of Nur77 on liver, muscle, brown and white adipose tissue contribute to the increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in females lacking Nur77.

  2. Aged mice have increased inflammatory monocyte concentration and altered expression of cell-surface functional receptors

    Kelley Strohacker; Whitney L Breslin; Katie C Carpenter; Brian K McFarlin


    The expression of monocyte cell-surface receptors represents one index of immune dysfunction, which is common with aging. Although mouse models of aging are prevalent, monocyte subset assessment is rare. Our purpose was to compare cell receptor expression on classic (CD115+/Gr-1high) and non-classic (CD115+/Gr-1low) monocytes from 80- or 20-week-old CD-1 mice. Three-colour flow cytometry was used to determine the concentration of monocyte subsets and their respective cell-surface expression of TLR2, TLR4, CD80, CD86, MHC II and CD54. These receptors were selected because they have been previously associated with altered monocyte function. Data were analysed with independent -tests; significance was set at < 0.05. Old mice had a greater concentration of both classic (258%, =0.003) and non-classic (70%, =0.026) monocytes. The classic : non-classic monocyte ratio doubled in old as compared with that in young mice (=0.006), indicating a pro-inflammatory shift. TLR4 ($\\downarrow$27%, =0.001) and CD80 ($\\downarrow$37%, =0.004) were decreased on classic monocytes from old as compared with those from young mice. TLR2 ($\\uparrow$24%, =0.002) and MHCII ($\\downarrow$21%, =0.026) were altered on non-classic monocytes from old as compared with those from young mice. The increased classic : non-classic monocyte ratio combined with changes in the cell-surface receptor expression on both monocyte subsets is indicative of immune dysfunction, which may increase age-associated disease risk.

  3. Deletion of the Novel Oocyte-Enriched Gene, Gpr149, Leads to Increased Fertility in Mice

    Edson, Mark A.; Lin, Yi-Nan; Matzuk, Martin M.


    Through in silico subtraction and microarray analysis, we identified mouse Gpr149, a novel, oocyte-enriched transcript that encodes a predicted orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR). Phylogenetic analysis of GPR149 from fish to mammals suggests that it is widely conserved in vertebrates. By multitissue RT-PCR analysis, we found that Gpr149 is highly expressed in the ovary and also in the brain and the digestive tract at low levels. Gpr149 levels are low in newborn ovaries but increase throughout folliculogenesis. In the ovary, we found that granulosa cells did not express Gpr149, whereas germinal vesicle and meiosis II stage oocytes showed high levels of Gpr149 expression. After fertilization, Gpr149 expression declined, becoming undetectable by the two-cell stage. To study the function of GPR149 in oocyte growth and maturation, we generated Gpr149 null mice. Surprisingly, Gpr149 null mice are viable and have normal folliculogenesis, but demonstrate increased fertility, enhanced ovulation, increased oocyte Gdf9 mRNA levels, and increased levels of FSH receptor and cyclin D2 mRNA levels in granulosa cells. Thus, Gpr149 null mice are one of the few models with enhanced fertility, and GPR149 could be a target for small molecules to enhance fertility in the assisted reproductive technology clinic. PMID:19887567

  4. Caffeine stimulates voluntary wheel running in mice without increasing aerobic capacity.

    Claghorn, Gerald C; Thompson, Zoe; Wi, Kristianna; Van, Lindsay; Garland, Theodore


    The "energy drink" Red Bull and the "sports drink" Gatorade are often marketed to athletes, with claims that they cause performance gains. However, both are high in sugars, and also consumed by non-athletes. Few studies have addressed the effects of these drinks or their biologically active components in rodent exercise models. We used three experiments to test effects on both voluntary exercise behavior and maximal aerobic capacity in lines of mice known to differ in "athletic" traits. Mice from four replicate High Runner (HR) lines have been selectively bred for voluntary running on wheels, and run approximately three times as many revolutions per day as do mice from four non-selected Control (C) lines. HR mice also have higher endurance and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) during forced treadmill exercise. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that Gatorade or Red Bull might cause or allow mice to increase their voluntary wheel running. On days 5 and 6 of 6days of wheel access, as is used to select breeders, HR mice ran 3.3-fold more than C, and females ran 1.2-fold more than males, with no linetype by sex interaction. On day 7, mice were administered Gatorade, Red Bull or tap water. During the subsequent 19-hour period, Gatorade had no statistical effect on running, but Red Bull significantly increased distance run by both sexes and in both HR and C lines. The increase in distance run caused by Red Bull was attributable to time spent running, not an increase in mean (or maximum) speed. As previous studies have found that sucrose alone does not generally increase wheel running, we tested two other active ingredients in Red Bull, caffeine and taurine, in Experiment 2. With a similar testing protocol, caffeine alone and caffeine+taurine increased running by about half the magnitude of Red Bull. In Experiment 3, we tested the hypothesis that Red Bull or caffeine alone can increase physiological performance ability during aerobic exercise, measured as VO2max

  5. β-cell-specific IL-2 therapy increases islet Foxp3+Treg and suppresses type 1 diabetes in NOD mice.

    Johnson, Mark C; Garland, Alaina L; Nicolson, Sarah C; Li, Chengwen; Samulski, R Jude; Wang, Bo; Tisch, Roland


    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a critical cytokine for the homeostasis and function of forkhead box p3-expressing regulatory T cells (Foxp3(+)Tregs). Dysregulation of the IL-2-IL-2 receptor axis is associated with aberrant Foxp3(+)Tregs and T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes. Treatment with recombinant IL-2 has been reported to enhance Foxp3(+)Tregs and suppress different models of autoimmunity. However, efficacy of IL-2 therapy is dependent on achieving sufficient levels of IL-2 to boost tissue-resident Foxp3(+)Tregs while avoiding the potential toxic effects of systemic IL-2. With this in mind, adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector gene delivery was used to localize IL-2 expression to the islets of NOD mice. Injection of a double-stranded AAV vector encoding IL-2 driven by a mouse insulin promoter (dsAAVmIP-IL2) increased Foxp3(+)Tregs in the islets but not the draining pancreatic lymph nodes. Islet Foxp3(+)Tregs in dsAAVmIP-IL2-treated NOD mice exhibited enhanced fitness marked by increased expression of Bcl-2, proliferation, and suppressor function. In contrast, ectopic IL-2 had no significant effect on conventional islet-infiltrating effector T cells. Notably, β-cell-specific IL-2 expression suppressed late preclinical type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that β-cell-specific IL-2 expands an islet-resident Foxp3(+)Tregs pool that effectively suppresses ongoing type 1 diabetes long term.



    @@ The MICE (Meetings, Incentives, Conventions, and Exhibitions) industry has exploded worldwide over the past decade. The benefits brought by meetings, incentives, conventions, and exhibitions are also benefiting other sectors involved in MICE events, including hotels, travel, and retail. Industry analysts estimate that the income from the global MICE industry will soon exceed USD 220 billion, and is expected to increase by 8-10% each year.

  7. Increased sensitivity of apolipoprotein E knockout mice to copper-induced oxidative injury to the liver.

    Chen, Yuan; Li, Bin; Zhao, Ran-ran; Zhang, Hui-feng; Zhen, Chao; Guo, Li


    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotypes are related to clinical presentations in patients with Wilson's disease, indicating that ApoE may play an important role in the disease. However, our understanding of the role of ApoE in Wilson's disease is limited. High copper concentration in Wilson's disease induces excessive generation of free oxygen radicals. Meanwhile, ApoE proteins possess antioxidant effects. We therefore determined whether copper-induced oxidative damage differ in the liver of wild-type and ApoE knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Both wild-type and ApoE(-/-) mice were intragastrically administered with 0.2 mL of copper sulfate pentahydrate (200 mg/kg; a total dose of 4 mg/d) or the same volume of saline daily for 12 weeks, respectively. Copper and oxidative stress markers in the liver tissue and in the serum were assessed. Our results showed that, compared with the wild-type mice administered with copper, TBARS as a marker of lipid peroxidation, the expression of oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, and quinone 1 (NQO1) significantly increased in the ApoE(-/-) mice administered with copper, meanwhile superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly decreased. Thus, it is concluded that ApoE may protect the liver from copper-induced oxidative damage in Wilson's disease.

  8. Small intestinal nematode infection of mice is associated with increased enterobacterial loads alongside the intestinal tract.

    Sebastian Rausch

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes are potent modulators of immune reactivity in mice and men. Intestinal nematodes live in close contact with commensal gut bacteria, provoke biased Th2 immune responses upon infection, and subsequently lead to changes in gut physiology. We hypothesized that murine nematode infection is associated with distinct changes of the intestinal bacterial microbiota composition. We here studied intestinal inflammatory and immune responses in mice following infection with the hookworm Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri and applied cultural and molecular techniques to quantitatively assess intestinal microbiota changes in the ileum, cecum and colon. At day 14 post nematode infection, mice harbored significantly higher numbers of γ-Proteobacteria/Enterobacteriaceae and members of the Bacteroides/Prevotella group in their cecum as compared to uninfected controls. Abundance of Gram-positive species such as Lactobacilli, Clostridia as well as the total bacterial load was not affected by worm infection. The altered microbiota composition was independent of the IL-4/-13 - STAT6 signaling axis, as infected IL-4Rα(-/- mice showed a similar increase in enterobacterial loads. In conclusion, infection with an enteric nematode is accompanied by distinct intestinal microbiota changes towards higher abundance of gram-negative commensal species at the small intestinal site of infection (and inflammation, but also in the parasite-free large intestinal tract. Further studies should unravel the impact of nematode-induced microbiota changes in inflammatory bowel disease to allow for a better understanding of how theses parasites interfere with intestinal inflammation and bacterial communities in men.

  9. Ethanolic extract of Taheebo attenuates increase in body weight and fatty liver in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Choi, Won Hee; Um, Min Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Park, Myung Kyu; Ha, Tae Youl


    We evaluated whether intake of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo (TBE) from Tabebuia avellanedae protects against body weight increase and fat accumulation in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD (25% fat, w/w) for 11 weeks. The diet of control (HFD) mice was supplemented with vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by gavage); the diet of experimental (TBE) mice was supplemented with TBE (150 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage). Mice administered TBE had significantly reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation in the liver, and fat pad weight, compared to HFD mice. Reduced hypertrophy of fat cells was also observed in TBE mice. Mice administered TBE also showed significantly lower serum levels of triglycerides, insulin, and leptin. Lipid profiles and levels of mRNAs and proteins related to lipid metabolism were determined in liver and white adipose tissue of the mice. Expression of mRNA and proteins related to lipogenesis were decreased in TBE-administered mice compared to mice fed HFD alone. These results suggest that TBE inhibits obesity and fat accumulation by regulation of gene expression related to lipid metabolism in HFD-induced obesity in mice.

  10. Increased susceptibility to Salmonella infection in signal regulatory protein α-deficient mice.

    Li, Lin-Xi; Atif, Shaikh M; Schmiel, Shirdi E; Lee, Seung-Joo; McSorley, Stephen J


    Recent studies have shed light on the connection between elevated erythropoetin production/spleen erythropoiesis and increased susceptibility to Salmonella infection. In this article, we provide another mouse model, the SIRPα-deficient (Sirpα⁻/⁻) mouse, that manifests increased erythropoiesis as well as heightened susceptibility to Salmonella infection. Sirpα⁻/⁻ mice succumbed to systemic infection with attenuated Salmonella, possessing significantly higher bacterial loads in both the spleen and the liver. Moreover, Salmonella-specific Ab production and Ag-specific CD4 T cells were reduced in Sirpα⁻/⁻ mice compared with wild-type controls. To further characterize the potential mechanism underlying SIRPα-dependent Ag-specific CD4 T cell priming, we demonstrate that lack of SIRPα expression on dendritic cells results in less efficient Ag processing and presentation in vitro. Collectively, these findings demonstrate an indispensable role of SIRPα for protective immunity to Salmonella infection.

  11. Antifatigue and increasing exercise performance of Actinidia arguta crude alkaloids in mice

    Yangyang Liu


    Full Text Available Actinidia arguta (Siebold et Zucc. Planch. ex. Miq. is one of the most recently domesticated fruit species with increasing commercial production worldwide. It is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and is used to reduce blood glucose and treat atopic dermatitis. In addition, it possesses antioxidant, anticancer, and antiallergic properties. In this study, we investigated the physical antifatigue and exercise performance effects of A. arguta crude alkaloids (AACA extracted with 70% ethanol. Four groups of male Kunming mice (n = 16 were orally administered AACA at doses of 0 mg/kg/d (vehicle, 50 mg/kg/d (AACA-50, 100 mg/kg/d (AACA-100, or 200 mg/kg/d (AACA-200 for 28 days. The effect of AACA treatment on exercise performance was studied using the forelimb grip strength experiment and by the measurement of the weight-loaded swimming time. The antifatigue effect is evaluated based on fatigue-associated biochemical parameters, hepatic and muscular glycogen levels, and changes in the morphology of transverse and longitudinal sections of skeletal muscle. The results showed that AACA could elevate the endurance and grip strength in mice. The exhaustive swimming time of the AACA-50, AACA-100, and AACA-200 groups was significantly (p < 0.05 increased compared with the vehicle. The swimming time of the AACA-100 group was the longest among all groups studied. Mice in the AACA-treated groups had decreased levels of lactate, ammonia, and creatine kinase after a physical challenge compared with the vehicle group. The tissue glycogen, an important energy source during exercise, significantly increased with AACA. The morphology of transverse and longitudinal sections of skeletal muscle did not change in the vehicle group. Overall, these findings suggest that AACA possesses antifatigue effects and increases exercise performance in mice. Therefore, A. arguta may be developed as an antifatigue dietary supplement in the category of functional foods.

  12. Slit2 overexpression results in increased microvessel density and lesion size in mice with induced endometriosis.

    Guo, Sun-Wei; Zheng, Yu; Lu, Yuan; Liu, Xishi; Geng, Jian-Guo


    We recently reported that Slit/Roundabout (ROBO) 1 pathway may be a constituent biomarker for recurrence of endometriosis, likely through promoting angiogenesis. In this study, we sought to determine as whether Slit2 overexpression can facilitate angiogenesis, increase lesion size, and induce hyperalgesia in mice with induced endometriosis. We used 30 Slit2 transgenic (S) and 29 wild-type (W) mice and cross-transplanted endometrial fragments from S to W (group SW) and vice versa (group WS), and also within the S and W (groups SS and WW, respectively), into the peritoneal cavity, inducing endometriosis. We also performed a sham surgery within both S and W mice (groups Sm and Wm, respectively). The size of the ectopic implants, microvessel density (MVD) and immunoreactivity to ROBO1, and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) in ectopic and eutopic endometrium, along with hotplate and tail-flick tests in all mice, were then evaluated. We found that the induction of endometriosis resulted in generalized hyperalgesia, which was unaffected by Slit2 overexpression. Slit2 overexpression did increase the lesion size significantly and correlated positively with the MVD in ectopic and eutopic endometrium. Slit2 expression levels appear to correlate with the MVD, but not with VEGF immunoreactivity, in ectopic endometrium. Consequently, we conclude that Slit2 may play an important role in angiogenesis in endometriosis. The increased angiogenesis, as measured by MVD, but not VEGF immunoreactivity, likely resulted in increased lesion size in induced endometriosis. Thus, SLIT2/ROBO1 pathway may be a potential therapeutic target for treating endometriosis.

  13. Depletion of natural killer cells increases mice susceptibility in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia model.

    Broquet, Alexis; Roquilly, Antoine; Jacqueline, Cédric; Potel, Gilles; Caillon, Jocelyne; Asehnoune, Karim


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is a clinically relevant infection involved in pneumonia in ICUs. Understanding the type of immune response initiated by the host during pneumonia would help defining new strategies to interfere with the bacteria pathogenicity. In this setting, the role of natural killer cells remains controversial. We assessed the role of systemic natural killer cells in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa mouse pneumonia model. Experimental study. Research laboratory from a university hospital. RjOrl:SWISS and BALB/cJ mice (weight, 20-24 g). Lung injuries were assessed by bacterial load, myeloperoxidase activity, endothelial permeability (pulmonary edema), immune cell infiltrate (histological analysis), proinflammatory cytokine release, and Ly6-G immunohistochemistry. Bacterial loads were assessed in the lungs and spleen. Natural killer cell number and status were assessed in spleen (flow cytometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction). Depletion of natural killer cells was achieved through an IV anti-asialo-GM1 antibody injection. Pseudomonas aeruginosa tracheal instillation led to an acute pneumonia with a rapid decrease of bacterial load in lungs and with an increase of endothelial permeability, proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β), and myeloperoxidase activity followed by Ly6-G positive cell infiltrate in lungs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected in the spleen. Membrane markers of activation and maturation (CD69 and KLRG1 molecules) were increased in splenic natural killer cells during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Splenic natural killer cells activated upon Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection produced interferon-γ but not interleukin-10. Ultimately, mice depleted of natural killer cells displayed an increased neutrophil numbers in the lungs and an increased mortality rate without bacterial load modifications in the lungs, indicating that mice depleted of natural killer cells were much more susceptible to

  14. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88-deficiency increases risk of diabetes in mice.

    Toru Hosoi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple lines of evidence suggest innate immune response pathways to be involved in the development of obesity-associated diabetes although the molecular mechanism underling the disease is unknown. Recent observations suggest that saturated fatty acids can act as a ligand for toll-like receptor (TLR 4, which is thought to mediate obesity-associated insulin resistance. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88 is an adapter protein for TLR/IL-1 receptor signaling, which is involved in the activation of inflammatory pathways. To evaluate molecular mechanisms linking obesity-associated diabetes down-stream of TLR4, we investigated physiological role of MyD88 in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we found MyD88-deficient mice fed a HFD had increased circulating levels of insulin, leptin and cholesterol, as well as liver dysfunction (increased induction of ALT levels, increased activation of JNK and cleavage of PARP, which were linked to the onset of severe diabetes. On the other hand, TNF-alpha would not be involved in HFD-induced diabetes in MyD88-deficient mice, because TNF-alpha level was attenuated in MyD88-deficient mice fed with HFD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present finding of an unexpected role for MyD88 in preventing diabetes may provide a potential novel target/strategy for treating metabolic syndrome.

  15. Increased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and anomalous neurites in catecholaminergic neurons of ATF-2 null mice.

    Kojima, Masayo; Suzuki, Takahiro; Maekawa, Toshio; Ishii, Shunsuke; Sumi-Ichinose, Chiho; Nomura, Takahide; Ichinose, Hiroshi


    ATF-2/CRE-BP1 was originally identified as a cAMP-responsive element (CRE) binding protein abundant in the brain. We previously reported that phosphorylation of ATF-2 increased the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which is the rate-limiting enzyme for catecholamine biosynthesis, directly acting on the CRE in the promoter region of the TH gene in PC12D cells (Suzuki et al. [2002] J. Biol. Chem. 277:40768-40774). To examine the role of ATF-2 on transcriptional control of the TH gene in the brain, we investigated the TH expression in ATF-2-/- mice. We found that TH expression was greatly increased in medulla oblongata and locus ceruleus of the ATF-2-deficient embryos. Ectopic expression of TH was observed in the raphe magnus nucleus, where serotonergic neural cell bodies are located. Interestingly, A10 dorsal neurons were lost in the embryos of ATF-2-/- mice. There was no difference in the TH immunoreactivity in the olfactory bulb. The data showed that alteration in TH expression by absence of ATF-2 gradually declined from caudal to rostral part of the brain. We also found anomalous neurite extension in catecholaminergic neurons of ATF-2 null mice, i.e., increased dendritic arborization and shortened axons. These data suggest that ATF-2 plays critical roles for proper expression of the TH gene and for neurite extension of catecholaminergic neurons, possibly through a repressor-like action. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Increased bile acids in enterohepatic circulation by short-term calorie restriction in male mice.

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D


    Previous studies showed glucose and insulin signaling can regulate bile acid (BA) metabolism during fasting or feeding. However, limited knowledge is available on the effect of calorie restriction (CR), a well-known anti-aging intervention, on BA homeostasis. To address this, the present study utilized a "dose-response" model of CR, where male C57BL/6 mice were fed 0, 15, 30, or 40% CR diets for one month, followed by BA profiling in various compartments of the enterohepatic circulation by UPLC-MS/MS technique. This study showed that 40% CR increased the BA pool size (162%) as well as total BAs in serum, gallbladder, and small intestinal contents. In addition, CR "dose-dependently" increased the concentrations of tauro-cholic acid (TCA) and many secondary BAs (produced by intestinal bacteria) in serum, such as tauro-deoxycholic acid (TDCA), DCA, lithocholic acid, ω-muricholic acid (ωMCA), and hyodeoxycholic acid. Notably, 40% CR increased TDCA by over 1000% (serum, liver, and gallbladder). Interestingly, 40% CR increased the proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs (CA and DCA), which correlated with improved glucose tolerance and lipid parameters. The CR-induced increase in BAs correlated with increased expression of BA-synthetic (Cyp7a1) and conjugating enzymes (BAL), and the ileal BA-binding protein (Ibabp). These results suggest that CR increases BAs in male mice possibly through orchestrated increases in BA synthesis and conjugation in liver as well as intracellular transport in ileum.

  17. Human Exhibitions

    Andreassen, Rikke

    From 1870s to 1910s, more than 50 exhibitions of so-called exotic people took place in Denmark. Here large numbers of people of Asian and African origin were exhibited for the entertainment and ‘education’ of a mass audience. Several of these exhibitions took place in Copenhagen Zoo. Here different...... light on the staging of exhibitions, the daily life of the exhibitees, the wider connections between shows across Europe and the thinking of the time on matters of race, science, gender and sexuality. A window onto contemporary racial understandings, the book presents interviews with the descendants...... of displayed people, connecting the attitudes and science of the past with both our (continued) modern fascination with ‘the exotic’, and contemporary language and popular culture. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, anthropology and history working in the areas of gender and sexuality...


    Chesebro, Brian B.; Rahn, Pamela; Carles, Michel; Esmon, Charles T.; Xu, Jun; Brohi, Karim; Frith, Daniel; Pittet, Jean-François; Cohen, Mitchell J.


    In severely injured and hypoperfused trauma patients, endogenous acute coagulopathy (EAC) is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. Recent human data correlate this coagulopathy with activation of the protein C pathway. To examine the mechanistic role of protein C in the development of EAC, we used a mouse model of trauma and hemorrhagic shock, characterized by the combination of tissue injury and severe metabolic acidosis. Mice were subjected to one of four treatment groups: 1) C, control; 2) T, trauma (laparotomy); 3) H, hemorrhage (MAP, 35 mmHg × 60 min); 4) TH, trauma + hemorrhage. After 60 min, blood was drawn for analysis. Compared with C mice, the TH mice had a significantly elevated activated partial thromboplastin time (23.3 vs. 34.5 s) and significantly increased levels of activated protein C (aPC; 2.30 vs. 13.58 ng/mL). In contrast, T and H mice did not develop an elevated activated partial thromboplastin time or increased aPC. Selective inhibition of the anticoagulant property of aPC prevented the coagulopathy seen in response to trauma/hemorrhage (23.5 vs. 38.6 s [inhibitory vs. control monoclonal antibody]) with no impact on survival during the shock period. However, complete blockade of both the anticoagulant and cytoprotective functions of aPC caused 100% mortality within 45 min of shock, with histopathology evidence of pulmonary thrombosis and perivascular hemorrhage. These results indicate that our unique mouse model of T/H shock mimics our previous observations in trauma patients and demonstrates that EAC is mediated by the activation of the protein C pathway. In addition, the cytoprotective effect of protein C activation seems to be necessary for survival of the initial shock injury. PMID:19333141

  19. Increased activin bioavailability enhances hepatic insulin sensitivity while inducing hepatic steatosis in male mice.

    Ungerleider, Nathan A; Bonomi, Lara M; Brown, Melissa L; Schneyer, Alan L


    The development of insulin resistance is tightly linked to fatty liver disease and is considered a major health concern worldwide, although their mechanistic relationship remains controversial. Activin has emerging roles in nutrient homeostasis, but its metabolic effects on hepatocytes remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of increased endogenous activin bioactivity on hepatic nutrient homeostasis by creating mice with inactivating mutations that deplete the circulating activin antagonists follistatin-like-3 (FSTL3) or the follistatin 315 isoform (FST315; FST288-only mice). We investigated liver histology and lipid content, hepatic insulin sensitivity, and metabolic gene expression including the HepG2 cell and primary hepatocyte response to activin treatment. Both FSTL3-knockout and FST288-only mice had extensive hepatic steatosis and elevated hepatic triglyceride content. Unexpectedly, insulin signaling, as assessed by phospho-Akt (a.k.a. protein kinase B), was enhanced in both mouse models. Pretreatment of HepG2 cells with activin A increased their response to subsequent insulin challenge. Gene expression analysis suggests that increased lipid uptake, enhanced de novo lipid synthesis, decreased lipolysis, and/or enhanced glucose uptake contribute to increased hepatic triglyceride content in these models. However, activin treatment recapitulated only some of these gene changes, suggesting that increased activin bioactivity may be only partially responsible for this phenotype. Nevertheless, our results indicate that activin enhances hepatocyte insulin response, which ultimately leads to hepatic steatosis despite the increased insulin sensitivity. Thus, regulation of activin bioactivity is critical for maintaining normal liver lipid homeostasis and response to insulin, whereas activin agonists may be useful for increasing liver insulin sensitivity.

  20. Altered inflammatory response and increased neurodegeneration in metallothionein I+II deficient mice during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Penkowa, M; Espejo, C; Martínez-Cáceres, E M;


    was significantly decreased. In addition, the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha elicited by EAE was further increased in the MTKO mice, and oxidative stress and apoptosis were also significantly increased in MTKO mice compared to normal...

  1. Arsenic induces diabetic effects through beta-cell dysfunction and increased gluconeogenesis in mice

    Liu, Su; Guo, Xuechao; Wu, Bing; Yu, Haiyan; Zhang, Xuxiang; Li, Mei


    Arsenic as a potential risk factor for type 2 diabetes has been received attention recently. However, the roles of arsenic on development of diabetes are unclear. In this study, we compared the influences of inorganic arsenic (iAs) on normal and diabetic mice by systems toxicology approaches. Although iAs exposure did not change glucose tolerance in normal mice, it caused the pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and increased gluconeogenesis and oxidative damages in liver. However, iAs exposure worsened the glucose tolerance in diabetic mice, which might be due to increased gluconeogenesis and impairment of pancreatic β-cell function. It is interesting that iAs exposure could improve the insulin sensitivity based on the insulin tolerance testing by the activation of glucose uptake-related genes and enzymes in normal and diabetic individuals. Our data suggested that iAs exposure could cause pre-diabetic effects by altering the lipid metabolism, gluconeogenesis and insulin secretion in normal individual, and worsen diabetic effects in diabetes individual by these processes. Insulin resistance might be not the reason of diabetic effects caused by iAs, indicating that mechanism of the diabetogenic effects of iAs exposure is different from the mechanism associated with traditional risk factors (such as obesity)-reduced type 2 diabetes.

  2. Increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in GPRC6A receptor knockout mice

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Smajilovic, Sanela; Madsen, Andreas N


    complications is still elusive. In the present study, we investigated the impact of GPRC6A deficiency in a murine model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Male Gprc6a knockout (KO) mice and WT littermates were subjected to a high-fat diet (HFD) for 25 weeks and exposed to comprehensive metabolic phenotyping...... locomotor activity. Moreover, diet-induced obese Gprc6a KO mice had increased circulating insulin and leptin levels relative to WT animals, thereby demonstrating that endocrine abnormalities associate with the reported disturbances in energy balance. The phenotype was further accompanied by disruptions......The recently identified G protein-coupled receptor GPRC6A is activated by dietary amino acids and expressed in multiple tissues. Although the receptor is hypothesised to exert biological impact on metabolic and endocrine-related parameters, the role of the receptor in obesity and metabolic...

  3. Wheat alkylresorcinols reduce micellar solubility of cholesterol in vitro and increase cholesterol excretion in mice.

    Horikawa, Kazumasa; Hashimoto, Chiaki; Kikuchi, Yosuke; Makita, Miki; Fukudome, Shin-Ichi; Okita, Kimiko; Wada, Naoyuki; Oishi, Katsutaka


    Epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of whole grains can reduce risk for metabolic disorders. We recently showed that chronic supplementation with wheat alkylresorcinols (ARs) prevents glucose intolerance and insulin resistance with hepatic lipid accumulation induced in mice by a high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHSD). This study examines the effects of ARs on the micellar solubility of cholesterol in vitro, as well as the effects of transient AR supplementation on faecal lipid excretion and plasma lipid levels in mice. We found that ARs formed bile micelles with taurocholate independently of phospholipids, and dose-dependently decreased the micellar solubility of cholesterol in a biliary micelle model. Transient AR supplementation with HFHSD increased faecal cholesterol and triglyceride contents and decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations. These suggest that one underlying mechanism through which ARs suppress diet-induced obesity is by interfering with the micellar cholesterol solubilisation in the digestive tract, which subsequently decreases cholesterol absorption.

  4. Forebrain-Specific Loss of BMPRII in Mice Reduces Anxiety and Increases Object Exploration.

    Zofeyah L McBrayer

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptor Type II (BMPRII in learning, memory, and exploratory behavior in mice, a tissue-specific knockout of BMPRII in the post-natal hippocampus and forebrain was generated. We found that BMPRII mutant mice had normal spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze, but showed significantly reduced swimming speeds with increased floating behavior. Further analysis using the Porsolt Swim Test to investigate behavioral despair did not reveal any differences in immobility between mutants and controls. In the Elevated Plus Maze, BMPRII mutants and Smad4 mutants showed reduced anxiety, while in exploratory tests, BMPRII mutants showed more interest in object exploration. These results suggest that loss of BMPRII in the mouse hippocampus and forebrain does not disrupt spatial learning and memory encoding, but instead impacts exploratory and anxiety-related behaviors.

  5. Multiple alterations of platelet functions dominated by increased secretion in mice lacking Cdc42 in platelets

    Pleines, Irina; Eckly, Anita; Elvers, Margitta;


    formation and exocytosis in various cell types, but its exact function in platelets is not established. Here, we show that the megakaryocyte/platelet-specific loss of Cdc42 leads to mild thrombocytopenia and a small increase in platelet size in mice. Unexpectedly, Cdc42-deficient platelets were able to form...... reduced, suggesting increased clearing of the cells under physiologic conditions. These data point to novel multiple functions of Cdc42 in the regulation of platelet activation, granule organization, degranulation, and a specific role in GPIb signaling....

  6. Accelerated reendothelialization, increased neovascularization and erythrocyte extravasation after arterial injury in BAMBI-/- mice.

    Nicolas Guillot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intimal injury rapidly activates TGFβ and enhances vascular repair by the growth of endothelial (EC and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC. The response to the TGFβ family of growth factors can be modified by BAMBI (BMP, Activin, Membrane Bound Inhibitor acting as a non-signaling, competitive antagonist of TGFβ type I receptors such as ALK 1 and 5. In vivo the effect of BAMBI will depend on its cell-specific expression and of that of the ALK type receptors. We recently reported EC restricted BAMBI expression and genetic elimination of BAMBI resulting in an in vitro and in vivo phenotype characterized by endothelial activation and proliferation involving alternative pathway activation by TGFβ through ALK 1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test the hypothesis that BAMBI modulates arterial response to injury via its effects on endothelial repair and arterial wall neovascularization we used a model of femoral arterial denudation injury in wild type (WT and BAMBI(-/- mice. Arterial response was evaluated at 2 and 4 weeks after luminal endothelial denudation of femoral arteries. The BAMBI(-/- genotype mice showed accelerated luminal endothelial repair at 2 weeks and a highly unusual increase in arterial wall neovascularization compared to WT mice. The exuberant intimal and medial neovessel formation with BAMBI(-/- genotype was also associated with significant red blood cell extravasation. The bleeding into the neointima at 2 weeks transiently increased it's area in the BAMBI(-/-genotype despite the faster luminal endothelial repair in this group. Vascular smooth muscle cells were decreased at 2 weeks in BAMBI(-/- mice, but comparable to wild type at 4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The absence of BAMBI results in a highly unusual surge in arterial wall neovascularization that surprisingly mimiks features of intra-plaque hemorrhage of advanced atheroma in a mechanical injury model. This suggests important effects of BAMBI on

  7. Pandanus amaryllifolius leaf extract increases insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Suphaket Saenthaweesuk; Jarinyaporn Naowaboot; Nuntiya Somparn


    Objective: To examine the effect of Pandanus amaryllifolius (P. amaryllifolius) leaf extract on the insulin resistance state in obese ICR mice. Methods: Obesity was induced in mice fed with high-fat diet (45%fat) for 12 weeks. After the first six weeks on the diet, the obese mice were administered with the water extract of P. amaryllifolius leaf at 125 and 250 mg/kg/day, respectively for another six weeks. At the 5th week of treatment, oral glucose tolerance test was conducted. After six weeks of treat-ment, the levels of blood glucose, serum insulin, leptin, adiponectin, and lipid profiles were determined. The liver, muscle and epididymal fat tissues were removed for measuring the biochemical parameters and protein expression, as well as histological examination. Results: Six weeks of treatment with P. amaryllifolius led to a significant reduction in the blood glucose level as well as improvement in the insulin resistance. P. amaryllifolius also increased the liver glycogen storage and serum adiponectin and decreased the serum leptin levels. A reduction in the serum and hepatic triglyceride, and non-esterified fatty acid levels was also observed. The histological examination showed that the obese mice treated with P. amaryllifolius reduced the lipid droplet in liver tissue and adipocyte size in epididymal fat tissue. The treatment also increased the protein expression of glucose transporter 4 in the muscle and fat tissues. Conclusions: The treatment with P. amaryllifolius could decrease several parameters of impaired glucose and lipid metabolism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the role of P. amaryllifolius leaf extract in alleviating the insulin dysfunction in obesity state.

  8. Increased hippocampal Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 expression in mice exposed prenatally to lead

    Yuanyuan You; Liguang Sun; Bo Peng; Yan Li; Songbin Ben; Shuang Gao


    Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders.Developmental lead exposure can cause neurological disorders similar to hyperactivity disorder,dyslexia and schizophrenia. In the present study, we examined the impact of developmental lead exposure, administered in vitro and in vivo, on hippocampal Disrupted-In- Schizophrenia 1 expression. Our results show that in cultured hippocampal neurons, in vitro exposure to 0.1-10 μM lead, inhibited neurite growth and increased Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 mRNA and protein expression dose-dependently. In addition, blood lead levels in mice were increased with increasing mouse maternal lead (0.01-1 mM) exposure. Hippocampal neurons from these mice showed a concomitant increase in Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 mRNA and protein expression. Overall our findings suggest that in vivo and in vitro lead exposure increases Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 expression in hippocampal neurons dose-dependently, and consequently may influence synapse formation in newborn neurons.

  9. Sustained activation of PPARα by endogenous ligands increases hepatic fatty acid oxidation and prevents obesity in ob/ob mice.

    Huang, Jiansheng; Jia, Yuzhi; Fu, Tao; Viswakarma, Navin; Bai, Liang; Rao, M Sambasiva; Zhu, Yijun; Borensztajn, Jayme; Reddy, Janardan K


    Obesity, a major health concern, results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice are paradigmatic of obesity, resulting from excess energy intake and storage. Mice lacking acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (Acox1), the first enzyme of the peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation system, are characterized by increased energy expenditure and a lean body phenotype caused by sustained activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) by endogenous ligands in liver that remain unmetabolized in the absence of Acox1. We generated ob/ob mice deficient in Acox1 (Acox1(-/-)) to determine how the activation of PPARα by endogenous ligands might affect the obesity of ob/ob mice. In contrast to Acox1(-/-) (14.3±1.2 g at 6 mo) and the Acox1-deficient (ob/ob) double-mutant mice (23.8±4.6 g at 6 mo), the ob/ob mice are severely obese (54.3±3.2 g at 6 mo) and had significantly more (Pobesity is due to increased PPARα-mediated up-regulation of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in liver. Activation of PPARα in Acox1-deficient ob/ob mice also reduces serum glucose and insulin (Phepatic steatosis and increases hepatocellular regenerative response in Acox1(-/-)/ob/ob mice at a more accelerated pace than in mice lacking only Acox1. However, Acox1(-/-)/ob/ob mice manifest hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and also develop hepatocellular carcinomas (8 of 8 mice) similar to those observed in Acox1(-/-) mice (10 of 10 mice), but unlike in ob/ob (0 of 14 mice) and OB/OB (0 of 6 mice) mice, suggesting that superimposed ER stress and PPARα activation contribute to carcinogenesis in a fatty liver. Finally, absence of Acox1 in ob/ob mice can impart resistance to high-fat diet (60% fat)-induced obesity, and their liver had significantly (Pobesity and restores glucose homeostasis by ameliorating insulin resistance but increases the risk for liver cancer development, in part related to excess energy combustion.

  10. Increased sphingosine-1-phosphate improves muscle regeneration in acutely injured mdx mice


    Background Presently, there is no effective treatment for the lethal muscle wasting disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here we show that increased sphingosine-1-phoshate (S1P) through direct injection or via the administration of the small molecule 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydroxybutyl imidazole (THI), an S1P lyase inhibitor, has beneficial effects in acutely injured dystrophic muscles of mdx mice. Methods We treated mdx mice with and without acute injury and characterized the histopathological and functional effects of increasing S1P levels. We also tested exogenous and direct administration of S1P on mdx muscles to examine the molecular pathways under which S1P promotes regeneration in dystrophic muscles. Results Short-term treatment with THI significantly increased muscle fiber size and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle specific force in acutely injured mdx limb muscles. In addition, the accumulation of fibrosis and fat deposition, hallmarks of DMD pathology and impaired muscle regeneration, were lower in the injured muscles of THI-treated mdx mice. Furthermore, increased muscle force was observed in uninjured EDL muscles with a longer-term treatment of THI. Such regenerative effects were linked to the response of myogenic cells, since intramuscular injection of S1P increased the number of Myf5nlacz/+ positive myogenic cells and newly regenerated myofibers in injured mdx muscles. Intramuscular injection of biotinylated-S1P localized to muscle fibers, including newly regenerated fibers, which also stained positive for S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1). Importantly, plasma membrane and perinuclear localization of phosphorylated S1PR1 was observed in regenerating muscle fibers of mdx muscles. Intramuscular increases of S1P levels, S1PR1 and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P-rpS6), and elevated EDL muscle specific force, suggest S1P promoted the upregulation of anabolic pathways that mediate skeletal muscle mass and function. Conclusions These data show that S1P is

  11. Increased Brain Neurotensin and NTSR2 Lead to Weak Nociception in NTSR3/Sortilin Knockout Mice

    Devader, Christelle; Moreno, Sébastien; Roulot, Morgane; Deval, Emmanuel; Dix, Thomas; Morales, Carlos R.; Mazella, Jean


    The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) elicits numerous pharmacological effects through three different receptors (NTSR1, NTSR2, and NTSR3 also called sortilin). Pharmacological approaches and generation of NTSR1 and NTSR2-deficient mice allowed to determine the NT-induced antipsychotic like behavior, the inhibitory of weak fear memory and the nociceptive signaling in a rat formalin tonic pain model to NTSR1. Conversely, the effects of NT on thermal and tonic nociceptions were mediated by NTSR2. However, the role of NTSR3/sortilin on the neurotensinergic system was not investigated. Here, by using C57Bl/6J mouse model in which the gene coding for NTSR3/sortilin has been inactivated, we observed a modification of the expression of both NTSR2 and NT itself. Quantitative PCR and protein expression using Western blot analyses and AlphaLisa™ technology resulted in the observation that brain NTSR2 as well as brain and blood NT were 2-fold increased in KO mice leading to a resistance of these mice to thermal and chemical pain. These data confirm that NTSR3/sortilin interacts with other NT receptors (i.e., NTSR2) and that its deletion modifies also the affinity of this receptor to NT. PMID:27932946

  12. The VLDL receptor promotes lipotoxicity and increases mortality in mice following an acute myocardial infarction

    Perman, Jeanna C.; Boström, Pontus; Lindbom, Malin; Lidberg, Ulf; StÅhlman, Marcus; Hägg, Daniel; Lindskog, Henrik; Scharin Täng, Margareta; Omerovic, Elmir; Mattsson Hultén, Lillemor; Jeppsson, Anders; Petursson, Petur; Herlitz, Johan; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Strickland, Dudley K.; Ekroos, Kim; Olofsson, Sven-Olof; Borén, Jan


    Impaired cardiac function is associated with myocardial triglyceride accumulation, but it is not clear how the lipids accumulate or whether this accumulation is detrimental. Here we show that hypoxia/ischemia-induced accumulation of lipids in HL-1 cardiomyocytes and mouse hearts is dependent on expression of the VLDL receptor (VLDLR). Hypoxia-induced VLDLR expression in HL-1 cells was dependent on HIF-1α through its interaction with a hypoxia-responsive element in the Vldlr promoter, and VLDLR promoted the endocytosis of lipoproteins. Furthermore, VLDLR expression was higher in ischemic compared with nonischemic left ventricles from human hearts and was correlated with the total lipid droplet area in the cardiomyocytes. Importantly, Vldlr–/– mice showed improved survival and decreased infarct area following an induced myocardial infarction. ER stress, which leads to apoptosis, is known to be involved in ischemic heart disease. We found that ischemia-induced ER stress and apoptosis in mouse hearts were reduced in Vldlr–/– mice and in mice treated with antibodies specific for VLDLR. These findings suggest that VLDLR-induced lipid accumulation in the ischemic heart worsens survival by increasing ER stress and apoptosis. PMID:21670500

  13. Human apoB contributes to increased serum total apo(a level in LPA transgenic mice

    Teivainen Päivi A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lp(a lipoprotein (Lp(a consists of the polymorphic glycoprotein apolipoprotein(a (apo(a, which is attached by a disulfide bond to apolipoprotein B (apoB. Apo(a, which has high homology with plasminogen, is present only in primates and hedgehogs. However, transgenic mice and rabbits with high serum apo(a levels exist. Liver is the main site for apo(a synthesis, but the site of removal is uncertain. To examine differences between transgenic mice expressing the LPA gene and mice capable of forming Lp(a particles, LPA-YAC transgenic mice and hAPOB transgenic mice were crossed and their offspring examined. Results Comparison of LPA-YAC with LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice showed that LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice have higher serum total apo(a and total cholesterol level than mice lacking the hAPOB gene. However, hepatic apo(a mRNA level was higher in LPA-YAC transgenic mice than in LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice. Feeding of a high-cholesterol/high-fat diet to male LPA-YAC transgenic mice with or without the hAPOB gene resulted in reduced serum total apo(a and hepatic apo(a mRNA level. Conclusion In conclusion, the higher serum total apo(a level in LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice than in LPA-YAC transgenic mice is not caused by increased apo(a synthesis. Lower hepatic apo(a mRNA level in LPA-YAC/hAPOB than in LPA-YAC transgenic mice may suggest that the increase in total apo(a level is a result of apo(a accumulation in serum. Furthermore, observed higher serum total cholesterol level in LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice than either in wild type or LPA-YAC transgenic mice may further suggest that human APOB transgenicity is a factor that contributes to increased serum total apo(a and cholesterol levels. Our results on reduced serum total apo(a and hepatic apo(a mRNA levels in HCHF fed male LPA-YAC transgenic mice confirm earlier findings in females, and show that there are no sex difference in mechanisms for lowering apo(a level in

  14. Developmental exposure of mice to dioxin promotes transgenerational testicular inflammation and an increased risk of preterm birth in unexposed mating partners.

    Kaylon L Bruner-Tran

    Full Text Available TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, commonly known as dioxin is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and known endocrine disruptor. Using a mouse model, we previously found that adult female mice exposed in utero to TCDD (F1 generation as well as multiple subsequent generations (F2-F4 exhibited reduced fertility and an increased incidence of spontaneous preterm birth. Additional studies revealed that male F1 mice with a similar in utero/developmental TCDD exposure also exhibited diminished fertility and conferred an increased risk of preterm birth to their unexposed mating partners. Herein, we extend these previous observations, reporting that reduced fertility in male F1 mice is linked to testicular inflammation which coincides with apoptosis of developing spermatocytes, sub-fertility and an increased risk of preterm birth in their unexposed mating partners. Significantly, in the absence of additional toxicant exposure, testicular inflammation and reduced fertility persisted in F2 and F3 males and their control mating partners also frequently exhibited spontaneous preterm birth. Although a steady, global decline in male fertility has been noted over the last few decades, the reasons for these changes have not been firmly established. Likewise, the PTB rate in the U.S. and other countries has paralleled industrial development, suggesting a possible relationship between environmental toxicant exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Most current clinical strategies to prevent preterm birth are focused solely on the mother and have yielded limited benefits. In contrast, our studies strongly suggest that the preconception testicular health of the father is a critical determinant of pregnancy outcomes in mice. Future clinical studies should examine the potential contribution of the male to gestation length in women and whether efforts to reduce the incidence of preterm birth should be initiated in both parents prior to pregnancy.

  15. 3,3′-Diindolylmethane increases bone mass by suppressing osteoclastic bone resorption in mice

    Tai-yong Yu


    Full Text Available 3,3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM, a major acid-condensation product or metabolite of indole-3-carbinol which is found in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to have anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and multiple immune stimulating effects. However, its function in bone metabolism is poorly understood. This study evaluated the effect of DIM on bone mass in mice under physiological and pathological conditions. Eight-week-old female mice received injections of a vehicle or 0.1 mg/g of DIM, twice a week for four weeks. We found that DIM treatment significantly increased bone mass as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA and micro-computed tomography (μCT. Further, Bone histomorphometric analyses showed that this treatment significantly reduced bone resorption parameters, but did not increase bone formation parameters. Furthermore, we use ovariectomized (OVX-induced osteoporotic mouse model, and explore function of DIM in skeletal pathological processes. Bone phenotype analyses revealed that the administration of DIM in this study effectively prevented OVX-induced bone loss resulting from increased bone resorption. Our results demonstrated that DIM increased bone mass by suppressing osteoclastic bone resorption in bone metabolism under both physiological and pathological conditions. Accordingly, DIM may be of value in the treatment and the possible prevention of bone diseases characterized by bone loss, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  16. Kaempferia parviflora extract increases energy consumption through activation of BAT in mice.

    Yoshino, Susumu; Kim, Minji; Awa, Riyo; Kuwahara, Hiroshige; Kano, Yuriko; Kawada, Teruo


    Kaempferia parviflora (KP) is a member of the ginger family and is known in Thailand as Thai ginseng, Krachai Dam or Black Ginger. TheK. parviflora extract (KPE) was previously reported to have a number of physiological effects; however, the antiobesity effects of KPE and its mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, we conducted KPE feeding experiments (low dose: 0.5% KPE, high dose: 1.0% KPE) in mice to examine the antiobesity effects. For both 0.5% KPE and 1.0% KPE, 7 weeks' feeding of KPE contained in a high-fat diet (HFD) significantly decreased body weight gain, intraabdominal fat accumulation, and plasma triglyceride and leptin levels. Concurrently, KPE administration increased oxygen consumption in mice fed on a HFD. We also found that 1.0% KPE feeding significantly increased the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Moreover, KPE administration increased urinary noradrenaline secretion levels. These results demonstrate that KPE promotes energy metabolism by activation of BAT, at both doses and up-regulation of UCP1 protein at a high dose. Although numerous challenges remain, the present study demonstrated that KPE suppresses HFD-induced obesity through increased energy metabolism.

  17. Enhanced depletion of glutathione and increased liver oxidative damage in aflatoxin-fed mice infected with Plasmodium berghei

    Ankrah, N A; Sittie, A; Addo, P G


    The effect of dietary aflatoxins B1 and G1 and Plasmodium berghei infection on glutathione (GSH) levels and liver status in mice was investigated. Three days after intraperitoneal injection of 0.1 x 10(6) parasitized red blood cells into the mice, there was a significant fall in blood glutathione...... levels accompanied by a significant increase in serum cholinesterase and liver malonic dialdehyde levels in the mice fed aflatoxin compared with those in the control group. The results suggested that malaria parasites can enhance depletion of host glutathione and oxidative damage of the liver in mice fed...... low levels of aflatoxins....

  18. Exhibit Engineering

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    of tools and processes to guide the design of educational science exhibits. The guiding paradigm for this development is design-based research, which is characterised by an iterative cycle of design, enactment, and analysis. In the design phase, an educational intervention is planned and carried out based...... on a hypothesised learning process and the means of supporting it. In the enactment phase, the educational intervention is implemented (i.e. the planned lesson is taught, or the museum exhibit is opened to the public). Finally, the analysis phase establishes causality between emergent characteristics...... of the learning outcomes and the design characteristics of the intervention. The analysis process can yield two types of outcomes: Suggestions for the refinement of the specific design in question, and “humble” theory, which is theory that can guide the design of a category of educational interventions...

  19. Chronic Heat Stress Weakened the Innate Immunity and Increased the Virulence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 in Mice

    Yi Jin


    Full Text Available Chronic heat stress (CHS can negatively affect immune response in animals. In this study we assessed the effects of CHS on host innate immunity and avian influenza virus H5N1 infection in mice. Mice were divided into two groups: CHS and thermally neutral (TN. The CHS treatment group exhibited reduced local immunity in the respiratory tract, including the number of pulmonary alveolar macrophages and lesions in the nasal mucosa, trachea, and lungs. Meanwhile, CHS retarded dendritic cells (DCs maturation and reduced the mRNA levels of IL-6 and IFN-β significantly (P<.05. After the CHS treatment, mice were infected with H5N1 virus. The mortality rate and viral load in the lungs of CHS group were higher than those of TN group. The results suggest that the CHS treatment could suppress local immunity in the respiratory tract and innate host immunity in mice significantly and moderately increased the virulence in H5N1-infected mice.

  20. Primary fibroblasts of NDUFS4(-/-) mice display increased ROS levels and aberrant mitochondrial morphology.

    Valsecchi, Federica; Grefte, Sander; Roestenberg, Peggy; Joosten-Wagenaars, Jori; Smeitink, Jan A M; Willems, Peter H G M; Koopman, Werner J H


    The human NDUFS4 gene encodes an accessory subunit of the first mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complex (CI) and, when mutated, is associated with progressive neurological disorders. Here we analyzed primary muscle and skin fibroblasts from NDUFS4(-/-) mice with respect to reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and mitochondrial morphology. NDUFS4(-/-) fibroblasts displayed an inactive CI subcomplex on native gels but proliferated normally and showed no obvious signs of apoptosis. Oxidation of the ROS sensor hydroethidium was increased and mitochondria were less branched and/or shorter in NDUFS4(-/-) fibroblasts. We discuss the relevance of these findings with respect to previous results and therapy development.

  1. Food restriction increases long- term memory persistence in adult or aged mice

    Talhati, Fernanda [UNIFESP; Patti, Camila de Lima [UNIFESP; Zanin, Karina Agustini [UNIFESP; Lopes-Silva, Leonardo Brito [UNIFESP; Ceccon, Liliane Minglini Barbosa [UNIFESP; Hollais, André Willian [UNIFESP; Bizerra, Carolina Souza [UNIFESP; Santos, Renan [UNIFESP; Tufik, Sergio; Frussa-Filho, Roberto


    Food restriction (FR) seems to be the unique experimental manipulation that leads to a remarkable increase in lifespan in rodents. Evidences have suggested that FR can enhance memory in distinct animal models mainly during aging. However, only few studies systemically evaluated the effects FR on memory formation in both adult (3-month-old) and aged (18-24-month-old) mice. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute (12 h) or repeated (12 h/day for 2 days) FR pro...

  2. Increase of the seizure threshold in C57BL/6 mice after citicoline administration.

    Karpova, M N; Zin'kovskii, K A; Kuznetsova, L V; Klishina, N V


    We studied the dose-dependent effect of preventive intraperitoneal injection of citicoline (cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine) on acute generalized epileptiform activity in C57Bl/6 mice. The duration of citicoline action was also evaluated. Administration of citicoline in doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg 1 h before treatment with the convulsant agent pentylenetetrazole produced an anticonvulsant effect. This effect was manifested in an increase of the threshold of clonic seizures and tonic phase of seizures with lethal outcome. Moreover, the latency of seizure development was elevated under these conditions. The anticonvulsant effect of citicoline persisted for 6 h after its injection.

  3. Increased stathmin1 expression in the dentate gyrus of mice causes abnormal axonal arborizations.

    Kohei Yamada

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP is involved in multiple brain functions. To clarify the cause of abnormal behavior in PACAP deficient-mice, we attempted the identification of genes whose expression was altered in the dentate gyrus of PACAP-deficient mice using the differential display method. Expression of stathmin1 was up-regulated in the dentate gyrus at both the mRNA and protein levels. PACAP stimulation inhibited stathmin1 expression in PC12 cells, while increased stathmin1expression in neurons of the subgranular zone and in primary cultured hippocampal neurons induced abnormal arborization of axons. We also investigated the pathways involved in PACAP deficiency. Ascl1 binds to E10 box of the stathmin1 promoter and increases stathmin1 expression. Inhibitory bHLH proteins (Hes1 and Id3 were rapidly up-regulated by PACAP stimulation, and Hes1 could suppress Ascl1 expression and Id3 could inhibit Ascl1 signaling. We also detected an increase of stathmin1 expression in the brains of schizophrenic patients. These results suggest that up-regulation of stathmin1 in the dentate gyrus, secondary to PACAP deficiency, may create abnormal neuronal circuits that cause abnormal behavior.

  4. Increased Oocyte Production after Acupuncture Treatment during Superovulation Process in Mice

    Chun-lan JIN; Kazuo Tohya; Koichi Kuribayashi; Michio Kimura; Yuki-hisa Hirao


    Objective To investigate whether acupuncture treatment during superovulation process improves ovarian response and increases egg production. Methods ICR female mice aged 12-15 weeks were divided into control group, anaesthesia group and acupuncture group. Female mice were injected intraperitoneally with pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG), followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection 56 h later. Anaesthesia group and acupuncture group were anaesthetized three times by injecting 10% nembutal solution according to 7.5-10.0 μl/g weight. Acupuncture group was treated three times with puncture Sanyinjiao Points(SP6) under anaesthesia. After 17 h of hCG injection, eggs were recovered and ovaries were isolated. Matured eggs were counted, ovarian histology and expression of follicle stimulating hormone receptor(FSH-R) in ovary were analyzed.Results Acupuncture treatment statistically increased the number of ovulated eggs. Histological section showed that some matured follicles left in the ovaries of control and anaesthesia groups after ovulation. On the contrary, all matured follicles ruptured and converted into corpus lutea in Acupuncture group. Expression of FSH-R in ovary was decreased in acupuncture group compared with those of the two others.Conclusion Acupuncture treatment during superovulation process improves ovarianresponse so as to increase egg production. The positive effect of acupuncture may beassociated with regulated FSH-R expression.

  5. Increased sex chromosome expression and epigenetic abnormalities in spermatids from male mice with Y chromosome deletions.

    Reynard, Louise N; Turner, James M A


    During male meiosis, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced, a process termed meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Recent studies have shown that the sex chromosomes remain substantially transcriptionally repressed after meiosis in round spermatids, but the mechanisms involved in this later repression are poorly understood. Mice with deletions of the Y chromosome long arm (MSYq-) have increased spermatid expression of multicopy X and Y genes, and so represent a model for studying post-meiotic sex chromosome repression. Here, we show that the increase in sex chromosome transcription in spermatids from MSYq- mice affects not only multicopy but also single-copy XY genes, as well as an X-linked reporter gene. This increase in transcription is accompanied by specific changes in the sex chromosome histone code, including almost complete loss of H4K8Ac and reduction of H3K9me3 and CBX1. Together, these data show that an MSYq gene regulates sex chromosome gene expression as well as chromatin remodelling in spermatids.

  6. Immature Citrus sunki peel extract exhibits antiobesity effects by β-oxidation and lipolysis in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Kang, Seong-Il; Shin, Hye-Sun; Kim, Hyo-Min; Hong, Youn-Suk; Yoon, Seon-A; Kang, Seung-Woo; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Moo-Han; Ko, Hee-Chul; Kim, Se-Jae


    The peel of Citrus sunki HORT. ex TANAKA has been widely used in traditional Asian medicine for the treatment of many diseases, including indigestion and bronchial asthma. In this study, we investigated the antiobesity activity of immature C. sunki peel extract (designated CSE) using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/6 mice and mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the animal study, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum total cholesterol, and triglyceride in the CSE-administered group decreased significantly compared to the HFD group. Also, CSE supplementation reduced serum levels of glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Moreover, it significantly decreased the accumulation of fatty droplets in liver tissue, suggesting a protective effect against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Dietary supplementation with CSE reversed the HFD-induced decrease in the phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which are related to fatty acid β-oxidation, in the epididymal adipose tissue. Also, CSE increased AMPK and ACC phosphorylation in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CSE also enhanced lipolysis by phosphorylation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results suggest that CSE had an antiobesity effect via elevated β-oxidation and lipolysis in adipose tissue.

  7. Loss of Myh14 Increases Susceptibility to Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in CBA/CaJ Mice

    Fu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Linqing; Jin, Yecheng; Sun, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Aizhen; Wen, Zongzhuang; Zhou, Yichen; Xia, Ming


    MYH14 is a member of the myosin family, which has been implicated in many motile processes such as ion-channel gating, organelle translocation, and the cytoskeleton rearrangement. Mutations in MYH14 lead to a DFNA4-type hearing impairment. Further evidence also shows that MYH14 is a candidate noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) susceptible gene. However, the specific roles of MYH14 in auditory function and NIHL are not fully understood. In the present study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to establish a Myh14 knockout mice line in CBA/CaJ background (now referred to as Myh14−/− mice) and clarify the role of MYH14 in the cochlea and NIHL. We found that Myh14−/− mice did not exhibit significant hearing loss until five months of age. In addition, Myh14−/− mice were more vulnerable to high intensity noise compared to control mice. More significant outer hair cell loss was observed in Myh14−/− mice than in wild type controls after acoustic trauma. Our findings suggest that Myh14 may play a beneficial role in the protection of the cochlea after acoustic overstimulation in CBA/CaJ mice. PMID:28101381

  8. Loss of Myh14 Increases Susceptibility to Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in CBA/CaJ Mice

    Xiaolong Fu


    Full Text Available MYH14 is a member of the myosin family, which has been implicated in many motile processes such as ion-channel gating, organelle translocation, and the cytoskeleton rearrangement. Mutations in MYH14 lead to a DFNA4-type hearing impairment. Further evidence also shows that MYH14 is a candidate noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL susceptible gene. However, the specific roles of MYH14 in auditory function and NIHL are not fully understood. In the present study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to establish a Myh14 knockout mice line in CBA/CaJ background (now referred to as Myh14−/− mice and clarify the role of MYH14 in the cochlea and NIHL. We found that Myh14−/− mice did not exhibit significant hearing loss until five months of age. In addition, Myh14−/− mice were more vulnerable to high intensity noise compared to control mice. More significant outer hair cell loss was observed in Myh14−/− mice than in wild type controls after acoustic trauma. Our findings suggest that Myh14 may play a beneficial role in the protection of the cochlea after acoustic overstimulation in CBA/CaJ mice.

  9. Aguamiel concentrate from Agave salmiana and its extracted saponins attenuated obesity and hepatic steatosis and increased Akkermansia muciniphila in C57BL6 mice

    Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Noriega, Lilia G.; Torre-Villalvazo, Ivan; Torres, Nimbe; Alemán-Escondrillas, Gabriela; López-Romero, Patricia; Sánchez-Tapia, Mónica; Aguilar-López, Miriam; Furuzawa-Carballeda, Janette; Velázquez-Villegas, Laura A.; Avila-Nava, Azalia; Ordáz, Guillermo; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A.; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O.; Tovar, Armando R.


    Obesity and its comorbidities are a severe public health problem worldwide. The use of bioactive compounds found in some foods has been demonstrated to ameliorate the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the bioactive compounds present in aguamiel concentrate (AC) from Agave salmiana could attenuate glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high fat (HF) diet. HPLC-ELSD analysis showed that AC contained several saponins. The consumption of an AC extract rich in saponins reduced weight gain and fat mass and lowered serum glucose, insulin and LDL-cholesterol levels in mice fed a HF diet. Additionally, mice fed the saponin extract exhibited a reduced HOMA index and hepatic lipid levels and increased expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Saponins increased white adipose tissue browning, AMPK phosphorylation, fatty acid oxidation, and mitochondrial activity in skeletal muscle and energy expenditure in mice fed the HF diet. These metabolic changes were accompanied by an increase in the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila in the gut microbiota. Therefore, Agave salmiana saponins can be an alternative to attenuate the metabolic changes that accompany obesity. PMID:27678062

  10. Autoreactive effector/memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infiltrating grafted and endogenous islets in diabetic NOD mice exhibit similar T cell receptor usage.

    Ramiro Diz

    Full Text Available Islet transplantation provides a "cure" for type 1 diabetes but is limited in part by recurrent autoimmunity mediated by β cell-specific CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells. Insight into the T cell receptor (TCR repertoire of effector T cells driving recurrent autoimmunity would aid the development of immunotherapies to prevent islet graft rejection. Accordingly, we used a multi-parameter flow cytometry strategy to assess the TCR variable β (Vβ chain repertoires of T cell subsets involved in autoimmune-mediated rejection of islet grafts in diabetic NOD mouse recipients. Naïve CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells exhibited a diverse TCR repertoire, which was similar in all tissues examined in NOD recipients including the pancreas and islet grafts. On the other hand, the effector/memory CD8(+ T cell repertoire in the islet graft was dominated by one to four TCR Vβ chains, and specific TCR Vβ chain usage varied from recipient to recipient. Similarly, islet graft- infiltrating effector/memory CD4(+ T cells expressed a limited number of prevalent TCR Vβ chains, although generally TCR repertoire diversity was increased compared to effector/memory CD8(+ T cells. Strikingly, the majority of NOD recipients showed an increase in TCR Vβ12-bearing effector/memory CD4(+ T cells in the islet graft, most of which were proliferating, indicating clonal expansion. Importantly, TCR Vβ usage by effector/memory CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells infiltrating the islet graft exhibited greater similarity to the repertoire found in the pancreas as opposed to the draining renal lymph node, pancreatic lymph node, or spleen. Together these results demonstrate that effector/memory CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells mediating autoimmune rejection of islet grafts are characterized by restricted TCR Vβ chain usage, and are similar to T cells that drive destruction of the endogenous islets.

  11. Increase of histidine decarboxylase activity in mice hypothalamus after intracerebroventricular administration of lipopolysaccharide.

    Niimi, M; Mochizuki, T; Cacabelos, R; Yamatodani, A


    The effect of intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of lipopolysaccharide on histidine decarboxylase activity and histamine content in the hypothalamus were investigated in male mice of ddY strain in vivo. Two-fold increase in histidine decarboxylase activity (HDC) was observed 4 h after administration of 50 mcg lipopolysaccharide, and HDC activity returned to the basal level within 12 h after injection. Furthermore, histamine contents showed a slight decrease at 1 and 2 h and a mild increase at 12 h after administration. However, changes in histamine content were not statistically significant. These results suggest that the increase of HDC activity in the hypothalamus by lipopolysaccharide may be involved in the central neuroimmune responses.

  12. Serine protease inhibitor 6-deficient mice have increased neutrophil immunity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Zhang, Manling; Liu, Ni; Park, Sun-Mi; Wang, Yue; Byrne, Susan; Murmann, Andrea E; Bahr, Scott; Peter, Marcus E; Olson, Steven T; Belaaouaj, Abderrazzaq; Ashton-Rickardt, Philip G


    Inflammation is a localized, protective response to trauma or microbial invasion that destroys the injurious agent and the injured tissue. Neutrophil elastase (NE), a serine protease stored in the azurophil granules of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, digests microbes after phagocytosis. NE can also digest microbes extracellularly but is associated with tissue damage and inflammatory disease. In this study, we show that polymorphonuclear neutrophils from mice deficient in serine protease inhibitor 6, a weak intracellular NE inhibitor, had increased susceptibility to self-inflicted lysis because of increased NE activity. The resulting transient increase in local extracellular NE activity was within a narrow range that resulted in the clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa but did not damage the lung. Therefore, deficiency in a weak intracellular inhibitor of NE results in an acute inflammatory response that protects from P. aeruginosa but does not cause lung disease.

  13. Penicillamine Increases Free Copper and Enhances Oxidative Stress in the Brain of Toxic Milk Mice

    Lin, Xiao-Pu; Zhang, Wei; Li, Fu-Rong; Liang, Xiu-Ling; Li, Xun-Hua


    Wilson disease (WD) is characterized by the accumulation of copper arising from a mutation in the ATP7B gene. Penicillamine (PA) makes 10–50% of the patients with neurologic symptoms neurologically worse at the early stage of administration. The aim of this study was to determine how the copper metabolism changes and whether the change impairs the brain of toxic milk (tx) mice, an animal model of WD, during the PA administration. The free copper and protein-bound copper concentrations in the serum, cortex and basal ganglia of tx mice with PA administration for 3 days, 10 days and 14 days, respectively, were investigated. The expression of copper transporters, ATP7A and CTR1,was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence and Western blot. Then SOD, MDA and GSH/GSSG were detected to determine whether the oxidative stress changed correspondingly. The results revealed the elevated free copper concentrations in the serum and brain, and declined protein-bound copper concentrations in the brain of tx mice during PA administration. Meanwhile, transiently increased expression of ATP7A and CTR1 was observed generally in the brain parenchyma by immunofluorescence, real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. Additionally, ATP7A and CTR1 were observed to locate mainly at Golgi apparatus and cellular membrane respectively. Intense staining of ATP7A in the choroid plexus was found in tx mice on the 3rd and 10th day of PA treatment, but rare staining of ATP7A and CTR1 in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Decreased GSH/GSSG and increased MDA concentrations were also viewed in the cortex and basal ganglia. Our results suggested the elevated free copper concentrations in the brain might lead to the enhanced oxidative stress during PA administration. The increased free copper in the brain might come from the copper mobilized from brain parenchyma cells but not from the serum according to the ATP7A and CTR1 expression analysis. PMID:22629446

  14. Caffeine increases mitochondrial function and blocks melatonin signaling to mitochondria in Alzheimer's mice and cells.

    Dragicevic, Natasa; Delic, Vedad; Cao, Chuanhai; Copes, Neil; Lin, Xiaoyang; Mamcarz, Maggie; Wang, Li; Arendash, Gary W; Bradshaw, Patrick C


    Caffeine and melatonin have been shown to protect the Swedish mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP(sw)) transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease from cognitive dysfunction. But their mechanisms of action remain incompletely understood. These Alzheimer's mice have extensive mitochondrial dysfunction, which likely contributes to their cognitive decline. To further explore the mechanism through which caffeine and melatonin protect cognitive function in these mice, we monitored the function of isolated mitochondria from APP(sw) mice treated with caffeine, melatonin, or both in their drinking water for one month. Melatonin treatment yielded a near complete restoration of mitochondrial function in assays of respiratory rate, membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production, and ATP levels. Caffeine treatment by itself yielded a small increase in mitochondrial function. However, caffeine largely blocked the large enhancement of mitochondrial function provided by melatonin. Studies with N2a neuroblastoma cells stably expressing APP(sw) showed that specific inhibition of cAMP-dependent phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 or cGMP-dependent PDE5 also blocked melatonin protection of mitochondrial function, but A(2a) and A₁ adenosine receptor antagonists were without effect. Melatonin or caffeine at the concentrations used to modulate mitochondrial function in the cells had no effect on cAMP-dependent PDE activity or cellular cAMP or cGMP levels. Therefore, caffeine and increased cyclic nucleotide levels likely block melatonin signaling to mitochondria by independent mechanisms that do not involve adenosine receptor antagonism. The results of this study indicate that melatonin restores mitochondrial function much more potently than caffeine in APP(sw) transgenic mouse and cell models of Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Mice Deficient in the Putative Phospholipid Flippase ATP11C Exhibit Altered Erythrocyte Shape, Anemia, and Reduced Erythrocyte Life Span*♦

    Yabas, Mehmet; Coupland, Lucy A.; Cromer, Deborah; Winterberg, Markus; Teoh, Narci C.; D'Rozario, James; Kirk, Kiaran; Bröer, Stefan; Parish, Christopher R.; Enders, Anselm


    Transmembrane lipid transporters are believed to establish and maintain phospholipid asymmetry in biological membranes; however, little is known about the in vivo function of the specific transporters involved. Here, we report that developing erythrocytes from mice lacking the putative phosphatidylserine flippase ATP11C showed a lower rate of PS translocation in vitro compared with erythrocytes from wild-type littermates. Furthermore, the mutant mice had an elevated percentage of phosphatidylserine-exposing mature erythrocytes in the periphery. Although erythrocyte development in ATP11C-deficient mice was normal, the mature erythrocytes had an abnormal shape (stomatocytosis), and the life span of mature erythrocytes was shortened relative to that in control littermates, resulting in anemia in the mutant mice. Thus, our findings uncover an essential role for ATP11C in erythrocyte morphology and survival and provide a new candidate for the rare inherited blood disorder stomatocytosis with uncompensated anemia. PMID:24898253

  16. Adipocyte (Pro)Renin-Receptor Deficiency Induces Lipodystrophy, Liver Steatosis and Increases Blood Pressure in Male Mice.

    Wu, Chia-Hua; Mohammadmoradi, Shayan; Thompson, Joel; Su, Wen; Gong, Ming; Nguyen, Genevieve; Yiannikouris, Frédérique


    Adipose tissue dysfunction related to obesity is overwhelmingly associated with increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. In the setting of obesity, (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is increased in adipose tissue of mice. We sought to determine the physiological consequences of adipocyte-PRR deficiency using adiponectin-Cre mice. We report a unique model of adipocyte-PRR-deficient mice (PRR(Adi/Y)) with almost no detectable white adipose tissues. As a consequence, the livers of PRR(Adi/Y) mice were enlarged and demonstrated a marked accumulation of lipids. Adipocyte-specific deficiency of PRR increased systolic blood pressure and the concentration of soluble PRR in plasma. To determine whether adipocyte-PRR was involved in the development of obesity-induced hypertension, mice were fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Adipocyte-PRR-deficient mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity. Both high-fat- and low-fat-fed PRR(Adi/Y) mice had elevated insulin levels. Interestingly, adipocyte-PRR deficiency improved glucose tolerance in high-fat-fed PRR(Adi/Y) mice. In response to feeding either low-fat or high-fat diets, systolic blood pressure was greater in PRR(Adi/Y) mice than in control mice. High-fat feeding elevated soluble PRR concentration in control and PRR(Adi/Y) mice. In vitro knockdown of PRR by siRNA significantly decreased mRNA abundance of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma), suggesting an important role for PRR in adipogenesis. Our data indicate that adipocyte-PRR is involved in lipid homeostasis and glucose and insulin homeostasis, and that soluble PRR may be a predictor of metabolic disturbances and play a role in systolic blood pressure regulation.

  17. Are the increases in local tumour necrosis factor and lipid peroxidation observed in pre-starved mice infected with Salmonella typhimurium markers of increased liver damage?

    Rishi, Praveen; Kaur, Harsimran; Tirkey, Naveen; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Bharrhan, Sushma; Chanana, Vishal; Koul, Ashwani


    Pathogenic microorganisms are known to sense and process signals within their hosts, including those resulting from starvation. Therefore, an attempt was made to evaluate the extent and the possible underlying mechanism of Salmonella typhimurium-induced hepatic damage using pre-starved laboratory mice. The following parameters were analysed, comparing control, fed infected, starved, and starved infected mice: the bacterial load in the liver, fluctuations in liver-derived enzymes alanine-aminotransferase and aspartate-aminotransferase, histopathological changes, lipid peroxidation as well as estimation of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase, along with the TNF content in livers. The number of bacterial cells recovered from starved infected livers at 3 days post-S. typhimurium inoculation was comparable to the number recovered from fed infected livers at 5 days post-Salmonella inoculation, indicating an early increase in the development of the bacteria in starved mice. A marked elevation in liver-derived enzymes in mouse serum and significant histopathological changes are markers of liver damage of higher amplitude in starved infected mice. Analysis of the liver indicated a significant increase in lipid peroxidation in starved infected mice compared to their control counterparts, a process coupled with increased TNF level. Although the reduced glutathione levels showed a marked increase in the starved infected mice, there was a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in this group.

  18. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Increase Survival and Decrease Bacterial Load in Mice Subjected to Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Sepsis.

    Svahn, Sara L; Ulleryd, Marcus A; Grahnemo, Louise; Ståhlman, Marcus; Borén, Jan; Nilsson, Staffan; Jansson, John-Olov; Johansson, Maria E


    Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is increasing in incidence. With the alarming use of antibiotics,S. aureus is prone to become methicillin resistant. Antibiotics are the only widely used pharmacological treatment for sepsis. Interestingly, mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have better survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis than mice fed HFD rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S). To investigate what component of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e., omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids, exerts beneficial effects on the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis, mice were fed HFD rich in omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to inoculation with S. aureus Further, mice fed HFD-S were treated with omega-3 fatty acid metabolites known as resolvins. Mice fed HFD rich in omega-3 fatty acids had increased survival and decreased bacterial loads compared to those for mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis. Furthermore, the bacterial load was decreased in resolvin-treated mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis compared with that in mice treated with vehicle. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids increase the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis by reversing the deleterious effect of HFD-S on mouse survival.

  19. Increased Aβ pathology in aged Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a high fat diet

    Nizari, Shereen; Carare, Roxana O.; Hawkes, Cheryl A.


    Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of developing diabetes, obesity and premature death in adult offspring. Mid-life diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia are risk factors for the development of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A key pathogenic feature of AD is the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high fat diet feeding during early life on Aβ pathology in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. Female mice were fed a standard (C) or high fat (HF) diet before mating and during gestation and lactation. At weaning, male offspring were fed a C diet. Significantly higher levels of guanidine-soluble Aβ and plaque loads were observed in the hippocampi of 11-month old Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a HF diet. Changes in the extracellular matrix led to increased retention of Aβ within the parenchyma. These data support a role for maternal and gestational health on the health of the aged brain and pathologies associated with AD and may provide a novel target for both the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:26911528

  20. Absence of TI-VAMP/Vamp7 leads to increased anxiety in mice.

    Danglot, Lydia; Zylbersztejn, Kathleen; Petkovic, Maja; Gauberti, Maxime; Meziane, Hamid; Combe, Roy; Champy, Marie-France; Birling, Marie-Christine; Pavlovic, Guillaume; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Trovero, Fabrice; Della Ragione, Floriana; Proux-Gillardeaux, Véronique; Sorg, Tania; Vivien, Denis; D'Esposito, Maurizio; Galli, Thierry


    Vesicular (v)- and target (t)-SNARE proteins assemble in SNARE complex to mediate membrane fusion. Tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicular-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP/VAMP7), a vesicular SNARE expressed in several cell types including neurons, was previously shown to play a major role in exocytosis involved in neurite growth in cultured neurons. Here we generated a complete constitutive knock-out by deleting the exon 3 of Vamp7. Loss of TI-VAMP expression did not lead to any striking developmental or neurological defect. Knock-out mice displayed decreased brain weight and increased third ventricle volume. Axon growth appeared normal in cultured knock-out neurons. Behavioral characterization unraveled that TI-VAMP knock-out was associated with increased anxiety. Our results thus suggest compensatory mechanisms allowing the TI-VAMP knock-out mice to fulfill major developmental processes. The phenotypic traits unraveled here further indicate an unexpected role of TI-VAMP-mediated vesicular traffic in anxiety and suggest a role for TI-VAMP in higher brain functions.

  1. Neutrophils and neutrophil serine proteases are increased in the spleens of estrogen-treated C57BL/6 mice and several strains of spontaneous lupus-prone mice

    Dai, Rujuan; Cowan, Catharine; Heid, Bettina; Khan, Deena; Liang, Zhihong; Pham, Christine T. N.; Ahmed, S. Ansar


    Estrogen, a natural immunomodulator, regulates the development and function of diverse immune cell types. There is now renewed attention on neutrophils and neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs) such as neutrophil elastase (NE), proteinase 3 (PR3), and cathepsin G (CG) in inflammation and autoimmunity. In this study, we found that although estrogen treatment significantly reduced total splenocytes number, it markedly increased the splenic neutrophil absolute numbers in estrogen-treated C57BL/6 (B6) mice when compared to placebo controls. Concomitantly, the levels of NSPs and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were highly upregulated in the splenocytes from estrogen-treated mice. Despite the critical role of NSPs in the regulation of non-infectious inflammation, by employing NE-/-/PR3-/-/CG-/- triple knock out mice, we demonstrated that the absence of NSPs affected neither estrogen’s ability to increase splenic neutrophils nor the induction of inflammatory mediators (IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, MCP-1, and NO) from ex vivo activated splenocytes. Depletion of neutrophils in vitro in splenocytes with anti-Ly6G antibody also had no obvious effect on NSP expression or LPS-induced IFNγ and MCP-1. These data suggest that estrogen augments NSPs, which appears to be independent of enhancing ex vivo inflammatory responses. Since estrogen has been implicated in regulating several experimental autoimmune diseases, we extended our observations in estrogen-treated B6 mice to spontaneous autoimmune-prone female MRL-lpr, B6-lpr and NZB/WF1 mice. There was a remarkable commonality with regards to the increase of neutrophils and concomitant increase of NSPs and MPO in the splenic cells of different strains of autoimmune-prone mice and estrogen-treated B6 mice. Collectively, since NSPs and neutrophils are involved in diverse pro-inflammatory activities, these data suggest a potential pathologic implication of increased neutrophils and NSPs that merits further investigation. PMID:28192517

  2. Increased seizure susceptibility and other toxicity symptoms following acute sulforaphane treatment in mice.

    Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Kowalczuk-Vasilev, Edyta; Wyska, Elżbieta; Wlaź, Piotr


    Activation of Nrf2 with sulforaphane has recently gained attention as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of many diseases, including epilepsy. As a plant-derived compound, sulforaphane is considered to be safe and well-tolerated. It is widely consumed, also by patients suffering from seizure and taking antiepileptic drugs, but no toxicity profile of sulforaphane exists. Since many natural remedies and dietary supplements may increase seizure risk and potentially interact with antiepileptic drugs, the aim of our study was to investigate the acute effects of sulforaphane on seizure thresholds and activity of some first- and second-generation antiepileptic drugs in mice. In addition, some preliminary toxicity profile of sulforaphane in mice after intraperitoneal injection was evaluated. The LD50 value of sulforaphane in mice was estimated at 212.67mg/kg, while the TD50 value - at 191.58mg/kg. In seizure tests, sulforaphane at the highest dose tested (200mg/kg) significantly decreased the thresholds for the onset of the first myoclonic twitch and generalized clonic seizure in the iv PTZ test as well as the threshold for the 6Hz-induced psychomotor seizure. At doses of 10-200mg/kg, sulforaphane did not affect the threshold for the iv PTZ-induced forelimb tonus or the threshold for maximal electroshock-induced hindlimb tonus. Interestingly, sulforaphane (at 100mg/kg) potentiated the anticonvulsant efficacy of carbamazepine in the maximal electroshock seizure test. This interaction could have been pharmacokinetic in nature, as sulforaphane increased concentrations of carbamazepine in both serum and brain tissue. The toxicity study showed that high doses of sulforaphane produced marked sedation (at 150-300mg/kg), hypothermia (at 150-300mg/kg), impairment of motor coordination (at 200-300mg/kg), decrease in skeletal muscle strength (at 250-300mg/kg), and deaths (at 200-300mg/kg). Moreover, blood analysis showed leucopenia in mice injected with sulforaphane at 200mg

  3. Generation and characterization of two novel mouse models exhibiting the phenotypes of the metabolic syndrome: Apob48-/-Lepob/ob mice devoid of ApoE or Ldlr.

    Lloyd, David J; McCormick, Jocelyn; Helmering, Joan; Kim, Ki Won; Wang, Minghan; Fordstrom, Preston; Kaufman, Stephen A; Lindberg, Richard A; Véniant, Murielle M


    The metabolic syndrome is a group of disorders including obesity, insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. To date, few animal models have been described to recapitulate the phenotypes of the syndrome. In this study, we generated and characterized two lines of triple-knockout mice that are deficient in either apolipoprotein E (Apoe(-/-)) or low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr(-/-)) and express no leptin (Lep(ob/ob)) or apolipoprotein B-48 but exclusively apolipoprotein B-100 (Apob(100/100)). These two lines are referred to as Apoe triple-knockout-Apoe 3KO (Apoe(-/-)Apob(100/100)Lep(ob/ob)) and Ldlr triple-knockout-Ldlr 3KO (Ldlr(-/-)Apob(100/100)Lep(ob/ob)) mice. Both lines develop obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. However, only Apoe 3KO mice are hyperglycemic and glucose intolerant and are more obese than Ldlr 3KO mice. To evaluate the utility of these lines as pharmacological models, we treated both with leptin and found that leptin therapy ameliorated most metabolic derangements. Leptin was more effective in improving glucose tolerance in Ldlr 3KO than Apoe 3KO animals. The reduction of plasma cholesterol by leptin in Ldlr 3KO mice can be accounted for by its suppressive effect on food intake. However, in Apoe 3KO mice, leptin further reduced plasma cholesterol independently of its effect on food intake, and this improvement correlated with a smaller plaque lesion area. These effects suggest a direct role of leptin in modulating VLDL levels and, likewise, the lesion areas in VLDL-enriched animals. These two lines of mice represent new models with features of the metabolic syndrome and will be useful in testing therapies targeted for combating the human condition.

  4. Exposure to bisphenol A, but not phthalates, increases spontaneous diabetes type 1 development in NOD mice

    Johanna Bodin


    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells due to a genetic predisposition and can be triggered by environmental factors. We have previously shown that bisphenol A (BPA accelerates the spontaneous development of diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice. Here, we hypothesized that oral exposure to a mixture of the endocrine disruptors BPA and phthalates, relevant for human exposure, would accelerate diabetes development compared to BPA alone. NOD mice were exposed to BPA (1 mg/l, a mixture of phthalates (DEHP 1 mg/l, DBP 0.2 mg/l, BBP 10 mg/l and DiBP 20 mg/l or a combination of BPA and the phthalate mixture through drinking water from conception and throughout life. Previous observations that BPA exposure increased the prevalence of diabetes and insulitis and decreased the number of tissue resident macrophages in pancreas were confirmed, and extended by demonstrating that BPA exposure also impaired the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages. None of these effects were observed after phthalate exposure alone. The phthalate exposure in combination with BPA seemed to dampen the BPA effects on macrophage number and function as well as diabetes development, but not insulitis development. Exposure to BPA alone or in combination with phthalates decreased cytokine release (TNFα, IL-6, IL-10, IFNγ, IL-4 from in vitro stimulated splenocytes and lymph node cells, indicating systemic changes in immune function. In conclusion, exposure to BPA, but not to phthalates or mixed exposure to BPA and phthalates, accelerated diabetes development in NOD mice, apparently in part via systemic immune alterations including decreased macrophage function.

  5. Leptin Increases Striatal Dopamine D2 Receptor Binding in Leptin-Deficient Obese (ob/ob) Mice

    Pfaffly, J.; Michaelides, M.; Wang, G-J.; Pessin, J.E.; Volkow, N.D.; Thanos, P.K.


    Peripheral and central leptin administration have been shown to mediate central dopamine (DA) signaling. Leptin-receptor deficient rodents show decreased DA D2 receptor (D2R) binding in striatum and unique DA profiles compared to controls. Leptin-deficient mice show increased DA activity in reward-related brain regions. The objective of this study was to examine whether basal D2R-binding differences contribute to the phenotypic behaviors of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, and whether D2R binding is altered in response to peripheral leptin treatment in these mice. Leptin decreased body weight, food intake, and plasma insulin concentration in ob/ob mice but not in wild-type mice. Basal striatal D2R binding (measured with autoradiography [{sup 3}H] spiperone) did not differ between ob/ob and wild-type mice but the response to leptin did. In wild-type mice, leptin decreased striatal D2R binding, whereas, in ob/ob mice, leptin increased D2R binding. Our findings provide further evidence that leptin modulates D2R expression in striatum and that these effects are genotype/phenotype dependent.

  6. Dietary supplementation with docosahexanoic acid (DHA) increases red blood cell membrane flexibility in mice with sickle cell disease.

    Wandersee, Nancy J; Maciaszek, Jamie L; Giger, Katie M; Hanson, Madelyn S; Zheng, Suilan; Guo, YiHe; Mickelson, Barbara; Hillery, Cheryl A; Lykotrafitis, George; Low, Philip S; Hogg, Neil


    Humans and mice with sickle cell disease (SCD) have rigid red blood cells (RBCs). Omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexanoic acid (DHA), may influence RBC deformability via incorporation into the RBC membrane. In this study, sickle cell (SS) mice were fed natural ingredient rodent diets supplemented with 3% DHA (DHA diet) or a control diet matched in total fat (CTRL diet). After 8weeks of feeding, we examined the RBCs for: 1) stiffness, as measured by atomic force microscopy; 2) deformability, as measured by ektacytometry; and 3) percent irreversibly sickled RBCs on peripheral blood smears. Using atomic force microscopy, it is found that stiffness is increased and deformability decreased in RBCs from SS mice fed CTRL diet compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, RBCs from SS mice fed DHA diet had markedly decreased stiffness and increased deformability compared to RBCs from SS mice fed CTRL diet. Furthermore, examination of peripheral blood smears revealed less irreversibly sickled RBCs in SS mice fed DHA diet as compared to CTRL diet. In summary, our findings indicate that DHA supplementation improves RBC flexibility and reduces irreversibly sickled cells by 40% in SS mice. These results point to potential therapeutic benefits of dietary omega-3 fatty acids in SCD.

  7. Expression of gp120 in mice evokes anxiety behavior: co-occurrence with increased dendritic spines and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the amygdala

    Bachis, Alessia; Forcelli, Patrick; Masliah, Eliezer; Campbell, Lee; Mocchetti, Italo


    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection of the brain produces cognitive and motor disorders. In addition, HIV positive individuals exhibit behavioral alterations, such as apathy, and a decrease in spontaneity or emotional responses, typically seen in anxiety disorders. Anxiety can lead to psychological stress, which has been shown to influence HIV disease progression. These considerations underscore the importance of determining if anxiety in HIV is purely psychosocial, or if by contrast, there are the molecular cascades associated directly with HIV infection that may mediate anxiety. The present study had two goals: 1) to determine if chronic exposure to viral proteins would induce anxiety-like behavior in an animal model and 2) to determine if this exposure results in anatomical abnormalities that could explain increased anxiety. We have used gp120 transgenic mice, which display behavior and molecular deficiencies similar to HIV positive subjects with cognitive and motor impairments. In comparison to wild type mice, 6 months old gp120 transgenic mice demonstrated an anxiety like behavior measured by open field, light/dark transition task, and prepulse inhibition tests. Moreover, gp120 transgenic mice have an increased number of spines in the amygdala, as well as higher levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tissue plasminogen activator when compared to age-matched wild type. Our data support the hypothesis that HIV, through gp120, may cause structural changes in the amygdala that lead to maladaptive responses to anxiety. PMID:26845379

  8. UNC5B receptor deletion exacerbates DSS-induced colitis in mice by increasing epithelial cell apoptosis.

    Ranganathan, Punithavathi; Jayakumar, Calpurnia; Li, Dean Y; Ramesh, Ganesan


    The netrin-1 administration or overexpression is known to protect colon from acute colitis. However, the receptor that mediates netrin-1 protective activities in the colon during colitis remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that UNC5B receptor is a critical mediator of protective function of netrin-1 in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis using mice with partial deletion of UNC5B receptor. DSS colitis was performed in mice with partial genetic UNC5B deficiency (UNC5B(+/-) mice) or wild-type mice to examine the role of endogenous UNC5B. These studies were supported by in vitro models of DSS-induced apoptosis in human colon epithelial cells. WT mice developed colitis in response to DSS feeding as indicated by reduction in bw, reduction in colon length and increase in colon weight. These changes were exacerbated in heterozygous UNC5B knockout mice treated with DSS. Periodic Acid-Schiff stained section shows damages in colon epithelium and mononuclear cell infiltration in WT mice, which was further increased in UNC5B heterozygous knockout mice. This was associated with large increase in inflammatory mediators such as cytokine and chemokine expression and extensive apoptosis of epithelial cells in heterozygous knockout mice as compared to WT mice. Overexpression of UNC5B human colon epithelial cells suppressed DSS-induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activity. Moreover, DSS induced large amount of netrin-1 and shRNA mediated knockdown of netrin-1 induction exacerbated DSS-induced epithelial cell apoptosis. Our results suggest that UNC5B is a critical mediator of cell survival in response to stress in colon.

  9. A novel ENU-induced ankyrin-1 mutation impairs parasite invasion and increases erythrocyte clearance during malaria infection in mice

    Huang, Hong Ming; Bauer, Denis C.; Lelliott, Patrick M.; Greth, Andreas; McMorran, Brendan J.; Foote, Simon J.; Burgio, Gaetan


    Genetic defects in various red blood cell (RBC) cytoskeletal proteins have been long associated with changes in susceptibility towards malaria infection. In particular, while ankyrin (Ank-1) mutations account for approximately 50% of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) cases, an association with malaria is not well-established, and conflicting evidence has been reported. We describe a novel N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced ankyrin mutation MRI61689 that gives rise to two different ankyrin transcripts: one with an introduced splice acceptor site resulting a frameshift, the other with a skipped exon. Ank-1(MRI61689/+) mice exhibit an HS-like phenotype including reduction in mean corpuscular volume (MCV), increased osmotic fragility and reduced RBC deformability. They were also found to be resistant to rodent malaria Plasmodium chabaudi infection. Parasites in Ank-1(MRI61689/+) erythrocytes grew normally, but red cells showed resistance to merozoite invasion. Uninfected Ank-1(MRI61689/+) erythrocytes were also more likely to be cleared from circulation during infection; the “bystander effect”. This increased clearance is a novel resistance mechanism which was not observed in previous ankyrin mouse models. We propose that this bystander effect is due to reduced deformability of Ank-1(MRI61689/+) erythrocytes. This paper highlights the complex roles ankyrin plays in mediating malaria resistance. PMID:27848995

  10. Deletion of the Wolfram syndrome-related gene Wfs1 results in increased sensitivity to ethanol in female mice.

    Raud, Sirli; Reimets, Riin; Loomets, Maarja; Sütt, Silva; Altpere, Alina; Visnapuu, Tanel; Innos, Jürgen; Luuk, Hendrik; Plaas, Mario; Volke, Vallo; Vasar, Eero


    Wolfram syndrome, induced by mutation in WFS1 gene, increases risk of developing mood disorders in humans. In mice, Wfs1 deficiency cause higher anxiety-like behaviour and increased response to anxiolytic-like effect of diazepam, a GABAA receptor agonist. As GABAergic system is also target for ethanol, we analysed its anxiolytic-like and sedative properties in Wfs1-deficient mice using elevated plus-maze test and tests measuring locomotor activity and coordination, respectively. Additionally loss of righting reflex test was conducted to study sedative/hypnotic properties of ethanol, ketamine and pentobarbital. To evaluate pharmacokinetics of ethanol in mice enzymatic colour test was used. Finally, gene expression of alpha subunits of GABAA receptors following ethanol treatment was studied by real-time-PCR. Compared to wild-types, Wfs1-deficient mice were more sensitive to ethanol-induced anxiolytic-like effect, but less responsive to impairment of motor coordination. Ethanol and pentobarbital, but not ketamine, caused longer duration of hypnosis in Wfs1-deficient mice. The expression of Gabra2 subunit at 30 minutes after ethanol injection was significantly increased in the frontal cortex of Wfs1-deficient mice as compared to respective vehicle-treated mice. For the temporal lobe, similar change in Gabra2 mRNA occurred at 60 minutes after ethanol treatment in Wfs1-deficient mice. No changes were detected in Gabra1 and Gabra3 mRNA following ethanol treatment. Taken together, increased anxiolytic-like effect of ethanol in Wfs1-deficient mice is probably related to altered Gabra2 gene expression. Increased anti-anxiety effect of GABAA receptor agonists in the present work and earlier studies (Luuk et al., 2009) further suggests importance of Wfs1 gene in the regulation of emotional behaviour.

  11. Recurrent exposure to subclinical lipopolysaccharide increases mortality and induces cardiac fibrosis in mice.

    Wilbur Y W Lew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating subclinical lipopolysaccharide (LPS occurs in health and disease. Ingesting high fatty meals increases LPS that cause metabolic endotoxemia. Subclinical LPS in periodontal disease may impair endothelial function. The heart may be targeted as cardiac cells express TLR4, the LPS receptor. It was hypothesized that recurrent exposure to subclinical LPS increases mortality and causes cardiac fibrosis. METHODS: C57Bl/6 mice were injected with intraperitoneal saline (control, low dose LPS (0.1 or 1 mg/kg, or moderate dose LPS (10 or 20 mg/kg, once a week for 3 months. Left ventricular (LV function (echocardiography, hemodynamics (tail cuff pressure and electrocardiograms (telemetry were measured. Cardiac fibrosis was assessed by picrosirius red staining and LV expression of fibrosis related genes (QRT-PCR. Adult cardiac fibroblasts were isolated and exposed to LPS. RESULTS: LPS injections transiently increased heart rate and blood pressure (<6 hours and mildly decreased LV function with full recovery by 24 hours. Mice tolerated weekly LPS for 2-3 months with no change in activity, appearance, appetite, weight, blood pressure, LV function, oximetry, or blood chemistries. Mortality increased after 60-90 days with moderate, but not low dose LPS. Arrhythmias occurred a few hours before death. LV collagen fraction area increased dose-dependently from 3.0±0.5% (SEM in the saline control group, to 5.6±0.5% with low dose LPS and 9.7±0.9% with moderate dose LPS (P<0.05 moderate vs low dose LPS, and each LPS dose vs control. LPS increased LV expression of collagen Iα1, collagen IIIα1, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, periostin and IL-6 (P<0.05 moderate vs low dose LPS and vs control. LPS increased α-SMA immunostaining of myofibroblasts. LPS dose-dependently increased IL-6 in isolated adult cardiac fibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS: Recurrent exposure to subclinical LPS increases mortality and induces cardiac fibrosis.

  12. Chronic cladribine administration increases amyloid beta peptide generation and plaque burden in mice.

    Crystal D Hayes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The clinical uses of 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (2-CDA or cladribine which was initially prescribed to patients with hematological and lymphoid cancers is now extended to treat patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Previous data has shown that 2-CDA has high affinity to the brain and readily passes through the blood brain barrier reaching CSF concentrations 25% of that found in plasma. However, whether long-term administration of 2-CDA can lead to any adverse effects in patients or animal models is not yet clearly known. METHODOLOGY: Here we show that exposure of 2-CDA to CHO cells stably expressing wild-type APP751 increased generation and secretion of amyloid β peptide (Aβ in to the conditioned medium. Interestingly, increased Aβ levels were noticed even at non-toxic concentrations of 2-CDA. Remarkably, chronic treatment of APdE9 mice, a model of Alzheimer's disease with 2-CDA for 60 days increased amyloid plaque burden by more than 1-fold. Increased Aβ generation appears to result from increased turnover of APP as revealed by cycloheximide-chase experiments. Additionally, surface labeling of APP with biotin and immunoprecipitation of surface labeled proteins with anti-biotin antibody also indicated increased APP at the cell surface in 2-CDA treated cells compared to controls. Increased turnover of APP by 2-CDA in turn might be a consequence of decreased protein levels of PIN 1, which is known to regulate cis-trans isomerization and phosphorylation of APP. Most importantly, like many other oncology drugs, 2-CDA administration led to significant delay in acquiring a reward-based learning task in a T maze paradigm. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data provide compelling evidence for the first time that chronic 2-CDA administration can increase amyloidogenic processing of APP leading to robustly increased plaque burden which may be responsible for the observed deficits in learning skills. Thus chronic treatment of mice with 2

  13. Increased anxiety-like behavior in neuropsin (kallikrein-related peptidase 8) gene-deficient mice.

    Horii, Yoichiro; Yamasaki, Nobuyuki; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Shiosaka, Sadao


    Neuropsin (kallikrein-related peptidase 8) is concentrated in the hippocampus, amygdala, olfactory bulb, and prefrontal cortex. Earlier studies showed that protease deficiency causes a significant impairment of early-phase long-term potentiation in the Schaffer collateral pathway and hippocampus-dependent memory in the Y maze and Morris water maze (Z. Chen et al., 1995; A. Hirata et al., 2001; H. Tamura et al., 2006). In addition to neuropsin's participation in the hippocampal memory, amygdalar and cortical localization of the gene suggests extrahippocampal behavioral function, and the authors therefore examined neuropsin-deficient mice, including tests of sensory motor reflex, open field, light-dark transition, Rota-Rod, elevated plus-maze, hot plate, startle response-prepulse inhibition, Porsolt forced swim, Barnes maze, eight-arm radial maze, and contextual and cued fear conditioning tests. Here, the authors found increased anxiety in neuropsin-deficient mice, suggesting the involvement of this protease in emotional responses. (Copyright) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. A genetically adjuvanted influenza B virus vector increases immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice.

    Kittel, Christian; Wressnigg, Nina; Shurygina, Anna Polina; Wolschek, Markus; Stukova, Marina; Romanovskaya-Romanko, Ekatherina; Romanova, Julia; Kiselev, Oleg; Muster, Thomas; Egorov, Andrej


    The existence of multiple antigenically distinct types and subtypes of influenza viruses allows the construction of a multivalent vector system for the mucosal delivery of foreign sequences. Influenza A viruses have been exploited successfully for the expression of extraneous antigens as well as immunostimulatory molecules. In this study, we describe the development of an influenza B virus vector whose functional part of the interferon antagonist NS1 was replaced by human interleukin 2 (IL2) as a genetic adjuvant. We demonstrate that IL2 expressed by this viral vector displays immune adjuvant activity in immunized mice. Animals vaccinated with the IL2 viral vector showed an increased hemagglutination inhibition antibody response and higher protective efficacy after challenge with a wild-type influenza B virus when compared to mice vaccinated with a control virus. Our results demonstrate that it is feasible to construct influenza B vaccine strains expressing immune-potentiating foreign sequences from the NS genomic segment. Based on these data, it is now hypothetically possible to create a trivalent (or quadrivalent) live attenuated influenza vaccine in which each component expresses a selected genetic adjuvant with tailored expression levels.

  15. Dietary grape polyphenol resveratrol increases mammary tumor growth and metastasis in immunocompromised mice.

    Castillo-Pichardo, Linette; Cubano, Luis A; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie


    Resveratrol, a polyphenol from grapes and red wine has many health beneficial effects, including protection against cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. However, our group and others have provided evidence for a dual cancer promoting or inhibitory role for resveratrol in breast cancer, dependent on estrogenic or antiestrogenic activities. Moreover, much of the inhibitory effects of resveratrol have been reported from studies with high non-physiological concentrations. We investigated the effects of a range of concentrations (0.5, 5, 50 mg/kg body weight) of resveratrol on mammary tumor development post-initiation, using immunocompromised mice. Our findings suggest promotion of mammary tumor growth and metastasis by resveratrol at all concentrations tested in tumors derived from the low metastatic estrogen receptor (ER)α(-), ERβ(+) MDA-MB-231 and the highly metastatic ER(-) MDA-MB-435 cancer cell lines. Additionally, the activity of the migration/invasion regulator Rac, which we have previously shown to be regulated by resveratrol in vitro, was measured in tumors from resveratrol treated mice. Our results show a significant induction of tumoral Rac activity and a trend in increased expression of the Rac downstream effector PAK1 and other tumor promoting molecules following resveratrol treatment. Taken together, our findings implicate low concentrations of resveratrol in potential promotion of breast cancer. Therefore, this study illuminates the importance of further delineating resveratrol's concentration dependent effects, particularly in breast cancer, before it can be tested in the clinic or used as a dietary supplement for breast cancer patients.

  16. IL-18 Does not Increase Allergic Airway Disease in Mice When Produced by BCG

    Amniai, L.; Biet, F.; Marquillies, P.; Locht, C.; Pestel, J.; Tonnel, A.-B.; Duez, C.


    Whilst BCG inhibits allergic airway responses in murine models, IL-18 has adversary effects depending on its environment. We therefore constructed a BCG strain producing murine IL-18 (BCG-IL-18) and evaluated its efficiency to prevent an asthma-like reaction in mice. BALB/cByJ mice were sensitized (day (D) 1 and D10) by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA)-alum and primary (D20–22) and secondary (D62, 63) challenged with OVA aerosols. BCG or BCG-IL-18 were intraperitonealy administered 1 hour before each immunization (D1 and D10). BCG-IL-18 and BCG were shown to similarly inhibit the development of AHR, mucus production, eosinophil influx, and local Th2 cytokine production in BAL, both after the primary and secondary challenge. These data show that IL-18 did not increase allergic airway responses in the context of the mycobacterial infection, and suggest that BCG-IL-18 and BCG are able to prevent the development of local Th2 responses and therefore inhibit allergen-induced airway responses even after restimulation. PMID:18299704

  17. Adenovirus-mediated sphingomyelin synthase 2 increases atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE KO mice

    Zhao Yarui


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingomyelin synthase 2 (SMS2 contributes to de novo sphingomyelin (SM biosynthesis. Its activity is related to SM levels in the plasma and the cell membrane. In this study, we investigated the possibility of a direct relationship between SMS and atherosclerosis. Methods The Adenovirus containing SMS2 gene was given into 10-week ApoE KO C57BL/6J mice by femoral intravenous injection. In the control group, the Adenovirus containing GFP was given. To confirm this model, we took both mRNA level examination (RT-PCR and protein level examination (SMS activity assay. Result We generated recombinant adenovirus vectors containing either human SMS2 cDNA (AdV-SMS2 or GFP cDNA (AdV-GFP. On day six after intravenous infusion of 2 × 1011 particle numbers into ten-week-old apoE KO mice, AdV-SMS2 treatment significantly increased liver SMS2 mRNA levels and SMS activity (by 2.7-fold, 2.3-fold, p Conclusions Our results present direct morphological evidence for the pro-atherogenic capabilities of SMS2. SMS2 could be a potential target for treating atherosclerosis.

  18. Enrichment enhances spatial memory and increases synaptophysin levels in aged female mice.

    Frick, Karyn M; Fernandez, Stephanie M


    The present study tested whether environmental enrichment can reduce age-related spatial reference memory deficits and alter synaptic protein levels in aged female mice. Female C57BL/6 mice, (4 or 27-28 months), were tested in spatial and cued Morris water maze tasks. Prior to (14 days) and during testing, a subset of aged females was exposed to rodent toys and running wheels for 3h per day. The remaining aged females were group housed but were not exposed to enriching objects. At the conclusion of testing, levels of the presynaptic protein synaptophysin were measured in hippocampus and frontoparietal cortex. Enrichment improved spatial memory acquisition; relative to young controls, aged enriched females performed similarly, whereas aged control females were impaired. Enrichment also accelerated the development of a spatial bias in spatial probe trials. In contrast, the cued task was not significantly affected by enrichment. Hippocampal and cortical synaptophysin levels were increased in aged enriched females relative to young and aged controls. These data suggest that environmental enrichment can be a potent cognitive enhancer for aged females and suggests a potential neurobiological mechanism of this effect.

  19. Dexamethasone reduces energy expenditure and increases susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in mice.

    Poggioli, Raffaella; Ueta, Cintia B; Drigo, Rafael Arrojo E; Castillo, Melany; Fonseca, Tatiana L; Bianco, Antonio C


    To investigate how long-term treatment with dexamethasone affects energy expenditure and adiposity in mice and whether this is influenced by feeding on a high-fat diet (HFD). Mice were placed on a HFD for 2 weeks and started on dexamethasone at 5 mg/kg every other day during the next 7 weeks. Treatment with dexamethasone increased body fat, an effect that was more pronounced in the animals kept on HFD; dexamethasone treatment also worsened liver steatosis caused by the HFD. At the same time, treatment with dexamethasone lowered the respiratory quotient in chow-fed animals and slowed nightly metabolic rate in the animals kept on HFD. In addition, the acute VO2 acceleration in response to β3 adrenergic-stimulation was significantly limited in the dexamethasone-treated animals, as a result of marked decrease in UCP-1 mRNA observed in the brown adipose tissue of these animals. Long-term treatment with dexamethasone in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity decreases brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and exaggerates adiposity and liver steatosis. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2013. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  20. Newly generated cells are increased in hippocampus of adult mice lacking a serine protease inhibitor

    Sticker Melanie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone occurs throughout the life of mammals and newly generated neurons can integrate functionally into established neuronal circuits. Neurogenesis levels in the dentate gyrus are modulated by changes in the environment (enrichment, exercise, hippocampal-dependent tasks, NMDA receptor (NMDAR activity, sonic hedgehog (SHH and/or other factors. Results previously, we showed that Protease Nexin-1 (PN-1, a potent serine protease inhibitor, regulates the NMDAR availability and activity as well as SHH signaling. Compared with wild-type (WT, we detected a significant increase in BrdU-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus of mice lacking PN-1 (PN-1 -/- both in controls and after running exercise. Patched homologue 1 (Ptc1 and Gli1 mRNA levels were higher and Gli3 down-regulated in mutant mice under standard conditions and to a lesser extent after running exercise. However, the number of surviving BrdU-positive cells did not differ between WT and PN-1 -/- animals. NMDAR availability was altered in the hippocampus of mutant animals after exercise. Conclusion All together our results indicate that PN-1 controls progenitors proliferation through an effect on the SHH pathway and suggest an influence of the serpin on the survival of newly generated neurons through modulation of NMDAR availability.

  1. Increased brain dopamine D4-like binding after chronic ethanol is not associated with behavioral sensitization in mice.

    Quadros, Isabel Marian Hartmann; Nobrega, Jose Nascimento; Hipolide, Debora Cristina; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia Oliveira


    Dopaminergic D4 receptors have been hypothesized to be involved in neuropsychiatric disorders and substance abuse. In mice, repeated ethanol administration may induce behavioral sensitization, a phenomenon of increased sensitivity to the drug's stimulant properties. This study aimed to analyze brain D4 receptors binding in mice with different levels of behavioral sensitization to ethanol. Male Swiss mice received 2.2 g/kg ethanol (n = 64) or saline (n = 16) intraperitoneally daily for 21 days and were weekly tested for locomotor activity and for blood ethanol levels. According to the locomotor scores presented across test days, ethanol-treated mice were classified as "sensitized" or "nonsensitized." Twenty-four hours after the last administration, mice were sacrificed and brains were processed for autoradiography. Brain D4 binding was assessed by quantitative autoradiography using [3H]nemonapride + raclopride in three groups: saline-treated controls (n = 10), ethanol-sensitized (n = 11), and ethanol-nonsensitized (n = 9) mice. Both sensitized and nonsensitized mice showed higher D4 binding densities than saline-treated controls in the posterior caudate-putamen and the olfactory tubercle (p < .02), but only sensitized mice presented higher D4 binding than controls at the lateral septal nucleus (p < .02). However, there were no differences between sensitized and nonsensitized mice in any of the brain regions analyzed. Furthermore, sensitized and nonsensitized mice presented similar blood ethanol levels during the treatment. The higher D4 binding levels observed in both ethanol-treated subgroups (sensitized and nonsensitized) suggest that chronic ethanol treatment may induce upregulation of D4 receptors in specific brain regions. However, this mechanism does not seem to be associated with the differential ability to develop behavioral sensitization to ethanol in mice.

  2. Disruption of the GH Receptor Gene in Adult Mice Increases Maximal Lifespan in Females

    Junnila, Riia K.; Duran-Ortiz, Silvana; Suer, Ozan


    carry germline mutations. Importantly, the effect of a long-term suppression of the GH/IGF-1 axis during adulthood, as would be considered for human therapeutic purposes, has not been tested. The goal of this study was to determine whether temporally controlled Ghr gene deletion in adult mice would...... affect metabolism and longevity. Thus, we produced adult-onset GHRKO (aGHRKO) mice by disrupting the Ghr gene at 6 weeks of age. We found that aGHRKO mice replicate many of the beneficial effects observed in long-lived GHRKO mice. For example, aGHRKO mice, like GHRKO animals, displayed retarded growth...

  3. Combination of vorinostat and adenovirus-TRAIL exhibits a synergistic antitumor effect by increasing transduction and transcription of TRAIL in lung cancer cells.

    Kim, D R; Park, M-Y; Lee, C-S; Shim, S-H; Yoon, H-I; Lee, J H; Sung, M-W; Kim, Y-S; Lee, C-T


    Soluble TRAIL and adenovirus (ad)-TRAIL exhibit a strong antitumor effect by inducing apoptosis. Vorinostat is the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that induces cell death in cancer cell lines and regulates the expression of epigenetically silenced genes, such as Coxackie adenoviral receptor (CAR), the receptor for adenoviral entry. We propose a new strategy in which vorinostat will induce high expression of ad-TRAIL and a strong antitumor response, and investigated the mechanism involved. The effect of vorinostat on transcription and expression of TRAIL from ad-TRAIL-transduced lung cancer cells were confirmed by reverse transciption-PCR (RT-PCR), quantitative real time-PCR and western blot assay. Anti-tumor effects were measured after cotreatment of vorinostat and ad-TRAIL, and the drug interactions were analyzed. After combined treatment of vorinostat and ad-TRAIL, apoptosis and western blot assays for Akt, Bcl-2 and caspase were performed. Vorinostat increased the expression of CAR in lung cancer cell lines and increased the expression of luciferase (luc) from ad-luc-transduced cells and TRAIL from ad-TRAIL-transduced cells. RT-PCR and quantitative real time-PCR, after sequential vorinostat treatment, revealed that vorinostat may enhance TRAIL expression from ad-TRAIL by increasing transduction through enhanced CAR expression and increasing adenoviral transgene transcription. Combined vorinostat and ad-TRAIL treatment showed the synergistic anti-tumor effect in lung cancer cell lines. Combined vorinostat and ad-TRAIL induced stronger apoptosis induction, suppression of NF-κB activation and breakdown of the anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-2. In conclusion, the vorinostat synergistically enhanced the anti-tumor effect of ad-TRAIL by (1) increasing adenoviral transduction through the increased expression of CAR and (2) increasing adenoviral transgene (TRAIL) transcription in lung cancer cell lines.

  4. Social crowding in the night-time reduces an anxiety-like behavior and increases social interaction in adolescent mice.

    Ago, Yukio; Tanaka, Tatsunori; Ota, Yuki; Kitamoto, Mari; Imoto, Emina; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio


    Rearing in crowded conditions is a psychosocial stressor that affects biological functions. The effects of continuous crowding for many days have been studied, but those of crowding over a limited time have not. In this study, we examined the effects of night-time or daytime crowding over 2 weeks on behavior in adolescent and adult mice. Crowding (20 mice/cage) in either the night-time or daytime did not affect locomotor activity in the open field test or cognitive function in the fear conditioning test. In contrast, night-time crowding, but not daytime crowding, had an anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze test and increased social interaction in adolescent mice, but not in adult mice. The first night-time, but not daytime, crowding increased plasma corticosterone levels in adolescent mice, although night-time crowding over 2 weeks did not affect the corticosterone levels. Furthermore, no significant effects of the first crowding were observed in adult mice. In a second crowding condition (six mice/small cage), the anxiolytic-like effects of night-time crowding and the change in plasma corticosterone levels were not observed, suggesting that the density of mice is not important for the behavioral consequences of crowding. Night-time crowding did not affect neurotrophic/growth factor levels and hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent mice. These findings suggest that night-time crowding leads to anxiolytic-like behaviors in adolescent mice, and imply that night-time crowding stress in adolescence may be beneficial to brain functions.

  5. Absence of Nitric Oxide Synthase 3 Increases Amyloid β-Protein Pathology in Tg-5xFAD Mice

    Hu, Zishuo Ian; Kotarba, Ann Marie E.; Van Nostrand, William E.


    Aim The abnormal accumulation, assembly and deposition of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) are prominent pathological features of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related disorders. A number of factors in the brain can influence Aβ accumulation and associated pathologies. The aim of the present study was to determine the consequences of deleting nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 3, the endothelial form of NOS, in Tg-5xFAD mice, a model of parenchymal AD-like amyloid pathology. Methods Tg-5xFAD mice were bred with NOS3−/− mice. Cohorts of Tg-5xFAD mice and bigenic Tg-5xFAD/NOS3−/− mice were aged to six months followed by collection of the blood and brain tissues from the mice for biochemical and pathological analyses. Results ELISA analyses show that the absence of NOS3 results in elevated levels of cerebral and plasma Aβ peptides in Tg-5xFAD mice. Immunohistochemical analyses show that the absence of NOS3 increased the amount of parenchymal Aβ deposition and fibrillar amyloid accumulation in Tg-5xFAD mice. The elevated levels of Aβ were not due to changes in the expression levels of transgene encoded human amyloid precursor protein (APP), endogenous β-secretase, or increased proteolytic processing of APP. Conclusions The results from this study suggest that the loss of NOS3 activity enhances Aβ pathology in Tg-5xFAD mice. These findings are similar to previous studies of NOS2 deletion suggesting that reduced NOS activity and NO levels enhance amyloid-associated pathologies in human APP transgenic mice. PMID:24159423

  6. Depletion of CD25+ cells during acute toxoplasmosis does not significantly increase mortality in Swiss OF1 mice

    Haroon Akbar


    Full Text Available The interleukin (IL-2R alpha chain (CD25 is expressed on regulatory T cells (Treg, which constitute more than 85% of the CD25+ T cell population in a naïve mouse. CD25 is also expressed on effector T cells in mice suffering from an acute infection by the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Lethal toxoplasmosis is accompanied by a significant loss of Treg in mice naturally susceptible to toxoplasmosis. The present study was done to explore the role of Treg cells using an anti-CD25 antibody-mediated depletion in mice naturally resistant to toxoplasmosis. Although a significant decrease in the percentage of Treg cells was observed following anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody injections, the depletion of CD25+ cells during acute toxoplasmosis did not significantly increase the mortality of Swiss OF1 mice and no significant difference was observed in the brain parasitic load between the mice in the depleted-infected and isotype-infected groups. We found no significant difference between the titres of total IgG in the sera of the mice from the two groups in the chronic phase. However, CD25+ cells depletion was followed by significantly higher levels of IL-12 in the serum of depleted mice than in that of mice injected with the isotype control antibody.

  7. The number of preproghrelin mRNA expressing cells is increased in mice with activity-based anorexia.

    François, Marie; Barde, Swapnali; Achamrah, Najate; Breton, Jonathan; do Rego, Jean-Claude; Coëffier, Moïse; Hökfelt, Tomas; Déchelotte, Pierre; Fetissov, Sergueï O


    Plasma levels of ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, are increased during conditions of chronic starvation, such as in patients with anorexia nervosa. However, it is not known whether such increase can be related to the number of preproghrelin mRNA-expressing cells in the stomach, and if chronic starvation may activate a tentative central ghrelin production. In this work, in situ hybridization technique was used to analyze the presence and number of preproghrelin mRNA-expressing cells in the stomach and the hypothalamus of mice with activity-based anorexia (ABA) induced by the combination of running wheel activity with progressive, during 10 days, feeding-time restriction (FTR) and compared with sedentary FTR, ABA pair-fed (PF) and ad libitum-fed control mice. All food-restricted mice lost more than 20% of body weight. Body weight loss was similar in ABA and PF mice, but it was more pronounced than in FTR mice. Food intake was also lower in ABA than in FTR mice. Preproghrelin mRNA-expressing cells in the stomach were increased proportionally to the body weight loss in all food-restricted groups with the highest number in ABA mice. No preproghrelin mRNA-producing cells were detectable in the hypothalamus of either control or food-restricted mice. Thus, the increased number of gastric preproghrelin mRNA-producing cells during chronic starvation proportionally to the body weight loss and reduced food intake may underlie increased plasma ghrelin. Hyperactivity-induced anorexia appears to further increase the number of preproghrelin mRNA-producing cells in the stomach. No evidence was found for ghrelin expression in the hypothalamus, not even in any of the present experimental models.

  8. Tankyrase 2 Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Domain-Deleted Mice Exhibit Growth Defects but Have Normal Telomere Length and Capping

    Hsiao, Susan J [ORNL; Poitras, Marc [New York University School of Medicine; Cook, Brandoch [New York University School of Medicine; Liu, Yie [National Institute on Aging, Baltimore; Smith, Susan [New York University School of Medicine


    Regulation of telomere length maintenance and capping are a critical cell functions in both normal and tumor cells. Tankyrase 2 (Tnks2) is a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) that has been shown to modify itself and TRF1, a telomere-binding protein. We show here by overexpression studies that tankyrase 2, like its closely related homolog tankyrase 1, can function as a positive regulator of telomere length in human cells, dependent on its catalytic PARP activity. To study the role of Tnks2 in vivo, we generated mice with the Tnks2 PARP domain deleted. These mice are viable and fertile but display a growth retardation phenotype. Telomere analysis by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), flow-FISH, and restriction fragment analysis showed no change in telomere length or telomere capping in these mice. To determine the requirement foTnks2 in long-term maintenance of telomeres, we generated embryonic stem cells with the Tnks2 PARP domain deleted and observed no change, even upon prolonged growth, in telomere length or telomere capping. Together these results suggest that Tnkjs2 has a role in normal growth and development but is not essential for telomere length maintenance or telomere capping in mice.

  9. Transgenic Mice Expressing a Truncated Form of CREB-Binding Protein (CBP) Exhibit Deficits in Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Storage

    Wood, Marcelo A.; Kaplan, Michael P.; Park, Alice; Blanchard, Edward J.; Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Lombardi, Thomas L.; Abel, Ted


    Deletions, translocations, or point mutations in the CREB-binding protein (CBP) gene have been associated with Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome; a human developmental disorder characterized by retarded growth and reduced mental function. To examine the role of CBP in memory, transgenic mice were generated in which the CaMKII[alpha] promoter drives…

  10. Genetic deletion of P-glycoprotein alters stress responsivity and increases depression-like behavior, social withdrawal and microglial activation in the hippocampus of female mice.

    Brzozowska, Natalia I; Smith, Kristie L; Zhou, Cilla; Waters, Peter M; Cavalcante, Ligia Menezes; Abelev, Sarah V; Kuligowski, Michael; Clarke, David J; Todd, Stephanie M; Arnold, Jonathon C


    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC transporter expressed at the blood brain barrier and regulates the brain uptake of various xenobiotics and endogenous mediators including glucocorticoid hormones which are critically important to the stress response. Moreover, P-gp is expressed on microglia, the brain's immune cells, which are activated by stressors and have an emerging role in psychiatric disorders. We therefore hypothesised that germline P-gp deletion in mice might alter the behavioral and microglial response to stressors. Female P-gp knockout mice displayed an unusual, frantic anxiety response to intraperitoneal injection stress in the light-dark test. They also tended to display reduced conditioned fear responses compared to wild-type (WT) mice in a paradigm where a single electric foot-shock stressor was paired to a context. Foot-shock stress reduced social interaction and decreased microglia cell density in the amygdala which was not varied by P-gp genotype. Independently of stressor exposure, female P-gp deficient mice displayed increased depression-like behavior, idiosyncratic darting behavior, age-related social withdrawal and hyperactivity, facilitated sensorimotor gating and altered startle reactivity. In addition, P-gp deletion increased microglia cell density in the CA3 region of the hippocampus, and the microglial cells exhibited a reactive, hypo-ramified morphology. Further, female P-gp KO mice displayed increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in the hippocampus. In conclusion, this research shows that germline P-gp deletion affected various behaviors of relevance to psychiatric conditions, and that altered microglial cell activity and enhanced GR expression in the hippocampus may play a role in mediating these behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sub-chronically exposing mice to a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon increases lipid accumulation in their livers.

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Miao, Wenyu; Lin, Xiaojian; Wu, Tao; Shen, Hangjie; Chen, Shan; Li, Yanhong; Pan, Qiaoqiao; Fu, Zhengwei


    The potential for exposing humans and wildlife to environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has increased. Risk assessments describing how PAHs disturb lipid metabolism and induce hepatotoxicity have only received limited attention. In the present study, seven-week-old male ICR mice received intraperitoneal injections of 0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1mg/kg body weight 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) per week for 10 weeks. A high-fat diet was provided during the exposure. Histopathological lipid accumulation and lipid metabolism-related genes were measured. We observed that sub-chronic 3MC exposure significantly increased lipid droplet and triacylglycerol (TG) levels in the livers. A low dose of 3MC activated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, which negatively regulated lipid synthesis in the livers. The primary genes including acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc), fatty acid synthase (Fas) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) decreased significantly when compared with those in the control group, indicating that de novo fatty acid synthesis in the hepatocytes was significantly inhibited by the sub-chronic 3MC exposure. However, the free fatty acid (FFA) synthesis in the adipose tissue was greatly enhanced by up-regulating the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP1C) and target genes including Acc, Fas and Scd1. The synthesized FFA was released into the blood and then transported into the liver by the up-regulation of Fat and Fatp2, which resulted in the gradual accumulation of lipids in the liver. In conclusion, histological examinations and molecular level analyses highlighted the development of lipid accumulation and confirmed that 3MC significantly impaired lipid metabolism in mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ciprofloxacin Derivatives Affect Parasite Cell Division and Increase the Survival of Mice Infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    Martins-Duarte, Erica S.; Dubar, Faustine; Lawton, Philippe; França da Silva, Cristiane; C. Soeiro, Maria de Nazaré; de Souza, Wanderley; Biot, Christophe; Vommaro, Rossiane C.


    Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is a worldwide disease whose clinical manifestations include encephalitis and congenital malformations in newborns. Previously, we described the synthesis of new ethyl-ester derivatives of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin with ~40-fold increased activity against T. gondii in vitro, compared with the original compound. Cipro derivatives are expected to target the parasite’s DNA gyrase complex in the apicoplast. The activity of these compounds in vivo, as well as their mode of action, remained thus far uncharacterized. Here, we examined the activity of the Cipro derivatives in vivo, in a model of acute murine toxoplasmosis. In addition, we investigated the cellular effects T. gondii tachyzoites in vitro, by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). When compared with Cipro treatment, 7-day treatments with Cipro derivatives increased mouse survival significantly, with 13–25% of mice surviving for up to 60 days post-infection (vs. complete lethality 10 days post-infection, with Cipro treatment). Light microscopy examination early (6 and 24h) post-infection revealed that 6-h treatments with Cipro derivatives inhibited the initial event of parasite cell division inside host cells, in an irreversible manner. By TEM and immunofluorescence, the main cellular effects observed after treatment with Cipro derivatives and Cipro were cell scission inhibition - with the appearance of ‘tethered’ parasites – malformation of the inner membrane complex, and apicoplast enlargement and missegregation. Interestingly, tethered daughter cells resulting from Cipro derivatives, and also Cipro, treatment did not show MORN1 cap or centrocone localization. The biological activity of Cipro derivatives against C. parvum, an apicomplexan species that lacks the apicoplast, is, approximately, 50 fold lower than that in T. gondii tachyzoites, supporting that these compounds targets the apicoplast. Our results show

  13. Biotherapic of Trypanosoma cruzi 17d increases apoptosis in experimentally infected mice

    Silvana Marques de Araújo


    Full Text Available Introduction: the mechanism of action of ultradiluted medicines has not yet been established[1,3]. Many basic research studies have focused on isopathic models using in vitro or in vivo designs [4,5]. Recent studies indicate that an ultradiluted (isopathic antigen can transfer signals to the immune system and modulate its response when an organism is challenged against this same antigen [6]. Some studies on experimental infection of mice by T. cruzi identified apoptotic cells and showed that the increase of their number is associated with an increase also in the number of parasites in the blood of the infected animals, while blockage of apoptosis can be the target of therapeutic intervention [7,8]. Aim: to evaluate the development of apoptosis in mice treated with biotherapic of Trypanosoma cruzi in dilution 17d through in situ detection of fragmented DNA. Method: in a blind randomized controlled trial, 36 male Swiss mice age 4 or 8 weeks were distributed in groups control - treated with 7% hydroalcoholic solution(CI-4=9 animals or CI-8=9 animals; and treated with biotherapic 17d (BIOT-4=9 animals or BIOT-8=9 animals. Infection was performed with 1,400 trypomastigotes T. cruzi-strain Y via intraperitoneal. Biotherapic 17d was prepared through the addition of 0.9ml of concentrated T. cruzi (10E+7 trypomastigotes/ml to 9.1 ml of distilled water. The following dilutions were prepared in 86% hydroalcoholic solution until dilution 16d. Dilution 17d was prepared with 7% hydroalcoholic solution. It was performed microbiological control and biological risk in vivo. Treatment: 0.2 ml in 3 consecutive days, oral route, from the moment infection was verified. Animals were sacrificed on the 3rd day of treatment in a chamber saturated with ether. The liver and spleen were removed and fixated in 4% paraformaldehyde for 24 hours and then included in paraffin. Apoptosis was evaluated through DNA fragmentation – TUNEL technique (TdT d

  14. Increase of circulating CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells and recruitment into the synovium in osteoarthritic mice with hyperlipidemia.

    Uchida, Kentaro; Naruse, Kouji; Satoh, Masashi; Onuma, Kenji; Ueno, Masaki; Takano, Shotaro; Urabe, Ken; Takaso, Masashi


    Although recent studies suggest that hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA), the link between OA and hyperlipidemia is not fully understood. As the number of activated, circulating myeloid cells is increased during hyperlipidemia, we speculate that myeloid cells contribute to the pathology of OA. Here, we characterized myeloid cells in STR/Ort mice, a murine osteoarthritis model, under hyperlipidemic conditions. Ratios of myeloid cells in bone marrow, the spleen, and peripheral blood were determined by flow cytometry. To examine the influence of the hematopoietic environment, including abnormal stem cells, on the hematopoietic profile of STR/Ort mice, bone marrow transplantations were performed. The relationship between hyperlipidemia and abnormal hematopoiesis was examined by evaluating biochemical parameters and spleen weight of F2 animals (STR/Ort x C57BL/6J). In STR/Ort mice, the ratio of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells in spleens and peripheral blood was increased, and CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells were also present in synovial tissue. Splenomegaly was observed and correlated with the ratio of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells. When bone marrow from GFP-expressing mice was transplanted into STR/Ort mice, no difference in the percentage of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells was observed between transplanted and age-matched STR/Ort mice. Analysis of biochemical parameters in F2 mice showed that spleen weight correlated with serum total cholesterol. These results suggest that the increase in circulating and splenic CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells in STR/Ort mice originates from hypercholesterolemia. Further investigation of the function of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells in synovial tissue may reveal the pathology of OA in STR/Ort mice.

  15. Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10 Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Increases Muscle Mass in Mice

    Yi-Ming Chen


    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum is a well-known probiotic among the ingested-microorganism probiotics (i.e., ingested microorganisms associated with beneficial effects for the host. However, few studies have examined the effects of L. plantarum TWK10 (LP10 supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue, and gut microbial profile. Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR strain mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group for oral administration of LP10 for six weeks at 0, 2.05 × 108, or 1.03 × 109 colony-forming units/kg/day, designated the vehicle, LP10-1X and LP10-5X groups, respectively. LP10 significantly decreased final body weight and increased relative muscle weight (%. LP10 supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength (p < 0.0001 and endurance swimming time (p < 0.001 and decreased levels of serum lactate (p < 0.0001, ammonia (p < 0.0001, creatine kinase (p = 0.0118, and glucose (p = 0.0151 after acute exercise challenge. The number of type I fibers (slow muscle in gastrocnemius muscle significantly increased with LP10 treatment. In addition, serum levels of albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and triacylglycerol significantly decreased with LP10 treatment. Long-term supplementation with LP10 may increase muscle mass, enhance energy harvesting, and have health-promotion, performance-improvement, and anti-fatigue effects.

  16. Bile acid sequestration reduces plasma glucose levels in db/db mice by increasing its metabolic clearance rate.

    Maxi Meissner

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels. Therefore, in vivo glucose metabolism was assessed in db/db mice on and off BAS using tracer methodology. METHODS: Lean and diabetic db/db mice were treated with 2% (wt/wt in diet Colesevelam HCl (BAS for 2 weeks. Parameters of in vivo glucose metabolism were assessed by infusing [U-(13C]-glucose, [2-(13C]-glycerol, [1-(2H]-galactose and paracetamol for 6 hours, followed by mass isotopologue distribution analysis, and related to metabolic parameters as well as gene expression patterns. RESULTS: Compared to lean mice, db/db mice displayed an almost 3-fold lower metabolic clearance rate of glucose (p = 0.0001, a ∼300% increased glucokinase flux (p = 0.001 and a ∼200% increased total hepatic glucose production rate (p = 0.0002. BAS treatment increased glucose metabolic clearance rate by ∼37% but had no effects on glucokinase flux nor total hepatic or endogenous glucose production. Strikingly, BAS-treated db/db mice displayed reduced long-chain acylcarnitine content in skeletal muscle (p = 0.0317 but not in liver (p = 0.189. Unexpectedly, BAS treatment increased hepatic FGF21 mRNA expression 2-fold in lean mice (p = 0.030 and 3-fold in db/db mice (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: BAS induced plasma glucose lowering in db/db mice by increasing metabolic clearance rate of glucose in peripheral tissues, which coincided with decreased skeletal muscle long-chain acylcarnitine content.

  17. Increased plasma cholesterol esterification by LCAT reduces diet-induced atherosclerosis in SR-BI knockout mice.

    Thacker, Seth G; Rousset, Xavier; Esmail, Safiya; Zarzour, Abdalrahman; Jin, Xueting; Collins, Heidi L; Sampson, Maureen; Stonik, John; Demosky, Stephen; Malide, Daniela A; Freeman, Lita; Vaisman, Boris L; Kruth, Howard S; Adelman, Steven J; Remaley, Alan T


    LCAT, a plasma enzyme that esterifies cholesterol, has been proposed to play an antiatherogenic role, but animal and epidemiologic studies have yielded conflicting results. To gain insight into LCAT and the role of free cholesterol (FC) in atherosclerosis, we examined the effect of LCAT over- and underexpression in diet-induced atherosclerosis in scavenger receptor class B member I-deficient [Scarab(-/-)] mice, which have a secondary defect in cholesterol esterification. Scarab(-/-)×LCAT-null [Lcat(-/-)] mice had a decrease in HDL-cholesterol and a high plasma ratio of FC/total cholesterol (TC) (0.88 ± 0.033) and a marked increase in VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C) on a high-fat diet. Scarab(-/-)×LCAT-transgenic (Tg) mice had lower levels of VLDL-C and a normal plasma FC/TC ratio (0.28 ± 0.005). Plasma from Scarab(-/-)×LCAT-Tg mice also showed an increase in cholesterol esterification during in vitro cholesterol efflux, but increased esterification did not appear to affect the overall rate of cholesterol efflux or hepatic uptake of cholesterol. Scarab(-/-)×LCAT-Tg mice also displayed a 51% decrease in aortic sinus atherosclerosis compared with Scarab(-/-) mice (P esterification by LCAT is atheroprotective, most likely through its ability to increase HDL levels and decrease pro-atherogenic apoB-containing lipoprotein particles.

  18. Ablation of a galectin preferentially expressed in adipocytes increases lipolysis, reduces adiposity, and improves insulin sensitivity in mice.

    Yang, Ri-Yao; Yu, Lan; Graham, James L; Hsu, Daniel K; Lloyd, K C Kent; Havel, Peter J; Liu, Fu-Tong


    The breakdown of triglycerides, or lipolysis, is a tightly controlled process that regulates fat mobilization in accord with an animal's energy needs. It is well established that lipolysis is stimulated by hormones that signal energy demand and is suppressed by the antilipolytic hormone insulin. However, much still remains to be learned about regulation of lipolysis by intracellular signaling pathways in adipocytes. Here we show that galectin-12, a member of a β-galactoside-binding lectin family preferentially expressed by adipocytes, functions as an intrinsic negative regulator of lipolysis. Galectin-12 is primarily localized on lipid droplets and regulates lipolytic protein kinase A signaling by acting upstream of phosphodiesterase activity to control cAMP levels. Ablation of galectin-12 in mice results in increased adipocyte mitochondrial respiration, reduced adiposity, and ameliorated insulin resistance/glucose intolerance. This study identifies unique properties of this intracellular galectin that is localized to an organelle and performs a critical function in lipid metabolism. These findings add to the significant functions exhibited by intracellular galectins, and have important therapeutic implications for human metabolic disorders.

  19. Heterozygous disruption of activin receptor-like kinase 1 is associated with increased arterial pressure in mice

    María González-Núñez


    Full Text Available The activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK-1 is a type I cell-surface receptor for the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β family of proteins. Hypertension is related to TGF-β1, because increased TGF-β1 expression is correlated with an elevation in arterial pressure (AP and TGF-β expression is upregulated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of ALK-1 in regulation of AP using Alk1 haploinsufficient mice (Alk1+/−. We observed that systolic and diastolic AP were significantly higher in Alk1+/− than in Alk1+/+ mice, and all functional and structural cardiac parameters (echocardiography and electrocardiography were similar in both groups. Alk1+/− mice showed alterations in the circadian rhythm of AP, with higher AP than Alk1+/+ mice during most of the light period. Higher AP in Alk1+/− mice is not a result of a reduction in the NO-dependent vasodilator response or of overactivation of the peripheral renin-angiotensin system. However, intracerebroventricular administration of losartan had a hypotensive effect in Alk1+/− and not in Alk1+/+ mice. Alk1+/− mice showed a greater hypotensive response to the β-adrenergic antagonist atenolol and higher concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma than Alk1+/+ mice. The number of brain cholinergic neurons in the anterior basal forebrain was reduced in Alk1+/− mice. Thus, we concluded that the ALK-1 receptor is involved in the control of AP, and the high AP of Alk1+/− mice is explained mainly by the sympathetic overactivation shown by these animals, which is probably related to the decreased number of cholinergic neurons.

  20. Metallothionein-1+2 deficiency increases brain pathology in transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted expression of interleukin 6

    Giralt, Mercedes; Penkowa, Milena; Hernández, Joaquín


    ) mice provided evidence that the increased MT-1+2 expression normally observed in the GFAP-IL6 mice is an important mechanism for coping with brain damage. Thus, the GFAP-IL6xMTKO mice showed a decreased body weight gain and an impaired performance in the rota-rod test, as well as a higher upregulation...... of cytokines such as IL-6, IL-1alpha,beta, and TNFalpha and recruitment and activation of macrophages and T cells throughout the CNS but mainly in the cerebellum. Clear symptoms of increased oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death caused by MT-1+2 deficiency were observed in the GFAP-IL6xMTKO mice...

  1. Increased atherosclerosis and vascular smooth muscle cell activation in AIF-1 transgenic mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Sommerville, Laura J; Kelemen, Sheri E; Ellison, Stephen P; England, Ross N; Autieri, Michael V


    Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is a cytoplasmic, scaffold signal transduction protein constitutively expressed in inflammatory cells, but inducible in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in response to injury or inflammatory stimuli. Although several basic science and population studies have reported increased AIF-1 expression in human and experimental atherosclerosis, a direct causal effect of AIF-1 expression on development of atherosclerosis has not been reported. The purpose of this study is to establish a direct relationship between AIF-1 expression and development of atherosclerosis. AIF-1 expression is detected VSMC in atherosclerotic lesions from ApoE(-/-) mice, but not normal arteries from wild-type mice. AIF-1 expression can be induced in cultured VSMC by stimulation with oxidized LDL (ox-LDL). Transgenic mice in which AIF-1 expression is driven by the G/C modified SM22 alpha promoter to restrict AIF-1 expression to VSMC develop significantly increased atherosclerosis compared with wild-type control mice when fed a high-fat diet (P=0.022). Cultured VSMC isolated from Tg mice demonstrated significantly increased migration in response to ox-LDL compared with matched controls (P<0.001). VSMC isolated from Tg mice and cultured human VSMC which over express AIF-1 demonstrated increased expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA and protein and increased NF-κB activation in response to ox-LDL as compared with wild-type control mice. VSMC which over express AIF-1 have significantly increased uptake of ox-LDL, and increased CD36 expression. Together, these data suggest a strong association between AIF-1 expression, NF-κB activation, and development of experimental atherosclerosis.

  2. Increased osteoblastogenesis and decreased bone resorption protect against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in thrombospondin-2-null mice.

    Hankenson, K D; James, I E; Apone, S; Stroup, G B; Blake, S M; Liang, X; Lark, M W; Bornstein, P


    Although bone is composed primarily of extracellular matrix (ECM), the dynamic role that the ECM plays in regulating bone remodeling secondary to estrogen loss is relatively unexplored. Previous studies have shown that mice deficient in the matricellular protein thrombospondin-2 (TSP2-null) form excess endocortical bone; thus, we postulated that enhanced bone formation in TSP2-null mice could protect against ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss. Wild-type (WT) OVX mice showed a significant loss of both midfemoral endocortical and proximal tibial trabecular bone, but OVX did not significantly alter TSP2-null bone. TSP2-null mice showed an increase in bone formation, as indicated by a 70% increase in serum osteocalcin two weeks post OVX and a two-fold increase in bone formation rate (BFR) five weeks post OVX as measured by dynamic histomorphometry. WT animals showed only a 20% increase in serum osteocalcin at two weeks and no change in BFR at five weeks. This increase in bone formation in TSP2-null OVX mice was accompanied by a three-fold increase in osteoprogenitor number. Although these results provide a partial explanation for the maintenance of bone geometry post-OVX, TSP2-null mice five weeks post-OVX also showed a significantly lower level of bone resorption than OVX WT mice, as determined by serum levels of the amino-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx). We conclude that the absence of TSP2 protects against OVX-induced bone loss by two complementary processes: increased formation and decreased resorption.

  3. Pulmonary oxidative stress is increased in cyclooxygenase-2 knockdown mice with mild pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline.

    Francesca Seta

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and downstream signaling of prostanoids in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH using mice with genetically manipulated COX-2 expression. COX-2 knockdown (KD mice, characterized by 80-90% suppression of COX-2, and wild-type (WT control mice were treated weekly with monocrotaline (MCT over 10 weeks. Mice were examined for cardiac hypertrophy/function and right ventricular pressure. Lung histopathological analysis was performed and various assays were carried out to examine oxidative stress, as well as gene, protein, cytokine and prostanoid expression. We found that MCT increased right ventricular systolic and pulmonary arterial pressures in comparison to saline-treated mice, with no evidence of cardiac remodeling. Gene expression of endothelin receptor A and thromboxane synthesis, regulators of vasoconstriction, were increased in MCT-treated lungs. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung sections demonstrated mild inflammation and perivascular edema but activation of inflammatory cells was not predominant under the experimental conditions. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 expression and indicators of oxidative stress in lungs were significantly increased, especially in COX-2 KD MCT-treated mice. Gene expression of NOX-4, but not NOX-2, two NADPH oxidase subunits crucial for superoxide generation, was induced by ∼4-fold in both groups of mice by MCT. Vasodilatory and anti-aggregatory prostacyclin was reduced by ∼85% only in MCT-treated COX-2 KD mice. This study suggests that increased oxidative stress-derived endothelial dysfunction, vasoconstriction and mild inflammation, exacerbated by the lack of COX-2, contribute to the pathogenesis of early stages of PH when mild hemodynamic changes are evident and not yet accompanied by vascular and cardiac remodeling.

  4. Synthesized Peptides from Yam Dioscorin Hydrolysis in Silico Exhibit Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitory Activities and Oral Glucose Tolerance Improvements in Normal Mice.

    Lin, Yin-Shiou; Han, Chuan-Hsiao; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Hou, Wen-Chi


    RRDY, RL, and DPF were the top 3 of 21 peptides for inhibitions against dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) from the pepsin hydrolysis of yam dioscorin in silico and were further investigated in a proof-of-concept study in normal ICR mice for regulating glucose metabolism by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The sample or sitagliptin (positive control) was orally administered by a feeding gauge; 30 min later, the glucose loads (2.5 g/kg) were performed. RRDY, yam dioscorin, or sitagliptin preload, but not DPF, lowered the area under the curve (AUC0-120) of blood glucose and DPP-IV activity and elevated the AUC0-120 of blood insulin, which showed significant differences compared to control (P yam dioscorin might be beneficial in glycemic control in normal mice and need further investigations in diabetic animal models.

  5. Advancing age increases sperm chromatin damage and impairs fertility in peroxiredoxin 6 null mice

    Burak Ozkosem


    Full Text Available Due to socioeconomic factors, more couples are choosing to delay conception than ever. Increasing average maternal and paternal age in developed countries over the past 40 years has raised the question of how aging affects reproductive success of males and females. Since oxidative stress in the male reproductive tract increases with age, we investigated the impact of advanced paternal age on the integrity of sperm nucleus and reproductive success of males by using a Prdx6−/− mouse model. We compared sperm motility, cytoplasmic droplet retention sperm chromatin quality and reproductive outcomes of young (2-month-old, adult (8-month-old, and old (20-month-old Prdx6−/− males with their age-matched wild type (WT controls. Absence of PRDX6 caused age-dependent impairment of sperm motility and sperm maturation and increased sperm DNA fragmentation and oxidation as well as decreased sperm DNA compaction and protamination. Litter size, total number of litters and total number of pups per male were significantly lower in Prdx6−/− males compared to WT controls. These abnormal reproductive outcomes were severely affected by age in Prdx6−/− males. In conclusion, the advanced paternal age affects sperm chromatin integrity and fertility more severely in the absence of PRDX6, suggesting a protective role of PRDX6 in age-associated decline in the sperm quality and fertility in mice.

  6. Cadmium Increases the Sensitivity of Adolescent Female Mice to Nicotine-Related Behavioral Deficits

    Philip Adeyemi Adeniyi; Babawale Peter Olatunji; Azeez Olakunle Ishola; Duyilemi Chris Ajonijebu; Olalekan Michael Ogundele


    This study investigates spatial and nonspatial working memory, anxiety related behavior, and motor activities in cadmium and/or nicotine exposed female adolescent mice. P28 female adolescent mice (albino strain) were divided into four groups of five (n = 5) mice each. A set of mice (Nic) received subcutaneous nicotine (2.0 mg/kg) while a separate set (Cd) was treated with 2.0 mg/kg cadmium (subcutaneous). For the combined treatments of cadmium and nicotine, we administered 2.0 mg/kg Nicotine ...

  7. L-carnitine suppresses the onset of neuromuscular degeneration and increases the life span of mice with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Kira, Yukimi; Nishikawa, Manabu; Ochi, Akemi; Sato, Eisuke; Inoue, Masayasu


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease caused by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord and motor cortex. Although the etiology of ALS remains unknown, a mutation of the gene encoding Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) has been reported in 20% of familial cases of ALS (FALS). Transgenic mice that overexpress a mutated human SOD1 exhibit a phenotype and pathology similar to those observed in patients with FALS. Mitochondrial abnormality has been reported in patients with ALS and in animal models of FALS. We recently reported that L-carnitine, an essential cofactor for the beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, effectively inhibits various types of mitochondrial injury and apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. The present study demonstrates that oral administration of L-carnitine prior to disease onset significantly delayed the onset of signs of disease (log-rank P=0.0008), delayed deterioration of motor activity, and extended life span (log-rank P=0.0001) in transgenic mice carrying a human SOD1 gene with a G93A mutation (Tg). More importantly, subcutaneous injection of L-carnitine increased the life span of Tg mice (46% increase in male, 60% increase in female) even when given after the appearance of signs of disease.

  8. High vitamin D and calcium intakes increase bone mineral (Ca and P) content in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Song, Qingming; Sergeev, Igor N


    Vitamin D and calcium are essential for bone formation, mineralization, and remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that an increased body mass can be detrimental to bone health. However, whether an increase in dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes in obesity is beneficial to bone health has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of increased vitamin D and calcium intakes, alone or in combination, on bone status in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. We hypothesized that DIO in growing mice affects bone mineral status and that high vitamin D and calcium intakes will promote mineralization of the growing bone in obesity via Ca(2+) regulatory hormones, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Male mice were fed high vitamin D3 (10 000 IU/kg), high calcium (1.2%), or high vitamin D3 plus high-calcium diets containing 60% energy as fat for 10 weeks. Bone weight, specific gravity, mineral (Ca and P), and collagen (hydroxyproline) content were measured in the femur and the tibia. Regulators of Ca(2+) metabolism and markers of bone status (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25(OH)2D3, and osteocalcin) were measured in blood plasma. Diet-induced obese mice exhibited lower bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight compared with the normal-fat control mice, whereas collagen (hydroxyproline) content was not different between the two groups. High vitamin D3 and calcium intakes significantly increased bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight in DIO mice, which was accompanied by an increase in 1,25(OH)2D3 and a decrease in PTH and osteocalcin concentrations in blood. The findings obtained indicate that increased vitamin D and calcium intakes are effective in increasing mineral (Ca and P) content in the growing bone of obese mice and that the hormonal mechanism of this effect may involve the vitamin D-PTH axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary grape polyphenol resveratrol increases mammary tumor growth and metastasis in immunocompromised mice

    Castillo-Pichardo Linette


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resveratrol, a polyphenol from grapes and red wine has many health beneficial effects, including protection against cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. However, our group and others have provided evidence for a dual cancer promoting or inhibitory role for resveratrol in breast cancer, dependent on estrogenic or antiestrogenic activities. Moreover, much of the inhibitory effects of resveratrol have been reported from studies with high non-physiological concentrations. Methods We investigated the effects of a range of concentrations (0.5, 5, 50 mg/kg body weight of resveratrol on mammary tumor development post-initiation, using immunocompromised mice. Results Our findings suggest promotion of mammary tumor growth and metastasis by resveratrol at all concentrations tested in tumors derived from the low metastatic estrogen receptor (ERα(-, ERβ(+ MDA-MB-231 and the highly metastatic ER(- MDA-MB-435 cancer cell lines. Additionally, the activity of the migration/invasion regulator Rac, which we have previously shown to be regulated by resveratrol in vitro, was measured in tumors from resveratrol treated mice. Our results show a significant induction of tumoral Rac activity and a trend in increased expression of the Rac downstream effector PAK1 and other tumor promoting molecules following resveratrol treatment. Conclusion Taken together, our findings implicate low concentrations of resveratrol in potential promotion of breast cancer. Therefore, this study illuminates the importance of further delineating resveratrol’s concentration dependent effects, particularly in breast cancer, before it can be tested in the clinic or used as a dietary supplement for breast cancer patients.

  10. If started early in life, metformin treatment increases life span and postpones tumors in female SHR mice

    Anisimov, Vladimir N.; Berstein, Lev M.; Popovich, Irina G.; Zabezhinski, Mark A.; Egormin, Peter A.; Piskunova, Tatiana S.; Semenchenko, Anna V.; Tyndyk, Margarita L.; Yurova, Maria N.; Kovalenko, Irina G.; Poroshina, Tatiana E.


    Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia accelerate both aging and cancer. Antidiabetic biguanides such as metformin decrease glucose, insulin and IGF-1 level. Metformin increases lifespan and prevents cancer in mice, although its effects vary, depending on mice strain and gender. Here we showed that chronic treatment of female outbred SHR mice with metformin started at the age of 3, 9 or 15 months decreased body temperature and postponed age-related switch-off of estrous function. Surprisingly, metformin did not affect levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and insulin. Treatment with metformin started at the age of 3 months increased mean life span by 14% and maximum life span by 1 month. The treatment started at the age of 9 months insignificantly increased mean life span by only 6%, whereas the treatment started at the age of 15 months failed to increase life span. The mean life span of tumor-free mice was increased by 21% in ‘the youngest group’, by 7% in ‘middle-aged group’ and in contrast was reduced by 13% in ‘the oldest group’. When started at the age of 3 and 9 months, metformin delayed the first tumor detection by 22% and 25%, correspondingly. Thus, in female SHR mice, metformin increased life span and postponed tumors when started at the young and middle but not at the old age. In contrast, metformin improves reproductive function when started at any age. PMID:21386129

  11. Reduced fasting-induced activation of hypothalamic arcuate neurons is associated with hyperleptinemia and increased leptin sensitivity in obese mice.

    Becskei, Csilla; Lutz, Thomas A; Riediger, Thomas


    Fasting increases c-Fos expression in neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) in lean, but not in hyperleptinemic mice with late-onset obesity (LOO). Although obesity is associated with leptin resistance, we hypothesized that under fasting conditions, leptin sensitivity might be restored and that hyperleptinemia may counteract the neuronal response to fasting. We investigated whether the reduced fasting response of ARC neurons in LOO is paralleled by an increase in leptin sensitivity, as measured by leptin-induced STAT-3 phosphorylation. To assess leptin's role in the modulation of the fasting-induced ARC activation, we investigated c-Fos responses and hormone and metabolite levels in hyperleptinemic diet-induced obese (DIO) and in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Leptin induced a stronger STAT-3 phosphorylation in fasted LOO and lean mice than in ad libitum-fed animals. Similar to LOO, hyperleptinemic DIO mice showed no c-Fos response after fasting, while ob/ob mice showed a stronger response than lean control mice. Mimicking hyperleptinemia by repeated leptin injections in lean mice during fasting attenuated the fasting-induced c-Fos expression. Our findings indicate that high leptin levels prevent the fasting-induced activation of ARC neurons in mice. Moreover, leptin sensitivity is dynamic in obese subjects and depends on the feeding status. During short-term increases in leptin sensitivity, e.g., during fasting, leptin signaling appears to be effective, even in hyperleptinemic obesity. As reflected by the blockade of the fasting-induced ARC activation, fasting seems to interfere with the responsiveness of the ARC to signals related to the status of energy intake.

  12. Knockout maternal adiponectin increases fetal growth in mice: potential role for trophoblast IGFBP-1.

    Qiao, Liping; Wattez, Jean-Sebastien; Lee, Samuel; Guo, Zhuyu; Schaack, Jerome; Hay, William W; Zita, Matteo Moretto; Parast, Mana; Shao, Jianhua


    The main objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal adiponectin regulates fetal growth through the endocrine system in the fetal compartment. Adiponectin knockout (Adipoq (-/-) ) mice and in vivo adenovirus-mediated reconstitution were used to study the regulatory effect of maternal adiponectin on fetal growth. Primary human trophoblast cells were treated with adiponectin and a specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist or antagonist to study the underlying mechanism through which adiponectin regulates fetal growth. The body weight of fetuses from Adipoq (-/-) dams was significantly greater than that of wild-type dams at both embryonic day (E)14.5 and E18.5. Adenoviral vector-mediated maternal adiponectin reconstitution attenuated the increased fetal body weight induced by maternal adiponectin deficiency. Significantly increased blood glucose, triacylglycerol and NEFA levels were observed in Adipoq (-/-) dams, suggesting that nutrient supply contributes to maternal adiponectin-regulated fetal growth. Although fetal blood IGF-1 concentrations were comparable in fetuses from Adipoq (-/-) and wild-type dams, remarkably low levels of IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) were observed in the serum of fetuses from Adipoq (-/-) dams. IGFBP-1 was identified in the trophoblast cells of human and mouse placentas. Maternal fasting robustly increased IGFBP-1 levels in mouse placentas, while reducing fetal weight. Significantly low IGFBP-1 levels were found in placentas of Adipoq (-/-) dams. Adiponectin treatment increased IGFBP-1 levels in primary cultured human trophoblast cells, while the PPARα antagonist, MK886, abolished this stimulatory effect. These results indicate that, in addition to nutrient supply, maternal adiponectin inhibits fetal growth by increasing IGFBP-1 expression in trophoblast cells.

  13. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice show increased titers of serum anti-nuclear and anti-dsDNA antibodies

    Wang, Yuehai [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Huang, Ziyang, E-mail: [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Lu, Huixia [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University, Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Lin, Huili; Wang, Zhenhua [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Chen, Xiaoqing [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Ouyang, Qiufang [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Tang, Mengxiong; Hao, Panpan [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University, Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Ni, Jingqin [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Xu, Dongming [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Zhang, Mingxiang; Zhang, Qunye [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University, Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Lin, Ling [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); and others


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were higher in ApoE{sup -/-} than C57B6/L mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spleen was greater and splenocyte apoptosis lower in ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Level of TLR4 was lower in spleen tissue of ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TLR4 pathway may participate in maintaining the balance of splenocyte apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TLR4 pathway may participate in antibody production in spleen tissue. -- Abstract: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice, atherosclerosis-prone mice, show an autoimmune response, but the pathogenesis is not fully understood. We investigated the pathogenesis in female and male ApoE{sup -/-} mice. The spleens of all ApoE{sup -/-} and C57BL/6 (B6) mice were weighed. The serum IgG level and titers of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibody were assayed by ELISA. Apoptosis of spleen tissue was evaluated by TUNEL. TLR4 level in spleen tissue was tested by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Levels of MyD88, p38, phosphorylated p38 (pp38), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) in spleen tissue were detected by Western blot analysis. We also survey the changes of serum autoantibodies, spleen weight, splenocyte apoptosis and the expressions of TLR4, MyD88, pp38, IRF3 and Bax in spleen tissue in male ApoE{sup -/-} mice after 4 weeks of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Toll-like receptor 4 ligand, administration. ApoE{sup -/-} mice showed splenomegaly and significantly increased serum level of IgG and titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibody as compared with B6 mice. Splenocyte apoptosis and the expression of TLR4, MyD88, pp38, IRF3 and Bax in spleen tissue were significantly lower in ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. The expression of TLR4, MyD88, IRF3, pp38, and Bax differed by sex in ApoE{sup -/-} spleen tissue. The

  14. Working Memory Deficits, Increased Anxiety-Like Traits, and Seizure Susceptibility in BDNF Overexpressing Mice

    Papaleo, Francesco; Silverman, Jill L.; Aney, Jordan; Tian, Qingjun; Barkan, Charlotte L.; Chadman, Kathryn K.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.


    BDNF regulates components of cognitive processes and has been implicated in psychiatric disorders. Here we report that genetic overexpression of the BDNF mature isoform (BDNF-tg) in female mice impaired working memory functions while sparing components of fear conditioning. BDNF-tg mice also displayed reduced breeding efficiency, higher…

  15. Cortical spreading depolarization increases adult neurogenesis, and alters behavior and hippocampus-dependent memory in mice.

    Urbach, Anja; Baum, Eileen; Braun, Falko; Witte, Otto W


    Cortical spreading depolarizations are an epiphenomenon of human brain pathologies and associated with extensive but transient changes in ion homeostasis, metabolism, and blood flow. Previously, we have shown that cortical spreading depolarization have long-lasting consequences on the brains transcriptome and structure. In particular, we found that cortical spreading depolarization stimulate hippocampal cell proliferation resulting in a sustained increase in adult neurogenesis. Since the hippocampus is responsible for explicit memory and adult-born dentate granule neurons contribute to this function, cortical spreading depolarization might influence hippocampus-dependent cognition. To address this question, we induced cortical spreading depolarization in C57Bl/6 J mice by epidural application of 1.5 mol/L KCl and evaluated neurogenesis and behavior at two, four, or six weeks thereafter. Congruent with our previous findings in rats, we found that cortical spreading depolarization increases numbers of newborn dentate granule neurons. Moreover, exploratory behavior and object location memory were consistently enhanced. Reference memory in the water maze was virtually unaffected, whereas memory formation in the Barnes maze was impaired with a delay of two weeks and facilitated after four weeks. These data show that cortical spreading depolarization produces lasting changes in psychomotor behavior and complex, delay- and task-dependent changes in spatial memory, and suggest that cortical spreading depolarization-like events affect the emotional and cognitive outcomes of associated brain pathologies.

  16. Fibronectin coating of collagen modules increases in vivo HUVEC survival and vessel formation in SCID mice.

    Cooper, T P; Sefton, M V


    Modular tissue engineering is a novel approach to creating scalable, self-assembling, three-dimensional tissue constructs with inherent vascularization. Under initial methods, the subcutaneous implantation of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC)-covered collagen modules in immunocompromised mice resulted in significant host inflammation and limited HUVEC survival. A minimally invasive injection technique was used to minimize surgery-related inflammation, and cell death was attributed to extensive apoptosis within 72 h of implantation. Coating collagen modules with fibronectin (Fn) was shown in vivo to reduce short-term HUVEC TUNEL staining by nearly 40%, while increasing long-term HUVEC survival by 30-45%, relative to collagen modules without fibronectin. Consequently, a ∼100% increase in the number of HUVEC-lined vessels was observed with Fn-coated modules, as compared to collagen-only modules, at 7 and 14 days post-implantation. Furthermore, vessels appeared to be perfused with host erythrocytes by day 7, and vessel maturation and stabilization was evident by day 14.

  17. 16,16-Dimethyl prostaglandin E2 increases survival in mice following irradiation

    Walden, T.L.; Patchen, M.; Snyder, S.L.


    16,16-Dimethyl prostaglandin E2(DiPGE2), a stable analog of PGE2, increases the LD 50/30 survival in CD2F1 male mice when given prior to ionizing radiation. Subcutaneous administration of 40 microgram of DiPGE2 30 min prior to /sup 60/Co gamma irradiation extends the LD 50/30 from 9.39 Gy in the control animals to 16.14 Gy in DiPGE2 treated, with a dose-reduction factor of 1.72p95% confidence limits: 1.62, 1.82. The degree of protection is dependent on both the time of administration and the dose of the prostaglandin. Ten micrograms administered 5 min prior to receiving a lethal dose of 10 Gy provides 90% survival but only 10% survival if administered 30 min prior to irradiation. Experiments to determine the in vivo concentration of DiPGE2 in organs post injection show increased levels over time, but these are not correlated with protection. At 30 min after injection, as much as 80% of the DiPGE2 present in the spleen and plasma is unmetabolized. These results suggest that the protection results from the physiologic action of DiPGE2 rather than direct in vivo detoxification of radicals.

  18. 16,16-Dimethyl prostaglandin E2 increases survival in mice following irradiation

    Walden, T.L. Jr.; Patchen, M.; Snyder, S.L.


    16,16-Dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (DiPGE2), a stable analog of PGE2, increases the LD50/30 survival in CD2F1 male mice when given prior to ionizing radiation. Subcutaneous administration of 40 micrograms of DiPGE2 30 min prior to /sup 60/Co gamma irradiation extends the LD50/30 from 9.39 Gy in the control animals to 16.14 Gy in DiPGE2 treated, with a dose reduction factor of 1.72 (95% confidence limits: 1.62, 1.82). The degree of protection is dependent on both the time of administration and the dose of the prostaglandin. Ten micrograms administered 5 min prior to receiving a lethal dose of 10 Gy provides 90% survival but only 10% survival if administered 30 min prior to irradiation. Experiments to determine the in vivo concentration of DiPGE2 in organs postinjection show increased levels over time, but these are not correlated with protection. At 30 min after injection, as much as 80% of the DiPGE2 present in the spleen and plasma is unmetabolized. These results suggest that the protection results from the physiologic action of DiPGE2 rather than direct in vivo detoxification of radicals.

  19. Polymerase gamma mutator mice rely on increased glycolytic flux for energy production.

    Saleem, Ayesha; Safdar, Adeel; Kitaoka, Yu; Ma, Xiaoxing; Marquez, Olivia S; Akhtar, Mahmood; Nazli, Aisha; Suri, Rahul; Turnbull, John; Tarnopolsky, Mark A


    Several studies have illustrated that the polymerase gamma mutator (PolG) mice have reduced mitochondrial content secondary to systemic mitochondrial dysfunction, and subsequently a lower capacity to perform aerobic respiration and endurance exercise. We sought to delineate the extent of glycolysis as a means of energy production in the PolG mice in the absence of optimal mitochondrial function. PolG mice display an enhanced reliance on glycolysis as compared to their wild-type counterparts. This is evident by the resting hypoglycemia, higher PFK content, and elevated plasma lactate levels in the PolG mice. In vitro experiments provide further proof that PolG derived dermal fibroblasts have a higher rate of, and capacity for, glycolysis. PolG mice also have enhanced capacity to perform hepatic gluconeogenesis that is likely enhancing the Cori cycle capacity. Copyright © 2015 © Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lactobacillus salivarius Isolated from Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Suppresses Collagen-Induced Arthritis and Increases Treg Frequency in Mice.

    Liu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Juan; Zou, Qinghua; Zhong, Bing; Wang, Heng; Mou, Fangxiang; Wu, Like; Fang, Yongfei


    Previously, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus salivarius was more abundant in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an inflammatory autoimmune disease wherein the gut microbiota is altered, than in healthy individuals. However, the effect of L. salivarius in RA is unclear. Hence, we investigated the effect of L. salivarius isolated from patients with RA on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. L. salivarius UCC118 or L. plantarum WCFS1 isolated from patients with RA was administered orally for 5 weeks, starting from 2 weeks before the induction of arthritis in DBA/1 mice. Clinical score progression, histological changes, serum cytokine concentrations, and the proportion of interleukin (IL)-17-producing T cells [T helper 17 (Th17)] and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the spleen were evaluated. Bone erosion was evaluated by micro-computed tomography. CIA mice treated with either L. salivarius or L. plantarum showed lower arthritis scores, milder synovial infiltration, and less bone erosion when compared with phosphate-buffered, saline-treated CIA mice. Administration of L. salivarius and L. plantarum reduced the Th17 cell fraction and increased the Treg fraction. L. salivarius-treated CIA mice displayed a significant increase in serum anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels. Thus, pretreatment with L. salivarius could significantly improve CIA in mice and may help alleviate RA in a clinical setting.

  1. Increased frequency of DNA deletions in pink-eyed unstable mice carrying a mutation in the Werner syndrome gene homologue.

    Lebel, Michel


    Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by genomic instability and the premature onset of a number of age-related diseases, including cancers. Accumulating evidence indicates that the WS gene product is involved in resolving aberrant DNA structures that may arise during the process of DNA replication and/or transcription. To estimate the frequency of DNA deletions directly in the skin of mouse embryos, mice with a deletion of part of the murine WRN helicase domain were created. These mutant mice were then crossed to the pink-eyed unstable animals, which have a 70 kb internal duplication at the pink-eyed dilution (p) gene. This report indicates that the frequency of deletion of the duplicated sequence at the p locus is elevated in mice with a mutation in the WRN allele when compared with wild-type mice. In addition, the inhibitor of topoisomerase I camptothecin also increases the frequency of deletion at the p locus. This frequency is even more elevated in WRN mutant mice treated with camptothecin. In contrast, while the inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity by 3-aminobenzamide increases the frequency of DNA deletion, mutant WRN mice are not significantly more sensitive to the inhibition of PARP activity than wild-type animals.

  2. Increased plasma citrulline in mice marks diet-induced obesity and may predict the development of the metabolic syndrome.

    Manuela Sailer

    Full Text Available In humans, plasma amino acid concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA and aromatic amino acids (AAA increase in states of obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. We here assessed whether these putative biomarkers can also be identified in two different obesity and diabetic mouse models. C57BL/6 mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO mimic the metabolic impairments of obesity in humans characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ to induce insulin deficiency were used as a type 1 diabetes model. Plasma amino acid profiling of two high fat (HF feeding trials revealed that citrulline and ornithine concentrations are elevated in obese mice, while systemic arginine bioavailability (ratio of plasma arginine to ornithine + citrulline is reduced. In skeletal muscle, HF feeding induced a reduction of arginine levels while citrulline levels were elevated. However, arginine or citrulline remained unchanged in their key metabolic organs, intestine and kidney. Moreover, the intestinal conversion of labeled arginine to ornithine and citrulline in vitro remained unaffected by HF feeding excluding the intestine as prime site of these alterations. In liver, citrulline is mainly derived from ornithine in the urea cycle and DIO mice displayed reduced hepatic ornithine levels. Since both amino acids share an antiport mechanism for mitochondrial import and export, elevated plasma citrulline may indicate impaired hepatic amino acid handling in DIO mice. In the insulin deficient mice, plasma citrulline and ornithine levels also increased and additionally these animals displayed elevated BCAA and AAA levels like insulin resistant and diabetic patients. Therefore, type 1 diabetic mice but not DIO mice show the "diabetic fingerprint" of plasma amino acid changes observed in humans. Additionally, citrulline may serve as an early indicator of the obesity-dependent metabolic

  3. Increased plasma citrulline in mice marks diet-induced obesity and may predict the development of the metabolic syndrome.

    Sailer, Manuela; Dahlhoff, Christoph; Giesbertz, Pieter; Eidens, Mena K; de Wit, Nicole; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Boekschoten, Mark V; Müller, Michael; Daniel, Hannelore


    In humans, plasma amino acid concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and aromatic amino acids (AAA) increase in states of obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. We here assessed whether these putative biomarkers can also be identified in two different obesity and diabetic mouse models. C57BL/6 mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) mimic the metabolic impairments of obesity in humans characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce insulin deficiency were used as a type 1 diabetes model. Plasma amino acid profiling of two high fat (HF) feeding trials revealed that citrulline and ornithine concentrations are elevated in obese mice, while systemic arginine bioavailability (ratio of plasma arginine to ornithine + citrulline) is reduced. In skeletal muscle, HF feeding induced a reduction of arginine levels while citrulline levels were elevated. However, arginine or citrulline remained unchanged in their key metabolic organs, intestine and kidney. Moreover, the intestinal conversion of labeled arginine to ornithine and citrulline in vitro remained unaffected by HF feeding excluding the intestine as prime site of these alterations. In liver, citrulline is mainly derived from ornithine in the urea cycle and DIO mice displayed reduced hepatic ornithine levels. Since both amino acids share an antiport mechanism for mitochondrial import and export, elevated plasma citrulline may indicate impaired hepatic amino acid handling in DIO mice. In the insulin deficient mice, plasma citrulline and ornithine levels also increased and additionally these animals displayed elevated BCAA and AAA levels like insulin resistant and diabetic patients. Therefore, type 1 diabetic mice but not DIO mice show the "diabetic fingerprint" of plasma amino acid changes observed in humans. Additionally, citrulline may serve as an early indicator of the obesity-dependent metabolic impairments.

  4. Older Thinopyrum intermedium (Poaceae) plants exhibit superior photosynthetic tolerance to cold stress and greater increases in two photosynthetic enzymes under freezing stress compared with young plants.

    Jaikumar, Nikhil S; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Sharkey, Thomas D


    Effects of plant age on resource acquisition and stress tolerance processes is a largely unstudied subject in herbaceous perennials. In a field experiment, we compared rates of photosynthesis (A), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation capacity (V Cmax), maximum electron transport rate (J max), and triose phosphate utilization (TPU), as well as concentrations of Rubisco and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) in 5-year-old and 2-year-old intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) under both optimal growing conditions and cold stress in early spring and autumn. This species is a relative of wheat undergoing domestication. An additional experiment compared photosynthetic rates in different cohorts at mid-season and under colder conditions. We hypothesized that photosynthetic capacity in older plants would be lower under favorable conditions but higher under cold stress. Our hypothesis was generally supported. Under cold stress, 5-year-old plants exhibited higher A, TPU, and temperature-adjusted V Cmax than younger plants, as well as 50% more SPS and 37% more Rubisco. In contrast, at mid-season, photosynthetic capacities in older plants were lower than in younger plants in one experiment, and similar in the other, independent of differences in water status. Both cohorts increased A, temperature-adjusted TPU and J max, [Rubisco], and [SPS] under cold stress, but changes were greater in older plants. Photosynthetic differences were largest at 1.2 ºC in very early spring, where older plants had 200% higher A and maintained up to 17% of their peak photosynthetic capacity. We find evidence of increased cold tolerance in older cohorts of wheatgrass, consistent with a growing body of research in woody perennials.

  5. Repeated Cycles of Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure Increases Basal Glutamate in the Nucleus Accumbens of Mice without affecting glutamate transport

    William C. Griffin


    Full Text Available Repeated cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE exposure increase voluntary consumption of ethanol in mice. Previous work has shown that extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens (NAc is significantly elevated in ethanol dependent mice and that pharmacologically manipulating glutamate concentrations in the NAc will alter ethanol drinking, indicating that glutamate homeostasis plays a crucial role in ethanol drinking in this model. The present studies were designed to measure extracellular glutamate at a time point in which mice would ordinarily be allowed voluntary access to ethanol in the CIE model and, additionally, to measure glutamate transport capacity in the NAc at the same time point. Extracellular glutamate was measured using quantitative microdialysis procedures. Glutamate transport capacity was measured under Na+ dependent and Na+ independent conditions to determine whether the function of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs; also known as system XAG or of system Xc- (Glial cysteine-glutamate exchanger was influenced by CIE exposure. The results of the quantitative microdialysis experiment confirm increased extracellular glutamate (~2 –fold in the NAc of CIE exposed mice (i.e. ethanol-dependent compared to non-dependent mice in the NAc, consistent with earlier work. However, the increase in extracellular glutamate was not due to altered transporter function in the NAc of ethanol-dependent mice, because neither Na+ dependent nor Na+ independent glutamate transport was significantly altered by CIE exposure. These findings point to the possibility that hyperexcitability of cortical-striatal pathways underlies the increases in extracellular glutamate found in the nucleus accumbens of ethanol-dependent mice.

  6. High dietary niacin may increase prostaglandin formation but does not increase tumor formation in ApcMin/+ mice

    Kwong, Alan M.; Tippin, Brigette L.; Materi, Alicia M.; Buslon, Virgilio S; French, Samuel W.; Lin, Henry J.


    High doses of niacin (nicotinic acid) used to treat dyslipidemias cause flushing, due to high levels of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). GPR109A, a G-protein coupled receptor, triggers the flushing in the skin. In addition to boosting PGD2, niacin binding to GPR109A activates the entire prostanoid cascade. We found that GPR109A occurs throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Mice that alternated between a 1% niacin diet and a control diet had higher urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) metabolite levels whe...

  7. Topical hydrocortisone, clobetasol propionate, and calcipotriol do not increase photocarcinogenesis induced by simulated solar irradiation in hairless mice

    Lerche, Catharina M; Philipsen, Peter A; Poulsen, Thomas


    development in mice treated with HCB and 2 SED (HCB-2SED) and HCB-6SED. However, the time required for tumor development increased with HCB-4SED treatment. Treatment with CP-2SED did not change the time to onset of the first and second tumor, but all other CP treatments in combination with SSR increased...

  8. Allogeneic compact bone-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation increases survival of mice exposed to lethal total body irradiation: a potential immunological mechanism

    Qiao Shukai; Ren Hanyun; Shi Yongjin; Liu Wei


    Background Radiation-induced injury after accidental or therapeutic total body exposure to ionizing radiation has serious pathophysiological consequences,and currently no effective therapy exists.This study was designed to investigate whether transplantation of allogeneic murine compact bone derived-mesenchymal stem cells (CB-MSCs) could improve the survival of mice exposed to lethal dosage total body irradiation (TBI),and to explore the potential immunoprotective role of MSCs.Methods BALB/c mice were treated with 8 Gy TBI,and then some were administered CB-MSCs isolated from C57BL/6 mice.Survival rates and body weight were analyzed for 14 days post-irradiation.At three days post-irradiation,we evaluated IFN-Y and IL-4 concentrations; CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cell (Treg) percentage; CXCR3,CCR5,and CCR7 expressions on CD3+T cells; and splenocyte T-bet and GATA-3 mRNA levels.CB-MSC effects on bone marrow hemopoiesis were assessed via colony-forming unit granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) assay.Results After lethal TBI,compared to non-transplanted mice,CB-MSC-transplanted mice exhibited significantly increased survival,body weight,and CFU-GM counts of bone marrow cells (P<0.05),as well as higher Treg percentages,reduced IFN-Y,CXCR3 and CCR5 down-regulation,and CCR7 up-regulation.CB-MSC transplantation suppressed Th1 immunity.Irradiated splenocytes directly suppressed CFU-GM formation from bone marrow cells,and CB-MSC co-culture reversed this inhibition.Conclusion Allogeneic CB-MSC transplantation attenuated radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity,and provided immunoprotection by alleviating lymphocyte-mediated CFU-GM inhibition,expanding Tregs,regulating T cell chemokine receptor expressions,and skewing the Th1/Th2 balance toward anti-inflammatory Th2 polarization.

  9. Increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus of diabetic male mice in the insulin receptor substrate-2 knockout model

    Canelles, Sandra; Argente, Jesús; Barrios, Vicente


    ABSTRACT Insulin receptor substrate-2-deficient (IRS2−/−) mice are considered a good model to study the development of diabetes because IRS proteins mediate the pleiotropic effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin on metabolism, mitogenesis and cell survival. The hypothalamus might play a key role in the early onset of diabetes, owing to its involvement in the control of glucose homeostasis and energy balance. Because some inflammatory markers are elevated in the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2−/− mice, our aim was to analyze whether the diabetes associated with the absence of IRS2 results in hypothalamic injury and to analyze the intracellular mechanisms involved. Only diabetic IRS2−/− mice showed increased cell death and activation of caspase-8 and -3 in the hypothalamus. Regulators of apoptosis such as FADD, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p53 were also increased, whereas p-IκB and c-FLIPL were decreased. This was accompanied by increased levels of Nox-4 and catalase, enzymes involved in oxidative stress. In summary, the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2−/− mice showed an increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory markers that finally resulted in cell death via substantial activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Conversely, non-diabetic IRS2−/− mice did not show cell death in the hypothalamus, possibly owing to an increase in the levels of circulating IGF-I and in the enhanced hypothalamic IGF-IR phosphorylation that would lead to the stimulation of survival pathways. In conclusion, diabetes in IRS2-deficient male mice is associated with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus. PMID:27013528

  10. Valproate administration to mice increases hippocampal p21 expression by altering genomic DNA methylation.

    Aizawa, Shu; Yamamuro, Yutaka


    Although valproate (VPA) is used widely in the treatment of bipolar mood disorder and epilepsy, the precise mechanism of action in the brain remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the effects of subchronic VPA administrations on the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (Cdkn) family in the hippocampus of adult mice. The administration of VPA specifically increased hippocampal p21 expression involving both mRNA and protein levels, but other members of the Cdkn family were not affected. We identified two CpG islands in the p21 gene regulatory region, located distal and proximal to the transcription start site. VPA altered genomic DNA methylation patterns in the distal region, but not in the proximal promoter region. However, no change was found in DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) 1 or Dnmt3a protein levels, suggesting an involvement in active demethylation mechanisms. These findings suggest that VPA alters the gene expression of cell cycle regulators by modulating promoter DNA methylation, and this resulted in altered hippocampal cell proliferation. These findings promote understanding of the actions of VPA in the brain.

  11. Slowing Down Differentiation of Engrafted Human Myoblasts Into Immunodeficient Mice Correlates With Increased Proliferation and Migration

    Riederer, Ingo; Negroni, Elisa; Bencze, Maximilien; Wolff, Annie; Aamiri, Ahmed; Di Santo, James P; Silva-Barbosa, Suse D.; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Savino, Wilson; Mouly, Vincent


    We have used a model of xenotransplantation in which human myoblasts were transplanted intramuscularly into immunodeficient Rag2-/-γC-/- mice, in order to investigate the kinetics of proliferation and differentiation of the transplanted cells. After injection, most of the human myoblasts had already differentiated by day 5. This differentiation correlated with reduction in proliferation and limited migration of the donor cells within the regenerating muscle. These results suggest that the precocious differentiation, already detected at 3 days postinjection, is a limiting factor for both the migration from the injection site and the participation of the donor cells to muscle regeneration. When we stimulated in vivo proliferation of human myoblasts, transplanting them in a serum-containing medium, we observed 5 days post-transplantation a delay of myogenic differentiation and an increase in cell numbers, which colonized a much larger area within the recipient's muscle. Importantly, these myoblasts maintained their ability to differentiate, since we found higher numbers of myofibers seen 1 month postengraftment, as compared to controls. Conceptually, these data suggest that in experimental myoblast transplantation, any intervention upon the donor cells and/or the recipient's microenvironment aimed at enhancing proliferation and migration should be done before differentiation of the implanted cells, e.g., day 3 postengraftment. PMID:21934656

  12. Slowing down differentiation of engrafted human myoblasts into immunodeficient mice correlates with increased proliferation and migration.

    Riederer, Ingo; Negroni, Elisa; Bencze, Maximilien; Wolff, Annie; Aamiri, Ahmed; Di Santo, James P; Silva-Barbosa, Suse D; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Savino, Wilson; Mouly, Vincent


    We have used a model of xenotransplantation in which human myoblasts were transplanted intramuscularly into immunodeficient Rag2(-/-)γC(-/-) mice, in order to investigate the kinetics of proliferation and differentiation of the transplanted cells. After injection, most of the human myoblasts had already differentiated by day 5. This differentiation correlated with reduction in proliferation and limited migration of the donor cells within the regenerating muscle. These results suggest that the precocious differentiation, already detected at 3 days postinjection, is a limiting factor for both the migration from the injection site and the participation of the donor cells to muscle regeneration. When we stimulated in vivo proliferation of human myoblasts, transplanting them in a serum-containing medium, we observed 5 days post-transplantation a delay of myogenic differentiation and an increase in cell numbers, which colonized a much larger area within the recipient's muscle. Importantly, these myoblasts maintained their ability to differentiate, since we found higher numbers of myofibers seen 1 month postengraftment, as compared to controls. Conceptually, these data suggest that in experimental myoblast transplantation, any intervention upon the donor cells and/or the recipient's microenvironment aimed at enhancing proliferation and migration should be done before differentiation of the implanted cells, e.g., day 3 postengraftment.

  13. CD28 deletion improves obesity-induced liver steatosis but increases adiposity in mice.

    Poggi, M; Morin, S O; Bastelica, D; Govers, R; Canault, M; Bernot, D; Georgelin, O; Verdier, M; Burcelin, R; Olive, D; Alessi, M-C; Peiretti, F; Nunès, J A


    Lymphocytes have a critical role in visceral adipose tissue (AT) inflammation. The CD28 costimulatory molecule is required for lymphocyte activation and for the development of a functional regulatory T cells (Tregs) compartment; however, its role during obesity is unknown. During diet-induced obesity, we investigated the effects of selective interference with CD28 signaling using knockout mice (Cd28KO) and a CTLA4-Ig fusion protein inhibiting CD28-B7 interactions. Cd28 deficiency decreased pathogenic T cells and Treg content within AT without changing the macrophages number. Cd28KO epididymal but not subcutaneous fat was characterized by enlarged adipocytes, reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines and increased Glut4, adiponectin and lipogenic enzyme mRNA levels. This was associated with reduced inflammation, fat accumulation and enhanced glucose metabolism in liver. Weight gain and fasting glucose tolerance were not affected. CTLA4-Ig injections reduced the number of T cells in epididymal AT (epiAT) but not the inflammatory cytokines levels and failed to improve liver fat accumulation. Deletion of CD28 creates a new pro/anti-inflammatory balance in epiAT and liver and exerts a protective effect against hepatic steatosis.

  14. Suilysin stimulates the release of heparin binding protein from neutrophils and increases vascular permeability in mice

    Shaolong Chen


    Full Text Available Most of the deaths that occurred during two large outbreaks of Streptococcus suis (S. suis infections in 1998 and 2005 in China were caused by streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS, which is characterized by increased vascular permeability. Heparin binding protein (HBP is thought to mediate the vascular leakage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detailed mechanism underlying the release of HBP and the vascular leakage induced by S. suis. Significantly higher serum levels of HBP were detected in Chinese patients with STSS than in patients with meningitis or healthy controls. Suilysin (SLY is an exotoxin secreted by the highly virulent strain 05ZYH33, and it stimulated the release of HBP from the polymorphonuclear neutrophils and mediated vascular leakage in mice. The release of HBP induced by SLY was caused by a calcium influx-dependent degranulation. Analyses using a pharmacological approach revealed that the release of HBP induced by SLY was related to Toll-like receptor 4, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. It was also dependent on a G protein-coupled seven-membrane spanning receptor. The results of this study provide new insights into the vascular leakage in STSS associated with non-Group A streptococci, which could lead to the discovery of potential therapeutic targets for STSS associated with S. suis.

  15. Serum-derived exosomes from mice with highly metastatic breast cancer transfer increased metastatic capacity to a poorly metastatic tumor.

    Gorczynski, Reginald M; Erin, Nuray; Zhu, Fang


    Altered interaction between CD200 and CD200R represents an example of "checkpoint blockade" disrupting an effective, tumor-directed, host response in murine breast cancer cells. In CD200R1KO mice, long-term cure of EMT6 breast cancer, including metastatic spread to lung and liver, was achieved in BALB/c mice. The reverse was observed with 4THM tumors, an aggressive, inflammatory breast cancer, with increased tumor metastasis in CD200R1KO. We explored possible explanations for this difference. We measured the frequency of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood of tumor bearers, as well as lung/liver and draining lymph nodes. In some cases mice received infusions of exosomes from nontumor controls, or tumor bearers, with/without additional infusions of anticytokine antibodies. The measured frequency of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood was equivalent in the two models in WT and CD200R1KO mice. Increased metastasis in EMT6 tumor bearers was seen in vivo following adoptive transfer of serum, or serum-derived exosomes, from 4THM tumor bearers, an effect which was attenuated by anti-IL-6, and anti-IL-17, but not anti-TNFα, antibody. Anti-IL-6 also attenuated enhanced migration of EMT6 cells in vitro induced by 4THM serum or exosomes, or recombinant IL-6. Exosome cytokine proteomic profiles responses in 4THM and EMT6 tumor-bearing mice were regulated by CD200:CD200R interactions, with attenuation of both IL-6 and IL-17 in 4THM CD200(tg) mice, and enhanced levels in 4THM CD200R1KO mice. We suggest these cytokines act on the microenvironment at sites within the host, and/or directly on tumor cells themselves, to increase metastatic potential.

  16. Microinjection manipulation resulted in the increased apoptosis of spermatocytes in testes from intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI derived mice.

    Yang Yu

    Full Text Available The invention of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI has possibly been the most important development in reproductive medicine, one that has given hope to thousands of infertile couples worldwide. However, concerns remain regarding the safety of this method since it is a more invasive procedure than in vitro fertilization (IVF, since a spermatozoon is injected into the oocyte cytoplasm. Using mice derived from IVF technology as a control, we assessed the influence of invasive microinjection in the process of transferring sperm into oocyte cytoplasm in ICSI procedure on the development and physiologic function of resultant offspring. Our results demonstrated that mice produced from ICSI and IVF had no significant difference in phenotypic indices including body weight, forelimb physiology, and learning and memory ability. However, increased spermatocyte apoptosis was observed in the testis of adult ICSI mice, when compared with IVF mice. And, decreased testis weight and marked damage of spermatogenic epithelia were found in aged ICSI mice. Furthermore, proteomic analysis verified that most of the differentiated proteins in testes between adult ICSI and IVF mice were those involved in regulation of apoptosis pathways. Our results demonstrated that the microinjection manipulation used in the ICSI procedure might pose potential risks to the fertility of male offspring. The changed expression of a series of proteins relating to apoptosis or proliferation might contribute to it. Further studies are necessary to better understand all the risks of ICSI.

  17. Nocturnal hyperactivity, increased social novelty preference and delayed extinction of fear responses in post-weaning socially isolated mice.

    Naert, Arne; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; D'Hooge, Rudi


    When rodents are reared in isolation from young age onwards, they manifest a number of behavioural alterations in adulthood. Since some of these alterations resemble symptoms of psychiatric disorders, the post-weaning social isolation (ISO) manipulation is often applied to create rodent models of these disorders. In rats, ISO effects have been thoroughly characterised, but in mice they are less well documented. Therefore, we further evaluated behaviour of adult ISO mice with a test battery that focussed on abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia. We found that ISO mice were hyperactive during the dark phase. Also, ISO mice showed alterations in magnitude, habituation and prepulse-inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex, increased anxiety, increased social preference and changes in extinction of fear responses. We did not observe increased sensitivity to locomotor-activating effects of amphetamine. It is concluded that ISO of mice might serve as a useful model to test further hypotheses regarding pathogenesis occurring at specific developmental timeframes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased 4E-BP1 Expression Protects against Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Male Mice

    Shih-Yin Tsai


    Full Text Available Obesity is a major risk factor driving the global type II diabetes pandemic. However, the molecular factors linking obesity to disease remain to be elucidated. Gender differences are apparent in humans and are also observed in murine models. Here, we link these differences to expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, which, upon HFD feeding, becomes significantly reduced in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of male but not female mice. Strikingly, restoring 4E-BP1 expression in male mice protects them against HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Male 4E-BP1 transgenic mice also exhibit reduced white adipose tissue accumulation accompanied by decreased circulating levels of leptin and triglycerides. Importantly, transgenic 4E-BP1 male mice are also protected from aging-induced obesity and metabolic decline on a normal diet. These results demonstrate that 4E-BP1 is a gender-specific suppressor of obesity that regulates insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism.

  19. Increased learning and brain long-term potentiation in aged mice lacking DNA polymerase μ.

    Daniel Lucas

    Full Text Available A definitive consequence of the aging process is the progressive deterioration of higher cognitive functions. Defects in DNA repair mechanisms mostly result in accelerated aging and reduced brain function. DNA polymerase µ is a novel accessory partner for the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair pathway for double-strand breaks, and its deficiency causes reduced DNA repair. Using associative learning and long-term potentiation experiments, we demonstrate that Polµ(-/- mice, however, maintain the ability to learn at ages when wild-type mice do not. Expression and biochemical analyses suggest that brain aging is delayed in Polµ(-/- mice, being associated with a reduced error-prone DNA oxidative repair activity and a more efficient mitochondrial function. This is the first example in which the genetic ablation of a DNA-repair function results in a substantially better maintenance of learning abilities, together with fewer signs of brain aging, in old mice.

  20. X-linked Angelman-like syndrome caused by Slc9a6 knockout in mice exhibits evidence of endosomal–lysosomal dysfunction

    Strømme, Petter; Dobrenis, Kostantin; Sillitoe, Roy V.; Gulinello, Maria; Ali, Nafeeza F.; Davidson, Cristin; Micsenyi, Matthew C.; Stephney, Gloria; Ellevog, Linda; Klungland, Arne


    Mutations in solute carrier family 9 isoform 6 on chromosome Xq26.3 encoding sodium–hydrogen exchanger 6, a protein mainly expressed in early and recycling endosomes are known to cause a complex and slowly progressive degenerative human neurological disease. Three resulting phenotypes have so far been reported: an X-linked Angelman syndrome-like condition, Christianson syndrome and corticobasal degeneration with tau deposition, with each characterized by severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, autistic behaviour and ataxia. Hypothesizing that a sodium–hydrogen exchanger 6 deficiency would most likely disrupt the endosomal–lysosomal system of neurons, we examined Slc9a6 knockout mice with tissue staining and related techniques commonly used to study lysosomal storage disorders. As a result, we found that sodium–hydrogen exchanger 6 depletion leads to abnormal accumulation of GM2 ganglioside and unesterified cholesterol within late endosomes and lysosomes of neurons in selective brain regions, most notably the basolateral nuclei of the amygdala, the CA3 and CA4 regions and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and some areas of cerebral cortex. In these select neuronal populations, histochemical staining for β-hexosaminidase activity, a lysosomal enzyme involved in the degradation of GM2 ganglioside, was undetectable. Neuroaxonal dystrophy similar to that observed in lysosomal disease was observed in the cerebellum and was accompanied by a marked and progressive loss of Purkinje cells, particularly in those lacking the expression of Zebrin II. On behavioural testing, Slc9a6 knockout mice displayed a discrete clinical phenotype attributable to motor hyperactivity and cerebellar dysfunction. Importantly, these findings show that sodium–hydrogen exchanger 6 loss of function in the Slc9a6-targeted mouse model leads to compromise of endosomal–lysosomal function similar to lysosomal disease and to conspicuous neuronal abnormalities in specific brain regions

  1. X-linked Angelman-like syndrome caused by Slc9a6 knockout in mice exhibits evidence of endosomal-lysosomal dysfunction.

    Strømme, Petter; Dobrenis, Kostantin; Sillitoe, Roy V; Gulinello, Maria; Ali, Nafeeza F; Davidson, Cristin; Micsenyi, Matthew C; Stephney, Gloria; Ellevog, Linda; Klungland, Arne; Walkley, Steven U


    Mutations in solute carrier family 9 isoform 6 on chromosome Xq26.3 encoding sodium-hydrogen exchanger 6, a protein mainly expressed in early and recycling endosomes are known to cause a complex and slowly progressive degenerative human neurological disease. Three resulting phenotypes have so far been reported: an X-linked Angelman syndrome-like condition, Christianson syndrome and corticobasal degeneration with tau deposition, with each characterized by severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, autistic behaviour and ataxia. Hypothesizing that a sodium-hydrogen exchanger 6 deficiency would most likely disrupt the endosomal-lysosomal system of neurons, we examined Slc9a6 knockout mice with tissue staining and related techniques commonly used to study lysosomal storage disorders. As a result, we found that sodium-hydrogen exchanger 6 depletion leads to abnormal accumulation of GM2 ganglioside and unesterified cholesterol within late endosomes and lysosomes of neurons in selective brain regions, most notably the basolateral nuclei of the amygdala, the CA3 and CA4 regions and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and some areas of cerebral cortex. In these select neuronal populations, histochemical staining for β-hexosaminidase activity, a lysosomal enzyme involved in the degradation of GM2 ganglioside, was undetectable. Neuroaxonal dystrophy similar to that observed in lysosomal disease was observed in the cerebellum and was accompanied by a marked and progressive loss of Purkinje cells, particularly in those lacking the expression of Zebrin II. On behavioural testing, Slc9a6 knockout mice displayed a discrete clinical phenotype attributable to motor hyperactivity and cerebellar dysfunction. Importantly, these findings show that sodium-hydrogen exchanger 6 loss of function in the Slc9a6-targeted mouse model leads to compromise of endosomal-lysosomal function similar to lysosomal disease and to conspicuous neuronal abnormalities in specific brain regions, which in concert

  2. An improved Graves' disease model established by using in vivo electroporation exhibited long-term immunity to hyperthyroidism in BALB/c mice.

    Kaneda, Toshio; Honda, Asako; Hakozaki, Atsushi; Fuse, Tetsuya; Muto, Akihiro; Yoshida, Tadashi


    In Graves' disease, the overstimulation of the thyroid gland and hyperthyroidism are caused by autoantibodies directed against the TSH receptor (TSHR) that mimics the action of TSH. The establishment of an animal model is an important step to study the pathophysiology of autoimmune hyperthyroidism and for immunological analysis. In this study, we adopted the technique of electroporation (EP) for genetic immunization to achieve considerable enhancement of in vivo human TSHR (hTSHR) expression and efficient induction of hyperthyroidism in mice. In a preliminary study using beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) expression vectors, beta-gal introduced into the muscle by EP showed over 40-fold higher enzymatic activity than that introduced via previous direct gene transfer methods. The sustained hTSHR mRNA expression derived from cDNA transferred by EP was detectable in muscle tissue for at least 2 wk by RT-PCR. Based on these results, we induced hyperthyroidism via two expression vectors inserted with hTSHR or hTSHR289His cDNA. Consequently, 12.0-31.8% BALB/c mice immunized with hTSHR and 79.2-95.7% immunized with hTSHR289His showed high total T(4) levels due to the TSHR-stimulating antibody after three to four times repeated immunization by EP, and thyroid follicles of which were hyperplastic and had highly irregular epithelium. Moreover, TSHR-stimulating antibody surprisingly persisted more than 8 months after the last immunization. These results demonstrate that genetic immunization by in vivo EP is more efficient than previous procedures, and that it is useful for delineating the pathophysiology of Graves' disease.

  3. Increased Energy Expenditure, Ucp1 Expression, and Resistance to Diet-induced Obesity in Mice Lacking Nuclear Factor-Erythroid-2-related Transcription Factor-2 (Nrf2).

    Schneider, Kevin; Valdez, Joshua; Nguyen, Janice; Vawter, Marquis; Galke, Brandi; Kurtz, Theodore W; Chan, Jefferson Y


    The NRF2 (also known as NFE2L2) transcription factor is a critical regulator of genes involved in defense against oxidative stress. Previous studies suggest thatNrf2plays a role in adipogenesisin vitro, and deletion of theNrf2gene protects against diet-induced obesity in mice. Here, we demonstrate that resistance to diet-induced obesity inNrf2(-/-)mice is associated with a 20-30% increase in energy expenditure. Analysis of bioenergetics revealed thatNrf2(-/-)white adipose tissues exhibit greater oxygen consumption. White adipose tissue showed a >2-fold increase inUcp1gene expression. Oxygen consumption is also increased nearly 2.5-fold inNrf2-deficient fibroblasts. Oxidative stress induced by glucose oxidase resulted in increasedUcp1expression. Conversely, antioxidant chemicals (such asN-acetylcysteine and Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin chloride) and SB203580 (a known suppressor ofUcp1expression) decreasedUcp1and oxygen consumption inNrf2-deficient fibroblasts. These findings suggest that increasing oxidative stress by limitingNrf2function in white adipocytes may be a novel means to modulate energy balance as a treatment of obesity and related clinical disorders. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Increased depression-like behaviors in corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-2-deficient mice: sexually dichotomous responses.

    Bale, Tracy L; Vale, Wylie W


    Depressive disorders affect nearly 19 million American adults, making depression and the susceptibility for developing depression a critical focus of mental health research today. Females are twice as likely to develop depression as males. Stress is a known risk factor for developing depression, and recent hypotheses suggest an involvement of an overactive stress axis. As mediators of the stress response, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and its receptors (CRFR1 and CRFR2) have been implicated in the propensity for developing stress-related mood disorders. Mice deficient in CRFR2 display increased anxiety-like behaviors and a hypersensitive stress response. As a possible animal model of depression, these mice were tested for depression-like behaviors in the forced swim test. Comparisons were made between wild-type and mutant animals, as well as between sexes. Male and female CRFR2-mutant mice showed increased immobility as an indicator of depression compared with wild-type mice of the same sex. In addition, mutant and wild-type female mice demonstrated increased immobile time compared with males of the same genotype. Treatment of CRFR2-deficient mice with the CRFR1 antagonist antalarmin decreased immobile time and increased swim time in both sexes. We found a significant effect of sex for both time spent immobile and swimming after antalarmin treatment. Because differences in behaviors in the forced swim test are good indicators of serotonergic and catecholaminergic involvement, our results may reveal an interaction of CRF pathways with other known antidepressant systems and may also support an involvement of CRF receptors in the development of depression such that elevated CRFR1 activity, in the absence of CRFR2, increases depression-like behaviors.

  5. Methamphetamine Increases Locomotion and Dopamine Transporter Activity in Dopamine D5 Receptor-Deficient Mice

    Seiji Hayashizaki; Shinobu Hirai; Yumi Ito; Yoshiko Honda; Yosefu Arime; Ichiro Sora; Haruo Okado; Tohru Kodama; Masahiko Takada


    Dopamine regulates the psychomotor stimulant activities of amphetamine-like substances in the brain. The effects of dopamine are mediated through five known dopamine receptor subtypes in mammals. The functional relevance of D5 dopamine receptors in the central nervous system is not well understood. To determine the functional relevance of D5 dopamine receptors, we created D5 dopamine receptor-deficient mice and then used these mice to assess the roles of D5 dopamine receptors in the behaviora...

  6. Simvastatin increases the antineoplastic actions of paclitaxel carried in lipid nanoemulsions in melanoma-bearing mice

    Kretzer, Iara F; Maria, Durvanei A; Guido, Maria C; Contente, Thaís C; Maranhão, Raul C


    Purpose Lipid nanoemulsions (LDEs) that bind to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors used as carriers of paclitaxel (PTX) can decrease toxicity and increase PTX antitumoral action. The administration of simvastatin (Simva), which lowers LDL-cholesterol, was tested as an adjuvant to commercial PTX and to PTX associated with LDE (LDE-PTX). Materials and methods B16F10 melanoma-bearing mice were treated with saline solution or LDE (controls), Simva, PTX, PTX and Simva, LDE-PTX, and LDE-PTX and Simva: PTX dose 17.5 μmol/kg (three intraperitoneal injections, 3 alternate days): Simva 50 mg/kg/day by gavage, 9 consecutive days. Results Compared with saline controls, 95% tumor-growth inhibition was achieved by LDE-PTX and Simva, 61% by LDE-PTX, 44% by PTX and Simva, and 43% by PTX. Simva alone had no effect. Metastasis developed in only 37% of the LDE-PTX and Simva, 60% in LDE-PTX, and 90% in PTX and Simva groups. Survival rates were higher in LDE-PTX and Simva and in LDE-PTX groups. The LDE-PTX and Simva group presented tumors with reduced cellular density and increased collagen fibers I and III. Tumors from all groups showed reduction in immunohistochemical expression of ICAM, MCP-1, and MMP-9; LDE-PTX and Simva presented the lowest MMP-9 expression. Expression of p21 was increased in the Simva, LDE-PTX, and LDE-PTX and Simva groups. In the Simva and LDE-PTX and Simva groups, expression of cyclin D1, a proliferation and survival promoter of tumor cells, was decreased. Therapy with LDE-PTX and Simva showed negligible toxicity compared with PTX and Simva, which resulted in weight loss and myelosuppression. Conclusion Simva increased the antitumor activity of PTX carried in LDE but not of PTX commercial presentation, possibly because statins increase the expression of LDL receptors that internalize LDE-PTX. PMID:27022257

  7. Tissue Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs) Increase Pelvic Floor Muscle Mass in Ovariectomized Mice.

    Ponnusamy, Suriyan; Sullivan, Ryan D; Thiyagarajan, Thirumagal; Tillmann, Heather; Getzenberg, Robert H; Narayanan, Ramesh


    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), a prevalent condition, is represented by an involuntary leakage of urine that results, at least in part, from weakened or damaged pelvic floor muscles and is triggered by physical stress. Current treatment options are limited with no oral therapies available. The pelvic floor is rich in androgen receptor and molecules with anabolic activity including selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) may serve as therapeutic options for individuals with SUI. In this study, two SARMs (GTx-024 and GTx-027) were evaluated in a post-menopausal animal model in order to determine their effect on pelvic floor muscles. Female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and their pelvic muscles allowed to regress. The animals were then treated with vehicle or doses of GTx-024 or GTx-027. Animal total body weight, lean body mass, and pelvic floor muscle weights were measured along with the expression of genes associated with muscle catabolism. Treatment with the SARMs resulted in a restoration of the pelvic muscles to the sham-operated weight. Coordinately, the induction of genes associated with muscle catabolism was inhibited. Although a trend was observed towards an increase in total lean body mass in the SARM-treated groups, no significant differences were detected. Treatment of an ovariectomized mouse model with SARMs resulted in an increase in pelvic floor muscles, which may translate to an improvement of symptoms associated with SUI and serves as the basis for evaluating their clinical use. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 640-646, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Intake of farmed Atlantic salmon fed soybean oil increases insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation in mice.

    Lisa Kolden Midtbø

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To ensure sustainable aquaculture, fish derived raw materials are replaced by vegetable ingredients. Fatty acid composition and contaminant status of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. are affected by the use of plant ingredients and a spillover effect on consumers is thus expected. Here we aimed to compare the effects of intake of Atlantic salmon fed fish oil (FO with intake of Atlantic salmon fed a high proportion of vegetable oils (VOs on development of insulin resistance and obesity in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Atlantic salmon were fed diets where FO was partly (80% replaced with three different VOs; rapeseed oil (RO, olive oil (OO or soy bean oil (SO. Fillets from Atlantic salmon were subsequently used to prepare Western diets (WD for a mouse feeding trial. Partial replacement of FO with VOs reduced the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB and dichloro-diphenyl-tricloroethanes (DDT with more than 50% in salmon fillets, in WDs containing the fillets, and in white adipose tissue from mice consuming the WDs. Replacement with VOs, SO in particular, lowered the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content and increased n-6 PUFA levels in the salmon fillets, in the prepared WDs, and in red blood cells collected from mice consuming the WDs. Replacing FO with VO did not influence obesity development in the mice, but replacement of FO with RO improved glucose tolerance. Compared with WD-FO fed mice, feeding mice WD-SO containing lower PCB and DDT levels but high levels of linoleic acid (LA, exaggerated insulin resistance and increased accumulation of fat in the liver. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Replacement of FO with VOs in aqua feed for farmed salmon had markedly different spillover effects on metabolism in mice. Our results suggest that the content of LA in VOs may be a matter of concern that warrants further investigation.

  9. Nitric oxide availability is increased in contracting skeletal muscle from aged mice, but does not differentially decrease muscle superoxide.

    Pearson, T; McArdle, A; Jackson, M J


    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been implicated in the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs during aging. Nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide are generated by skeletal muscle and where these are generated in proximity their chemical reaction to form peroxynitrite can compete with the superoxide dismutation to hydrogen peroxide. Changes in NO availability may therefore theoretically modify superoxide and peroxynitrite activities in tissues, but published data are contradictory regarding aging effects on muscle NO availability. We hypothesised that an age-related increase in NO generation might increase peroxynitrite generation in muscles from old mice, leading to an increased nitration of muscle proteins and decreased superoxide availability. This was examined using fluorescent probes and an isolated fiber preparation to examine NO content and superoxide in the cytosol and mitochondria of muscle fibers from adult and old mice both at rest and following contractile activity. We also examined the 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and peroxiredoxin 5 (Prx5) content of muscles from mice as markers of peroxynitrite activity. Data indicate that a substantial age-related increase in NO levels occurred in muscle fibers during contractile activity and this was associated with an increase in muscle eNOS. Muscle proteins from old mice also showed an increased 3-NT content. Inhibition of NOS indicated that NO decreased superoxide bioavailability in muscle mitochondria, although this effect was not age related. Thus increased NO in muscles of old mice was associated with an increased 3-NT content that may potentially contribute to age-related degenerative changes in skeletal muscle.

  10. Hemizygosity of transsulfuration genes confers increased vulnerability against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    Hagiya, Yoshifumi; Kamata, Shotaro; Mitsuoka, Saya; Okada, Norihiko; Yoshida, Saori; Yamamoto, Junya; Ohkubo, Rika [Department of Biochemistry, Keio University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan); Abiko, Yumi [Environmental Biology Laboratory, School of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Yamada, Hidenori [Jobu Hospital for Respiratory Diseases, Maebashi 371-0048 (Japan); Akahoshi, Noriyuki [Department of Immunology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Kasahara, Tadashi [Department of Biochemistry, Keio University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan); Kumagai, Yoshito [Environmental Biology Laboratory, School of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Ishii, Isao, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry, Keio University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan)


    The key mechanism for acetaminophen hepatotoxicity is cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent formation of N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine, a potent electrophile that forms protein adducts. Previous studies revealed the fundamental role of glutathione, which binds to and detoxifies N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine. Glutathione is synthesized from cysteine in the liver, and N-acetylcysteine is used as a sole antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Here, we evaluated the potential roles of transsulfuration enzymes essential for cysteine biosynthesis, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH), in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity using hemizygous (Cbs{sup +/−} or Cth{sup +/−}) and homozygous (Cth{sup −/−}) knockout mice. At 4 h after intraperitoneal acetaminophen injection, serum alanine aminotransferase levels were highly elevated in Cth{sup −/−} mice at 150 mg/kg dose, and also in Cbs{sup +/−} or Cth{sup +/−} mice at 250 mg/kg dose, which was associated with characteristic centrilobular hepatocyte oncosis. Hepatic glutathione was depleted while serum malondialdehyde accumulated in acetaminophen-injected Cth{sup −/−} mice but not wild-type mice, although glutamate–cysteine ligase (composed of catalytic [GCLC] and modifier [GCLM] subunits) became more activated in the livers of Cth{sup −/−} mice with lower K{sub m} values for Cys and Glu. Proteome analysis using fluorescent two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed 47 differentially expressed proteins after injection of 150 mg acetaminophen/kg into Cth{sup −/−} mice; the profiles were similar to 1000 mg acetaminophen/kg-treated wild-type mice. The prevalence of Cbs or Cth hemizygosity is estimated to be 1:200–300 population; therefore, the deletion or polymorphism of either transsulfuration gene may underlie idiosyncratic acetaminophen vulnerability along with the differences in Cyp, Gclc, and Gclm gene activities. - Highlights: • Cbs{sup +/−}, Cth{sup +/−}, and

  11. Loss of PKBβ/Akt2 predisposes mice to ovarian cyst formation and increases the severity of polycystic ovary formation in vivo

    David F. Restuccia


    Ovarian cysts affect women of all ages and decrease fertility. In particular, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, in which multiple follicular cysts develop, affects 5–10% of women of reproductive age and can result in infertility. Current non-invasive treatments for PCOS can resolve cysts and restore fertility, but unresponsive patients must undergo severe ovarian wedge resection and resort to in vitro fertilization. PCOS is related to the deregulation of leutinizing hormone (LH signaling at various levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and resultant hyperproduction of androgens. Because insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia are observed in 50–70% of individuals with PCOS, deregulated insulin signaling in the ovary is considered an important factor in the disease. Here we report that aged mice specifically lacking the PKBβ (also known as Akt2 isoform that is crucial for insulin signaling develop increased testosterone levels and ovarian cysts, both of which are also observed in insulin-resistant PCOS patients. Young PKBβ knockout mice were used to model PCOS by treatment with LH and exhibited a cyst area that was threefold greater than in controls, but without hyperinsulinemia. Thus, loss of PKBβ might predispose mice to ovarian cysts independently of hyperactive insulin signaling. Targeted therapeutic augmentation of specific PKBβ signaling could therefore provide a new avenue for the treatment and management of ovarian cysts.

  12. Cholecystokinin expression in the β-cell leads to increased β-cell area in aged mice and protects from streptozotocin-induced diabetes and apoptosis.

    Lavine, Jeremy A; Kibbe, Carly R; Baan, Mieke; Sirinvaravong, Sirinart; Umhoefer, Heidi M; Engler, Kimberly A; Meske, Louise M; Sacotte, Kaitlyn A; Erhardt, Daniel P; Davis, Dawn Belt


    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide hormone produced in the gut and brain with beneficial effects on digestion, satiety, and insulin secretion. CCK is also expressed in pancreatic β-cells, but only in models of obesity and insulin resistance. Whole body deletion of CCK in obese mice leads to reduced β-cell mass expansion and increased apoptosis. We hypothesized that islet-derived CCK is important in protection from β-cell apoptosis. To determine the specific role of β-cell-derived CCK in β-cell mass dynamics, we generated a transgenic mouse that expresses CCK in the β-cell in the lean state (MIP-CCK). Although this transgene contains the human growth hormone minigene, we saw no expression of human growth hormone protein in transgenic islets. We examined the ability of MIP-CCK mice to maintain β-cell mass when subjected to apoptotic stress, with advanced age, and after streptozotocin treatment. Aged MIP-CCK mice have increased β-cell area. MIP-CCK mice are resistant to streptozotocin-induced diabetes and exhibit reduced β-cell apoptosis. Directed CCK overexpression in cultured β-cells also protects from cytokine-induced apoptosis. We have identified an important new paracrine/autocrine effect of CCK in protection of β-cells from apoptotic stress. Understanding the role of β-cell CCK adds to the emerging knowledge of classic gut peptides in intraislet signaling. CCK receptor agonists are being investigated as therapeutics for obesity and diabetes. While these agonists clearly have beneficial effects on body weight and insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues, they may also directly protect β-cells from apoptosis.

  13. Increased anxiety, voluntary alcohol consumption and ethanol-induced place preference in mice following chronic psychosocial stress.

    Bahi, Amine


    Stress exposure is known to be a risk factor for alcohol use and anxiety disorders. Comorbid chronic stress and alcohol dependence may lead to a complicated and potentially severe treatment profile. To gain an understanding of the interaction between chronic psychosocial stress and drug exposure, we studied the effects of concomitant chronic stress exposure on alcohol reward using two-bottle choice and ethanol-conditioned place preference (CPP). The study consisted of exposure of the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) mice "intruders" to an aggressive "resident" mouse for 19 consecutive days. Control mice were single housed (SHC). Ethanol consumption using two-bottle choice paradigm and ethanol CPP acquisition was assessed at the end of this time period. As expected, CSC exposure increased anxiety-like behavior and reduced weight gain as compared to SHC controls. Importantly, in the two-bottle choice procedure, CSC mice showed higher alcohol intake than SHC. When testing their response to ethanol-induced CPP, CSC mice achieved higher preference for the ethanol-paired chamber. In fact, CSC exposure increased ethanol-CPP acquisition. Taken together, these data demonstrate the long-term consequences of chronic psychosocial stress on alcohol intake in male mice, suggesting chronic stress as a risk factor for developing alcohol consumption and/or anxiety disorders.

  14. Increased ophthalmic acid production is supported by amino acid catabolism under fasting conditions in mice.

    Kobayashi, Sho; Lee, Jaeyong; Takao, Toshifumi; Fujii, Junichi


    Glutathione (GSH) plays pivotal roles in antioxidation and detoxification. The transsulfuration pathway, in conjunction with methionine metabolism, produces equimolar amounts of cysteine (Cys) and 2-oxobutyric acid (2OB). The resulting 2OB is then converted into 2-aminobutyric acid (2AB) by a transaminase and is utilized as a substitute for Cys by the GSH-synthesizing machinery to produce ophthalmic acid (OPT). By establishing a method for simultaneously measuring Cys, GSH, and OPT by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found that fasting causes an elevation in OPT levels in the liver and blood plasma, even though the levels of Cys and GSH are decreased. Autophagy was activated, but the levels of GSH/OPT-synthesizing enzymes remained unchanged. After 6 h of fasting, the mice were given 1% 2AB and/or 5% glucose in the drinking water for an additional 24 h and the above metabolites analyzed. 2AB administration caused an increase in OPT levels, and, when glucose was co-administered with 2AB, the levels of OPT were elevated further but GSH levels were decreased somewhat. These results suggest that, while Cys is utilized for glyconeogenesis under fasting conditions, reaching levels that were insufficient for the synthesis of GSH, 2OB was preferentially converted to 2AB via amino acid catabolism and was utilized as a building block for OPT. Thus the consumption of Cys and the parallel elevation of 2AB under fasting conditions appeared to force γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase to form γ-glutamyl-2AB, despite the fact that the enzyme has a higher Km value for 2AB than Cys. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. FT-Raman study of deferoxamine and deferiprone exhibits potent amelioration of structural changes in the liver tissues of mice due to aluminum exposure

    Sivakumar, S.; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Sivasubramanian, J.; Raja, B.


    The present study inform the alterations on major biochemical constituents such as lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and glycogen along with phosphodiester linkages, tryptophan bands, tyrosine doublet, disulfide bridge conformations, aliphatic hydrophobic residue, and salt bridges in liver tissues of mice using Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. In amide I, amide II and amide III, the area value significant decrease due structural alteration in the protein, glycogen and triglycerides levels but chelating agents DFP and DFO upturned it. Morphology changes by aluminium induced alterations and recovery by chelating agents within liver tissues known by histopathological examination. Concentrations of trace elements were found by ICP-OES. FT-Raman study was revealed to be in agreement with biochemical studies and demonstrate that it can successfully specify the molecular alteration in liver tissues. The tyrosyl doublet ratio I899/I831 decreases more in aluminum intoxicated tissues but treatment with DFP and DFO + DFP brings back to nearer control value. This indicates more variation in the hydrogen bonding of the phenolic hydroxyl group due to aluminum poisoning. The decreased Raman intensity ratio (I3220/I3400) observed in the aluminum induced tissues suggests a decreased water domain size, which could be interpreted in terms of weaker hydrogen-bonded molecular species of water in the aluminum intoxicated liver tissues. Finally, FT-Raman spectroscopy might be a useful tool for obtained successfully to indicate the molecular level changes.

  16. Exposure of adolescent mice to 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone increases the psychostimulant, rewarding and reinforcing effects of cocaine in adulthood.

    López-Arnau, R; Luján, M A; Duart-Castells, L; Pubill, D; Camarasa, J; Valverde, O; Escubedo, E


    3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a synthetic cathinone with powerful psychostimulant effects. It selectively inhibits the dopamine transporter (DAT) and is 10-50-fold more potent as a DAT blocker than cocaine, suggesting a high abuse liability. The main objective of the present study was to assess the consequences of an early (adolescence) MDPV exposure on the psychostimulant, rewarding and reinforcing effects induced by cocaine in adult mice. Twenty-one days after MDPV pretreatment (1.5 mg·kg(-1) , s.c., twice daily for 7 days), adult mice were tested with cocaine, using locomotor activity, conditioned place preference and self-administration (SA) paradigms. In parallel, dopamine D2 receptor density and the expression of c-Fos and ΔFosB in the striatum were determined. MDPV treatment enhanced the psychostimulant and conditioning effects of cocaine. Acquisition of cocaine SA was unchanged in mice pretreated with MDPV, whereas the breaking point achieved under a progressive ratio programme and reinstatement after extinction were higher in this group of mice. MDPV decreased D2 receptor density but increased ΔFosB expression three-fold. As expected, acute cocaine increased c-Fos expression, but MDPV pretreatment negatively influenced its expression. ΔFosB accumulation declined during MDPV withdrawal, although it remained elevated in adult mice when tested for cocaine effects. MDPV exposure during adolescence induced long-lasting adaptive changes related to enhanced responsiveness to cocaine in the adult mice that seems to lead to a higher vulnerability to cocaine abuse. This particular behaviour correlated with increased expression of ΔFosB. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Transcranial low-level laser therapy increases memory, learning, neuroprogenitor cells, BDNF and synaptogenesis in mice with traumatic brain injury

    Xuan, Weijun; Huang, Liyi; Vatansever, Fatma; Agrawal, Tanupriya; Hamblin, Michael R.


    Increasing concern is evident over the epidemic of traumatic brain injury in both civilian and military medicine, and the lack of approved treatments. Transcranial low level laser therapy tLLLT) is a new approach in which near infrared laser is delivered to the head, penetrates the scalp and skull to reach the brain. We asked whether tLLLT at 810-nm could improve memory and learning in mice with controlled cortical impact traumatic brain injury. We investigated the mechanism of action by immunofluorescence studies in sections from brains of mice sacrificed at different times. Mice with TBI treated with 1 or 3 daily laser applications performed better on Morris Water Maze test at 28 days. Laser treated mice had increased BrdU incorporation into NeuN positive cells in the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone indicating formation of neuroprogenitor cells at 7 days and less at 28 days. Markers of neuron migration (DCX and Tuj1) were also increased, as was the neurotrophin, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) at 7 days. Markers of synaptogenesis (formation of new connections between existing neurons) were increased in the perilesional cortex at 28 days. tLLLT is proposed to be able to induce the brain to repair itself after injury. However its ability to induce neurogenesis and synaptogenesis suggests that tLLLT may have much wider applications to neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders.

  18. Increased visceral sensitivity to capsaicin after DSS-induced colitis in mice : spinal cord c-Fos expression and behavior

    Eijkelkamp, Niels; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Schedlowski, Manfred; Holtmann, Gerald; Heijnen, Cobi J.


    Increased visceral sensitivity to capsaicin after DSS-induced colitis in mice: spinal cord c-Fos expression and behavior. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 293: G749-G757, 2007. First published July 26, 2007; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00114.2007.During acute and chronic inflammation visceral pain perc

  19. Increased visceral sensitivity to capsaicin after DSS-induced colitis in mice : spinal cord c-Fos expression and behavior

    Eijkelkamp, Niels; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Schedlowski, Manfred; Holtmann, Gerald; Heijnen, Cobi J.


    Increased visceral sensitivity to capsaicin after DSS-induced colitis in mice: spinal cord c-Fos expression and behavior. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 293: G749-G757, 2007. First published July 26, 2007; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00114.2007.During acute and chronic inflammation visceral pain

  20. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein {beta} deletion increases mitochondrial function and protects mice from LXR-induced hepatic steatosis