WorldWideScience

Sample records for mhz frequency acoustic

  1. Challenges and regulatory considerations in the acoustic measurement of high-frequency (>20 MHz) ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Samuel M; Sundar, Guru; Schafer, Mark E; Harris, Gerald R; Vaezy, Shahram; Gessert, James M; Howard, Samuel M; Moore, Mary K; Eaton, Richard M

    2013-11-01

    This article examines the challenges associated with making acoustic output measurements at high ultrasound frequencies (>20 MHz) in the context of regulatory considerations contained in the US Food and Drug Administration industry guidance document for diagnostic ultrasound devices. Error sources in the acoustic measurement, including hydrophone calibration and spatial averaging, nonlinear distortion, and mechanical alignment, are evaluated, and the limitations of currently available acoustic measurement instruments are discussed. An uncertainty analysis of acoustic intensity and power measurements is presented, and an example uncertainty calculation is done on a hypothetical 30-MHz high-frequency ultrasound system. This analysis concludes that the estimated measurement uncertainty of the acoustic intensity is +73%/-86%, and the uncertainty in the mechanical index is +37%/-43%. These values exceed the respective levels in the Food and Drug Administration guidance document of 30% and 15%, respectively, which are more representative of the measurement uncertainty associated with characterizing lower-frequency ultrasound systems. Recommendations made for minimizing the measurement uncertainty include implementing a mechanical positioning system that has sufficient repeatability and precision, reconstructing the time-pressure waveform via deconvolution using the hydrophone frequency response, and correcting for hydrophone spatial averaging.

  2. Determination of acoustic impedances of multi matching layers for narrowband ultrasonic airborne transducers at frequencies <2.5 MHz - Application of a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffar, Saber; Abdullah, Amir

    2012-01-01

    obtained acoustic impedances do not necessarily correspond to a nowadays available material. Consequently, the values of the acoustic impedances are switched to the nearest values in a large material database. The switched values of the acoustic impedances do not generally give efficient transmission coefficients. Therefore, we proposed, in a second step, the use of a genetic algorithm (GA) to select the best acoustic impedances for matching layers from the material database for a narrow band ultrasonic transducer that work at frequency below the 2.5MHz by considering attenuation. However this bank is rich, the results get better. So the accuracy of the propose method increase by using a lot of materials with exact data for acoustic impedance and their attenuation, especially in high frequency. This yields highly more efficient transmission coefficient. In fact by using increasing number of layer we can increase our chance to find the best sets of materials with valuable both in acoustic impedance and low attenuation. Precisely, the transmission coefficient is almost equal to unity for the all studied cases. Finally the effect of thickness on transmission coefficient is investigated for different layers. The results showed that the transmission coefficient for air media is a function of thickness and sensitive to it even for small variation in thickness. In fact, the sensitivity increases when the differences of acoustic impedances to be high (difference between PZT and air). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Frequency Arrangement For 700 MHz Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancans G.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The 694-790 MHz (700 MHz band was allocated by the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12 in ITU Region 1 (Europe included, to the mobile service on a co-primary basis with other services to which this band was allocated on the primary basis and identified for the International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT. At the same time, the countries of Region 1 will be able also to continue using these frequencies for their broadcasting services if necessary. This allocation will be effective immediately after 2015 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-15. In order to make the best possible use of this frequency band for mobile service, a worldwide harmonized frequency arrangement is to be prepared to allow for large economies of scale and international roaming as well as utilizing the available spectrum in the best possible way, minimizing possible interference between services, facilitating deployment and cross-border coordination. The authors analyze different possible frequency arrangements and conclude on the frequency arrangement most suitable for Europe.

  4. Resonance Frequency Readout Circuit for a 900 MHz SAW Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heng; Zhang, Chun; Weng, Zhaoyang; Guo, Yanshu; Wang, Zhihua

    2017-09-15

    A monolithic resonance frequency readout circuit with high resolution and short measurement time is presented for a 900 MHz RF surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor. The readout circuit is composed of a fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL) as the stimulus source to the SAW device and a phase-based resonance frequency detecting circuit using successive approximation (SAR). A new resonance frequency searching strategy has been proposed based on the fact that the SAW device phase-frequency response crosses zero monotonically around the resonance frequency. A dedicated instant phase difference detecting circuit is adopted to facilitate the fast SAR operation for resonance frequency searching. The readout circuit has been implemented in 180 nm CMOS technology with a core area of 3.24 mm². In the experiment, it works with a 900 MHz SAW resonator with a quality factor of Q = 130. Experimental results show that the readout circuit consumes 7 mW power from 1.6 V supply. The frequency resolution is 733 Hz, and the relative accuracy is 0.82 ppm, and it takes 0.48 ms to complete one measurement. Compared to the previous results in the literature, this work has achieved the shortest measurement time with a trade-off between measurement accuracy and measurement time.

  5. Characterization of Definity™ Ultrasound Contrast Agent at Frequency Range of 5–15 MHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faez, Telli; Goertz, David; de Jong, N.

    2011-01-01

    The status of vasa vasorum, which can be imaged using ultrasound contrast agents, is an indication for the progression of atherosclerosis. The preferred ultrasound frequency for this purpose is between 5 and 15 MHz. Therefore, it is essential to have knowledge about the acoustic properties of

  6. Thrombolysis using multi-frequency high intensity focused ultrasound at MHz range: an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo, Dingjie; Guo, Sijia; Jiang, Xiaoning; Jing, Yun; Lin, Weili

    2015-01-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) based thrombolysis has emerged as a promising drug-free treatment approach for ischemic stroke. The large amount of acoustic power required by this approach, however, poses a critical challenge to the future clinical translation. In this study, multi-frequency acoustic waves at MHz range (near 1.5 MHz) were introduced as HIFU excitations to reduce the required power for treatment as well as the treatment time. In vitro bovine blood clots weighing around 150 mg were treated by single-frequency and multi-frequency HIFU. The pulse length was 2 ms for all experiments except the ones where the duty cycle was changed. It was found that dual-frequency thrombolysis efficiency was statistically better than single-frequency under the same acoustic power and excitation condition. When varying the acoustic power but fixing the duty cycle at 5%, it was found that dual-frequency ultrasound can save almost 30% power in order to achieve the same thrombolysis efficiency. In the experiment where the duty cycle was increased from 0.5% to 10%, it was shown that dual-frequency ultrasound can achieve the same thrombolysis efficiency with only half of the duty cycle of single-frequency. Dual-frequency ultrasound could also accelerate the thrombolysis by a factor of 2–4 as demonstrated in this study. No significant differences were found between dual-frequencies with different frequency differences (0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 MHz) and between dual-frequency and triple-frequency. The measured cavitation doses of dual-frequency and triple-frequency excitations were at about the same level but both were significantly higher than that of single-frequency. (paper)

  7. High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Darrell R

    2007-01-01

    High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics is the first book in a new series sponsored by the Office of Naval Research on the latest research in underwater acoustics. This exciting new title provides ready access to experimental data, theory, and models relevant to high-frequency seafloor acoustics and will be of interest to sonar engineers and researchers working in underwater acoustics. The physical characteristics of the seafloor affecting acoustic propagation and scattering are covered, including physical and geoacoustic properties and surface roughness. Current theories for acoustic propagation in sediments are presented along with corresponding models for reflection, scattering, and seafloor penetration. The main text is backed up by an extensive bibliography and technical appendices.

  8. Charge domain filter operating up to 20 MHz clock frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gal, R.A.J.; Wallinga, Hans

    1983-01-01

    An analog sampled data low pass third order Butterworth filter has been realised in a buried channel CCD technology. This Charge Domain Filter, composed of transversal and recursive CCD filter sections, has been tested at clock frequencies up to 20 MHz.

  9. Evaluation Of Electromagnetic Fields For Frequencies 900 MHz-1 800 MHz In Tirana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuqi Dhurata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The massive use of mobile phone as a communication tool nowadays is accompanied the ever increasing interest of the public and researchers for the possibly impact on human health as a result of exposure to the electromagnetic fields that accompany these devices. Therefore knowing the level of exposure electromagnetic fields of this electronic equipment has been and will be in the future interest object to the public and the subject of study for the researchers. In this paper are presents the results of measurements of electromagnetic fields for the frequencies 900 MHz - 1800 MHz used in mobile telephone in Tirana. These frequencies are included in the area radio frequency RF and Microwave MW 300 Hz - 300 GHz in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves and belong to non-ionizing radiation. The measurements were performed in different areas of Tirana. The purpose is to assess the level of exposure electromagnetic fields especially near areas where mobile antennas are mounted construction of dynamic digital mapping and comparison with the permitted levels of the exposure defined by the International Commission of Non Ionizing Radiation Protection ICNIRP. Through this publication the aim of the authors is to provide real information and reliable for the population.

  10. Design of 1 MHz Solid State High Frequency Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Darshan; Singh, N. P.; Gajjar, Sandip; Thakar, Aruna; Patel, Amit; Raval, Bhavin; Dhola, Hitesh; Dave, Rasesh; Upadhay, Dishang; Gupta, Vikrant; Goswami, Niranjan; Mehta, Kush; Baruah, Ujjwal

    2017-04-01

    High Frequency Power supply (HFPS) is used for various applications like AM Transmitters, metallurgical applications, Wireless Power Transfer, RF Ion Sources etc. The Ion Source for a Neutral beam Injector at ITER-India uses inductively coupled power source at High Frequency (∼1 MHz). Switching converter based topology used to generate 1 MHz sinusoidal output is expected to have advantages on efficiency and reliability as compared to traditional RF Tetrode tubes based oscillators. In terms of Power Electronics, thermal and power coupling issues are major challenges at such a high frequency. A conceptual design for a 200 kW, 1 MHz power supply and a prototype design for a 600 W source been done. The prototype design is attempted with Class-E amplifier topology where a MOSFET is switched resonantly. The prototype uses two low power modules and a ferrite combiner to add the voltage and power at the output. Subsequently solution with Class-D H-Bridge configuration have been evaluated through simulation where module design is stable as switching device do not participate in resonance, further switching device voltage rating is substantially reduced. The rating of the modules is essentially driven by the maximum power handling capacity of the MOSFETs and ferrites in the combiner circuit. The output passive network including resonance tuned network and impedance matching network caters for soft switching and matches the load impedance to 50ohm respectively. This paper describes the conceptual design of a 200 kW high frequency power supply and experimental results of the prototype 600 W, 1 MHz source.

  11. Design of 1 MHz solid state high frequency power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Darshan Kumar; Singh, N.P.; Gajjar, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    A High Voltage High Frequency (HVHF) Power supply is used for various applications, like AM Transmitters, metallurgical applications, Wireless Power Transfer, RF Ion Sources, etc. The Ion Source for a Neutral beam Injector at ITER-India uses inductively coupled power source at High Frequency (∼ 1 MHz). Switching converter based topology used to generate 1 MHz sinusoidal output is expected to have advantages on efficiency and reliability as compared to traditional RF Tetrode tubes based oscillators. In terms of Power Electronics, thermal and power coupling issues are major challenges at such a high frequency. A conceptual design for a 200 kW, 1 MHz power supply and a prototype design for a 600W source been done. The prototype design is attempted with Class-E amplifier topology where a MOSFET is switched resonantly. The prototype uses two low power modules and a ferrite combiner to add the voltage and power at the output. Subsequently solution with class-D H-Bridge configuration have been evaluated through simulation where module design is stable as switching device do not participate in resonance, further switching device voltage rating is substantially reduced. The rating of the modules is essentially driven by the maximum power handling capacity of the MOSFETs and ferrites in the combiner circuit. The output passive network including resonance tuned network and impedance matching network caters for soft switching and matches the load impedance to 50 ohm respectively. This paper describes the conceptual design of a 200 kW power supply and experimental results of the prototype 600 W, 1 MHz source. (author)

  12. Effects of 415 MHz frequency on human lymphocyte genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garaj-Vrhovac, V.; Fucic, A.; Kubelka, D.; Vojvodic, S.

    1996-01-01

    The continuously increasing use of artificial sources of electromagnetic radiation in industry and medicine has been accompanied in everyday life with telecommunication systems which is followed with great interest in possible hazardous effects of this type of radiation. The interesting applications of mobile telecommunications and the use of cellular phones are of topic interest. Numerous cytogenetic investigations are focused on the effects of microwave radiation from mobile communications frequency of 450 and 950 MHz on isolated cells in vitro. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of microwaves from mobile telephone frequencies on human peripheral blood lymphocytes cultured in vitro. (author)

  13. Experimental Limits on Gravitational Waves in the MHz frequency Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza, Robert Jr. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This thesis presents the results of a search for gravitational waves in the 1-11MHz frequency range using dual power-recycled Michelson laser interferometers at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. An unprecedented level of sensitivity to gravitational waves in this frequency range has been achieved by cross-correlating the output fluctuations of two identical and colocated 40m long interferometers. This technique produces sensitivities better than two orders of magnitude below the quantum shot-noise limit, within integration times of less than 1 hour. 95% confidence level upper limits are placed on the strain amplitude of MHz frequency gravitational waves at the 10-21 Hz-1/2 level, constituting the best direct limits to date at these frequencies. For gravitational wave power distributed over this frequency range, a broadband upper limit of 2.4 x 10-21Hz-1/2 at 95% confidence level is also obtained. This thesis covers the detector technology, the commissioning and calibration of the instrument, the statistical data analysis, and the gravitational wave limit results. Particular attention is paid to the end-to-end calibration of the instrument’s sensitivity to differential arm length motion, and so to gravitational wave strain. A detailed statistical analysis of the data is presented as well.

  14. Very high frequency (beyond 100 MHz) PZT kerfless linear arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Da-Wei; Zhou, Qifa; Geng, Xuecang; Liu, Chang-Geng; Djuth, Frank; Shung, K Kirk

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and measurements of very high frequency kerfless linear arrays prepared from PZT film and PZT bulk material. A 12-microm PZT thick film fabricated from PZT-5H powder/solution composite and a piece of 15-microm PZT-5H sheet were used to fabricate 32-element kerfless high-frequency linear arrays with photolithography. The PZT thick film was prepared by spin-coating of PZT sol-gel composite solution. The thin PZT-5H sheet sample was prepared by lapping a PZT-5H ceramic with a precision lapping machine. The measured results of the 2 arrays were compared. The PZT film array had a center frequency of 120 MHz, a bandwidth of 60% with a parylene matching layer, and an insertion loss of 41 dB. The PZT ceramic sheet array was found to have a center frequency of 128 MHz with a poorer bandwidth (40% with a parylene matching layer) but a better sensitivity (28 dB insertion loss).

  15. Frequency effects on the scale and behavior of acoustic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentry, Michael B; Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James R

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic streaming underpins an exciting range of fluid manipulation phenomena of rapidly growing significance in microfluidics, where the streaming often assumes the form of a steady, laminar jet emanating from the device surface, driven by the attenuation of acoustic energy within the beam of sound propagating through the liquid. The frequencies used to drive such phenomena are often chosen ad hoc to accommodate fabrication and material issues. In this work, we seek a better understanding of the effects of sound frequency and power on acoustic streaming. We present and, using surface acoustic waves, experimentally verify a laminar jet model that is based on the turbulent jet model of Lighthill, which is appropriate for acoustic streaming seen at micro- to nanoscales, between 20 and 936 MHz and over a broad range of input power. Our model eliminates the critically problematic acoustic source singularity present in Lighthill's model, replacing it with a finite emission area and enabling determination of the streaming velocity close to the source. At high acoustic power P (and hence high jet Reynolds numbers ReJ associated with fast streaming), the laminar jet model predicts a one-half power dependence (U∼P1/2∼ ReJ) similar to the turbulent jet model. However, the laminar model may also be applied to jets produced at low powers-and hence low jet Reynolds numbers ReJ-where a linear relationship between the beam power and streaming velocity exists: U∼P∼ReJ2. The ability of the laminar jet model to predict the acoustic streaming behavior across a broad range of frequencies and power provides a useful tool in the analysis of microfluidics devices, explaining peculiar observations made by several researchers in the literature. In particular, by elucidating the effects of frequency on the scale of acoustically driven flows, we show that the choice of frequency is a vitally important consideration in the design of small-scale devices employing acoustic streaming

  16. Highly Localized Acoustic Streaming and Size-Selective Submicrometer Particle Concentration Using High Frequency Microscale Focused Acoustic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Ai, Ye

    2016-05-17

    Concentration and separation of particles and biological specimens are fundamental functions of micro/nanofluidic systems. Acoustic streaming is an effective and biocompatible way to create rapid microscale fluid motion and induce particle capture, though the >100 MHz frequencies required to directly generate acoustic body forces on the microscale have traditionally been difficult to generate and localize in a way that is amenable to efficient generation of streaming. Moreover, acoustic, hydrodynamic, and electrical forces as typically applied have difficulty manipulating specimens in the submicrometer regime. In this work, we introduce highly focused traveling surface acoustic waves (SAW) at high frequencies between 193 and 636 MHz for efficient and highly localized production of acoustic streaming vortices on microfluidic length scales. Concentration occurs via a novel mechanism, whereby the combined acoustic radiation and streaming field results in size-selective aggregation in fluid streamlines in the vicinity of a high-amplitude acoustic beam, as opposed to previous acoustic radiation induced particle concentration where objects typically migrate toward minimum pressure locations. Though the acoustic streaming is induced by a traveling wave, we are able to manipulate particles an order of magnitude smaller than possible using the traveling wave force alone. We experimentally and theoretically examine the range of particle sizes that can be captured in fluid streamlines using this technique, with rapid particle concentration demonstrated down to 300 nm diameters. We also demonstrate that locations of trapping and concentration are size-dependent, which is attributed to the combined effects of the acoustic streaming and acoustic forces.

  17. Development of disposable membrane hydrophones for a frequency range from 1MHz to 10MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Wan; Ohm, Won-Suk; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2017-11-01

    A method for fabricating disposable membrane hydrophones is presented. The disposable hydrophones are intended for onetime use in such damaging environments as chemically contaminating fluids and high-amplitude (peak amplitude ∼100MPa) shock wave fields, where the use of commercial membrane hydrophones is not recommended. Fabrication of a hydrophone is done using only off-the-shelf components and hand tools, which translates into ease of fabrication and orders-of-magnitude reduction in unit cost. In particular, poling and sputtering, the two processes that are chiefly responsible for the cost and difficulty associated with the conventional fabrication method, are replaced with the use of pre-poled polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-coated aluminum foils, respectively. Despite the seemingly crude construction, these disposable hydrophones can exhibit voltage sensitivity response that compares favorably with that of commercial hydrophones. For example, one prototype having a 2mm×2mm active element shows the end-of-cable voltage sensitivity of -270 (±1.9) dB re 1V/μPa over the frequency range of 1-10MHz. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analytical and numerical calculations of optimum design frequency for focused ultrasound therapy and acoustic radiation force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, A Sanlı

    2011-10-01

    Focused ultrasound therapy relies on acoustic power absorption by tissue. The stronger the absorption the higher the temperature increase is. However, strong acoustic absorption also means faster attenuation and limited penetration depth. Hence, there is a trade-off between heat generation efficacy and penetration depth. In this paper, we formulated the acoustic power absorption as a function of frequency and attenuation coefficient, and defined two figures of merit to measure the power absorption: spatial peak of the acoustic power absorption density, and the acoustic power absorbed within the focal area. Then, we derived "rule of thumb" expressions for the optimum frequencies that maximized these figures of merit given the target depth and homogeneous tissue type. We also formulated a method to calculate the optimum frequency for inhomogeneous tissue given the tissue composition for situations where the tissue structure can be assumed to be made of parallel layers of homogeneous tissue. We checked the validity of the rules using linear acoustic field simulations. For a one-dimensional array of 4cm acoustic aperture, and for a two-dimensional array of 4×4cm(2) acoustic aperture, we found that the power absorbed within the focal area is maximized at 0.86MHz, and 0.79MHz, respectively, when the target depth is 4cm in muscle tissue. The rules on the other hand predicted the optimum frequencies for acoustic power absorption as 0.9MHz and 0.86MHz, respectively for the 1D and 2D array case, which are within 6% and 9% of the field simulation results. Because radiation force generated by an acoustic wave in a lossy propagation medium is approximately proportional to the acoustic power absorption, these rules can be used to maximize acoustic radiation force generated in tissue as well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Two efficient methods for measuring hydrophone frequency response in the 100 kHz to 2 MHz range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, G R; Maruvada, S; Gammell, P M

    2004-01-01

    As new medical applications of ultrasound emerge with operating frequencies in the hundreds of kilohertz to low megahertz region, it becomes more important to have convenient calibration methods for hydrophones in this frequency range. Furthermore, short diagnostic ultrasound pulses affected by finite amplitude distortion require that the hydrophone frequency response be known well below the center frequency. National standards laboratories can provide accurate calibration data at these frequencies, but the two methods now employed, laser interferometry and three-transducer reciprocity, are both single-frequency techniques, and they can be time-consuming procedures. Therefore, two efficient methods for generating a wideband acoustic pressure spectrum have been implemented to cover this frequency range. In one method a high-voltage pulse generator was used to excite a thick piezoelectric ceramic disk, producing a plane-wave acoustic pressure transient <1 μs in duration with peak amplitude of about 40 kPa. In the other technique, time delay spectrometry (TDS), a purpose-built 1-3 piezoelectric composite source transducer weakly focused at 20 cm was swept over the 0-2 MHz range. Its transmitting voltage response at 1 MHz was 11 kPa/V. The broadband pulse technique has the advantage of being simpler to implement, but TDS has a much greater signal-to-noise ratio because of the frequency-swept narrowband filter employed

  20. High-frequency attenuation and backscatter measurements of rat blood between 30 and 60 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chih-Chung

    2010-01-01

    There has recently been a great deal of interest in noninvasive high-frequency ultrasound imaging of small animals such as rats due to their being the preferred animal model for gene therapy and cancer research. Improving the interpretation of the obtained images and furthering the development of the imaging devices require a detailed knowledge of the ultrasound attenuation and backscattering of biological tissue (e.g. blood) at high frequencies. In the present study, the attenuation and backscattering coefficients of the rat red blood cell (RBC) suspensions and whole blood with hematocrits ranging from 6% to 40% were measured between 30 and 60 MHz using a modified substitution approach. The acoustic parameters of porcine blood under the same conditions were also measured in order to compare differences in the blood properties between these two animals. For porcine blood, both whole blood and RBC suspension were stirred at a rotation speed of 200 rpm. Three different rotation speeds of 100, 200 and 300 rpm were carried out for rat blood experiments. The attenuation coefficients of both rat and porcine blood were found to increase linearly with frequency and hematocrit (the values of coefficients of determination (r 2 ) are around 0.82-0.97 for all cases). The average attenuation coefficient of rat whole blood with a hematocrit of 40% increased from 0.26 Nepers mm -1 at 30 MHz to 0.47 Nepers mm -1 at 60 MHz. The maximum backscattering coefficients of both rat and porcine RBC suspensions were between 10% and 15% hematocrits at all frequencies. The fourth-power dependence of backscatter on frequency was approximately valid for rat RBC suspensions with hematocrits between 6% and 40%. However, the frequency dependence of the backscatter estimate deviates from a fourth-power law for porcine RBC suspension with hematocrit higher than 20%. The backscattering coefficient plateaued for hematocrits higher than 15% in porcine blood, but for rat blood it was maximal around a

  1. High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Darren W

    2013-05-07

    A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.

  2. Examination of High Frequency MHz Rheology of Filled Polymer Composites and Photopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chyi-Huey Joshua

    The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is a versatile characterization tool capable of tracking changes in areal mass and high frequency MHz rheology of micron thick films. The QCM primarily consists of a single quartz disc with electrodes deposited on both sides of the disc. Due to the piezoelectric nature of quartz, introduction of an oscillating voltage near the resonance condition of the quartz disc produces a traveling shear wave that can be measured with electrical admittance analysis. This technique behaves like an acoustic reflectometer, where an induced mechanical shear wave propagates and reflects at the interfaces between material layers with differing acoustic impedances. Based on how the shear wave interacts with the interfaces, information on the material properties can be quantitatively modeled. In this dissertation, a quantitative approach of determining the magnitude and sources of error is presented, so that interpretation of viscoelastic information and areal mass changes can be performed with confidence. Specifically, the role of anharmonic coupling with harmonic modes are explored and simulated with COMSOL Multiphysics. Several case studies motivating and highlighting the utility of the QCM is presented. The fracture and thermal aging behavior of several nanofilled silicone elastomers are examined using traditional mechanical tests, such as pure shear geometry and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Results can be qualitatively explained by the concept of dynamic mechanical heterogeneity, where a high mechanical contrast is desired for high fracture toughness. However, DMA results can be difficult to interpret (especially at shifted high frequencies) due to thermal rheological complexity, a characteristic commonly found in many polymer composites. This motivates the application of the QCM, where MHz viscoelastic behavior can be directly probed, providing insight on the dissipative behavior at local length scales. Investigation of polysilicate

  3. 47 CFR 90.259 - Assignment and use of frequencies in the bands 216-220 MHz and 1427-1432 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MHz band are secondary to the Wireless Medical Telemetry Service except in the locations specified in... operations are secondary to the Wireless Medical Telemetry Service in the 1429-1431.5 MHz band. (3) All... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment and use of frequencies in the bands...

  4. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hong-xiang, E-mail: jsdxshx@ujs.edu.cn [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yuan, Shou-qi, E-mail: Shouqiy@ujs.edu.cn [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhang, Shu-yi [Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-11-23

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices.

  5. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hong-xiang; Yuan, Shou-qi; Zhang, Shu-yi

    2015-01-01

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices

  6. Observation of the low-frequency ion acoustic instability in the turbulently heated TRIAM-1 tokamak plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitarai, O; Watanabe, T; Nakamura, Y; Nakamura, K; Hiraki, N; Toi, K; Kawai, Y; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1980-12-01

    Density fluctuations in the frequency range of several MHz are observed in the turbulently heated TRIAM-1 tokamak plasma by means of a 4 mm microwave scattering method. It is found from the measurement of the dispersion relation that this instability is considered to be the low-frequency ion acoustic instability propagating nearly perpendicular to the toroidal magnetic field.

  7. Fundamental Frequency Tuning and Its Influence on LHC 200MHz ACN Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Linnecar, Trevor Paul R; Tückmantel, Joachim; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division

    2001-01-01

    To study the influence of the tuner on the fundamental mode frequency, the Q factor as well as the shunt impedance of the LHC 200MHz ACN cavities, 3D simulations have been done in the frequency domain using MAFIA. Curves giving the variation of RF frequency and other RF parameters with tuner position relative to the inner surface of the cavity have been obtained for the fundamental mode. This paper details the simulation results.

  8. Experimental study of underwater transmission characteristics of high-frequency 30 MHz polyurea ultrasonic transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Marie; Aoyagi, Takahiro; Tabaru, Masaya; Nakamura, Kentaro; Ueha, Sadayuki

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present the transmission characteristics of a polyurea ultrasonic transducer operating in water. In this study, we used a polyurea transducer with fundamental resonance at approximately 30 MHz. Firstly, acoustic pressure radiated from the transducer was measured using a hydrophone, which has a diameter of 0.2 mm. The transmission characteristics such as relative bandwidth, pulse width, and acoustic sensitivity were calculated from the experimental results. The results of the experiment showed a relative bandwidth of 50% and a pulse width of 0.061 μs. The acoustic sensitivity was 0.60 kPa/V with good linearity, where the correlation coefficient R in the fitting calculation was 0.996. A maximum pressure of 13.1 kPa was observed when the transducer was excited at a zero-to-peak voltage of 21 V. Moreover, we experimentally verified the results. The results of the pulse/echo experiment showed that the estimated diameters of the copper wires were 458 and 726 μm, where the differences between the actual and measured values were 15% and 4%, respectively. Acoustic streaming was also observed so that a particle velocity map was estimated by particle image velocimetry (PIV). The sound pressure calculated from the particle velocity obtained by PIV showed good agreement with the acoustic pressure measured using the hydrophone, where the differences between the calculated and measured values were 12-19%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Extreme Low Frequency Acoustic Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is an extremely low frequency (ELF) microphone and acoustic measurement system capable of infrasound detection in a portable and easily deployable form factor. In one embodiment of the invention, an extremely low frequency electret microphone comprises a membrane, a backplate, and a backchamber. The backchamber is sealed to allow substantially no air exchange between the backchamber and outside the microphone. Compliance of the membrane may be less than ambient air compliance. The backplate may define a plurality of holes and a slot may be defined between an outer diameter of the backplate and an inner wall of the microphone. The locations and sizes of the holes, the size of the slot, and the volume of the backchamber may be selected such that membrane motion is substantially critically damped.

  10. Multiharmonic Frequency-Chirped Transducers for Surface-Acoustic-Wave Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, Matthias; Hörner, Andreas L.; Zallo, Eugenio; Atkinson, Paola; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Wixforth, Achim; Krenner, Hubert J.

    2018-01-01

    Wide-passband interdigital transducers are employed to establish a stable phase lock between a train of laser pulses emitted by a mode-locked laser and a surface acoustic wave generated electrically by the transducer. The transducer design is based on a multiharmonic split-finger architecture for the excitation of a fundamental surface acoustic wave and a discrete number of its overtones. Simply by introducing a variation of the transducer's periodicity p , a frequency chirp is added. This combination results in wide frequency bands for each harmonic. The transducer's conversion efficiency from the electrical to the acoustic domain is characterized optomechanically using single quantum dots acting as nanoscale pressure sensors. The ability to generate surface acoustic waves over a wide band of frequencies enables advanced acousto-optic spectroscopy using mode-locked lasers with fixed repetition rate. Stable phase locking between the electrically generated acoustic wave and the train of laser pulses is confirmed by performing stroboscopic spectroscopy on a single quantum dot at a frequency of 320 MHz. Finally, the dynamic spectral modulation of the quantum dot is directly monitored in the time domain combining stable phase-locked optical excitation and time-correlated single-photon counting. The demonstrated scheme will be particularly useful for the experimental implementation of surface-acoustic-wave-driven quantum gates of optically addressable qubits or collective quantum states or for multicomponent Fourier synthesis of tailored nanomechanical waveforms.

  11. A novel method for determining calibration and behavior of PVDF ultrasonic hydrophone probes in the frequency range up to 100 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, H J; Lewin, P A

    2000-01-01

    A new calibration technique for PVDF ultrasonic hydrophone probes is described. Current implementation of the technique allows determination of hydrophone frequency response between 2 and 100 MHz and is based on the comparison of theoretically predicted and experimentally determined pressure-time waveforms produced by a focused, circular source. The simulation model was derived from the time domain algorithm that solves the non linear KZK (Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov) equation describing acoustic wave propagation. The calibration technique data were experimentally verified using independent calibration procedures in the frequency range from 2 to 40 MHz using a combined time delay spectrometry and reciprocity approach or calibration data provided by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), UK. The results of verification indicated good agreement between the results obtained using KZK and the above-mentioned independent calibration techniques from 2 to 40 MHz, with the maximum discrepancy of 18% at 30 MHz. The frequency responses obtained using different hydrophone designs, including several membrane and needle probes, are presented, and it is shown that the technique developed provides a desirable tool for independent verification of primary calibration techniques such as those based on optical interferometry. Fundamental limitations of the presented calibration method are also examined.

  12. Design Study for 10MHz Beam Frequency of Post-Accelerated RIBs at HIE-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, M A; Magdau, I B

    2013-01-01

    An increased bunch spacing of approximately 100 ns is requested by several research groups targeting experimental physics at HIE-ISOLDE. A design study testing the feasibility of retrofitting the existing 101.28MHz REX (Radioactive ion beam EXperiment) RFQ [1] with a subharmonic external pre-buncher at the ISOLDE radioactive nuclear beam facility has been carried out as a means of decreasing the beam frequency by a factor of 10. The proposed scheme for the 10MHz bunch repetition frequency is presented and its performance assessed with beam dynamics simulations. The opportunity to reduce the longitudinal emittance formed in the RFQ is discussed along with the options for chopping the satellite bunches populated in the bunching process.

  13. Observation of solar radio bursts using swept-frequency radiospectrograph in 20 - 40 MHz band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Takashi; Oya, Hiroshi.

    1987-01-01

    A new station for the observation of solar decametric radio bursts has been developed at Miyagi Vocational Training College in Tsukidate, Miyagi, Japan. Using the swept frequency radiospectrograph covering a frequency range from 20 MHz to 40 MHz within 200 msec, with bandwidth of 30 kHz, the radio outbursts from the sun have been currently monitored with colored dynamic spectrum display. After July 1982, successful observations provide the data which include all types of solar radio bursts such as type I, II, III, IV and V in the decametric wavelength range. In addition to these typical radio bursts, rising tone bursts with fast drift rate followed by strong type III bursts and a series of bursts repeating rising and falling tone bursts with slow drift rate have been observed. (author)

  14. Sustaining GHz oscillation of carbon nanotube based oscillators via a MHz frequency excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motevalli, Benyamin; Taherifar, Neda; Liu, Jefferson Zhe

    2016-01-01

    There have been intensive studies to investigate the properties of gigahertz nano-oscillators based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Many of these studies, however, revealed that the unique telescopic translational oscillations in such devices would damp quickly due to various energy dissipation mechanisms. This challenge remains the primary obstacle against its practical applications. Herein, we propose a design concept in which a GHz oscillation could be re-excited by a MHz mechanical motion. This design involves a triple-walled CNT, in which sliding of the longer inner tube at a MHz frequency can re-excite and sustain a GHz oscillation of the shorter middle tube. Our molecular dynamics (MD) simulations prove this design concept at ∼10 nm scale. A mathematical model is developed to explore the feasibility at a larger size scale. As an example, in an oscillatory system with the CNT’s length above 100 nm, the high oscillatory frequency range of 1.8–3.3 GHz could be excited by moving the inner tube at a much lower frequency of 53.4 MHz. This design concept together with the mechanical model could energize the development of GHz nano-oscillators in miniaturized electro-mechanical devices. (paper)

  15. New fabrication of high-frequency (100-MHz) ultrasound PZT film kerfless linear array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Benpeng; Chan, Ngai Yui; Dai, Jiyan; Shung, K Kirk; Takeuchi, Shinichi; Zhou, Qifa

    2013-04-01

    The paper describes the design, fabrication, and measurements of a high-frequency ultrasound kerfless linear array prepared from hydrothermal lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thick film. The 15-μm hydrothermal PZT thick film with an area of 1 × 1 cm, obtained through a self-separation process from Ti substrate, was used to fabricate a 32-element 100-MHz kerfless linear array with photolithography. The bandwidth at -6 dB without matching layer, insertion loss around center frequency, and crosstalk between adjacent elements were measured to be 39%, -30 dB, and -15 dB, respectively.

  16. Electromagnetic Compatibility Studies: LTE BS vs. Aeronautical Radionavigation Services in 694-790 MHz Frequency Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankevičius Evaldas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the sharing analysis of the 694–790 MHz frequency band for Mobile services IMT and Aeronautical radio-navigation services (ARNS using SEAMCAT (established by CEPT software based on the statistical simulation (Monte-Carlo method. In 2012 the World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12 decided to allocate the 694–790 MHz frequency band (the so-called 700 MHz band to mobile services IMT (excluding aeronautical mobile after WRC-15 conference. But this agreement raises electromagnetic compatibility problems, which should be solved until WRC-15 [1]. This study was carried out in two phases: first applying theoretical analysis, then statistical Monte-Carlo simulations with SEAMCAT software tool in order to verify results obtained in theoretical approach. Analytical calculations shows that the required protection distances between ARNS stations and the MS base stations are 132 km. The obtained results from SEAMCAT simulations indicate that separation distance should be above 100 km. These results illustrate that the systems are not electromagnetically compatible. The possible mitigation technic could be antenna pattern correction.

  17. Model Equation for Acoustic Nonlinear Measurement of Dispersive Specimens at High Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Kushibiki, Junichi; Zou, Wei

    2006-10-01

    We present a theoretical model for acoustic nonlinearity measurement of dispersive specimens at high frequency. The nonlinear Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation governs the nonlinear propagation in the SiO2/specimen/SiO2 multi-layer medium. The dispersion effect is considered in a special manner by introducing the frequency-dependant sound velocity in the KZK equation. Simple analytic solutions are derived by applying the superposition technique of Gaussian beams. The solutions are used to correct the diffraction and dispersion effects in the measurement of acoustic nonlinearity of cottonseed oil in the frequency range of 33-96 MHz. Regarding two different ultrasonic devices, the accuracies of the measurements are improved to ±2.0% and ±1.3% in comparison with ±9.8% and ±2.9% obtained from the previous plane wave model.

  18. Micro-machined high-frequency (80 MHz) PZT thick film linear arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qifa; Wu, Dawei; Liu, Changgeng; Zhu, Benpeng; Djuth, Frank; Shung, K

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents the development of a micromachined high-frequency linear array using PZT piezoelectric thick films. The linear array has 32 elements with an element width of 24 μm and an element length of 4 mm. Array elements were fabricated by deep reactive ion etching of PZT thick films, which were prepared from spin-coating of PZT sol-gel composite. Detailed fabrication processes, especially PZT thick film etching conditions and a novel transferring-and-etching method, are presented and discussed. Array designs were evaluated by simulation. Experimental measurements show that the array had a center frequency of 80 MHz and a fractional bandwidth (-6 dB) of 60%. An insertion loss of -41 dB and adjacent element crosstalk of -21 dB were found at the center frequency.

  19. An impedance bridge measuring the capacitance ratio in the high frequency range up to 1 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dan Bee; Lee, Hyung Kew; Kim, Wan-Seop

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a 2-terminal-pair impedance bridge, measuring the capacitance ratio in the high frequency range up to 1 MHz. The bridge was configured with two voltage sources and a phase control unit which enabled the bridge balance by synchronizing the voltage sources with an enhanced phase resolution. Without employing the transformers such as inductive voltage divider, injection and detection transformers, etc, the bridge system is quite simple to set up, and the balance procedure is quick and easy. Using this dual-source coaxial bridge, the 1:1 and 10:1 capacitance ratios were measured with 1 pF–1 nF capacitors in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The measurement values obtained by the dual-source bridge were then compared with reference values measured using a commercial precision capacitance bridge of AH2700A, the Z -matrix method developed by ourselves, and the 4-terminal-pair coaxial bridge by the Czech Metrological Institute. All the measurements agreed within the reference uncertainty range of an order of 10 −6 –10 −5 , proving the bridge ability as a trustworthy tool for measuring the capacitance ratio in the high frequency range. (paper)

  20. GaN-based High Efficiency Bidirectional DC-DC Converter with 10 MHz Switching Frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Kristian; Zhang, Zhe; Elbo, Mads

    2017-01-01

    -isolated bidirectional DC-DC converter equipped with Gallium Nitride (GaN) semiconductor transistors is presented. The converter’s operation principles, zero-voltage switching (ZVS) constraints and dead-time effects are studied. Moreover, the optimization and tradeoffs on the adopted high-frequency inductor...... are achieved. Moreover, the measured losses can match the theoretically calculated counterparts well, therefore the design and analysis are verified. However, from the experimental test carried out, it can also be seen, that making a compact converter, even for a GaN-based one, operate at 10 MHz and 100 W...

  1. High-frequency modulation of ion-acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    A large amplitude, high-frequency electromagnetic oscillation is impressed on a nonrelativistic, collisionless plasma from an external source. The frequency is chosen to be far from the plasma frequency (in fact, lower). The resulting electron velocity distribution function strongly modifies the propagation of ion-acoustic waves parallel to the oscillating electric field. The complex frequency is calculated numerically.

  2. Geometric optimization of the 56 MHz SRF cavity and its frequency table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, X.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2008-01-01

    It is essential to know the frequency of a Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavity at its 'just being fabricated' stage because frequency is the key parameter in constructing the cavity. In this paper, we report our work on assessing it. We can estimate the frequency change from stage to stage theoretically and/or by simulation. At the operating stage, the frequency can be calculated accurately, and, from this value, we obtain the frequencies at other stages. They are listed in a table that serves to check the processes from stage to stage. Equally important is optimizing the geometric shape of the SRF cavity so that the peak electric-field and peak magnetic-field are as low as possible. It is particularly desirable in the 56MHz SRF cavity of RHIC to maximize the frequency sensitivity of the slow tuner. After undertaking such optimization, our resultant peak electric-field is only 44.1MV/m, and the peak magnetic-field is 1049G at 2.5MV of voltage across the cavity gap. To quench superconductivity in an SRF cavity, it is reported that the limit of the peak magnetic-field is 1800G (1), and that of the peak electric-field is more than l00MV/m for a SRF cavity (2). Our simulations employed the codes Superfish and Microwave Studio

  3. Electromagnetic design of a β=0.9, 650 MHz elliptic superconducting radio frequency cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Arup Ratan; Kumar, V.

    2011-01-01

    We have recently performed two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetic design studies of a β=0.9, 650 MHz, elliptic superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavity using electromagnetic field solver code SUPERFISH. We have evolved the design starting from the design parameters of β=1, 1300 MHz, TESLA design SCRF cavity and then scaled it for the β=0.9 and 650 MHz case. The design has been optimized for minimizing the SCRF cavity power loss. One of the important parameters in the design of such elliptic SCRF cavities is the wall angle, which is defined as the vertical angle made by the common tangent to the iris and equator ellipses. Generally, there is a constraint on the minimum value of the wall angle, which is decided by the mechanical considerations, ease of chemical cleaning etc. In our optimization studies, we have first explored the case when there is no such constraint on wall angle. We find that from the point of view of low cavity power dissipation, the optimized design has a re-entrant geometry, where the wall angle is negative. We then perform design optimization, keeping the constraint that the wall angle should be greater than 5 degree. Keeping this constraint, we find that our optimized design parameters for the single cell match closely with the design parameters reported for Project-X. We discuss the results of 2D electromagnetic field calculations for this design using SUPERFISH. In the next, we have performed the design studies of the multi-cell β=0.9, 650 MHz, elliptic SCRF cavity. The design parameters of end-cells are optimized such that the frequency of the end-cell is matched to that of mid-cells. We have studied all the normal modes for the multi-cell cavity. The frequency of different normal modes is also calculated using a finite element code ANSYS and results are compared with those obtained using SUPERFISH. The field flatness, which is an important design criterion, is also studied. For multi-cell cavity, another important aspect is the cell

  4. Transcranial cavitation-mediated ultrasound therapy at sub-MHz frequency via temporal interference modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Sutton, Jonathan T.; Power, Chanikarn; Zhang, Yongzhi; Miller, Eric L.; McDannold, Nathan J.

    2017-10-01

    Sub-megahertz transmission is not usually adopted in pre-clinical small animal experiments for focused ultrasound (FUS) brain therapy due to the large focal size. However, low frequency FUS is vital for preclinical evaluations due to the frequency-dependence of cavitation behavior. To maximize clinical relevance, a dual-aperture FUS system was designed for low-frequency (274.3 kHz) cavitation-mediated FUS therapy. Combining two spherically curved transducers provides significantly improved focusing in the axial direction while yielding an interference pattern with strong side lobes, leading to inhomogeneously distributed cavitation activities. By operating the two transducers at slightly offset frequencies to modulate this interference pattern over the period of sonication, the acoustic energy was redistributed and resulted in a spatially homogenous treatment profile. Simulation and pressure field measurements in water were performed to assess the beam profiles. In addition, the system performance was demonstrated in vivo in rats via drug delivery through microbubble-mediated blood-brain barrier disruption. This design resulted in a homogenous treatment profile that was fully contained within the rat brain at a clinically relevant acoustic frequency.

  5. rf measurements and tuning of the 750 MHz radio frequency quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubek, Benjamin; Grudiev, Alexej; Timmins, Marc

    2017-08-01

    In the framework of the program on medical applications a compact 750 MHz RFQ has been designed and built to be used as an injector for a hadron therapy linac. This RFQ was designed to accelerate protons to an energy of 5 MeV within only 2 m length. It is divided into four segments and equipped with 32 tuners in total. The length of the RFQ corresponds to 5 λ which is considered to be close to the limit for field adjustment using only piston tuners. Moreover the high frequency, which is about double the frequency of existing RFQs, results in a sensitive structure and requires careful tuning. In this paper we present the tuning algorithm, the tuning procedure and rf measurements of the RFQ.

  6. rf measurements and tuning of the 750 MHz radio frequency quadrupole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Koubek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the program on medical applications a compact 750 MHz RFQ has been designed and built to be used as an injector for a hadron therapy linac. This RFQ was designed to accelerate protons to an energy of 5 MeV within only 2 m length. It is divided into four segments and equipped with 32 tuners in total. The length of the RFQ corresponds to 5λ which is considered to be close to the limit for field adjustment using only piston tuners. Moreover the high frequency, which is about double the frequency of existing RFQs, results in a sensitive structure and requires careful tuning. In this paper we present the tuning algorithm, the tuning procedure and rf measurements of the RFQ.

  7. Performance characterisation of a passive cavitation detector optimised for subharmonic periodic shock waves from acoustic cavitation in MHz and sub-MHz ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Kristoffer; Song, Jae Hee; Prentice, Paul

    2018-05-01

    We describe the design, construction and characterisation of a broadband passive cavitation detector, with the specific aim of detecting low frequency components of periodic shock waves, with high sensitivity. A finite element model is used to guide selection of matching and backing layers for the shock wave passive cavitation detector (swPCD), and the performance is evaluated against a commercially available device. Validation of the model, and characterisation of the swPCD is achieved through experimental detection of laser-plasma bubble collapse shock waves. The final swPCD design is 20 dB more sensitive to the subharmonic component, from acoustic cavitation driven at 220 kHz, than the comparable commercial device. This work may be significant for monitoring cavitation in medical applications, where sensitive detection is critical, and higher frequencies are more readily absorbed by tissue. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ohmic heating of peaches in the wide range of frequencies (50 Hz to 1 MHz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynkaryk, Mykola V; Ji, Taehyun; Alvarez, Valente B; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2010-09-01

    The ohmic heating (OH) rate of peaches was studied at fixed electric field strength of 60 V.cm⁻¹, square-shaped instant reversal bipolar pulses, and frequencies varying within 50 Hz to 1 MHz. Thermal damage of tissue was evaluated from electrical admittivity. It showed that the time for half disruption (τ(T)) of tissue was required more than 10 h at temperatures below 40 °C. However, cellular thermal disruption occurred almost instantly (τ(T) 90 °C). Electrical conductivity σ(o) and admittivity σ(o)* of tissue at T(o)= 0 °C and their temperature coefficients (m, m*) were calculated. For freeze-thawed tissues, σ and σ* as well as m and m* were nearly indifferent to the frequency. However, for the intact tissue, both σ(o), σ(o)* and m, m* were frequency dependent. For freeze-thawed product, the power factor (P) was approximately equal to 1 and indifferent to the frequency and temperature. On the other hand, strong frequency dependence was observed for intact tissue with the minimum P approximately equal to 0.68 in the range of tens of kHz. The time required to reach a target temperature t(f) was evaluated. The t(f) increased with frequency up to the middle of the range of tens of kHz and thereafter continuously decreased. Samples exposed to the low-frequency electric field demonstrated faster electro-thermal damage rates. The textural relaxation data supported more intense damage kinetics at low-frequency OH. It has been demonstrated that a combination of high-frequency OH with pasteurization at moderate temperature followed by rapid cooling minimizes texture degradation of peach tissue. In this study, we investigated the electric field frequency effect on the rate of OH of peaches. It was shown that the time required for reaching the target temperature is strongly dependent upon the frequency. Samples exposed to low-frequency OH demonstrated higher electro-thermal damage rates. It has been shown that the combination of high-frequency OH with

  9. Development of an automatic frequency control system for an X-band (=9300 MHz) RF electron linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sungsu, E-mail: sscha@kaeri.re.kr [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byung Cheol [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung Dal [Radiation Technology eXcellence(RTX), Daejeon 34025 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hyun [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University(SKKU), Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Buaphad, Pikad [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Radiation Technology eXcellence(RTX), Daejeon 34025 (Korea, Republic of); Accelerator and Nuclear Fusion Physical Engineering, University of Science and Technology(UST), Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-21

    KAERI is developing a 6 MeV X-band radio frequency (RF) electron linear accelerator for medical purposes. The proposed X-band accelerator consists of an e-gun, an accelerating structure, two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, a modulator, and an automatic frequency control (AFC) system. The accelerating structure of the component consists of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the ambient temperature changes the volume, and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure also changes. If the RF frequency of a 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure do not match, it can degrade the performance. That is, it will decrease the output power, lower the beam current, decrease the X-ray dose rate, increase the reflection power, and result in unstable operation of the accelerator. Accelerator operation should be possible at any time during all four seasons. To prevent humans from being exposed to radiation when it is operated, the accelerator should also be operable through remote monitoring and remote control. Therefore, the AFC system is designed to meet these requirements; it is configured based on the concept of a phase-locked loop (PLL) model, which includes an RF section, an intermediate frequency (IF) [1-3] section, and a local oscillator (LO) section. Some resonance frequency controllers use a DC motor, chain, and potentiometer to store the position and tune the frequency [4,5]. Our AFC system uses a step motor to tune the RF frequency of the magnetron. The maximum tuning turn number of our magnetron frequency tuning shaft is ten. Since the RF frequency of our magnetron is 9300±25 MHz, it gives 5 MHz (∵±25 MHz/10 turns → 50 MHz/10 turns =5 MHz/turn) frequency tuning per turn. The rotation angle of our step motor is 0.72° per step and the total step number per one rotation is 360°/0.72°=500 steps. Therefore, the tuning range per step is 10 kHz/step (=5 MHz per turn/500 steps per

  10. Development of an automatic frequency control system for an X-band (=9300 MHz) RF electron linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byung Cheol; Park, Hyung Dal; Lee, Seung Hyun; Buaphad, Pikad

    2017-05-01

    KAERI is developing a 6 MeV X-band radio frequency (RF) electron linear accelerator for medical purposes. The proposed X-band accelerator consists of an e-gun, an accelerating structure, two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, a modulator, and an automatic frequency control (AFC) system. The accelerating structure of the component consists of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the ambient temperature changes the volume, and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure also changes. If the RF frequency of a 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure do not match, it can degrade the performance. That is, it will decrease the output power, lower the beam current, decrease the X-ray dose rate, increase the reflection power, and result in unstable operation of the accelerator. Accelerator operation should be possible at any time during all four seasons. To prevent humans from being exposed to radiation when it is operated, the accelerator should also be operable through remote monitoring and remote control. Therefore, the AFC system is designed to meet these requirements; it is configured based on the concept of a phase-locked loop (PLL) model, which includes an RF section, an intermediate frequency (IF) [1-3] section, and a local oscillator (LO) section. Some resonance frequency controllers use a DC motor, chain, and potentiometer to store the position and tune the frequency [4,5]. Our AFC system uses a step motor to tune the RF frequency of the magnetron. The maximum tuning turn number of our magnetron frequency tuning shaft is ten. Since the RF frequency of our magnetron is 9300±25 MHz, it gives 5 MHz (∵±25 MHz/10 turns → 50 MHz/10 turns =5 MHz/turn) frequency tuning per turn. The rotation angle of our step motor is 0.72° per step and the total step number per one rotation is 360°/0.72°=500 steps. Therefore, the tuning range per step is 10 kHz/step (=5 MHz per turn/500 steps per

  11. Development of an automatic frequency control system for an X-band (=9300 MHz) RF electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byung Cheol; Park, Hyung Dal; Lee, Seung Hyun; Buaphad, Pikad

    2017-01-01

    KAERI is developing a 6 MeV X-band radio frequency (RF) electron linear accelerator for medical purposes. The proposed X-band accelerator consists of an e-gun, an accelerating structure, two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, a modulator, and an automatic frequency control (AFC) system. The accelerating structure of the component consists of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the ambient temperature changes the volume, and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure also changes. If the RF frequency of a 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure do not match, it can degrade the performance. That is, it will decrease the output power, lower the beam current, decrease the X-ray dose rate, increase the reflection power, and result in unstable operation of the accelerator. Accelerator operation should be possible at any time during all four seasons. To prevent humans from being exposed to radiation when it is operated, the accelerator should also be operable through remote monitoring and remote control. Therefore, the AFC system is designed to meet these requirements; it is configured based on the concept of a phase-locked loop (PLL) model, which includes an RF section, an intermediate frequency (IF) [1-3] section, and a local oscillator (LO) section. Some resonance frequency controllers use a DC motor, chain, and potentiometer to store the position and tune the frequency [4,5]. Our AFC system uses a step motor to tune the RF frequency of the magnetron. The maximum tuning turn number of our magnetron frequency tuning shaft is ten. Since the RF frequency of our magnetron is 9300±25 MHz, it gives 5 MHz (∵±25 MHz/10 turns → 50 MHz/10 turns =5 MHz/turn) frequency tuning per turn. The rotation angle of our step motor is 0.72° per step and the total step number per one rotation is 360°/0.72°=500 steps. Therefore, the tuning range per step is 10 kHz/step (=5 MHz per turn/500 steps per

  12. Operating experience of upgraded radio frequency source at 76 MHz coupled to heavy ion RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Manjiri; Shiju, A.; Patel, N.R.; Shrotriya, S.D.; Bhagwat, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A heavy ion radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator has been developed at BARC (BARC). A RF source which was designed and developed at 76 MHz earlier, has been upgraded and coupled to heavy ion RFQ successfully. The DC bias supplies of this source have been replaced with new supplies having high efficiency and well filteration against RF interference (RFI). The driver of main power amplifier has been replaced with indigenously designed and developed unit. The earlier introduced microcontroller based interlock experienced RF noise issues. So, this circuit has been modified with the new circuit. With these modifications, the performance of the RF source was improved. Additionally, a separate low power RF source of around 100 + Watt was designed, developed and integrated with RFQ for its RF conditioning. This paper describes the details of up gradation of technologies implemented and coupling experience of this RF source with heavy ion RFQ. (author)

  13. Modulation of auroral electron fluxes in the frequency range 50 kHz to 10 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiger, R. J.; Murphree, J. S.; Anderson, H. R.; Loewenstein, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    A sounding rocket-borne electron detector of high time resolution is used to search for modulation of auroral electron fluxes in the frequency range 50 kHz to 10 MHz and energy range 5-7 keV. Data were telemetered to ground via a 93-kHz subcarrier. A cross-correlation analysis of the data collected indicates low-level modulation near the detection threshold of the instrument. Two U-1 events are observed which are interpreted as indications of modulation. The two modulation events occur during a period of increasing flux for a region marking the boundary between two current sheets detected by the payload magnetometer. The strongest argument against interference contamination is the lack of any observable modulation at times other than those mentioned in the study.

  14. An adjustable multi-scale single beam acoustic tweezers based on ultrahigh frequency ultrasonic transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyang; Lam, Kwok Ho; Chen, Ruimin; Chen, Zeyu; Yu, Ping; Chen, Zhongping; Shung, K Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports the fabrication, characterization, and microparticle manipulation capability of an adjustable multi-scale single beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT) that is capable of flexibly changing the size of "tweezers" like ordinary metal tweezers with a single-element ultrahigh frequency (UHF) ultrasonic transducer. The measured resonant frequency of the developed transducer at 526 MHz is the highest frequency of piezoelectric single crystal based ultrasonic transducers ever reported. This focused UHF ultrasonic transducer exhibits a wide bandwidth (95.5% at -10 dB) due to high attenuation of high-frequency ultrasound wave, which allows the SBAT effectively excite with a wide range of excitation frequency from 150 to 400 MHz by using the "piezoelectric actuator" model. Through controlling the excitation frequency, the wavelength of ultrasound emitted from the SBAT can be changed to selectively manipulate a single microparticle of different sizes (3-100 μm) by using only one transducer. This concept of flexibly changing "tweezers" size is firstly introduced into the study of SBAT. At the same time, it was found that this incident ultrasound wavelength play an important role in lateral trapping and manipulation for microparticle of different sizes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2637-2647. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Acoustic properties of a porous glass (vycor) at hypersonic frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levelut, C; Pelous, J

    2007-01-01

    Brillouin scattering experiments have been performed from 5 to 1600 K in vycor, a porous silica glass. The acoustic velocity and attenuation at hypersonic frequencies are compared to those of bulk silica and others porous silica samples. The experimental evidence for the influence of porosity on the scattering by acoustic waves is compared to calculations. The correlation between internal friction and thermal conductivity at low temperature is discussed

  16. 1950MHz Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation Inhibits Testosterone Secretion of Mouse Leydig Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan-Yun; Wu, Tao; Liu, Jun-Ye; Gao, Peng; Li, Kang-Chu; Guo, Qi-Yan; Yuan, Meng; Lang, Hai-Yang; Zeng, Li-Hua; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2017-12-23

    More studies that are focused on the bioeffects of radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation that is generated from the communication devices, but there were few reports with confirmed results about the bioeffects of RF radiation on reproductive cells. To explore the effects of 1950 MHz RF electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on mouse Leydig (TM3) cells. TM3 cells were irradiated or sham-irradiated continuously for 24 h by the specific absorption rate (SAR) 3 W/kg radiation. At 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days after irradiation, cell proliferation was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method, cell cycle distribution, percentage of apoptosis, and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined by flow cytometry, Testosterone level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression level of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and P450scc in TM3 cells was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After being irradiated for 24 h, cell proliferation obviously decreased and cell cycle distribution, secretion capacity of Testosterone, and P450scc mRNA level were reduced. While cell apoptosis, ROS, and StAR mRNA level did not change significantly. The current results indicated that 24 h of exposure at 1950 MHz 3 W/kg radiation could cause some adverse effects on TM3 cells proliferation and Testosterone secretion, further studies about the biological effects in the reproductive system that are induced by RF radiation are also needed.

  17. 162.5 MHz digital low-level radio frequency control monitoring system design and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ruifeng; Wang Xianwu; Xu Zhe; Yi Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    162.5 MHz high-frequency low-level control system self-developed by Institute of Modern Physics for ADS project took digital technology. All parameters' reading and writing, including loop parameter setting, open and close-loop operation, and condition monitoring, were achieved through the monitoring system. The system used lightweight client-server working mode that client running in the PC sent command data, server running on high-frequency digital low level system responded instructions to complete parameter monitoring and control. The system consisted of three parts. Firstly, server hardware system was constructed based on Atera Stratix Ⅲ family of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) development board. Secondly, the server software system was designed based on Micro C/OS Ⅱ real-time operating systems and lightweight TCP/IP protocol stack, and finally a client PC program was designed based on MFC. After a long test, it was indicated that the monitoring system works properly and stably. TCP sends and receives throughput reached 11.931038 Mbps and 8.117624 Mbps. (authors)

  18. 47 CFR 90.315 - Special provisions governing use of frequencies in the 476-494 MHz band (TV Channels 15, 16, 17...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in the 476-494 MHz band (TV Channels 15, 16, 17) in the Southern Louisiana-Texas Offshore Zone. 90... RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz (UHF-TV Sharing) § 90.315 Special provisions governing use of frequencies in the 476-494 MHz band (TV Channels 15, 16...

  19. High Frequency Acoustic Propagation using Level Set Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    solution of the high frequency approximation to the wave equation. Traditional solutions to the Eikonal equation in high frequency acoustics are...the Eikonal equation derived from the high frequency approximation to the wave equation, ucuH ∇±=∇ )(),( xx , with the nonnegative function c(x...For simplicity, we only consider the case ucuH ∇+=∇ )(),( xx . Two difficulties must be addressed when solving the Eikonal equation in a fixed

  20. Low frequency acoustic properties of bilayer membrane acoustic metamaterial with magnetic oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nansha Gao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A bilayer membrane acoustic metamaterial was proposed to overcome the influence of the mass law on traditional acoustic materials and obtain a lightweight thin-layer structure that can effectively isolate low frequency noise. The finite element analysis (FEA results agree well with the experimental results. It is proved that the sound transmission losses (STLs of the proposed structures are higher than those of same surface density acoustic materials. The introduction of the magnetic mass block is different from the traditional design method, in which only a passive mass block is fixed on the membrane. The magnetic force will cause tension in the membrane, increase membrane prestress, and improve overall structural stiffness. The effects of the geometry size on the STLs are discussed in detail. The kind of method presented in this paper can provide a new means for engineering noise control. Keywords: Bilayer membrane acoustic metamaterial, Low frequency sound insulation, Sound transmission loss, Magnet oscillator

  1. 47 CFR 90.267 - Assignment and use of frequencies in the 450-470 MHz band for low power use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-470 MHz band for low power use. 90.267 Section 90.267 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Special Frequencies or Frequency Bands § 90.267 Assignment and use of frequencies in the 450-470 MHz band... medical radio telemetry device with an output power not to exceed 20 milliwatts without specific...

  2. Nanoliter-droplet acoustic streaming via ultra high frequency surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Richie J; Travagliati, Marco; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco

    2014-08-06

    The relevant length scales in sub-nanometer amplitude surface acoustic wave-driven acoustic streaming are demonstrated. We demonstrate the absence of any physical limitations preventing the downscaling of SAW-driven internal streaming to nanoliter microreactors and beyond by extending SAW microfluidics up to operating frequencies in the GHz range. This method is applied to nanoliter scale fluid mixing. © 2014 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Cyclic stress at mHz frequencies aligns fibroblasts in direction of zero strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Faust

    Full Text Available Recognition of external mechanical signals is vital for mammalian cells. Cyclic stretch, e.g. around blood vessels, is one such signal that induces cell reorientation from parallel to almost perpendicular to the direction of stretch. Here, we present quantitative analyses of both, cell and cytoskeletal reorientation of umbilical cord fibroblasts. Cyclic strain of preset amplitudes was applied at mHz frequencies. Elastomeric chambers were specifically designed and characterized to distinguish between zero strain and minimal stress directions and to allow accurate theoretical modeling. Reorientation was only induced when the applied stretch exceeded a specific amplitude, suggesting a non-linear response. However, on very soft substrates no mechanoresponse occurs even for high strain. For all stretch amplitudes, the angular distributions of reoriented cells are in very good agreement with a theory modeling stretched cells as active force dipoles. Cyclic stretch increases the number of stress fibers and the coupling to adhesions. We show that changes in cell shape follow cytoskeletal reorientation with a significant temporal delay. Our data identify the importance of environmental stiffness for cell reorientation, here in direction of zero strain. These in vitro experiments on cultured cells argue for the necessity of rather stiff environmental conditions to induce cellular reorientation in mammalian tissues.

  4. Direct and sustained intracellular delivery of exogenous molecules using acoustic-transfection with high frequency ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sangpil; Kim, Min Gon; Chiu, Chi Tat; Hwang, Jae Youn; Kim, Hyung Ham; Wang, Yingxiao; Shung, K. Kirk

    2016-02-01

    Controlling cell functions for research and therapeutic purposes may open new strategies for the treatment of many diseases. An efficient and safe introduction of membrane impermeable molecules into target cells will provide versatile means to modulate cell fate. We introduce a new transfection technique that utilizes high frequency ultrasound without any contrast agents such as microbubbles, bringing a single-cell level targeting and size-dependent intracellular delivery of macromolecules. The transfection apparatus consists of an ultrasonic transducer with the center frequency of over 150 MHz and an epi-fluorescence microscope, entitled acoustic-transfection system. Acoustic pulses, emitted from an ultrasonic transducer, perturb the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane of a targeted single-cell to induce intracellular delivery of exogenous molecules. Simultaneous live cell imaging using HeLa cells to investigate the intracellular concentration of Ca2+ and propidium iodide (PI) and the delivery of 3 kDa dextran labeled with Alexa 488 were demonstrated. Cytosolic delivery of 3 kDa dextran induced via acoustic-transfection was manifested by diffused fluorescence throughout whole cells. Short-term (6 hr) cell viability test and long-term (40 hr) cell tracking confirmed that the proposed approach has low cell cytotoxicity.

  5. Dielectric and acoustical high frequency characterisation of PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, Janine; Muralt, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Pb(Zr, Ti)O 3 (PZT) is an interesting material for bulk acoustic wave resonator applications due to its high electromechanical coupling constant, which would enable fabrication of large bandwidth frequency filters. The major challenge of the PZT solid solution system is to overcome mechanical losses generally observed in PZT ceramics. To increase the understanding of these losses in textured thin films, thin film bulk acoustic resonators (TFBAR's) based on PZT thin films with compositions either in the tetragonal region or at the morphotropic phase boundary and (111) or {100} textures were fabricated and studied up to 2 GHz. The dielectric and elastic materials coefficients were extracted from impedance measurements at the resonance frequency. The dispersion of the dielectric constant was obtained from impedance measurements up to 2 GHz. The films with varying compositions, textures and deposition methods (sol-gel or sputtering) were compared in terms of dielectric and acoustical properties.

  6. Dielectric and acoustical high frequency characterisation of PZT thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Janine; Muralt, Paul

    2010-02-01

    Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) is an interesting material for bulk acoustic wave resonator applications due to its high electromechanical coupling constant, which would enable fabrication of large bandwidth frequency filters. The major challenge of the PZT solid solution system is to overcome mechanical losses generally observed in PZT ceramics. To increase the understanding of these losses in textured thin films, thin film bulk acoustic resonators (TFBAR's) based on PZT thin films with compositions either in the tetragonal region or at the morphotropic phase boundary and (111) or {100} textures were fabricated and studied up to 2 GHz. The dielectric and elastic materials coefficients were extracted from impedance measurements at the resonance frequency. The dispersion of the dielectric constant was obtained from impedance measurements up to 2 GHz. The films with varying compositions, textures and deposition methods (sol-gel or sputtering) were compared in terms of dielectric and acoustical properties.

  7. Nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet using a combination of 50 kHz/2 MHz dual-frequency power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yong-Jie; Yuan, Qiang-Hua; Li, Fei; Wang, Xiao-Min; Yin, Gui-Qin; Dong, Chen-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure plasma jet is generated by dual sinusoidal wave (50 kHz and 2 MHz). The dual-frequency plasma jet exhibits the advantages of both low frequency and radio frequency plasmas, namely, the long plasma plume and the high electron density. The radio frequency ignition voltage can be reduced significantly by using dual-frequency excitation compared to the conventional radio frequency without the aid of the low frequency excitation source. A larger operating range of α mode discharge can be obtained using dual-frequency excitation which is important to obtain homogeneous and low-temperature plasma. A larger controllable range of the gas temperature of atmospheric pressure plasma could also be obtained using dual-frequency excitation

  8. High frequency and pulse scattering physical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Pierce, Allan D

    1992-01-01

    High Frequency and Pulse Scattering investigates high frequency and pulse scattering, with emphasis on the phenomenon of echoes from objects. Geometrical and catastrophe optics methods in scattering are discussed, along with the scattering of sound pulses and the ringing of target resonances. Caustics and associated diffraction catastrophes are also examined.Comprised of two chapters, this volume begins with a detailed account of geometrically based approximation methods in scattering theory, focusing on waves transmitted through fluid and elastic scatterers and glory scattering; surface ray r

  9. A low frequency acoustic insulator by using the acoustic metasurface to a Helmholtz resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic metasurfaces (AMSs are able to manipulate wavefronts at an anomalous angle through a subwavelength layer. Their application provide a new way to control sound waves in addition to traditional materials. In this work, we introduced the AMS into the design of a Helmholtz resonator (HR and studied the acoustic transmission through the modified HR in a pipe with one branch. The variation of sound insulation capacity with the phase gradient of the AMS was studied, and the results show that the AMS can remarkably lower the frequency band of the sound insulation without increasing the size. Our investigation provides a new degree of freedom for acoustic control with a Helmholtz resonator, which is of great significance in acoustic metasurface theory and sound insulation design.

  10. A low frequency acoustic insulator by using the acoustic metasurface to a Helmholtz resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiang; Cai, Li; Yu, Dianlong; Lu, Zhimiao; Wen, Jihong

    2017-06-01

    Acoustic metasurfaces (AMSs) are able to manipulate wavefronts at an anomalous angle through a subwavelength layer. Their application provide a new way to control sound waves in addition to traditional materials. In this work, we introduced the AMS into the design of a Helmholtz resonator (HR) and studied the acoustic transmission through the modified HR in a pipe with one branch. The variation of sound insulation capacity with the phase gradient of the AMS was studied, and the results show that the AMS can remarkably lower the frequency band of the sound insulation without increasing the size. Our investigation provides a new degree of freedom for acoustic control with a Helmholtz resonator, which is of great significance in acoustic metasurface theory and sound insulation design.

  11. Bubble dynamics under acoustic excitation with multiple frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y N; Li, S C

    2015-01-01

    Because of its magnificent mechanical and chemical effects, acoustic cavitation plays an important role in a broad range of biomedical, chemical and mechanical engineering problems. Particularly, irradiation of the multiple frequency acoustic wave could enhance the effects of cavitation. The advantages of employment of multi-frequency ultrasonic field include decreasing the cavitation thresholds, promoting cavitation nuclei generation, increasing the mass transfer and improving energy efficiency. Therefore, multi-frequency ultrasonic systems are employed in a variety of applications, e.g., to enhance the intensity of sonoluminenscence, to increase efficiency of sonochemical reaction, to improve the accuracy of ultrasound imaging and the efficiency of tissue ablation. Compared to single-frequency systems, a lot of new features of bubble dynamics exist in multi-frequency systems, such as special properties of oscillating bubbles, unique resonances in the bubble response curves, and unusual chaotic behaviours. In present paper, the underlying mechanisms of the cavitation effects under multi-frequency acoustical excitation are also briefly introduced

  12. Simulation and fabrication of 0-3 composite PZT films for ultrahigh frequency (100-300 MHz) ultrasonic transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyang; Fei, Chunlong; Chen, Zeyu; Chen, Ruimin; Yu, Ping; Chen, Zhongping; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents simulation, fabrication, and characterization of single-element ultrahigh frequency (100-300-MHz) needle ultrasonic transducers based on 0-3 composite Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films prepared by using composite ceramic sol-gel film and sol-infiltration technique. The center frequency of the developed transducer at 300-MHz was the highest frequency of PbTiO3 ceramic-based ultrasonic transducers ever reported. Furthermore, a brief description of the composite model was followed by the development of a new expression for predicting the longitudinal velocity, the clamped dielectric constant, and the complex electromechanical coupling coefficient kt of these films, which is very important in ultrasonic transducer design. Moreover, these parameters are difficult to obtain by measuring the frequency dependence of impedance and phase angle because of the weak signal of the previous 0-3 composite films transducer (>100 MHz). The modeling results show that the Cubes model with a geometric factor n = 0.05 fits well with the measured data. This model will be helpful for developing the 0-3 composite systems for ultrahigh frequency ultrasonic transducer design.

  13. Temporal evolution of electron density in a low pressure pulsed two-frequency (60 MHz/2 MHz) capacitively coupled plasma discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirse, N; Ellingboe, A R; Jeon, M H; Yeom, G Y

    2014-01-01

    Time-resolved electron density, n e , is measured in a low pressure pulsed two-frequency capacitively coupled plasma discharge sustained in Ar and in Ar/CF 4 /O 2 (80 : 10 : 10) gas mixture using a floating resonance hairpin probe. The top electrode is powered by 60 MHz in pulse mode and the bottom electrode is powered by 2 MHz in continuous wave mode. The dependence of time-resolved n e on the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) power levels, operating gas pressure, pulse repetition frequency (PRF) and duty cycle are investigated. It is found that the steady state n e in the long on-phase is greatly influenced by the HF power level and slightly affected by the LF power level in both Ar and Ar/CF 4 /O 2 plasma. The decay time of n e is slow (∼30–90 µs) in the case of Ar plasma and strongly depends on the LF power level, whereas in the case of Ar/CF 4 /O 2 gas mixture it is very fast (∼15 µs) and marginally dependent on LF power level. In Ar plasma the steady state n e is increasing with a rise in operating gas pressure, however, in Ar/CF 4 /O 2 plasma it first increases with gas pressure reaching to the maximum (at 20 mTorr) value and then decreases. The pressure dependence of decay time constant mimics the pressure variation of steady state n e . Furthermore, it is observed that the on-phase electron density is greatly affected by changing the PRF and duty cycle. This effect is more prominent in Ar/CF 4 /O 2 plasma when compared to Ar discharge. In addition, n e is observed to overshoot the steady state densities in the beginning of the on-phase in Ar/CF 4 /O 2 gas mixture, but this effect is either small or absent in the case of Ar plasma. (paper)

  14. Electromagnetic emission from terrestrial lightning in the 0.1-30 MHz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karashtin, A. N.; Gurevich, A. V.

    Results of measurements carried out at SURA facility of Radiophisical Research Institute and at Tien-Shan Mountain Scientific Station of Lebedev Physical Institute using specially designed installations for short electromagnetic pulse observation in the frequency range from 0.1 to 30 MHz are presented. Specific attention is paid to initial stage of the lightning discharge. It is shown that lightning can be initiated by extensive atmospheric showers caused by high energy cosmic ray particles. Analysis of emission of few thousand lightning discharges showed that • Short wave radio emission of lightning consists of a series of short pulses with duration from less than 100 nanoseconds to several microseconds separated well longer gaps. • Background noise between lightning discharges is not differ from one observed without thunderstorm activity (at given sensitivity). Usually it is the same between lightning pulses at least at the initial stage. • Each lightning discharge radio emission starts with a number of very short (less than 100 nanoseconds at 0.7 level) bi-polar pulses. Gaps between initial pulses vary from several microseconds to few hundreds of microseconds. No radio emission was observed before the first pulse during at least 500 milliseconds. Both positive and negative polarity of the first pulses occur in approximately equal proportion in different lightning discharges while the polarity was the same in any individual lightning. • First pulse amplitude, width and waveform are consistent with predicted by the theory of combined action of runaway breakdown and extensive atmospheric shower caused by cosmic ray particle of 1016 eV energy. Lightning discharges at other planets can be initiated by cosmic ray particles as well. This work was partly supported by ISTC grant # 2236p. The work of one of the authors (A. N. Karashtin) was also partly supported by INTAS grant # 03-51-5727.

  15. Design and Realization of FIR Filter for Inter Satellite Link at 50-90 MHZ Frequency using FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyu Wahyu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, design and realization of FIR filter with a bandwidth of 40 MHz at 50-90 MHz frequency has been proposed. The design was destined to be implemented on the Inter Satellite Links (ISL. This kind of filter had been selected due to a need in linear phase responseon the ISL data communication. Equiripple method was used to design the filter becauseof its reliability in minimizing the magnitude errors. The design of this FIR filter was conducted with theoretical calculation and simulation using the R2012b Matlab. For the implementation, FPGA was used with a VHDL as the programming language with a help of Xilinx ISE Design Suite 14.5. Simulation results in Matlab and Simulink indicated that the filter design could be well implemented on ISL at frequency of 50 MHz - 90 MHz with stopband of 60 db. The phase responseresult of the realized design is quite linear so that the filter is suitable for data communication on the ISL.

  16. Ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic wave generation for acoustic charge transport in silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büyükköse, S.; Vratzov, B.; van der Veen, Johan (CTIT); Santos, P.V.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate piezo-electrical generation of ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic waves on silicon substrates, using high-resolution UV-based nanoimprint lithography, hydrogen silsequioxane planarization, and metal lift-off. Interdigital transducers were fabricated on a ZnO layer sandwiched between

  17. Membrane-constrained acoustic metamaterials for low frequency sound insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaole; Zhao, Hui; Luo, Xudong; Huang, Zhenyu

    2016-01-01

    We present a constrained membrane-type acoustic metamaterial (CMAM) that employs constraint sticks to add out-of-plane dimensions in the design space of MAM. A CMAM sample, which adopts constraint sticks to suppress vibrations at the membrane center, was fabricated to achieve a sound transmission loss (STL) peak of 26 dB at 140 Hz, with the static areal density of 6.0 kg/m2. The working mechanism of the CMAM as an acoustic metamaterial is elucidated by calculating the averaged normal displacement, the equivalent areal density, and the effective dynamic mass of a unit cell through finite element simulations. Furthermore, the vibration modes of the CMAM indicate that the eigenmodes related to STL dips are shifted into high frequencies, thus broadening its effective bandwidth significantly. Three samples possessing the same geometry and material but different constraint areas were fabricated to illustrate the tunability of STL peaks at low frequencies.

  18. Low-frequency (0.7-7.4 mHz geomagnetic field fluctuations at high latitude: frequency dependence of the polarization pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cafarella

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A statistical analysis of the polarization pattern of low-frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations (0.7-7.4 mHz covering the entire 24-h interval was performed at the Antarctic station Terra Nova Bay (80.0°S geomagnetic latitude throughout 1997 and 1998. The results show that the polarization pattern exhibits a frequency dependence, as can be expected from the frequency dependence of the latitude where the coupling between the magnetospheric compressional mode and the field line resonance takes place. The polarization analysis of single pulsation events shows that wave packets with different polarization sense, depending on frequency, can be simultaneously observed.

  19. Low frequency acoustic properties of a honeycomb-silicone rubber acoustic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nansha; Hou, Hong

    2017-04-01

    In order to overcome the influence of mass law on traditional acoustic materials and obtain a lightweight thin-layer structure which can effectively isolate the low frequency noises, a honeycomb-silicone rubber acoustic metamaterial was proposed. Experimental results show that the sound transmission loss (STL) of acoustic metamaterial in this paper is greatly higher than that of monolayer silicone rubber metamaterial. Based on the band structure, modal shapes, as well as the sound transmission simulation, the sound insulation mechanism of the designed honeycomb-silicone rubber structure was analyzed from a new perspective, which had been validated experimentally. Side length of honeycomb structure and thickness of the unit structure would affect STL in damping control zone. Relevant conclusions and design method provide a new concept for engineering noise control.

  20. Reducing extrinsic damping of surface acoustic waves at gigahertz frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelda, Dhruv, E-mail: gelda2@illinois.edu; Sadhu, Jyothi; Ghossoub, Marc G.; Ertekin, Elif [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Sinha, Sanjiv [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-04-28

    High-frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in the gigahertz range can be generated using absorption from an ultrafast laser in a patterned metallic grating on a substrate. Reducing the attenuation at these frequencies can yield better sensors as well as enable them to better probe phonon and electron-phonon interactions near surfaces. It is not clear from existing experiments which mechanisms dominate damping at high frequencies. We calculate damping times of SAWs due to various mechanisms in the 1–100 GHz range to find that mechanical loading of the grating on the substrate dominates dissipation by radiating energy from the surface into the bulk. To overcome this and enable future measurements to probe intrinsic damping, we propose incorporating distributed acoustic Bragg reflectors in the experimental structure. Layers of alternating materials with contrasting acoustic impedances embedded a wavelength away from the surface serve to reflect energy back to the surface. Using numerical simulations, we show that a single Bragg reflector is sufficient to increase the energy density at the surface by more than five times. We quantify the resulting damping time to find that it is longer than the intrinsic damping time. The proposed structure can enable future measurements of intrinsic damping in SAWs at ∼100 GHz.

  1. Nonlinear frequency shift of a coherent dust-acoustic wave in the presence of dust-acoustic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Sumin; Ryu, C.-M.; Yoon, Peter H.

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear frequency shift of a low-frequency, coherent dust-acoustic wave in the presence of higher frequency dust-acoustic turbulence is investigated in the framework of weak turbulence theory. It is found that the frequency shift of the dust-acoustic wave in an unmagnetized dusty plasma is always positive irrespective of the propagation direction of the coherent wave. It is also found that turbulent waves propagating in the same direction as the coherent wave are shown to give rise to a much higher frequency shift than the opposite case. Finally, it is shown that the nonlinear frequency shift of a dust-acoustic wave is more pronounced than in the case of the customary ion-acoustic waves in fully ionized plasmas

  2. Low Frequency (11 mHz) Oscillations in H1743-322: A New Class of Black Hole QPOs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, D.; Strohmayer, T.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) at approx 11 mHz in two RXTE observations and one Chandra observation of the black hole candidate HI743-322. The QPO is observed only at the beginning of the 2010 and 2011 outbursts at similar hard color and intensity, suggestive of an accretion state dependence for the QPO. Although its frequency appears to be correlated with Xray intensity on timescales of a day, in successive outbursts eight months apart we measure a QPO frequency that differs by less than approximately equals 0.0015 Hz while the intensity had changed significantly. We show that this 11 mHz QPO is different from the so-called Type-C QPOs seen in black holes and that the mechanisms that produce the two flavors of variability are most probably independent. We compare the 11 mHz QPO with other variability phenomena seen in accreting black holes and neutron stars and conclude that although at 1-2 orders of magnitude lower in frequency, they best resemble the so-called "1 Hz" QPOs seen in dipping neutron star systems. If confirmed, H1743-322 is the first black hole showing this type of variability. Given the unusual characteristics and the hard-state dependence of the 11 mHz QPO, we speculate that these oscillations might instead be related to the radio jets observed in HI743-322. It remains unexplained, however, why similar QPOs have not yet been identified in other black holes and why they have only been seen in the last two outbursts of HI743-322.

  3. Implementation of acoustic demultiplexing with membrane-type metasurface in low frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Liu, Peng; Hou, Zewei; Pei, Yongmao

    2017-04-01

    Wavelength division multiplexing technology, adopted to increase the information density, plays a significant role in optical communication. However, in acoustics, a similar function can be hardly implemented due to the weak dispersion in natural acoustic materials. Here, an acoustic demultiplexer, based on the concept of metasurfaces, is proposed for splitting acoustic waves and propagating along different trajectories in a low frequency range. An acoustic metasurface, containing multiple resonant units, is designed with various phase profiles for different frequencies. Originating from the highly dispersive properties, the resonant units are independent and merely work in the vicinity of their resonant frequencies. Therefore, by combing multiple resonant units appropriately, the phenomena of anomalous reflection, acoustic focusing, and acoustic wave bending can occur in different frequencies. The proposed acoustic demultiplexer has advantages on the subwavelength scale and the versatility in wave control, providing a strategy for separating acoustic waves with different Fourier components.

  4. Acoustic frequency filter based on anisotropic topological phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo

    2017-11-02

    We present a design of acoustic frequency filter based on a two-dimensional anisotropic phononic crystal. The anisotropic band structure exhibits either a directional or a combined (global + directional) bandgap at certain frequency regions, depending on the geometry. When the time-reversal symmetry is broken, it may introduce a topologically nontrivial bandgap. The induced nontrivial bandgap and the original directional bandgap result in various interesting wave propagation behaviors, such as frequency filter. We develop a tight-binding model to characterize the effective Hamiltonian of the system, from which the contribution of anisotropy is explicitly shown. Different from the isotropic cases, the Zeeman-type splitting is not linear and the anisotropic bandgap makes it possible to achieve anisotropic propagation characteristics along different directions and at different frequencies.

  5. Acoustic frequency filter based on anisotropic topological phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo; Zhao, Jiajun; Mei, Jun; Wu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    We present a design of acoustic frequency filter based on a two-dimensional anisotropic phononic crystal. The anisotropic band structure exhibits either a directional or a combined (global + directional) bandgap at certain frequency regions, depending on the geometry. When the time-reversal symmetry is broken, it may introduce a topologically nontrivial bandgap. The induced nontrivial bandgap and the original directional bandgap result in various interesting wave propagation behaviors, such as frequency filter. We develop a tight-binding model to characterize the effective Hamiltonian of the system, from which the contribution of anisotropy is explicitly shown. Different from the isotropic cases, the Zeeman-type splitting is not linear and the anisotropic bandgap makes it possible to achieve anisotropic propagation characteristics along different directions and at different frequencies.

  6. Computational dosimetry in embryos exposed to electromagnetic plane waves over the frequency range of 10 MHz-1.5 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Hiroki; Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Soichi; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaharu; Ito, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents calculated specific absorption rate (SAR) dosimetry in 4 and 8 week Japanese pregnant-woman models exposed to plane waves over the frequency range of 10 MHz-1.5 GHz. Two types of 2 mm spatial-resolution pregnant-woman models comprised a woman model, which is similar to the average-sized Japanese adult female in height and weight, with a cubic (4 week) embryo or spheroidal (8 week) one. The averaged SAR in the embryos exposed to vertically and horizontally polarized plane waves at four kinds of propagation directions are calculated from 10 MHz to 1.5 GHz. The results indicate that the maximum average SAR in the embryos exposed to plane waves is lower than 0.08 W kg -1 when the incident power density is at the reference level of ICNIRP guideline for general public environment. (note)

  7. Frequency Selection for Multi-frequency Acoustic Measurement of Suspended Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; HO, H.; Fu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Multi-frequency acoustic measurement of suspended sediment has found successful applications in marine and fluvial environments. Difficult challenges remain in regard to improving its effectiveness and efficiency when applied to high concentrations and wide size distributions in rivers. We performed a multi-frequency acoustic scattering experiment in a cylindrical tank with a suspension of natural sands. The sands range from 50 to 600 μm in diameter with a lognormal size distribution. The bulk concentration of suspended sediment varied from 1.0 to 12.0 g/L. We found that the commonly used linear relationship between the intensity of acoustic backscatter and suspended sediment concentration holds only at sufficiently low concentrations, for instance below 3.0 g/L. It fails at a critical value of concentration that depends on measurement frequency and the distance between the transducer and the target point. Instead, an exponential relationship was found to work satisfactorily throughout the entire range of concentration. The coefficient and exponent of the exponential function changed, however, with the measuring frequency and distance. Considering the increased complexity of inverting the concentration values when an exponential relationship prevails, we further analyzed the relationship between measurement error and measuring frequency. It was also found that the inversion error may be effectively controlled within 5% if the frequency is properly set. Compared with concentration, grain size was found to heavily affect the selection of optimum frequency. A regression relationship for optimum frequency versus grain size was developed based on the experimental results.

  8. Acoustic Imaging Frequency Dynamics of Ferroelectric Domains by Atomic Force Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun-Yu, Zhao; Hua-Rong, Zeng; Hong-Zhang, Song; Sen-Xing, Hui; Guo-Rong, Li; Qing-Rui, Yin; Shimamura, Kiyoshi; Kannan, Chinna Venkadasamy; Villora, Encarnacion Antonia Garcia; Takekawa, Shunji; Kitamura, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    We report the acoustic imaging frequency dynamics of ferroelectric domains by low-frequency acoustic probe microscopy based on the commercial atomic force microscopy It is found that ferroelectric domain could be firstly visualized at lower frequency down to 0.5 kHz by AFM-based acoustic microscopy The frequency-dependent acoustic signal revealed a strong acoustic response in the frequency range from 7kHz to 10kHz, and reached maximum at 8.1kHz. The acoustic contrast mechanism can be ascribed to the different elastic response of ferroelectric microstructures to local elastic stress fields, which is induced by the acoustic wave transmitting in the sample when the piezoelectric transducer is vibrating and exciting acoustic wave under ac electric fields due to normal piezoelectric effects. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  9. Dielectric and acoustical high frequency characterisation of PZT thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, Janine; Muralt, Paul, E-mail: janine.conde@epfl.ch [Department of Materials Science, EPFL (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    Pb(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) is an interesting material for bulk acoustic wave resonator applications due to its high electromechanical coupling constant, which would enable fabrication of large bandwidth frequency filters. The major challenge of the PZT solid solution system is to overcome mechanical losses generally observed in PZT ceramics. To increase the understanding of these losses in textured thin films, thin film bulk acoustic resonators (TFBAR's) based on PZT thin films with compositions either in the tetragonal region or at the morphotropic phase boundary and (111) or {l_brace}100{r_brace} textures were fabricated and studied up to 2 GHz. The dielectric and elastic materials coefficients were extracted from impedance measurements at the resonance frequency. The dispersion of the dielectric constant was obtained from impedance measurements up to 2 GHz. The films with varying compositions, textures and deposition methods (sol-gel or sputtering) were compared in terms of dielectric and acoustical properties.

  10. Band Width of Acoustic Resonance Frequency Relatively Natural Frequency of Fuel Rod Vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, Konstantin Nicolaevich; Moukhine, V.S.; Novikov, K.S.; Galivets, E.Yu. [MPEI - TU, 14, Krasnokazarmennaya str., Moscow, 111250 (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    In flow induced vibrations the fluid flow is the energy source that causes vibration. Acoustic resonance in piping may lead to severe problems due to over-stressing of components or significant losses of efficiency. Steady oscillatory flow in NPP primary loop can be induced by the pulsating flow introduced by reactor circulating pump or may be set up by self-excitation. Dynamic forces generated by the turbulent flow of coolant in reactor cores cause fuel rods (FR) and fuel assembly (FA) to vibrate. Flow-induced FR and FA vibrations can generally be broken into three groups: large amplitude 'resonance type' vibrations, which can cause immediate rod failure or severe damage to the rod and its support structure, middle amplitude 'within bandwidth of resonance frequency type' vibrations responsible for more gradual wear and fatigue at the contact surface between the fuel cladding and rod support and small amplitude vibrations, 'out of bandwidth of resonance frequency type' responsible for permissible wear and fatigue at the contact surface between the fuel cladding and rod support. Ultimately, these vibration types can result in a cladding breach, and therefore must be accounted for in the thermal hydraulic design of FR and FA and reactor internals. In paper the technique of definition of quality factor (Q) of acoustic contour of the coolant is presented. The value of Q defines a range of frequencies of acoustic fluctuations of the coolant within which the resonance of oscillations of the structure and the coolant is realized. Method of evaluation of so called band width (BW) of acoustic resonance frequency is worked out and presented in the paper. BW characterises the range of the frequency of coolant pressure oscillations within which the frequency of coolant pressure oscillations matches the fuel assembly's natural frequency of vibration (its resonance frequency). Paper show the way of detuning acoustic resonance from natural

  11. Frequency-domain multiplex with eight-input SQUID and readout electronics over 1MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, K.; Takei, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Kimura, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N.Y.

    2006-01-01

    In a magnetic summation method, TES and SQUID driving circuits are isolated and thus small crosstalk and stray impedance are expected. Since a FLL circuit with a large bandwidth and a small noise level is required for a SQUID, we designed and produced an electronics to meet our design of multiplexing with an 8-input SQUID. The FLL circuit achieved an open loop-gain bandwidth product of 8MHz with 1m wire length, which is enough for a TES to be operated with a bias current of 70μA, and a noise level of 30pA/Hz

  12. Long Elastic Open Neck Acoustic Resonator for low frequency absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Frank

    2018-05-01

    Passive acoustic liners, used in aeronautic engine nacelles to reduce radiated fan noise, have a quarter-wavelength behavior, because of perforated sheets backed by honeycombs (with one or two degrees of freedom). However, their acoustic absorption ability is naturally limited to medium and high frequencies because of constraints in thickness. The low ratio "plate thickness/hole diameter" generates impedance levels dependent on the incident sound pressure level and the grazing mean flow (by a mechanism of nonlinear dissipation through vortex shedding), which penalises the optimal design of liners. The aim of this paper is to overcome this problem by a concept called LEONAR ("Long Elastic Open Neck Acoustic Resonator"), in which a perforated plate is coupled with tubes of variable lengths inserted in a limited volume of a back cavity. To do this, experimental and theoretical studies, using different types of liners (material nature, hole diameter, tube length, cavity thickness) are described in this paper. It is shown that the impedance can be precisely determined with an analytical approach based on parallel transfer matrices of tubes coupled to the cavity. Moreover, the introduction of tubes in a cavity of a conventional resonator generates a significant shift in the frequency range of absorption towards lower frequencies or allows a reduction of cavity thickness. The impedance is practically independent of sound pressure level because of a high ratio "tube length/tube hole diameter". Finally, a test led in an aeroacoustic bench suggests that a grazing flow at a bulk Mach number of 0.3 has little impact on the impedance value. These first results allow considering these resonators with linear behavior as an alternative to classical resonators, in particular, as needed for future Ultra High Bypass Ratio engines with shorter and thinner nacelles.

  13. Beam paths of flexural Lamb waves at high frequency in the first band within phononic crystal-based acoustic lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with an analytical and numerical study of the focusing of the lowest order anti-symmetric Lamb wave in gradient index phononic crystals. Computing the ray trajectories of the elastic beam allowed us to analyze the lateral dimensions and shape of the focus, either in the inner or behind the phononic crystal-based acoustic lenses, for frequencies within a broad range in the first band. We analyzed and discussed the focusing behaviors inside the acoustic lenses where the focalization at sub-wavelength scale was achieved. The focalization behind the gradient index phononic crystal is shown to be efficient as well: we report on FMHM = 0.63λ at 11MHz.

  14. Time-lens based synchronizer and retimer for 10 Gb/s Ethernet packets with up to ±1MHz frequency offset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Hu, Hao; Palushani, Evarist

    2010-01-01

    We present a time-lens based all-optical 10 Gb/s frame synchronizer and retimer. Our scheme can work with a 4096-bit frame, with frequency offset up to 1MHz, which is demonstrated by experimental results.......We present a time-lens based all-optical 10 Gb/s frame synchronizer and retimer. Our scheme can work with a 4096-bit frame, with frequency offset up to 1MHz, which is demonstrated by experimental results....

  15. Evaluating the More Suitable ISM Frequency Band for IoT-Based Smart Grids: A Quantitative Study of 915 MHz vs. 2400 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Ruben M; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Garcia-Haro, Joan

    2016-12-31

    IoT has begun to be employed pervasively in industrial environments and critical infrastructures thanks to its positive impact on performance and efficiency. Among these environments, the Smart Grid (SG) excels as the perfect host for this technology, mainly due to its potential to become the motor of the rest of electrically-dependent infrastructures. To make this SG-oriented IoT cost-effective, most deployments employ unlicensed ISM bands, specifically the 2400 MHz one, due to its extended communication bandwidth in comparison with lower bands. This band has been extensively used for years by Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET), from which the IoT technologically inherits. However, this work questions and evaluates the suitability of such a "default" communication band in SG environments, compared with the 915 MHz ISM band. A comprehensive quantitative comparison of these bands has been accomplished in terms of: power consumption, average network delay, and packet reception rate. To allow such a study, a dual-band propagation model specifically designed for the SG has been derived, tested, and incorporated into the well-known TOSSIM simulator. Simulation results reveal that only in the absence of other 2400 MHz interfering devices (such as WiFi or Bluetooth) or in small networks, is the 2400 MHz band the best option. In any other case, SG-oriented IoT quantitatively perform better if operating in the 915 MHz band.

  16. Evaluating the More Suitable ISM Frequency Band for IoT-Based Smart Grids: A Quantitative Study of 915 MHz vs. 2400 MHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben M. Sandoval

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available IoT has begun to be employed pervasively in industrial environments and critical infrastructures thanks to its positive impact on performance and efficiency. Among these environments, the Smart Grid (SG excels as the perfect host for this technology, mainly due to its potential to become the motor of the rest of electrically-dependent infrastructures. To make this SG-oriented IoT cost-effective, most deployments employ unlicensed ISM bands, specifically the 2400 MHz one, due to its extended communication bandwidth in comparison with lower bands. This band has been extensively used for years by Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN and Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET, from which the IoT technologically inherits. However, this work questions and evaluates the suitability of such a “default” communication band in SG environments, compared with the 915 MHz ISM band. A comprehensive quantitative comparison of these bands has been accomplished in terms of: power consumption, average network delay, and packet reception rate. To allow such a study, a dual-band propagation model specifically designed for the SG has been derived, tested, and incorporated into the well-known TOSSIM simulator. Simulation results reveal that only in the absence of other 2400 MHz interfering devices (such as WiFi or Bluetooth or in small networks, is the 2400 MHz band the best option. In any other case, SG-oriented IoT quantitatively perform better if operating in the 915 MHz band.

  17. Single mode CO2 laser frequency modulation up to 350 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, W. R.; Peruso, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments on internal frequency modulation (FM) of a CO2 laser showed no limitation of FM by the linewidth. However, distortions in the form of strong enhancement of sideband amplitude arise for frequencies equal to the cavity resonant frequencies, most pronounced if the modulator is positioned near a cavity mirror.

  18. Development of superconducting RF cavity at 1050 MHz frequency for an electron LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.G.; Mondal, J.; Mittal, K.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the design of a prototype superconducting cavity at 1050 MHz and design of associated die punch and machining fixtures for the cavity fabrication. The cavity is of β= 1 and elliptical in shape. The circle-straight line-ellipse-type structure design has been optimized by 'SUPERFISH' - a 2 dimensional code for cavity tuning. The 3 Dimensional EM field analysis of the cavity structure has been done using 'CST' software. The ratio of the maximum surface electric field to the accelerating gradient, E pk /E acc , is optimised to 1.984 and H pk /E acc is optimised to 4.141 mT/(MV/m). Bore radius of the cavity has been chosen such a way so that the cell-to-cell coupling remains as high as 1.85%. The cavity is designed to achieve 25 MV/m accelerating gradient. (author)

  19. Helium gas purity monitor based on low frequency acoustic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthurirengan, S.; Jacob, S.; Karunanithi, R.; Karthikeyan, A.

    1996-05-01

    Monitoring gas purity is an important aspect of gas recovery stations where air is usually one of the major impurities. Purity monitors of Katherometric type are commercially available for this purpose. Alternatively, we discuss here a helium gas purity monitor based on acoustic resonance of a cavity at audio frequencies. It measures the purity by monitoring the resonant frequency of a cylindrical cavity filled with the gas under test and excited by conventional telephone transducers fixed at the ends. The use of the latter simplifies the design considerably. The paper discusses the details of the resonant cavity and the electronic circuit along with temperature compensation. The unit has been calibrated with helium gas of known purities. The unit has a response time of the order of 10 minutes and measures the gas purity to an accuracy of 0.02%. The unit has been installed in our helium recovery system and is found to perform satisfactorily.

  20. Nonlinear propagation model for ultrasound hydrophones calibration in the frequency range up to 100 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, E G; Wójcik, J; Lewin, P A; Nowicki, A

    2003-06-01

    To facilitate the implementation and verification of the new ultrasound hydrophone calibration techniques described in the companion paper (somewhere in this issue) a nonlinear propagation model was developed. A brief outline of the theoretical considerations is presented and the model's advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The results of simulations yielding spatial and temporal acoustic pressure amplitude are also presented and compared with those obtained using KZK and Field II models. Excellent agreement between all models is evidenced. The applicability of the model in discrete wideband calibration of hydrophones is documented in the companion paper somewhere in this volume.

  1. Variations in frequency content of acoustic emission during extension of HF-1 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, W.F.; Kline, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Acoustic emissions resulting from continuous, dead-weight, tensile loading of quenched and tempered HF-1 steel were analyzed for frequency content. Three distinct frequency spectra were observed. These correspond to microplasticity, plasticity and deformation after recovery. It is shown that frequency analysis of acoustic emission can be a sensitive evaluation technique for assessing structural integrity

  2. High frequency time modulation of neutrons by LiNbO3 crystals with surface acoustic waves excited under the diffraction condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Granzer, E.; Kikuta, Seishi; Tomimitsu, Hiroshi; Doi, Kenji.

    1985-01-01

    High frequency time modulation of neutrons was investigated by using Y-cut LiNbO 3 crystals with surface acoustic waves excited. A double crystal arrangement of (+, -) parallel setting was used for 030 symmetric Bragg-case reflections. Synchronized standing waves with a resonance frequency of 14.26 MHz were excited on the both crystals. Variation of the diffracted intensity with phase difference between two standing waves was studied. The result showed an intensity change of diffracted neutrons with twice the resonance frequency. (author)

  3. Multi-frequency acoustic metasurface for extraordinary reflection and sound focusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Fan Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically and numerically present the design of multi-frequency acoustic metasurfaces (MFAMs with simple structure that can work not only at fundamental frequency, but also at their harmonic frequencies, which breaks the single frequency limitation in conventional resonance-based acoustic metasurfaces. The phase matched condition for achromatic manipulation is discussed. We demonstrate achromatic extraordinary reflection and sound focusing at 1700Hz, 3400Hz, and 5100Hz, that is, they have the same reflection direction and the same focusing position. This significant feature may pave the way to new type of acoustic metasurface, and will also extend acoustic metasurface applications to strongly nonlinear source cases.

  4. Monitoring underground water leakage pattern by ground penetrating radar (GPR) using 800 MHz antenna frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, T. S. T.; Ismail, M. P.; Ahmad, M. R.; Amin, M. S. M.; Ismail, M. A.; Sani, S.; Masenwat, N. A.; Basri, N. S. M.

    2018-01-01

    Water is the most treasure natural resources, however, a huge amount of water are lost during its distribution that leads to water leakage problem. The leaks meant the waste of money and created more economic loss to treat and fix the damaged pipe. Researchers and engineers have put tremendous attempts and effort, to solve the water leakage problem especially in water leakage of buried pipeline. An advanced technology of ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been established as one of the non-destructive testing (NDT) method to detect the underground water pipe leaking. This paper focuses on the ability of GPR in water utility field especially on detection of water leaks in the underground pipeline distribution. A series of laboratory experiments were carried out using 800-MHz antenna, where the performance of GPR on detecting underground pipeline and locating water leakage was investigated and validated. A prototype to recreate water-leaking system was constructed using a 4-inch PVC pipe. Different diameter of holes, i.e. ¼ inch, ½ inch, and ¾ inch, were drilled into the pipe to simulate the water leaking. The PVC pipe was buried at the depth of 60 cm into the test bed that was filled with dry sand. 15 litres of water was injected into the PVC pipe. The water leakage patterns in term of radargram data were gathered. The effectiveness of the GPR in locating the underground water leakage was ascertained, after the results were collected and verified.

  5. Germination Response of MR 219 Rice Variety to Different Exposure Times and Periods of 2450 MHz Microwave Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryush Talei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Germination is a key process in plants' phenological cycles. Accelerating this process could lead to improvment of the seedling growth as well as the cultivation efficiency. To achieve this, the effect of microwave frequency on the germination of rice seeds was examined. The physiological feedbacks of the MR 219 rice variety in terms of seed germination rate (GR, germination percentage (GP, and mean germination time (MGT were analyzed by exposing its seeds to 2450 MHz of microwave frequency for one, four, seven, and ten hours. It was revealed that exposing the seeds to the microwave frequency for 10 hours resulted in the highest GP. This treatment led to 100% of germination after three days with a mean germination time of 2.1 days. Although the other exposure times of microwave frequency caused the moderate effects on germination with a GPa3 ranged from 93% to 98%, they failed to reduce the MGTa3. The results showed that ten-hour exposure times of microwave frequency for six days significantly facilitated and improved the germination indices (primary shoot and root length. Therefore, the technique is expected to benefit the improvement of rice seed germination considering its simplicity and efficacy in increasing the germination percentage and rate as well as the primary shoot and root length without causing any environmental toxicity.

  6. Low frequency acoustic waves from explosive sources in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Christophe; Robinet, Jean-Christophe; Roblin, Camille; Gloerfelt, Xavier

    2006-11-01

    In this study, a perturbative formulation of non linear euler equations is used to compute the pressure variation for low frequency acoustic waves from explosive sources in real atmospheres. Based on a Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) finite difference scheme, the discretization provides good properties for both sound generation and long range sound propagation over a variety of spatial atmospheric scales. It also assures that there is no wave mode coupling in the numerical simulation The background flow is obtained by matching the comprehensive empirical global model of horizontal winds HWM-93 (and MSISE-90 for the temperature profile) with meteorological reanalysis of the lower atmosphere. Benchmark calculations representing cases where there is downward and upward refraction (including shadow zones), ducted propagation, and generation of acoustic waves from low speed shear layers are considered for validation. For all cases, results show a very good agreement with analytical solutions, when available, and with other standard approaches, such as the ray tracing and the normal mode technique. Comparison of calculations and experimental data from the high explosive ``Misty Picture'' test that provided the scaled equivalent airblast of an 8 kt nuclear device (on May 14, 1987), is also considered. It is found that instability waves develop less than one hour after the wavefront generated by the detonation passes.

  7. Surface acoustic wave coding for orthogonal frequency coded devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Kozlovski, Nikolai (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods and systems for coding SAW OFC devices to mitigate code collisions in a wireless multi-tag system. Each device producing plural stepped frequencies as an OFC signal with a chip offset delay to increase code diversity. A method for assigning a different OCF to each device includes using a matrix based on the number of OFCs needed and the number chips per code, populating each matrix cell with OFC chip, and assigning the codes from the matrix to the devices. The asynchronous passive multi-tag system includes plural surface acoustic wave devices each producing a different OFC signal having the same number of chips and including a chip offset time delay, an algorithm for assigning OFCs to each device, and a transceiver to transmit an interrogation signal and receive OFC signals in response with minimal code collisions during transmission.

  8. Electron density modulation in a pulsed dual-frequency (2/13.56 MHz) dual-antenna inductively coupled plasma discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirse, Nishant, E-mail: nishant.sirse@dcu.ie [Plasma Research Laboratory, School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Mishra, Anurag [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Geun Y. [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746, South Korea and SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeunggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Ellingboe, Albert R. [Plasma Research Laboratory, School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland and Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The electron density, n{sub e}, modulation is measured experimentally using a resonance hairpin probe in a pulsed, dual-frequency (2/13.56 MHz), dual-antenna, inductively coupled plasma discharge produced in argon-C{sub 4}F{sub 8} (90–10) gas mixtures. The 2 MHz power is pulsed at a frequency of 1 kHz, whereas 13.56 MHz power is applied in continuous wave mode. The discharge is operated at a range of conditions covering 3–50 mTorr, 100–600 W 13.56 MHz power level, 300–600 W 2 MHz peak power level, and duty ratio of 10%–90%. The experimental results reveal that the quasisteady state n{sub e} is greatly affected by the 2 MHz power levels and slightly affected by 13.56 MHz power levels. It is observed that the electron density increases by a factor of 2–2.5 on increasing 2 MHz power level from 300 to 600 W, whereas n{sub e} increases by only ∼20% for 13.56 MHz power levels of 100–600 W. The rise time and decay time constant of n{sub e} monotonically decrease with an increase in either 2 or 13.56 MHz power level. This effect is stronger at low values of 2 MHz power level. For all the operating conditions, it is observed that the n{sub e} overshoots at the beginning of the on-phase before relaxing to a quasisteady state value. The relative overshoot density (in percent) depends on 2 and 13.56 MHz power levels. On increasing gas pressure, the n{sub e} at first increases, reaching to a maximum value, and then decreases with a further increase in gas pressure. The decay time constant of n{sub e} increases monotonically with pressure, increasing rapidly up to 10 mTorr gas pressure and at a slower rate of rise to 50 mTorr. At a fixed 2/13.56 MHz power level and 10 mTorr gas pressure, the quasisteady state n{sub e} shows maximum for 30%–40% duty ratio and decreases with a further increase in duty ratio.

  9. Frequency hopping due to acousto-electric interaction in ZnO based surface acoustic wave oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Daipayan; Sreenivas, K.

    2011-08-01

    A 36 MHz surface acoustic wave delay line based oscillator has been used to study the effect of acousto-electric interaction due to photo generated charge carriers in rf sputtered ZnO film under UV illumination (λ = 365 nm, 20-100 μW/cm2). Design aspects for developing a delay line based SAW oscillator are specified. The observed linear downshift in frequency (2.2 to 19.0 kHz) with varying UV intensity (20-100 μW/cm2) is related to the fractional velocity change due to acousto-electric interaction. UV illumination level of 100 μW/cm2 leads to a characteristic frequency hopping behavior arising due to a change in the oscillation criteria, and is attributed to the complex interplay between the increased attenuation and velocity shift.

  10. High Frequency Acoustic Microscopy for the Determination of Porosity and Young's Modulus in High Burnup Uranium Dioxide Nuclear Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Mara; Laux, Didier; Cappia, Fabiola; Laurie, M.; Van Uffelen, P.; Rondinella, V. V.; Wiss, T.; Despaux, G.

    2016-06-01

    During irradiation UO2 nuclear fuel experiences the development of a non-uniform distribution of porosity which contributes to establish varying mechanical properties along the radius of the pellet. Radial variations of both porosity and elastic properties in high burnup UO2 pellet can be investigated via high frequency acoustic microscopy. For this purpose ultrasound waves are generated by a piezoelectric transducer and focused on the sample, after having travelled through a coupling liquid. The elastic properties of the material are related to the velocity of the generated Rayleigh surface wave (VR). A UO2 pellet with a burnup of 67 GWd/tU was characterized using the acoustic microscope installed in the hot cells of the JRC-ITU at a 90 MHz frequency, with methanol as coupling liquid. VR was measured at different radial positions. A good agreement was found, when comparing the porosity values obtained via acoustic microscopy with those determined using SEM image analysis, especially in the areas close to the centre. In addition, Young's modulus was calculated and its radial profile was correlated to the corresponding burnup profile and to the hardness radial profile data obtained by Vickers micro-indentation.

  11. Characteristics of SiO{sub 2} etching with a C{sub 4}F{sub 8}/Ar/CHF{sub 3}/O{sub 2} gas mixture in 60-MHz/2-MHz dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, M. H.; Kang, S. K.; Park, J. Y.; Yeom, G. Y. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Nanoscale SiO{sub 2} contact holes were etched by using C{sub 4}F{sub 8}/CHF{sub 3}/O{sub 2}/Ar gas mixtures in dual frequency capacitively coupled plasmas (DF-CCPs) where a 60-MHz source power was applied to the top electrode while a 2-MHz bias power was applied to the bottom electrode. The initial increase in the CHF{sub 3} gas flow rate at a fixed CHF{sub 3}+O{sub 2} flow rate increased the SiO{sub 2} etch rate as well as SiO{sub 2} etch selectivity over that of the amorphous carbon layer (ACL). When the high-frequency (HF) power was increased both SiO{sub 2} etch rate and the etch selectivity over ACL were increased. For a 300 W/500 W power ratio of 60-MHz HF power/ 2-MHz low-freqeuncy (LF) and a gas mixture of Ar (140 sccm) /C{sub 4}F{sub 8} (30 sccm) /CHF{sub 3} (25 sccm) /O{sub 2} (5 sccm) while maintaining 20 mTorr, an anisotropic etch profile with an SiO{sub 2} etch rate of 3350 A/min and an etch selectivity of higher than 6 over ACL could be obtained.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The VLA Low-frequency Sky Survey at 74MHz (Perley+ 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, R. A.; Condon, J. J.; Cotton, W. D.; Cohen, A. S.; Lane, W. M.; Kassim, N. E.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Erickson, W. C.

    2006-08-01

    The VLA Low-Frequency Sky Survey (VLSS) is a 74MHz (4m) continuum survey covering the entire sky north of -30{deg} declination. Using the VLA in B- and BnA-configurations, we will map the entire survey region at a resolution of 80" and with an average rms noise of 0.1 Jy/beam. For a detailed description of the survey and its scientific motivations, please see the original proposal to the NRAO skeptical review committee. The VLSS is being made as a service to the astronomical community, and the principal data products are being released to the public as soon as they are produced and verified. Details and access to the images can be found at http://lwa.nrl.navy.mil/VLSS/ (1 data file).

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The VLA Low-frequency Sky Survey at 74MHz (Cohen+ 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A. S.; Lane, W. M.; Cotton, W. D.; Kassim, N. E.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Perley, R. A.; Condon, J. J.; Erickson, W. C.

    2006-08-01

    The VLA Low-Frequency Sky Survey (VLSS) is a 74MHz (4m) continuum survey covering the entire sky north of -30{deg} declination. Using the VLA in B- and BnA-configurations, we will map the entire survey region at a resolution of 80" and with an average rms noise of 0.1 Jy/beam. For a detailed description of the survey and its scientific motivations, please see the original proposal to the NRAO skeptical review committee. The VLSS is being made as a service to the astronomical community, and the principal data products are being released to the public as soon as they are produced and verified. Details and access to the images can be found at http://lwa.nrl.navy.mil/VLSS/ (1 data file).

  14. Emission characteristics of 6.78-MHz radio-frequency glow discharge plasma in a pulsed mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyue; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigated Boltzmann plots for both atomic and ionic emission lines of iron in an argon glow discharge plasma driven by 6.78-MHz radio-frequency (RF) voltage in a pulsed operation, in order to discuss how the excitation/ionization process was affected by the pulsation. For this purpose, a pulse frequency as well as a duty ratio of the pulsed RF voltage was selected as the experimenter parameters. A Grimm-style radiation source was employed at a forward RF power of 70 W and at an argon pressures of 670 Pa. The Boltzmann plot for low-lying excited levels of iron atom was on a linear relationship, which was probably attributed to thermal collisions with ultimate electrons in the negative glow region; in this case, the excitation temperature was obtained in a narrow range of 3300-3400 K, which was hardly affected by the duty ratio as well as the pulse frequency of the pulsed RF glow discharge plasma. This observation suggested that the RF plasma could be supported by a self-stabilized negative glow region, where the kinetic energy distribution of the electrons would be changed to a lesser extent. Additional non-thermal excitation processes, such as a Penning-type collision and a charge-transfer collision, led to deviations (overpopulation) of particular energy levels of iron atom or iron ion from the normal Boltzmann distribution. However, their contributions to the overall excitation/ionization were not altered so greatly, when the pulse frequency or the duty ratio was varied in the pulsed RF glow discharge plasma.

  15. [Effect of Low-Intensity 900 MHz Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Rat Brain Enzyme Activities Linked to Energy Metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, M S; Nersesova, L S; Gazaryants, M G; Meliksetyan, G O; Malakyan, M G; Bajinyan, S A; Akopian, J I

    2015-01-01

    The research deals with the effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR), power density 25 μW/cm2, on the following rat brain and blood serum enzyme activities: creatine kinase (CK), playing a central role in the process of storing and distributing the cell energy, as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) that play a key role in providing the conjunction of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. The comparative analysis of the changes in the enzyme activity studied at different times following the two-hour single, as well as fractional, radiation equivalent of the total time showed that the most radiosensitive enzyme is the brain creatine kinase, which may then be recommended as a marker of the radio frequency radiation impact. According to the analysis of the changing dynamics of the CK, ALT and AST activity level, with time these changes acquire the adaptive character and are directed to compensate the damaged cell energy metabolism.

  16. Real-time monitoring of focused ultrasound blood-brain barrier opening via subharmonic acoustic emission detection: implementation of confocal dual-frequency piezoelectric transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chih-Hung; Zhang, Jia-Wei; Liao, Yi-Yi; Liu, Hao-Li

    2016-04-01

    Burst-tone focused ultrasound exposure in the presence of microbubbles has been demonstrated to be effective at inducing temporal and local opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which promises significant clinical potential to deliver therapeutic molecules into the central nervous system (CNS). Traditional contrast-enhanced imaging confirmation after focused ultrasound (FUS) exposure serves as a post-operative indicator of the effectiveness of FUS-BBB opening, however, an indicator that can concurrently report the BBB status and BBB-opening effectiveness is required to provide effective feedback to implement this treatment clinically. In this study, we demonstrate the use of subharmonic acoustic emission detection with implementation on a confocal dual-frequency piezoelectric ceramic structure to perform real-time monitoring of FUS-BBB opening. A confocal dual-frequency (0.55 MHz/1.1 MHz) focused ultrasound transducer was designed. The 1.1 MHz spherically-curved ceramic was employed to deliver FUS exposure to induce BBB-opening, whereas the outer-ring 0.55 MHz ceramic was employed to detect the subharmonic acoustic emissions originating from the target position. In stage-1 experiments, we employed spectral analysis and performed an energy spectrum density (ESD) calculation. An optimized 0.55 MHz ESD level change was shown to effectively discriminate the occurrence of BBB-opening. Wideband acoustic emissions received from 0.55 MHz ceramics were also analyzed to evaluate its correlations with erythrocyte extravasations. In stage-2 real-time monitoring experiments, we applied the predetermined ESD change as a detection threshold in PC-controlled algorithm to predict the FUS exposure intra-operatively. In stage-1 experiment, we showed that subharmonic ESD presents distinguishable dynamics between intact BBB and opened BBB, and therefore a threshold ESD change level (5.5 dB) can be identified for BBB-opening prediction. Using this ESD change threshold detection as a

  17. Real-time monitoring of focused ultrasound blood-brain barrier opening via subharmonic acoustic emission detection: implementation of confocal dual-frequency piezoelectric transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Chih-Hung; Zhang, Jia-Wei; Liao, Yi-Yi; Liu, Hao-Li

    2016-01-01

    Burst-tone focused ultrasound exposure in the presence of microbubbles has been demonstrated to be effective at inducing temporal and local opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which promises significant clinical potential to deliver therapeutic molecules into the central nervous system (CNS). Traditional contrast-enhanced imaging confirmation after focused ultrasound (FUS) exposure serves as a post-operative indicator of the effectiveness of FUS-BBB opening, however, an indicator that can concurrently report the BBB status and BBB-opening effectiveness is required to provide effective feedback to implement this treatment clinically. In this study, we demonstrate the use of subharmonic acoustic emission detection with implementation on a confocal dual-frequency piezoelectric ceramic structure to perform real-time monitoring of FUS-BBB opening. A confocal dual-frequency (0.55 MHz/1.1 MHz) focused ultrasound transducer was designed. The 1.1 MHz spherically-curved ceramic was employed to deliver FUS exposure to induce BBB-opening, whereas the outer-ring 0.55 MHz ceramic was employed to detect the subharmonic acoustic emissions originating from the target position. In stage-1 experiments, we employed spectral analysis and performed an energy spectrum density (ESD) calculation. An optimized 0.55 MHz ESD level change was shown to effectively discriminate the occurrence of BBB-opening. Wideband acoustic emissions received from 0.55 MHz ceramics were also analyzed to evaluate its correlations with erythrocyte extravasations. In stage-2 real-time monitoring experiments, we applied the predetermined ESD change as a detection threshold in PC-controlled algorithm to predict the FUS exposure intra-operatively. In stage-1 experiment, we showed that subharmonic ESD presents distinguishable dynamics between intact BBB and opened BBB, and therefore a threshold ESD change level (5.5 dB) can be identified for BBB-opening prediction. Using this ESD change threshold detection as a

  18. [Effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation on rat liver and blood serum enzyme activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersesova, L S; Petrosian, M S; Gazariants, M G; Mkrtchian, Z S; Meliksetian, G O; Pogosian, L G; Akopian, Zh I

    2014-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the rat liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase post-radiation activity levels after a total two-hour long single and fractional exposure of the animals to low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic field showed that the most sensitive enzymes to the both schedules of radiation are the liver creatine kinase, as well as the blood serum creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase. According to the comparative analysis of the dynamics of changes in the activity level of the liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase, both single and fractional radiation schedules do not affect the permeability of a hepatocyte cell membrane, but rather cause changes in their energetic metabolism. The correlation analysis of the post-radiation activity level changes of the investigated enzymes did not reveal a clear relationship between them. The dynamics of post-radiation changes in the activity of investigated enzyme levels following a single and short-term fractional schedules of radiation did not differ essentially.

  19. Enhancing the beamforming map of spherical arrays at low frequencies using acoustic holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiana Roig, Elisabet; Torras Rosell, Antoni; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the localization of acoustic sources based on circular arrays can be improved at low frequencies by combining beamforming with acoustic holography. This paper extends this technique to the three dimensional case by making use of spherical arrays. The pressure captur...

  20. High-frequency acoustic charge transport in GaAs nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büyükköse, S.; Hernandez-Minguez, A.; Vratzov, B.; Somaschini, C.; Geelhaar, L.; Riechert, H.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Santos, P.V.

    2014-01-01

    The oscillating piezoelectric fields accompanying surface acoustic waves are able to transport charge carriers in semiconductor heterostructures. Here, we demonstrate high-frequency (above 1 GHz) acoustic charge transport in GaAs-based nanowires deposited on a piezoelectric substrate. The short

  1. Mapping low-frequency carbon radio recombination lines towards Cassiopeia A at 340, 148, 54, and 43 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, P.; Oonk, J. B. R.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wolfire, M. G.; Emig, K. L.; Toribio, M. C.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2018-04-01

    Quantitative understanding of the interstellar medium requires knowledge of its physical conditions. Low-frequency carbon radio recombination lines (CRRLs) trace cold interstellar gas and can be used to determine its physical conditions (e.g. electron temperature and density). In this work, we present spatially resolved observations of the low-frequency (≤390 MHz) CRRLs centred around C268α, C357α, C494α, and C539α towards Cassiopeia A on scales of ≤1.2 pc. We compare the spatial distribution of CRRLs with other interstellar medium tracers. This comparison reveals a spatial offset between the peak of the CRRLs and other tracers, which is very characteristic for photodissociation regions and that we take as evidence for CRRLs being preferentially detected from the surfaces of molecular clouds. Using the CRRLs, we constrain the gas electron temperature and density. These constraints on the gas conditions suggest variations of less than a factor of 2 in pressure over ˜1 pc scales, and an average hydrogen density of 200-470 cm-3. From the electron temperature and density maps, we also constrain the ionized carbon emission measure, column density, and path length. Based on these, the hydrogen column density is larger than 1022 cm-2, with a peak of ˜4 × 1022 cm-2 towards the south of Cassiopeia A. Towards the southern peak, the line-of-sight length is ˜40 pc over a ˜2 pc wide structure, which implies that the gas is a thin surface layer on a large (molecular) cloud that is only partially intersected by Cassiopeia A. These observations highlight the utility of CRRLs as tracers of low-density extended H I and CO-dark gas halo's around molecular clouds.

  2. Geodesic acoustic eigenmode for tokamak equilibrium with maximum of local GAM frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhin, V.P. [NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sorokina, E.A., E-mail: sorokina.ekaterina@gmail.com [NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-24

    The geodesic acoustic eigenmode for tokamak equilibrium with the maximum of local GAM frequency is found analytically in the frame of MHD model. The analysis is based on the asymptotic matching technique.

  3. Frequency Representation: Visualization and Clustering of Acoustic Data Using Self-Organizing Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinhua; Sun, Song; Yu, Xiantao; Wang, Pan; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2017-11-01

    Extraction and display of frequency information in three-dimensional (3D) acoustic data are important steps to analyze object characteristics, because the characteristics, such as profiles, sizes, surface structures, and material properties, may show frequency dependence. In this study, frequency representation (FR) based on phase information in multispectral acoustic imaging (MSAI) is proposed to overcome the limit of intensity or amplitude information in image display. Experiments are performed on 3D acoustic data collected from a rigid surface engraved with five different letters. The results show that the proposed FR technique can not only identify the depth of the five letters by the colors representing frequency characteristics but also demonstrate the 3D image of the five letters, providing more detailed characteristics that are unavailable by conventional acoustic imaging.

  4. Head Injury and Intracranial Pressure Monitor Using Ultrasonic and Low-Frequency Acoustic (ULFA) Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this research project is the development of a non-invasive method and instrument for head injury detection and monitoring using a new approach based on ultrasonic and low-frequency acoustic (ULFA...

  5. Characterization of the electromagnetic near-field absorption in layered biological tissue in the frequency range from 30 MHz to 6000 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, A [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr 43, 8004 Zurich (Switzerland); Samaras, T [Radiocommunications Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Klingenboeck, A [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr 43, 8004 Zurich (Switzerland); Kuster, N [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr 43, 8004 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-10-07

    Currently, standards for the compliance testing of wireless devices are being extended to cover a wider frequency band and different usage patterns of mobile phones as well as of novel body-worn and handheld devices. As a consequence, not only the head but also strongly varying tissue distributions of the body are exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Several authors have reported changes in the SAR absorption of body tissue due to the presence of a low permittivity fat layer. This paper identifies two different effects which can lead to increased SAR in layered tissue in comparison to the SAR assessed using homogeneous tissue simulating liquid: (1) for larger distances between the tissue and the antenna, standing wave effects occur depending on the frequency and fat layer thickness. (2) In the very close near-field (distances approximately {lambda}/40), reactive E-field components lead to high local absorption in the skin. The latter effect occurs at lower frequencies and depends on the antenna type. Modification of the parameters of the homogeneous liquids cannot compensate for these effects. However, a conservative exposure estimate can be obtained by applying a multiplication factor between 1 and 3 to the values assessed using current experimental dosimetric techniques.

  6. The Frequency Spectral Properties of Electrode-Skin Contact Impedance on Human Head and Its Frequency-Dependent Effects on Frequency-Difference EIT in Stroke Detection from 10Hz to 1MHz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yang

    Full Text Available Frequency-difference electrical impedance tomography (fdEIT reconstructs frequency-dependent changes of a complex impedance distribution. It has a potential application in acute stroke detection because there are significant differences in impedance spectra between stroke lesions and normal brain tissues. However, fdEIT suffers from the influences of electrode-skin contact impedance since contact impedance varies greatly with frequency. When using fdEIT to detect stroke, it is critical to know the degree of measurement errors or image artifacts caused by contact impedance. To our knowledge, no study has systematically investigated the frequency spectral properties of electrode-skin contact impedance on human head and its frequency-dependent effects on fdEIT used in stroke detection within a wide frequency band (10 Hz-1 MHz. In this study, we first measured and analyzed the frequency spectral properties of electrode-skin contact impedance on 47 human subjects' heads within 10 Hz-1 MHz. Then, we quantified the frequency-dependent effects of contact impedance on fdEIT in stroke detection in terms of the current distribution beneath the electrodes and the contact impedance imbalance between two measuring electrodes. The results showed that the contact impedance at high frequencies (>100 kHz significantly changed the current distribution beneath the electrode, leading to nonnegligible errors in boundary voltages and artifacts in reconstructed images. The contact impedance imbalance at low frequencies (<1 kHz also caused significant measurement errors. We conclude that the contact impedance has critical frequency-dependent influences on fdEIT and further studies on reducing such influences are necessary to improve the application of fdEIT in stroke detection.

  7. The Frequency Spectral Properties of Electrode-Skin Contact Impedance on Human Head and Its Frequency-Dependent Effects on Frequency-Difference EIT in Stroke Detection from 10Hz to 1MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Dai, Meng; Xu, Canhua; Zhang, Ge; Li, Weichen; Fu, Feng; Shi, Xuetao; Dong, Xiuzhen

    2017-01-01

    Frequency-difference electrical impedance tomography (fdEIT) reconstructs frequency-dependent changes of a complex impedance distribution. It has a potential application in acute stroke detection because there are significant differences in impedance spectra between stroke lesions and normal brain tissues. However, fdEIT suffers from the influences of electrode-skin contact impedance since contact impedance varies greatly with frequency. When using fdEIT to detect stroke, it is critical to know the degree of measurement errors or image artifacts caused by contact impedance. To our knowledge, no study has systematically investigated the frequency spectral properties of electrode-skin contact impedance on human head and its frequency-dependent effects on fdEIT used in stroke detection within a wide frequency band (10 Hz-1 MHz). In this study, we first measured and analyzed the frequency spectral properties of electrode-skin contact impedance on 47 human subjects' heads within 10 Hz-1 MHz. Then, we quantified the frequency-dependent effects of contact impedance on fdEIT in stroke detection in terms of the current distribution beneath the electrodes and the contact impedance imbalance between two measuring electrodes. The results showed that the contact impedance at high frequencies (>100 kHz) significantly changed the current distribution beneath the electrode, leading to nonnegligible errors in boundary voltages and artifacts in reconstructed images. The contact impedance imbalance at low frequencies (<1 kHz) also caused significant measurement errors. We conclude that the contact impedance has critical frequency-dependent influences on fdEIT and further studies on reducing such influences are necessary to improve the application of fdEIT in stroke detection.

  8. Performance tests of the 600-kW cw, 80-MHz, radio-frequency systems for the FMIT accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nylander, R.F.; Bacci, F.F.; Fazio, M.V.; Rodgers, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The high-power rf system for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) accelerator consists of 14 sets of equipment,** each of which can deliver up to 600 kW (cw) at 80 MHz into a load having a VSWR of 1.4 or less (any phase). The equipment was designed and constructed to FMIT specifications by Continental Electronics Mfg. Co. (CEMC) of Dallas, Texas. Four sets have been shipped to Los Alamos for use with the accelerator (two with the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and two with the drift-tube linac (DTL)). The first set was fully tested at CEMC; results are summarized. Further tests conducted at Los Alamos, both into a resistive (electrolytic) load and into a resonant cavity (Q about 21,000), have confirmed that this system meets, and in most cases far exceeds, the specified performance limits. The first of the 13 production sets also was tested at CEMC before shipping any of the rf equipment to the Hanford Engineering and Development Laboratory at Richland, Washington. Because of the differences in behavior observed when No. 1 was operated at Los Alamos with a different tube installed in the final power amplifier (FPA) cavity, CEMC agreed to test No. 5 with two tubes having widely differing characteristics (notably primary screen emission). As expected, behavior differed markedly, and some design modification was necessary to meet all specifications with either tube. Results of final performance tests on No. 5 are summarized. As noted in the table, detailed test results are presented in the CEMC Acceptance Test Reports (ATRs) dated April 7, 1982 and January 3, 1983. Discussion of the most significant aspects of CEMC's tests and of those performed at Los Alamos follows a brief description of the equipment

  9. Frequency effect on p-nitrophenol degradation under conditions of strict acoustic and electric control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-ping Zhu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of decomposing p-nitrophenol (PNP with power ultrasound requires strict control of acoustic and electric conditions. In this study, the conditions, including acoustic power and acoustic intensity, but not ultrasonic frequency, were controlled strictly at constant levels. The absorbency and the COD concentrations of the samples were measured in order to show the variation of the sample concentration. The results show significant differences in the trend of the solution degradation rate as acoustic power increases after the PNP solution (with a concentration of 114 mg/L and a pH value of 5.4 is irradiated for 60 min with ultrasonic frequencies of 530.8 kHz, 610.6 kHz, 855.0 kHz, and 1 130.0 kHz. The degradation rate of the solution increases with time and acoustic power (acoustic intensity. On the other hand, the degradation rate of the solution is distinctly dependent on frequency when the acoustic power and intensity are strictly controlled and maintained at constant levels. The degradation rate of the PNP solution declines with ultrasonic frequencies of 530.8 kHz, 610.6 kHz, 855.0 kHz, and 1 130.0 kHz; the COD concentration, on the contrary, increase.

  10. Single-transducer dual-frequency ultrasound generation to enhance acoustic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao-Li; Hsieh, Chao-Ming

    2009-03-01

    Dual- or multiple-frequency ultrasound stimulation is capable of effectively enhancing the acoustic cavitation effect over single-frequency ultrasound. Potential application of this sonoreactor design has been widely proposed such as on sonoluminescence, sonochemistry enhancement, and transdermal drug release enhancement. All currently available sonoreactor designs employed multiple piezoelectric transducers for generating single-frequency ultrasonic waves separately and then these waves were mixed and interfered in solutions. The purpose of this research is to propose a novel design of generating dual-frequency ultrasonic waves with single piezoelectric elements, thereby enhancing acoustic cavitation. Macroscopic bubbles were detected optically, and they were quantified at either a single-frequency or for different frequency combinations for determining their efficiency for enhancing acoustic cavitation. Visible bubbles were optically detected and hydrogen peroxide was measured to quantify acoustic cavitation. Test water samples with different gas concentrations and different power levels were used to determine the efficacy of enhancing acoustic cavitation of this design. The spectrum obtained from the backscattered signals was also recorded and examined to confirm the occurrence of stable cavitation. The results confirmed that single-element dual-frequency ultrasound stimulation can enhance acoustic cavitation. Under certain testing conditions, the generation of bubbles can be enhanced up to a level of five times higher than the generation of bubbles in single-frequency stimulation, and can increase the hydrogen peroxide production up to an increase of one fold. This design may serve as a useful alternative for future sonoreactor design owing to its simplicity to produce dual- or multiple-frequency ultrasound.

  11. An acoustic vector based approach to locate low frequency noise sources in 3D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, H.-E. de; Ostendorf, C.; Basten, T.

    2009-01-01

    Although low frequency noise is an issue of huge societal importance, traditional acoustic testing methods have limitations in finding the low frequency source. It is hard to determine the direction of the noise using traditional microphones. Three dimensional sound probes capturing the particle

  12. Photonic integrated single-sideband modulator / frequency shifter based on surface acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barretto, Elaine Cristina Saraiva; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2010-01-01

    Optical frequency shifters are essential components of many systems. In this paper, a compact integrated optical frequency shifter is designed making use of the combination of surface acoustic waves and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. It has a very simple operation setup and can be fabricated...

  13. The Effects of Sediment Properties on Low Frequency Acoustic Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    boring 5 locations (BH-15 and BH-8). We used three different correlation relationships to convert the reported N -values from the borings to a...to converge to the correct result. Adjoint inversions were performed in this study using synthetic acoustic data created using glider based sound...shear speed values estimated from the SPT blow counts (using three different methods) contained in boring log BH-15. Right panel shows the

  14. Low Frequency Acoustic Intensity Propagation Modeling in Shallow Water Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    planar interfacial two-fluid transmission and reflection are used to benchmark the commercial software package COMSOL. Canonical Pekeris-type... interfacial two-fluid transmission and reflection are used to benchmark the commercial software package COMSOL. Canonical Pekeris-type waveguides are used as...source of reflections, and second, it provides a natural separation of scales that allow for better conditioned numerics. In general structural acoustics

  15. Development of Energy Efficiency Design Map based on acoustic resonance frequency of suction muffler in compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seungjae; Wang, Semyung; Cho, Sungman

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of Energy Efficiency Design Map. • Experimental validation of Energy Efficiency Design Map. • Suggestion regarding the Acoustically Supercharged Energy Efficiency. • Sensitivity analysis of the Energy Efficiency Ratio with respect to acoustic pressure. • Suggestion regarding the hybrid coupling method for acoustic analysis in compressor. - Abstract: The volumetric efficiency of the Internal Combustion (IC) engine and compressor can be increased by properly adjusting the acoustic resonance frequency of the suction muffler or the suction valve timing without any additional equipment or power source. This effect is known as acoustic supercharging. However, the energy efficiency has become more important than the volumetric efficiency because of the energy shortage issue and factors influencing consumers’ purchasing decisions. Therefore, methods for increasing the energy efficiency using the acoustic effect in the suction part of IC engine and compressor should be considered. In this study, a systematic method for improving the energy efficiency using the acoustic effect in the suction part of the compressor used in refrigerators and air conditioners was developed for the first time. This effect is named as the Acoustically Supercharged Energy Efficiency (ASEE). For the ASEE, first, a hybrid coupling method was suggested for the acoustical analysis in the suction part of the compressor. Next, an Energy Efficiency Design Map (EEDM) was proposed. This can serve as a design guide for suction mufflers in terms of the energy efficiency. Finally, sensitivity analyses of the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) and total massflow rate with respect to the acoustic pressure were conducted to identify the relationship between the acoustic pressure and the suction valve motion. This provides the physical background for the EEDM

  16. Impact of acoustic airflow on intrasinus drug deposition: New insights into the vibrating mode and the optimal acoustic frequency to enhance the delivery of nebulized antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Lara; Merhie, Amira El; Navarro, Laurent; Prévôt, Nathalie; Durand, Marc; Pourchez, Jérémie

    2015-10-15

    We investigated the impact of vibrating acoustic airflow, the high frequency (f≥100 Hz) and the low frequency (f≤45 Hz) sound waves, on the enhancement of intrasinus drug deposition. (81m)Kr-gas ventilation study was performed in a plastinated human cast with and without the addition of vibrating acoustic airflow. Similarly, intrasinus drug deposition in a nasal replica using gentamicin as a marker was studied with and without the superposition of different modes of acoustic airflow. Ventilation experiments demonstrate that no sinus ventilation was observed without acoustic airflow although sinus ventilation occurred whatever the modes of acoustic airflow applied. Intrasinus drug deposition experiments showed that the high frequency acoustic airflow led to 4-fold increase in gentamicin deposition into the left maxillary sinus and to 2-fold deposition increase into the right maxillary sinus. Besides, the low frequency acoustic airflow demonstrated a significant increase of 4-fold and 2-fold in the right and left maxillary sinuses, respectively. We demonstrated the benefit of different modes of vibrating acoustic airflow for maxillary sinus ventilation and intrasinus drug deposition. The degree of gentamicin deposition varies as a function of frequency of the vibrating acoustic airflow and the geometry of the ostia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The dielectric properties of human pineal gland tissue and RF absorption due to wireless communication devices in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Gernot; Ueberbacher, Richard; Samaras, Theodoros; Tschabitscher, Manfred; Mazal, Peter R

    2007-01-01

    In order to enable a detailed analysis of radio frequency (RF) absorption in the human pineal gland, the dielectric properties of a sample of 20 freshly removed pineal glands were measured less than 20 h after death. Furthermore, a corresponding high resolution numerical model of the brain region surrounding the pineal gland was developed, based on a real human tissue sample. After inserting this model into a commercially available numerical head model, FDTD-based computations for exposure scenarios with generic models of handheld devices operated close to the head in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz were carried out. For typical output power values of real handheld mobile communication devices, the obtained results showed only very small amounts of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland when compared to SAR limits according to international safety standards. The highest absorption was found for the 400 MHz irradiation. In this case the RF power absorbed inside the pineal gland (organ mass 96 mg) was as low as 11 μW, when considering a device of 500 mW output power operated close to the ear. For typical mobile phone frequencies (900 MHz and 1850 MHz) and output power values (250 mW and 125 mW) the corresponding values of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland were found to be lower by a factor of 4.2 and 36, respectively. These results indicate that temperature-related biologically relevant effects on the pineal gland induced by the RF emissions of typical handheld mobile communication devices are unlikely

  18. A lightweight low-frequency sound insulation membrane-type acoustic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kuan; Wu, Jiu Hui; Guan, Dong; Gao, Nansha; Jing, Li

    2016-02-01

    A novel membrane-type acoustic metamaterial with a high sound transmission loss (STL) at low frequencies (⩽500Hz) was designed and the mechanisms were investigated by using negative mass density theory. This metamaterial's structure is like a sandwich with a thin (thickness=0.25mm) lightweight flexible rubber material within two layers of honeycomb cell plates. Negative mass density was demonstrated at frequencies below the first natural frequency, which results in the excellent low-frequency sound insulation. The effects of different structural parameters of the membrane on the sound-proofed performance at low frequencies were investigated by using finite element method (FEM). The numerical results show that, the STL can be modulated to higher value by changing the structural parameters, such as the membrane surface density, the unite cell film shape, and the membrane tension. The acoustic metamaterial proposed in this study could provide a potential application in the low-frequency noise insulation.

  19. Measured wavenumber: frequency spectrum associated with acoustic and aerodynamic wall pressure fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguillat, Blandine; Ricot, Denis; Bailly, Christophe; Robert, Gilles

    2010-10-01

    Direct measurements of the wavenumber-frequency spectrum of wall pressure fluctuations beneath a turbulent plane channel flow have been performed in an anechoic wind tunnel. A rotative array has been designed that allows the measurement of a complete map, 63×63 measuring points, of cross-power spectral densities over a large area. An original post-processing has been developed to separate the acoustic and the aerodynamic exciting loadings by transforming space-frequency data into wavenumber-frequency spectra. The acoustic part has also been estimated from a simple Corcos-like model including the contribution of a diffuse sound field. The measured acoustic contribution to the surface pressure fluctuations is 5% of the measured aerodynamic surface pressure fluctuations for a velocity and boundary layer thickness relevant for automotive interior noise applications. This shows that for aerodynamically induced car interior noise, both contributions to the surface pressure fluctuations on car windows have to be taken into account.

  20. Measurement of acoustic glitches in solar-type stars from oscillation frequencies observed by Kepler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumdar, A. [Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education, TIFR, V. N. Purav Marg, Mankhurd, Mumbai 400088 (India); Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Cunha, M. S. [Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Ballot, J. [CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Antia, H. M. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Basu, S. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 065208101 (United States); Houdek, G.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Metcalfe, T. S. [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Mathur, S. [High Altitude Observatory, NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); García, R. A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Salabert, D. [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, F-06304 Nice (France); Verner, G. A.; Chaplin, W. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Sanderfer, D. T. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Seader, S. E.; Smith, J. C. [SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2014-02-10

    For the very best and brightest asteroseismic solar-type targets observed by Kepler, the frequency precision is sufficient to determine the acoustic depths of the surface convective layer and the helium ionization zone. Such sharp features inside the acoustic cavity of the star, which we call acoustic glitches, create small oscillatory deviations from the uniform spacing of frequencies in a sequence of oscillation modes with the same spherical harmonic degree. We use these oscillatory signals to determine the acoustic locations of such features in 19 solar-type stars observed by the Kepler mission. Four independent groups of researchers utilized the oscillation frequencies themselves, the second differences of the frequencies and the ratio of the small and large separation to locate the base of the convection zone and the second helium ionization zone. Despite the significantly different methods of analysis, good agreement was found between the results of these four groups, barring a few cases. These results also agree reasonably well with the locations of these layers in representative models of the stars. These results firmly establish the presence of the oscillatory signals in the asteroseismic data and the viability of several techniques to determine the location of acoustic glitches inside stars.

  1. A high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system for the ex vivo measurement of mechanical properties of crystalline lenses with laser-induced microbubbles interrogated by acoustic radiation force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sangpil; Emelianov, Stanislav; Aglyamov, Salavat; Karpiouk, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    A high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system for an ex vivo measurement of mechanical properties of an animal crystalline lens was developed and validated. We measured the bulk displacement of laser-induced microbubbles created at different positions within the lens using nanosecond laser pulses. An impulsive acoustic radiation force was applied to the microbubble, and spatio-temporal measurements of the microbubble displacement were assessed using a custom-made high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system consisting of two 25 MHz focused ultrasound transducers. One of these transducers was used to emit a train of ultrasound pulses and another transducer was used to receive the ultrasound echoes reflected from the microbubble. The developed system was operating at 1 MHz pulse repetition frequency. Based on the measured motion of the microbubble, Young’s moduli of surrounding tissue were reconstructed and the values were compared with those measured using the indentation test. Measured values of Young’s moduli of four bovine lenses ranged from 2.6 ± 0.1 to 26 ± 1.4 kPa, and there was good agreement between the two methods. Therefore, our studies, utilizing the high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system, suggest that the developed approach can be used to assess the mechanical properties of ex vivo crystalline lenses. Furthermore, the potential of the presented approach for in vivo measurements is discussed. (paper)

  2. An open-structure sound insulator against low-frequency and wide-band acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Fan, Li; Zhang, Shu-yi; Zhang, Hui; Li, Xiao-juan; Ding, Jin

    2015-10-01

    To block sound, i.e., the vibration of air, most insulators are based on sealed structures and prevent the flow of the air. In this research, an acoustic metamaterial adopting side structures, loops, and labyrinths, arranged along a main tube, is presented. By combining the accurately designed side structures, an extremely wide forbidden band with a low cut-off frequency of 80 Hz is produced, which demonstrates a powerful low-frequency and wide-band sound insulation ability. Moreover, by virtue of the bypass arrangement, the metamaterial is based on an open structure, and thus air flow is allowed while acoustic waves can be insulated.

  3. Investigation of air-assisted sprays submitted to high frequency transverse acoustic fields: Droplet clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficuciello, A.; Blaisot, J. B.; Richard, C.; Baillot, F.

    2017-06-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of a high amplitude transverse acoustic field on coaxial jets is presented in this paper. Water and air are used as working fluids at ambient pressure. The coaxial injectors are placed on the top of a semi-open resonant cavity where the acoustic pressure fluctuations of the standing wave can reach a maximum peak-to-peak amplitude of 12 kPa at the forcing frequency of 1 kHz. Several test conditions are considered in order to quantify the influence of injection conditions, acoustic field amplitude, and injector position with respect to the standing wave acoustic field. A high speed back-light visualization technique is used to characterize the jet response. Image processing is used to obtain valuable information about the jet behavior. It is shown that the acoustic field drastically affects the atomization process for all atomization regimes. The position of the injector in the acoustic field determines the jet response, and a droplet-clustering phenomenon is highlighted in multi-point injection conditions and quantified by determining discrete droplet location distributions. A theoretical model based on nonlinear acoustics related to the spatial distribution of the radiation pressure exerted on an object explains the behavior observed.

  4. Time domain acoustic contrast control implementation of sound zones for low-frequency input signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellekens, Daan H. M.; Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Sound zones are two or more regions within a listening space where listeners are provided with personal audio. Acoustic contrast control (ACC) is a sound zoning method that maximizes the average squared sound pressure in one zone constrained to constant pressure in other zones. State......-of-the-art time domain broadband acoustic contrast control (BACC) methods are designed for anechoic environments. These methods are not able to realize a flat frequency response in a limited frequency range within a reverberant environment. Sound field control in a limited frequency range is a requirement...... to accommodate the effective working range of the loudspeakers. In this paper, a new BACC method is proposed which results in an implementation realizing a flat frequency response in the target zone. This method is applied in a bandlimited low-frequency scenario where the loudspeaker layout surrounds two...

  5. Observation of frequency cutoff for self-excited dust acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, V.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Morfill, G. E.; Kim, S.-H.; Heinrich, J.; Merlino, R. L.

    2009-11-01

    Complex (dusty) plasmas consist of fine solid particles suspended in a weakly ionized gas. Complex plasmas are excellent model systems to study wave phenomena down to the level of individual ``atoms''. Spontaneously excited dust acoustic waves were observed with high temporal resolution in a suspension of micron-size kaolin particles in a dc discharge in argon. Wave activity was found at frequencies as high as 400 Hz. At high wave numbers, the wave dispersion relation was acoustic-like (frequency proportional to wave number). At low wave numbers, the wave frequency did not tend to zero, but reached a cutoff frequency fc instead. The value of fc declined with distance from the anode. We propose a simple model that explains the observed cutoff by particle confinement in plasma. The existence of a cutoff frequency is very important for the propagation of waves: the waves excited above fc are propagating, and those below fc are evanescent.

  6. Spectral element method for elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Linlin; Zhou, Yuanguo; Wang, Jia-Min; Zhuang, Mingwei [Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, and Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Liu, Na, E-mail: liuna@xmu.edu.cn [Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, and Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Liu, Qing Huo, E-mail: qhliu@duke.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Numerical techniques in time domain are widespread in seismic and acoustic modeling. In some applications, however, frequency-domain techniques can be advantageous over the time-domain approach when narrow band results are desired, especially if multiple sources can be handled more conveniently in the frequency domain. Moreover, the medium attenuation effects can be more accurately and conveniently modeled in the frequency domain. In this paper, we present a spectral-element method (SEM) in frequency domain to simulate elastic and acoustic waves in anisotropic, heterogeneous, and lossy media. The SEM is based upon the finite-element framework and has exponential convergence because of the use of GLL basis functions. The anisotropic perfectly matched layer is employed to truncate the boundary for unbounded problems. Compared with the conventional finite-element method, the number of unknowns in the SEM is significantly reduced, and higher order accuracy is obtained due to its spectral accuracy. To account for the acoustic-solid interaction, the domain decomposition method (DDM) based upon the discontinuous Galerkin spectral-element method is proposed. Numerical experiments show the proposed method can be an efficient alternative for accurate calculation of elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain.

  7. A frequency domain linearized Navier-Stokes method including acoustic damping by eddy viscosity using RANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Andreas; Kierkegaard, Axel; Weng, Chenyang

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a method for including damping of acoustic energy in regions of strong turbulence is derived for a linearized Navier-Stokes method in the frequency domain. The proposed method is validated and analyzed in 2D only, although the formulation is fully presented in 3D. The result is applied in a study of the linear interaction between the acoustic and the hydrodynamic field in a 2D T-junction, subject to grazing flow at Mach 0.1. Part of the acoustic energy at the upstream edge of the junction is shed as harmonically oscillating disturbances, which are conveyed across the shear layer over the junction, where they interact with the acoustic field. As the acoustic waves travel in regions of strong shear, there is a need to include the interaction between the background turbulence and the acoustic field. For this purpose, the oscillation of the background turbulence Reynold's stress, due to the acoustic field, is modeled using an eddy Newtonian model assumption. The time averaged flow is first solved for using RANS along with a k-ε turbulence model. The spatially varying turbulent eddy viscosity is then added to the spatially invariant kinematic viscosity in the acoustic set of equations. The response of the 2D T-junction to an incident acoustic field is analyzed via a plane wave scattering matrix model, and the result is compared to experimental data for a T-junction of rectangular ducts. A strong improvement in the agreement between calculation and experimental data is found when the modification proposed in this paper is implemented. Discrepancies remaining are likely due to inaccuracies in the selected turbulence model, which is known to produce large errors e.g. for flows with significant rotation, which the grazing flow across the T-junction certainly is. A natural next step is therefore to test the proposed methodology together with more sophisticated turbulence models.

  8. High frequency acoustic microscopy for the determination of porosity and Young's modulus in high burnup uranium dioxide nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements P.O. Box 2340 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); University of Montpellier, IES, UMR 5214, F-34000, Montpellier (France); Laux, D. [University of Montpellier, IES, UMR 5214, F-34000, Montpellier (France); CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, F-34000, Montpellier (France); Cappia, F. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements P.O. Box 2340 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Boltzmannstrasse 15, 85747 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Laurie, M.; Van Uffelen, P.; Rondinella, V.V. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements P.O. Box 2340 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Despaux, G. [University of Montpellier, IES, UMR 5214, F-34000, Montpellier (France); CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, F-34000, Montpellier (France)

    2015-07-01

    During irradiation UO{sub 2} nuclear fuel experiences the development of a non-uniform distribution of porosity which contributes to establish varying mechanical properties along the radius of the pellet. Radial variations of the porosity and of elastic properties in high burnup UO{sub 2} pellet can be investigated via high frequency acoustic microscopy. Ultrasound waves are generated by a piezoelectric transducer and focused on the sample, after having travelled through a coupling liquid. The elastic properties of the material are related to the velocity of the generated Rayleigh surface wave (VR). A 67 MWd/kgU UO{sub 2} pellet was characterized using the acoustic microscope installed in the hot cells of the Institute of Transuranium Elements: 90 MHz frequency was applied, methanol was used as coupling liquid and VR was measured at different radial positions. By comparing the porosity values obtained via acoustic microscopy with those determined using ceramographic image analysis a good agreement was found, especially in the areas close to the centre. In addition Young's modulus was calculated and its radial profile was correlated to the corresponding burnup profile. (authors)

  9. High frequency acoustic microscopy for the determination of porosity and Young's modulus in high burnup uranium dioxide nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, M.; Laux, D.; Cappia, F.; Laurie, M.; Van Uffelen, P.; Rondinella, V.V.; Despaux, G.

    2015-01-01

    During irradiation UO 2 nuclear fuel experiences the development of a non-uniform distribution of porosity which contributes to establish varying mechanical properties along the radius of the pellet. Radial variations of the porosity and of elastic properties in high burnup UO 2 pellet can be investigated via high frequency acoustic microscopy. Ultrasound waves are generated by a piezoelectric transducer and focused on the sample, after having travelled through a coupling liquid. The elastic properties of the material are related to the velocity of the generated Rayleigh surface wave (VR). A 67 MWd/kgU UO 2 pellet was characterized using the acoustic microscope installed in the hot cells of the Institute of Transuranium Elements: 90 MHz frequency was applied, methanol was used as coupling liquid and VR was measured at different radial positions. By comparing the porosity values obtained via acoustic microscopy with those determined using ceramographic image analysis a good agreement was found, especially in the areas close to the centre. In addition Young's modulus was calculated and its radial profile was correlated to the corresponding burnup profile. (authors)

  10. Magneto-thermal-acoustic differential-frequency imaging of magnetic nanoparticle with magnetic spatial localization: a theoretical prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Daqing

    2017-02-01

    The magneto-thermo-acoustic effect that we predicted in 2013 refers to the generation of acoustic-pressure wave from magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) when thermally mediated under an alternating magnetic field (AMF) at a pulsed or frequency-chirped application. Several independent experimental studies have since validated magneto-thermoacoustic effect, and a latest report has discovered acoustic-wave generation from MNP at the second-harmonic frequency of the AMF when operating continuously. We propose that applying two AMFs with differing frequencies to MNP will produce acoustic-pressure wave at the summation and difference of the two frequencies, in addition to the two second-harmonic frequencies. Analysis of the specific absorption dynamics of the MNP when exposed to two AMFs of differing frequencies has shown some interesting patterns of acoustic-intensity at the multiple frequency components. The ratio of the acoustic-intensity at the summation-frequency over that of the difference-frequency is determined by the frequency-ratio of the two AMFs, but remains independent of the AMF strengths. The ratio of the acoustic-intensity at the summation- or difference-frequency over that at each of the two second-harmonic frequencies is determined by both the frequency-ratio and the field-strength-ratio of the two AMFs. The results indicate a potential strategy for localization of the source of a continuous-wave magneto-thermalacoustic signal by examining the frequency spectrum of full-field non-differentiating acoustic detection, with the field-strength ratio changed continuously at a fixed frequency-ratio. The practicalities and challenges of this magnetic spatial localization approach for magneto-thermo-acoustic imaging using a simple envisioned set of two AMFs arranged in parallel to each other are discussed.

  11. Analysis of Flame Extinguishment and Height in Low Frequency Acoustically Excited Methane Jet Diffusion Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Ruowen; Kang, Ruxue; Liu, Chen; Zhang, Zhiyang; Zhi, Youran

    2018-01-01

    The exploration of microgravity conditions in space is increasing and existing fire extinguishing technology is often inadequate for fire safety in this special environment. As a result, improving the efficiency of portable extinguishers is of growing importance. In this work, a visual study of the effects on methane jet diffusion flames by low frequency sound waves is conducted to assess the extinguishing ability of sound waves. With a small-scale sound wave extinguishing bench, the extinguishing ability of certain frequencies of sound waves are identified, and the response of the flame height is observed and analyzed. Results show that the flame structure changes with disturbance due to low frequency sound waves of 60-100 Hz, and quenches at effective frequencies in the range of 60-90 Hz. In this range, 60 Hz is considered to be the quick extinguishing frequency, while 70-90 Hz is the stable extinguishing frequency range. For a fixed frequency, the flame height decreases with sound pressure level (SPL). The flame height exhibits the greatest sensitivity to the 60 Hz acoustic waves, and the least to the 100 Hz acoustic waves. The flame height decreases almost identically with disturbance by 70-90 Hz acoustic waves.

  12. 1.55-μm mode-locked quantum-dot lasers with 300 MHz frequency tuning range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeev, T., E-mail: tagir@mailbox.tu-berlin.de; Arsenijević, D.; Bimberg, D. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Franke, D.; Kreissl, J.; Künzel, H. [Heinrich-Hertz-Institut, Einsteinufer 37, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-01-19

    Passive mode-locking of two-section quantum-dot mode-locked lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on InP is reported. 1250-μm long lasers exhibit a wide tuning range of 300 MHz around the fundamental mode-locking frequency of 33.48 GHz. The frequency tuning is achieved by varying the reverse bias of the saturable absorber from 0 to −2.2 V and the gain section current from 90 to 280 mA. 3 dB optical spectra width of 6–7 nm leads to ex-facet optical pulses with full-width half-maximum down to 3.7 ps. Single-section quantum-dot mode-locked lasers show 0.8 ps broad optical pulses after external fiber-based compression. Injection current tuning from 70 to 300 mA leads to 30 MHz frequency tuning.

  13. 1.55-μm mode-locked quantum-dot lasers with 300 MHz frequency tuning range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeev, T.; Arsenijević, D.; Bimberg, D.; Franke, D.; Kreissl, J.; Künzel, H.

    2015-01-01

    Passive mode-locking of two-section quantum-dot mode-locked lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on InP is reported. 1250-μm long lasers exhibit a wide tuning range of 300 MHz around the fundamental mode-locking frequency of 33.48 GHz. The frequency tuning is achieved by varying the reverse bias of the saturable absorber from 0 to −2.2 V and the gain section current from 90 to 280 mA. 3 dB optical spectra width of 6–7 nm leads to ex-facet optical pulses with full-width half-maximum down to 3.7 ps. Single-section quantum-dot mode-locked lasers show 0.8 ps broad optical pulses after external fiber-based compression. Injection current tuning from 70 to 300 mA leads to 30 MHz frequency tuning

  14. Simulation of the influence high-frequency (2 MHz) capacitive gas discharge and magnetic field on the plasma sheath near a surface in hypersonic gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweigert, I. V.

    2012-01-01

    The plasma sheath near the surface of a hypersonic aircraft formed under associative ionization behind the shock front shields the transmission and reception of radio signals. Using two-dimensional kinetic particle-in-cell simulations, we consider the change in plasma-sheath parameters near a flat surface in a hypersonic flow under the action of electrical and magnetic fields. The combined action of a high-frequency 2-MHz capacitive discharge, a constant voltage, and a magnetic field on the plasma sheath allows the local electron density to be reduced manyfold.

  15. Frequency and Thermal Behavior of Acoustic Absorption in ɛ-GaSe Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhafarova, S. Z.

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents results of measuring acoustic absorption in ɛ-GaSe crystals. The absorption of a longitudinal wave which propagates normal to the crystal layers, quadratically depends on frequency. However, it does not depend on temperature, i.e. it displays an Akhiezer behavior although its absolute value considerably exceeds the expected. The analysis of the frequency and thermal behavior of absorption of piezoelectric waves propagating along the layers, includes the deduction of contribution made by the interaction between waves and charge carriers. This analysis shows the linear dependence between the lattice absorption of these waves and the frequency. The linear frequency and weak temperature dependences of the acoustic absorption characterize the additional ultra-Akhiezer absorption in glasses. In our case, it can be caused by various polytypes forming in GaSe crystals which differ merely in a mutual arrangement of layers.

  16. Observation of low-frequency acoustic surface waves in the nocturnal boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmadge, Carrick L; Waxler, Roger; Di, Xiao; Gilbert, Kenneth E; Kulichkov, Sergey

    2008-10-01

    A natural terrain surface, because of its porosity, can support an acoustic surface wave that is a mechanical analog of the familiar vertically polarized surface wave in AM radio transmission. At frequencies of several hundred hertz, the acoustic surface wave is attenuated over distances of a few hundred meters. At lower frequencies (e.g., below approximately 200 Hz) the attenuation is much less, allowing surface waves to propagate thousands of meters. At night, a low-frequency surface wave is generally present at long ranges even when downward refraction is weak. Thus, surface waves represent a ubiquitous nighttime transmission mode that exists even when other transmission modes are weak or absent. Data from recent nighttime field experiments and theoretical calculations are presented, demonstrating the persistence of the surface wave under different meteorological conditions. The low-frequency surface wave described here is the "quasiharmonical" tail observed previously in nighttime measurements but not identified by S. Kulichkov and his colleagues (Chunchuzov, I. P. et al. 1990. "On acoustical impulse propagation in a moving inhomogeneous atmospheric layer," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 455-461).

  17. Frequency Shift of a Rotating Mass-Imbalance Immersed in an Acoustic Fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen R. Novascone; David M. Weinberg; Michael J. Anderson

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a physical mechanism that relates a measurable behavior of a vibrating device to the physical properties of a surrounding acoustic medium. The vibrating device under consideration is a rotating imbalance immersed in an unbounded acoustic fluid. It is assumed that the rotating imbalance is driven by an electromagnetic motor excited by a given DC voltage. If nonlinearities are ignored, the steady state operational frequency of such a device is determined by a balance between the applied electromagnetic and opposing frictional torque on the rotating imbalance. If nonlinearities are retained, it is shown that under certain circumstances, the surrounding acoustic medium exerts an additional time-averaged opposing torque on the rotating imbalance that reduces the operational frequency of the device. Consequently, the operational frequency of the device becomes linked to the physical properties of the surrounding medium. Analytical calculations showed that the radiative resistance of an acoustic fluid caused the opposing torque. The shift in frequency is proportional to the radiative resistance and the square of the rotating eccentricity, but inversely proportional the total transducer mass and the damping effect of the DC motor

  18. Wind Turbine Acoustic Investigation: Infrasound and Low-Frequency Noise--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Stephen E.; Rand, Robert W.; Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Wind turbines produce sound that is capable of disturbing local residents and is reported to cause annoyance, sleep disturbance, and other health-related impacts. An acoustical study was conducted to investigate the presence of infrasonic and low-frequency noise emissions from wind turbines located in Falmouth, Massachusetts, USA. During the…

  19. 915-MHz Radar Wind Profiler (915RWP) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, R

    2005-01-01

    The 915 MHz radar wind profiler/radio acoustic sounding system (RWP/RASS) measures wind profiles and backscattered signal strength between (nominally) 0.1 km and 5 km and virtual temperature profiles between 0.1 km and 2.5 km. It operates by transmitting electromagnetic energy into the atmosphere and measuring the strength and frequency of backscattered energy. Virtual temperatures are recovered by transmitting an acoustic signal vertically and measuring the electromagnetic energy scattered from the acoustic wavefront. Because the propagation speed of the acoustic wave is proportional to the square root of the virtual temperature of the air, the virtual temperature can be recovered by measuring the Doppler shift of the scattered electromagnetic wave.

  20. Simultaneous masking between electric and acoustic stimulation in cochlear implant users with residual low-frequency hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Benjamin; Büchner, Andreas; Nogueira, Waldo

    2017-09-01

    Ipsilateral electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) is becoming increasingly important in cochlear implant (CI) treatment. Improvements in electrode designs and surgical techniques have contributed to improved hearing preservation during implantation. Consequently, CI implantation criteria have been expanded toward people with significant residual low-frequency hearing, who may benefit from the combined use of both the electric and acoustic stimulation in the same ear. However, only few studies have investigated the mutual interaction between electric and acoustic stimulation modalities. This work characterizes the interaction between both stimulation modalities using psychophysical masking experiments and cone beam computer tomography (CBCT). Two psychophysical experiments for electric and acoustic masking were performed to measure the hearing threshold elevation of a probe stimulus in the presence of a masker stimulus. For electric masking, the probe stimulus was an acoustic tone while the masker stimulus was an electric pulse train. For acoustic masking, the probe stimulus was an electric pulse train and the masker stimulus was an acoustic tone. Five EAS users, implanted with a CI and ipsilateral residual low-frequency hearing, participated in the study. Masking was determined at different electrodes and different acoustic frequencies. CBCT scans were used to determine the individual place-pitch frequencies of the intracochlear electrode contacts by using the Stakhovskaya place-to-frequency transformation. This allows the characterization of masking as a function of the difference between electric and acoustic stimulation sites, which we term the electric-acoustic frequency difference (EAFD). The results demonstrate a significant elevation of detection thresholds for both experiments. In electric masking, acoustic-tone thresholds increased exponentially with decreasing EAFD. In contrast, for the acoustic masking experiment, threshold elevations were present

  1. Low-frequency acoustic atomization with oscillatory flow around micropillars in a microfluidic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Yin Nee, E-mail: mailccheung@gmail.com, E-mail: mtnwong@ntu.edu.sg; Wong, Teck Neng, E-mail: mailccheung@gmail.com, E-mail: mtnwong@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Nguyen, Nam Trung, E-mail: nam-trung.nguyen@griffith.edu.au [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Brisbane QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2014-10-06

    This letter reports a low frequency acoustic atomization technique with oscillatory extensional flow around micropillars. Large droplets passing through two micropillars are elongated. Small droplets are then produced through the pinch-off process at the spindle-shape ends. As the actuation frequency increases, the droplet size decreases with increasing monodispersity. This method is suitable for in-situ mass production of fine droplets in a multi-phase environment without external pumping. Small particles encapsulation was demonstrated with the current technique.

  2. Acoustic characterization of a CANDU primary heat transport pump at the blade-passing frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzentkowski, G.; Zbroja, S.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the acoustics of a single-stage, double-volute CANDU heat transport pump based on a full-scale experimental investigation. We estimate the strength of source variables (acoustic pressure and velocity) and establish the pump characteristics as an acoustic source at the blade-passing frequency. We conduct this analysis by first assessing the resonance effects in the test loop, and then decomposing the measured signal into the components associated with pump action and loop acoustics with the use of a simple pump model. The pump model is based on a linear superposition of pressure wave transmission and excitation. The results of this analysis indicate that the pump source variables are nearly free of acoustic resonance effects in the test loop. The source pressure and velocity are each estimated at approximately 10 kPa (zero-to-peak). The results also indicate that the pump may act as both a pressure and a velocity source. At the loop resonance, the pump acoustic behavior is exclusively governed by the pressure term. This observation leads to the conclusion that the maximum amplification of pressure pulsations in a reactor heat transport system may be predicted by modeling the pump as a pressure source. (orig.)

  3. Nonlinear acoustic properties of the B95 aluminum alloy and the B95/nanodiamond composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobov, A. I.; Prokhorov, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    Research results for the nonlinear acoustic properties of the B95 polycrystalline aluminum alloy and the B95/nanodiamond composite have been described. The nonlinear properties of the alloys have been studied by the spectral method that measures the efficiency of generation of the second harmonic of a bulk acoustic wave at a frequency of 2 f = 10 MHz in the field of a finite-amplitude longitudinal acoustic wave at a frequency of f = 5 MHz. The results derived by this method have been compared with the results of studies of the nonlinear acoustic properties of the test alloys using the Thurston-Brugger quasi-static method.

  4. Nano-optomechanical system based on microwave frequency surface acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Semere Ayalew

    Cavity optomechnics studies the interaction of cavity confined photons with mechanical motion. The emergence of sophisticated nanofabrication technology has led to experimental demonstrations of a wide range of novel optomechanical systems that exhibit strong optomechanical coupling and allow exploration of interesting physical phenomena. Many of the studies reported so far are focused on interaction of photons with localized mechanical modes. For my doctoral research, I did experimental investigations to extend this study to propagating phonons. I used surface travelling acoustic waves as the mechanical element of my optomechanical system. The optical cavities constitute an optical racetrack resonator and photonic crystal nanocavity. This dissertation discusses implementation of this surface acoustic wave based optomechanical system and experimental demonstrations of important consequences of the optomechanical coupling. The discussion focuses on three important achievements of the research. First, microwave frequency surface acoustic wave transducers were co-integrated with an optical racetrack resonator on a piezoelectric aluminum nitride film deposited on an oxidized silicon substrate. Acousto-optic modulation of the resonance modes at above 10 GHz with the acoustic wavelength significantly below the optical wavelength was achieved. The phase and modal matching conditions in this paradigm were investigated for efficient optmechanical coupling. Second, the optomechanical coupling was pushed further into the sideband resolved regime by integrating the high frequency surface acoustic wave transducers with a photonic crystal nanocavity. This device was used to demonstrate optomecahnically induced transparency and absorption, one of the interesting consequences of cavity optomechanics. Phase coherent interaction of the acoustic wave with multiple nanocavities was also explored. In a related experiment, the photonic crystal nanoscavity was placed inside an acoustic

  5. Development of a Magnetron Resonance Frequency Auto Tuning System for Medical Xband [9300 MHz] RF Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sung Su; Lee, Byung Cheol [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yujong; Park, Hyung Dal; Lee, Byeong-No; Joo, Youngwoo; Cha, Hyungki; Lee, Soo Min; Song, Ki Baek [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hyun [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The total components of the accelerator are the magnetron, electron gun, accelerating structure, a set of solenoid magnets, four sets of steering coils, a modulator, and a circulator. One of the accelerator components of the accelerating structure is made of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC), and its volume is changed according to the ambient temperature. As the volume changes, the resonant frequency of the accelerating structure is changed. Accordingly, the resonance frequency is mismatched between the source of the magnetron and the accelerating structure. An automatic frequency tuning system is automatically matched with the resonant frequency of the magnetron and accelerating structure, which allows a high output power and reliable accelerator operation. An automatic frequency tuning system is composed of a step motor control part for correcting the frequency of the source and power measuring parts, i.e., the forward and reflected power between the magnetron and accelerating structure. In this paper, the design, fabrication, and RF power test of the automatic frequency tuning system for the X-band linac are presented. A frequency tuning system was developed to overcome an unstable accelerator operation owing to the frequency mismatch between the magnetron and accelerating structure. The frequency measurement accuracy is 100 kHz and 0.72 degree per pulse.

  6. Panama City 2003 Acoustic Coherence Experiments: Low Frequency Bottom Penetration Fluctuation Measurements in a Multipath Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Roger W.; Kennedy, E. Ted; Malley, Dexter; Fisher, Robert A.; Brown, Robert; Stanic, Steve

    2004-11-01

    This paper is part of a series of papers describing acoustic coherence and fluctuations measurements made by the Naval Research Laboratory in the Gulf of Mexico near Panama City Beach, FL during June 2003. This paper presents low frequency (1-10 kHz) buried hydrophone measurements and preliminary results for two source-receiver ranges with grazing angles less than two degrees (realtive to the direct-path to the seafloor at the receiver location). Results focus on fluctuations after acoustic penetration into the sediment. These fluctuations are correlated with environmental influences.

  7. Radio quite site qualification for the Brasilian Southern Space Observatory by monitoring the low frequency 10-240 MHz Eletromagnetic Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Guilherme Simon; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Espindola Antunes, Cassio; Gomes, Natanael

    The monitoring of the level of the radio interference in the Site of the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory - SSO/CRS/CIE/INPE - MCT, (29S, 53W), São Martinho da Serra, RS, in south a of Brazil, aims to gather spectral data for the Observatory's Site qualification as a radio quite site for installation of Radio Astronomy instrumentation, free of radio noise. The determination of the radio interference level is being conducted by using a spectrum analyzer and Omni directional antennas remotely controlled through a GPIB interface, via IEEE 488 bus, and programs written in C language. That procedure allows the scanning of the Electromagnetic Spectrum power over the examined frequency range from 10 - 240MHz. The methodology for these tests was to amplify the radio signal from the antenna by a block amplifier. Subsequently, the received signals are evaluated by the spectrum analyzer. A dedicated PC computer is used for the control and data acquisition, with the developed software. The data are instantly stored in digital format and remotely transferred via VNC software from the SSO-Observatory Site to the Radio Frequency and Telecommunication Laboratory at the Southern Regional Space Research Center - CRS/CIE/INPE - MCT, in Santa Maria, RS, for analysis and storage on the radio interference data base for long period. It is compared the SSO's Electromagnetic Spectrum data obtained since the beginning of the 1990's decade, before the Site constructions, with the current observed data. Some radio transmissions were found in the observed frequency range due to some local FMs, mostly between 93.5 MHz to 105.7 MHz, which were observed in previous monitoring. A good evidence of the site quality is the fact that the power of the Electromagnetic Spectrum is much lower than that measured at the Radio Frequency and Telecommunication Laboratory, in Santa Maria, RS, where the signals do not exceed -60 dB. On the Site of the SSO, due to the low power observed, weak radio signals

  8. Fatigue crack propagation of super duplex stainless steel and time-frequency analysis of acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kee; Nam, Ki Woo; Kang, Chang Yong; Do, Jae Yoon

    2000-01-01

    On this study, the fatigue crack propagation of super duplex stainless steel is investigated in conditions of various volume fraction of austenite phase by changing heat treatment temperature. And we analysed acoustic emission signals during the fatigue test by time-frequency analysis methods. As the temperature of heat treatment increased, volume fraction of austenite decreased and coarse grain was obtained. The specimen heat treated at 1200 deg. C had longer fatigue life and slower rate of crack growth. As a result of time-frequency analyze of acoustic emission signals during fatigue test, main frequency was 200∼300 kHz having no correlation with heat treatment and crack length, and 500 kHz was obtained by dimple and separate of inclusion

  9. Dielectric spectroscopy in aqueous solutions of paracetamol over the frequency range of 20 Hz to 2 MHz at 293.15 K temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, T. R.; Rana, V. A.

    2018-05-01

    Frequency domain dielectric relaxation spectroscopy plays an important role in the study of pharmaceutical drug molecules. The complex relative dielectric permittivity ɛ*(ω) = ɛ' - j ɛ" of aqueous solutions of paracetamol in the frequency range of 20 Hz to 2 MHz at a temperature range of 293.15 K are measured with the help of Agilent precision LCR meter E4980A along with four terminal liquid test fixture Agilent 16452A. Data of complex relative permittivity are used to calculate loss tangent for all concentrations of paracetamol in distilled water. Electrode polarization relaxation time has been calculated for all solutions. Effect of variation of concentrations of paracetamol in distilled water on these dielectric parameters is discussed.

  10. Deposition of organosilicone thin film from hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) with 50 kHz/33 MHz dual-frequency atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaojiao; Yuan, Qianghua; Chang, Xiaowei; Wang, Yong; Yin, Guiqin; Dong, Chenzhong

    2017-04-01

    The deposition of organosilicone thin films from hexamethyldisiloxane(HMDSO) by using a dual-frequency (50 kHz/33 MHz) atmospheric-pressure micro-plasma jet with an admixture of a small volume of HMDSO and Ar was investigated. The topography was measured by using scanning electron microscopy. The chemical bond and composition of these films were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the as-deposited film was constituted by silicon, carbon, and oxygen elements, and FTIR suggested the films are organosilicon with the organic component (-CH x ) and hydroxyl functional group(-OH) connected to the Si-O-Si backbone. Thin-film hardness was recorded by an MH-5-VM Digital Micro-Hardness Tester. Radio frequency power had a strong impact on film hardness and the hardness increased with increasing power.

  11. Spider web-structured labyrinthine acoustic metamaterials for low-frequency sound control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krushynska, A. O.; Bosia, F.; Miniaci, M.; Pugno, N. M.

    2017-10-01

    Attenuating low-frequency sound remains a challenge, despite many advances in this field. Recently-developed acoustic metamaterials are characterized by unusual wave manipulation abilities that make them ideal candidates for efficient subwavelength sound control. In particular, labyrinthine acoustic metamaterials exhibit extremely high wave reflectivity, conical dispersion, and multiple artificial resonant modes originating from the specifically-designed topological architectures. These features enable broadband sound attenuation, negative refraction, acoustic cloaking and other peculiar effects. However, hybrid and/or tunable metamaterial performance implying enhanced wave reflection and simultaneous presence of conical dispersion at desired frequencies has not been reported so far. In this paper, we propose a new type of labyrinthine acoustic metamaterials (LAMMs) with hybrid dispersion characteristics by exploiting spider web-structured configurations. The developed design approach consists in adding a square surrounding frame to sectorial circular-shaped labyrinthine channels described in previous publications (e.g. (11)). Despite its simplicity, this approach provides tunability in the metamaterial functionality, such as the activation/elimination of subwavelength band gaps and negative group-velocity modes by increasing/decreasing the edge cavity dimensions. Since these cavities can be treated as extensions of variable-width internal channels, it becomes possible to exploit geometrical features, such as channel width, to shift the band gap position and size to desired frequencies. Time transient simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed metastructures for wave manipulation in terms of transmission or reflection coefficients, amplitude attenuation and time delay at subwavelength frequencies. The obtained results can be important for practical applications of LAMMs such as lightweight acoustic barriers with enhanced broadband wave

  12. Spider web-structured labyrinthine acoustic metamaterials for low-frequency sound control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krushynska, A O; Bosia, F; Miniaci, M; Pugno, N M

    2017-01-01

    Attenuating low-frequency sound remains a challenge, despite many advances in this field. Recently-developed acoustic metamaterials are characterized by unusual wave manipulation abilities that make them ideal candidates for efficient subwavelength sound control. In particular, labyrinthine acoustic metamaterials exhibit extremely high wave reflectivity, conical dispersion, and multiple artificial resonant modes originating from the specifically-designed topological architectures. These features enable broadband sound attenuation, negative refraction, acoustic cloaking and other peculiar effects. However, hybrid and/or tunable metamaterial performance implying enhanced wave reflection and simultaneous presence of conical dispersion at desired frequencies has not been reported so far. In this paper, we propose a new type of labyrinthine acoustic metamaterials (LAMMs) with hybrid dispersion characteristics by exploiting spider web-structured configurations. The developed design approach consists in adding a square surrounding frame to sectorial circular-shaped labyrinthine channels described in previous publications (e.g. (11)). Despite its simplicity, this approach provides tunability in the metamaterial functionality, such as the activation/elimination of subwavelength band gaps and negative group-velocity modes by increasing/decreasing the edge cavity dimensions. Since these cavities can be treated as extensions of variable-width internal channels, it becomes possible to exploit geometrical features, such as channel width, to shift the band gap position and size to desired frequencies. Time transient simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed metastructures for wave manipulation in terms of transmission or reflection coefficients, amplitude attenuation and time delay at subwavelength frequencies. The obtained results can be important for practical applications of LAMMs such as lightweight acoustic barriers with enhanced broadband wave

  13. In Situ Acoustic Monitoring of Thermal Spray Process Using High-Frequency Impulse Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Wolfgang; Walther, Frank; Luo, Weifeng; Haack, Matthias; Nellesen, Jens; Knyazeva, Marina

    2018-01-01

    In order to guarantee their protective function, thermal spray coatings must be free from cracks, which expose the substrate surface to, e.g., corrosive media. Cracks in thermal spray coatings are usually formed because of tensile residual stresses. Most commonly, the crack occurrence is determined after the thermal spraying process by examination of metallographic cross sections of the coating. Recent efforts focus on in situ monitoring of crack formation by means of acoustic emission analysis. However, the acoustic signals related to crack propagation can be absorbed by the noise of the thermal spraying process. In this work, a high-frequency impulse measurement technique was applied to separate different acoustic sources by visualizing the characteristic signal of crack formation via quasi-real-time Fourier analysis. The investigations were carried out on a twin wire arc spraying process, utilizing FeCrBSi as a coating material. The impact of the process parameters on the acoustic emission spectrum was studied. Acoustic emission analysis enables to obtain global and integral information on the formed cracks. The coating morphology and coating defects were inspected using light microscopy on metallographic cross sections. Additionally, the resulting crack patterns were imaged in 3D by means of x-ray microtomography.

  14. Bilinear Time-frequency Analysis for Lamb Wave Signal Detected by Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenxiu; Liu, Guoqiang; Xia, Hui; Xia, Zhengwu

    2018-03-01

    Accurate acquisition of the detection signal travel time plays a very important role in cross-hole tomography. The experimental platform of aluminum plate under the perpendicular magnetic field is established and the bilinear time-frequency analysis methods, Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD) and the pseudo-Wigner-Ville distribution (PWVD), are applied to analyse the Lamb wave signals detected by electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). By extracting the same frequency component of the time-frequency spectrum as the excitation frequency, the travel time information can be obtained. In comparison with traditional linear time-frequency analysis method such as short-time Fourier transform (STFT), the bilinear time-frequency analysis method PWVD is more appropriate in extracting travel time and recognizing patterns of Lamb wave.

  15. Waveform inversion for acoustic VTI media in frequency domain

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2016-09-06

    Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI) by inverting for the background model using a single scattered wavefield from an inverted perturbation. However, current RWI methods are mostly based on isotropic media assumption. We extend the idea of the combining inversion for the background model and perturbations to address transversely isotropic with a vertical axis of symmetry (VTI) media taking into consideration of the optimal parameter sensitivity information. As a result, we apply Born modeling corresponding to perturbations in only for the variable e to derive the relative reflected waveform inversion formulation. To reduce the number of parameters, we assume the background part of η = ε and work with a single variable to describe the anisotropic part of the wave propagation. Thus, the optimization variables are the horizontal velocity v, η = ε and the e perturbation. Application to the anisotropic version of Marmousi model with a single frequency of 2.5 Hz shows that this method can converge to the accurate result starting from a linearly increasing isotropic initial velocity. Application to a real dataset demonstrates the versatility of the approach.

  16. Development of Lightweight, Compact, Structurally-Integrated Acoustic Liners for Broadband Low-Frequency Noise Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Andrew T.

    Airborne noise with a low dominant frequency content (scope of conventional acoustic noise mitigation techniques using liners, foams or claddings owing to mass and volume considerations. Its low evanescence contributes significantly to environmental noise pollution, and unwanted structural vibrations causing diminished efficiency, comfort, payload integrity and mission capabilities. An alternative approach using liner configurations with realistic mass and volume constraints having innovative 'folded' core geometries is investigated to ascertain its low-frequency noise absorption characteristics. In contrast to mass-driven approaches, the folded core approach relies on tailoring interactions between acoustic resonances to tune the liner's impedance to suit the dominant low-frequency content of the source. This allows to keep non-structural mass-addition to a minimum, while retaining an overall thickness comparable to conventional liners for these low-frequency liner designs. The relative acoustic performance of various candidate folded core designs is evaluated by means of a new composite metric termed the Low-Frequency Performance (LFP) factor, which is educed from the absorption coefficient spectrum obtained using Zwikker-Kosten Transmission Line (ZKTL) theory-based numerical studies. An LFP-based software tool is developed to determine optimal 3D cavity packing for a prescribed liner volume and target frequency range. ZKTL-based parametric studies on core dimensions and face sheet porosity are utilized for detailed design of test articles. Experimental verification of absorption coefficient spectra conducted using 3D printed test articles in a normal incidence acoustic impedance tube yield good correlation with simulations. More than 100 Hz of continuous bandwidth with an absorption coefficient greater than 0.6 is shown to be possible in the 300 to 400 Hz range with a 38.1-mm (1.5-inch) thick liner. Further, the influence of face sheet type, Mach number, and

  17. Acoustic characterization of a nonlinear vibroacoustic absorber at low frequencies and high sound levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, A.; Monteil, M.; Bellizzi, S.; Côte, R.; Herzog, Ph.; Pachebat, M.

    2018-03-01

    A nonlinear vibroacoustic absorber (Nonlinear Energy Sink: NES), involving a clamped thin membrane made in Latex, is assessed in the acoustic domain. This NES is here considered as an one-port acoustic system, analyzed at low frequencies and for increasing excitation levels. This dynamic and frequency range requires a suitable experimental technique, which is presented first. It involves a specific impedance tube able to deal with samples of sufficient size, and reaching high sound levels with a guaranteed linear response thank's to a specific acoustic source. The identification method presented here requires a single pressure measurement, and is calibrated from a set of known acoustic loads. The NES reflection coefficient is then estimated at increasing source levels, showing its strong level dependency. This is presented as a mean to understand energy dissipation. The results of the experimental tests are first compared to a nonlinear viscoelastic model of the membrane absorber. In a second step, a family of one degree of freedom models, treated as equivalent Helmholtz resonators is identified from the measurements, allowing a parametric description of the NES behavior over a wide range of levels.

  18. Cytogenetic studies in human blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro to radiofrequency radiation at a cellular telephone frequency (835.62 MHz, FDMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalaxmi; Leal, B Z; Meltz, M L; Pickard, W F; Bisht, K S; Roti Roti JL; Straube, W L; Moros, E G

    2001-01-01

    Freshly collected peripheral blood samples from four healthy human volunteers were diluted with RPMI 1640 tissue culture medium and exposed in sterile T-75 tissue culture flasks in vitro for 24 h to 835.62 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation, a frequency employed for customer-to-base station transmission of cellular telephone communications. An analog signal was used, and the access technology was frequency division multiple access (FDMA, continuous wave). A nominal net forward power of 68 W was used, and the nominal power density at the center of the exposure flask was 860 W/m(2). The mean specific absorption rate in the exposure flask was 4.4 or 5.0 W/kg. Aliquots of diluted blood that were sham-exposed or exposed in vitro to an acute dose of 1.50 Gy of gamma radiation were used as negative or positive controls. Immediately after the exposures, the lymphocytes were stimulated with a mitogen, phytohemagglutinin, and cultured for 48 or 72 h to determine the extent of genetic damage, as assessed from the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei. The extent of alteration in the kinetics of cell proliferation was determined from the mitotic indices in 48-h cultures and from the incidence of binucleate cells in 72-h cultures. The data indicated no significant differences between RF-radiation- and sham-exposed lymphocytes with respect to mitotic indices, incidence of exchange aberrations, excess fragments, binucleate cells, and micronuclei. In contrast, the response of the lymphocytes exposed to gamma radiation was significantly different from both RF-radiation- and sham-exposed cells for all of these indices. Thus, under the experimental conditions tested, there is no evidence for the induction of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in human blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro for 24 h to 835.62 MHz RF radiation at SARs of 4.4 or 5.0 W/kg.

  19. Low-Frequency Acoustic Noise Mitigation Characteristics of Metamaterials-Inspired Vibro-Impact Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhy, Anuj

    Acoustic absorbers like foams, fiberglass or liners have been used commonly in structures for infrastructural, industrial, automotive and aerospace applications to mitigate noise. However, these conventional materials have limited effectiveness to mitigate low-frequency (LF) acoustic waves with frequency less than 400 Hz owing to the need for impractically large mass or volume. LF acoustic waves contribute significantly towards environmental noise pollution as well as unwanted structural responses. Therefore, there is a need to develop lightweight, compact, structurally-integrated solutions to mitigate LF noise in several applications. Inspired by metamaterials, which are man-made structural materials that derive their unique dynamic behavior not just from material constituents but more so from engineered configurations, tuned mass-loaded membranes as vibro-impact attachments on a baseline structure are investigated to determine their performance as a LF acoustic barrier. The hypothesis is that the LF incident waves are up-converted via impact to higher modes in the baseline structure which are far more evanescent and may then be effectively mitigated using conventional means. Such Metamaterials-Inspired Vibro-Impact Structures (MIVIS) could be tuned to match the dominant frequency content of LF acoustic sources in specific applications. Prototype MIVIS unit cells were designed and tested to study the energy transfer mechanism via impact-induced frequency up-conversion, and the consequent sound transmission loss. Structural acoustic simulations were done to predict responses using models based on normal incidence transmission loss tests. Experimental proof-of-concept was achieved and further correlations to simulations were utilized to optimize the energy up-conversion mechanism using parametric studies. Up to 36 dB of sound transmission loss increase is obtained at the anti-resonance frequency (326 Hz) within a tunable LF bandwidth of about 200 Hz while impact

  20. A pilot study of the efficacy of the POLARGEN® ultrahigh-frequency electric field (40.68 MHz) radiofrequency device in the treatment of facial contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miri; Lim, Jihong; Bae, Jung Min; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2017-11-01

    Various radiofrequency (RF) devices are used to treat skin laxity and face contouring, but few studies have examined ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) electric field (40.68 MHz) RF devices. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a UHF electric field (40.68 MHz) RF device for skin tightening and face contouring. Ten patients each underwent four sessions of UHF electric field RF device treatment at 2-week intervals. Clinical improvement was evaluated with the patient satisfaction score using a six-point scale, and clinical photographs taken at every visit and 2 months after the RF treatment were assessed. Skin biopsies were obtained from one patient before the first treatment and immediately after the last treatment. Adverse reactions were recorded at every follow-up visit. All patients were women with a mean age of 51.7 ± 7.2 years. The mean satisfaction score was 4.5 ± 0.9 immediately after the last treatment session. Cheek, jawline, and neck enhancement and tightening were apparent in all patients. Side effects were minimal, and there were no burns or major complications. The UHF electric field RF device was effective for skin tightening and facial contouring, without significant adverse reactions.

  1. High-resolution acoustic imaging at low frequencies using 3D-printed metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Laureti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic metamaterial has been constructed using 3D printing. It contained an array of air-filled channels, whose size and shape could be varied within the design and manufacture process. In this paper we analyze both numerically and experimentally the properties of this polymer metamaterial structure, and demonstrate its use for the imaging of a sample with sub-wavelength dimensions in the audible frequency range.

  2. Frequency Response of the Sample Vibration Mode in Scanning Probe Acoustic Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya-Jun, Zhao; Qian, Cheng; Meng-Lu, Qian

    2010-01-01

    Based on the interaction mechanism between tip and sample in the contact mode of a scanning probe acoustic microscope (SPAM), an active mass of the sample is introduced in the mass-spring model. The tip motion and frequency response of the sample vibration mode in the SPAM are calculated by the Lagrange equation with dissipation function. For the silicon tip and glass assemblage in the SPAM the frequency response is simulated and it is in agreement with the experimental result. The living myoblast cells on the glass slide are imaged at resonance frequencies of the SPAM system, which are 20kHz, 30kHz and 120kHz. It is shown that good contrast of SPAM images could be obtained when the system is operated at the resonance frequencies of the system in high and low-frequency regions

  3. A lightweight low-frequency sound insulation membrane-type acoustic metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Lu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel membrane-type acoustic metamaterial with a high sound transmission loss (STL at low frequencies (⩽500Hz was designed and the mechanisms were investigated by using negative mass density theory. This metamaterial’s structure is like a sandwich with a thin (thickness=0.25mm lightweight flexible rubber material within two layers of honeycomb cell plates. Negative mass density was demonstrated at frequencies below the first natural frequency, which results in the excellent low-frequency sound insulation. The effects of different structural parameters of the membrane on the sound-proofed performance at low frequencies were investigated by using finite element method (FEM. The numerical results show that, the STL can be modulated to higher value by changing the structural parameters, such as the membrane surface density, the unite cell film shape, and the membrane tension. The acoustic metamaterial proposed in this study could provide a potential application in the low-frequency noise insulation.

  4. The influence of environmental parameters on the optimal frequency in a shallow underwater acoustic channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnescu, George

    2015-02-01

    In a shallow underwater acoustic channel the delayed replicas of a transmitted signal are mainly due to the interactions with the sea surface and the bottom layer. If a specific underwater region on the globe is considered, for which the sedimentary layer structure is constant across the transmission distance, then the variability of the amplitude-delay profile is determined by daily and seasonal changes of the sound speed profile (SSP) and by weather changes, such as variations of the wind speed. Such a parameter will influence the attenuation at the surface, the noise level and the profile of the sea surface. The temporal variation of the impulse response in a shallow underwater acoustic channel determines the variability of the optimal transmission frequency. If the ways in which the optimal frequency changes can be predicted, then an adaptive analog transceiver can be easily designed for an underwater acoustic modem or it can be found when a communication link has high throughput. In this article it will be highlighted the way in which the amplitude-delay profile is affected by the sound speed profile, wind speed and channel depth and also will be emphasized the changes of the optimal transmission frequency in a configuration, where the transmitter and receiver are placed on the seafloor and the bathymetry profile will be considered flat, having a given composition.

  5. On the secular decrease of radio emission flux densities of the supernova remnants of Cassiopeia A and Taurus A at frequency 927 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinyajkin, E.N.; Razin, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Relative measurements of the radio emission flux densities of the supernova remnants of Cassiopeia A and Taurus A were made at the frequency 927 MHz to investigate the secular decrease of their intensity. Experiments were fulfilled in October-December 1977 at the 10-meter radio telescope of the radioastronomical station Staraya Pustyn' (NIRFI). The radio galaxied of Cygnus A, Virgo A and Orion Nebula were taken as the comparison sources. The comparison of the data obtained with the results of absolute measurements carried out in October 1962 permits to state that during 15 years the radio emission flux density of Cassiopeia A decreased by (14.2+-0.6)% (the average annual decrease amounts to (0.95+-O.04)%) and the radio emission flux density of Taurus A decreased by (2.7+-0.1)% (the annual decrease is (0.18+-0.01)%)

  6. Combined failure acoustical diagnosis based on improved frequency domain blind deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Nan; Wu, Xing; Chi, YiLin; Liu, Xiaoqin; Liu, Chang

    2012-01-01

    According to gear box combined failure extraction in complex sound field, an acoustic fault detection method based on improved frequency domain blind deconvolution was proposed. Follow the frequency-domain blind deconvolution flow, the morphological filtering was firstly used to extract modulation features embedded in the observed signals, then the CFPA algorithm was employed to do complex-domain blind separation, finally the J-Divergence of spectrum was employed as distance measure to resolve the permutation. Experiments using real machine sound signals was carried out. The result demonstrate this algorithm can be efficiently applied to gear box combined failure detection in practice.

  7. Ultra-thin smart acoustic metasurface for low-frequency sound insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Xiao, Yong; Wen, Jihong; Yu, Dianlong; Wen, Xisen

    2016-04-01

    Insulating low-frequency sound is a conventional challenge due to the high areal mass required by mass law. In this letter, we propose a smart acoustic metasurface consisting of an ultra-thin aluminum foil bonded with piezoelectric resonators. Numerical and experimental results show that the metasurface can break the conventional mass law of sound insulation by 30 dB in the low frequency regime (sound insulation performance is attributed to the infinite effective dynamic mass density produced by the smart resonators. It is also demonstrated that the excellent sound insulation property can be conveniently tuned by simply adjusting the external circuits instead of modifying the structure of the metasurface.

  8. Auto-identification of engine fault acoustic signal through inverse trigonometric instantaneous frequency analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayong Ning

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic signals of internal combustion engines contain valuable information about the condition of engines. These signals can be used to detect incipient faults in engines. However, these signals are complex and composed of a faulty component and other noise signals of background. As such, engine conditions’ characteristics are difficult to extract through wavelet transformation and acoustic emission techniques. In this study, an instantaneous frequency analysis method was proposed. A new time–frequency model was constructed using a fixed amplitude and a variable cycle sine function to fit adjacent points gradually from a time domain signal. The instantaneous frequency corresponds to single value at any time. This study also introduced instantaneous frequency calculation on the basis of an inverse trigonometric fitting method at any time. The mean value of all local maximum values was then considered to identify the engine condition automatically. Results revealed that the mean of local maximum values under faulty conditions differs from the normal mean. An experiment case was also conducted to illustrate the availability of the proposed method. Using the proposed time–frequency model, we can identify engine condition and determine abnormal sound produced by faulty engines.

  9. Dual fiber Bragg gratings configuration-based fiber acoustic sensor for low-frequency signal detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Wang, Shun; Lu, Ping; Liu, Deming

    2014-11-01

    We propose and fabricate a new type fiber acoustic sensor based on dual fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) configuration. The acoustic sensor head is constructed by putting the sensing cells enclosed in an aluminum cylinder space built by two Cband FBGs and a titanium diaphragm of 50 um thickness. One end of each FBG is longitudinally adhered to the diaphragm by UV glue. Both of the two FBGs are employed for reflecting light. The dual FBGs play roles not only as signal transmission system but also as sensing component, and they demodulate each other's optical signal mutually during the measurement. Both of the two FBGs are pre-strained and the output optical power experiences fluctuation in a linear relationship along with a variation of axial strain and surrounding acoustic interference. So a precise approach to measure the frequency and sound pressure of the acoustic disturbance is achieved. Experiments are performed and results show that a relatively flat frequency response in a range from 200 Hz to 1 kHz with the average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) above 21 dB is obtained. The maximum sound pressure sensitivity of 11.35mV/Pa is achieved with the Rsquared value of 0.99131 when the sound pressure in the range of 87.7-106.6dB. It has potential applications in low frequency signal detection. Owing to its direct self-demodulation method, the sensing system reveals the advantages of easy to demodulate, good temperature stability and measurement reliability. Besides, performance of the proposed sensor could be improved by optimizing the parameters of the sensor, especially the diaphragm.

  10. Fatigue level estimation of monetary bills based on frequency band acoustic signals with feature selection by supervised SOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Masaru; Omatu, Sigeru; Kosaka, Toshihisa

    Fatigued monetary bills adversely affect the daily operation of automated teller machines (ATMs). In order to make the classification of fatigued bills more efficient, the development of an automatic fatigued monetary bill classification method is desirable. We propose a new method by which to estimate the fatigue level of monetary bills from the feature-selected frequency band acoustic energy pattern of banking machines. By using a supervised self-organizing map (SOM), we effectively estimate the fatigue level using only the feature-selected frequency band acoustic energy pattern. Furthermore, the feature-selected frequency band acoustic energy pattern improves the estimation accuracy of the fatigue level of monetary bills by adding frequency domain information to the acoustic energy pattern. The experimental results with real monetary bill samples reveal the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. R and D of an LLRF control system for a 162.5 MHz radio frequency system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Lianghua; Wu Xianwu; He Yuan; Zhang Ruifeng; Zhang Shenghu; Zhu Zhenglong; Li Chunlong; Shi Longbo; Zhang Rui; Chang Wei

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a low level radio frequency control system that was developed by the Institute of Modern Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, and will be used in Injector Ⅱ of the China-ADS project. The LLRF control system consists of an RF modulated front end, fast analog-to-digital converter (ADC) modules, and a digital signal processing board based on a field programmable gate array. The system has been tested on a room temperature cavity with 12-hr, and the results illustrate that the stability of amplitude and phase achieved ±0.32% and ±0.35 degrees, respectively. (authors)

  12. Non-Axisymmetric Oscillation of Acoustically Levitated Water Drops at Specific Frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-Le, Shen; Wen-Jun, Xie; Bing-Bo, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A category of non-axisymmetric oscillations of acoustically levitated water drops was observed. These oscillations can be qualitatively described by superposing a sectorial oscillating term upon the initial oblate shape resulting from the effect of acoustic radiation pressure. The oscillation frequencies are around 25 Hz for the 2-lobed mode and exactly 50 Hz for the 3- and 4-lobed modes. These oscillations were excited by the disturbance from the power supply. For the same water drop, higher mode oscillations were observed with more oblate initial shape, indicating that the eigenfrequencies of these non-axisymmetric oscillations decrease with increasing initial distortion. The maximum velocity and acceleration within the oscillating drop can attain 0.3m·s −1 and 98.7m·s −2 respectively, resulting in strong fluid convection and enhanced heat and mass transfer. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  13. Mach-Zehnder interferometric photonic crystal fiber for low acoustic frequency detections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawar, Dnyandeo; Rao, Ch. N.; Kale, S. N., E-mail: sangeetakale2004@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DU), Girinagar, Pune 411 025, Maharashtra (India); Choubey, Ravi Kant [Department of Applied Physics, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, Amity University, Noida 201 313 (India)

    2016-01-25

    Low frequency under-water acoustic signal detections are challenging, especially for marine applications. A Mach-Zehnder interferometric hydrophone is demonstrated using polarization-maintaining photonic-crystal-fiber (PM-PCF), spliced between two single-mode-fibers, operated at 1550 nm source. These data are compared with standard hydrophone, single-mode and multimode fiber. The PM-PCF sensor shows the highest response with a power shift (2.32 dBm) and a wavelength shift (392.8 pm) at 200 Hz. High birefringence values and the effect of the imparted acoustic pressure on this fiber, introducing the difference between the fast and slow axis changes, owing to the phase change in the propagation waves, demonstrate the strain-optic properties of the sensor.

  14. Enhanced sources of acoustic power surrounding AR 11429

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donea, Alina; Hanson, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Multi-frequency power maps of the local acoustic oscillations show acoustic enhancements (''acoustic-power halos'') at high frequencies surrounding large active region. Computational seismic holography reveals a high-frequency ''acoustic-emission halo'', or ''seismic glory'' surrounding large active regions. In this study, we have applied computational seismic holography to map the seismic seismic source density surrounding AR 11429. Studies of HMI/SDO Doppler data, shows that the ''acoustic halos'' and the ''seismic glories'' are prominent at high frequencies 5–8 mHz. We investigate morphological properties of acoustic-power and acoustic emission halos around an active region to see if they are spatially correlated. Details about the local magnetic field from vectormagnetograms of AR 11429 are included. We identify a 15'' region of seismic deficit power (dark moat) shielding the white-light boundary of the active region. The size of the seismic moat is related to region of intermediate magnetic field strength. The acoustic moat is circled by the halo of enhanced seismic amplitude as well as enhanced seismic emission. Overall, the results suggest that features are related. However, if we narrow the frequency band to 5.5 – 6.5 mHz, we find that the seismic source density dominates over the local acoustic power, suggesting the existence of sources that emit more energy downward into the solar interior than upward toward the solar surface.

  15. Electromagnetic-acoustic coupling in ferromagnetic metals at liquid-helium temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, R A

    1981-01-01

    Electromagnetic-acoustic coupling at the surface and in the bulk of ferromagnetic metals at liquid-helium temperatures has been studied using electromagnetically excited acoustic standing-wave resonances at MHz frequencies in a number of ferromagnetic metals and alloys of commercial interest...

  16. Characterizing riverbed sediment using high-frequency acoustics 1: spectral properties of scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, Daniel D.; Grams, Paul E.; Kaplinski, Matt A.

    2014-01-01

    Bed-sediment classification using high-frequency hydro-acoustic instruments is challenging when sediments are spatially heterogeneous, which is often the case in rivers. The use of acoustic backscatter to classify sediments is an attractive alternative to analysis of topography because it is potentially sensitive to grain-scale roughness. Here, a new method is presented which uses high-frequency acoustic backscatter from multibeam sonar to classify heterogeneous riverbed sediments by type (sand, gravel,rock) continuously in space and at small spatial resolution. In this, the first of a pair of papers that examine the scattering signatures from a heterogeneous riverbed, methods are presented to construct spatially explicit maps of spectral properties from geo-referenced point clouds of geometrically and radiometrically corrected echoes. Backscatter power spectra are computed to produce scale and amplitude metrics that collectively characterize the length scales of stochastic measures of riverbed scattering, termed ‘stochastic geometries’. Backscatter aggregated over small spatial scales have spectra that obey a power-law. This apparently self-affine behavior could instead arise from morphological- and grain-scale roughnesses over multiple overlapping scales, or riverbed scattering being transitional between Rayleigh and geometric regimes. Relationships exist between stochastic geometries of backscatter and areas of rough and smooth sediments. However, no one parameter can uniquely characterize a particular substrate, nor definitively separate the relative contributions of roughness and acoustic impedance (hardness). Combinations of spectral quantities do, however, have the potential to delineate riverbed sediment patchiness, in a data-driven approach comparing backscatter with bed-sediment observations (which is the subject of part two of this manuscript).

  17. Carrier frequency offset estimation for an acoustic-electric channel using 16 QAM modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Michael T.; Anderson, Leonard A.; Wilt, Kyle R.; Chakraborty, Soumya; Saulnier, Gary J.; Scarton, Henry A.

    2016-05-01

    Acoustic-electric channels can be used to send data through metallic barriers, enabling communications where electromagnetic signals are ineffective. This paper considers an acoustic-electric channel that is formed by mounting piezoelectric transducers on metallic barriers that are separated by a thin water layer. The transducers are coupled to the barriers using epoxy and the barriers are positioned to axially-align the PZTs, maximizing energy transfer efficiency. The electrical signals are converted by the transmitting transducers into acoustic waves, which propagate through the elastic walls and water medium to the receiving transducers. The reverberation of the acoustic signals in these channels can produce multipath distortion with a significant delay spread that introduces inter-symbol interference (ISI) into the received signal. While the multipath effects can be severe, the channel does not change rapidly which makes equalization easier. Here we implement a 16-QAM system on this channel, including a method for obtaining accurate carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimates in the presence of the quasi-static multipath propagation. A raised-power approach is considered but found to suffer from excessive data noise resulting from the ISI. An alternative approach that utilizes a pilot tone burst at the start of a data packet is used for CFO estimation and found to be effective. The autocorrelation method is used to estimate the frequency of the received burst. A real-time prototype of the 16 QAM system that uses a Texas Instruments MSP430 microcontroller-based transmitter and a personal computer-based receiver is presented along with performance results.

  18. Stiffness of sphere–plate contacts at MHz frequencies: dependence on normal load, oscillation amplitude, and ambient medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Vlachová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The stiffness of micron-sized sphere–plate contacts was studied by employing high frequency, tangential excitation of variable amplitude (0–20 nm. The contacts were established between glass spheres and the surface of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM, where the resonator surface had been coated with either sputtered SiO2 or a spin-cast layer of poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA. The results from experiments undertaken in the dry state and in water are compared. Building on the shifts in the resonance frequency and resonance bandwidth, the instrument determines the real and the imaginary part of the contact stiffness, where the imaginary part quantifies dissipative processes. The method is closely analogous to related procedures in AFM-based metrology. The real part of the contact stiffness as a function of normal load can be fitted with the Johnson–Kendall–Roberts (JKR model. The contact stiffness was found to increase in the presence of liquid water. This finding is tentatively explained by the rocking motion of the spheres, which couples to a squeeze flow of the water close to the contact. The loss tangent of the contact stiffness is on the order of 0.1, where the energy losses are associated with interfacial processes. At high amplitudes partial slip was found to occur. The apparent contact stiffness at large amplitude depends linearly on the amplitude, as predicted by the Cattaneo–Mindlin model. This finding is remarkable insofar, as the Cattaneo–Mindlin model assumes Coulomb friction inside the sliding region. Coulomb friction is typically viewed as a macroscopic concept, related to surface roughness. An alternative model (formulated by Savkoor, which assumes a constant frictional stress in the sliding zone independent of the normal pressure, is inconsistent with the experimental data. The apparent friction coefficients slightly increase with normal force, which can be explained by nanoroughness. In other words, contact splitting

  19. Multiple-frequency acoustic wave devices for chemical sensing and materials characterization in both gas and liquid phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.

    1993-08-10

    A chemical or intrinsic physical property sensor is described comprising: (a) a substrate; (b) an interaction region of said substrate where the presence of a chemical or physical stimulus causes a detectable change in the velocity and/or an attenuation of an acoustic wave traversing said region; and (c) a plurality of paired input and output interdigitated electrodes patterned on the surface of said substrate where each of said paired electrodes has a distinct periodicity, where each of said paired electrodes is comprised of an input and an output electrode; (d) an input signal generation means for transmitting an input signal having a distinct frequency to a specified input interdigitated electrode of said plurality so that each input electrode receives a unique input signal, whereby said electrode responds to said input signal by generating an acoustic wave of a specified frequency, thus, said plurality responds by generating a plurality of acoustic waves of different frequencies; (e) an output signal receiving means for determining an acoustic wave velocity and an amplitude of said acoustic waves at several frequencies after said waves transverses said interaction region and comparing these values to an input acoustic wave velocity and an input acoustic wave amplitude to produce values for perturbations in acoustic wave velocities and for acoustic wave attenuation as a function of frequency, where said output receiving means is individually coupled to each of said output interdigitated electrode; (f) a computer means for analyzing a data stream comprising information from said output receiving means and from said input signal generation means to differentiate a specified response due to a perturbation from a subsequent specified response due to a subsequent perturbation to determine the chemical or intrinsic physical properties desired.

  20. Acoustic emission source location in plates using wavelet analysis and cross time frequency spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafapour, A; Davoodi, S; Ghareaghaji, M

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the theories of wavelet transform and cross-time frequency spectrum (CTFS) are used to locate AE source with frequency-varying wave velocity in plate-type structures. A rectangular array of four sensors is installed on the plate. When an impact is generated by an artificial AE source such as Hsu-Nielsen method of pencil lead breaking (PLB) at any position of the plate, the AE signals will be detected by four sensors at different times. By wavelet packet decomposition, a packet of signals with frequency range of 0.125-0.25MHz is selected. The CTFS is calculated by the short-time Fourier transform of the cross-correlation between considered packets captured by AE sensors. The time delay is calculated when the CTFS reaches the maximum value and the corresponding frequency is extracted per this maximum value. The resulting frequency is used to calculate the group velocity of wave velocity in combination with dispersive curve. The resulted locating error shows the high precision of proposed algorithm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of radio frequency energy absorption in ear and eye region of children and adults at 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshvari, J; Lang, S

    2005-01-01

    The increasing use of mobile communication devices, especially mobile phones by children, has triggered discussions on whether there is a larger radio frequency (RF) energy absorption in the heads of children compared to that of adults. The objective of this study was to clarify possible differences in RF energy absorption in the head region of children and adults using computational techniques. Using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) computational method, a set of specific absorption rate (SAR) calculations were performed for anatomically correct adult and child head models. A half-wave dipole was used as an exposure source at 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz frequencies. The ear and eye regions were studied representing realistic exposure scenarios to current and upcoming mobile wireless communication devices. The differences in absorption were compared with the maximum energy absorption of the head model. Four magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based head models, one female, one adult, two child head models, aged 3 and 7 years, were used. The head models greatly differ from each other in terms of size, external shape and the internal anatomy. The same tissue dielectric parameters were applied for all models. The analyses suggest that the SAR difference between adults and children is more likely caused by the general differences in the head anatomy and geometry of the individuals rather than age. It seems that the external shape of the head and the distribution of different tissues within the head play a significant role in the RF energy absorption

  2. Comparison of radio frequency energy absorption in ear and eye region of children and adults at 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshvari, J [Radio Technologies Laboratory, Nokia Research Centre, Itaemerenkatu 11-13, 00180 Helsinki FIN-00180 (Finland); Lang, S [Technology Platforms, Nokia Corporation, PO Box 301, FIN-00045 Nokia Group, Linnoitustie 6, 02600 ESPOO (Finland)

    2005-09-21

    The increasing use of mobile communication devices, especially mobile phones by children, has triggered discussions on whether there is a larger radio frequency (RF) energy absorption in the heads of children compared to that of adults. The objective of this study was to clarify possible differences in RF energy absorption in the head region of children and adults using computational techniques. Using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) computational method, a set of specific absorption rate (SAR) calculations were performed for anatomically correct adult and child head models. A half-wave dipole was used as an exposure source at 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz frequencies. The ear and eye regions were studied representing realistic exposure scenarios to current and upcoming mobile wireless communication devices. The differences in absorption were compared with the maximum energy absorption of the head model. Four magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based head models, one female, one adult, two child head models, aged 3 and 7 years, were used. The head models greatly differ from each other in terms of size, external shape and the internal anatomy. The same tissue dielectric parameters were applied for all models. The analyses suggest that the SAR difference between adults and children is more likely caused by the general differences in the head anatomy and geometry of the individuals rather than age. It seems that the external shape of the head and the distribution of different tissues within the head play a significant role in the RF energy absorption.

  3. Age dependence of dielectric properties of bovine brain and ocular tissues in the frequency range of 400 MHz to 18 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Gernot; Ueberbacher, Richard

    2005-01-01

    In order to identify possible age-dependent dielectric properties of brain and eye tissues in the frequency range of 400 MHz to 18 GHz, measurements on bovine grey and white matter as well as on cornea, lens (cortical) and the vitreous body were performed using a commercially available open-ended coaxial probe and a computer-controlled vector network analyser. Freshly excised tissues of 52 animals of two age groups (42 adult animals, i.e. 16-24 month old and 10 young animals, i.e. 4-6 month old calves) were examined within 8 min (brain tissue) and 15 min (eye tissue), respectively, of the animals' death. Tissue temperatures for the measurements were 32 ± 1 0 C and 25 ± 1 0 C for brain and eye tissues, respectively. Statistical analysis of the measured data revealed significant differences in the dielectric properties of white matter and cortical lens tissue between the adult and the young group. In the case of white matter the mean values of conductivity and permittivity of young tissue were 15%-22% and 12%-15%, respectively, higher compared to the adult tissue in the considered frequency range. Similarly, young cortical lens tissue was 25%-76% higher in conductivity and 27%-39% higher in permittivity than adult cortical lens tissue

  4. Masking release with changing fundamental frequency: Electric acoustic stimulation resembles normal hearing subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auinger, Alice Barbara; Riss, Dominik; Liepins, Rudolfs; Rader, Tobias; Keck, Tilman; Keintzel, Thomas; Kaider, Alexandra; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Gstoettner, Wolfgang; Arnoldner, Christoph

    2017-07-01

    It has been shown that patients with electric acoustic stimulation (EAS) perform better in noisy environments than patients with a cochlear implant (CI). One reason for this could be the preserved access to acoustic low-frequency cues including the fundamental frequency (F0). Therefore, our primary aim was to investigate whether users of EAS experience a release from masking with increasing F0 difference between target talker and masking talker. The study comprised 29 patients and consisted of three groups of subjects: EAS users, CI users and normal-hearing listeners (NH). All CI and EAS users were implanted with a MED-EL cochlear implant and had at least 12 months of experience with the implant. Speech perception was assessed with the Oldenburg sentence test (OlSa) using one sentence from the test corpus as speech masker. The F0 in this masking sentence was shifted upwards by 4, 8, or 12 semitones. For each of these masker conditions the speech reception threshold (SRT) was assessed by adaptively varying the masker level while presenting the target sentences at a fixed level. A statistically significant improvement in speech perception was found for increasing difference in F0 between target sentence and masker sentence in EAS users (p = 0.038) and in NH listeners (p = 0.003). In CI users (classic CI or EAS users with electrical stimulation only) speech perception was independent from differences in F0 between target and masker. A release from masking with increasing difference in F0 between target and masking speech was only observed in listeners and configurations in which the low-frequency region was presented acoustically. Thus, the speech information contained in the low frequencies seems to be crucial for allowing listeners to separate multiple sources. By combining acoustic and electric information, EAS users even manage tasks as complicated as segregating the audio streams from multiple talkers. Preserving the natural code, like fine-structure cues in

  5. Swept frequency acoustic interferometry technique for chemical weapons verification and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, D.N.; Anthony, B.W.; Lizon, D.C.

    1995-03-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for rapid on-site verification and monitoring of chemical munitions, such as artillery shells and bulk containers. Present NDE techniques provide only limited characterizations of such munitions. This paper describes the development of a novel noninvasive technique, swept-frequency acoustic interferometry (SFAI), that significantly enhances the capability of munitions characterizations. The SFAI technique allows very accurate and simultaneous determination of sound velocity and attenuation of chemical agents over a large frequency range inside artillery shells, in addition to determining agent density. The frequency-dependent sound velocity and attenuation can, in principle, provide molecular relaxation properties of the chemical agent. The same instrument also enables a direct fill-level measurement in bulk containers. Industrial and other applications of this general-purpose technique are also discussed.

  6. Comparative study of laminar and turbulent flow model with different operating parameters for radio frequency-inductively coupled plasma torch working at 3  MHz frequency at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, Sangeeta B.; Sahasrabudhe, S. N.; Das, A. K.; Joshi, N. K.; Mangalvedekar, H. A.; Kothari, D. C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides 2D comparative study of results obtained using laminar and turbulent flow model for RF (radio frequency) Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) torch. The study was done for the RF-ICP torch operating at 50 kW DC power and 3 MHz frequency located at BARC. The numerical modeling for this RF-ICP torch is done using ANSYS software with the developed User Defined Function. A comparative study is done between laminar and turbulent flow model to investigate how temperature and flow fields change when using different operating conditions such as (a) swirl and no swirl velocity for sheath gas flow rate, (b) variation in sheath gas flow rate, and (c) variation in plasma gas flow rate. These studies will be useful for different material processing applications

  7. Transmission acoustic microscopy investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maev, Roman; Kolosov, Oleg; Levin, Vadim; Lobkis, Oleg

    The nature of acoustic contrast, i.e. the connection of the amplitude and phase of the output signal of the acoustic microscope with the local values of the acoustic parameters of the sample (density, elasticity, viscosity) is a central problem of acoustic microscopy. A considerable number of studies have been devoted to the formation of the output signal of the reflection scanning acoustic microscope. For the transmission acoustic microscope (TAM) this problem has remained almost unstudied. Experimental investigation of the confocal system of the TAM was carried out on an independently manufactured laboratory mockup of the TAM with the working frequency of the 420 MHz. Acoustic lenses with the radius of curvature of about 500 microns and aperture angle of 45 deg were polished out in the end faces of two cylindrical sound conductors made from Al2O3 single crystals with an axis parallel to the axis C of the crystal (the length of the sound conductor is 20 mm; diameter, 6 mm). At the end faces of the sound conductor, opposite to the lenses, CdS transducers with a diameter of 2 mm were disposed. The electric channel of the TAM provided a possibility for registering the amplitude of the microscope output signal in the case of the dynamic range of the 50 dB.

  8. The influence of acoustic field and frequency on Hydrodynamics of Group B particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R L Sonolikar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound Assisted Fluidized Bed (SAFB of group B particles (180μm glass bead has been studied in a 46mm I.D. column with aspect ratios of 1.4 and 2.9. A loudspeaker mounted on the top of the bed was supplied by a function generator with square wave to generate the sound as the source of vibration of the fluidized bed. The sound pressure level (referred to 20μpa was varied from 102 to 140dB and frequencies from 70Hz to 170Hz were applied. The effects of sound pressure level, sound frequency and particle loading on the properties of SAFB were investigated. The experimental result showed that the minimum fluidization velocity decreased with the increase in sound pressure level, also minimum fluidization velocity was varied with variation of frequencies. At resonance frequency minimum fluidization velocity was found to be minimum. The bed height did not show an appreciable increase in presence of high acoustic field and at resonant frequency. Minimum fluidization velocity verses frequency curve in presence of sound intensity varied with variation of bed weight.

  9. Determination of acoustic properties of thin polymer films utilizing the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient of ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohmyoh, Hironori; Sakamoto, Yuhei

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports on a technique to measure the acoustic properties of a thin polymer film utilizing the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient of ultrasound reflected back from a system comprising a reflection plate, the film, and a material that covers the film. The frequency components of the echo reflected from the back of the plate, where the film is attached, take their minimum values at the resonant frequency, and from these frequency characteristics, the acoustic impedance, sound velocity, and the density of the film can be determined. We applied this technique to characterize an ion exchange membrane, which has high water absorbability, and successfully determined the acoustic properties of the membrane without getting it wet.

  10. High-frequency acoustic spectrum analyzer based on polymer integrated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubian, Araz

    This dissertation presents an acoustic spectrum analyzer based on nonlinear polymer-integrated optics. The device is used in a scanning heterodyne geometry by zero biasing a Michelson interferometer. It is capable of detecting vibrations from DC to the GHz range. Initial low frequency experiments show that the device is an effective tool for analyzing an acoustic spectrum even in noisy environments. Three generations of integrated sensors are presented, starting with a very lossy (86 dB total insertion loss) initial device that detects vibrations as low as λ/10, and second and third generation improvements with a final device of 44 dB total insertion loss. The sensor was further tested for detecting a pulsed laser-excited vibration and resonances due to the structure of the sample. The data are compared to the acoustic spectrum measured using a low loss passive fiber interferometer detection scheme which utilizes a high speed detector. The peaks present in the passive detection scheme are clearly visible with our sensor data, which have a lower noise floor. Hybrid integration of GHz electronics is also investigated in this dissertation. A voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) is integrated on a polymer device using a new approach. The VCO is shown to operate as specified by the manufacturer, and the RF signal is efficiently launched onto the micro-strip line used for EO modulation. In the future this technology can be used in conjunction with the presented sensor to produce a fully integrated device containing high frequency drive electronics controlled by low DC voltage. Issues related to device fabrication, loss analysis, RF power delivery to drive circuitry, efficient poling of large area samples, and optimizing poling conditions are also discussed throughout the text.

  11. Low frequency sound field control for loudspeakers in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Rectangular rooms are the most common shape for sound reproduction, but at low frequencies the reflections from the boundaries of the room cause large spatial variations in the sound pressure level.  Variations up to 30 dB are normal, not only at the room modes, but basically at all frequencies....... As sound propagates in time, it seems natural that the problems can best be analyzed and solved in the time domain. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System) has been developed for sound reproduction in rectangular listening rooms. It can control the sound...... sound field in the whole room, and short impulse response.  In a standard listening room (180 m3) only 4 loudspeakers are needed, 2 more than a traditional stereo setup. CABS is controlled by a developed DSP system. The time based approached might help with the understanding of sound field control...

  12. Optimization of Dimensions of Cylindrical Piezoceramics as Radio-Clean Low Frequency Acoustic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ardid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Circular piezoelectric transducers with axial polarization are proposed as low frequency acoustic sensors for dark matter bubble chamber detectors. The axial vibration behaviour of the transducer is studied by three different methods: analytical models, FEM simulation, and experimental setup. To optimize disk geometry for this application, the dependence of the vibrational modes in function of the diameter-to-thickness ratio from 0.5 (a tall cylinder to 20.0 (a thin disk has been studied. Resonant and antiresonant frequencies for each of the lowest modes are determined and electromechanical coupling coefficients are calculated. From this analysis, due to the requirements of radiopurity and little volume, optimal diameter-to-thickness ratios for good transducer performance are discussed.

  13. Frequency degeneracy of acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darinskii, A N; Le Clezio, E; Feuillard, G

    2007-01-01

    Degeneracies of acoustic wave spectra in 2D phononic crystals (PC) and PC slabs are studied. A PC structure is constituted of parallel steel rods immersed into water and forming the quadratic lattice. Given the projection k z of the wave vector on the direction of rods, the bulk wave spectrum of the infinite PC is a set of frequency surfaces f i (k x , k y ), i = 1,2,..., where k x,y are the components of the wave vector in the plane perpendicular to the rods. An investigation is performed of the shape of frequency surfaces in the vicinity of points (k dx , k dy ), where these surfaces fall into contact. In addition, the evolution of the degeneracy with changing rod radius and cross-section shape is examined. Degeneracy in the spectrum of leaky modes propagating along a single waveguide in a PC slab is also investigated

  14. Use of high frequency analysis of acoustic emission signals to determine rolling element bearing condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockerill, A; Holford, K M; Pullin, R; Clarke, A; Bradshaw, T; Cole, P

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors were used to detect signals arising from a cylindrical roller bearing with artificial defects seeded onto the outer raceway. An SKF N204ECP roller bearing was placed between two double row spherical roller bearings, type SKF 22202E, and loaded between 0.29 and 1.79kN. Speed was constant at 5780rpm. High frequency analysis allowed insight into the condition of the bearings through the determination of an increase in the structural resonances of the system as the size of an artificial defect was increased. As higher loads were applied, frequencies around 100kHz were excited, indicating the release of AE possibly attributed to friction and the plastic deformation as peaks, induced through engraving of the raceway, were flattened and worn down. Sensitivity of AE to this level in bearings indicates the potential of the technique to detect the early stages of bearing failure during life tests. (paper)

  15. Computer simulations on the nonlinear frequency shift and nonlinear modulation of ion-acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, Yukiharu; Kamimura, Tetsuo.

    1976-11-01

    The nonlinear behavior of ion-acoustic waves with rather short wave-length, k lambda sub(De) asymptotically equals 1, is investigated by computer sumulations. It is observed that the nonlinear frequency shift is negative and is proportional to square root of the initial wave amplitude when the amplitude is not too large. This proportionality breaks down and the frequency shift can become positive (for large Te/Ti), when (n tilde sub(i)/n 0 )sup(1/2)>0.25, where n tilde sub(i) is the ion density perturbation and n 0 the average plasma density. Nonlinear modulation of the wave-packet is clearly seen; however, modulational instability was not observed. The importance of the effects of trapped ions to these phenomena is emphasized. (auth.)

  16. Nonlinear generation of non-acoustic modes by low-frequency sound in a vibrationally relaxing gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelomova, A.

    2010-01-01

    Two dynamic equations referring to a weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive flow of a gas in which molecular vibrational relaxation takes place, are derived. The first one governs an excess temperature associated with the thermal mode, and the second one describes variations in vibrational energy. Both quantities refer to non-wave types of gas motion. These variations are caused by the nonlinear transfer of acoustic energy into thermal mode and internal vibrational degrees of freedom of a relaxing gas. The final dynamic equations are instantaneous; they include a quadratic nonlinear acoustic source, reflecting the nonlinear character of interaction of low-frequency acoustic and non-acoustic motions of the fluid. All types of sound, periodic or aperiodic, may serve as an acoustic source of both phenomena. The low-frequency sound is considered in this study. Some conclusions about temporal behavior of non-acoustic modes caused by periodic and aperiodic sound are made. Under certain conditions, acoustic cooling takes place instead of heating. (author)

  17. Frequency and magnetic field mapping of magnetoelastic spin pumping in high overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Polzikova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on the first observation of microvolt-scale inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE dc voltage driven by an acoustic spin pumping (ASP in a bulk acoustic wave (BAW resonator formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-YIG(1-GGG-YIG(2-Pt structure. When 2 mW power is applied to an Al-ZnO-Al transducer, the voltage VISHE ∼ 4 μV in the Pt film is observed as a result of resonant ASP from YIG(2 to Pt in the area ∼ 170 μm. The results of frequency and magnetic field mapping of VISHE(f,H together with reflectivity of the resonator show an obvious agreement between the positions of the voltage maxima and BAW resonance frequencies fn(H on the (f, H plane. At the same time a significant asymmetry of the VISHE(fn(H value in reference to the magnetoelastic resonance (MER line fMER(H position is revealed, which is explained by asymmetry of the magnetoelastic waves dispersion law.

  18. Frequency and magnetic field mapping of magnetoelastic spin pumping in high overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzikova, N. I.; Alekseev, S. G.; Pyataikin, I. I.; Luzanov, V. A.; Raevskiy, A. O.; Kotov, V. A.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the first observation of microvolt-scale inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) dc voltage driven by an acoustic spin pumping (ASP) in a bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-YIG(1)-GGG-YIG(2)-Pt structure. When 2 mW power is applied to an Al-ZnO-Al transducer, the voltage VISHE ˜ 4 μV in the Pt film is observed as a result of resonant ASP from YIG(2) to Pt in the area ˜ 170 μm. The results of frequency and magnetic field mapping of VISHE(f,H) together with reflectivity of the resonator show an obvious agreement between the positions of the voltage maxima and BAW resonance frequencies fn(H) on the (f, H) plane. At the same time a significant asymmetry of the VISHE(fn(H)) value in reference to the magnetoelastic resonance (MER) line fMER(H) position is revealed, which is explained by asymmetry of the magnetoelastic waves dispersion law.

  19. Flexible structured high-frequency film bulk acoustic resonator for flexible wireless electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Changjian; Shu, Yi; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling; Jin, Hao; Dong, Shu-Rong; Chan, Mansun

    2015-01-01

    Flexible electronics have inspired many novel and very important applications in recent years and various flexible electronic devices such as diodes, transistors, circuits, sensors, and radiofrequency (RF) passive devices including antennas and inductors have been reported. However, the lack of a high-performance RF resonator is one of the key bottlenecks to implement flexible wireless electronics. In this study, for the first time, a novel ultra-flexible structured film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) is proposed. The flexible FBAR is fabricated on a flexible polyimide substrate using piezoelectric thin film aluminum nitride (AlN) for acoustic wave excitation. Both the shear wave and longitudinal wave can be excited under the surface interdigital electrodes configuration we proposed. In the case of the thickness extension mode, a flexible resonator with a working frequency as high as of 5.2325 GHz has been realized. The resonators stay fully functional under bending status and after repeated bending and re-flattening operations. This flexible high-frequency resonator will serve as a key building block for the future flexible wireless electronics, greatly expanding the application scope of flexible electronics. (paper)

  20. Understanding seafloor morphology using remote high frequency acoustic methods: An appraisal to modern techniques and its effectiveness

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.

    Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 179 Understanding seafloor morphology using remote high frequency acoustic methods: an appraisal to modern techniques and its effectiveness Bishwajit Chakraborty National institute of Oceanography.... The two third of the earth surface i.e. 362 million square km (70 %) is covered by the ocean. In order to understand the seafloor various methods like: application of remote acoustic techniques, seafloor photographic and geological sampling techniques...

  1. Response Pattern Based on the Amplitude of Ear Canal Recorded Cochlear Microphonic Waveforms across Acoustic Frequencies in Normal Hearing Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Low-frequency otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are often concealed by acoustic background noise such as those from a patient’s breathing and from the environment during recording in clinics. When using electrocochleaography (ECochG or ECoG), such as cochlear microphonics (CMs), acoustic background noise do not contaminate the recordings. Our objective is to study the response pattern of CM waveforms (CMWs) to explore an alternative approach in assessing cochlear functions. In response to a 14-mse...

  2. Large scale modulation of high frequency acoustic waves in periodic porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Claude; Rallu, Antoine; Hans, Stephane

    2012-12-01

    This paper deals with the description of the modulation at large scale of high frequency acoustic waves in gas saturated periodic porous media. High frequencies mean local dynamics at the pore scale and therefore absence of scale separation in the usual sense of homogenization. However, although the pressure is spatially varying in the pores (according to periodic eigenmodes), the mode amplitude can present a large scale modulation, thereby introducing another type of scale separation to which the asymptotic multi-scale procedure applies. The approach is first presented on a periodic network of inter-connected Helmholtz resonators. The equations governing the modulations carried by periodic eigenmodes, at frequencies close to their eigenfrequency, are derived. The number of cells on which the carrying periodic mode is defined is therefore a parameter of the modeling. In a second part, the asymptotic approach is developed for periodic porous media saturated by a perfect gas. Using the "multicells" periodic condition, one obtains the family of equations governing the amplitude modulation at large scale of high frequency waves. The significant difference between modulations of simple and multiple mode are evidenced and discussed. The features of the modulation (anisotropy, width of frequency band) are also analyzed.

  3. Characterization of low-frequency acoustic wave propagation through a periodic corrugated waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changyong; Huang, Lixi

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a periodic corrugated waveguide structure is proposed, and its unit-cell is analyzed by the wave finite element method. In low-frequency range, the unit-cell is treated as an equivalent fluid through a homogenization process, and the equivalent acoustic parameters are obtained, which are validated by finite structure simulations and experiments. The proposed structure is shown to add tortuosity to the waveguide, hence higher equivalent fluid density is achieved, while the system elastic modulus remains unchanged. As a result, the equivalent speed of sound is smaller than normal air. The application of such change of speed of sound is demonstrated in the classic quarter-wavelength resonator based on the corrugated waveguide, which gives a lower resonance frequency with the same side branch length. When the waveguide is filled with porous materials, the added tortuosity enhances the broadband, low-frequency sound absorption by increasing the equivalent mass without bringing in excess damping, the latter being partly responsible for the poor performance of usual porous materials in the low-frequency region. Therefore, the proposed structure provides another dimension for the design and optimization of porous sound absorption materials.

  4. Absorption of longitudinal high-frequency acoustic waves in Ysub(3-x)Lusub(x)Alsub(5)Osub(12) crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, Yu.V.; Ivanov, S.N.; Kozorezov, A.G.; Kotelyanskij, I.M.; Medved', V.V.; Akhmetov, S.F.; Davydchenko, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    Absorption of longitudinal high frequency acoustic waves in Ysub(3-x)Lusub(x)Alsub(5)Osub(12) l0<=x<=3) crystals is investigated theoretically and experimentally at temperatures T<80 K in the case when the absorption in a pure crystal is due to three-phonon processes. It is shown that the absorption of acoustic waves depends pronouncedly on the impurity concentration. The frequency dependence of sound absorption at low temperatures is found to possess a number of peculiarities. The form of the dependence qualitatively corresponds to that predicted theoretically

  5. Prospects of Frequency-Time Correlation Analysis for Detecting Pipeline Leaks by Acoustic Emission Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faerman, V A; Cheremnov, A G; Avramchuk, V V; Luneva, E E

    2014-01-01

    In the current work the relevance of nondestructive test method development applied for pipeline leak detection is considered. It was shown that acoustic emission testing is currently one of the most widely spread leak detection methods. The main disadvantage of this method is that it cannot be applied in monitoring long pipeline sections, which in its turn complicates and slows down the inspection of the line pipe sections of main pipelines. The prospects of developing alternative techniques and methods based on the use of the spectral analysis of signals were considered and their possible application in leak detection on the basis of the correlation method was outlined. As an alternative, the time-frequency correlation function calculation is proposed. This function represents the correlation between the spectral components of the analyzed signals. In this work, the technique of time-frequency correlation function calculation is described. The experimental data that demonstrate obvious advantage of the time-frequency correlation function compared to the simple correlation function are presented. The application of the time-frequency correlation function is more effective in suppressing the noise components in the frequency range of the useful signal, which makes maximum of the function more pronounced. The main drawback of application of the time- frequency correlation function analysis in solving leak detection problems is a great number of calculations that may result in a further increase in pipeline time inspection. However, this drawback can be partially reduced by the development and implementation of efficient algorithms (including parallel) of computing the fast Fourier transform using computer central processing unit and graphic processing unit

  6. Frequency Domain Multi-parameter Full Waveform Inversion for Acoustic VTI Media

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi

    2017-05-26

    Multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI) for transversely isotropic (TI) media with vertical axis of symmetry (VTI) suffers from the trade-off between the parameters. The trade-off results in the leakage of one parameter\\'s update into the other during the inversion. It affects the accuracy and convergence of the inversion. The sensitivity analyses suggested a parameterisation using the horizontal velocity vh, epsilon and eta to reduce the trade-off for surface recorded seismic data.We test the (vh, epsilon, eta) parameterisation for acoustic VTI media using a scattering integral (SI) based inversion. The data is modeled in frequency domain and the model is updated using a preconditioned conjugate gradient method. We applied the method to the VTI Marmousi II model and in the inversion, we keep eta parameter fixed as the background initial model and we invert simultaneously for both vh and epsilon. The results show the suitability of the parameterisation for multi-parameter VTI acoustic inversion as well as the accuracy of the inversion approach.

  7. Coherent coupling between radio frequency, optical, and acoustic waves in piezo-optomechanical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balram, Krishna C.; Davanço, Marcelo I.; Song, Jin Dong; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    Optomechanical cavities have been studied for applications ranging from sensing to quantum information science. Here, we develop a platform for nanoscale cavity optomechanical circuits in which optomechanical cavities supporting co-localized 1550 nm photons and 2.4 GHz phonons are combined with photonic and phononic waveguides. Working in GaAs facilitates manipulation of the localized mechanical mode either with a radio frequency (RF) field through the piezo-electric effect, which produces acoustic waves that are routed and coupled to the optomechanical cavity by phononic crystal waveguides, or optically through the strong photoelastic effect. Along with mechanical state preparation and sensitive readout, we use this to demonstrate an acoustic wave interference effect, similar to atomic coherent population trapping, in which RF-driven coherent mechanical motion is cancelled by optically-driven motion. Manipulating cavity optomechanical systems with equal facility through both photonic and phononic channels enables new architectures for signal transduction between the optical, electrical, and mechanical domains. PMID:27446234

  8. Comparison of spatial frequency domain features for the detection of side attack explosive ballistics in synthetic aperture acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Josh; Anderson, Derek T.; Luke, Robert H.; Ball, John E.; Keller, James M.; Havens, Timothy C.

    2016-05-01

    Explosive hazards in current and former conflict zones are a threat to both military and civilian personnel. As a result, much effort has been dedicated to identifying automated algorithms and systems to detect these threats. However, robust detection is complicated due to factors like the varied composition and anatomy of such hazards. In order to solve this challenge, a number of platforms (vehicle-based, handheld, etc.) and sensors (infrared, ground penetrating radar, acoustics, etc.) are being explored. In this article, we investigate the detection of side attack explosive ballistics via a vehicle-mounted acoustic sensor. In particular, we explore three acoustic features, one in the time domain and two on synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) beamformed imagery. The idea is to exploit the varying acoustic frequency profile of a target due to its unique geometry and material composition with respect to different viewing angles. The first two features build their angle specific frequency information using a highly constrained subset of the signal data and the last feature builds its frequency profile using all available signal data for a given region of interest (centered on the candidate target location). Performance is assessed in the context of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves on cross-validation experiments for data collected at a U.S. Army test site on different days with multiple target types and clutter. Our preliminary results are encouraging and indicate that the top performing feature is the unrolled two dimensional discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of SAA beamformed imagery.

  9. Resonant modal group theory of membrane-type acoustical metamaterials for low-frequency sound attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuyin; Wu, Jiu Hui; Huang, Meng

    2015-09-01

    In order to overcome the influence of the structural resonance on the continuous structures and obtain a lightweight thin-layer structure which can effectively isolate the low-frequency noises, an elastic membrane structure was proposed. In the low-frequency range below 500 Hz, the sound transmission loss (STL) of this membrane type structure is greatly higher than that of the current sound insulation material EVA (ethylene-vinyl acetate copo) of vehicle, so it is possible to replace the EVA by the membrane-type metamaterial structure in practice engineering. Based on the band structure, modal shapes, as well as the sound transmission simulation, the sound insulation mechanism of the designed membrane-type acoustic metamaterials was analyzed from a new perspective, which had been validated experimentally. It is suggested that in the frequency range above 200 Hz for this membrane-mass type structure, the sound insulation effect was principally not due to the low-level locally resonant mode of the mass block, but the continuous vertical resonant modes of the localized membrane. So based on such a physical property, a resonant modal group theory is initially proposed in this paper. In addition, the sound insulation mechanism of the membrane-type structure and thin plate structure were combined by the membrane/plate resonant theory.

  10. Thermo-acoustic instabilities of high-frequency combustion in rocket engines; Instabilites thermo-acoustiques de combustion haute-frequence dans les moteurs fusees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheuret, F

    2005-10-15

    Rocket motors are confined environments where combustion occurs in extreme conditions. Combustion instabilities can occur at high frequencies; they are tied to the acoustic modes of the combustion chamber. A common research chamber, CRC, allows us to study the response of a turbulent two-phase flame to acoustic oscillations of low or high amplitudes. The chamber is characterised under cold conditions to obtain, in particular, the relative damping coefficient of acoustic oscillations. The structure and frequency of the modes are determined in the case where the chamber is coupled to a lateral cavity. We have used a powder gun to study the response to a forced acoustic excitation at high amplitude. The results guide us towards shorter flames. The injectors were then modified to study the combustion noise level as a function of injection conditions. The speed of the gas determines whether the flames are attached or lifted. The noise level of lifted flames is higher. That of attached flames is proportional to the Weber number. The shorter flames whose length is less than the radius of the CRC, necessary condition to obtain an effective coupling, are the most sensitive to acoustic perturbations. The use of a toothed wheel at different positions in the chamber allowed us to obtain informations on the origin of the thermo-acoustic coupling, main objective of this thesis. The flame is sensitive to pressure acoustic oscillations, with a quasi-zero response time. These observations suggest that under the conditions of the CRC, we observe essentially the response of chemical kinetics to pressure oscillations. (author)

  11. Wireless network of stand-alone end effect probes for soil in situ permittivity measurements over the 100MHZ-6GHz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontoux, François; Bircher, Simone; Ruffié, Gilles; Bonnaudiin, Fabrice; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Kerr, Yann

    2017-04-01

    Microwave remote sensing and non-destructive analysis are a powerful way to provide properties estimation of materials. Numerous applications using microwave frequency behavior of materials (remote sensing above land surfaces, non-destructive analysis…) are strongly dependent on the material's permittivity (i.e. dielectric properties). This permittivity depends on numerous parameters such as moisture, texture, temperature, frequency or bulk density. Permittivity measurements are generally carried out in the laboratory. Additionally, dielectric mixing models allow, over a restricted range of conditions, the assessment of a material's permittivity. in-situ measurements are more difficult to obtain. Some in situ measurement probes based on permittivity properties of soil exist (e.g. Time Domain Reflectometers and Transmissometers, capacitance and impedance sensors). They are dedicated to the acquisition of soil moisture data based on permittivity (mainly the real part) estimations over a range of frequencies from around 50 MHz to 1 or 2 GHz. Other Dielectric Assessment Kits exist but they are expensive and they are rather dedicated to laboratory measurements. Furthermore, the user can't address specific issues related to particular materials (e.g. organic soils) or specific measurement conditions (in situ long time records). At the IMS Laboratory we develop probes for in situ soil permittivity measurements (real and imaginary parts) in the 0.5 - 6 GHz frequency range. They are based on the end effect phenomenon of a coaxial waveguide and so are called end effect probes in this paper. The probes can be connected to a portable Vector Network Analyzer (VNA, ANRITSU MS2026A) for the S11 coefficient measurements needed to compute permittivity. It is connected to a PC to record data using an USB connection. This measurement set-up is already used for in situ measurement of soil properties in the framework of the European Space Agency's (ESA) SMOS space mission. However

  12. An acoustic metamaterial composed of multi-layer membrane-coated perforated plates for low-frequency sound insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Shu-yi; Ding, Jin; Li, Xiao-juan; Zhang, Hui

    2015-04-01

    Insulating against low-frequency sound (below 500 Hz ) remains challenging despite the progress that has been achieved in sound insulation and absorption. In this work, an acoustic metamaterial based on membrane-coated perforated plates is presented for achieving sound insulation in a low-frequency range, even covering the lower audio frequency limit, 20 Hz . Theoretical analysis and finite element simulations demonstrate that this metamaterial can effectively block acoustic waves over a wide low-frequency band regardless of incident angles. Two mechanisms, non-resonance and monopolar resonance, operate in the metamaterial, resulting in a more powerful sound insulation ability than that achieved using periodically arranged multi-layer solid plates.

  13. A numerical model for ocean ultra-low frequency noise: wave-generated acoustic-gravity and Rayleigh modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Lavanant, Thibaut; Obrebski, Mathias; Marié, Louis; Royer, Jean-Yves; d'Eu, Jean-François; Howe, Bruce M; Lukas, Roger; Aucan, Jerome

    2013-10-01

    The generation of ultra-low frequency acoustic noise (0.1 to 1 Hz) by the nonlinear interaction of ocean surface gravity waves is well established. More controversial are the quantitative theories that attempt to predict the recorded noise levels and their variability. Here a single theoretical framework is used to predict the noise level associated with propagating pseudo-Rayleigh modes and evanescent acoustic-gravity modes. The latter are dominant only within 200 m from the sea surface, in shallow or deep water. At depths larger than 500 m, the comparison of a numerical noise model with hydrophone records from two open-ocean sites near Hawaii and the Kerguelen islands reveal: (a) Deep ocean acoustic noise at frequencies 0.1 to 1 Hz is consistent with the Rayleigh wave theory, in which the presence of the ocean bottom amplifies the noise by 10 to 20 dB; (b) in agreement with previous results, the local maxima in the noise spectrum support the theoretical prediction for the vertical structure of acoustic modes; and (c) noise level and variability are well predicted for frequencies up to 0.4 Hz. Above 0.6 Hz, the model results are less accurate, probably due to the poor estimation of the directional properties of wind-waves with frequencies higher than 0.3 Hz.

  14. Controlled Acoustic Bass System (CABS) A Method to Achieve Uniform Sound Field Distribution at Low Frequencies in Rectangular Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2008-01-01

    The sound field produced by loudspeakers at low frequencies in small- and medium-size rectangular listening rooms is highly nonuniform due to the multiple reflections and diffractions of sound on the walls and different objects in the room. A new method, called controlled acoustic bass system (CA......-frequency range. CABS has been simulated and measured in two different standard listening rooms with satisfactory results....

  15. Frequency degeneracy of acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darinskii, A N [Institute of Crystallography RAS, Leninskiy pr. 59, Moscow, 119333 (Russian Federation); Le Clezio, E [Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, ENI Val de Loire, LUSSI, FRE CNRS 2448, rue de la Chocolaterie, BP3410, 41034 Blois (France); Feuillard, G [Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, ENI Val de Loire, LUSSI, FRE CNRS 2448, rue de la Chocolaterie, BP3410, 41034 Blois (France)

    2007-12-15

    Degeneracies of acoustic wave spectra in 2D phononic crystals (PC) and PC slabs are studied. A PC structure is constituted of parallel steel rods immersed into water and forming the quadratic lattice. Given the projection k{sub z} of the wave vector on the direction of rods, the bulk wave spectrum of the infinite PC is a set of frequency surfaces f{sub i}(k{sub x}, k{sub y}), i = 1,2,..., where k{sub x,y} are the components of the wave vector in the plane perpendicular to the rods. An investigation is performed of the shape of frequency surfaces in the vicinity of points (k{sub dx}, k{sub dy}), where these surfaces fall into contact. In addition, the evolution of the degeneracy with changing rod radius and cross-section shape is examined. Degeneracy in the spectrum of leaky modes propagating along a single waveguide in a PC slab is also investigated.

  16. A highly attenuating and frequency tailorable annular hole phononic crystal for surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, B J; Worsfold, S R; Vukusic, P; Nash, G R

    2017-08-02

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are widely used for signal processing, sensing and increasingly for lab-on-a-chip applications. Phononic crystals can control the propagation of SAW, analogous to photonic crystals, enabling components such as waveguides and cavities. Here we present an approach for the realisation of robust, tailorable SAW phononic crystals, based on annular holes patterned in a SAW substrate. Using simulations and experiments, we show that this geometry supports local resonances which create highly attenuating phononic bandgaps at frequencies with negligible coupling of SAWs into other modes, even for relatively shallow features. The enormous bandgap attenuation is up to an order-of-magnitude larger than that achieved with a pillar phononic crystal of the same size, enabling effective phononic crystals to be made up of smaller numbers of elements. This work transforms the ability to exploit phononic crystals for developing novel SAW device concepts, mirroring contemporary progress in photonic crystals.The control and manipulation of propagating sound waves on a surface has applications in on-chip signal processing and sensing. Here, Ash et al. deviate from standard designs and fabricate frequency tailorable phononic crystals with an order-of-magnitude increase in attenuation.

  17. Excitation of hypersonic acoustic waves in diamond-based piezoelectric layered structure on the microwave frequencies up to 20GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, B P; Kvashnin, G M; Novoselov, A S; Bormashov, V S; Golovanov, A V; Burkov, S I; Blank, V D

    2017-07-01

    First ultrahigh frequency (UHF) investigation of quality factor Q for the piezoelectric layered structure «Al/(001)AlN/Mo/(100) diamond» has been executed in a broad frequency band from 1 up to 20GHz. The record-breaking Q·f quality parameter up to 2.7·10 14 Hz has been obtained close to 20GHz. Frequency dependence of the form factor m correlated with quality factor has been analyzed by means of computer simulation, and non-monotonic frequency dependence can be explained by proper features of thin-film piezoelectric transducer (TFPT). Excluding the minimal Q magnitudes measured at the frequency points associated with minimal TFPT effectiveness, one can prove a rule of Qf∼f observed for diamond on the frequencies above 1GHz and defined by Landau-Rumer's acoustic attenuation mechanism. Synthetic IIa-type diamond single crystal as a substrate material for High-overtone Bulk Acoustic Resonator (HBAR) possesses some excellent acoustic properties in a wide microwave band and can be successfully applied for design of acoustoelectronic devices, especially the ones operating at a far UHF band. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fatigue crack propagation of super duplex stainless steel with dispersed structure and time-frequency analysis of acoustic emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki-Woo; Kang, Chang-Yong; Do, Jae-Yoon; Ahn, Seok-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Kee

    2001-06-01

    The fatigue crack propagation of super duplex stainless steel was investigated for the effect of various volume fractions of the austenite phase by changing the heat treatment temperature. We also analyzed acoustic emission signals obtained during the fatigue crack propagation by the time-frequency analysis method. As the temperature of the heat treatment increased, the volume fraction of austenite decreased and coarse grain was obtained. The specimen treated at 1200 had a longer fatigue life and slower rate of crack growth. Results of time-frequency analysis of acoustic emission signals during the fatigue test showed the main frequency of 200-300 kHz to have no correlation with heat treatment and crack length, and the 500 kHz signal to be due to dimples and separation of inclusion.

  19. Spatial Release From Masking in Simulated Cochlear Implant Users With and Without Access to Low-Frequency Acoustic Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Williges

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For normal-hearing listeners, speech intelligibility improves if speech and noise are spatially separated. While this spatial release from masking has already been quantified in normal-hearing listeners in many studies, it is less clear how spatial release from masking changes in cochlear implant listeners with and without access to low-frequency acoustic hearing. Spatial release from masking depends on differences in access to speech cues due to hearing status and hearing device. To investigate the influence of these factors on speech intelligibility, the present study measured speech reception thresholds in spatially separated speech and noise for 10 different listener types. A vocoder was used to simulate cochlear implant processing and low-frequency filtering was used to simulate residual low-frequency hearing. These forms of processing were combined to simulate cochlear implant listening, listening based on low-frequency residual hearing, and combinations thereof. Simulated cochlear implant users with additional low-frequency acoustic hearing showed better speech intelligibility in noise than simulated cochlear implant users without acoustic hearing and had access to more spatial speech cues (e.g., higher binaural squelch. Cochlear implant listener types showed higher spatial release from masking with bilateral access to low-frequency acoustic hearing than without. A binaural speech intelligibility model with normal binaural processing showed overall good agreement with measured speech reception thresholds, spatial release from masking, and spatial speech cues. This indicates that differences in speech cues available to listener types are sufficient to explain the changes of spatial release from masking across these simulated listener types.

  20. Ion Acoustic Wave Frequencies and Onset Times During Type 3 Solar Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Conflicting interpretations exist for the low-frequency ion acoustic (S) waves often observed by ISEE 3 in association with intense Langmuir (L) waves in the source regions of type III solar radio bursts near 1 AU. Two indirect lines of observational evidence, as well as plasma theory, suggest they are produced by the electrostatic (ES) decay L yields L(PRIME) + S. However, contrary to theoretical predictions, an existing analysis of the wave frequencies instead favors the electromagnetic (EM) decays L yields T + S, where T denotes an EM wave near the plasma frequency. This conflict is addressed here by comparing the observed wave frequencies and onset times with theoretical predictions for the ES and EM decays, calculated using the time-variable electron beam and magnetic field orientation data, rather than the nominal values used previously. Field orientation effects and beam speed variations are shown analytically to produce factor-of-three effects, greater than the difference in wave frequencies predicted for the ES and EM decays; effects of similar magnitude occur in the events analyzed here. The S-wave signals are extracted by hand from a sawtooth noise background, greatly improving the association between S waves and intense L waves. Very good agreement exists between the time-varying predictions for the ES decay and the frequencies of most (but not all) wave bursts. The waves occur only after the ES decay becomes kinematically allowed, which is consistent with the ES decay proceeding and producing most of the observed signals. Good agreement exists between the EM decay's predictions and a significant fraction of the S-wave observations while the EM decay is kinematically allowed. The wave data are not consistent, however, with the EM decay being the dominant nonlinear process. Often the observed waves are sufficiently broadband to overlap simultaneously the frequency ranges predicted for the ES and EM decays. Coupling the dominance of the ES decay with this

  1. Passive Wireless Hydrogen Sensors Using Orthogonal Frequency Coded Acoustic Wave Devices, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the development of passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) based hydrogen sensors for NASA application to distributed wireless hydrogen leak...

  2. On Computations of Duct Acoustics with Near Cut-Off Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Thomas Z.; Povinelli, Louis A.

    1997-01-01

    The cut-off is a unique feature associated with duct acoustics due to the presence of duct walls. A study of this cut-off effect on the computations of duct acoustics is performed in the present work. The results show that the computation of duct acoustic modes near cut-off requires higher numerical resolutions than others to avoid being numerically cut off. Duct acoustic problems in Category 2 are solved by the DRP finite difference scheme with the selective artificial damping method and results are presented and compared to reference solutions.

  3. Frequency Analysis of Acoustic Emission Signal to Monitor Damage Evolution in Masonry Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masera, D; Bocca, P; Grazzini, A

    2011-01-01

    A crucial aspect in damage evaluation of masonry structures is the analysis of long-term behaviour and for this reason fatigue analysis has a great influence on safety assessment of this structures. Acoustic Emission (AE) are very effective non-destructive techniques applied to identify micro and macro-defects and their temporal evolution in several materials. This technique permits to estimate the velocity of ultrasound waves propagation and the amount of energy released during fracture propagation to obtain information on the criticality of the ongoing process. By means of AE monitoring, an experimental analysis on a set of reinforced and unreinforced masonry walls under variable amplitude and static loading has been carried out. During these tests, the AE signals were recorded. The AE signals were analysed using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to examine the frequency distribution of the micro and macro cracking. It possible to evaluate the evolution of the wavelength of the AE signal through the two characteristic peak in the AE spectrum signals and the wave speed of the P or S waves. This wavelength evolution can be represent the microcrak and macrocrack evolution in masonry walls. This procedure permits to estimate the fracture dimension characteristic in several loading condition and for several masonry reinforced condition.

  4. Bendable Electro-Acoustic Transducer Fabricated Utilizing Frequency Dispersion of Elastic Modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Tetsu; Ohga, Juro

    2013-09-01

    To realize the speaker diaphragm that can be united with a flexible display without deteriorating lightweight properties and flexibility, a novel bendable electro-acoustic transducer (BEAT) based on 0-3-type piezoelectric composites has been developed. To overcome the trade-off between flexibility and the transmission efficiency of vibration energy, a viscoelastic polymer that has local maximum points in the loss factor as well as large frequency dispersion in the storage modulus near room temperature was employed as the matrix of the piezoelectric composite layer. Against the comparatively slow (10 Hz or less) deformation from the outside, the viscoelastic matrix is viscous enough to prevent cracking and delamination. On the other hand, in the audible range (20 Hz to 20 kHz), the matrix is elastic enough to transmit piezoelectric vibration energy, maintaining a moderately large loss factor as well as a high sound velocity. For the first time, we successfully demonstrated a rollable speaker that can continue to generate a high-quality sound while being rolled and unrolled repeatedly onto a cylinder with a curvature radius of 4 mm.

  5. Control of low-frequency noise for piping systems via the design of coupled band gap of acoustic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanfei [College of Power Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan, 430033 (China); Shen, Huijie, E-mail: shj588@163.com [College of Power Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan, 430033 (China); Zhang, Linke [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, 430063 (China); Su, Yongsheng, E-mail: suyongsheng1981@163.com [College of Power Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan, 430033 (China); Yu, Dianlong [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Integrated Logistics Support, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic wave propagation and sound transmission in a metamaterial-based piping system with Helmholtz resonator (HR) attached periodically are studied. A transfer matrix method is developed to conduct the investigation. Calculational results show that the introduction of periodic HRs in the piping system could generate a band gap (BG) near the resonant frequency of the HR, such that the bandwidth and the attenuation effect of HR improved notably. Bragg type gaps are also exist in the system due to the systematic periodicity. By plotting the BG as functions of HR parameters, the effect of resonator parameters on the BG behavior, including bandwidth, location and attenuation performance, etc., is examined. It is found that Bragg-type gap would interplay with the resonant-type gap under some special situations, thereby giving rise to a super-wide coupled gap. Further, explicit formulation for BG exact coupling is extracted and some key parameters on modulating the width and the attenuation coefficient of coupled gaps are investigated. The coupled gap can be located to any frequency range as one concerned, thus rendering the low-frequency noise control feasible in a broad band range. - Highlights: • A metamaterial-type pipe system with Bragg and resonant acoustic gaps. • A low-frequency acoustic coupled gap. • Exact coupling condition for Bragg and resonant gaps. • Effects of resonant parameters on coupled gaps.

  6. Acoustic loss and frequency stability studies of gamma- and proton-irradiated alpha-quartz crystal resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    This work examines the radiation-induced effects in alpha-quartz crystal resonators and distinguishes the various acoustic losses responsible for the frequency susceptibility over these dose ranges. Simulation of low-earth-orbit proton radiation was accomplished with protons from the Harvard University Cyclotron using a novel proton-beam modulator, which was designed to emulate a 10-120 MeV proton spectrum for the radiation susceptibility and acoustic-loss studies on AT quartz resonators. Quartz resonators having aluminum defect center concentrations between 0.01 and 19 ppm experienced proton-induced frequency shifts not correlated to their aluminum impurity content. It was also found that AT quartz resonators of the electrode-less BVA design experienced the smallest frequency shifts. Experiments conducted with 1.25-MeV gamma rays from a cobalt 60 source demonstrated identical frequency shifts in quartz, indicating that the energy losses of gamma rays and protons in quartz over the examined dose and energy ranges were similar. Acoustic-loss measurements conducted over the 0.3-70 K range revealed that the phonon-phonon and two-level energy excitation peaks near 20 and 5 K, respectively, were not affected by proton or cobalt 60 radiation

  7. Providing primary standard calibrations beyond 20 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickley, C J; Zeqiri, B; Robinson, S P

    2004-01-01

    The number of applications of medical ultrasound utilising frequencies in excess of 20 MHz has shown a consistent increase over recent years. Coupled with the commercial availability of wide-bandwidth hydrophones whose response extends beyond 40 MHz, this has driven a growing need to develop hydrophone calibration techniques at elevated frequencies. The current National Physical Laboratory primary standard method of calibrating hydrophones is based on an optical interferometer. This has been in operation for around 20 years and provides traceability over the frequency range of 0.3 to 20 MHz. More recently, calibrations carried out using the interferometer have been extended to 60 MHz, although the uncertainties associated with these calibrations are poor, being in excess of ±20% at high frequencies. Major contributions to the degraded calibration uncertainties arise from poor signal-to-noise at higher frequencies, the frequency response of the photodiodes used and the noise floor of the instrument. To improve the uncertainty of hydrophone calibrations above 20 MHz, it has been necessary to build and commission a new interferometer. Important features of the new primary standard are its use of a higher power laser to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, along with photodiodes whose greater bandwidth to improve the overall frequency response. This paper describes the design of key aspects of the new interferometer. It also presents some initial results of the performance assessment, including a detailed comparison of calibrations of NPL reference membrane hydrophones, undertaken using old and new interferometers for calibration up to 40 MHz

  8. Mid-Frequency Environmental and Acoustic Studies from SW06, and Applications to Asian Littoral Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-30

    Development (ADD), Hanyang University ( HYU ), to undertake collaborative research programs in shallow water acoustics in Asian littoral waters...coast of Korea with the U.S. NRL, ADD and HYU that occurred in August 2008, as part of the Transverse Acoustic Variability Experiment (TAVEX

  9. Source Identification in Structural Acoustics with an Inverse Frequency Response Function Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Rene

    2002-01-01

    Inverse source identification based on acoustic measurements is essential for the investigation and understanding of sound fields generated by structural vibrations of various devices and machinery. Acoustic pressure measurements performed on a grid in the nearfield of a surface can be used to

  10. Mechanical spectra of glass-forming liquids. II. Gigahertz-frequency longitudinal and shear acoustic dynamics in glycerol and DC704 studied by time-domain Brillouin scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klieber, Christoph; Hecksher, Tina; Pezeril, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the temperature and frequency dependence of the longitudinal and shear viscoelastic response at MHz and GHz frequencies of the intermediate glass former glycerol and the fragile glass former tetramethyl-tetraphenyl-trisiloxane (DC704). Measurements were performed...

  11. A frequency domain linearized Navier-Stokes equations approach to acoustic propagation in flow ducts with sharp edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Axel; Boij, Susann; Efraimsson, Gunilla

    2010-02-01

    Acoustic wave propagation in flow ducts is commonly modeled with time-domain non-linear Navier-Stokes equation methodologies. To reduce computational effort, investigations of a linearized approach in frequency domain are carried out. Calculations of sound wave propagation in a straight duct are presented with an orifice plate and a mean flow present. Results of transmission and reflections at the orifice are presented on a two-port scattering matrix form and are compared to measurements with good agreement. The wave propagation is modeled with a frequency domain linearized Navier-Stokes equation methodology. This methodology is found to be efficient for cases where the acoustic field does not alter the mean flow field, i.e., when whistling does not occur.

  12. Fatigue characteristics of high strength fire resistance steel for frame structure and time-frequency analysis its acoustic emission signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Nam, Ki Woo; Kang, Chang Young

    2000-01-01

    Demand for now nondestructive evaluation are growing to detect fatigue crack growth behavior to predict long term performance of materials and structure in aggressive environments, especially when they are in non-visible area. Acoustic emission technique is well suited to these problems and has drawn a keen interests because of its dynamic detection ability, extreme sensitivity and location of growing defects. In this study, we analysed acoustic emission signals obtained in fatigue and tensile test of high strength fire resistance steel for frame structure with time-frequency analysis methods. The main frequency range is different in the noise and the fatigue crack propagation. It could be classified that it were also generated by composite fracture mechanics of cleavage, dimple, inclusion separation etc

  13. On-line low and high frequency acoustic leak detection and location for an automated steam generator protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaubatz, D.C.; Gluekler, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    Two on-line acoustic leak detection systems were operated and installed on a 76 MW hockey stick steam generator in the Sodium Components Test Installation (SCTI) at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) in Southern California. The low frequency system demonstrated the capability to detect and locate leaks, both intentional and unintentional. No false alarms were issued during the two year test program even with adjacent blasting activities, pneumatic drilling, shuttle rocket engine testing nearby, scrams of the SCTI facility, thermal/hydraulic transient testing, and pump/control valve operations. For the high frequency system the capability to detect water into sodium reactions was established utilizing frequencies as high as 300 kHz. The high frequency system appeared to be sensitive to noise generated by maintenance work and system valve operations. Subsequent development work which is incomplete as of this date showed much more promise for the high frequency system. (author). 13 figs

  14. Testing Time and Frequency Fiber-Optic Link Transfer by Hardware Emulation of Acoustic-Band Optical Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiński Marcin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The low-frequency optical-signal phase noise induced by mechanical vibration of the base occurs in field-deployed fibers. Typical telecommunication data transfer is insensitive to this type of noise but the phenomenon may influence links dedicated to precise Time and Frequency (T&F fiber-optic transfer that exploit the idea of stabilization of phase or propagation delay of the link. To measure effectiveness of suppression of acoustic noise in such a link, a dedicated measurement setup is necessary. The setup should enable to introduce a low-frequency phase corruption to the optical signal in a controllable way. In the paper, a concept of a setup in which the mechanically induced acoustic-band optical signal phase corruption is described and its own features and measured parameters are presented. Next, the experimental measurement results of the T&F transfer TFTS-2 system’s immunity as a function of the fibre-optic length vs. the acoustic-band noise are presented. Then, the dependency of the system immunity on the location of a noise source along the link is also pointed out.

  15. Optimizing surface acoustic wave sensors for trace chemical detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, G.C.; Kottenstette, R.J.; Heller, E.J. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This paper describes several recent advances for fabricating coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors for applications requiring trace chemical detection. Specifically, we have demonstrated that high surface area microporous oxides can provide 100-fold improvements in SAW sensor responses compared with more typical polymeric coatings. In addition, we fabricated GaAs SAW devices with frequencies up to 500 MHz to provide greater sensitivity and an ideal substrate for integration with high-frequency electronics.

  16. 47 CFR 90.355 - LMS operations below 512 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Intelligent Transportation Systems Radio Service § 90.355 LMS... LMS station and the nearest co-channel base station of another licensee operating a voice system is 75... MHz, 150-170 MHz, and 450-512 MHz bands may use either base-mobile frequencies currently assigned the...

  17. Frequency domain finite-element and spectral-element acoustic wave modeling using absorbing boundaries and perfectly matched layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi Dalkhani, Amin; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Mahdavi Basir, Hadi

    2018-04-01

    Wave propagation modeling as a vital tool in seismology can be done via several different numerical methods among them are finite-difference, finite-element, and spectral-element methods (FDM, FEM and SEM). Some advanced applications in seismic exploration benefit the frequency domain modeling. Regarding flexibility in complex geological models and dealing with the free surface boundary condition, we studied the frequency domain acoustic wave equation using FEM and SEM. The results demonstrated that the frequency domain FEM and SEM have a good accuracy and numerical efficiency with the second order interpolation polynomials. Furthermore, we developed the second order Clayton and Engquist absorbing boundary condition (CE-ABC2) and compared it with the perfectly matched layer (PML) for the frequency domain FEM and SEM. In spite of PML method, CE-ABC2 does not add any additional computational cost to the modeling except assembling boundary matrices. As a result, considering CE-ABC2 is more efficient than PML for the frequency domain acoustic wave propagation modeling especially when computational cost is high and high-level absorbing performance is unnecessary.

  18. Fabrication and Characterization of Single-Aperture 3.5-MHz BNT-Based Ultrasonic Transducer for Therapeutic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghaddos, Elaheh; Ma, T; Zhong, Hui; Zhou, Qifa; Wan, M X; Safari, Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    This paper discusses the fabrication and characterization of 3.5-MHz single-element transducers for therapeutic applications in which the active elements are made of hard lead-free BNT-based and hard commercial PZT (PZT-841) piezoceramics. Composition of (BiNa 0.88 K 0.08 Li 0.04 ) 0.5 (Ti 0.985 Mn 0.015 )O 3 (BNKLT88-1.5Mn) was used to develop lead-free piezoelectric ceramic. Mn-doped samples exhibited high mechanical quality factor ( ) of 970, thickness coupling coefficient ( ) of 0.48, a dielectric constant ( ) of 310 (at 1 kHz), depolarization temperature ( ) of 200 °C, and coercive field ( ) of 52.5 kV/cm. Two different unfocused single-element transducers using BNKLT88-1.5Mn and PZT-841 with the same center frequency of 3.5 MHz and similar aperture size of 10.7 and 10.5 mm were fabricated. Pulse-echo response, acoustic frequency spectrum, acoustic pressure field, and acoustic intensity field of transducers were characterized. The BNT-based transducer shows linear response up to the peak-to-peak voltage of 105 V in which the maximum rarefactional acoustic pressure of 1.1 MPa, and acoustic intensity of 43 W/cm 2 were achieved. Natural focal point of this transducer was at 60 mm from the surface of the transducer.

  19. Acoustic transfer function of cavity and its application to rapid evaluation of sound field at low frequency band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Gang; CHEN Hualing; HU Xuanli; HUANG Xieqing

    2001-01-01

    A new method to obtain numerical solution of Acoustic Transfer Function (ATF) by BEM is presented. For a simply supported panel backed by a rectangular cavity at low frequency band (0-200 Hz), the frequency property of ATF is analyzed. The relation between the accuracy of the rapid evaluation of sound field and the discretization schemes of the vibrational panel is discussed. The result shows that the method to obtain ATF and the rapid evaluation of sound field using the ATF is suitable to low frequency band. If an appropriate discretization scheme is choosed based on the frequency involved and the effort to obtain ATF, the accuracy of the rapid evaluation of sound field is acceptable.

  20. Investigation into the bistatic evolution of the acoustic scattering from a cylindrical shell using time-frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agounad, Said; Aassif, El Houcein; Khandouch, Younes; Maze, Gérard; Décultot, Dominique

    2018-01-01

    The time and frequency analyses of the acoustic scattering by an elastic cylindrical shell in bistatic method show that the arrival times of the echoes and the resonance frequencies of the elastic waves propagating in and around the cylindrical shell are a function of the bistatic angle, β, between the emitter and receiver transducers. The aim of this work is to explain the observed results in time and frequency domains using time-frequency analysis and graphical interpretations. The performance of four widely used time-frequency representations, the Smoothed Pseudo Wigner-Ville (SPWV), the Spectrogram (SP), the reassignment SPWV, and the reassignment SP, are studied. The investigation into the evolution of the time-frequency plane as a function of the bistatic angle β shows that there are the waves propagating in counter-clockwise direction (labeled wave+) and the waves which propagate in clockwise direction (labeled waves-). In this paper the A, S0, and A1 circumferential waves are investigated. The graphical interpretations are used to explain the formation mechanism of these waves and the acoustic scattering in monostatic and bistatic configurations. The delay between the echoes of the waves+ and those of the waves- is expressed in the case of the circumnavigating wave (Scholte-Stoneley wave). This study shows that the observed waves at β = 0 ° and β = 18 0 ° are the result of the constructive interferences between the waves+ and the waves-. A comparative study of the physical properties (group velocity dispersion and cut-off frequency) of the waves+, the waves- and the waves observed in monostatic configuration is conducted. Furthermore, it is shown that the ability of the time-frequency representation to highlight the waves+ and the waves- is very useful, for example, for the detection and the localization of defaults, the classification purposes, etc.

  1. A compact 10 kW, 476 MHz solid state radio frequency amplifier for pre-buncher cavity of free electron laser injector linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohania, Praveen; Mahawar, Ashish; Shrivastava, Purushottam; Gupta, P. D. [Raja Rammana Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore 452013 (India)

    2013-09-15

    A 10 kW, 476 MHz, 0.1% duty cycle solid state RF amplifier system for driving sub-harmonic, pre-buncher cavity of IR-FEL injector LINAC, has been developed at RRCAT. The 10 kW power is achieved by combining output of eight 1400 W amplifier modules using 8-way planar corporate combiner. The solid state amplifier modules have been developed using 50 V RF LDMOS transistors which although meant for push-pull operation are being used in single ended configuration with matching circuit developed on a thin (25 mils), high dielectric constant (9.7), low loss microwave laminate with an aim to have a compact structure. Ease of fabrication, modularity, small size, and low cost are the important features of this design which could be used as a template for low duty cycle medium to high pulsed power UHF amplifier system.

  2. A role for acoustic distortion in novel rapid frequency modulation behaviour in free-flying male mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Patrício M V; Ingham, Robert A; Gibson, Gabriella; Russell, Ian J

    2016-07-01

    We describe a new stereotypical acoustic behaviour by male mosquitoes in response to the fundamental frequency of female flight tones during mating sequences. This male-specific free-flight behaviour consists of phonotactic flight beginning with a steep increase in wing-beat frequency (WBF) followed by rapid frequency modulation (RFM) of WBF in the lead up to copula formation. Male RFM behaviour involves remarkably fast changes in WBF and can be elicited without acoustic feedback or physical presence of the female. RFM features are highly consistent, even in response to artificial tones that do not carry the multi-harmonic components of natural female flight tones. Comparison between audiograms of the robust RFM behaviour and the electrical responses of the auditory Johnston's organ (JO) reveals that the male JO is tuned not to the female WBF per se but, remarkably, to the difference between the male and female WBFs. This difference is generated in the JO responses as a result of intermodulation distortion products (DPs) caused by non-linear interaction between male-female flight tones in the vibrations of the antenna. We propose that male mosquitoes rely on their own flight tones in making use of DPs to acoustically detect, locate and orientate towards flying females. We argue that the previously documented flight-tone harmonic convergence of flying male and female mosquitoes could be a consequence of WBF adjustments so that DPs generated through flight-tone interaction fall within the optimal frequency ranges for JO detection. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Bayesian-based estimation of acoustic surface impedance: Finite difference frequency domain approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockman, Alexander; Fackler, Cameron; Xiang, Ning

    2015-04-01

    Acoustic performance for an interior requires an accurate description of the boundary materials' surface acoustic impedance. Analytical methods may be applied to a small class of test geometries, but inverse numerical methods provide greater flexibility. The parameter estimation problem requires minimizing prediction vice observed acoustic field pressure. The Bayesian-network sampling approach presented here mitigates other methods' susceptibility to noise inherent to the experiment, model, and numerics. A geometry agnostic method is developed here and its parameter estimation performance is demonstrated for an air-backed micro-perforated panel in an impedance tube. Good agreement is found with predictions from the ISO standard two-microphone, impedance-tube method, and a theoretical model for the material. Data by-products exclusive to a Bayesian approach are analyzed to assess sensitivity of the method to nuisance parameters.

  4. Control of the long period grating spectrum through low frequency flexural acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Roberson A; Possetti, Gustavo R C; Kamikawachi, Ricardo C; Fabris, José L; Muller, Marcia; Pohl, Alexandre A P; Marques, Carlos A F; Nogueira, Rogério N; Neves, Paulo T Jr; Cook, Kevin; Canning, John; Bavastri, C

    2011-01-01

    We have shown experimental results of the excitation of long period fiber gratings by means of flexural acoustic waves with a wavelength larger than the grating period, validated by numerical simulations. The effect of the acoustic wave on the grating is modeled with the method of assumed modes, which delivers the strain field inside the grating, then used as the input to the transfer matrix method, needed for calculating the grating spectrum. The experimental and numerical results are found to be in good agreement, even though only the strain-optic effects are taken into account

  5. Wide-range frequency selectivity in an acoustic sensor fabricated using a microbeam array with non-uniform thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintaku, Hirofumi; Kotera, Hidetoshi; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Zusho, Kazuki; Kawano, Satoyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have demonstrated the fabrication of a microbeam array (MBA) with various thicknesses and investigated the suitability it for an acoustic sensor with wide-range frequency selectivity. For this, an MBA composed of 64 beams, with thicknesses varying from 2.99–142 µm, was fabricated by using single gray-scale lithography and a thick negative photoresist. The vibration of the beams in air was measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer; the resonant frequencies of the beams were measured to be from 11.5 to 290 kHz. Lastly, the frequency range of the MBA with non-uniform thickness was 10.9 times that of the MBA with uniform thickness. (paper)

  6. Frequency modulation at a moving material interface and a conservation law for wave number. [acoustic wave reflection and transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstein, G. G.; Gunzburger, M. D.

    1976-01-01

    An integral conservation law for wave numbers is considered. In order to test the validity of the proposed conservation law, a complete solution for the reflection and transmission of an acoustic wave impinging normally on a material interface moving at a constant speed is derived. The agreement between the frequency condition thus deduced from the dynamic equations of motion and the frequency condition derived from the jump condition associated with the integral equation supports the proposed law as a true conservation law. Additional comparisons such as amplitude discontinuities and Snells' law in a moving media further confirm the stated proposition. Results are stated concerning frequency and wave number relations across a shock front as predicted by the proposed conservation law.

  7. Acoustic feedwater heater leak detection: Industry application of low ampersand high frequency detection increases response and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woyshner, W.S.; Bryson, T.; Robertson, M.O.

    1993-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute has sponsored research associated with acoustic Feedwater Heater Leak Detection since the early 1980s. Results indicate that this technology is economically beneficial and dependable. Recent research work has employed acoustic sensors and signal conditioning with wider frequency range response and background noise elimination techniques to provide increased accuracy and dependability. Dual frequency sensors have been applied at a few facilities to provide information on this application of dual frequency response. Sensor mounting methods and attenuation due to various mounting configurations are more conclusively understood. These are depicted and discussed in detail. The significance of trending certain plant parameters such as heat cycle flows, heater vent and drain valve position, proper relief valve operation, etc. is also addressed. Test data were collected at various facilities to monitor the effect of varying several related operational parameters. A group of FWHLD Users have been involved from the inception of the project and reports on their latest successes and failures, along with various data depicting early detection of FWHLD tube leaks, will be included. 3 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  8. Proportion-corrected scaled voxel models for Japanese children and their application to the numerical dosimetry of specific absorption rate for frequencies from 30 MHz to 3 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Soichi; Kunieda, Etsuo

    2008-01-01

    The development of high-resolution anatomical voxel models of children is difficult given, inter alia, the ethical limitations on subjecting children to medical imaging. We instead used an existing voxel model of a Japanese adult and three-dimensional deformation to develop three voxel models that match the average body proportions of Japanese children at 3, 5 and 7 years old. The adult model was deformed to match the proportions of a child by using the measured dimensions of various body parts of children at 3, 5 and 7 years old and a free-form deformation technique. The three developed models represent average-size Japanese children of the respective ages. They consist of cubic voxels (2 mm on each side) and are segmented into 51 tissues and organs. We calculated the whole-body-averaged specific absorption rates (WBA-SARs) and tissue-averaged SARs for the child models for exposures to plane waves from 30 MHz to 3 GHz; these results were then compared with those for scaled down adult models. We also determined the incident electric-field strength required to produce the exposure equivalent to the ICNIRP basic restriction for general public exposure, i.e., a WBA-SAR of 0.08 W kg -1 .

  9. Recommended safety procedures for the installation and use of radiofrequency and microwave devices in the frequency range 10 MHz-300 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    Studies of possible hazards to human health from exposure to radio frequency and microwave radiation show that there is a need for controls. Exposure to high levels of radio frequency and microwave radiation over prolonged periods can cause adverse health effects. The type and extent of injury depend not only on the intensity (strength) of the field and the exposure duration but also on various other factors such as the frequency of the radiation, type of modulation, polarization, and distance from the source. (auth)

  10. Acoustic measurement of suspensions of clay and silt particles using single frequency attenuation and backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of ultrasonic acoustic technology to measure the concentration of fine suspended sediments has the potential to greatly increase the temporal and spatial resolution of sediment measurements while reducing the need for personnel to be present at gauging stations during storm events. The conv...

  11. High-frequency bottom-pressure and acoustic variations in a sea strait: internal wave turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2012-01-01

    During a period of 3 days, an accurate bottom-pressure sensor and a four-beam acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) were mounted in a bottom frame at 23 m in a narrow sea strait with dominant near-rectilinear tidal currents exceeding 1 m s(-1) in magnitude. The pressure record distinguishes small

  12. An efficient realization of frequency dependent boundary conditions in an acoustic finite-difference time-domain model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escolano-Carrasco, José; Jacobsen, Finn; López, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method provides a simple and accurate way of solving initial boundary value problems. However, most acoustic problems involve frequency dependent boundary conditions, and it is not easy to include such boundary conditions in an FDTD model. Although solutions...... to this problem exist, most of them have high computational costs, and stability cannot always be ensured. In this work, a solution is proposed based on "mixing modelling strategies"; this involves separating the FDTD mesh and the boundary conditions (a digital filter representation of the impedance...

  13. Use of acoustic wave travel-time measurements to probe the near-surface layers of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, S. M.; Osaki, Y.; Shibahashi, H.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Harvey, J. W.; Pomerantz, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    The variation of solar p-mode travel times with cyclic frequency nu is shown to provide information on both the radial variation of the acoustic potential and the depth of the effective source of the oscillations. Observed travel-time data for waves with frequency lower than the acoustic cutoff frequency for the solar atmosphere (approximately equals 5.5 mHz) are inverted to yield the local acoustic cutoff frequency nu(sub c) as a function of depth in the outer convection zone and lower atmosphere of the Sun. The data for waves with nu greater than 5.5 mHz are used to show that the source of the p-mode oscillations lies approximately 100 km beneath the base of the photosphere. This depth is deeper than that determined using a standard mixing-length calculation.

  14. Single-electron transport driven by surface acoustic waves: Moving quantum dots versus short barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utko, Pawel; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev; Lindelof, Poul Erik

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the response of the acoustoelectric-current driven by a surface-acoustic wave through a quantum point contact in the closed-channel regime. Under proper conditions, the current develops plateaus at integer multiples of ef when the frequency f of the surface-acoustic wave...... or the gate voltage V-g of the point contact is varied. A pronounced 1.1 MHz beat period of the current indicates that the interference of the surface-acoustic wave with reflected waves matters. This is supported by the results obtained after a second independent beam of surface-acoustic wave was added......, traveling in opposite direction. We have found that two sub-intervals can be distinguished within the 1.1 MHz modulation period, where two different sets of plateaus dominate the acoustoelectric-current versus gate-voltage characteristics. In some cases, both types of quantized steps appeared simultaneously...

  15. Cryogenic Impinging Jets Subjected to High Frequency Transverse Acoustic Forcing in a High Pressure Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-27

    generated by a Fluke 292 arbitrary waveform generator. The signal generator was then fed to two Trek PZD2000A high- voltage amplifiers that drove two...Processes of Impinging Jet Injectors,” NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center, vol. 2, N94-23042, 1993, pp.69-74. 8 Li, R., and Ashgriz...Instability,” NASA SP-194, 1972 V. Appendix A Figure A1. Instantaneous images of an acoustic cycle for the PAN 5 condition. A large group of

  16. On the slow dynamics of near-field acoustically levitated objects under High excitation frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilssar, Dotan; Bucher, Izhak

    2015-10-01

    This paper introduces a simplified analytical model describing the governing dynamics of near-field acoustically levitated objects. The simplification converts the equation of motion coupled with the partial differential equation of a compressible fluid, into a compact, second order ordinary differential equation, where the local stiffness and damping are transparent. The simplified model allows one to more easily analyse and design near-field acoustic levitation based systems, and it also helps to devise closed-loop controller algorithms for such systems. Near-field acoustic levitation employs fast ultrasonic vibrations of a driving surface and exploits the viscosity and the compressibility of a gaseous medium to achieve average, load carrying pressure. It is demonstrated that the slow dynamics dominates the transient behaviour, while the time-scale associated with the fast, ultrasonic excitation has a small presence in the oscillations of the levitated object. Indeed, the present paper formulates the slow dynamics under an ultrasonic excitation without the need to explicitly consider the latter. The simplified model is compared with a numerical scheme based on Reynolds equation and with experiments, both showing reasonably good results.

  17. Finite frequency traveltime sensitivity kernels for acoustic anisotropic media: Angle dependent bananas

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi

    2013-08-19

    Anisotropy is an inherent character of the Earth subsurface. It should be considered for modeling and inversion. The acoustic VTI wave equation approximates the wave behavior in anisotropic media, and especially it\\'s kinematic characteristics. To analyze which parts of the model would affect the traveltime for anisotropic traveltime inversion methods, especially for wave equation tomography (WET), we drive the sensitivity kernels for anisotropic media using the VTI acoustic wave equation. A Born scattering approximation is first derived using the Fourier domain acoustic wave equation as a function of perturbations in three anisotropy parameters. Using the instantaneous traveltime, which unwraps the phase, we compute the kernels. These kernels resemble those for isotropic media, with the η kernel directionally dependent. They also have a maximum sensitivity along the geometrical ray, which is more realistic compared to the cross-correlation based kernels. Focusing on diving waves, which is used more often, especially recently in waveform inversion, we show sensitivity kernels in anisotropic media for this case.

  18. Finite frequency traveltime sensitivity kernels for acoustic anisotropic media: Angle dependent bananas

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    Anisotropy is an inherent character of the Earth subsurface. It should be considered for modeling and inversion. The acoustic VTI wave equation approximates the wave behavior in anisotropic media, and especially it's kinematic characteristics. To analyze which parts of the model would affect the traveltime for anisotropic traveltime inversion methods, especially for wave equation tomography (WET), we drive the sensitivity kernels for anisotropic media using the VTI acoustic wave equation. A Born scattering approximation is first derived using the Fourier domain acoustic wave equation as a function of perturbations in three anisotropy parameters. Using the instantaneous traveltime, which unwraps the phase, we compute the kernels. These kernels resemble those for isotropic media, with the η kernel directionally dependent. They also have a maximum sensitivity along the geometrical ray, which is more realistic compared to the cross-correlation based kernels. Focusing on diving waves, which is used more often, especially recently in waveform inversion, we show sensitivity kernels in anisotropic media for this case.

  19. AC bias characterization of low noise bolometers for SAFARI using an open-loop frequency domain SQUID-based multiplexer operating between 1 and 5 MHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottardi, L.; Bruijn, M.; Gao, J.R.; Den Hartog, R.; Hijmering, R.; Hoevers, H.; Khosropanah, P.; De Korte, P.; Van der Kuur, J.; Lindeman, M.; Ridder, M.

    2012-01-01

    SRON is developing the Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) read-out and the ultra low NEP TES bolometers array for the infra-red spectrometer SAFARI on board of the Japanese space mission SPICA. The FDM prototype of the instrument requires critical and complex optimizations. For single pixel

  20. Frequency response improvement of a two-port surface acoustic wave device based on epitaxial AlN thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junning; Hao, Zhibiao; Luo, Yi; Li, Guoqiang

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an exploration on improving the frequency response of the symmetrical two-port AlN surface acoustic wave (SAW) device, using epitaxial AlN thin film on (0001) sapphire as the piezoelectric substrate. The devices were fabricated by lift-off processes with Ti/Al composite electrodes as interleaved digital transducers (IDT). The impact of DL and the number of the IDT finger pairs on the frequency response was carefully investigated. The overall properties of the device are found to be greatly improved with DL elongation, indicated by the reduced pass band ripple and increased stop band rejection ratio. The rejection increases by 8.3 dB when DL elongates from 15.5λ to 55.5λ and 4.4 dB further accompanying another 50λ elongation. This is because larger DL repels the stray acoustic energy out of the propagation path and provides a cleaner traveling channel for functional SAW, and at the same time restrains electromagnetic feedthrough. It is also found that proper addition of the IDT finger pairs is beneficial for the device response, indicated by the ripple reduction and the insertion loss drop.

  1. Monitoring microbe-induced physical property changes using high-frequency acoustic waveform data: Toward the development of a microbial megascope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Kenneth Hurst

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of microbe generated gas bubbles in controlled, saturated sediment columns utilizing a novel technique involving acoustic wave propagation. Specifically, the effect of denitrifying bacteria on saturated flow conditions was evaluated in light of the stimulated production of N(sub 2) gas and the resulting plugging of the pore throats. The propagation of high frequency acoustic waves through the sediment columns was used to locate those regions in the column where gas accumulation occurred. Over a period of six weeks, regions of gas accumulation resulted in the attenuation of acoustic wave energies with the decreases in amplitude typically greater than one order of magnitude

  2. Physics of thermo-acoustic sound generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daschewski, M.; Boehm, R.; Prager, J.; Kreutzbruck, M.; Harrer, A.

    2013-09-01

    We present a generalized analytical model of thermo-acoustic sound generation based on the analysis of thermally induced energy density fluctuations and their propagation into the adjacent matter. The model provides exact analytical prediction of the sound pressure generated in fluids and solids; consequently, it can be applied to arbitrary thermal power sources such as thermophones, plasma firings, laser beams, and chemical reactions. Unlike existing approaches, our description also includes acoustic near-field effects and sound-field attenuation. Analytical results are compared with measurements of sound pressures generated by thermo-acoustic transducers in air for frequencies up to 1 MHz. The tested transducers consist of titanium and indium tin oxide coatings on quartz glass and polycarbonate substrates. The model reveals that thermo-acoustic efficiency increases linearly with the supplied thermal power and quadratically with thermal excitation frequency. Comparison of the efficiency of our thermo-acoustic transducers with those of piezoelectric-based airborne ultrasound transducers using impulse excitation showed comparable sound pressure values. The present results show that thermo-acoustic transducers can be applied as broadband, non-resonant, high-performance ultrasound sources.

  3. Acoustic emission technique and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Ichiya; Sasaki, Soji

    1976-01-01

    Acoustic emission technique is described. The characteristics of acoustic emission signal, measurement techniques, and its application are explained. The acoustic signals are grouped into continuous and burst types. The continuous signal is due to plastic deformation, and the burst type is due to the generation and growth of cracks. The latter can be used for the identification of the position of cracks. The frequency of the acoustic emission is in the range from several tens of KHz to two MHz. Piezoelectric ceramics are used as the oscillators of sensors. The dynamic behavior of acoustic emission can be observed with a two-channel acoustic emission measuring apparatus. Multi-channel method was developed at Hitachi, Ltd., and is used for large structures. General computer identification method and simple zone identification method are explained. Noise elimination is important for the measurement, and the methods were studied. Examples of application are the observation of acoustic emission in the plastic deformation of steel, the tensile test of large welded material with natural defects, and others. The method will be used for the diagnosis and observation of large structures, the test and quality control of products. (Kato, T.)

  4. A high-frequency transimpedance amplifier for CMOS integrated 2D CMUT array towards 3D ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiwei; Cheong, Jia Hao; Cha, Hyouk-Kyu; Yu, Hongbin; Je, Minkyu; Yu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    One transimpedance amplifier based CMOS analog front-end (AFE) receiver is integrated with capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUTs) towards high frequency 3D ultrasound imaging. Considering device specifications from CMUTs, the TIA is designed to amplify received signals from 17.5MHz to 52.5MHz with center frequency at 35MHz; and is fabricated in Global Foundry 0.18-µm 30-V high-voltage (HV) Bipolar/CMOS/DMOS (BCD) process. The measurement results show that the TIA with power-supply 6V can reach transimpedance gain of 61dBΩ and operating frequency from 17.5MHz to 100MHz. The measured input referred noise is 27.5pA/√Hz. Acoustic pulse-echo testing is conducted to demonstrate the receiving functionality of the designed 3D ultrasound imaging system.

  5. Fundamental frequency and voice perturbation measures in smokers and non-smokers: An acoustic and perceptual study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Allison

    This research examined the fundamental frequency and perturbation (jitter % and shimmer %) measures in young adult (20-30 year-old) and middle-aged adult (40-55 year-old) smokers and non-smokers; there were 36 smokers and 36 non-smokers. Acoustic analysis was carried out utilizing one task: production of sustained /a/. These voice samples were analyzed utilizing Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) software, which provided values for fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer %.These values were analyzed for trends regarding smoking status, age, and gender. Statistical significance was found regarding the fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for smokers as compared to non-smokers; smokers were found to have significantly lower fundamental frequency values, and significantly higher jitter % and shimmer % values. Statistical significance was not found regarding fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for age group comparisons. With regard to gender, statistical significance was found regarding fundamental frequency; females were found to have statistically higher fundamental frequencies as compared to males. However, the relationships between gender and jitter % and shimmer % lacked statistical significance. These results indicate that smoking negatively affects voice quality. This study also examined the ability of untrained listeners to identify smokers and non-smokers based on their voices. Results of this voice perception task suggest that listeners are not accurately able to identify smokers and non-smokers, as statistical significance was not reached. However, despite a lack of significance, trends in data suggest that listeners are able to utilize voice quality to identify smokers and non-smokers.

  6. FDTD calculation of whole-body average SAR in adult and child models for frequencies from 30 MHz to 3 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianqing; Fujiwara, Osamu; Kodera, Sachiko; Watanabe, Soichi

    2006-01-01

    Due to the difficulty of the specific absorption rate (SAR) measurement in an actual human body for electromagnetic radio-frequency (RF) exposure, in various compliance assessment procedures the incident electric field or power density is being used as a reference level, which should never yield a larger whole-body average SAR than the basic safety limit. The relationship between the reference level and the whole-body average SAR, however, was established mainly based on numerical calculations for highly simplified human modelling dozens of years ago. Its validity is being questioned by the latest calculation results. In verifying the validity of the reference level with respect to the basic SAR limit for RF exposure, it is essential to have a high accuracy of human modelling and numerical code. In this study, we made a detailed error analysis in the whole-body average SAR calculation for the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in conjunction with the perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundaries. We derived a basic rule for the PML employment based on a dielectric sphere and the Mie theory solution. We then attempted to clarify to what extent the whole-body average SAR may reach using an anatomically based Japanese adult model and a scaled child model. The results show that the whole-body average SAR under the ICNIRP reference level exceeds the basic safety limit nearly 30% for the child model both in the resonance frequency and 2 GHz band

  7. FDTD calculation of whole-body average SAR in adult and child models for frequencies from 30 MHz to 3 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jianqing [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Fujiwara, Osamu [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kodera, Sachiko [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Watanabe, Soichi [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Nukui-kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan)

    2006-09-07

    Due to the difficulty of the specific absorption rate (SAR) measurement in an actual human body for electromagnetic radio-frequency (RF) exposure, in various compliance assessment procedures the incident electric field or power density is being used as a reference level, which should never yield a larger whole-body average SAR than the basic safety limit. The relationship between the reference level and the whole-body average SAR, however, was established mainly based on numerical calculations for highly simplified human modelling dozens of years ago. Its validity is being questioned by the latest calculation results. In verifying the validity of the reference level with respect to the basic SAR limit for RF exposure, it is essential to have a high accuracy of human modelling and numerical code. In this study, we made a detailed error analysis in the whole-body average SAR calculation for the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in conjunction with the perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundaries. We derived a basic rule for the PML employment based on a dielectric sphere and the Mie theory solution. We then attempted to clarify to what extent the whole-body average SAR may reach using an anatomically based Japanese adult model and a scaled child model. The results show that the whole-body average SAR under the ICNIRP reference level exceeds the basic safety limit nearly 30% for the child model both in the resonance frequency and 2 GHz band.

  8. Streaming flow from ultrasound contrast agents by acoustic waves in a blood vessel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunjin; Chung, Sang Kug; Rhee, Kyehan

    2015-09-01

    To elucidate the effects of streaming flow on ultrasound contrast agent (UCA)-assisted drug delivery, streaming velocity fields from sonicated UCA microbubbles were measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a blood vessel model. At the beginning of ultrasound sonication, the UCA bubbles formed clusters and translated in the direction of the ultrasound field. Bubble cluster formation and translation were faster with 2.25MHz sonication, a frequency close to the resonance frequency of the UCA. Translation of bubble clusters induced streaming jet flow that impinged on the vessel wall, forming symmetric vortices. The maximum streaming velocity was about 60mm/s at 2.25MHz and decreased to 15mm/s at 1.0MHz for the same acoustic pressure amplitude. The effect of the ultrasound frequency on wall shear stress was more noticeable. Maximum wall shear stress decreased from 0.84 to 0.1Pa as the ultrasound frequency decreased from 2.25 to 1.0MHz. The maximum spatial gradient of the wall shear stress also decreased from 1.0 to 0.1Pa/mm. This study showed that streaming flow was induced by bubble cluster formation and translation and was stronger upon sonication by an acoustic wave with a frequency near the UCA resonance frequency. Therefore, the secondary radiant force, which is much stronger at the resonance frequency, should play an important role in UCA-assisted drug delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar Test for Sonic-Frequency Acoustic Velocity and Attenuation Measurements of Small, Isotropic Geologic Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, S.

    2011-04-01

    Mechanical properties (seismic velocities and attenuation) of geological materials are often frequency dependent, which necessitates measurements of the properties at frequencies relevant to a problem at hand. Conventional acoustic resonant bar tests allow measuring seismic properties of rocks and sediments at sonic frequencies (several kilohertz) that are close to the frequencies employed for geophysical exploration of oil and gas resources. However, the tests require a long, slender sample, which is often difficult to obtain from the deep subsurface or from weak and fractured geological formations. In this paper, an alternative measurement technique to conventional resonant bar tests is presented. This technique uses only a small, jacketed rock or sediment core sample mediating a pair of long, metal extension bars with attached seismic source and receiver - the same geometry as the split Hopkinson pressure bar test for large-strain, dynamic impact experiments. Because of the length and mass added to the sample, the resonance frequency of the entire system can be lowered significantly, compared to the sample alone. The experiment can be conducted under elevated confining pressures up to tens of MPa and temperatures above 100 C, and concurrently with x-ray CT imaging. The described Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar (SHRB) test is applied in two steps. First, extension and torsion-mode resonance frequencies and attenuation of the entire system are measured. Next, numerical inversions for the complex Young's and shear moduli of the sample are performed. One particularly important step is the correction of the inverted Young's moduli for the effect of sample-rod interfaces. Examples of the application are given for homogeneous, isotropic polymer samples and a natural rock sample.

  10. Resonant magneto-acoustic switching: influence of Rayleigh wave frequency and wavevector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuszewski, P.; Camara, I. S.; Biarrotte, N.; Becerra, L.; von Bardeleben, J.; Savero Torres, W.; Lemaître, A.; Gourdon, C.; Duquesne, J.-Y.; Thevenard, L.

    2018-06-01

    We show on in-plane magnetized thin films that magnetization can be switched efficiently by 180 degrees using large amplitude Rayleigh waves travelling along the hard or easy magnetic axis. Large characteristic filament-like domains are formed in the latter case. Micromagnetic simulations clearly confirm that this multi-domain configuration is compatible with a resonant precessional mechanism. The reversed domains are in both geometries several hundreds of , much larger than has been shown using spin transfer torque- or field-driven precessional switching. We show that surface acoustic waves can travel at least 1 mm before addressing a given area, and can interfere to create magnetic stripes that can be positioned with a sub-micronic precision.

  11. A Frequency-Domain Adaptive Filter (FDAF) Prediction Error Method (PEM) Framework for Double-Talk-Robust Acoustic Echo Cancellation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil-Cacho, Jose M.; van Waterschoot, Toon; Moonen, Marc

    2014-01-01

    to the FDAF-PEM-AFROW algorithm. We show that FDAF-PEM-AFROW is by construction related to the best linear unbiased estimate (BLUE) of the echo path. We depart from this framework to show an improvement in performance with respect to other adaptive filters minimizing the BLUE criterion, namely the PEM......In this paper, we propose a new framework to tackle the double-talk (DT) problem in acoustic echo cancellation (AEC). It is based on a frequency-domain adaptive filter (FDAF) implementation of the so-called prediction error method adaptive filtering using row operations (PEM-AFROW) leading...... regularization (VR) algorithms. The FDAF-PEM-AFROW versions significantly outperform the original versions in every simulation. In terms of computational complexity, the FDAF-PEM-AFROW versions are themselves about two orders of magnitude cheaper than the original versions....

  12. Blind source separation based on time-frequency morphological characteristics for rigid acoustic scattering by underwater objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Li, Xiukun

    2016-06-01

    Separation of the components of rigid acoustic scattering by underwater objects is essential in obtaining the structural characteristics of such objects. To overcome the problem of rigid structures appearing to have the same spectral structure in the time domain, time-frequency Blind Source Separation (BSS) can be used in combination with image morphology to separate the rigid scattering components of different objects. Based on a highlight model, the separation of the rigid scattering structure of objects with time-frequency distribution is deduced. Using a morphological filter, different characteristics in a Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD) observed for single auto term and cross terms can be simplified to remove any cross-term interference. By selecting time and frequency points of the auto terms signal, the accuracy of BSS can be improved. An experimental simulation has been used, with changes in the pulse width of the transmitted signal, the relative amplitude and the time delay parameter, in order to analyzing the feasibility of this new method. Simulation results show that the new method is not only able to separate rigid scattering components, but can also separate the components when elastic scattering and rigid scattering exist at the same time. Experimental results confirm that the new method can be used in separating the rigid scattering structure of underwater objects.

  13. Interpolation-Based Condensation Model Reduction Part 1: Frequency Window Reduction Method Application to Structural Acoustics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ingel, R

    1999-01-01

    .... Projection operators are employed for the model reduction or condensation process. Interpolation is then introduced over a user defined frequency window, which can have real and imaginary boundaries and be quite large. Hermitian...

  14. Experimental study on inter-particle acoustic forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Sabaté, Anna; Castro, Angélica; Hoyos, Mauricio; González-Cinca, Ricard

    2014-03-01

    A method for the experimental measurement of inter-particle forces (secondary Bjerknes force) generated by the action of an acoustic field in a resonator micro-channel is presented. The acoustic radiation force created by an ultrasonic standing wave moves suspended particles towards the pressure nodes and the acoustic pressure induces particle volume oscillations. Once particles are in the levitation plane, transverse and secondary Bjerknes forces become important. Experiments were carried out in a resonator filled with a suspension composed of water and latex particles of different size (5-15 μm) at different concentrations. Ultrasound was generated by means of a 2.5 MHz nominal frequency transducer. For the first time the acoustic force generated by oscillating particles acting on other particles has been measured, and the critical interaction distance in various cases has been determined. Inter-particle forces on the order of 10(-14) N have been measured by using this method.

  15. Vibro-acoustic Imaging at the Breazeale Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jewell, James Keith [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lee, James Edwin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The INL is developing Vibro-acoustic imaging technology to characterize microstructure in fuels and materials in spent fuel pools and within reactor vessels. A vibro-acoustic development laboratory has been established at the INL. The progress in developing the vibro-acoustic technology at the INL is the focus of this report. A successful technology demonstration was performed in a working TRIGA research reactor. Vibro-acoustic imaging was performed in the reactor pool of the Breazeale reactor in late September of 2015. A confocal transducer driven at a nominal 3 MHz was used to collect the 60 kHz differential beat frequency induced in a spent TRIGA fuel rod and empty gamma tube located in the main reactor water pool. Data was collected and analyzed with the INLDAS data acquisition software using a short time Fourier transform.

  16. BLAZAR SPECTRAL PROPERTIES AT 74 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F.; Funk, S. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Giroletti, M. [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Paggi, A.; D' Abrusco, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2013-10-01

    Blazars are the most extreme class of active galactic nuclei. Despite a previous investigation at 102 MHz for a small sample of BL Lac objects and our recent analysis of blazars detected in the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey, a systematic study of the blazar spectral properties at frequencies below 100 MHz has been never carried out. In this paper, we present the first analysis of the radio spectral behavior of blazars based on the recent Very Large Array Low-frequency Sky Survey (VLSS) at 74 MHz. We search for blazar counterparts in the VLSS catalog, confirming that they are detected at 74 MHz. We then show that blazars present radio-flat spectra (i.e., radio spectral indices of ∼0.5) when evaluated, which also about an order of magnitude in frequency lower than previous analyses. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings in the context of the blazars-radio galaxies connection since the low-frequency radio data provide a new diagnostic tool to verify the expectations of the unification scenario for radio-loud active galaxies.

  17. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF ACOUSTIC WAVE PARAMETERS NEAR SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina; Bogart, Richard S.; Scherrer, Philip H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to quantify the influence of magnetic fields on acoustic mode parameters and flows in and around active regions, we analyze the differences in the parameters in magnetically quiet regions nearby an active region (which we call “nearby regions”), compared with those of quiet regions at the same disk locations for which there are no neighboring active regions. We also compare the mode parameters in active regions with those in comparably located quiet regions. Our analysis is based on ring-diagram analysis of all active regions observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) during almost five years. We find that the frequency at which the mode amplitude changes from attenuation to amplification in the quiet nearby regions is around 4.2 mHz, in contrast to the active regions, for which it is about 5.1 mHz. This amplitude enhacement (the “acoustic halo effect”) is as large as that observed in the active regions, and has a very weak dependence on the wave propagation direction. The mode energy difference in nearby regions also changes from a deficit to an excess at around 4.2 mHz, but averages to zero over all modes. The frequency difference in nearby regions increases with increasing frequency until a point at which the frequency shifts turn over sharply, as in active regions. However, this turnover occurs around 4.9 mHz, which is significantly below the acoustic cutoff frequency. Inverting the horizontal flow parameters in the direction of the neigboring active regions, we find flows that are consistent with a model of the thermal energy flow being blocked directly below the active region.

  18. Feasibility of High Frequency Acoustic Imaging for Inspection of Containments: Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudzinsky, J.; Bondaryk, J.; Conti, M.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear power industry is concerned with corrosive thinning of portions of the metallic pressure boundary, particularly in areas that are not directly accessible for inspection. This study investigated the feasibility of detecting these thickness degradations using ultrasonic imaging. A commercial ultrasonic system was used to carry out several full-scale, controlled laboratory experiments. Measurements of 0.5 MHz shear wave levels propagated in 25-mm-thick steel plate embedded in concrete showed 1.4-1.6 dB of signal loss for each centimeter of two-way travel in the steel plate (compared to previous numerical predictions of 3-4 dB), and 1.3 dB of signal loss per centimeter of two-way travel in steel plates embedded in concrete prior to setting of the concrete (i.e., plastic). Negligible losses were measured in plates with a decoupling treatment applied between the steel and concrete to simulate the unbonded portions of the pressure boundary. Scattered signals from straight slots of different size and shape were investigated. The return from a 4-mm-deep rectangular slots exhibited levels 23 dB down relative to incidence and 4-6 dB higher than those obtained from both ''v'' shaped and rounded slots of similar depth. The system displayed an input/output dynamic range of 125 dB and measurement variability less than 1-2dB. Based on these results, a 4-mm-deep, rounded degradation embedded 30 cm in concrete has expected returns of -73dB relative to the input and should therefore be detectable. Results of this and a prior study indicate that the technique has merit and should be developed more fully and demonstrated in the field

  19. MIMO Underwater Acoustic Communications in Ports and Shallow Waters at Very High Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaultier Real

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hermes is a Single-Input Single-Output (SISO underwater acoustic modem that achieves very high-bit rate digital communications in ports and shallow waters. Here, the authors study the capability of Hermes to support Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO technology. A least-square channel estimation algorithm is used to evaluate multiple MIMO channel impulse responses at the receiver end. A deconvolution routine is used to separate the messages coming from different sources. This paper covers the performance of both the channel estimation and the MIMO deconvolution processes using either simulated data or field data. The MIMO equalization performance is measured by comparing three relative root mean-squared errors (RMSE, obtained by calculations between the source signal (a pseudo-noise sequence and the corresponding received MIMO signal at various stages of the deconvolution process; prior to any interference removal, at the output of the Linear Equalization (LE process and at the output of an interference cancellation process with complete a priori knowledge of the transmitted signal. Using the simulated data, the RMSE using LE is −20.5 dB (where 0 dB corresponds to 100% of relative error while the lower bound value is −33.4 dB. Using experimental data, the LE performance is −3.3 dB and the lower bound RMSE value is −27 dB.

  20. Cambridge observations at 38-115 MHz and their implications for space astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, R.

    1987-01-01

    The design and performance of the Cambridge LF telescopes are reviewed. Consideration is given to the 151-MHz 6C telescope, the 38-MHz and 151-MHz LF synthesis telescopes, 81.5-MHz interplanetary scintillation observations with the 3.6-hectare array, long-baseline interferometry at 81.5 MHz, and the use of the Jodrell Bank MERLIN for 151-MHz closure-phase observations of bright sources. The strict limitation on the field mappable at a given resolution in ground-based observations at these frequencies is pointed out, and some outstanding astronomical problems requiring 0.3-30-MHz space observations are listed. 7 references

  1. Laboratory investigation of the acoustic response of seagrass tissue in the frequency band 0.5-2.5 kHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Preston S; Dunton, Kenneth H

    2009-04-01

    Previous in situ investigations of seagrass have revealed acoustic phenomena that depend on plant density, tissue gas content, and free bubbles produced by photosynthetic activity, but corresponding predictive models that could be used to optimize acoustic remote sensing, shallow water sonar, and mine hunting applications have not appeared. To begin to address this deficiency, low frequency (0.5-2.5 kHz) acoustic laboratory experiments were conducted on three freshly collected Texas Gulf Coast seagrass species. A one-dimensional acoustic resonator technique was used to assess the biomass and effective acoustic properties of the leaves and rhizomes of Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass), Syringodium filiforme (manatee grass), and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). Independent biomass and gas content estimates were obtained via microscopic cross-section imagery. The acoustic results were compared to model predictions based on Wood's equation for a two-phase medium. The effective sound speed in the plant-filled resonator was strongly dependent on plant biomass, but the Wood's equation model (based on tissue gas content alone) could not predict the effective sound speed for the low irradiance conditions of the experiment, in which no free bubbles were generated by photosynthesis. The results corroborate previously published results obtained in situ for another seagrass species, Posidonia oceanica.

  2. Application of acoustic microscopy to assessment of cardiovascular biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Yoshifumi; Sasaki, Hidehiko; Nitta, Shin-ichi; Tanaka, Motonao; Joergensen, Claus S.; Falk, Erling

    2002-11-01

    Acoustic microscopy provides information on physical and mechanical properties of biological tissues, while optical microscopy with various staining techniques provides chemical properties. The biomechanics of tissues is especially important in cardiovascular system because its pathophysiology is closely related with mechanical stresses such as blood pressure or blood flow. A scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) system with tone-burst ultrasound in the frequency range of 100-200 MHz has been developed, and attenuation and sound speed of tissues have been measured. In human coronary arteries, attenuation and sound speed were high in calcification and collagen, while both values were low in smooth muscle and lipid. Another SAM system with 800-MHz-1.3-GHz ultrasound was applied for aortas of Apo-E deficient mouse, which is known to develop atherosclerosis. Attenuation of ultrasound was significantly higher in type 1 collagen compared to type 3 collagen. Recently, a new type FFT-SAM using a single-pulse, broadband frequency range ultrasound (20-150 MHz) has been developed. Cardiac allograft was observed by FFT-SAM and the acoustic properties were able to grade allograft rejection. SAM provides very useful information for assessing cardiovascular biomechanics and for understanding normal and abnormal images of clinical ultrasound.

  3. Time-domain simulation of constitutive relations for nonlinear acoustics including relaxation for frequency power law attenuation media modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Noé; Camarena, Francisco; Redondo, Javier; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2015-10-01

    We report a numerical method for solving the constitutive relations of nonlinear acoustics, where multiple relaxation processes are included in a generalized formulation that allows the time-domain numerical solution by an explicit finite differences scheme. Thus, the proposed physical model overcomes the limitations of the one-way Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) type models and, due to the Lagrangian density is implicitly included in the calculation, the proposed method also overcomes the limitations of Westervelt equation in complex configurations for medical ultrasound. In order to model frequency power law attenuation and dispersion, such as observed in biological media, the relaxation parameters are fitted to both exact frequency power law attenuation/dispersion media and also empirically measured attenuation of a variety of tissues that does not fit an exact power law. Finally, a computational technique based on artificial relaxation is included to correct the non-negligible numerical dispersion of the finite difference scheme, and, on the other hand, improve stability trough artificial attenuation when shock waves are present. This technique avoids the use of high-order finite-differences schemes leading to fast calculations. The present algorithm is especially suited for practical configuration where spatial discontinuities are present in the domain (e.g. axisymmetric domains or zero normal velocity boundary conditions in general). The accuracy of the method is discussed by comparing the proposed simulation solutions to one dimensional analytical and k-space numerical solutions.

  4. Calibration of acoustic emission transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leschek, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for calibrating an acoustic emission transducer to be used in a pre-set frequency range. The absolute reception sensitivity of a reference transducer is determined at frequencies selected within the frequency range. The reference transducer and the acoustic emission transducer are put into acoustic communication with the surface of a limited acoustic medium representing an equivalent acoustic load appreciably identical to that of the medium in which the use of the acoustic emission transducer is intended. A blank random acoustic noise is emitted in the acoustic medium in order to establish a diffuse and reverberating sound field, after which the output responses of the reference transducer and of the acoustic emission transducer are obtained with respect to the diffuse and reverberating field, for selected frequencies. The output response of the acoustic emission transducer is compared with that of the reference transducer for the selected frequencies, so as to determine the reception sensitivity of the acoustic emission transducer [fr

  5. Increase in effectiveness of low frequency acoustic liners by use of coupled Helmholtz resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, L. W.

    1977-01-01

    Coupling of Helmholtz resonators in a low-frequency absorber array was studied as a means for increasing the effectiveness for absorbing low-frequency core engine noise. The equations for the impedance of the coupled-resonator systems were developed in terms of uncoupled-resonator parameters, and the predicted impedance for a parallel-coupled scheme is shown to compare favorably with measurements from a test model. In addition, attenuation measurements made in a flow duct on test coupled-resonator panels are shown to compare favorably with predicted values. Finally, the parallel-coupled concept is shown to give significantly more attenuation than that of a typical uncoupled resonator array of the same total volume.

  6. Understanding and Utilizing Waveguide Invariant Range-frequency Striations in Ocean Acoustic Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    providing often- needed comic relief. Mike Benjamin for his career guidance and keeping LAMSS down-to-earth. Joe Curcio for being such a great travel...of about 1% due to receiver motion . Such a shift may cause range estimate errors of about 1%, which is negligible compared to the overall expected...most cases the Doppler effect due to source/receiver motion has little effect on range-frequency striations. It also brief y mentions how to account

  7. The prophylactic effect of vitamin C on induced oxidative stress in rat testis following exposure to 900 MHz radio frequency wave generated by a BTS antenna model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelodar, Gholamali; Nazifi, Saeed; Akbari, Abolfazl

    2013-09-01

    Radio frequency wave (RFW) generated by base transceiver station (BTS) has been reported to make deleterious effects on reproduction, possibly through oxidative stress. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of RFW generated by BTS on oxidative stress in testis and the prophylactic effect of vitamin C by measuring the antioxidant enzymes activity, including glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and malondialdehyde (MDA). Thirty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups and treated daily for 45 days as follows: sham, sham+vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid 200 mg/kg of body weight/day by gavage), RFW (exposed to 900 MHz RFW) 'sham' and 'RFW' animals were given the vehicle, i.e., distilled water and the RFW+vitamin C group (received vitamin C in addition to exposure to RFW). At the end of the experiment, all the rats were sacrificed and their testes were removed and used for measurement of antioxidant enzymes and MDA activity. The results indicate that exposure to RFW in the test group decreased antioxidant enzymes activity and increased MDA compared with the control groups (p < 0.05). In the treated group, vitamin C improved antioxidant enzymes activity and reduced MDA compared with the test group (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that RFW causes oxidative stress in testis and vitamin C improves the antioxidant enzymes activity and decreases MDA.

  8. Continuous measurements of suspended sediment loads using dual frequency acoustic Doppler profile signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Alessandro; Guerrero, Massimo; Rüther, Nils; Stokseth, Siri

    2016-04-01

    A huge thread to Hydropower plants (HPP) is incoming sediments in suspension from the rivers upstream. The sediments settle in the reservoir and reduce the effective head as well as the volume and reduce consequently the lifetime of the reservoir. In addition are the fine sediments causing severe damages to turbines and infrastructure of a HPP. For estimating the amount of in-coming sediments in suspension and the consequent planning of efficient counter measures, it is essential to monitor the rivers within the catchment of the HPP for suspended sediments. This work is considerably time consuming and requires highly educated personnel and is therefore expensive. Surrogate-indirect methods using acoustic and optic devices have bee developed since the last decades that may be efficiently applied for the continuous monitoring of suspended sediment loads. The presented study proposes therefore to establish a research station at a cross section of a river which is the main tributary to a reservoir of a HPP and equip this station with surrogate as well as with common method of measuring suspended load concentrations and related flow discharge and level. The logger at the research station delivers data automatically to a server. Therefore it is ensured that also large flood events are covered. Data during flood are of high interest to the HPP planners since they carried the most part of the sediment load in a hydrological year. Theses peaks can hardly be measured with common measurement methods. Preliminary results of the wet season 2015/2016 are presented. The data gives insight in the applicable range, in terms of scattering particles concentration-average size and corresponding flow discharge and level, eventually enabling the study of suspended sediment load-water flow correlations during peak events. This work is carried out as part of a larger research project on sustainable hydro power plants exposed to high sediment yield, SediPASS. SediPASS is funded by the

  9. Vibration and acoustic frequency spectra for industrial process modeling using selective fusion multi-condition samples and multi-source features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Qiao, Junfei; Wu, ZhiWei; Chai, Tianyou; Zhang, Jian; Yu, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Frequency spectral data of mechanical vibration and acoustic signals relate to difficult-to-measure production quality and quantity parameters of complex industrial processes. A selective ensemble (SEN) algorithm can be used to build a soft sensor model of these process parameters by fusing valued information selectively from different perspectives. However, a combination of several optimized ensemble sub-models with SEN cannot guarantee the best prediction model. In this study, we use several techniques to construct mechanical vibration and acoustic frequency spectra of a data-driven industrial process parameter model based on selective fusion multi-condition samples and multi-source features. Multi-layer SEN (MLSEN) strategy is used to simulate the domain expert cognitive process. Genetic algorithm and kernel partial least squares are used to construct the inside-layer SEN sub-model based on each mechanical vibration and acoustic frequency spectral feature subset. Branch-and-bound and adaptive weighted fusion algorithms are integrated to select and combine outputs of the inside-layer SEN sub-models. Then, the outside-layer SEN is constructed. Thus, "sub-sampling training examples"-based and "manipulating input features"-based ensemble construction methods are integrated, thereby realizing the selective information fusion process based on multi-condition history samples and multi-source input features. This novel approach is applied to a laboratory-scale ball mill grinding process. A comparison with other methods indicates that the proposed MLSEN approach effectively models mechanical vibration and acoustic signals.

  10. Low and high frequency asymptotics acoustic, electromagnetic and elastic wave scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Varadan, VK

    2013-01-01

    This volume focuses on asymptotic methods in the low and high frequency limits for the solution of scattering and propagation problems. Each chapter is pedagogical in nature, starting with the basic foundations and ending with practical applications. For example, using the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction, the canonical problem of edge diffraction is first solved and then used in solving the problem of diffraction by a finite crack. In recent times, the crack problem has been of much interest for its applications to Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of flaws in structural materials.

  11. Monitoring microbe-induced physical property changes using high-frequency acoustic waveform data: Toward the development of a microbial megascope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Kenneth Hurst [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of microbe generated gas bubbles in controlled, saturated sediment columns utilizing a novel technique involving acoustic wave propagation. Specifically, the effect of denitrifying bacteria on saturated flow conditions was evaluated in light of the stimulated production of N2 gas and the resulting plugging of the pore throats. The propagation of high frequency acoustic waves through the sediment columns was used to locate those regions in the column where gas accumulation occurred. Over a period of six weeks, regions of gas accumulation resulted in the attenuation of acoustic wave energies with the decreases in amplitude typically greater than one order of magnitude.

  12. Analog Fiber Optic Link with DC-100 MHz Bandwidth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, C. A; Girardi, P. G; Lohrmann, Dieter R

    2008-01-01

    An analog fiber optic link covering the frequency range from DC to 100 MHz was designed, constructed, and tested, in order to connect a 10 kA pulse current probe to oscilloscopes for oscillographing...

  13. Physically based method for measuring suspended-sediment concentration and grain size using multi-frequency arrays of acoustic-doppler profilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, David J.; Wright, Scott A.; Griffiths, Ronald; Dean, David

    2014-01-01

    As the result of a 12-year program of sediment-transport research and field testing on the Colorado River (6 stations in UT and AZ), Yampa River (2 stations in CO), Little Snake River (1 station in CO), Green River (1 station in CO and 2 stations in UT), and Rio Grande (2 stations in TX), we have developed a physically based method for measuring suspended-sediment concentration and grain size at 15-minute intervals using multifrequency arrays of acoustic-Doppler profilers. This multi-frequency method is able to achieve much higher accuracies than single-frequency acoustic methods because it allows removal of the influence of changes in grain size on acoustic backscatter. The method proceeds as follows. (1) Acoustic attenuation at each frequency is related to the concentration of silt and clay with a known grain-size distribution in a river cross section using physical samples and theory. (2) The combination of acoustic backscatter and attenuation at each frequency is uniquely related to the concentration of sand (with a known reference grain-size distribution) and the concentration of silt and clay (with a known reference grain-size distribution) in a river cross section using physical samples and theory. (3) Comparison of the suspended-sand concentrations measured at each frequency using this approach then allows theory-based calculation of the median grain size of the suspended sand and final correction of the suspended-sand concentration to compensate for the influence of changing grain size on backscatter. Although this method of measuring suspended-sediment concentration is somewhat less accurate than using conventional samplers in either the EDI or EWI methods, it is much more accurate than estimating suspended-sediment concentrations using calibrated pump measurements or single-frequency acoustics. Though the EDI and EWI methods provide the most accurate measurements of suspended-sediment concentration, these measurements are labor-intensive, expensive, and

  14. Speech task effects on acoustic measure of fundamental frequency in Cantonese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Estella P-M; Lam, Nina L-N

    2015-12-01

    Speaking fundamental frequency (F0) is a voice measure frequently used to document changes in vocal performance over time. Knowing the intra-subject variability of speaking F0 has implications on its clinical usefulness. The present study examined the speaking F0 elicited from three speech tasks in Cantonese-speaking children. The study also compared the variability of speaking F0 elicited from different speech tasks. Fifty-six vocally healthy Cantonese-speaking children (31 boys and 25 girls) aged between 7.0 and 10.11 years participated. For each child, speaking F0 was elicited using speech tasks at three linguistic levels (sustained vowel /a/ prolongation, reading aloud a sentence and passage). Two types of variability, within-session (trial-to-trial) and across-session (test-retest) variability, were compared across speech tasks. Significant differences in mean speaking F0 values were found between speech tasks. Mean speaking F0 value elicited from sustained vowel phonations was significantly higher than those elicited from the connected speech tasks. The variability of speaking F0 was higher in sustained vowel prolongation than that in connected speech. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recent advances in the use of acoustics across the frequency spectrum in the oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeroug, Smaine; Bose, Sandip

    2018-04-01

    Acoustics enjoys a wide array of applicability in the Oil and Gas industry. Signals with very low-frequencies (tens of Hertz) are routinely used on surface to image the earth subsurface delineating hydrocarbon reservoirs while signals with mid-frequencies (thousands of Hertz) to high-frequencies (hundreds of kilo Hertz) are used in deep boreholes to probe rock mechanical properties and evaluate completion hardware. This article reviews a few recent advances in these applications spanning both measurement concepts and processing and inversion approaches. Three applications are covered, going from high to low frequencies. The first relates to an ultrasonic imager deployed in open boreholes to probe the laminated structure of unconventional shale rock formations at depth of more than 3000 m. The imager yields rock compressional and shear wavespeed images as a function of depth and azimuth revealing a host of geomechanical manifestations of the borehole shape and near-wellbore region at an unprecedented centimetric spatial resolution. The quantitative images have bearing on rock strength and local stresses as they relate to the hydraulic fracturing of these shale formations. The second relates to the interpretation of the complex sonic response in a well cased with double steel strings cemented to the rock formation for the purpose of evaluating the integrity of the cement placed between the outer string and formation. Here, machine learning-based approaches are employed with training on modeling and experimental datasets to develop effective and wellsite diagnosis for the condition of the cement sheath. The third relates to the seismic imaging domain and the deployment of novel accelerometers added to hydrophones on marine seismic cables to capture the subsurface-reflected pressure signals and their spatial gradients. The combination of the two sensors provides the means to deghost the signal from the sea surface reflection, and more importantly, reconstruct the

  16. A numerical study on acoustic behavior in gas turbine combustor with acoustic resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, I Sun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2005-01-01

    Acoustic behavior in gas turbine combustor with acoustic resonator is investigated numerically by adopting linear acoustic analysis. Helmholtz-type resonator is employed as acoustic resonator to suppress acoustic instability passively. The tuning frequency of acoustic resonator is adjusted by varying its length. Through harmonic analysis, acoustic-pressure responses of chamber to acoustic excitation are obtained and the resonant acoustic modes are identified. Acoustic damping effect of acoustic resonator is quantified by damping factor. As the tuning frequency of acoustic resonator approaches the target frequency of the resonant mode to be suppressed, mode split from the original resonant mode to lower and upper modes appears and thereby complex patterns of acoustic responses show up. Considering mode split and damping effect as a function of tuning frequency, it is desirable to make acoustic resonator tuned to broad-band frequencies near the maximum frequency of those of the possible upper modes

  17. Droplet behaviour in an acoustic field: application to high frequency instability in liquid propellant rocket engines; Comportement de gouttes dans un champ acoustique: applications aux instabilites hautes-frequences dans les moteurs de fusees a ergols liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisneau, O.; Lecourt, R.; Grisch, F.; Orain, M.

    2002-07-01

    A setup has been developed at ONERA in the scope of studying interaction between calibrated droplets and a transversal acoustic wave in the scope of high frequency instabilities in liquid rocket engines. First, the setup has been checked acoustically by hot-wire anemometer and microphone. We present an analytical solution of the Stokes' droplet motion equation in an acoustic field. The trajectory equation can be split into three different parts: a sinusoidal part (negligible in liquid rocket engines), a transient part and a final mean position (only function of the loudspeaker characteristics but never reached). Some kind of vibrational breakup at low Weber's number has been observed using line-of-sight visualization of acoustic/droplet interactions. However, preponderant phenomena observed were jet oscillations and droplet coalescence. For ambient temperature, PLIF visualization has shown a coupling between the created vapor cylinder and the acoustic induced jet position. For hot temperature, some unsteady phenomena seem to appear but further processing are needed. (authors)

  18. Designing a fractal antenna of 2400 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Hamburger, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    The design of a fractal antenna with 2400 MHz of frequency has been studied. The fractal used is described by Waclaw Spierpi.ski. The initial figure, also known as seed, is divided using equilateral triangles with the aim of obtaining a perimeter similar to a meaningful portion of wave length. The use of λ to establish an ideal perimeter has reduced the radiation resistance. The adequate number of iterations needed to design the antenna is calculated based on λ. (author) [es

  19. MHD-model for low-frequency waves in a tokamak with toroidal plasma rotation and problem of existence of global geodesic acoustic modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhin, V. P.; Sorokina, E. A., E-mail: sorokina.ekaterina@gmail.com, E-mail: vilkiae@gmail.com; Ilgisonis, V. I. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Konovaltseva, L. V. [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A set of reduced linear equations for the description of low-frequency perturbations in toroidally rotating plasma in axisymmetric tokamak is derived in the framework of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The model suitable for the study of global geodesic acoustic modes (GGAMs) is designed. An example of the use of the developed model for derivation of the integral conditions for GGAM existence and of the corresponding dispersion relation is presented. The paper is dedicated to the memory of academician V.D. Shafranov.

  20. Imaging melanin cancer growth in-vivo using raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy (RSOM) at 50 MHz and 100 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Murad; Schwarz, Mathias; Soliman, Dominik; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-03-01

    We used raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy (RSOM) at 50 MHz, and at 100 MHz, to monitor tumor growth, and tumor angiogenesis, which is a central hallmark of cancer, in-vivo. In this study we compared the performance, and the effect of the 50 MHz, and the 100 MHz frequencies on the quality of the final image. The system is based on a reflection-mode implementation of RSOM. The detectors used are custom made, ultrawideband, and spherically focused. The use of such detectors enables light coupling from the same side as the detector, thus reflection-mode. Light is in turn coupled using a fiber bundle, and the detector is raster scanned in the xy-plane. Subsequently, to retrieve small features, the raw data are reconstructed using a multi-bandwidth, beamforming reconstruction algorithm. Comparison of the system performance at the different frequencies shows as expected a higher resolution in case of the 100 MHz detector compared to the 50 MHz. On the other hand the 50 MHz has a better SNR, can detect features from deeper layers, and has higher angular acceptance. Based on these characteristics the 50 MHz detector was mostly used. After comparing the performance we monitored the growth of B16F10 cells, melanin tumor, over the course of 9 days. We see correspondence between the optoacoustic measurements and the cryoslice validations. Additionally, in areas close to the tumor we see sprouting of new vessels, starting at day 4-5, which corresponds to tumor angiogenesis.

  1. Experimental observation of spontaneous depolarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering in side cores of a multicore fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Neisei; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro; Set, Sze Yun; Yamashita, Shinji

    2018-06-01

    Spontaneous depolarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering (GAWBS) was experimentally observed in one of the side cores of an uncoated multicore fiber (MCF). The frequency bandwidth in the side core was up to ∼400 MHz, which is 0.5 times that in the central core. The GAWBS spectrum of the side core of the MCF included intrinsic peaks, which had different acoustic resonance frequencies from those of the central core. In addition, the spontaneous depolarized GAWBS in the central/side core was unaffected by that in the other core. These results will lead to the development of polarization/phase modulators using an MCF.

  2. Shallow Water Acoustic Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where high-frequency acoustic scattering and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures...

  3. Seafloor roughness estimation employing bathymetric systems: An appraisal of the classification and characterization of high-frequency acoustic data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Haris, K.

    the seafloor. Under such situations, the employment of the soft computational techniques e.g., artificial neural networks (ANNs) are found to be suitable for seafloor acoustic data segmentation and classifications. Seafloor studies are carried out...

  4. Evaluation of acoustic resonance at branch section in main steam line. Part 2. Proposal of method for predicting resonance frequency in steam flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yuta; Morita, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    Flow-induced acoustic resonances of piping system containing closed side-branches are sometimes encountered in power plants. Acoustic standing waves with large amplitude pressure fluctuation in closed side-branches are excited by the unstable shear layer which separates the mean flow in the main piping from the stagnant fluid in the branch. In U.S. NPP, the steam dryer had been damaged by high cycle fatigue due to acoustic-induced vibration under a power uprating condition. Our previous research developed the method for evaluating the acoustic resonance at the branch sections in actual power plants by using CFD. In the method, sound speed in wet steam is evaluated by its theory on the assumption of homogeneous flow, although it may be different from practical sound speed in wet steam. So, it is necessary to consider and introduce the most suitable model of practical sound speed in wet steam. In addition, we tried to develop simplified prediction method of the amplitude and frequency of pressure fluctuation in wet steam flow. Our previous experimental research clarified that resonance amplitude of fluctuating pressure at the top of the branch in wet steam. However, the resonance frequency in steam condition could not be estimated by using theoretical equation as the end correction in steam condition and sound speed in wet steam is not clarified as same reason as CFD. Therefore, in this study, we tried to evaluate the end correction in each dry and wet steam and sound speed of wet steam from experimental results. As a result, method for predicting resonance frequency by using theoretical equation in each wet and dry steam condition was proposed. (author)

  5. Age group estimation in free-ranging African elephants based on acoustic cues of low-frequency rumbles

    OpenAIRE

    Stoeger, Angela S.; Zeppelzauer, Matthias; Baotic, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Animal vocal signals are increasingly used to monitor wildlife populations and to obtain estimates of species occurrence and abundance. In the future, acoustic monitoring should function not only to detect animals, but also to extract detailed information about populations by discriminating sexes, age groups, social or kin groups, and potentially individuals. Here we show that it is possible to estimate age groups of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) based on acoustic parameters extracte...

  6. Combined Electric and Acoustic Stimulation With Hearing Preservation: Effect of Cochlear Implant Low-Frequency Cutoff on Speech Understanding and Perceived Listening Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, René H; Davis, Timothy J; Sunderhaus, Linsey W; Menapace, Christine; Buck, Barbara; Crosson, Jillian; O'Neill, Lori; Beiter, Anne; Segel, Phil

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of electric and acoustic overlap for speech understanding in typical listening conditions using semidiffuse noise. This study used a within-subjects, repeated measures design including 11 experienced adult implant recipients (13 ears) with functional residual hearing in the implanted and nonimplanted ear. The aided acoustic bandwidth was fixed and the low-frequency cutoff for the cochlear implant (CI) was varied systematically. Assessments were completed in the R-SPACE sound-simulation system which includes a semidiffuse restaurant noise originating from eight loudspeakers placed circumferentially about the subject's head. AzBio sentences were presented at 67 dBA with signal to noise ratio varying between +10 and 0 dB determined individually to yield approximately 50 to 60% correct for the CI-alone condition with full CI bandwidth. Listening conditions for all subjects included CI alone, bimodal (CI + contralateral hearing aid), and bilateral-aided electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS; CI + bilateral hearing aid). Low-frequency cutoffs both below and above the original "clinical software recommendation" frequency were tested for all patients, in all conditions. Subjects estimated listening difficulty for all conditions using listener ratings based on a visual analog scale. Three primary findings were that (1) there was statistically significant benefit of preserved acoustic hearing in the implanted ear for most overlap conditions, (2) the default clinical software recommendation rarely yielded the highest level of speech recognition (1 of 13 ears), and (3) greater EAS overlap than that provided by the clinical recommendation yielded significant improvements in speech understanding. For standard-electrode CI recipients with preserved hearing, spectral overlap of acoustic and electric stimuli yielded significantly better speech understanding and less listening effort in a laboratory-based, restaurant

  7. Acoustic emission measurement during instrumented impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crostack, H.A.; Engelhardt, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    Results of instrumented impact tests are discussed. On the one hand the development of the loading process at the hammer tup was recorded by means of a piezoelectric transducer. This instrumentation supplied a better representation of the load versus time than the conventional strain gauges. On the other hand the different types of acoustic emission occurring during a test could be separated. The acoustic emission released at the impact of the hammer onto the specimen is of lower frequency and its spectrum is strongly decreasing with increasing frequency. Plastic deformation also emits signals of lower frequency that are of quasi-continuous character. Both signal types can be discriminated by filtering. As a consequence typical burst signal were received afterwards that can be correlated with crack propagation. Their spectra exhibit considerable portions up to about 1.9 MHz. The development in time of the burst signals points to the kind of crack propagation resp. its sequence of appearance. However, definitive comparison between load and acoustic emission should become possible, only when the disadvantages of the common load measurement can be reduced, e.g. by determining the load directly at the specimen instead of the hammer tup

  8. Extremely high Q-factor mechanical modes in quartz bulk acoustic wave resonators at millikelvin temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goryachev, M.; Creedon, D. L.; Ivanov, E. N.; Tobar, M. E. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia); Galliou, S.; Bourquin, R. [Department of Time and Frequency, FEMTO-ST Institute, ENSMM, 26 Chemin de l' Épitaphe, 25000, Besançon (France)

    2014-12-04

    We demonstrate that Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) quartz resonator cooled down to millikelvin temperatures are excellent building blocks for hybrid quantum systems with extremely long coherence times. Two overtones of the longitudinal mode at frequencies of 15.6 and 65.4 MHz demonstrate a maximum f.Q product of 7.8×10{sup 16} Hz. With this result, the Q-factor in such devices near the quantum ground state can be four orders of magnitude better than previously attained in other mechanical systems. Tested quartz resonators possess the ultra low acoustic losses crucial for electromagnetic cooling to the phonon ground state.

  9. Control of synchrotron x-ray diffraction by means of standing acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotoyabko, E.; Quintana, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements in quartz crystals of different thickness excited by standing acoustic waves were carried out at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Laboratory. We demonstrated the ability to significantly modify the quartz rocking curves for 20-25 keV x rays by changing the shear wave parameters in the frequency range between 15 and 105 MHz. Dynamic deformation introduced into the crystal lattice by acoustic waves resulted in a remarkable broadening of the rocking curves. The broadening effect strongly depends on the strength of the ultrasound, which can be easily regulated by changing the acoustic amplitude or frequency near the resonance. The maximum rocking curve broadening reached 17 times, which corresponds to the wavelength band, Δλ/λ=4x10 -3 , when used as a monochromator or analyzer for 20-25 keV x rays. The initial rocking curve shape is restored by sweeping the acoustic frequency within a 50-100 kHz range near the resonance. The tunable broadening effect allows effective manipulation of x-ray intensities in time domain. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction measurements under a 19.6 MHz acoustic wave excitation were performed by synchronizing the acoustic wave and x-ray burst periodicity. We used the fact that twice per period the standing wave produces a zero net deformation across the crystal thickness. By introducing an oscillating delay to the acoustic excitation, we were able to effectively change the phase of the acoustic wave relative to the x-ray burst periodicity. The x-ray diffraction intensity was strongly affected by tuning the timing of the x-ray arrivals to the minimum or maximum acoustic deformation. A deep modulation of x rays was observed in a wide frequency range between 0.1 Hz and 1 MHz, which certifies that acoustically excited quartz crystals can potentially be used as slow and fast x-ray modulators with high duty cycle

  10. Detecting vocal fatigue in student singers using acoustic measures of mean fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, and harmonics-to-noise ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisakun, Siphan

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the ability of four acoustic parameters, mean fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, and harmonics-to-noise ratio, to detect vocal fatigue in student singers. The participants are 15 voice students, who perform two distinct tasks, data collection task and vocal fatiguing task. The data collection task includes the sustained vowel /a/, reading a standard passage, and self-rate on a vocal fatigue form. The vocal fatiguing task is the vocal practice of musical scores for a total of 45 minutes. The four acoustic parameters are extracted using the software EZVoicePlus. The data analyses are performed to answer eight research questions. The first four questions relate to correlations of the self-rating scale and each of the four parameters. The next four research questions relate to differences in the parameters over time using one-factor repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The result yields a proposed acoustic profile of vocal fatigue in student singers. This profile is characterized by increased fundamental frequency; slightly decreased jitter; slightly decreased shimmer; and slightly increased harmonics-to-noise ratio. The proposed profile requires further investigation.

  11. Actuation of atomic force microscopy microcantilevers using contact acoustic nonlinearities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torello, D.; Degertekin, F. Levent, E-mail: levent.degertekin@me.gatech.edu [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    A new method of actuating atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers is proposed in which a high frequency (>5 MHz) wave modulated by a lower frequency (∼300 kHz) wave passes through a contact acoustic nonlinearity at the contact interface between the actuator and the cantilever chip. The nonlinearity converts the high frequency, modulated signal to a low frequency drive signal suitable for actuation of tapping-mode AFM probes. The higher harmonic content of this signal is filtered out mechanically by the cantilever transfer function, providing for clean output. A custom probe holder was designed and constructed using rapid prototyping technologies and off-the-shelf components and was interfaced with an Asylum Research MFP-3D AFM, which was then used to evaluate the performance characteristics with respect to standard hardware and linear actuation techniques. Using a carrier frequency of 14.19 MHz, it was observed that the cantilever output was cleaner with this actuation technique and added no significant noise to the system. This setup, without any optimization, was determined to have an actuation bandwidth on the order of 10 MHz, suitable for high speed imaging applications. Using this method, an image was taken that demonstrates the viability of the technique and is compared favorably to images taken with a standard AFM setup.

  12. Acoustic biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2016-06-30

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  13. In-situ optical and acoustical measurements of the buoyant cyanobacterium p. Rubescens: spatial and temporal distribution patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmar Hofmann

    Full Text Available Optical (fluorescence and acoustic in-situ techniques were tested in their ability to measure the spatial and temporal distribution of plankton in freshwater ecosystems with special emphasis on the harmful and buoyant cyanobacterium P. rubescens. Fluorescence was measured with the multi-spectral FluoroProbe (Moldaenke FluoroProbe, MFP and a Seapoint Chlorophyll Fluorometer (SCF. In-situ measurements of the acoustic backscatter strength (ABS were conducted with three different acoustic devices covering multiple acoustic frequencies (614 kHz ADCP, 2 MHz ADP, and 6 MHz ADV. The MFP provides a fast and reliable technique to measure fluorescence at different wavelengths in situ, which allows discriminating between P. rubescens and other phytoplankton species. All three acoustic devices are sensitive to P. rubescens even if other scatterers, e.g., zooplankton or suspended sediment, are present in the water column, because P. rubescens containing gas vesicles has a strong density difference and hence acoustic contrast to the ambient water and other scatterers. After calibration, the combination of optical and acoustical measurements not only allows qualitative and quantitative observation of P. rubescens, but also distinction between P. rubescens, other phytoplankton, and zooplankton. As the measuring devices can sample in situ at high rates they enable assessment of plankton distributions at high temporal (minutes and spatial (decimeters resolution or covering large temporal (seasonal and spatial (basin scale scales.

  14. Acoustic manipulation of bacteria cells suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    GutiéRrez-Ramos, Salomé; Hoyos, Mauricio; Aider, Jean Luc; Ruiz, Carlos; Acoustofluidics Team Team; Soft; Bio Group Collaboration

    An acoustic contacless manipulation gives advantages in the exploration of the complex dynamics enviroment that active matter exhibits. Our works reports the control confinement and dispersion of Escherichia coliRP437-pZA3R-YFP suspensions (M9Glu-Ca) via acoustic levitation.The manipulation of the bacteria bath in a parallel plate resonator is achieved using the acoustic radiation force and the secondary radiation force. The primary radiation force generates levitation of the bacteria cells at the nodal plane of the ultrasonic standing wave generated inside the resonator. On the other side, secondary forces leads to the consolidation of stable aggregates. All the experiments were performed in the acoustic trap described, where we excite the emission plate with a continuous sinusoidal signal at a frequency in the order of MHz and a quartz slide as the reflector plate. In a typical experiment we observed that, before the input of the signal, the bacteria cells exhibit their typical run and tumble behavior and after the sound is turned on all of them displace towards the nodal plane, and instantaneously the aggregation begins in this region. CNRS French National Space Studies, CONACYT Mexico.

  15. A study of acoustic halos in active region NOAA 11330 using multi-height SDO observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, S. C.; Jain, K.; Kholikov, S.; Hill, F.; Rajaguru, S. P.; Cally, P. S.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze data from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to characterize the spatio-temporal acoustic power distribution in active regions as a function of the height in the solar atmosphere. For this, we use Doppler velocity and continuum intensity observed using the magnetically sensitive line at 6173 Å as well as intensity at 1600 Å and 1700 Å. We focus on the power enhancements seen around AR 11330 as a function of wave frequency, magnetic field strength, field inclination and observation height. We find that acoustic halos occur above the acoustic cutoff frequency and extends up to 10 mHz in HMI Doppler and AIA 1700 Å observations. Halos are also found to be strong functions of magnetic field and their inclination angle. We further calculate and examine the spatially averaged relative phases and cross-coherence spectra and find different wave characteristics at different heights.

  16. Heat transfer enhancement using 2MHz ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulliard-Sauret, Odin; Ferrouillat, Sebastien; Vignal, Laure; Memponteil, Alain; Gondrexon, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    The present work focuses on possible heat transfer enhancement from a heating plate towards tap water in forced convection by means of 2MHz ultrasound. The thermal approach allows to observe the increase of local convective heat transfer coefficients in the presence of ultrasound and to deduce a correlation between ultrasound power and Nusselt number. Heat transfer coefficient under ultrasound remains constant while heat transfer coefficient under silent conditions increases with Reynolds number from 900 up to 5000. Therefore, heat transfer enhancement factor ranges from 25% up to 90% for the same energy conditions (supplied ultrasonic power=110W and supplied thermal power=450W). In the same time cavitational activity due to 2MHz ultrasound emission was characterized from mechanical and chemical viewpoints without significant results. At least, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements have been performed in order to investigate hydrodynamic modifications due to the presence of 2MHz ultrasound. It was therefore possible to propose a better understanding of heat transfer enhancement mechanism with high frequency ultrasound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Misure in laboratorio di acustica edilizia a bassa frequenza: un approccio modale - Laboratory measurements of building acoustics at low frequency: a modal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Prato

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nei tipici ambienti ordinari e di laboratorio (40-80 m3 e a bassa frequenza (50-100 Hz, il campo acustico risulta non diffuso a causa della presenza dei modi. In tali condizioni, le misure classiche di acustica edilizia (isolamento acustico per via aerea e da impatto, tempi di riverbera-zione sono inadeguate per caratterizzare correttamente le proprietà acustiche di partizioni, si-stemi di pavimentazioni e spazi chiusi. L’approccio modale permette di valutare tali proprietà studiando il comportamento dei modi. Sulla base di ciò, appropriate procedure di misura e nuovi descrittori sono proposti e discussi in modo da fornire possibili soluzioni per tali problematiche. ------ In typical laboratory and ordinary rooms (40-80 m3 and at low frequencies (50-100 Hz, the acoustic field is non-diffuse due to the presence of room modes. Under such conditions, standard building acoustics measurements (airborne and impact sound insulation, reverberation time and descriptors are not adequate to correctly characterize the acoustic property of partitions, flooring systems and rooms. The modal approach allows to evaluate such properties by studying the behavior of modes. On the basis of this, proper measurement procedures and new descriptors are proposed and discussed in order to provide possible solutions for such issues.

  18. A computational modeling approach of the jet-like acoustic streaming and heat generation induced by low frequency high power ultrasonic horn reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Francisco Javier; Knoerzer, Kai

    2011-11-01

    High power ultrasound reactors have gained a lot of interest in the food industry given the effects that can arise from ultrasonic-induced cavitation in liquid foods. However, most of the new food processing developments have been based on empirical approaches. Thus, there is a need for mathematical models which help to understand, optimize, and scale up ultrasonic reactors. In this work, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to predict the acoustic streaming and induced heat generated by an ultrasonic horn reactor. In the model it is assumed that the horn tip is a fluid inlet, where a turbulent jet flow is injected into the vessel. The hydrodynamic momentum rate of the incoming jet is assumed to be equal to the total acoustic momentum rate emitted by the acoustic power source. CFD velocity predictions show excellent agreement with the experimental data for power densities higher than W(0)/V ≥ 25kWm(-3). This model successfully describes hydrodynamic fields (streaming) generated by low-frequency-high-power ultrasound. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of ultrasound power on acoustic streaming and micro-bubbles formations in a low frequency sono-reactor: mathematical and 3D computational simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Baharak; Raman, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2015-05-01

    This paper aims at investigating the influence of ultrasound power amplitude on liquid behaviour in a low-frequency (24 kHz) sono-reactor. Three types of analysis were employed: (i) mechanical analysis of micro-bubbles formation and their activities/characteristics using mathematical modelling. (ii) Numerical analysis of acoustic streaming, fluid flow pattern, volume fraction of micro-bubbles and turbulence using 3D CFD simulation. (iii) Practical analysis of fluid flow pattern and acoustic streaming under ultrasound irradiation using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). In mathematical modelling, a lone micro bubble generated under power ultrasound irradiation was mechanistically analysed. Its characteristics were illustrated as a function of bubble radius, internal temperature and pressure (hot spot conditions) and oscillation (pulsation) velocity. The results showed that ultrasound power significantly affected the conditions of hotspots and bubbles oscillation velocity. From the CFD results, it was observed that the total volume of the micro-bubbles increased by about 4.95% with each 100 W-increase in power amplitude. Furthermore, velocity of acoustic streaming increased from 29 to 119 cm/s as power increased, which was in good agreement with the PIV analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Continuous micro-vortex-based nanoparticle manipulation via focused surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Han, Jongyoon; Ai, Ye

    2016-12-20

    Despite increasing demand in the manipulation of nanoscale objects for next generation biological and industrial processes, there is a lack of methods for reliable separation, concentration and purification of nanoscale objects. Acoustic methods have proven their utility in contactless manipulation of microscale objects mainly relying on the acoustic radiation effect, though the influence of acoustic streaming has typically prevented manipulation at smaller length scales. In this work, however, we explicitly take advantage of the strong acoustic streaming in the vicinity of a highly focused, high frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) beam emanating from a series of focused 6 μm substrate wavelength interdigital transducers patterned on a piezoelectric lithium niobate substrate and actuated with a 633 MHz sinusoidal signal. This streaming field serves to focus fluid streamlines such that incoming particles interact with the acoustic field similarly regardless of their initial starting positions, and results in particle displacements that would not be possible with a travelling acoustic wave force alone. This streaming-induced manipulation of nanoscale particles is maximized with the formation of micro-vortices that extend the width of the microfluidic channel even with the imposition of a lateral flow, occurring when the streaming-induced flow velocities are an order of magnitude larger than the lateral one. We make use of this acoustic streaming to demonstrate the continuous and differential focusing of 100 nm, 300 nm and 500 nm particles.

  1. Mechanisms of CFR composites destruction studying with pulse acoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronyuk, Y. S.; Morokov, E. S.; Levin, V. M.; Ryzhova, T. B.; Chernov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    Non-destructive inspection of carbon-fiber-reinforced (CFR) composites applied in aerospace industry attracts a wide attention. In the paper, high frequency focused ultrasound (50-100 MHz) has been applied to study the bulk microstructure of the CFR material and mechanisms of its destruction under the mechanical loading. It has been shown impulse acoustic microscopy provides detecting the areas of adhesion loss at millimeter and micron level. Behavior of the CFR laminate structure fabricated by prepreg or infusion technology has been investigated under the tensile and impact loading.

  2. Interior acoustic cloak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Akl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic cloaks have traditionally been intended to externally surround critical objects to render these objects acoustically invisible. However, in this paper, the emphasis is placed on investigating the application of the acoustic cloaks to the interior walls of acoustic cavities in an attempt to minimize the noise levels inside these cavities. In this manner, the acoustic cloaks can serve as a viable and efficient alternative to the conventional passive noise attenuation treatments which are invariably heavy and bulky. The transformation acoustics relationships that govern the operation of this class of interior acoustic cloaks are presented. Physical insights are given to relate these relationships to the reasons behind the effectiveness of the proposed interior acoustic cloaks. Finite element models are presented to demonstrate the characteristics of interior acoustic cloaks used in treating the interior walls of circular and square cavities both in the time and frequency domains. The obtained results emphasize the effectiveness of the proposed interior cloaks in eliminating the reflections of the acoustic waves from the walls of the treated cavities and thereby rendering these cavities acoustically quiet. It is important to note here that the proposed interior acoustic cloaks can find applications in acoustic cavities such as aircraft cabins and auditoriums as well as many other critical applications.

  3. Standard-target calibration of an acoustic backscatter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Kenneth G.; Martini, Marinna A.

    2010-01-01

    The standard-target method used to calibrate scientific echo sounders and other scientific sonars by a single, solid elastic sphere is being adapted to acoustic backscatter (ABS) systems. Its first application, to the AQUAscat 1000, is described. The on-axis sensitivity and directional properties of transducer beams at three operating frequencies, nominally 1, 2.5, and 4 MHz, have been determined using a 10-mm-diameter sphere of tungsten carbide with 6% cobalt binder. Preliminary results are reported for the 1-MHz transducer. Their application to measurements of suspended sediment made in situ with the same device is described. This will enable the data to be expressed directly in physical units of volume backscattering.

  4. Anatomy of a turbidity current: Concentration and grain size structure of a deep-sea flow revealed by multiple-frequency acoustic profilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, S.; Parsons, D. R.; Paull, C. K.; Barry, J.; Chaffey, M. R.; Gwiazda, R.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Maier, K. L.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Turbidity currents are responsible for transporting large volumes of sediment to the deep ocean, yet remain poorly understood due to the limited number of field observations of these episodic, high energy events. As part of the Monterey Coordinated Canyon Experiment high resolution, sub-minute acoustic velocity and backscatter profiles were acquired with downward-looking acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) distributed along the canyon on moorings at depths ranging from 270 to 1,900 m over a period of 18 months. Additionally, three upward-looking ADCPs on different frequencies (300, 600 and 1200 kHz) profiled the water column above a seafloor instrument node (SIN) at 1850 m water depth. Traps on the moorings collected sediment carried by the flows at different heights above the seafloor and sediment cores were taken to determine the depositional record produced by the flows. Several sediment-laden turbidity flows were observed during the experiment, three of which ran out for more than 50 km to water depths of greater than 1,900 m and were observed on all of the moorings. Flow speeds of up to 6 m/s were observed and individual moorings, anchored by railroad wheels, moved up to 7.8 km down-canyon during these powerful events. We present results based on a novel analysis of the multiple-frequency acoustic data acquired by the ADCPs at the SIN integrated with grain size data from the sediment traps, close to the deepest mooring in the array where the flow thickened to the 70 m height of the ADCP above the bed. The analysis allows, for the first time, retrieval of the suspended sediment concentration and vertical distribution of grain size structure within a turbidity in spectacular detail. The details of the stratification and flow dynamics will be used to re-evaluate and discuss our existing models for these deep-sea flows.

  5. Marble Ageing Characterization by Acoustic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudani, Mohamed El; Wilkie-Chancellier, Nicolas; Martinez, Loïc; Hébert, Ronan; Rolland, Olivier; Forst, Sébastien; Vergès-Belmin, Véronique; Serfaty, Stéphane

    In cultural heritage, statue marble characterization by acoustic waves is a well-known non-destructive method. Such investigations through the statues by time of flight method (TOF) point out sound speeds decrease with ageing. However for outdoor stored statues as the ones in the gardens of Chateau de Versailles, ageing affects mainly the surface of the Carrara marble. The present paper proposes an experimental study of the marble acoustic properties variations during accelerated laboratory ageing. The surface degradation of the marble is reproduced in laboratory for 29 mm thick marble samples by using heating/cooling thermal cycles on one face of a marble plate. Acoustic waves are generated by 1 MHz central frequency contact transducers excited by a voltage pulse placed on both sides of the plate. During the ageing and by using ad hoc transducers, the marble samples are characterized in transmission, along their volume by shear, compressional TOF measurements and along their surface by Rayleigh waves measurements. For Rayleigh waves, both TOF by transducers and laser vibrometry methods are used to detect the Rayleigh wave. The transmission measurements point out a deep decrease of the waves speeds in conjunction with a dramatic decrease of the maximum frequency transmitted. The marble acts as a low pass filter whose characteristic frequency cut decreases with ageing. This pattern occurs also for the Rayleigh wave surface measurements. The speed change in conjunction with the bandwidth translation is shown to be correlated to the material de-structuration during ageing. With a similar behavior but reversed in time, the same king of phenomena have been observed trough sol-gel materials during their structuration from liquid to solid state (Martinez, L. et all (2004). "Chirp-Z analysis for sol-gel transition monitoring". Ultrasonics, 42(1), 507-510.). A model is proposed to interpret the acoustical measurements

  6. Influence of different frequencies and insertion depths on the diagnostic accuracy of liver elastography by acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potthoff, Andrej, E-mail: potthoff.andrej@mh-hannover.de [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Attia, Dina; Pischke, Sven; Kirschner, Janina; Mederacke, Ingmar; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Manns, Michael P.; Gebel, Michael J.; Rifai, Kinan [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Background: Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging (ARFI) is an innovative elastography for staging of liver fibrosis. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of different probes to perform ARFI at different insertion depths. Methods: In a prospective study, 89 chronic HCV infected patients underwent ARFI elastography using both available probes (c-ARFI: C4-1-MHz; l-ARFI: L9-4 MHz) in comparison to Fibroscan{sup ®}. Variability of ARFI elastography at different insertion depths was systematically evaluated in 39 patients (44%). According to Fibroscan{sup ®} elastography, 32 patients (36%) presented with liver cirrhosis, 23 patients (26%) had significant fibrosis and 34 patients (38%) had no significant fibrosis. Results: Mean propagation velocity with c-ARFI was 1.70 ± 0.67 m/s and 1.91 ± 0.87 m/s with l-ARFI. Results of both probes were correlated to each other (p < 0.001; r = 0.70) and to Fibroscan{sup ®} (p < 0.001, r = 0.82 and 0.84, respectively). In patients with significant fibrosis or with cirrhosis, mean values by l-ARFI were significantly higher than by c-ARFI (p < 0.001). For detection of liver cirrhosis, AUROC was 0.97 for c-ARFI (cut-off level 1.72 m/s) and 0.90 for l-ARFI (cut-off 2.04 m/s). Correlation coefficients of c-ARFI with Fibroscan{sup ®} were highest at an insertion depth of 5–6 cm (r = 0.882 and 0.864, respectively, p < 0.001) and at 3–4 cm for l-ARFI (r = 0.850 and 0.838, respectively, p < 0.001). Conclusions: ARFI elastography with the linear and with the convex probes showed comparable validity and accuracy in the estimation of liver stiffness. The linear probe gave higher ARFI values. The most accurate insertion depth was 5–6 cm for c-ARFI and 3–4 cm for l-ARFI indicating that measurements should not be performed close to the liver capsule.

  7. Investigation of power and frequency for 3D conformal MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy with a dual frequency multi-element transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'djin, William Apoutou; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Transurethral ultrasound therapy uses real-time magnetic resonance (MR) temperature feedback to enable the 3D control of thermal therapy accurately in a region within the prostate. Previous canine studies showed the feasibility of this method in vivo. The aim of this study was to reduce the procedure time, while maintaining targeting accuracy, by investigating new combinations of treatment parameters. Simulations and validation experiments in gel phantoms were used, with a collection of nine 3D realistic target prostate boundaries obtained from previous preclinical studies, where multi-slice MR images were acquired with the transurethral device in place. Acoustic power and rotation rate were varied based on temperature feedback at the prostate boundary. Maximum acoustic power and rotation rate were optimised interdependently, as a function of prostate radius and transducer operating frequency. The concept of dual frequency transducers was studied, using the fundamental frequency or the third harmonic component depending on the prostate radius. Numerical modelling enabled assessment of the effects of several acoustic parameters on treatment outcomes. The range of treatable prostate radii extended with increasing power, and tended to narrow with decreasing frequency. Reducing the frequency from 8 MHz to 4 MHz or increasing the surface acoustic power from 10 to 20 W/cm(2) led to treatment times shorter by up to 50% under appropriate conditions. A dual frequency configuration of 4/12 MHz with 20 W/cm(2) ultrasound intensity exposure can treat entire prostates up to 40 cm(3) in volume within 30 min. The interdependence between power and frequency may, however, require integrating multi-parametric functions in the controller for future optimisations.

  8. Low frequency sound field control in rectangular listening rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce sound transmission to neighbor rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Sound reproduction is often taking place in small and medium sized rectangular rooms. As rectangular rooms have 3 pairs of parallel walls the reflections at especially low frequencies will cause up to 30 dB spatial variations of the sound pressure level in the room. This will take place not only...... at resonance frequencies, but more or less at all frequencies. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) has been developed and is able to create a homogeneous sound field in the whole room at low frequencies by proper placement of multiple loudspeakers. A normal setup...... from the rear wall, and thereby leaving only the plane wave in the room. With a room size of (7.8 x 4.1 x 2.8) m. it is possible to prevent modal frequencies up to 100 Hz. An investigation has shown that the sound transmitted to a neighbour room also will be reduced if CABS is used. The principle...

  9. Fundamentals of Acoustics. Psychoacoustics and Hearing. Acoustical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.; Ahumada, Al (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    These are 3 chapters that will appear in a book titled "Building Acoustical Design", edited by Charles Salter. They are designed to introduce the reader to fundamental concepts of acoustics, particularly as they relate to the built environment. "Fundamentals of Acoustics" reviews basic concepts of sound waveform frequency, pressure, and phase. "Psychoacoustics and Hearing" discusses the human interpretation sound pressure as loudness, particularly as a function of frequency. "Acoustic Measurements" gives a simple overview of the time and frequency weightings for sound pressure measurements that are used in acoustical work.

  10. Nonlinear acoustics determination of phase characteristics of PVDF membrane hydrophones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomfield, Philip E; Lewin, Peter A; Gandhi, Gaurav

    2011-01-01

    When an ultrasonic pressure wave propagates through a nonlinear medium, the relative phasing of the generated harmonics causes a distinct asymmetry between the positive and negative pressure levels and between the rise and fall time of examined waveforms. A faithful quantitative reproduction of the source transducer's pressure field requires amplitude and phase measurements by calibrated hydrophone probes. Nonlinear hydrophone calibration provides amplitude and phase information at discrete multiples of an acoustic source's fundamental frequency. Two PVDF bilaminar membrane hydrophones were first calibrated in terms of their amplitude sensitivity to the pressure levels generated by two different HIFU (High Intensity Focused Ultrasound) circular source transducers operating at 5 MHz and 10 MHz, enabling phase studies up to 105 and 100 MHz, respectively. Introducing two newly-developed phase-dispersion representations, the phase responses of the two membrane hydrophones were determined with respect to the phase of the complex frequency response extracted from the nonlinear field simulated by a semi-empirical computer model which predicts the near and the far field pressure distributions. These phase differences compared favorably with the results obtained from the commercially available PiezoCAD simulation model. The protocol for specifying the complex pressure field of source transducers through measurements using the calibrated hydrophones is described. The results obtained indicate that the membranes exhibit close to linear decay of phase against the frequency.

  11. Nonlinear acoustics determination of phase characteristics of PVDF membrane hydrophones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomfield, Philip E; Lewin, Peter A; Gandhi, Gaurav, E-mail: bloomfpe@drexel.edu [Drexel University School of Biomedical Engineering, Science, and Health Systems, Philadelphia, PA 19104-2875 (United States)

    2011-02-01

    When an ultrasonic pressure wave propagates through a nonlinear medium, the relative phasing of the generated harmonics causes a distinct asymmetry between the positive and negative pressure levels and between the rise and fall time of examined waveforms. A faithful quantitative reproduction of the source transducer's pressure field requires amplitude and phase measurements by calibrated hydrophone probes. Nonlinear hydrophone calibration provides amplitude and phase information at discrete multiples of an acoustic source's fundamental frequency. Two PVDF bilaminar membrane hydrophones were first calibrated in terms of their amplitude sensitivity to the pressure levels generated by two different HIFU (High Intensity Focused Ultrasound) circular source transducers operating at 5 MHz and 10 MHz, enabling phase studies up to 105 and 100 MHz, respectively. Introducing two newly-developed phase-dispersion representations, the phase responses of the two membrane hydrophones were determined with respect to the phase of the complex frequency response extracted from the nonlinear field simulated by a semi-empirical computer model which predicts the near and the far field pressure distributions. These phase differences compared favorably with the results obtained from the commercially available PiezoCAD simulation model. The protocol for specifying the complex pressure field of source transducers through measurements using the calibrated hydrophones is described. The results obtained indicate that the membranes exhibit close to linear decay of phase against the frequency.

  12. Nonlinear acoustics determination of phase characteristics of PVDF membrane hydrophones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Philip E.; Gandhi, Gaurav; Lewin, Peter A.

    2011-02-01

    When an ultrasonic pressure wave propagates through a nonlinear medium, the relative phasing of the generated harmonics causes a distinct asymmetry between the positive and negative pressure levels and between the rise and fall time of examined waveforms. A faithful quantitative reproduction of the source transducer's pressure field requires amplitude and phase measurements by calibrated hydrophone probes. Nonlinear hydrophone calibration provides amplitude and phase information at discrete multiples of an acoustic source's fundamental frequency. Two PVDF bilaminar membrane hydrophones were first calibrated in terms of their amplitude sensitivity to the pressure levels generated by two different HIFU (High Intensity Focused Ultrasound) circular source transducers operating at 5 MHz and 10 MHz, enabling phase studies up to 105 and 100 MHz, respectively. Introducing two newly-developed phase-dispersion representations, the phase responses of the two membrane hydrophones were determined with respect to the phase of the complex frequency response extracted from the nonlinear field simulated by a semi-empirical computer model which predicts the near and the far field pressure distributions. These phase differences compared favorably with the results obtained from the commercially available PiezoCAD simulation model. The protocol for specifying the complex pressure field of source transducers through measurements using the calibrated hydrophones is described. The results obtained indicate that the membranes exhibit close to linear decay of phase against the frequency.

  13. Acoustic Studies on Nanodroplets, Microbubbles and Liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Krishna Nandan

    Microbubbles and droplets are nanometer to micron size biocompatible particles which are primarily used for drug delivery and contrast imaging. Our aim is to broaden the use of microbubbles from contrast imaging to other applications such as measuring blood pressure. The other goal is to develop in situ contrast agents (phase shift droplets) which can be used for applications such as cancer tumor imaging. Therefore, the focus is on developing and validating the concept using experimental and theoretical methods. Below is an overview of each of the projects performed on droplets and microbubbles. Phase shift droplets vaporizable by acoustic stimulation offer many advantages over microbubbles as contrast agents due to their higher stability and possibility of smaller sizes. In this study, the acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) threshold of a suspension of PFP droplets (400-3000nm) was acoustically measured as a function of the excitation frequency by examining the scattered signals, fundamental, sub- and second-harmonic. This work presents the experimental methodology to determine ADV threshold. The threshold increases with frequency: 1.25 MPa at 2.25 MHz, 2.0 MPa at 5 MHz and 2.5 MPa at 10 MHz. The scattered response from droplets was also found to match well with that of independently prepared lipid-coated microbubble suspension in magnitude as well as trends above the threshold value. Additionally, we have employed classical nucleation theory (CNT) to investigate the ADV, specifically the threshold value of the peak negative pressure required for vaporization. The theoretical analysis predicts that the ADV threshold increases with increasing surface tension of the droplet core and frequency of excitation, while it decreases with increasing temperature and droplet size. The predictions are in qualitative agreement with experimental observations. A technique to measure the ambient pressure using microbubbles was developed. Here we are presenting the results of an

  14. Microscopic Behavior Of Colloidal Particles Under The Effect Of Acoustic Stimulations In The Ultrasonic To Megasonic Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Amr I.; Roberts, Peter M.

    2006-05-01

    It is well known that colloid attachment and detachment at solid surfaces are influenced strongly by physico-chemical conditions controlling electric double layer (EDL) and solvation-layer effects. We present experimental observations demonstrating that, in addition, acoustic waves can produce strong effects on colloid/surface interactions that can alter the behavior of colloid and fluid transport in porous media. Microscopic colloid visualization experiments were performed with polystyrene micro-spheres suspended in water in a parallel-plate glass flow cell. When acoustic energy was applied to the cell at frequencies from 500 kHz to 5 MHz, changes in colloid attachment to and detachment from the glass cell surfaces were observed. Quantitative measurements of acoustically-induced detachment of 300-nm microspheres in 0.1M NaCl solution demonstrated that roughly 30% of the colloids that were attached to the glass cell wall during flow alone could be detached rapidly by applying acoustics at frequencies in the range of 0.7 to 1.2 MHz. The remaining attached colloids could not be detached by acoustics. This implies the existence of both "strong" and "weak" attachment sites at the cell surface. Subsequent re-attachment of colloids with acoustics turned off occurred only at new, previously unoccupied sites. Thus, acoustics appears to accelerate simultaneously both the deactivation of existing weak sites where colloids are already attached, and the activation of new weak sites where future attachments can occur. Our observations indicate that acoustics (and, in general, dynamic stress) can influence colloid-colloid and colloid-surface interactions in ways that could cause significant changes in porous-media permeability and mass transport. This would occur due to either buildup or release of colloids present in the porous matrix.

  15. Dispersion of acoustic surface waves by velocity gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, S. D.; Kim, H. C.

    1987-10-01

    The perturbation theory of Auld [Acoustic Fields and Waves in Solids (Wiley, New York, 1973), Vol. II, p. 294], which describes the effect of a subsurface gradient on the velocity dispersion of surface waves, has been modified to a simpler form by an approximation using a newly defined velocity gradient for the case of isotropic materials. The modified theory is applied to nitrogen implantation in AISI 4140 steel with a velocity gradient of Gaussian profile, and compared with dispersion data obtained by the ultrasonic right-angle technique in the frequency range from 2.4 to 14.8 MHz. The good agreement between experiments and our theory suggests that the compound layer in the subsurface region plays a dominant role in causing the dispersion of acoustic surface waves.

  16. Acoustical experiment of yogurt fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, H; Mizutani, K; Ohbuchi, T; Nakamura, T

    2006-12-22

    One of the important factors through food manufacturing is hygienic management. Thus, food manufactures prove their hygienic activities by taking certifications like a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). This concept also applies to food monitoring. Acoustical measurements have advantage for other measurement in food monitoring because they make it possible to measure with noncontact and nondestructive. We tried to monitor lactic fermentation of yogurt by a probing sensor using a pair of acoustic transducers. Temperature of the solution changes by the reaction heat of fermentation. Consequently the sound velocity propagated through the solution also changes depending on the temperature. At the same time, the solution change its phase from liquid to gel. The transducers usage in the solution indicates the change of the temperature as the change of the phase difference between two transducers. The acoustic method has advantages of nondestructive measurement that reduces contamination of food product by measuring instrument. The sensor was inserted into milk with lactic acid bacterial stain of 19 degrees C and monitored phase retardation of propagated acoustic wave and its temperature with thermocouples in the mild. The monitoring result of fermentation from milk to Caspian Sea yogurt by the acoustic transducers with the frequency of 3.7 MHz started to show gradient change in temperature caused by reaction heat of fermentation but stop the gradient change at the end although the temperature still change. The gradient change stopped its change because of phase change from liquid to gel. The present method will be able to measure indirectly by setting transducers outside of the measuring object. This noncontact sensing method will have great advantage of reduces risk of food contamination from measuring instrument because the measurement probes are set out of fermentation reactor or food containers. Our proposed method will contribute to the

  17. Design and simulation study of high frequency response for surface acoustic wave device by using CST software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, M. R.; Hashim, U.; Amin, Mohd Hasrul I. M.; Ayub, R. Mat; Hashim, M. N.; Adam, T.

    2015-05-01

    This paper focuses on the enhancement and improvement of the Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) device performance. Due to increased demand in the international market for biosensor product, the product must be emphasized in terms of quality. However, within the technological advances, demand for device with low cost, high efficiency and friendly-user preferred. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) device with the combination of pair electrode know as Interdigital Transducer (IDT) was fabricated on a piezoelectric substrate. The design of Interdigital Transducer (IDT) parameter is changes in several sizes and values for which it is able to provide greater efficiency in sensing sensitivity by using process simulation with CST STUDIO Suite software. In addition, Interdigital Transducer (IDT) parameters also changed to be created the products with a smaller size and easy to handle where it also reduces the cost of this product. Parameter values of an Interdigital Transducer (IDT) will be changed in the design is the total number of fingers pair, finger length, finger width and spacing, aperture and also the thickness of the Interdigital Transducer (IDT). From the result, the performance of the sensor is improved significantly after modification is done.

  18. Field application of a multi-frequency acoustic instrument to monitor sediment for silt erosion study in Pelton turbine in Himalayan region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, A. K.; Kumar, A.; Hies, T.; Nguyen, H. H.

    2016-11-01

    High sediment load passing through hydropower components erodes the hydraulic components resulting in loss of efficiency, interruptions in power production and downtime for repair/maintenance, especially in Himalayan regions. The size and concentration of sediment play a major role in silt erosion. The traditional process of collecting samples manually to analyse in laboratory cannot suffice the need of monitoring temporal variation in sediment properties. In this study, a multi-frequency acoustic instrument was applied at desilting chamber to monitor sediment size and concentration entering the turbine. The sediment size and concentration entering the turbine were also measured with manual samples collected twice daily. The samples collected manually were analysed in laboratory with a laser diffraction instrument for size and concentration apart from analysis by drying and filtering methods for concentration. A conductivity probe was used to calculate total dissolved solids, which was further used in results from drying method to calculate suspended solid content of the samples. The acoustic instrument was found to provide sediment concentration values similar to drying and filtering methods. However, no good match was found between mean grain size from the acoustic method with the current status of development and laser diffraction method in the first field application presented here. The future versions of the software and significant sensitivity improvements of the ultrasonic transducers are expected to increase the accuracy in the obtained results. As the instrument is able to capture the concentration and in the future most likely more accurate mean grain size of the suspended sediments, its application for monitoring silt erosion in hydropower plant shall be highly useful.

  19. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja

    2009-01-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise...

  20. Status of 174 MHz RF system for BEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biryuchevsky, Yu.A.; Gorniker, E.I.; Kendjebulatov, E.K.; Krutikhin, S.A.; Kurkin, G.Ya.; Petrov, V.M.; Pilan, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The new RF system for the BEP storage ring (which is an injector of VEPP-2000 accelerating complex) will increase the particles energy in the BEP from 0.9 to 1 GeV. RF system operates at a frequency of 174 MHz and consists of an accelerating cavity, RF power generator and control system.

  1. Acousto-optic control of internal acoustic reflection in tellurium dioxide crystal in case of strong elastic energy walkoff [Invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshinov, Vitaly; Polikarpova, Nataliya; Ivanova, Polina; Khorkin, Vladimir

    2018-04-01

    Peculiar cases of acoustic wave propagation and reflection may be observed in strongly anisotropic acousto-optical crystals. A tellurium dioxide crystal serves as a prime example of such media, since it possesses record indexes of acoustic anisotropy. We studied one of the unusual scenarios of acoustic incidence and reflection from a free crystal-vacuum boundary in paratellurite. The directions of the acoustic waves in the (001) plane of the crystal were determined, and their basic characteristics were calculated. The carried-out acousto-optic experiment at the wavelength of light 532 nm and the acoustic frequency 73 MHz confirmed the theoretical predictions. The effects examined in the paper include the acoustic wave propagation with the record walkoff angle 74°. We also observed the incidence of the wave on the boundary at the angle exceeding 90°. Finally, we registered the close-to-back reflection of acoustic energy following the incidence. One of the stunning aspects is the distribution of energy between the incident and the back-reflected wave. The unusual features of the acoustic wave reflections pointed out in the paper are valuable for their possible applications in acousto-optic devices.

  2. A differential optical interferometer for measuring short pulses of surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Anurupa; Teyssieux, Damien; Laude, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    The measurement of the displacements caused by the propagation of a short pulse of surface acoustic waves on a solid substrate is investigated. A stabilized time-domain differential interferometer is proposed, with the surface acoustic wave (SAW) sample placed outside the interferometer. Experiments are conducted with surface acoustic waves excited by a chirped interdigital transducer on a piezoelectric lithium niobate substrate having an operational bandwidth covering the 200-400MHz frequency range and producing 10-ns pulses with 36nm maximum out-of-plane displacement. The interferometric response is compared with a direct electrical measurement obtained with a receiving wide bandwidth interdigital transducer and good correspondence is observed. The effects of varying the path difference of the interferometer and the measurement position on the surface are discussed. Pulse compression along the chirped interdigital transducer is observed experimentally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermo-acoustical molecular interaction study in binary mixtures of glycerol and ethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kirandeep; Juglan, K. C.; Kumar, Harsh

    2017-07-01

    Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity are measured over the entire composition range for binary liquid mixtures of glycerol (CH2OH-CHOH-CH2OH) and ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH) at different temperatures and constant frequency of 2MHz using ultrasonic interferometer, specific gravity bottle and viscometer respectively. Measured experimental values are used to obtained various acoustical parameters such as adiabatic compressibility, acoustic impedance, intermolecular free length, relaxation time, ultrasonic attenuation, effective molar weight, free volume, available volume, molar volume, Wada's constant, Rao's constant, Vander Waal's constant, internal pressure, Gibb's free energy and enthalpy. The variation in acoustical parameters are interpreted in terms of molecular interactions between the components of molecules of binary liquid mixtures.

  4. A radioisotope-powered surface acoustic wave transponder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin, S; Lal, A

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a 63 Ni radioisotope-powered pulse transponder that has a SAW (surface acoustic wave) device as the frequency transmission frequency selector. Because the frequency is determined by a SAW device, narrowband detection with an identical SAW device enables the possibility for a long-distance RF-link. The SAW transponders can be buried deep into structural constructs such as steel and concrete, where changing batteries or harvesting vibration or EM energy is not a reliable option. RF-released power to radioisotope- released power amplification is 10 8 , even when regulatory safe amounts of 63 Ni are used. Here we have achieved an 800 µW pulse (315 MHz, 10 µs pause) across a 50 Ω load every 3 min, using a 1.5 milli-Ci 63 Ni source

  5. Inversion of the OH 1720-MHz line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elitzur, M.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that the OH 1720-MHz line can be strongly inverted by collisions which excite the rotation states. It is also argued that radiative pumps (of any wave length) can invert strongly only the 1612-MHz line. (author)

  6. Design of the 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz ultra-wideband 3 dB high power hybrid coupler for Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) heating in fusion grade reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Rana Pratap, E-mail: ranayadav97@gmail.com; Kumar, Sunil; Kulkarni, S. V. [Thapar University, Patiala, Punjab 147004, India and Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2016-01-15

    Design and developmental procedure of strip-line based 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz, ultra-wideband high power 3 dB hybrid coupler has been presented and its applicability in ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) in tokamak is discussed. For the high power handling capability, spacing between conductors and ground need to very high. Hence other structural parameters like strip-width, strip thickness coupling gap, and junction also become large which can be gone upto optimum limit where various constrains like fabrication tolerance, discontinuities, and excitation of higher TE and TM modes become prominent and significantly deteriorates the desired parameters of the coupled lines system. In designed hybrid coupler, two 8.34 dB coupled lines are connected in tandem to get desired coupling of 3 dB and air is used as dielectric. The spacing between ground and conductors are taken as 0.164 m for 1.5 MW power handling capability. To have the desired spacing, each of 8.34 dB segments are designed with inner dimension of 3.6 × 1.0 × 40 cm where constraints have been significantly realized, compensated, and applied in designing of 1.5 MW hybrid coupler and presented in paper.

  7. 47 CFR 80.303 - Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 80.303 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Coast Station Safety... maintain a safety watch on the frequency 156.800 MHz except when transmitting on 156.800 MHz. (b) A coast...

  8. Near-field acoustic microbead trapping as remote anchor for single particle manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jae Youn [Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Dong Young; Shin, Hyunjune; Kim, Hyun Bin; Lee, Jungwoo, E-mail: jwlee@kw.ac.kr [Department of Electronic Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-04

    We recently proposed an analytical model of a two-dimensional acoustic trapping of polystyrene beads in the ray acoustics regime, where a bead diameter is larger than the wavelength used. As its experimental validation, this paper demonstrates the transverse (or lateral) trapping of individual polystyrene beads in the near field of focused ultrasound. A 100 μm bead is immobilized on the central beam axis by a focused sound beam from a 30 MHz single element lithium niobate transducer, after being laterally displaced through hundreds of micrometers. Maximum displacement, a longest lateral distance at which a trapped bead can be directed towards the central axis, is thus measured over a discrete frequency range from 24 MHz to 36 MHz. The displacement data are found to be between 323.7 μm and 470.2 μm, depending on the transducer's driving frequency and input voltage amplitude. The experimental results are compared with their corresponding model values, and their relative errors lie between 0.9% and 3.9%. The results suggest that this remote maneuvering technique may be employed to manipulate individual cells through solid microbeads, provoking certain cellular reactions to localized mechanical disturbance without direct contact.

  9. Near-field acoustic microbead trapping as remote anchor for single particle manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Cheon, Dong Young; Shin, Hyunjune; Kim, Hyun Bin; Lee, Jungwoo

    2015-05-01

    We recently proposed an analytical model of a two-dimensional acoustic trapping of polystyrene beads in the ray acoustics regime, where a bead diameter is larger than the wavelength used. As its experimental validation, this paper demonstrates the transverse (or lateral) trapping of individual polystyrene beads in the near field of focused ultrasound. A 100 μm bead is immobilized on the central beam axis by a focused sound beam from a 30 MHz single element lithium niobate transducer, after being laterally displaced through hundreds of micrometers. Maximum displacement, a longest lateral distance at which a trapped bead can be directed towards the central axis, is thus measured over a discrete frequency range from 24 MHz to 36 MHz. The displacement data are found to be between 323.7 μm and 470.2 μm, depending on the transducer's driving frequency and input voltage amplitude. The experimental results are compared with their corresponding model values, and their relative errors lie between 0.9% and 3.9%. The results suggest that this remote maneuvering technique may be employed to manipulate individual cells through solid microbeads, provoking certain cellular reactions to localized mechanical disturbance without direct contact.

  10. Numerical Calculation and Measurement of Nonlinear Acoustic Fields in Ultrasound Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagishi, Tetsuya; Saito, Shigemi; Mine, Yoshitaka

    2002-05-01

    In order to develop a tool for designing on the ultrasonic probe and its peripheral devices for tissue-harmonic-imaging systems, a study is carried out to compare the calculation and observation results of nonlinear acoustic fields for a diagnostic ultrasound system. The pulsed ultrasound with a center frequency of 2.5 MHz is emanated from a weakly focusing sector probe with a 6.5 mm aperture radius and a 50 mm focal length into an agar phantom with an attenuation coefficient of about 0.6 dB/cm/MHz or 1.2 dB/cm/MHz. The nonlinear acoustic field is measured using a needle-type hydrophone. The calculation is based on the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov(KZK) equation which is modified so that the frequency dependence of the attenuation coefficient is the same as that in biological tissue. This equation is numerically solved with the implicit backward method employing the iterative method. The measured and calculated amplitude spectra show good agreement with each other.

  11. Performance analysis of commercial MOSFET packages in Class E converter operating at 2.56 MHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nair, Unnikrishnan Raveendran; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Jørgensen, Asger Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    resistance and high temperature operation over Si devices have aided in the paradigm shift towards wide bandgap devices. The low gate charge requirements of SiC MOSFETs enables use of these devices in radio frequency (RF) converters using resonant topologies operating at MHz frequency range. The RF...... are not commercially available and power modules have to be custom designed for these applications. This work demonstrates performance of various commercial MOSFET packages at frequency of 2.56 MHz. Commercial SiC MOSFETs in TO-247 and D2Pak packs are tested in Class E resonant converter operating at 2.56 MHz...

  12. Spectral estimation for characterization of acoustic aberration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varslot, Trond; Angelsen, Bjørn; Waag, Robert C

    2004-07-01

    Spectral estimation based on acoustic backscatter from a motionless stochastic medium is described for characterization of aberration in ultrasonic imaging. The underlying assumptions for the estimation are: The correlation length of the medium is short compared to the length of the transmitted acoustic pulse, an isoplanatic region of sufficient size exists around the focal point, and the backscatter can be modeled as an ergodic stochastic process. The motivation for this work is ultrasonic imaging with aberration correction. Measurements were performed using a two-dimensional array system with 80 x 80 transducer elements and an element pitch of 0.6 mm. The f number for the measurements was 1.2 and the center frequency was 3.0 MHz with a 53% bandwidth. Relative phase of aberration was extracted from estimated cross spectra using a robust least-mean-square-error method based on an orthogonal expansion of the phase differences of neighboring wave forms as a function of frequency. Estimates of cross-spectrum phase from measurements of random scattering through a tissue-mimicking aberrator have confidence bands approximately +/- 5 degrees wide. Both phase and magnitude are in good agreement with a reference characterization obtained from a point scatterer.

  13. A spherically-shaped PZT thin film ultrasonic transducer with an acoustic impedance gradient matching layer based on a micromachined periodically structured flexible substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Liu, Wei-Fan

    2013-10-09

    This paper presents the microfabrication of an acoustic impedance gradient matching layer on a spherically-shaped piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer. The acoustic matching layer can be designed to achieve higher acoustic energy transmission and operating bandwidth. Also included in this paper are a theoretical analysis of the device design and a micromachining technique to produce the novel transducer. Based on a design of a lead titanium zirconium (PZT) micropillar array, the constructed gradient acoustic matching layer has much better acoustic transmission efficiency within a 20-50 MHz operation range compared to a matching layer with a conventional quarter-wavelength thickness Parylene deposition. To construct the transducer, periodic microcavities are built on a flexible copper sheet, and then the sheet forms a designed curvature with a ball shaping. After PZT slurry deposition, the constructed PZT micropillar array is released onto a curved thin PZT layer. Following Parylene conformal coating on the processed PZT micropillars, the PZT micropillars and the surrounding Parylene comprise a matching layer with gradient acoustic impedance. By using the proposed technique, the fabricated transducer achieves a center frequency of 26 MHz and a -6 dB bandwidth of approximately 65%.

  14. A High-Speed High-Frequency Broadband Acoustic Modem for Short-to-Medium Range Data Transmission in Ports, Very Shallow Waters and Deep Waters Using Spread-Spectrum Modulation and Decision Feedback Equalizing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beaujean, Pierre-Philippe; Spruance, John; Kriel, Dion

    2006-01-01

    ...: The long-term objective is the commercialization of a high-speed high-frequency acoustic modem transmitting data at true rates of up to 105,000 bps, at a maximum range of 500 m and operate between 240 kHz and 380 kHz...

  15. 120 MW, 800 MHz Magnicon for a Future Muon Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-01-01

    Development of a pulsed magnicon at 800 MHz was carried out for the muon collider application, based on experience with similar amplifiers in the frequency range between 915 MHz and 34.3 GHz. Numerical simulations using proven computer codes were employed for the conceptual design, while established design technologies were incorporated into the engineering design. A cohesive design for the 800 MHz magnicon amplifier was carried out, including design of a 200 MW diode electron gun, design of the magnet system, optimization of beam dynamics including space charge effects in the transient and steady-state regimes, design of the drive, gain, and output cavities including an rf choke in the beam exit aperture, analysis of parasitic oscillations and design means to eliminate them, and design of the beam collector capable of 20 kW average power operation

  16. Acoustic lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittmer, C.A.

    1983-03-01

    Acoustic lenses focus ultrasound to produce pencil-like beams with reduced near fields. When fitted to conventional (flat-faced) transducers, such lenses greatly improve the ability to detect and size defects. This paper describes a program developed to design acoustic lenses for use in immersion or contact inspection, using normal or angle beam mode with flat or curved targets. Lens surfaces are circular in geometry to facilitate machining. For normal beam inspection of flat plate, spherical or cylindrical lenses are used. For angle beam or curved surface inspections, a compound lens is required to correct for the extra induced aberration. Such a lens is aspherical with one radius of curvature in the plane of incidence, and a different radius of curvature in the plane perpendicular to the incident plane. The resultant beam profile (i.e., location of the acoustic focus, beam diameter, 6 dB working range) depends on the degree of focusing and the transducer used. The operating frequency and bandwidth can be affected by the instrumentation used. Theoretical and measured beam profiles are in good agreement. Various applications, from zone focusing used for defect sizing in thick plate, to line focusing for pipe weld inspection, are discussed

  17. Characterizing riverbed sediment using high-frequency acoustics 2: scattering signatures of Colorado River bed sediment in Marble and Grand Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, Daniel D.; Grams, Paul E.; Kaplinski, Matt A.

    2014-01-01

    In this, the second of a pair of papers on the statistical signatures of riverbed sediment in high-frequency acoustic backscatter, spatially explicit maps of the stochastic geometries (length- and amplitude-scales) of backscatter are related to patches of riverbed surfaces composed of known sediment types, as determined by geo-referenced underwater video observations. Statistics of backscatter magnitudes alone are found to be poor discriminators between sediment types. However, the variance of the power spectrum, and the intercept and slope from a power-law spectral form (termed the spectral strength and exponent, respectively) successfully discriminate between sediment types. A decision-tree approach was able to classify spatially heterogeneous patches of homogeneous sands, gravels (and sand-gravel mixtures), and cobbles/boulders with 95, 88, and 91% accuracy, respectively. Application to sites outside the calibration, and surveys made at calibration sites at different times, were plausible based on observations from underwater video. Analysis of decision trees built with different training data sets suggested that the spectral exponent was consistently the most important variable in the classification. In the absence of theory concerning how spatially variable sediment surfaces scatter high-frequency sound, the primary advantage of this data-driven approach to classify bed sediment over alternatives is that spectral methods have well understood properties and make no assumptions about the distributional form of the fluctuating component of backscatter over small spatial scales.

  18. Ground-based acoustic parametric generator impact on the atmosphere and ionosphere in an active experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Rapoport

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop theoretical basics of active experiments with two beams of acoustic waves, radiated by a ground-based sound generator. These beams are transformed into atmospheric acoustic gravity waves (AGWs, which have parameters that enable them to penetrate to the altitudes of the ionospheric E and F regions where they influence the electron concentration of the ionosphere. Acoustic waves are generated by the ground-based parametric sound generator (PSG at the two close frequencies. The main idea of the experiment is to design the output parameters of the PSG to build a cascade scheme of nonlinear wave frequency downshift transformations to provide the necessary conditions for their vertical propagation and to enable penetration to ionospheric altitudes. The PSG generates sound waves (SWs with frequencies f1 = 600 and f2 = 625 Hz and large amplitudes (100–420 m s−1. Each of these waves is modulated with the frequency of 0.016 Hz. The novelty of the proposed analytical–numerical model is due to simultaneous accounting for nonlinearity, diffraction, losses, and dispersion and inclusion of the two-stage transformation (1 of the initial acoustic waves to the acoustic wave with the difference frequency Δf = f2 − f1 in the altitude ranges 0–0.1 km, in the strongly nonlinear regime, and (2 of the acoustic wave with the difference frequency to atmospheric acoustic gravity waves with the modulational frequency in the altitude ranges 0.1–20 km, which then reach the altitudes of the ionospheric E and F regions, in a practically linear regime. AGWs, nonlinearly transformed from the sound waves, launched by the two-frequency ground-based sound generator can increase the transparency of the ionosphere for the electromagnetic waves in HF (MHz and VLF (kHz ranges. The developed theoretical model can be used for interpreting an active experiment that includes the PSG impact on the atmosphere–ionosphere system

  19. Ex vivo optimisation of a heterogeneous speed of sound model of the human skull for non-invasive transcranial focused ultrasound at 1 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, L; Chauvet, D; La Greca, R; Boch, A-L; Chaumoitre, K; Tanter, M; Aubry, J-F

    2017-09-01

    Transcranial brain therapy has recently emerged as a non-invasive strategy for the treatment of various neurological diseases, such as essential tremor or neurogenic pain. However, treatments require millimetre-scale accuracy. The use of high frequencies (typically ≥1 MHz) decreases the ultrasonic wavelength to the millimetre scale, thereby increasing the clinical accuracy and lowering the probability of cavitation, which improves the safety of the technique compared with the use of low-frequency devices that operate at 220 kHz. Nevertheless, the skull produces greater distortions of high-frequency waves relative to low-frequency waves. High-frequency waves require high-performance adaptive focusing techniques, based on modelling the wave propagation through the skull. This study sought to optimise the acoustical modelling of the skull based on computed tomography (CT) for a 1 MHz clinical brain therapy system. The best model tested in this article corresponded to a maximum speed of sound of 4000 m.s -1 in the skull bone, and it restored 86% of the optimal pressure amplitude on average in a collection of six human skulls. Compared with uncorrected focusing, the optimised non-invasive correction led to an average increase of 99% in the maximum pressure amplitude around the target and an average decrease of 48% in the distance between the peak pressure and the selected target. The attenuation through the skulls was also assessed within the bandwidth of the transducers, and it was found to vary in the range of 10 ± 3 dB at 800 kHz and 16 ± 3 dB at 1.3 MHz.

  20. Design of 118 MHz twelfth harmonic cavity of APS PAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Bridges, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Two radio frequency (RF) cavities are needed in the Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) of the Advanced Photon Source. One is for the first harmonic frequency at 9.8 MHz, and the other is for the twelfth harmonic frequency at 118 MHz. This note reports on the design of the 118 MHz RF cavity. Computer models are used to find the mode frequencies, impedances, Q-factors, and field distributions in the cavity. The computer codes MAFIA, URMEL, and URMEL-T are useful tools which model and simulate the resonance characteristics of a cavity. These codes employ the finite difference method to solve Maxwell's equations. MAFIA is a three-dimensional problem solver and uses square patches to approximate the inner surface of a cavity. URMEL and URMEL-T are two-dimensional problem solvers and use rectangular and triangular meshes, respectively. URMEL-T and MAFIA can handle problems with arbitrary dielectric materials located inside the boundary. The cavity employs a circularly cylindrical ceramic window to limit the vacuum to the beam pipe. The ceramic window used in the modeling will have a wall thickness of 0.9 cm. This wall thickness is not negligible in determining the resonant frequencies of the cavity. In the following, results of two- and three-dimensional modeling of the cavities using the URMEL-T and MAFIA codes are reported

  1. Low and High Frequency Models of Response Statistics of a Cylindrical Orthogrid Vehicle Panel to Acoustic Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Teague, David; Gardner, Bryce; Cotoni, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    This presentation further develops the orthogrid vehicle panel work. Employed Hybrid Module capabilities to assess both low/mid frequency and high frequency models in the VA One simulation environment. The response estimates from three modeling approaches are compared to ground test measurements. Detailed Finite Element Model of the Test Article -Expect to capture both the global panel modes and the local pocket mode response, but at a considerable analysis expense (time & resources). A Composite Layered Construction equivalent global stiffness approximation using SEA -Expect to capture response of the global panel modes only. An SEA approximation using the Periodic Subsystem Formulation. A finite element model of a single periodic cell is used to derive the vibroacoustic properties of the entire periodic structure (modal density, radiation efficiency, etc. Expect to capture response at various locations on the panel (on the skin and on the ribs) with less analysis expense

  2. Streptavidin Modified ZnO Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator for Detection of Tumor Marker Mucin 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dan; Guo, Peng; Xiong, Juan; Wang, Shengfu

    2016-09-01

    A ZnO-based film bulk acoustic resonator has been fabricated using a magnetron sputtering technology, which was employed as a biosensor for detection of mucin 1. The resonant frequency of the thin-film bulk acoustic resonator was located near at 1503.3 MHz. The average electromechanical coupling factor {K}_{eff}^2 and quality factor Q were 2.39 % and 224, respectively. Using the specific binding system of avidin-biotin, the streptavidin was self-assembled on the top gold electrode as the sensitive layer to indirectly test the MUC1 molecules. The resonant frequency of the biosensor decreases in response to the mass loading in range of 20-500 nM. The sensor modified with the streptavidin exhibits a high sensitivity of 4642.6 Hz/nM and a good selectivity.

  3. Coupled Acoustic-Mechanical Bandgaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Kook, Junghwan

    2016-01-01

    medium and the presence of acoustic resonances. It is demonstrated that corrugation of the plate structure can introduce bending wave bandgaps and bandgaps in the acoustic domain in overlapping and audible frequency ranges. This effect is preserved also when taking the physical coupling between the two...... domains into account. Additionally, the coupling is shown to introduce extra gaps in the band structure due to modal interaction and the appearance of a cut-on frequency for the fundamental acoustic mode....

  4. UNA PROPUESTA DIDÁCTICA PARA LA CARACTERIZACIÓN DE DISPOSITIVOS Y REDES ELÉCTRICAS DE RADIOFRECUENCIA EN LA BANDA DE 100 KHz A 500 MHz A DIDACTIC PROPOSAL FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES AND ELECTRICAL NETWORKS AT RANGE 100 KHz TO 500 MHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Linares y Miranda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un esquema didáctico de prueba y medición para la caracterización en el dominio de la frecuencia de componentes y circuitos lineales de radiofrecuencia (RF. El esquema se basa en la observación del comportamiento temporal manifestado por las tensiones incidentes y reflejadas. Éstas se pueden generar cuando se suministran señales sinusoidales de RF en los puertos o terminales de los dispositivos o redes eléctricas bajo estudio. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es el de proponer un método experimental alternativo que permita estudiar fenómenos que son abordados normalmente - a nivel licenciatura - en diversos programas de ingeniería eléctrica (o ramas afines. El método puede aplicarse en asignaturas donde se estudian tópicos vinculados al análisis de redes eléctricas. También en tópicos como la propagación de señales en líneas de transmisión, el diseño y operación de antenas y en los principios fundamentales de la compatibilidad electromagnética, entre otros.In this article a didactic outline of proof and measurement is presented for the characterization in frequency domain of components and linear circuits of radio frequency (RF. The outline is based on the observation of the temporary behavior shown by the incident and reflected tensions. These can be generated when RF sinusoidal signals are provided at ports and terminals of electrical networks or devices under study. The main goal of this paper is to propose an alternative experimental method that allows the study of phenomena normally addressed at the undergraduate level in various programs of Electrical Engineering or related disciplines. The method can be applied to subjects where topics related to the analysis of electrical networks are covered. It can also be applied to topics such as signal propagation in transmission lines, design and operation of antennas, and the fundamental principles of electromagnetic compatibility, among

  5. Acoustic leak detection and ultrasonic crack detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Claytor, T.N.; Groenwald, R.

    1983-10-01

    A program is under way to assess the effectiveness of current and proposed techniques for acoustic leak detection (ALD) in reactor coolant systems. An ALD facility has been constructed and tests have begun on five laboratory-grown cracks (three fatigue and two thermal-fatigue and two field-induced IGSCC specimens. After ultrasonic testing revealed cracks in the Georgia Power Co. HATCH-1 BWR recirculation header, the utility installed an ALD system. Data from HATCH-1 have given an indication of the background noise level at a BWR recirculation header sweepolet weld. The HATCH leak detection system was tested to determine the sensitivity and dynamic range. Other background data have been acquired at the Watts Bar Nuclear Reactor in Tennessee. An ANL waveguide system, including transducer and electronics, was installed and tested on an accumulator safety injection pipe. The possibility of using ultrasonic wave scattering patterns to discriminate between IGSCCs and geometric reflectors has been explored. Thirteen reflectors (field IGSCCs, graphite wool IGSCCs, weld roots, and slits) were examined. Work with cast stainless steel (SS) included sound velocity and attenuation in isotropic and anisotropic cast SS. Reducing anisotropy does not help reduce attenuation in large-grained material. Large artificial flaws (e.g., a 1-cm-deep notch with a 4-cm path) could not be detected in isotropic centrifugally cast SS (1 to 2-mm grains) by longitudinal or shear waves at frequencies of 1 MHz or greater, but could be detected with 0.5-MHz shear waves. 13 figures

  6. Architectural acoustics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Long, Marshall

    2014-01-01

    .... Beginning with a brief history, it reviews the fundamentals of acoustics, human perception and reaction to sound, acoustic noise measurements, noise metrics, and environmental noise characterization...

  7. Acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The volume contains six papers which together provide an overall review of the inspection technique known as acoustic emission or stress wave emission. The titles are: a welder's introduction to acoustic emission technology; use of acoustic emission for detection of defects as they arise during fabrication; examples of laboratory application and assessment of acoustic emission in the United Kingdom; (Part I: acoustic emission behaviour of low alloy steels; Part II: fatigue crack assessment from proof testing and continuous monitoring); inspection of selected areas of engineering structures by acoustic emission; Japanese experience in laboratory and practical applications of acoustic emission to welded structures; and ASME acoustic emission code status. (U.K.)

  8. Statistics and vertical directionality of low-frequency ambient noise at the North Pacific Acoustics Laboratory site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggeroer, Arthur B.; NPAL Group; Colosi, J. A.; Cornuelle, B. D.; Dushaw, B. D.; Dzieciuch, M. A.; Howe, B. M.; Mercer, J. A.; Munk, W. H.; Spindel, R. C.; Worcester, P. F.

    2005-03-01

    We examine statistical and directional properties of the ambient noise in the 10-100 Hz frequency band from the NPAL array. Marginal probability densities are estimated as well as mean square levels, skewness and kurtoses in third octave bands. The kurotoses are markedly different from Gaussian except when only distant shipping is present. Extremal levels reached ~150 dB re 1 μ Pa, suggesting levels 60dB greater than the mean ambient were common in the NPAL data sets. Generally, these were passing ships. We select four examples: i) quiescent noise, ii) nearby shipping, iii) whale vocalizations and iv) a micro earthquake for the vertical directional properties of the NPAL noise since they are representative of the phenomena encountered. We find there is modest broadband coherence for most of these cases in their occupancy band across the NPAL aperture. Narrowband coherence analysis from VLA to VLA was not successful due to ambiguities. Examples of localizing sources based upon this coherence are included. kw diagrams allow us to use data above the vertical aliasing frequency. Ducted propagation for both the quiescent and micro earthquake (T phase) are identified and the arrival angles of nearby shipping and whale vocalizations. MFP localizations were modestly successful for nearby sources, but long range ones could not be identified, most likely because of signal mismatch in the MFP replica. .

  9. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCEM key comparison CCEM.RF-K10.CL (GT-RF/99-2) 'Power in 50 Ω coaxial lines, frequency: 50 MHz to 26 GHz' measurement techniques and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Dieter; Inoue, T.; Michaud, A.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the results and the measuring methods of an international key comparison between twelve national metrology institutes (NMIs) and is concerning the calibration factor of RF power sensors in the coaxial 3.5 mm line for frequencies up to 26 GHz. Two RF power travelling standards fitted with male PC 3.5 mm connectors were measured at seven frequencies. The following NMIs participated: NMIJ (Japan), NRC (Canada), NIST (USA), METAS (Switzerland), CSIR-NML (South Africa), NMIA (Australia), NPL (UK), SiQ (Slovenia), IEN (Italy), VNIIFTRI (Russian Federation), SPRING (Singapore) and PTB (Germany), as the pilot laboratory. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  10. Acoustic cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, G.W.; Martin, R.A.; Radebaugh, R.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes an acoustic cryocooler with no moving parts is formed from a thermoacoustic driver (TAD) driving a pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) through a standing wave tube. Thermoacoustic elements in the TAD are spaced apart a distance effect to accommodate the increased thermal penetration length arising from the relatively low TAD operating frequency in the range of 15--60 Hz. At these low operating frequencies, a long tube is required to support the standing wave. The tube may be coiled to reduce the overall length of the cryocooler. One or two PTR's are located on the standing wave tube adjacent antinodes in the standing wave to be driven by the standing wave pressure oscillations. It is predicted that a heat input of 1000 W at 1000 K will maintain a cooling load of 5 W at 80 K

  11. Performance of the first European 482 MHz wind profiler radar with RASS under operational conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhagen, H.; Engelbart, D.; Goersdorf, U.; Lehmann, V.; Neisser, J. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Lindenberg (Germany). Meteorologisches Observatorium; Dibbern, J.; Neuschaefer, J.W.

    1998-10-01

    The first 482 MHz wind profiler radar (WPR) in Europe completed with a radio-acoustic sounding system (RASS) has been operated at the meteorological observatory Lindenberg since July 3rd, 1996 after a comprehensive study regarding the investigation of frequency compatibility between the WPR and the television channel 22 (478-486 MHz). The WPR can operate with different height and time resolutions (e.g. 250 m in the so-called low mode or 500 m in the high mode). A height range of up to approximately 16 km can be realized in the high mode. The installed WPR/RASS combination allows also the measurement of profiles of the virtual temperature with the low mode resolution in the height range from 500 m up to approximately 4000 m. The main objective of this contribution is the investigation of the accuracy and the availability of this new remote sensing system. First results of the accuracy can be given on the base of about 1000 intercomparisons between WPR/RASS and rawinsonde data. The bias of the horizontal wind velocities is less than 0.4 m/s in the low mode and 0.7 m/s in the high mode (from 3 to 10 km) and therefore smaller than the average accuracy of both systems. The bias of the temperature measurements is less than 1 K and can be improved by some corrections in future. A first statistics of the data availability can be shown based on nearly 6000 profiles of wind and temperature. The 80% availability of the WPR/RASS was determined with 12.8 km for wind and 2.3 km for temperature measurements. The new possibilities of investigating the troposphere as well as the lowest part of the stratosphere are presented by measurement examples from February and March 1997. (orig.) 22 refs.

  12. Waveform digitizing at 500 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atiya, M.; Ito, M.; Haggerty, J.; Ng, C.; Sippach, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Experiment E787 at Brookhaven National Laboratory is designed to study the decay K + → π + ν/bar /nu// to a sensitivity of 2 /times/ 10 -10 . To achieve acceptable muon rejection it is necessary to couple traditional methods (range/energy/momentum correlation) with observation of the (π + → μ + ν, μ + → e + ν/bar /nu//) decay sequence in scintillator. We report on the design and construction of 200 channels of relatively low cost solid state waveform digitizers. The distinguishing features are: 8 bits dynamic range, 500 MHz sampling, zero suppression on the fly, deep memory (up to .5 msec), and fast readout time (100 μsec for the entire system). We report on data obtained during the February-May 1988 run showing performance of the system for the observation of the above decay. 8 figs

  13. Waveform digitizing at 500 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atiya, M.; Ito, M.; Haggerty, J.; Ng, C.; Sippach, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Experiment E787 at Brookhaven National Laboratory is designed to study the decay K + → π + ν/bar /nu// to a sensitivity of 2 /times/ 10/sup /minus/10/. To achieve acceptable muon rejection it is necessary to couple traditional methods (range/energy/momentum correlation) with observation of the π + → μ + → e + ν/bar /nu// decay sequence in scintillator. We report on the design and construction of over 200 channels of relatively low cost solid state waveform digitizers. The distinguishing features are: 8 bits dynamic range, 500 MHz sampling, zero suppression on the fly, deep memory (up to .5 msec), and fast readout time (100 μsec for the entire system). We report on data obtained during the February--May 1988 run showing performance of the system for the observation of the above decay. 9 figs

  14. Study of Molecular Interactions in Binary Liquid Mixtures by Acoustical Method at 303K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Paul Divakar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity and density measurements were made in two binary liquid mixtures Isopropyl acetate (IPA and Isobutyl acetate (IBA with cyclohexanone (CY as a common component at 303K, at fixed frequency of 2MHz using single crystal variable path interferometer and specific gravity bottle respectively. The experimental data have been used to calculate the acoustic impedance, adiabatic compressibility, inter molecular free length and molar volume. The excess thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated and discussed in the light of molecular interactions.

  15. Oscillating acoustic streaming jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moudjed, Brahim; Botton, Valery; Henry, Daniel; Millet, Severine; Ben Hadid, Hamda; Garandet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides the first experimental investigation of an oscillating acoustic streaming jet. The observations are performed in the far field of a 2 MHz circular plane ultrasound transducer introduced in a rectangular cavity filled with water. Measurements are made by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in horizontal and vertical planes near the end of the cavity. Oscillations of the jet appear in this zone, for a sufficiently high Reynolds number, as an intermittent phenomenon on an otherwise straight jet fluctuating in intensity. The observed perturbation pattern is similar to that of former theoretical studies. This intermittently oscillatory behavior is the first step to the transition to turbulence. (authors)

  16. Signal frequency distribution and natural-time analyses from acoustic emission monitoring of an arched structure in the Castle of Racconigi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Niccolini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The stability of an arch as a structural element in the thermal bath of King Charles Albert (Carlo Alberto in the Royal Castle of Racconigi (on the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1997 was assessed by the acoustic emission (AE monitoring technique with application of classical inversion methods to recorded AE data. First, damage source location by means of triangulation techniques and signal frequency analysis were carried out. Then, the recently introduced method of natural-time analysis was preliminarily applied to the AE time series in order to reveal a possible entrance point to a critical state of the monitored structural element. Finally, possible influence of the local seismic and microseismic activity on the stability of the monitored structure was investigated. The criterion for selecting relevant earthquakes was based on the estimation of the size of earthquake preparation zones. The presented results suggest the use of the AE technique as a tool for detecting both ongoing structural damage processes and microseismic activity during preparation stages of seismic events.

  17. Signal frequency distribution and natural-time analyses from acoustic emission monitoring of an arched structure in the Castle of Racconigi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccolini, Gianni; Manuello, Amedeo; Marchis, Elena; Carpinteri, Alberto

    2017-07-01

    The stability of an arch as a structural element in the thermal bath of King Charles Albert (Carlo Alberto) in the Royal Castle of Racconigi (on the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1997) was assessed by the acoustic emission (AE) monitoring technique with application of classical inversion methods to recorded AE data. First, damage source location by means of triangulation techniques and signal frequency analysis were carried out. Then, the recently introduced method of natural-time analysis was preliminarily applied to the AE time series in order to reveal a possible entrance point to a critical state of the monitored structural element. Finally, possible influence of the local seismic and microseismic activity on the stability of the monitored structure was investigated. The criterion for selecting relevant earthquakes was based on the estimation of the size of earthquake preparation zones. The presented results suggest the use of the AE technique as a tool for detecting both ongoing structural damage processes and microseismic activity during preparation stages of seismic events.

  18. Time-Frequency Feature Representation Using Multi-Resolution Texture Analysis and Acoustic Activity Detector for Real-Life Speech Emotion Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Ching Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The classification of emotional speech is mostly considered in speech-related research on human-computer interaction (HCI. In this paper, the purpose is to present a novel feature extraction based on multi-resolutions texture image information (MRTII. The MRTII feature set is derived from multi-resolution texture analysis for characterization and classification of different emotions in a speech signal. The motivation is that we have to consider emotions have different intensity values in different frequency bands. In terms of human visual perceptual, the texture property on multi-resolution of emotional speech spectrogram should be a good feature set for emotion classification in speech. Furthermore, the multi-resolution analysis on texture can give a clearer discrimination between each emotion than uniform-resolution analysis on texture. In order to provide high accuracy of emotional discrimination especially in real-life, an acoustic activity detection (AAD algorithm must be applied into the MRTII-based feature extraction. Considering the presence of many blended emotions in real life, in this paper make use of two corpora of naturally-occurring dialogs recorded in real-life call centers. Compared with the traditional Mel-scale Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC and the state-of-the-art features, the MRTII features also can improve the correct classification rates of proposed systems among different language databases. Experimental results show that the proposed MRTII-based feature information inspired by human visual perception of the spectrogram image can provide significant classification for real-life emotional recognition in speech.

  19. Subwoofer and nanotube butterfly acoustic flame extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliev, Ali E.; Mayo, Nathanael K.; Baughman, Ray H.; Mills, Brent T.; Habtour, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Nonchemical flame control using acoustic waves from a subwoofer and a lightweight carbon nanotube thermoacoustic projector was demonstrated. The intent was to manipulate flame intensity, direction and propagation. The mechanisms of flame suppression using low frequency acoustic waves were discussed.

  20. Acoustic detection of pneumothorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansy, Hansen A.; Royston, Thomas J.; Balk, Robert A.; Sandler, Richard H.

    2003-04-01

    This study aims at investigating the feasibility of using low-frequency (pneumothorax detection were tested in dogs. In the first approach, broadband acoustic signals were introduced into the trachea during end-expiration and transmitted waves were measured at the chest surface. Pneumothorax was found to consistently decrease pulmonary acoustic transmission in the 200-1200-Hz frequency band, while less change was observed at lower frequencies (ppneumothorax states (pPneumothorax was found to be associated with a preferential reduction of sound amplitude in the 200- to 700-Hz range, and a decrease of sound amplitude variation (in the 300 to 600-Hz band) during the respiration cycle (pPneumothorax changed the frequency and decay rate of percussive sounds. These results imply that certain medical conditions may be reliably detected using appropriate acoustic measurements and analysis. [Work supported by NIH/NHLBI #R44HL61108.

  1. Evoked acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, C; Parbo, J; Johnsen, N J

    1985-01-01

    Stimulated acoustic emissions were recorded in response to tonal stimuli at 60 dB p.e. SPL in a small group of normal-hearing adults. Power spectral analysis reveals that the evoked activity from each ear contains energy in preferential frequency bands and the change of stimulus frequency has only...

  2. 47 CFR 101.77 - Public safety licensees in the 1850-1990 MHz, 2110-2150 MHz, and 2160-2200 MHz bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., 2110-2150 MHz, and 2160-2200 MHz bands. 101.77 Section 101.77 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS...-1990 MHz, 2110-2150 MHz, and 2160-2200 MHz bands. (a) In order for public safety licensees to qualify... a Police licensee, a Fire Licensee, or an Emergency Medical Licensee as defined in § 90.7 of this...

  3. Acoustically Induced Vibration of Structures: Reverberant Vs. Direct Acoustic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; O'Connell, Michael R.; Tsoi, Wan B.

    2009-01-01

    Large reverberant chambers have been used for several decades in the aerospace industry to test larger structures such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify and to detect faults in the design and fabrication of spacecraft and satellites. In the past decade some companies have begun using direct near field acoustic testing, employing speakers, for qualifying larger structures. A limited test data set obtained from recent acoustic tests of the same hardware exposed to both direct and reverberant acoustic field testing has indicated some differences in the resulting structural responses. In reverberant acoustic testing, higher vibration responses were observed at lower frequencies when compared with the direct acoustic testing. In the case of direct near field acoustic testing higher vibration responses appeared to occur at higher frequencies as well. In reverberant chamber testing and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes of the reverberant chamber or the speakers and spacecraft parallel surfaces can strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware. In this paper data from recent acoustic testing of flight hardware, that yielded evidence of acoustic standing wave coupling with structural responses, are discussed in some detail. Convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave/structural coupling phenomenon will be discussed, citing observations from acoustic testing of a simple aluminum plate. The implications of such acoustic coupling to testing of sensitive flight hardware will be discussed. The results discussed in this paper reveal issues with over or under testing of flight hardware that could pose unanticipated structural and flight qualification issues. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the structural modal coupling with standing acoustic waves that has been observed in both methods of acoustic testing. This study will assist the community to choose an appropriate testing method and test setup in

  4. Sinusoidal Representation of Acoustic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masaaki

    Sinusoidal representation of acoustic signals has been an important tool in speech and music processing like signal analysis, synthesis and time scale or pitch modifications. It can be applicable to arbitrary signals, which is an important advantage over other signal representations like physical modeling of acoustic signals. In sinusoidal representation, acoustic signals are composed as sums of sinusoid (sine wave) with different amplitudes, frequencies and phases, which is based on the timedependent short-time Fourier transform (STFT). This article describes the principles of acoustic signal analysis/synthesis based on a sinusoid representation with focus on sine waves with rapidly varying frequency.

  5. Anti-sound and Acoustical Cloaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veturia CHIROIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The principles by which the acoustics can be mimicked in order to reduce or cancel the vibrational field are based on anti-sound concept which can be materialized by acoustic cloaks. Geometric transformations open an elegant way towards the unconstrained control of sound through acoustic metamaterials. Acoustic cloaks can be achieved through geometric transformations which bring exotic metamaterial properties into the acoustic equations. Our paper brings new ideas concerning the technological keys for manufacturing of novel metamaterials based on the spatial compression of Cantor structures, and the architecture of 3D acoustic cloaks in a given frequency band, with application to architectural acoustics.

  6. Reduction of environmental MHz noise for SQUID application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araya, T. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)]. E-mail: araya@sup.ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kitamura, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Kamishiro, M. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Sakuta, K. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Itozaki, H. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)]. E-mail: itozaki@ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2006-10-01

    It is important to remove large environmental noise in measurement using SQUIDs without magnetic shielding. Active noise control (ANC) is an effective method to remove the environmental noise. The environmental noise has been reduced by the ANC system in the radio frequency region around MHz. The anti-phase waves of the environmental noise should be generated by this system. The ANC system including the phase and amplitude control circuit was developed to make the anti-phase waves in the MHz region. In this paper, sinusoidal waves with a MHz frequency were used as the environmental noise. When a coil antenna was used for a receiver antenna, this ANC system suppressed these sinusoidal waves to the white noise level about 40 dB. When we used a SQUID as a receiver antenna, we also cancelled sinusoidal waves to the white noise level by this system. This shows that the ANC system is useful to reduce an environmental noise when this ANC system is developed to cancel multi-frequency noise.

  7. Reduction of environmental MHz noise for SQUID application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araya, T.; Kitamura, Y.; Kamishiro, M.; Sakuta, K.; Itozaki, H.

    2006-01-01

    It is important to remove large environmental noise in measurement using SQUIDs without magnetic shielding. Active noise control (ANC) is an effective method to remove the environmental noise. The environmental noise has been reduced by the ANC system in the radio frequency region around MHz. The anti-phase waves of the environmental noise should be generated by this system. The ANC system including the phase and amplitude control circuit was developed to make the anti-phase waves in the MHz region. In this paper, sinusoidal waves with a MHz frequency were used as the environmental noise. When a coil antenna was used for a receiver antenna, this ANC system suppressed these sinusoidal waves to the white noise level about 40 dB. When we used a SQUID as a receiver antenna, we also cancelled sinusoidal waves to the white noise level by this system. This shows that the ANC system is useful to reduce an environmental noise when this ANC system is developed to cancel multi-frequency noise

  8. Stargate-based Acoustic Sensor Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Hanbiao Wang; Kung Yao; Deborah Estrin

    2004-01-01

    To facilitate the study of the wireless sensor network for demanding acoustic monitoring of long distance sources, we recently have also started working on the development of a new generation of wireless acoustic sensor network platform using the Stargate nodes. The 400 MHz PXA-255 XScale processor and the 64 MB SDRAM provide the Stargate platform a decent processing capability. The VX Pocket 440 sound card with four external microphones are attached to each Stargate node through the PCMCIA s...

  9. Acoustic energy harvesting based on a planar acoustic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shuibao; Oudich, Mourad; Li, Yong; Assouar, Badreddine

    2016-06-01

    We theoretically report on an innovative and practical acoustic energy harvester based on a defected acoustic metamaterial (AMM) with piezoelectric material. The idea is to create suitable resonant defects in an AMM to confine the strain energy originating from an acoustic incidence. This scavenged energy is converted into electrical energy by attaching a structured piezoelectric material into the defect area of the AMM. We show an acoustic energy harvester based on a meta-structure capable of producing electrical power from an acoustic pressure. Numerical simulations are provided to analyze and elucidate the principles and the performances of the proposed system. A maximum output voltage of 1.3 V and a power density of 0.54 μW/cm3 are obtained at a frequency of 2257.5 Hz. The proposed concept should have broad applications on energy harvesting as well as on low-frequency sound isolation, since this system acts as both acoustic insulator and energy harvester.

  10. Evaluation Of Electromagnetic Fields For Frequencies 900 MHz-1 800 MHz In Tirana

    OpenAIRE

    Kuqi Dhurata; Malkaj Partizan; Kuka Shklqim; Kuqali Margarita; Hoxha Adhurim; Mulaj Tatjana; Goga Marjola; Dokuzi Hazbi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The massive use of mobile phone as a communication tool nowadays is accompanied the ever increasing interest of the public and researchers for the possibly impact on human health as a result of exposure to the electromagnetic fields that accompany these devices. Therefore knowing the level of exposure electromagnetic fields of this electronic equipment has been and will be in the future interest object to the public and the subject of study for the researchers. In this paper are pres...

  11. Phase change events of volatile liquid perfluorocarbon contrast agents produce unique acoustic signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheeran, Paul S; Dayton, Paul A; Matsunaga, Terry O

    2014-01-01

    Phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) provide a dynamic platform to approach problems in medical ultrasound (US). Upon US-mediated activation, the liquid core vaporizes and expands to produce a gas bubble ideal for US imaging and therapy. In this study, we demonstrate through high-speed video microscopy and US interrogation that PCCAs composed of highly volatile perfluorocarbons (PFCs) exhibit unique acoustic behavior that can be detected and differentiated from standard microbubble contrast agents. Experimental results show that when activated with short pulses PCCAs will over-expand and undergo unforced radial oscillation while settling to a final bubble diameter. The size-dependent oscillation phenomenon generates a unique acoustic signal that can be passively detected in both time and frequency domain using confocal piston transducers with an ‘activate high’ (8 MHz, 2 cycles), ‘listen low’ (1 MHz) scheme. Results show that the magnitude of the acoustic ‘signature’ increases as PFC boiling point decreases. By using a band-limited spectral processing technique, the droplet signals can be isolated from controls and used to build experimental relationships between concentration and vaporization pressure. The techniques shown here may be useful for physical studies as well as development of droplet-specific imaging techniques. (paper)

  12. Stable And Oscillating Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Garrett, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    Sample stability or instability determined by levitating frequency. Degree of oscillation of acoustically levitated object along axis of levitation chamber controlled by varying frequency of acoustic driver for axis above or below frequency of corresponding chamber resonance. Stabilization/oscillation technique applied in normal Earth gravity, or in absence of gravity to bring object quickly to rest at nominal levitation position or make object oscillate in desired range about that position.

  13. 6种不同声频对豇豆苗期生长的影响%Effect of Six Different Acoustic Frequencies on Growth of Cowpea(Vigna unguiculata)during Its Seedling Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊; 姜仕仁

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the effects of sound waves with different types and frequency characteristics on the growth of cowpea(Vigna unguiculata)during seedling stage.[Method] The insect-music mixed sound(MI),cuckoo acoustic song,cricket acoustic song,single 400 Hz frequency sound wave,F5 and Fn sound waves composed of different frequencies were designed to investigate their effects on height and weight of cowpea seedling,and experimental data were statistically analyzed and multiple-compared by EXCEL.[Result] After treatment by sound waves with six different types and frequencies,the growth situations of cowpea were better than that in control.This indicated that sound waves could significantly promote height growth of plant.The treatments with good growth-promotion effect included 400 Hz frequency sound wave,cuckoo acoustic song and cricket acoustic song,followed by MI,Fn and F5.Cuckoo and cricket acoustic song treatment could promote the weight of cowpea seedling during seedling stage.[Conclusion] Sound waves with different types and frequency characteristics had significant growth-promotion effect on growth of cowpea during seedling stage,but their effects were different.%[目的]研究不同类型、频率特征的声波对豇豆苗期生长的影响。[方法]以古典音乐与昆虫鸣声的混合声波(MI)、杜鹃鸣声、蟋蟀鸣声、单一频率的400Hz声波和多种频率合成的F5、Fn声波进行试验比较,对豇豆苗高、苗重进行测定,采用EXCEL进行统计分析和多重比较。[结果]经6种不同类型和频率声频处理后,豇豆苗期生长生长状况均显著优于对照组,表明声波能显著促进株高生长,对豇豆苗期助长效果较好的是400Hz、杜鹃鸣声和蟋蟀鸣声,其次是MI、Fn和F5;与对照组相比,杜鹃鸣声和蟋蟀鸣声处理组在生长期间能显著促进苗株增

  14. Evaluation method for acoustic trapping performance by tracking motion of trapped microparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hae Gyun; Ham Kim, Hyung; Yoon, Changhan

    2018-05-01

    We report a method to evaluate the performances of a single-beam acoustic tweezer using a high-frequency ultrasound transducer. The motion of a microparticle trapped by a 45-MHz single-element transducer was captured and analyzed to deduce the magnitude of trapping force. In the proposed method, the motion of a trapped microparticle was analyzed from a series of microscopy images to compute trapping force; thus, no additional equipment such as microfluidics is required. The method could be used to estimate the effective trapping force in an acoustic tweezer experiment to assess cell membrane deformability by attaching a microbead to the surface of a cell and tracking the motion of the trapped bead, which is similar to a bead-based assay that uses optical tweezers. The results showed that the trapping force increased with increasing acoustic intensity and duty factor, but the force eventually reached a plateau at a higher acoustic intensity. They demonstrated that this method could be used as a simple tool to evaluate the performance and to optimize the operating conditions of acoustic tweezers.

  15. Selective particle and cell capture in a continuous flow using micro-vortex acoustic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David J; Khoo, Bee Luan; Ma, Zhichao; Winkler, Andreas; Weser, Robert; Schmidt, Hagen; Han, Jongyoon; Ai, Ye

    2017-05-16

    Acoustic streaming has emerged as a promising technique for refined microscale manipulation, where strong rotational flow can give rise to particle and cell capture. In contrast to hydrodynamically generated vortices, acoustic streaming is rapidly tunable, highly scalable and requires no external pressure source. Though streaming is typically ignored or minimized in most acoustofluidic systems that utilize other acoustofluidic effects, we maximize the effect of acoustic streaming in a continuous flow using a high-frequency (381 MHz), narrow-beam focused surface acoustic wave. This results in rapid fluid streaming, with velocities orders of magnitude greater than that of the lateral flow, to generate fluid vortices that extend the entire width of a 400 μm wide microfluidic channel. We characterize the forces relevant for vortex formation in a combined streaming/lateral flow system, and use these acoustic streaming vortices to selectively capture 2 μm from a mixed suspension with 1 μm particles and human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-231) from red blood cells.

  16. Operation of a 473 MHz four-rod cavity RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimi, R.; Huson, F.R.; Mackay, W.W.; Meitzler, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    We have constructed a new type of four-rod Radio Frequency Quadrupole to operate at 473 MHz. Four-rod structures have not previously been built for such a high frequency. The RFQ is designed to accelerate 10 mA of H - ions from 30 keV to 0.5 MeV. The rf measurements and beam test of the RFQ have been performed successfully. Here we present operational results of the RFQ system including measurements of the beam current, the required rf power, energy, energy spread, and emittance. (Author) 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Exploiting elastic anharmonicity in aluminum nitride matrix for phase-synchronous frequency reference generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatge, Mayur; Tabrizian, Roozbeh

    2018-03-01

    A matrix of aluminum-nitride (AlN) waveguides is acoustically engineered to realize electrically isolated phase-synchronous frequency references through nonlinear wave-mixing. AlN rectangular waveguides are cross-coupled through a periodically perforated plate that is engineered to have a wide acoustic bandgap around a desirable frequency ( f1≈509 MHz). While the coupling plate isolates the matrix from resonant vibrations of individual waveguide constituents at f1, it is transparent to the third-order harmonic waves (3f1) that are generated through nonlinear wave-mixing. Therefore, large-signal excitation of the f1 mode in a constituent waveguide generates acoustic waves at 3f1 with an efficiency defined by elastic anharmonicity of the AlN film. The phase-synchronous propagation of the third harmonic through the matrix is amplified by a high quality-factor resonance mode at f2≈1529 MHz, which is sufficiently close to 3f1 (f2 ≅ 3f1). Such an architecture enables realization of frequency-multiplied and phase-synchronous, yet electrically and spectrally isolated, references for multi-band/carrier and spread-spectrum wireless communication systems.

  18. 300-MHz optical discriminator-counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turko, B.; Lo, C.C.

    1981-07-01

    The prediction of future CO 2 content in the atmosphere is not completely credible because the oceanographers and terrestrial ecologists do not agree on the global CO 2 balance. Very precise measurements of O 2 /N 2 ratio using Raman scattering over a few years' period could provide important information and lead to the explanation of the disparity in the atmospheric CO 2 balance. An optical discriminator-counter has been developed to count closely spaced optical events in the few photon level. Simulated optical events as close as 2.5 ns apart had been positively detected by using selected photomultipliers and optimized discriminators. Testing of the optical discriminator-counter was done by using an electrical pulse pair spaced 3 ns apart and also by a similar optical pulse pair generated by fast light-emitting diode. The photomultiplier is capable of counting an average single photoelectron pulse frequency of 50 MHz and has a sensitive detecting area of 50 mm in diameter. The discriminator performance is discussed

  19. Communication Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauert, Jens

    Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....

  20. Thermoelastic expansion vs. piezoelectricity for high-frequency, 2-D arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buma, Takashi; Spisar, Monica; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2003-08-01

    Optical generation using the thermoelastic effect has traditionally suffered from low conversion efficiency. We previously demonstrated increased efficiency of nearly 20 dB with an optical absorbing layer consisting of a mixture of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and carbon black spin coated onto a glass microscope slide. In this paper we show that the radiated power from a black PDMS film is comparable to a 20 MHz piezoelectric two-dimensional (2-D) array element. Furthermore, we predict that a thermoelastic array element can produce similar acoustic power levels compared to ideal piezoelectric 2-D array elements at frequencies in the 100 MHz regime. We believe these results show that thermoelastic generation of ultrasound is a promising alternative to piezoelectricity for high-frequency, 2-D arrays.

  1. High-frequency Doppler ultrasound transducer for the peripheral circulatory system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Youngmin; Yang, Jeongwon; Kang, Uk; Kim, Guanghoon [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    A Doppler ultrasound transducer was designed and implemented to measure the blood flow velocity in tiny vessels near the skin of hands or feet. The geometric parameters of the transducer for defining the observation volume were derived and implemented with an acoustic window made of polystyrene. The observation volume designed in this study was located 6.5 mm from the transducer, which was comparable to the value predicted geometrically. The two-way insertion loss of the transducer was -11.3 dB on ultrasound frequency of 20 MHz, and the 3-dB bandwidth was approximately 2 MHz. In addition, the Doppler shift in the frequency measured by using a Doppler device composed of the transducer and a Doppler signal processing unit was proportional to the flow velocity generated by a homemade flowing system. Finally, we concluded that the transducer could be applied to measure the blood flow velocity in hands or feet.

  2. High-frequency Doppler ultrasound transducer for the peripheral circulatory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Youngmin; Yang, Jeongwon; Kang, Uk; Kim, Guanghoon

    2011-01-01

    A Doppler ultrasound transducer was designed and implemented to measure the blood flow velocity in tiny vessels near the skin of hands or feet. The geometric parameters of the transducer for defining the observation volume were derived and implemented with an acoustic window made of polystyrene. The observation volume designed in this study was located 6.5 mm from the transducer, which was comparable to the value predicted geometrically. The two-way insertion loss of the transducer was -11.3 dB on ultrasound frequency of 20 MHz, and the 3-dB bandwidth was approximately 2 MHz. In addition, the Doppler shift in the frequency measured by using a Doppler device composed of the transducer and a Doppler signal processing unit was proportional to the flow velocity generated by a homemade flowing system. Finally, we concluded that the transducer could be applied to measure the blood flow velocity in hands or feet.

  3. Bifurcation of ensemble oscillations and acoustic emissions from early stage cavitation clouds in focused ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerold, Bjoern; Prentice, Paul; Rachmilevitch, Itay

    2013-01-01

    The acoustic emissions from single cavitation clouds at an early stage of development in 0.521 MHz focused ultrasound of varying intensity, are detected and directly correlated to high-speed microscopic observations, recorded at 1 × 10 6 frames per second. At lower intensities, a stable regime of cloud response is identified whereby bubble-ensembles exhibit oscillations at half the driving frequency, which is also detected in the acoustic emission spectra. Higher intensities generate clouds that develop more rapidly, with increased nonlinearity evidenced by a bifurcation in the frequency of ensemble response, and in the acoustic emissions. A single bubble oscillation model is subject to equivalent ultrasound conditions and fitted to features in the hydrophone and high-speed spectral data, allowing an effective quiescent radius to be inferred for the clouds that evolve at each intensity. The approach indicates that the acoustic emissions originate from the ensemble dynamics and that the cloud acts as a single bubble of equivalent radius in terms of the scattered field. Jetting from component cavities on the periphery of clouds is regularly observed at higher intensities. The results may be of relevance for monitoring and controlling cavitation in therapeutic applications of focused ultrasound, where the phenomenon has the potential to mediate drug delivery from vasculature. (paper)

  4. Controlled rotation and translation of spherical particles or living cells by surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Ianis; Doinikov, Alexander A; Marmottant, Philippe; Rabaud, David; Poulain, Cédric; Thibault, Pierre

    2017-07-11

    We show experimental evidence of the acoustically-assisted micromanipulation of small objects like solid particles or blood cells, combining rotation and translation, using high frequency surface acoustic waves. This was obtained from the leakage in a microfluidic channel of two standing waves arranged perpendicularly in a LiNbO 3 piezoelectric substrate working at 36.3 MHz. By controlling the phase lag between the emitters, we could, in addition to translation, generate a swirling motion of the emitting surface which, in turn, led to the rapid rotation of spherical polystyrene Janus beads suspended in the channel and of human red and white blood cells up to several rounds per second. We show that these revolution velocities are compatible with a torque caused by the acoustic streaming that develops at the particles surface, like that first described by [F. Busse et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 1981, 69(6), 1634-1638]. This device, based on standard interdigitated transducers (IDTs) adjusted to emit at equal frequencies, opens a way to a large range of applications since it allows the simultaneous control of the translation and rotation of hard objects, as well as the investigation of the response of cells to shear stress.

  5. Analysis of acoustic reflectors for SAW temperature sensor and wireless measurement of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Kim, Seong Hoon; Jeong, Jae Kee; Shin, Beom Soo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a wireless and non power SAW (surface acoustic wave) temperature sensor was developed. The single inter digital transducer (IDT) of SAW temperature sensor of which resonance frequency is 434 MHz was fabricated on 128.deg rot-X LiNbO 3 piezoelectric substrate by semiconductor processing technology. To find optimal acoustic reflector for SAW temperature sensor, various kinds of acoustic reflectors were fabricated and their reflection characteristics were analyzed. The IDT type acoustic reflector showed better reflection characteristic than other reflectors. The wireless temperature sensing system consisting of SAW temperature sensor with dipole antenna and a microprocessor based control circuit with dipole antenna for transmitting signal to activate the SAW temperature sensor and receiving the signal from SAW temperature sensor was developed. The result with wireless SAW temperature sensing system showed that the frequency of SAW temperature sensor was linearly decreased with the increase of temperature in the range of 40 to 80.deg.C and the developed wireless SAW temperature sensing system showed the excellent performance with the coefficient of determination of 0.99

  6. Ultrasound imparted air-recoil resonance (UIAR) method for acoustic power estimation: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiplavil, Sreekumar; Rivens, Ian; ter Haar, Gail

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasound imparted air-recoil resonance (UIAR), a new method for acoustic power estimation, is introduced with emphasis on therapeutic high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) monitoring applications. Advantages of this approach over existing practices include fast response; electrical and magnetic inertness, and hence MRI compatibility; portability; high damage threshold and immunity to vibration and interference; low cost; etc. The angle of incidence should be fixed for accurate measurement. However, the transducer-detector pair can be aligned in any direction with respect to the force of gravity. In this sense, the operation of the device is orientation independent. The acoustic response of a pneumatically coupled pair of Helmholtz resonators, with one of them acting as the sensor head, is used for the estimation of acoustic power. The principle is valid in the case of pulsed/ burst as well as continuous ultrasound exposure, the former being more sensitive and accurate. An electro-acoustic theory has been developed for describing the dynamics of pressure flow and resonance in the system considering various thermo- viscous loss mechanisms. Experimental observations are found to be in agreement with theoretical results. Assuming the window damage threshold (~10 J·mm(-2)) and accuracy of RF power estimation are the upper and lower scale-limiting factors, the performance of the device was examined for an RF power range of 5 mW to 100 W with a HIFU transducer operating at 1.70 MHz, and an average nonlinearity of ~1.5% was observed. The device is also sensitive to sub-milliwatt powers. The frequency response was analyzed at 0.85, 1.70, 2.55, and 3.40 MHz and the results are presented with respective theoretical estimates. Typical response time is in the millisecond regime. Output drift is about 3% for resonant and 5% for nonresonant modes. The principle has been optimized to demonstrate a general-purpose acoustic power meter.

  7. Early detection of melanoma with the combined use of acoustic microscopy, infrared reflectance and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis, Georgios T.; Grivas, Ioannis; Tsingotjidou, Anastasia; Apostolidis, Georgios K.; Grigoriadou, Ifigeneia; Dori, I.; Poulatsidou, Kyriaki-Nefeli; Doumas, Argyrios; Wesarg, Stefan; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2015-03-01

    Malignant melanoma is a form of skin cancer, with increasing incidence worldwide. Early diagnosis is crucial for the prognosis and treatment of the disease. The objective of this study is to develop a novel animal model of melanoma and apply a combination of the non-invasive imaging techniques acoustic microscopy, infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies, for the detection of developing tumors. Acoustic microscopy provides information about the 3D structure of the tumor, whereas, both spectroscopic modalities give qualitative insight of biochemical changes during melanoma development. In order to efficiently set up the final devices, propagation of ultrasonic and electromagnetic waves in normal skin and melanoma simulated structures was performed. Synthetic and grape-extracted melanin (simulated tumors), endermally injected, were scanned and compared to normal skin. For both cases acoustic microscopy with central operating frequencies of 110MHz and 175MHz were used, resulting to the tomographic imaging of the simulated tumor, while with the spectroscopic modalities IR and Raman differences among spectra of normal and melanin- injected sites were identified in skin depth. Subsequently, growth of actual tumors in an animal melanoma model, with the use of human malignant melanoma cells was achieved. Acoustic microscopy and IR and Raman spectroscopies were also applied. The development of tumors at different time points was displayed using acoustic microscopy. Moreover, the changes of the IR and Raman spectra were studied between the melanoma tumors and adjacent healthy skin. The most significant changes between healthy skin and the melanoma area were observed in the range of 900-1800cm-1 and 350-2000cm-1, respectively.

  8. Correlating Inertial Acoustic Cavitation Emissions with Material Erosion Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, I.; Hodnett, M.; Zeqiri, B.; Frota, M. N.

    The standard ASTM G32-10 concerns the hydrodynamic cavitation erosion resistance of materials by subjecting them to acoustic cavitation generated by a sonotrode. The work reported extends this technique by detecting and monitoring the ultrasonic cavitation, considered responsible for the erosion process, specifically for coupons of aluminium-bronze alloy. The study uses a 65 mm diameter variant of NPL's cavitation sensor, which detects broadband acoustic emissions, and logs acoustic signals generated in the MHz frequency range, using NPL's Cavimeter. Cavitation readings were made throughout the exposure duration, which was carried out at discrete intervals (900 to 3600 s), allowing periodic mass measurements to be made to assess erosion loss under a strict protocol. Cavitation measurements and erosion were compared for different separations of the sonotrode tip from the material under test. The maximum variation associated with measurement of cavitation level was between 2.2% and 3.3% when the separation (λ) between the transducer horn and the specimen increased from 0.5 to 1.0 mm, for a transducer (sonotrode) displacement amplitude of 43.5 μm. Experiments conducted at the same transducer displacement amplitude show that the mass loss of the specimen -a measure of erosion- was 67.0 mg (λ = 0.5 mm) and 66.0 mg (λ = 1.0 mm).

  9. Crosstalk Models for Short VDSL2 Lines from Measured 30 MHz Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leshem A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a growing interest in hybrid fiber-copper access solutions, as in fiber to the basement (FTTB and fiber to the curb/cabinet (FTTC. The twisted pair segment in these architectures is in the range of a few hundred meters, thus supporting transmission over tens of MHz. This paper provides crosstalk models derived from measured data for quad cable, lengths between 75 and 590 meters, and frequencies up to MHz. The results indicate that the log-normal statistical model (with a simple parametric law for the frequency-dependent mean fits well up to MHz for both FEXT and NEXT. This extends earlier log-normal statistical modeling and validation results for NEXT over bandwidths in the order of a few MHz. The fitted crosstalk power spectra are useful for modem design and simulation. Insertion loss, phase, and impulse response duration characteristics of the direct channels are also provided.

  10. Acoustic Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. ... can press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the ...

  11. Optimized 425MHz passive wireless magnetic field sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2014-06-01

    A passive, magnetic field sensor consisting of a 425 MHz surface acoustic wave device loaded with a giant magnetoimpedance element is developed. The GMI element with a multilayer structure composed of Ni80Fe 20/Cu/Ni80Fe20, is fabricated on a 128° Y-X cut LiNbO3 LiNbO3 substrate. The integrated sensor is characterized with a network analyzer through an S-parameter measurement. Upon the application of a magnetic field, a maximum magnitude change and phase shift of 7.8 dB and 27 degree, respectively, are observed. Within the linear region, the magnetic sensitivity is 1.6 dB/Oe and 5 deg/Oe. © 2014 IEEE.

  12. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, D.W.; Whittaker, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal

  13. Early 500 MHz prototype LEP RF Cavity with superposed storage cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    The principle of transferring the RF power back and forth between the accelerating cavity and a side-coupled storage cavity was demonstrated with this 500 MHz prototype. In LEP, the accelerating frequency was 352.2 MHz, and accelerating and storage cavities were consequently larger. See also 8002294, 8006061, 8407619X, and Annual Reports 1980, p.115; 1981, p.95; 1985, vol.I, p.13.

  14. Department of Cybernetic Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of the theory, instrumentation and applications of methods and systems for the measurement, analysis, processing and synthesis of acoustic signals within the audio frequency range, particularly of the speech signal and the vibro-acoustic signal emitted by technical and industrial equipments treated as noise and vibration sources was discussed. The research work, both theoretical and experimental, aims at applications in various branches of science, and medicine, such as: acoustical diagnostics and phoniatric rehabilitation of pathological and postoperative states of the speech organ; bilateral ""man-machine'' speech communication based on the analysis, recognition and synthesis of the speech signal; vibro-acoustical diagnostics and continuous monitoring of the state of machines, technical equipments and technological processes.

  15. Material and Phonon Engineering for Next Generation Acoustic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Nai-Kuei

    This thesis presents the theoretical and experimental work related to micromachining of low intrinsic loss sapphire and phononic crystals for engineering new classes of electroacoustic devices for frequency control applications. For the first time, a low loss sapphire suspended membrane was fabricated and utilized to form the main body of a piezoelectric lateral overtone bulk acoustic resonator (LOBAR). Since the metalized piezoelectric transducer area in a LOBAR is only a small fraction of the overall resonant cavity (made out of sapphire), high quality factor (Q) overtones are attained. The experiment confirms the low intrinsic mechanical loss of the transferred sapphire thin film, and the resonators exhibit the highest Q of 5,440 at 2.8 GHz ( f·Q of 1.53.1013 Hz). This is also the highest f·Q demonstrated for aluminum-nitride-(AIN)-based Lamb wave devices to date. Beyond demonstrating a low loss device, this experimental work has laid the foundation for the future development of new micromechanical devices based on a high Q, high hardness and chemically resilient material. The search for alternative ways to more efficiently perform frequency control functionalities lead to the exploration of Phononic Crystal (PnC) structures in AIN thin films. Four unit cell designs were theoretically and experimentally investigated to explore the behavior of phononic bandgaps (PBGs) in the ultra high frequency (UHF) range: (i) the conventional square lattice with circular air scatterer, (ii) the inverse acoustic bandgap (IABG) structure, (iii) the fractal PnC, and (iv) the X-shaped PnC. Each unit cell has its unique frequency characteristic that was exploited to synthesize either cavity resonators or improve the performance of acoustic delay lines. The PBGs operate in the range of 770 MHz to 1 GHz and exhibit a maximum acoustic rejection of 40 dB. AIN Lamb wave transducers (LWTs) were employed for the experimental demonstration of the PBGs and cavity resonances. Ultra

  16. Measuring personal exposure from 900MHz mobile phone base stations in Australia and Belgium using a novel personal distributed exposimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Thielens, Arno; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Billah, Baki; Sim, Malcolm R; Vermeulen, Roel; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout; Benke, Geza

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: i) measure personal exposure in the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) 900MHz downlink (DL) frequency band with two systems of exposimeters, a personal distributed exposimeter (PDE) and a pair of ExpoM-RFs, ii) compare the GSM 900MHz DL exposures across

  17. Surface acoustic wave micromotor with arbitrary axis rotational capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjeung, Ricky T.; Hughes, Mark S.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.

    2011-11-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) actuated rotary motor is reported here, consisting of a millimeter-sized spherical metal rotor placed on the surface of a lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric substrate upon which the SAW is made to propagate. At the design frequency of 3.2 MHz and with a fixed preload of 41.1 μN, the maximum rotational speed and torque achieved were approximately 1900 rpm and 5.37 μN-mm, respectively, producing a maximum output power of 1.19 μW. The surface vibrations were visualized using laser Doppler vibrometry and indicate that the rotational motion arises due to retrograde elliptical motions of the piezoelectric surface elements. Rotation about orthogonal axes in the plane of the substrate has been obtained by using orthogonally placed interdigital electrodes on the substrate to generate SAW impinging on the rotor, offering a means to generate rotation about an arbitrary axis in the plane of the substrate.

  18. Cell death induced by GSM 900-MHz and DCS 1800-MHz mobile telephony radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, D. J; Chavdoula, E. D.; Nezis, I. P.; Margaritis, L. H.

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay '' a well known technique widely used for detecting fragmented DNA in various types of cells'' was used to detect cell death (DNA fragmentation) in a biological model, the early and mid stages of oogenesis of the insect Drosophila melanogaster. The flies were exposed in vivo to either GSM 900-MHz (Global System for Mobile telecommunications) or DCS 1800-MHz (Digital Cellular System) radiation from a common digital mobile phone, for few minutes per day during the first 6 days of their adult life. The exposure conditions were similar to those to which a mobile phone user is exposed, and were determined according to previous studies of ours [D.J. Panagopoulos, A. Karabarbounis, L.H. Margaritis, Effect of GSM 900-MHz mobile phone radiation on the reproductive capacity of D. melanogaster, Electromagn. Biol. Med. 23 (1) (2004) 29''43; D.J. Panagopoulos, N. Messini, A. Karabarbounis, A.L. Philippetis, L.H. Margaritis, Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation within ''safety levels'' alters the physiological function of insects, in: P. Kostarakis, P. Stavroulakis (Eds.), Proceedings of the Millennium International Workshop on Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, October 17''20, 2000, pp. 169''175, ISBN: 960-86733-0-5; D.J. Panagopoulos, L.H. Margaritis, Effects of electromagnetic fields on the reproductive capacity of D. melanogaster, in: P. Stavroulakis (Ed.), Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Springer, 2003, pp. 545''578], which had shown a large decrease in the oviposition of the same insect caused by GSM radiation. Our present results suggest that the decrease in oviposition previously reported, is due to degeneration of large numbers of egg chambers after DNA fragmentation of their constituent cells, induced by both types of mobile telephony radiation. Induced cell death is recorded for the first time, in all types of

  19. The Acoustical Apparatus of Rudolph Koenig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the history of Rudolph Koenig's contribution to the development of acoustical apparatus. Contributions include the clock fork to determine absolute acoustic frequencies, a forerunner of the oscilloscope called the manometric flame, and an acoustic interference apparatus used in the Fourier synthesis of musical sounds. (MDH)

  20. Electromagnetic radiation-2450 MHz exposure causes cognition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    83

    Electromagnetic radiation-2450 MHz exposure causes cognition deficit with mitochondrial. 1 ... decrease in levels of acetylcholine, and increase in activity of acetyl ...... neuronal apoptosis and cognitive disturbances in sevoflurane or propofol ...

  1. Tunable coupled surface acoustic cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, M. M.; Santos, P. V.; Kosevich, Yu. A.; Cantarero, A.

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate the electric tuning of the acoustic field in acoustic microcavities (MCs) defined by a periodic arrangement of metal stripes within a surface acoustic delay line on LiNbO3 substrate. Interferometric measurements show the enhancement of the acoustic field distribution within a single MC, the presence of a "bonding" and "anti-bonding" modes for two strongly coupled MCs, as well as the positive dispersion of the "mini-bands" formed by five coupled MCs. The frequency and amplitude of the resonances can be controlled by the potential applied to the metal stripes.

  2. Ion-acoustic plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychenkov, V.Y.; Silin, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    A theory is developed of the nonlinear state that is established in a plasma as a result of development of ion-acoustic instability. Account is taken simultaneously of the linear induced scattering of the waves by the ions and of the quasilinear relaxation of the electrons by the ion-acoustic pulsations. The distribution of the ion-acoustic turbulence in frequency and in angle is obtained. An Ohm's law is established and expressions are obtained for the electronic heat flux and for the relaxation time of the electron temperature in a turbulent plasma. Anomalously large absorption and scattering of the electromagnetic waves by the ion-acoustic pulsations is predicted

  3. Surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) flow sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shrinivas G.

    1991-03-01

    The use of a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) device to measure the rate of gas flow is described. A SAW oscillator heated to a suitable temperature above ambient is placed in the path of a flowing gas. Convective cooling caused by the gas flow results in a change in the oscillator frequency. A 73-MHz oscillator fabricated on 128 deg rotated Y-cut lithium niobate substrate and heated to 55 C above ambient shows a frequency variation greater than 142 kHz for flow-rate variation from 0 to 1000 cu cm/min. The output of the sensor can be calibrated to provide a measurement of volume flow rate, pressure differential across channel ports, or mass flow rate. High sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and direct digital output are among the attractive features of this sensor. Theoretical expressions for the sensitivity and response time of the sensor are derived. It is shown that by using ultrasonic Lamb waves propagating in thin membranes, a flow sensor with faster response than a SAW sensor can be realized.

  4. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai

    2014-10-01

    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.

  5. Magneto acoustic emission and magnetic barkhausen noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyra Astudillo, M R; Nunez, N; Lopez Pumarega, M I; Ruzzante, J

    2012-01-01

    Results obtained in the characterization of a sample of A508 Class II steel, are showed. This material is usually used for pressure vessels construction. Two techniques not very spread in our country, but developed at our Research Group were used: Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) and Magneto Acoustic Emission (MAE). Both techniques only can be used with ferromagnetic materials. A sinusoidal low frequency magnetic field (10 Hz) was applied on the material under test, producing a sudden movement of the magnetic domain walls. This movement produces an induced EMF. In this case it is amplified and filtered in the wide band between 20 kHz and 300 kHz. The electrical signal generated at the sensing coil is called Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN). The MBN was known since 1919 when it was observed for the first time. The movement of the magnetic domain walls generates at the same time elastic waves which propagate inside the material. Fixing a piezoelectric transducer on the sample surface, it is possible to detect these waves. This phenomenon is known as Magneto Acoustic Emission (MAE) and its frequency band is 20 kHz up to 1 MHz. As it is widely known, the domain structure and their walls movement are deeply influenced by the metal defects and microstructure (stress, grain size, precipitates, etc.). Then studying the domain wall movement it is possible to induce the material state. At the present study, we can infer that the material analyzed with these two techniques, has an anisotropy showed at the polar graphs, but does not totally showed at the metallographic study. Subsequent studies employing the Baumann imprint technique showed that manganese sulphides present an orientation similar to that founded with MNB and MAE. This work is completed with MEB and EDAX (author)

  6. A search for interplanetary scintillation of Cygnus A at 81.5 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsien, S.C.; Duffett-Smith, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    IPS observations of Cygnus A at 81.5 MHz with the Cambridge 3.6-hectare array set an upper limit on the scintillation of 0.07 per cent of the total flux density. This suggests that the hotspots seen at high frequencies are much less prominent at low frequencies. (author)

  7. 47 CFR 87.475 - Frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with simultaneous radiotelephone channels and their associated glide path station frequency from the...) VHF omni-range (VOR) stations are to be assigned frequencies in the 112.050-117.950 MHz band (50 kHz channel spacing) and the following frequencies in the 108-112 MHz band: 108.200 108.250 108.400 108.450...

  8. Effects of acute and chronic exposure to both 900 MHz and 2100 MHz electromagnetic radiation on glutamate receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçek-Saraç, Çiğdem; Er, Hakan; Kencebay Manas, Ceren; Kantar Gok, Deniz; Özen, Şükrü; Derin, Narin

    2017-09-01

    To demonstrate the molecular effects of acute and chronic exposure to both 900 and 2100 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the hippocampal level/activity of some of the enzymes - including PKA, CaMKIIα, CREB, and p44/42 MAPK - from N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-related signaling pathways. Rats were divided into the following groups: sham rats, and rats exposed to 900 and 2100 MHz RF-EMR for 2 h/day for acute (1 week) or chronic (10 weeks), respectively. Western blotting and activity measurement assays were used to assess the level/activity of the selected enzymes. The obtained results revealed that the hippocampal level/activity of selected enzymes was significantly higher in the chronic groups as compared to the acute groups at both 900 and 2100 MHz RF-EMR exposure. In addition, hippocampal level/activity of selected enzymes was significantly higher at 2100 MHz RF-EMR than 900 MHz RF-EMR in both acute and chronic groups. The present study provides experimental evidence that both exposure duration (1 week versus 10 weeks) and different carrier frequencies (900 vs. 2100 MHz) had different effects on the protein expression of hippocampus in Wistar rats, which might encourage further research on protection against RF-EMR exposure.

  9. Subharmonic generation, chaos, and subharmonic resurrection in an acoustically driven fluid-filled cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H; Adler, Laszlo; Yost, William T

    2015-02-01

    Traveling wave solutions of the nonlinear acoustic wave equation are obtained for the fundamental and second harmonic resonances of a fluid-filled cavity. The solutions lead to the development of a non-autonomous toy model for cavity oscillations. Application of the Melnikov method to the model equation predicts homoclinic bifurcation of the Smale horseshoe type leading to a cascade of period doublings with increasing drive displacement amplitude culminating in chaos. The threshold value of the drive displacement amplitude at tangency is obtained in terms of the acoustic drive frequency and fluid attenuation coefficient. The model prediction of subharmonic generation leading to chaos is validated from acousto-optic diffraction measurements in a water-filled cavity using a 5 MHz acoustic drive frequency and from the measured frequency spectrum in the bifurcation cascade regime. The calculated resonant threshold amplitude of 0.2 nm for tangency is consistent with values estimated for the experimental set-up. Experimental evidence for the appearance of a stable subharmonic beyond chaos is reported.

  10. Fundamentals of Shallow Water Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Katsnelson, Boris; Lynch, James

    2012-01-01

    Shallow water acoustics (SWA), the study of how low and medium frequency sound propagates and scatters on the continental shelves of the world's oceans, has both technical interest and a large number of practical applications. Technically, shallow water poses an interesting medium for the study of acoustic scattering, inverse theory, and propagation physics in a complicated oceanic waveguide. Practically, shallow water acoustics has interest for geophysical exploration, marine mammal studies, and naval applications. Additionally, one notes the very interdisciplinary nature of shallow water acoustics, including acoustical physics, physical oceanography, marine geology, and marine biology. In this specialized volume, the authors, all of whom have extensive at-sea experience in U.S. and Russian research efforts, have tried to summarize the main experimental, theoretical, and computational results in shallow water acoustics, with an emphasis on providing physical insight into the topics presented.

  11. Dual-pulse frequency compounded superharmonic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Neer, Paul L M J; Danilouchkine, Mikhail G; Matte, Guillaume M; van der Steen, Anton F W; de Jong, Nico

    2011-11-01

    Tissue second-harmonic imaging is currently the default mode in commercial diagnostic ultrasound systems. A new modality, superharmonic imaging (SHI), combines the third through fifth harmonics originating from nonlinear wave propagation through tissue. SHI could further improve the resolution and quality of echographic images. The superharmonics have gaps between the harmonics because the transducer has a limited bandwidth of about 70% to 80%. This causes ghost reflection artifacts in the superharmonic echo image. In this work, a new dual-pulse frequency compounding (DPFC) method to eliminate these artifacts is introduced. In the DPFC SHI method, each trace is constructed by summing two firings with slightly different center frequencies. The feasibility of the method was established using a single-element transducer. Its acoustic field was modeled in KZK simulations and compared with the corresponding measurements obtained with a hydrophone apparatus. Subsequently, the method was implemented on and optimized for a setup consisting of an interleaved phased-array transducer (44 elements at 1 MHz and 44 elements at 3.7 MHz, optimized for echocardiography) and a programmable ultrasound system. DPFC SHI effectively suppresses the ghost reflection artifacts associated with imaging using multiple harmonics. Moreover, compared with the single-pulse third harmonic, DPFC SHI improved the axial resolution by 3.1 and 1.6 times at the -6-dB and -20-dB levels, respectively. Hence, DPFC offers the possibility of generating harmonic images of a higher quality at a cost of a moderate frame rate reduction.

  12. Controlling Sample Rotation in Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Stoneburner, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Rotation of acoustically levitated object stopped or controlled according to phase-shift monitoring and control concept. Principle applies to square-cross-section levitation chamber with two perpendicular acoustic drivers operating at same frequency. Phase difference between X and Y acoustic excitation measured at one corner by measuring variation of acoustic amplitude sensed by microphone. Phase of driver adjusted to value that produces no rotation or controlled rotation of levitated object.

  13. Velocities of Auroral Coherent Echoes At 12 and 144 Mhz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koustov, A. V.; Danskin, D. W.; Makarevitch, R. A.; Uspensky, M. V.; Janhunen, P.; Nishitani, N.; Nozawa, N.; Lester, M.; Milan, S.

    Two Doppler coherent radar systems are currently working at Hankasalmi, Finland, the STARE and CUTLASS radars operating at 144 MHz and 12 MHz, respectively. The STARE beam 3 is nearly co-located with the CUTLASS beam 5 providing an opportunity for echo velocity comparison along the same direction but at significantly different radar frequencies. In this study we consider one event when STARE radar echoes are detected t the same ranges as CUTLASS radar echoes. The observations are complemented by EISCAT measurements of the ionospheric electric field and elec- tron density behavior at one range of 900 km. Two separate situations are studied; for the first one, CUTLASS observed F-region echoes (including the range of the EIS- CAT measurements) while for the second one CUTLASS observed E-region echoes. In both cases STARE E-region measurements were available. We show that F-region CUTLASS velocities agree well with the convection component along the CUTLASS radar beam while STARE velocities are sometimes smaller by a factor of 2-3. For the second case, STARE velocities are found to be either smaller or larger than CUTLASS velocities, depending on range. Plasma physics of E- and F-region irregularities is dis- cussed in attempt to explain inferred relationship between various velocities. Special attention is paid to ionospheric refraction that is important for the detection of 12-MHz echoes.

  14. Assessment of cutaneous radiation fibrosis by 20 MHz-sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottloeber, P.; Braun-Falco, B.; Plewig, G.; Kerscher, M.; Peter, R.U.; Nadeshina, N.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation fibrosis is the cardinal symptom of the chronicle stage of the cutaneous radiation syndrome. The degree of cutaneous fibrosis can clinically be estimated by palpation. High-frequency 20 MHz-sonography is an established, noninvasive procedure, which renders an exact determination of skin thickness and additionally densitometry is possible. We investigated 15 survivors of the Chernobyl accident in 1986, who developed symptoms of the chronic stage of the cutaneous radiation syndrome. We determined skin thickness and echogenicity of skin areas clinically suggestive of radiation fibrosis before, during and after treatment. 20 MHz-sonography showed a distinct enlargement of the echorich corium and a reduction of the subcutaneous fatty tissue in comparison with the unaffected, contralateral skin, here demonstrating typical features of radiation fibrosis, namely dermal fibrosis and reactive pseudoatrophy and fatty tissue. The histology presented an increase and swelling of the collagen fibers and atypical fibroblastic cells. The patients received treatment with low-dose interferon y (Polyfcron R , 3 x 50μg s.C., three times per week) up to 30 months. A marked reduction of skin thickness and echogenicity reaching nearly normal values could be observed. We conclude that 20 MHz-sonography is an easy to apply, noninvasive, well established procedure to quantify cutaneous radiation fibrosis and to assess therapeutic outcome

  15. Evaluation on damage of pipe using ultrasonic and acoustic emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Kyung; Lee, Sang Pill; Lee, Moon Hee [Dongeui Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon Hyun [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    An elastic waves like ultrasonic and acoustic emission were used to evaluate the propagating properties of the wave in pipe, and study on mode conversion of the elastic wave due to the defects on the pipe was performed. In this study an Acoustic Emission (AE) sensor was used to receive the propagated ultrasonic wave. AE technique has a advantage that it can identify the received ultrasonic wave by the analysis of the AE parameters such as count, energy, frequency, duration time and amplitude. For transmitting and receiving of the wave, an universal angle wedge was manufactured. The optimum angles for transmitting of ultrasonic wave and signal receiving at the attached AE sensor on the pipe were determined. Theoretical dispersion curve was compared with the results of the time-frequency analysis based on the wavelet transformation. The received modes showed a good agreement with theoretical one. The used ultrasonic sensor was 1MHz, and AE sensor was broadband. The artificial cracks were induced in the pipe to measure the propagation characteristics of the elastic wave for the cracks. AE parameters for the received signals were also varied with the crack types in the pipe. AE parameters of amplitude and duration time were more effective factors than the analysis of mode conversion for evaluation of the cracks in the pipe.

  16. Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huanyang; Chan, C T

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

  17. Electron/electron acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma

  18. MHz gravitational waves from short-term anisotropic inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around 10 −26 ∼10 −27 are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10 MHz∼100 MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.

  19. Magnetoactive Acoustic Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kunhao; Fang, Nicholas X; Huang, Guoliang; Wang, Qiming

    2018-04-11

    Acoustic metamaterials with negative constitutive parameters (modulus and/or mass density) have shown great potential in diverse applications ranging from sonic cloaking, abnormal refraction and superlensing, to noise canceling. In conventional acoustic metamaterials, the negative constitutive parameters are engineered via tailored structures with fixed geometries; therefore, the relationships between constitutive parameters and acoustic frequencies are typically fixed to form a 2D phase space once the structures are fabricated. Here, by means of a model system of magnetoactive lattice structures, stimuli-responsive acoustic metamaterials are demonstrated to be able to extend the 2D phase space to 3D through rapidly and repeatedly switching signs of constitutive parameters with remote magnetic fields. It is shown for the first time that effective modulus can be reversibly switched between positive and negative within controlled frequency regimes through lattice buckling modulated by theoretically predicted magnetic fields. The magnetically triggered negative-modulus and cavity-induced negative density are integrated to achieve flexible switching between single-negative and double-negative. This strategy opens promising avenues for remote, rapid, and reversible modulation of acoustic transportation, refraction, imaging, and focusing in subwavelength regimes. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. 318-MHz variability of complete samples of extragalactic radio sources. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, B.; Broderick, J.J.; Ledden, J.E.; O'Dell, S.L.; Condon, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    We report the remainder of two- and three-epoch 318-MHz observations of extragalactic sources in samples complete to 3 Jy at 1400 MHz and 1 Jy at 5000 MHz. From analysis of this low-frequency variability survey, we find that steep-spectrum (α> or =0.5) sources do not appear to vary, but about 40% of all flat-spectrum (α<0.5) sources exhibit low-frequency variability exceeding 8% over approx.5 yr. Among the flat-spectrum sources, those with inverted spectra show the largest fractional variations. We also find that the incidence of low-frequency variability is strongly correlated with the determination that a source is an optically violent variable. These statistical properties are consistent with models invoking relativistic beaming of radio and optical emission

  1. Ultrasonic flow-through filtration of microparticles in a microfluidic channel using frequency sweep technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Dae Cheol; Ahn, Bong Young; Cho, Seung Hyun; Siddique, A. K. M. Ariful Haque; Kim, Cheol Gi

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted on the filtration of microparticles using the acoustic radiation force of ultrasonic standing wave. The present work concerns a flow-through particle filtration method by utilizing frequency varying ultrasound. The periodical frequency sweep of the ultrasonic standing wave translocates particles across a microchannel, where particles in fluid flow are filtrated without barriers. The present filtration technique in a microfluidic channel was proposed conceptually in the 1990s. However, its experimental realization on actual particles in a microfluidic channel has not been carried out in a notable way. Several sizes of polystyrene microspheres (10 µm to 90 µm) and silicon carbide (SiC) particles (37 µm) suspended in water were applied as a test sample. For filtration of those particles, a Y-branched microfluidic channel with one inlet and two outlets was made out of steel and acrylic as a form of modulized device. Ultrasound of a few MHz in band frequency (1.75 MHz to 3.05 MHz) was transmitted into one side of the channel wall to generate a standing wave field in fluid flow. The periodical frequency sweep operation showed successful filtration performance, whereby particles in water flowed into one outlet and purified water flowed into the other outlet of the Y branch of the channel.

  2. Topological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Gao, Zhen; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile

    2015-03-01

    The manipulation of acoustic wave propagation in fluids has numerous applications, including some in everyday life. Acoustic technologies frequently develop in tandem with optics, using shared concepts such as waveguiding and metamedia. It is thus noteworthy that an entirely novel class of electromagnetic waves, known as "topological edge states," has recently been demonstrated. These are inspired by the electronic edge states occurring in topological insulators, and possess a striking and technologically promising property: the ability to travel in a single direction along a surface without backscattering, regardless of the existence of defects or disorder. Here, we develop an analogous theory of topological fluid acoustics, and propose a scheme for realizing topological edge states in an acoustic structure containing circulating fluids. The phenomenon of disorder-free one-way sound propagation, which does not occur in ordinary acoustic devices, may have novel applications for acoustic isolators, modulators, and transducers.

  3. Acoustical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Litniewski, Jerzy; Kujawska, Tamara; 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging

    2012-01-01

    The International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging is a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place continuously since 1968. In the course of the years the proceedings volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have become a reference for cutting-edge research in the field. In 2011 the 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Warsaw, Poland, April 10-13. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art as well as  in-depth research contributions by the specialists in the field, this Volume 31 in the Series contains an excellent collection of papers in six major categories: Biological and Medical Imaging Physics and Mathematics of Acoustical Imaging Acoustic Microscopy Transducers and Arrays Nondestructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Underwater Imaging

  4. Acoustic textiles

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, Rajkishore

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the manufacturing and applications of acoustic textiles in various industries. It also includes examples from different industries in which acoustic textiles can be used to absorb noise and help reduce the impact of noise at the workplace. Given the importance of noise reduction in the working environment in several industries, the book offers a valuable guide for companies, educators and researchers involved with acoustic materials.

  5. Acoustic Characterization of Mesoscale Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, D; Huber, R; Chambers, D; Cole, G; Balogun, O; Spicer, J; Murray, T

    2007-03-13

    This report describes the science and engineering performed to provide state-of-the-art acoustic capabilities for nondestructively characterizing mesoscale (millimeter-sized) objects--allowing micrometer resolution over the objects entire volume. Materials and structures used in mesoscale objects necessitate the use of (1) GHz acoustic frequencies and (2) non-contacting laser generation and detection of acoustic waves. This effort demonstrated that acoustic methods at gigahertz frequencies have the necessary penetration depth and spatial resolution to effectively detect density discontinuities, gaps, and delaminations. A prototype laser-based ultrasonic system was designed and built. The system uses a micro-chip laser for excitation of broadband ultrasonic waves with frequency components reaching 1.0 GHz, and a path-stabilized Michelson interferometer for detection. The proof-of-concept for mesoscale characterization is demonstrated by imaging a micro-fabricated etched pattern in a 70 {micro}m thick silicon wafer.

  6. A simple-architecture fibered transmission system for dissemination of high stability 100 MHz signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakir, A.; Rocher, C.; Maréchal, B.; Bigler, E.; Boudot, R.; Kersalé, Y.; Millo, J.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the development of a simple-architecture fiber-based frequency distribution system used to transfer high frequency stability 100 MHz signals. This work is focused on the emitter and the receiver performances that allow the transmission of the radio-frequency signal over an optical fiber. The system exhibits a residual fractional frequency stability of 1 × 10-14 at 1 s integration time and in the low 10-16 range after 100 s. These performances are suitable to transfer the signal of frequency references such as those of a state-of-the-art hydrogen maser without any phase noise compensation scheme. As an application, we demonstrate the dissemination of such a signal through a 100 m long optical fiber without any degradation. The proposed setup could be easily extended for operating frequencies in the 10 MHz-1 GHz range.

  7. Two frequency ICRF operation on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.H.; Majeski, R.; Wilson, J.R.; Hosea, J.C.; Schilling, G.; Stevens, J.; Phillips, C.K.

    1993-01-01

    Modifications have been made recently to allow two of the ICRF antennas (bays L and M) on TFTR to operate at either of two frequencies, 43 MHz or 64 MHz. This was accomplished by lengthening the resonant loops (2Λ at 43 MHz, 3Λ at 64 MHz) and replacing the conventional quarter wave impedance transformers with a tapered impedance design. The other two antennas (bays K and N) will operate at a fixed frequency, 43 MHz. The two frequency operation will allow a combination of 3 He-minority and H-minority heating at near full field on TFTR. The higher frequency, 64 MHz, may also be useful in direct electron heating and current drive experiments at lower toroidal fields. Models of the antenna, resonant loops and impedance matching system are presented

  8. Independent trapping and manipulation of microparticles using dexterous acoustic tweezers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, Charles R. P.; Demore, Christine E. M.; Wu, Hongxiao; Cochran, Sandy; Grinenko, Alon; Wilcox, Paul D.; Drinkwater, Bruce W.

    2014-01-01

    An electronically controlled acoustic tweezer was used to demonstrate two acoustic manipulation phenomena: superposition of Bessel functions to allow independent manipulation of multiple particles and the use of higher-order Bessel functions to trap particles in larger regions than is possible with first-order traps. The acoustic tweezers consist of a circular 64-element ultrasonic array operating at 2.35 MHz which generates ultrasonic pressure fields in a millimeter-scale fluid-filled chamber. The manipulation capabilities were demonstrated experimentally with 45 and 90-μm-diameter polystyrene spheres. These capabilities bring the dexterity of acoustic tweezers substantially closer to that of optical tweezers

  9. Development of 650 MHz (β=0.9) single-cell SCRF cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagre, M.; Jain, V.; Yedle, A.; Maurya, T.; Yadav, A.; Puntambekar, A.; Goswami, S.G.; Choudhary, R.S.; Sandha, S.; Dwivedi, J.; Kane, G.V.; Mahawar, A.; Mohania, P.; Shrivastava, P.; Sharma, S.; Gupta, R.; Sharma, S.D.; Joshi, S.C.; Mistri, K.K.; Prakash, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology has initiated the work on development of Superconducting Radio Frequency (SCRF) cavities and associated technologies as part of R and D activities for upcoming Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project involving superconducting Linear Accelerator (LINAC). It is planned to use 650 MHz SCRF cavities for the medium and high energy section of the proposed LINAC. Under Indian Institution Fermilab Collaboration (IIFC), Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology is also working on development of 650 MHz (β=0.9) SCRF cavities proposed to be used in the high energy section of Project-X at FNAL. The work has been initiated with design and development of 650 MHz single cell SCRF cavity. FE analysis was done to estimate change in frequency with temperature as well as to estimate the frequency of the cavity at different cavity manufacturing stages. The development cycle comprises of design and manufacturing of forming tooling, machining, welding and RF measurement fixtures as well as design for manufacturing. The half-cell and beam tubes forming and machining of all parts were done using in-house facilities. The Electron beam welding was carried out at Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi under a MoU. One 650 MHz single cell SCRF cavity has been recently manufactured. In this paper we present the development efforts on manufacturing and pre-qualification of 650 MHz (β=0.9) single cell SCRF cavity. (author)

  10. NICER Discovers mHz Oscillations and Marginally Stable Burning in GS 1826-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Gendreau, Keith C.; Keek, Laurens; Bult, Peter; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Arzoumanian, Zaven; NICER Science Team

    2018-01-01

    To date, marginally stable thermonuclear burning, evidenced as mHz X-ray flux oscillations, has been observed in only five accreting neutron star binaries, 4U 1636-536, 4U 1608-52, Aql X-1, 4U 1323-619 and Terzan 5 X-2. Here we report the discovery with NASA's Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) of such oscillations from the well-known X-ray burster GS 1826-24. NICER observed GS 1826-24 on 9 September, 2017 for a total exposure of about 4 ksec. Timing analysis revealed highly significant oscillations at a frequency of 8.2 mHz in two successive pointings. The oscillations have a fractional modulation amplitude of approximately 3% for photon energies less than 6 keV. The observed frequency is consistent with the range observed in the other mHz QPO systems, and indeed is slightly higher than the frequency measured in 4U 1636-536 below which mHz oscillations ceased and unstable burning (X-ray bursts) resumed. We discuss the mass accretion rate dependence of the oscillations as well as the X-ray spectrum as a function of pulsation phase. We place the observations in the context of the current theory of marginally stable burning and briefly discuss the potential for constraining neutron star properties using mHz oscillations.

  11. Comparison of 864 and 935 MHz microwave radiation effects on cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicic, I.; Trosic, I.; Sarolic, A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate and compare the effect of 864 and 935 MHz microwave radiation on proliferation, colony forming and viability of Chinese hamster lung cells, cell line V79. Cell cultures were exposed both to the 864 MHz microwave field in transversal electromagnetic mode cell (TEM-cell) and to the 935 MHz field in Gigahertz transversal electromagnetic mode cell (GTEM-cell) for 1, 2 and 3 hours. Philips PM 5508 generator connected with a signal amplifier generated the frequency of 864 MHz, whereas Hewlett Packard HP8657A signal generator was used to generate the frequency of 935 MHz. The average specific absorption rate (SAR) was 0.08 W/kg for 864 MHz and 0.12 W/kg for 935 MHz. To determine the cell growth, V79 cells were plated in the concentration of 1x10 4 cells per milliliter of nutrient medium. Cells were cultured in a humidified atmosphere at 37 degrees of C in 5% CO 2 . Cell proliferation was determined by cell counts for each hour of exposure during the five post-exposure days. To identify colony-forming ability, cells were cultivated in the concentration of 40 cells/mL of medium and incubated as described above. Colony-forming ability was assessed for each exposure time by colony count on post-exposure day 7. Trypan blue exclusion test was used to determine cell viability. On post-exposure day 3, the growth curve of 864 MHz irradiated cells showed a significant decrease (p less than 0.05) after 2 and 3 hours of exposure in comparison with control cells. Cells exposed to 935 MHz radiation showed a significant decrease (p less than 0.05) after 3 hours of exposure on post-exposure day 3. Both the colony-forming ability and viability of 864 MHz and 935 MHz exposed cells did not significantly differ from matched control cells. In conclusion, both applied RF/MW fields have shown similar effects on cell culture growth, colony forming and cell viability of the V79 cell line.(author)

  12. The effect of phonation into a straw on the vocal tract adjustments and formant frequencies. A preliminary MRI study on a single subject completed with acoustic results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laukkanen, A. M.; Horáček, Jaromír; Krupa, P.; Švec, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2012), s. 50-57 ISSN 1746-8094 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : vocal exercises * semi-occlusions * vocal tract setting Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.074, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1746809411000097

  13. Topological Acoustic Delay Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwang; Tian, Ye; Cheng, Ying; Wei, Qi; Liu, Xiaojun; Christensen, Johan

    2018-03-01

    Topological protected wave engineering in artificially structured media is at the frontier of ongoing metamaterials research that is inspired by quantum mechanics. Acoustic analogues of electronic topological insulators have recently led to a wealth of new opportunities in manipulating sound propagation with strikingly unconventional acoustic edge modes immune to backscattering. Earlier fabrications of topological insulators are characterized by an unreconfigurable geometry and a very narrow frequency response, which severely hinders the exploration and design of useful devices. Here we establish topologically protected sound in reconfigurable phononic crystals that can be switched on and off simply by rotating its three-legged "atoms" without altering the lattice structure. In particular, we engineer robust phase delay defects that take advantage of the ultrabroadband reflection-free sound propagation. Such topological delay lines serve as a paradigm in compact acoustic devices, interconnects, and electroacoustic integrated circuits.

  14. Nondestructive testing of thin films using surface acoustic waves and laser ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenot, Frédéric; Fourez, Sabrina; Ouaftouh, Mohammadi; Duquennoy, Marc

    2018-04-01

    Thin films are widely used in many fields such as electronics, optics or materials science. For example, they find applications in thermal or mechanical sensors design. They are also very useful as protective or reinforcement layers for many structures. However, some coating defects such as thickness variations, microfissuring or poor adhesion are common problems. Therefore, nondestructive testing of these structures using acoustic waves generated and detected by lasers represents a major interest. Indeed, in comparison with conventional methods based on the use of piezoelectric transducers, laser ultrasonics leads to non-contact investigations with a large bandwidth. Usually, bulk acoustic waves are used and a pulse-echo technique is considered that needs high frequencies and implies local measurements. In order to avoid this limitation, we propose to use surface acoustic waves in a frequency range up to 45 MHz. The samples consist of a micrometric gold layer deposited on silicon substrates. In a first part, using dispersion analysis, theoretical and experimental results clearly reveal that the first Rayleigh mode allows the detection of film thickness variations and open cracks. In a second part, a localized adhesion defect is introduced in a similar sample. The effects of such a flaw on the Rayleigh modes dispersion curves are theoretically described. Finally, we experimentally show that the first Rayleigh mode allows the defect detection only under specific conditions.

  15. On the role of density and attenuation in 3D multi-parameter visco-acoustic VTI frequency-domain FWI: an OBC case study from the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operto, S.; Miniussi, A.

    2018-03-01

    Three-dimensional frequency-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) is applied on North Sea wide-azimuth ocean-bottom cable data at low frequencies (≤ 10 Hz) to jointly update vertical wavespeed, density and quality factor Q in the visco-acoustic VTI approximation. We assess whether density and Q should be viewed as proxy to absorb artefacts resulting from approximate wave physics or are valuable for interpretation in presence of saturated sediments and gas. FWI is performed in the frequency domain to account for attenuation easily. Multi-parameter frequency-domain FWI is efficiently performed with a few discrete frequencies following a multi-scale frequency continuation. However, grouping a few frequencies during each multi-scale step is necessary to mitigate acquisition footprint and match dispersive shallow guided waves. Q and density absorb a significant part of the acquisition footprint hence cleaning the velocity model from this pollution. Low Q perturbations correlate with low velocity zones associated with soft sediments and gas cloud. However, the amplitudes of the Q perturbations show significant variations when the inversion tuning is modified. This dispersion in the Q reconstructions is however not passed on the velocity parameter suggesting that cross-talks between first-order kinematic and second-order dynamic parameters are limited. The density model shows a good match with a well log at shallow depths. Moreover, the impedance built a posteriori from the FWI velocity and density models shows a well-focused image with however local differences with the velocity model near the sea bed where density might have absorbed elastic effects. The FWI models are finally assessed against time-domain synthetic seismogram modelling performed with the same frequency-domain modelling engine used for FWI.

  16. In-situ identification of marine organisms using high frequency, wideband ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, An Hoai

    methods. Conventional acoustical methods use frequencies in the range of 10 to 500 kHz and give reasonable estimations of size distribution, if the species is known, but can only significantly support the determination of the actual species, if there are only a few known species available. It is expected...... that higher frequencies and broader bandwidths than used until now will give more information useful for fish species identification. The objective of this Ph.D. study has been to develop a method to investigate the possibility of in-situ identification of fish with high-frequency, wideband ultrasound...... and the fish bodies. The frequencies are 2, 3.5, and 6 MHz. The angles are -30°, -15°, 0°, 15°, and 30°. The results show that even though there are variations, a scan of the ultrasound backscatter along a fish of a specific species contains patterns that are characteristic for that species. This is true...

  17. Hidden acoustic information revealed by intentional nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, David R.

    2017-11-01

    Acoustic waves are omnipresent in modern life and are well described by the linearized equations of fluid dynamics. Once generated, acoustic waves carry and collect information about their source and the environment through which they propagate, respectively, and this information may be retrieved by analyzing recordings of these waves. Because of this, acoustics is the primary means for observation, surveillance, reconnaissance, and remote sensing in otherwise opaque environments, such as the Earth's oceans and crust, and the interior of the human body. For such information-retrieval tasks, acoustic fields are nearly always interrogated within their recorded frequency range or bandwidth. However, this frequency-range restriction is not general; acoustic fields may also carry (hidden) information at frequencies outside their bandwidth. Although such a claim may seem counter intuitive, hidden acoustic-field information can be revealed by re-introducing a marquee trait of fluid dynamics: nonlinearity. In particular, an intentional quadratic nonlinearity - a form of intra-signal heterodyning - can be used to obtain acoustic field information at frequencies outside a recorded acoustic field's bandwidth. This quadratic nonlinearity enables a variety of acoustic remote sensing applications that were long thought to be impossible. In particular, it allows the detrimental effects of sparse recordings and random scattering to be suppressed when the original acoustic field has sufficient bandwidth. In this presentation, the topic is developed heuristically, with a just brief exposition of the relevant mathematics. Hidden acoustic field information is then revealed from simulated and measured acoustic fields in simple and complicated acoustic environments involving frequencies from a few Hertz to more than 100 kHz, and propagation distances from tens of centimeters to hundreds of kilometers. Sponsored by ONR, NAVSEA, and NSF.

  18. Gas loading of graphene-quartz surface acoustic wave devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, E. F.; Chick, E. M.; Bandhu, L.; Lawton, L. M.; Nash, G. R.

    2013-08-01

    Graphene was transferred to the propagation path of quartz surface acoustic wave devices and the attenuation due to gas loading of air and argon measured at 70 MHz and 210 MHz and compared to devices with no graphene. Under argon loading, there was no significant difference between the graphene and non-graphene device and the values of measured attenuation agree well with those calculated theoretically. Under air loading, at 210 MHz, there was a significant difference between the non-graphene and graphene devices, with the average value of attenuation obtained with the graphene devices being approximately twice that obtained from the bare quartz devices.

  19. Characterization of granular collapse onto hard substrates by acoustic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, Maxime; Mangeney, Anne; Toussaint, Renaud; De Rosny, Julien

    2013-04-01

    Brittle deformation in granular porous media can generate gravitational instabilities such as debris flows and rock avalanches. These phenomena constitute a major natural hazard for the population in mountainous, volcanic and coastal areas but their direct observation on the field is very dangerous. Recent studies showed that gravitational instabilities can be detected and characterized (volume, duration,...) thanks to the seismic signal they generate. In an avalanche, individual block bouncing and rolling on the ground are expected to generated signals of higher frequencies than the main flow spreading. The identification of the time/frequency signature of individual blocks in the recorded signal remains however difficult. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the acoustic signature of diverse simple sources corresponding to grains falling over thin plates of plexiglas and rock blocks. The elastic energy emitted by a single bouncing steel bead into the support was first quantitatively estimated and compared to the potential energy of fall and to the potential energy change during the shock. Next, we consider the collapse of granular columns made of steel spherical beads onto hard substrates. Initially, these columns were held by a magnetic field allowing to suppress suddenly the cohesion between the beads, and thus to minimize friction effects that would arise from side walls. We varied systematically the column volume, the column aspect ratio (height over length) and the grain size. This is shown to affect the signal envelope and frequency content. In the experiments, two types of acoustic sensors were used to record the signals in a wide frequency range: accelerometers (1 Hz to 56 kHz) and piezoelectric sensors (100 kHz to 1 MHz). The experiments were also monitored optically using fast cameras. We developed a technique to use quantitatively both types of sensors to evaluate the elastic energy emitted by the sources. Eventually, we looked at what

  20. Developments and directions in 200 MHz very high power RF at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliff, R.; Bush, E.D.; DeHaven, R.A.; Harris, H.W.; Parsons, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), is a linear particle accelerator a half-mile long. It produces an 800 million electron- volt hydrogen-ion beam at an average current of more than one milliamp. The first RF section of the accelerator consists of four Alvarez drift-tube structures. Each of these structures is excited by an amplifier module at a frequency of 201.25 MHz. These amplifiers operate at a duty of 13 percent or more and at peak pulsed power levels of about 2.5 million watts. The second RF accelerator section consists of forty-four side-coupled-cavity structures. Each of these is excited by an amplifier module at a frequency of 805 MHz. These amplifiers operate at a duty of up to 12 percent and at peak pulsed power levels of about 1.2 million watts. The relatively high average beam current in the accelerator places a heavy demand upon components in the RF systems. The 201-MHz modules have always required a large share of maintenance efforts. In recent years, the four 201.25 MHz modules have been responsible for more than twice as much accelerator down-time as have the forty-four 805 MHz modules. This paper reviews recent, ongoing, and planned improvements in the 201-MHz systems. The Burle Industries 7835 super power triode is used in the final power amplifiers of each of the 201-MHz modules. This tube has been modified for operation at LAMPF by the addition of Penning ion vacuum''pumps.'' This has enabled more effective tube conditioning and restarting. A calorimetry system of high accuracy is in development to monitor tube plate-power dissipation

  1. Systematic design of acoustic devices by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2005-01-01

    We present a method to design acoustic devices with topology optimization. The general algorithm is exemplified by the design of a reflection chamber that minimizes the transmission of acoustic waves in a specified frequency range.......We present a method to design acoustic devices with topology optimization. The general algorithm is exemplified by the design of a reflection chamber that minimizes the transmission of acoustic waves in a specified frequency range....

  2. Simplified Rotation In Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Gaspar, M. S.; Trinh, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    New technique based on old discovery used to control orientation of object levitated acoustically in axisymmetric chamber. Method does not require expensive equipment like additional acoustic drivers of precisely adjustable amplitude, phase, and frequency. Reflecting object acts as second source of sound. If reflecting object large enough, close enough to levitated object, or focuses reflected sound sufficiently, Rayleigh torque exerted on levitated object by reflected sound controls orientation of object.

  3. Limits on fast radio bursts at 145 MHz with ARTEMIS, a real-time software backend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karastergiou, A.; Chennamangalam, J.; Armour, W.; Williams, C.; Mort, B.; Dulwich, F.; Salvini, S.; Magro, A.; Roberts, S.; Serylak, M.; Doo, A.; Bilous, A.V.; Breton, R.P.; Falcke, H.; Grießmeier, J.M.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Keane, E.F.; Kondratiev, V.I.; Kramer, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Noutsos, A.; Osłowski, S.; Sobey, C.; Stappers, B.W.; Weltevrede, P.

    2015-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond radio signals that exhibit dispersion larger than what the Galactic electron density can account for. We have conducted a 1446 h survey for FRBs at 145 MHz, covering a total of 4193 deg2 on the sky. We used the UK station of the low frequency array (LOFAR)

  4. A 10.7 MHz CMOS SC radio IF filter using orthogonal hardware modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quinn, P.J.; Hartingsveldt, van K.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    FM radio receivers require an IF filter for channel selection, customarily set at an IF center frequency of 10.7 MHz. Up until now, the limitations of integrated radio selectivity filters in terms of power dissipation, dynamic range, and cost are such that it is still required to use an external

  5. Battlefield acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Damarla, Thyagaraju

    2015-01-01

    This book presents all aspects of situational awareness in a battlefield using acoustic signals. It starts by presenting the science behind understanding and interpretation of sound signals. The book then goes on to provide various signal processing techniques used in acoustics to find the direction of sound source, localize gunfire, track vehicles, and detect people. The necessary mathematical background and various classification and fusion techniques are presented. The book contains majority of the things one would need to process acoustic signals for all aspects of situational awareness in one location. The book also presents array theory, which is pivotal in finding the direction of arrival of acoustic signals. In addition, the book presents techniques to fuse the information from multiple homogeneous/heterogeneous sensors for better detection. MATLAB code is provided for majority of the real application, which is a valuable resource in not only understanding the theory but readers, can also use the code...

  6. Acoustics Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fisheries acoustics data are collected from more than 200 sea-days each year aboard the FRV DELAWARE II and FRV ALBATROSS IV (decommissioned) and the FSV Henry B....

  7. Acoustical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Iwaki

    2009-01-01

    The 29th International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Shonan Village, Kanagawa, Japan, April 15-18, 2007. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place every two years since 1968 and forms a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. In the course of the years the volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have developed and become well-known and appreciated reference works. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art in the field as well as an in-depth look at its leading edge research, this Volume 29 in the Series contains again an excellent collection of seventy papers presented in nine major categories: Strain Imaging Biological and Medical Applications Acoustic Microscopy Non-Destructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Components and Systems Geophysics and Underwater Imaging Physics and Mathematics Medical Image Analysis FDTD method and Other Numerical Simulations Audience Researcher...

  8. Room Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  9. Concurrent Acoustic Activation of the Medial Olivocochlear System Modifies the After-Effects of Intense Low-Frequency Sound on the Human Inner Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Kathrin; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Gürkov, Robert; Krause, Eike; Drexl, Markus

    2015-12-01

    >Human hearing is rather insensitive for very low frequencies (i.e. below 100 Hz). Despite this insensitivity, low-frequency sound can cause oscillating changes of cochlear gain in inner ear regions processing even much higher frequencies. These alterations outlast the duration of the low-frequency stimulation by several minutes, for which the term 'bounce phenomenon' has been coined. Previously, we have shown that the bounce can be traced by monitoring frequency and level changes of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) over time. It has been suggested elsewhere that large receptor potentials elicited by low-frequency stimulation produce a net Ca(2+) influx and associated gain decrease in outer hair cells. The bounce presumably reflects an underdamped, homeostatic readjustment of increased Ca(2+) concentrations and related gain changes after low-frequency sound offset. Here, we test this hypothesis by activating the medial olivocochlear efferent system during presentation of the bounce-evoking low-frequency (LF) sound. The efferent system is known to modulate outer hair cell Ca(2+) concentrations and receptor potentials, and therefore, it should modulate the characteristics of the bounce phenomenon. We show that simultaneous presentation of contralateral broadband noise (100 Hz-8 kHz, 65 and 70 dB SPL, 90 s, activating the efferent system) and ipsilateral low-frequency sound (30 Hz, 120 dB SPL, 90 s, inducing the bounce) affects the characteristics of bouncing SOAEs recorded after low-frequency sound offset. Specifically, the decay time constant of the SOAE level changes is shorter, and the transient SOAE suppression is less pronounced. Moreover, the number of new, transient SOAEs as they are seen during the bounce, are reduced. Taken together, activation of the medial olivocochlear system during induction of the bounce phenomenon with low-frequency sound results in changed characteristics of the bounce phenomenon. Thus, our data provide experimental support

  10. Design of 325 MHz spoke cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Peng; Huang Hong; Dai Jianping; Zu Guoquan; Li Han

    2012-01-01

    Spoke cavity can be used in the low-energy section of the proton accelerator. It has many significant advantages: compact structure, high value of R/Q, etc. The ADS (Accelerator Driven System) project will adopt many spoke cavities with different β values. Therefore, IHEP has began the research of β=0.14, 325 MHz spoke cavity. In this pa per, the dimensions, RF performances and mechanical properties of it are studied. (authors)

  11. Simulation of the High-Pass Filter for 56MHz Cavity for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Q.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2010-01-01

    The 56MHz Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity for RHIC places high demands High Order Mode (HOM) damping, as well as requiring a high field at gap with fundamental mode frequency. The damper of 56MHz cavity is designed to extract all modes to the resistance load outside, including the fundamental mode. Therefore, the circuit must incorporate a high-pass filter to reflect back the fundamental mode into the cavity. In this paper, we show the good frequency response map obtained from our filter's design. We extract a circuit diagram from the microwave elements that simulate well the frequency spectrum of the finalized filter. We also demonstrate that the power dissipation on the filter over its frequency range is small enough for cryogenic cooling.

  12. Active low frequency sound field control in a listening room using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce the sound transmitted to neighbour rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Sound in rooms and transmission of sound between rooms gives the biggest problems at low frequencies. Rooms with rectangular boundaries have strong resonance frequencies and will give big spatial variations in sound pressure level (SPL) in the source room, and an increase in SPL of 20 dB at a wall...... Bass System) is a time based room correction system for reproduced sound using loudspeakers. The system can remove room modes at low frequencies, by active cancelling the reflection from at the rear wall to a normal stereo setup. Measurements in a source room using CABS and in two neighbour rooms have...... shown a reduction in sound transmission of up to 10 dB at resonance frequencies and a reduction at broadband noise of 3 – 5 dB at frequencies up to 100 Hz. The ideas and understanding of the CABS system will also be given....

  13. Design Considerations for the LHC 200 MHz RF System

    CERN Document Server

    Boussard, Daniel; Kindermann, H P; Linnecar, Trevor Paul R; Marque, S; Tückmantel, Joachim

    2000-01-01

    The longitudinal beam transfer from the SPS into the LHC 400 MHz buckets will not be free of losses without a lower frequency capture system and a fast longitudinal damping system in LHC. We present a complete study of a combined system using four identical copper cavities at 200 MHz delivering 3 MV total CW voltage and having still enough bandwidth to achieve fast longitudinal damping. The shape of a cavity was designed according to the accelerating mode performance, its tuning and the higher order mode spectrum with respect to the LHC beam lines and their possible attenuation. The possibility to park the cavities during coast was included. The local heat load and the corresponding cooling water distribution as well as deformations were studied and techniques to build the cavity with all ports at low cost are proposed. The parameters of the RF generators, couplers and detuning are determined. Simulations of the total LHC RF system incorporating real delays, generator bandwidth and the control loops confirm t...

  14. Mechanical design and fabrication of a 425-MHz H- buncher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, N.G.; Precechtel, D.

    1987-01-01

    A beam buncher has been designed, fabricated, and installed on the accelerator test stand (ATS) to match the 2-MeV output beam of a 425-MHz H - radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) into a 425-MHz drift-tube linac (DTL). The buncher configuration provides integral-matching permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQ) at the exit of the RFQ and one βλ across the buncher accelerating gap; a third PMQ is the first DTL half-cell magnet. Located between the second and third PMQs is a 50-Ω, capacitively coupled, beam-sensing pickup loop. Cooling channels are provided in each of the brazed OFHC copper wall sections. Vacuum pumping of the buncher is provided by a cryogenic refrigerator vacuum pump through an array of small-diameter holes in the buncher cavity wall. Mechanical features of the buncher, the brazing and electron-beam welding of the solid-copper buncher structure, and the beam pickup loop are described in this paper. The buncher has been tuned, installed, and operated at full power on the ATS

  15. Tissue-mimicking bladder wall phantoms for evaluating acoustic radiation force-optical coherence elastography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejofodomi, O'tega A; Zderic, Vesna; Zara, Jason M

    2010-04-01

    Acoustic radiation force-optical coherence elastography (ARF-OCE) systems are novel imaging systems that have the potential to simultaneously quantify and characterize the optical and mechanical properties of in vivo tissues. This article presents the construction of bladder wall phantoms for use in ARF-OCE systems. Mechanical, acoustic, and optical properties are reported and compared to published values for the urinary bladder. The phantom consisted of 0.2000 +/- 0.0089 and 6.0000 +/- 0.2830 microm polystyrene microspheres (Polysciences Inc., Warrington, PA, Catalog Nos. 07304 and 07312), 7.5 +/- 1.5 microm copolymer microspheres composed of acrylonitrile and vinylidene chloride, (Expancel, Duluth, GA, Catalog No. 461 DU 20), and bovine serum albumin within a gelatin matrix. Young's modulus was measured by successive compression of the phantom and obtaining the slope of the resulting force-displacement data. Acoustic measurements were performed using the transmission method. The phantoms were submerged in a water bath and placed between transmitting and receiving 13 mm diameter unfocused transducers operating at a frequency of 3.5 MHz. A MATLAB algorithm to extract the optical scattering coefficient from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the phantom was used. The phantoms possess a Young's modulus of 17.12 +/- 2.72 kPa, a mass density of 1.05 +/- 0.02 g/cm3, an acoustic attenuation coefficient of 0.66 +/- 0.08 dB/cm/MHz, a speed of sound of 1591 +/- 8.76 m/s, and an optical scattering coefficient of 1.80 +/- 0.23 mm(-1). Ultrasound and OCT images of the bladder wall phantom are presented. A material that mimics the mechanical, optical, and acoustic properties of healthy bladder wall has been developed. This tissue-mimicking bladder wall phantom was developed as a control tool to investigate the feasibility of using ARF-OCE to detect the mechanical and optical changes that may be indicative of the onset or development of cancer in the urinary bladder

  16. Acoustically assisted diffusion through membranes and biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floros, J.D.; Liang, H.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on the symposium ''Ultrasonic Applications in the Food Industry.'' The use of high-intensity ultrasound in food processing is reviewed. Acoustic radiation, or sound, can be used to monitor various operations or products or to alter a process or product; however, the direct use of sound to improve food processes is not very popular. High-intensity acoustic radiation induces various changes as it passes through a medium, largely as a result of heating, cavitation, agitation and shear stresses, compression and rarefaction, and turbulence. The diffusion of sound through a medium is influenced by factors such as the temperature, acoustic intensity, acoustic frequency, direction of the acoustic wave, pulsation of the acoustic wave, and properties of the medium. Some potential applications of acoustic energy in food processes are increased drying efficiency, acceleration of diffusion through polymeric and biological membranes, and enhanced diffusion through porous materials

  17. Spiral Slotted Microstrip Antenna Design for 700 MHz Band Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Meneses González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design and implementation of spiral slotted microstrip antenna. Recently, just like other countries, in Mexico, terrestrial digital television has been implemented (analogic shutdown; as a consequence, the 700 MHz UFH Band (698–806 MHz has been opened to new telecommunications services, particularly wireless mobile communication. This technological advance represents a radio mobile antenna design challenge because it is necessary to design an antenna whose dimensions must be small enough, which satisfies gain, resonance frequency, and bandwidth requirements and is of low cost.

  18. Initial Demonstration of 9-MHz Framing Camera Rates on the FAST UV Drive Laser Pulse Trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A. H. [Fermilab; Edstrom Jr., D. [Fermilab; Ruan, J. [Fermilab

    2016-10-09

    We report the configuration of a Hamamatsu C5680 streak camera as a framing camera to record transverse spatial information of green-component laser micropulses at 3- and 9-MHz rates for the first time. The latter is near the time scale of the ~7.5-MHz revolution frequency of the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) ring and its expected synchroton radiation source temporal structure. The 2-D images are recorded with a Gig-E readout CCD camera. We also report a first proof of principle with an OTR source using the linac streak camera in a semi-framing mode.

  19. Target detection and localization in shallow water: an experimental demonstration of the acoustic barrier problem at the laboratory scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandet, Christian; Roux, Philippe; Nicolas, Barbara; Mars, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates experimentally at the laboratory scale the detection and localization of a wavelength-sized target in a shallow ultrasonic waveguide between two source-receiver arrays at 3 MHz. In the framework of the acoustic barrier problem, at the 1/1000 scale, the waveguide represents a 1.1-km-long, 52-m-deep ocean acoustic channel in the kilohertz frequency range. The two coplanar arrays record in the time-domain the transfer matrix of the waveguide between each pair of source-receiver transducers. Invoking the reciprocity principle, a time-domain double-beamforming algorithm is simultaneously performed on the source and receiver arrays. This array processing projects the multireverberated acoustic echoes into an equivalent set of eigenrays, which are defined by their launch and arrival angles. Comparison is made between the intensity of each eigenray without and with a target for detection in the waveguide. Localization is performed through tomography inversion of the acoustic impedance of the target, using all of the eigenrays extracted from double beamforming. The use of the diffraction-based sensitivity kernel for each eigenray provides both the localization and the signature of the target. Experimental results are shown in the presence of surface waves, and methodological issues are discussed for detection and localization.

  20. A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedt, J.-M; Droit, C.; Martin, G.; Ballandras, S.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.