Pseudo-reconnection in MHD numerical simulation
无
2000-01-01
A class of pseudo-reconnections caused by a shifted mesh in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations is reported. In terms of this mesh system, some non-physical results may be obtained in certain circumstances, e.g. magnetic reconnection occurs without resistivity. After comparison, another kind of mesh is strongly recommended.
Direct numerical simulations of helical dynamo action: MHD and beyond
D. O. Gómez
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic dynamo action is often invoked to explain the existence of magnetic fields in several astronomical objects. In this work, we present direct numerical simulations of MHD helical dynamos, to study the exponential growth and saturation of magnetic fields. Simulations are made within the framework of incompressible flows and using periodic boundary conditions. The statistical properties of the flow are studied, and it is found that its helicity displays strong spatial fluctuations. Regions with large kinetic helicity are also strongly concentrated in space, forming elongated structures. In dynamo simulations using these flows, we found that the growth rate and the saturation level of magnetic energy and magnetic helicity reach an asymptotic value as the Reynolds number is increased. Finally, extensions of the MHD theory to include kinetic effects relevant in astrophysical environments are discussed.
MHD Remote Numerical Simulations: Evolution of Coronal Mass Ejections
Hernandez-Cervantes, L; Gonzalez-Ponce, A R
2008-01-01
Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are solar eruptions into interplanetary space of as much as a few billion tons of plasma, with embedded magnetic fields from the Sun's corona. These perturbations play a very important role in solar--terrestrial relations, in particular in the spaceweather. In this work we present some preliminary results of the software development at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico to perform Remote MHD Numerical Simulations. This is done to study the evolution of the CMEs in the interplanetary medium through a Web-based interface and the results are store into a database. The new astrophysical computational tool is called the Mexican Virtual Solar Observatory (MVSO) and is aimed to create theoretical models that may be helpful in the interpretation of observational solar data.
Direct numerical simulation of dynamo transition for nonhelical MHD
Nath, Dinesh; Verma, Mahendra K [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Lessinnes, Thomas; Carati, Daniele [Physique Statistique et Plasmas, Universite Libre de Bruxellers, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Sarris, Ioannis [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Thessaly, Volos (Greece)
2010-02-01
Pseudospectral Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) has been performed to simulate dynamo transition for nonhelical magnetohydrodynamics turbulence. The numerical results are compared with a recent low-dimensional model [Verma et al. [13
2012-02-28
Engineering, 2010. 8 Roth, T., “ Modeling and Numerical Simulations of Pulse Detonation Engines with MHD Thrust Augmentation”, M.S. thesis, Department of...throat, at time 2.3ms. Results are shown for the PDE (blow-down model ) with and without MHD generation in the region between 0.4 and 0.8m from the...down model ) for different values of the exit- to-throat area ratio and for different altitudes, without MHD generation and without the presence of the
Numerical Simulations of Driven Supersonic Relativistic MHD Turbulence
Zrake, Jonathan; 10.1063/1.3621748
2011-01-01
Models for GRB outflows invoke turbulence in relativistically hot magnetized fluids. In order to investigate these conditions we have performed high-resolution three-dimensional numerical simulations of relativistic magneto-hydrodynamical (RMHD) turbulence. We find that magnetic energy is amplified to several percent of the total energy density by turbulent twisting and folding of magnetic field lines. Values of epsilon_B near 1% are thus naturally expected. We study the dependence of saturated magnetic field energy fraction as a function of Mach number and relativistic temperature. We then present power spectra of the turbulent kinetic and magnetic energies. We also present solenoidal (curl-like) and dilatational (divergence-like) power spectra of kinetic energy. We propose that relativistic effects introduce novel couplings between these spectral components. The case we explore in most detail is for equal amounts of thermal and rest mass energy, corresponding to conditions after collisions of shells with re...
Numerical simulation study of disk MHD generator for nonequilibrium plasma (NPG) system
Tsunoda, Kazumi [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Harada, Nob [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology (Japan)
1995-12-31
Design and performance prediction of a disk-shaped magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator, which is applied to the nonequilibrium plasma generator (NPG) system, have been carried out by means of a quasi-one-dimensional numerical simulation. The calculations have been performed for generator with constant height which is planned to be used for NPG-MHD disk generator pulse power demonstration. A maximum enthalpy extraction ratio obtained from the present calculation reached up to 20%, and, in this case, the electron temperature of working plasma fluctuated in the unstable regime against ionization instability. Taking into account this phenomenon, in order to obtain much higher generator performance, the MHD channel, in which electron temperature was kept at 5000 K, was designed. With this channel, enthalpy extraction ratio of 40% and output power of 7.2 MW were achieved without major modification of the supersonic nozzle, the inlet swirl vanes and the configuration of magnet system.
Gas Core Reactor Numerical Simulation Using a Coupled MHD-MCNP Model
Kazeminezhad, F.; Anghaie, S.
2008-01-01
Analysis is provided in this report of using two head-on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks to achieve supercritical nuclear fission in an axially elongated cylinder filled with UF4 gas as an energy source for deep space missions. The motivation for each aspect of the design is explained and supported by theory and numerical simulations. A subsequent report will provide detail on relevant experimental work to validate the concept. Here the focus is on the theory of and simulations for the proposed gas core reactor conceptual design from the onset of shock generations to the supercritical state achieved when the shocks collide. The MHD model is coupled to a standard nuclear code (MCNP) to observe the neutron flux and fission power attributed to the supercritical state brought about by the shock collisions. Throughout the modeling, realistic parameters are used for the initial ambient gaseous state and currents to ensure a resulting supercritical state upon shock collisions.
M. Schüssler
Full Text Available Two aspects of solar MHD are discussed in relation to the work of the MHD simulation group at KIS. Photospheric magneto-convection, the nonlinear interaction of magnetic field and convection in a strongly stratified, radiating fluid, is a key process of general astrophysical relevance. Comprehensive numerical simulations including radiative transfer have significantly improved our understanding of the processes and have become an important tool for the interpretation of observational data. Examples of field intensification in the solar photosphere ('convective collapse' are shown. The second line of research is concerned with the dynamics of flux tubes in the convection zone, which has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the solar dynamo. Simulations indicate that the field strength in the region where the flux is stored before erupting to form sunspot groups is of the order of 10^{5} G, an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates based on equipartition with the kinetic energy of convective flows.
Key words. Solar physics · astrophysics and astronomy (photosphere and chromosphere; stellar interiors and dynamo theory; numerical simulation studies.
Parchevsky, K; Khomenko, E; Olshevsky, V; Collados, M
2010-01-01
We present comparison of numerical simulations of propagation of MHD waves,excited by subphotospheric perturbations, in two different ("deep" and "shallow") magnetostatic models of the sunspots. The "deep" sunspot model distorts both the shape of the wavefront and its amplitude stronger than the "shallow" model. For both sunspot models, the surface gravity waves (f-mode) are affected by the sunspots stronger than the acoustic p-modes. The wave amplitude inside the sunspot depends on the photospheric strength of the magnetic field and the distance of the source from the sunspot axis. For the source located at 9 Mm from the center of the sunspot, the wave amplitude increases when the wavefront passes through the central part of the sunspot. For the source distance of 12 Mm, the wave amplitude inside the sunspot is always smaller than outside. For the same source distance from the sunspot center but for the models with different strength of the magnetic field, the wave amplitude inside the sunspot increases with...
Numerical simulation of flare energy build-up and release via Joule dissipation. [solar MHD model
Wu, S. T.; Bao, J. J.; Wang, J. F.
1986-01-01
A new numerical MHD model is developed to study the evolution of an active region due to photospheric converging motion, which leads to magnetic-energy buildup in the form of electric current. Because this new MHD model has incorporated finite conductivity, the energy conversion occurs from magnetic mode to thermal mode through Joule dissipation. In order to test the causality relationship between the occurrence of flare and photospheric motion, a multiple-pole configuration with neutral point is used. Using these results it is found that in addition to the converging motion, the initial magnetic-field configuration and the redistribution of the magnetic flux at photospheric level enhance the possibility for the development of a flare.
Benyo, Theresa L.
2011-01-01
Flow matching has been successfully achieved for an MHD energy bypass system on a supersonic turbojet engine. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment helped perform a thermodynamic cycle analysis to properly match the flows from an inlet employing a MHD energy bypass system (consisting of an MHD generator and MHD accelerator) on a supersonic turbojet engine. Working with various operating conditions (such as the applied magnetic field, MHD generator length and flow conductivity), interfacing studies were conducted between the MHD generator, the turbojet engine, and the MHD accelerator. This paper briefly describes the NPSS environment used in this analysis. This paper further describes the analysis of a supersonic turbojet engine with an MHD generator/accelerator energy bypass system. Results from this study have shown that using MHD energy bypass in the flow path of a supersonic turbojet engine increases the useful Mach number operating range from 0 to 3.0 Mach (not using MHD) to a range of 0 to 7.0 Mach with specific net thrust range of 740 N-s/kg (at ambient Mach = 3.25) to 70 N-s/kg (at ambient Mach = 7). These results were achieved with an applied magnetic field of 2.5 Tesla and conductivity levels in a range from 2 mhos/m (ambient Mach = 7) to 5.5 mhos/m (ambient Mach = 3.5) for an MHD generator length of 3 m.
Muhammad Mubashir Bhatti
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In this article, entropy generation with radiation on non-Newtonian Carreau nanofluid towards a shrinking sheet is investigated numerically. The effects of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD are also taken into account. Firstly, the governing flow problem is simplified into ordinary differential equations from partial differential equations with the help of similarity variables. The solution of the resulting nonlinear differential equations is solved numerically with the help of the successive linearization method and Chebyshev spectral collocation method. The influence of all the emerging parameters is discussed with the help of graphs and tables. It is observed that the influence of magnetic field and fluid parameters oppose the flow. It is also analyzed that thermal radiation effects and the Prandtl number show opposite behavior on temperature profile. Furthermore, it is also observed that entropy profile increases for all the physical parameters.
Benyo, Theresa L.
2010-01-01
Preliminary flow matching has been demonstrated for a MHD energy bypass system on a supersonic turbojet engine. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment was used to perform a thermodynamic cycle analysis to properly match the flows from an inlet to a MHD generator and from the exit of a supersonic turbojet to a MHD accelerator. Working with various operating conditions such as the enthalpy extraction ratio and isentropic efficiency of the MHD generator and MHD accelerator, interfacing studies were conducted between the pre-ionizers, the MHD generator, the turbojet engine, and the MHD accelerator. This paper briefly describes the NPSS environment used in this analysis and describes the NPSS analysis of a supersonic turbojet engine with a MHD generator/accelerator energy bypass system. Results from this study have shown that using MHD energy bypass in the flow path of a supersonic turbojet engine increases the useful Mach number operating range from 0 to 3.0 Mach (not using MHD) to an explored and desired range of 0 to 7.0 Mach.
Malapaka, Shiva Kumar; Mueller, Wolf-Christian [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)
2013-09-01
Statistical properties of the Sun's photospheric turbulent magnetic field, especially those of the active regions (ARs), have been studied using the line-of-sight data from magnetograms taken by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and several other instruments. This includes structure functions and their exponents, flatness curves, and correlation functions. In these works, the dependence of structure function exponents ({zeta}{sub p}) of the order of the structure functions (p) was modeled using a non-intermittent K41 model. It is now well known that the ARs are highly turbulent and are associated with strong intermittent events. In this paper, we compare some of the observations from Abramenko et al. with the log-Poisson model used for modeling intermittent MHD turbulent flows. Next, we analyze the structure function data obtained from the direct numerical simulations (DNS) of homogeneous, incompressible 3D-MHD turbulence in three cases: sustained by forcing, freely decaying, and a flow initially driven and later allowed to decay (case 3). The respective DNS replicate the properties seen in the plots of {zeta}{sub p} against p of ARs. We also reproduce the trends and changes observed in intermittency in flatness and correlation functions of ARs. It is suggested from this analysis that an AR in the onset phase of a flare can be treated as a forced 3D-MHD turbulent system in its simplest form and that the flaring stage is representative of decaying 3D-MHD turbulence. It is also inferred that significant changes in intermittency from the initial onset phase of a flare to its final peak flaring phase are related to the time taken by the system to reach the initial onset phase.
LEE; ChunHian
2010-01-01
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent channel flow has been performed under the low magnetic Reynolds number assumption.The velocity-electric field and electric-electric field correlations were studied in the present work for different magnetic field orientations.The Kenjeres-Hanjalic (K-H) model was validated with the DNS data in a term by term manner.The numerical results showed that the K-H model makes good predictions for most components of the velocity-electric field correlations.The mechanisms of turbulence suppression were also analyzed for different magnetic field orientations utilizing the DNS data and the K-H model.The results revealed that the dissipative MHD source term is responsible for the turbulence suppression for the case of streamwise and spanwise magnetic orientation,while the Lorentz force which speeds up the near-wall fluid and decreases the production term is responsible for the turbulence suppression for the case of the wall normal magnetic orientation.
A New Code for Numerical Simulation of MHD Astrophysical Flows With Chemistry
Kulikov, Igor; Protasov, Viktor
2016-01-01
The new code for numerical simulation of magnetic hydrodynamical astrophysical flows with consideration of chemical reactions is given in the paper. At the heart of the code - the new original low-dissipation numerical method based on a combination of operator splitting approach and piecewise-parabolic method on the local stencil. The details of the numerical method are described; the main tests and the scheme of parallel implementation are shown. The chemodynamics of the hydrogen while the turbulent formation of molecular clouds is modeled.
Numerical simulation of MHD for electromagnetic edge dam in continuous casting.
Chang, F. C.
1999-03-30
A computer model was developed to predict eddy currents and fluid flows in molten steel. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid-metal containment and fluid flow in electromagnetic (EM) edge dams (EMDs) designed at Inland Steel for twin-roll casting. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive, time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA is able to predict the eddy-current distribution and the electromagnetic forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM is capable of modeling fluid flows with free surfaces. Results of the numerical simulation compared measurements obtained from a static test.
Observational signatures of numerically simulated MHD waves in small-scale fluxtubes
Khomenko, E; Felipe, T
2008-01-01
We present some results obtained from the synthesis of Stokes profiles in small-scale flux tubes with propagating MHD waves. To that aim, realistic flux tubes showing internal structure have been excited with 5 min period drivers, allowing non-linear waves to propagate inside the magnetic structure. The observational signatures of these waves in Stokes profiles of several spectral lines that are commonly used in spectropolarimetric measurements are discussed.
Ali, M. M.; Alim, M. A.; Maleque, M. A.; Ahmed, Syed Sabbir
2017-06-01
A numerical study has been carried out to analyze the flow and heat transfer characteristics due to the effects of magnetohydrodynamic free convection flow in a differentially heated enclosure having a hot tilted square block. The vertical and horizontal walls of the cavity are non-uniformly heated while the walls of the tilted block are uniformly heated. The basic partial differential equations of the physical problem are solved numerically using finite element technique along with Galerkin's weighted residual simulation. Calculations have been performed for different values of buoyancy parameter (102 ≤ Ra ≤ 105) and magnetic field parameter (0 ≤ Ha ≤ 60) and obtained results are illustrated in terms of streamlines, isotherms, average Nusselt number and average temperature. The results show that the flow pattern and temperature distributions affected noticeably for the effect of aforementioned parameters. In addition, an increase in average Nusselt number is found for the whole range of Rayleigh number and average temperature decreased for increasing Rayleigh number. Comparison between the obtained results and the previously published results on the basis of special case is a good agreement.
Resistive MHD jet simulations with large resistivity
Cemeljic, Miljenko; Vlahakis, Nektarios; Tsinganos, Kanaris
2009-01-01
Axisymmetric resistive MHD simulations for radially self-similar initial conditions are performed, using the NIRVANA code. The magnetic diffusivity could occur in outflows above an accretion disk, being transferred from the underlying disk into the disk corona by MHD turbulence (anomalous turbulent diffusivity), or as a result of ambipolar diffusion in partially ionized flows. We introduce, in addition to the classical magnetic Reynolds number Rm, which measures the importance of resistive effects in the induction equation, a new number Rb, which measures the importance of the resistive effects in the energy equation. We find two distinct regimes of solutions in our simulations. One is the low-resistivity regime, in which results do not differ much from ideal-MHD solutions. In the high-resistivity regime, results seem to show some periodicity in time-evolution, and depart significantly from the ideal-MHD case. Whether this departure is caused by numerical or physical reasons is of considerable interest for nu...
Numerical simulation of MHD pulsatile flow of a biofluid in a channel
Kashif Ali
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to numerically study the interaction of an external magnetic field with the flow of a biofluid through a Darcy-Forchhmeir porous channel, due to an oscillatory pressure gradient, in the presence of wall transpiration as well as chemical reaction considerations. We have noticed that if the Reynolds number of the wall transpiration flow is increased, the average (or maximum velocity of the main flow direction is raised. Similar effect has also been observed for the rheological parameter and the Darcy parameter, whereas an opposite trend has been noted for both the Forchheimer quadratic drag parameter and the magnetic parameter. Further, an increase in the Reynolds number results in straightening the concentration profile, thus making it an almost linear function of the dimensionless spatial variable.
Tanuma, S; Kudoh, T; Shibata, K; Tanuma, Syuniti; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Kudoh, Takahiro; Shibata, Kazunari
2001-01-01
We examine the magnetic reconnection triggered by a supernova (or a point explosion) in interstellar medium, by performing two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations with high spatial resolution. We found that the magnetic reconnection starts long after a supernova shock (fast-mode MHD shock) passes a current sheet. The current sheet evolves as follows: (i) Tearing-mode instability is excited by the supernova shock, and the current sheet becomes thin in its nonlinear stage. (ii) The current-sheet thinning is saturated when the current-sheet thickness becomes comparable to that of Sweet-Parker current sheet. After that, Sweet-Parker type reconnection starts, and the current-sheet length increases. (iii) ``Secondary tearing-mode instability'' occurs in the thin Sweet-Parker current sheet. (iv) As a result, further current-sheet thinning occurs and anomalous resistivity sets in, because gas density decreases in the current sheet. Petschek type reconnection starts and heats interste...
3D MHD Simulations of Tokamak Disruptions
Woodruff, Simon; Stuber, James
2014-10-01
Two disruption scenarios are modeled numerically by use of the CORSICA 2D equilibrium and NIMROD 3D MHD codes. The work follows the simulations of pressure-driven modes in DIII-D and VDEs in ITER. The aim of the work is to provide starting points for simulation of tokamak disruption mitigation techniques currently in the CDR phase for ITER. Pressure-driven instability growth rates previously observed in simulations of DIIID are verified; Halo and Hiro currents produced during vertical displacements are observed in simulations of ITER with implementation of resistive walls in NIMROD. We discuss plans to exercise new code capabilities and validation.
Numerical study of Cosmic Ray Diffusion in MHD turbulence
Beresnyak, A.; Yan, H.; Lazarian, A.
2010-01-01
We study diffusion of Cosmic Rays (CRs) in turbulent magnetic fields using test particle simulations. Electromagnetic fields are produced in direct numerical MHD simulations of turbulence and used as an input for particle tracing, particle feedback on turbulence being ignored. Statistical transport coefficients from the test particle runs are compared with earlier analytical predictions. We find qualitative correspondence between them in various aspects of CR diffusion. In the incompressible ...
Research on numerical simulation of hypersonic MHD%高超声速磁流体数值模拟研究
卜少科; 薛雅心
2014-01-01
高超声速流动情况下，气流经过强激波后温度升高，发生电离和离解，导致局部存在等离子流并进而产生诱导磁场和电场，流动经过与磁场、电场的相互作用变得更加复杂。如果在高超速流场中人为加入磁场，则可以改变流场结构，实现对流动的控制，达到减阻、热防护等目的。首先完成了磁流体力学控制方程推导，然后对FLUENT软件进行二次开发，使其具备磁流体力学控制方程即MHD的数值模拟能力，最后进行了高超声速钝头体MHD流动的数值模拟研究。%In hypersonic flows,the air temperature will increase after the strong shock wave,then ionization and dissocia-tion would occur and results in plasma stream exits locally,and thus generates induced magnetic field and electric field,so the flows become more complex after interaction. If the magnetic field is added to the high-speed flow field artificially,the flow structure would change,thus realize the control of flow,and achieve purposes of drag reduction and thermal protection. The MHD governing equations is deduced firstly,and then the secondary development of FLUENT software is conducted to achieve MHD numerical modelling capabilities. Finally a hypersonic blunt body MHD flow numerical simulation is researched.
A Numerical Study of Resistivity and Hall Effects for a Compressible MHD Model
Yee, H. C.; Sjogreen, B.
2005-01-01
The effect of resistive, Hall, and viscous terms on the flow structure compared with compressible ideal MHD is studied numerically for a one-fluid non-ideal MHD model. The goal of the present study is to shed some light on the emerging area of non-ideal MHD modeling and simulation. Numerical experiments are performed on a hypersonic blunt body flow with future application to plasma aerodynamics flow control in reentry vehicles. Numerical experiments are also performed on a magnetized time-developing mixing layer with possible application to magnetic/turbulence mixing.
Simulation of wave interactions with MHD
Batchelor, D; Bernholdt, D; Berry, L; Elwasif, W; Jaeger, E; Keyes, D; Klasky, S [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37331 (United States); Alba, C; Choi, M [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States); Bateman, G [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Bonoli, P [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MTT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bramley, R [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Breslau, J; Chance, M; Chen, J; Fu, G; Jardin, S [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Harvey, R [CompX, Del Mar, CA 92014 (United States); Jenkins, T [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kruger, S [Tech-X, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)], E-mail: batchelordb@ornl.gov (and others)
2008-07-15
The broad scientific objectives of the SWIM (Simulation 01 Wave Interaction with MHD) project are twofold: (1) improve our understanding of interactions that both radio frequency (RF) wave and particle sources have on extended-MHD phenomena, and to substantially improve our capability for predicting and optimizing the performance of burning plasmas in devices such as ITER: and (2) develop an integrated computational system for treating multiphysics phenomena with the required flexibility and extensibility to serve as a prototype for the Fusion Simulation Project. The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) has been implemented. Presented here are initial physics results on RP effects on MHD instabilities in tokamaks as well as simulation results for tokamak discharge evolution using the IPS.
Simulation of wave interactions with MHD
Batchelor, Donald B [ORNL; Abla, G [General Atomics, San Diego; Bateman, Glenn [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Bernholdt, David E [ORNL; Berry, Lee A [ORNL; Bonoli, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Bramley, R [Indiana University; Breslau, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Chance, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Chen, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Choi, M. [General Atomics; Elwasif, Wael R [ORNL; Fu, GuoYong [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Harvey, R. W. [CompX, Del Mar, CA; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick [ORNL; Jardin, S. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Jenkins, T [University of Wisconsin; Keyes, David E [Columbia University; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Kruger, Scott [Tech-X Corporation; Ku, Long-Poe [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL; McCune, Douglas [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ramos, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Schissel, D. [General Atomics; Schnack, [University of Wisconsin; Wright, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
2008-07-01
The broad scientific objectives of the SWIM (Simulation of Wave Interaction with MHD) project are twofold: (1) improve our understanding of interactions that both radio frequency (RF) wave and particle sources have on extended-MHD phenomena, and to substantially improve our capability for predicting and optimizing the performance of burning plasmas in devices such as ITER: and (2) develop an integrated computational system for treating multiphysics phenomena with the required flexibility and extensibility to serve as a prototype for the Fusion Simulation Project. The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) has been implemented. Presented here are initial physics results on RF effects on MHD instabilities in tokamaks as well as simulation results for tokamak discharge evolution using the IPS.
Newest insights from MHD numerical modeling of Pulsar Wind Nebulae
Olmi, B.; Del Zanna, L.; Amato, E.; Bucciantini, N.; Bandiera, R.
2016-06-01
Numerical MHD models are considered very successful in accounting for many of the observed properties of Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe), especially those concerning the high energy emission morphology and the inner nebula dynamics. Although PWNe are known to be among the most powerful accelerators in nature, producing particles up to PeV energies, the mechanisms responsible of such an efficient acceleration are still a deep mystery. Indeed, these processes take place in one of the most hostile environment for particle acceleration: the relativistic and highly magnetized termination shock of the pulsar wind. The newest results from numerical simulations of the Crab Nebula, the PWN prototype, will be presented, with special attention to the problem of particle acceleration. In particular it will be shown how a multi-wavelengths analysis of the wisps properties can be used to constrain the particle acceleration mechanisms working at the Crab's termination shock, by identifying the particle acceleration site at the shock front.
On the measurements of numerical viscosity and resistivity in Eulerian MHD codes
Rembiasz, Tomasz; Cerdá-Durán, Pablo; Aloy, Miguel-Ángel; Müller, Ewald
2016-01-01
We propose a simple ansatz for estimating the value of the numerical resistivity and the numerical viscosity of any Eulerian MHD code. We test this ansatz with the help of simulations of the propagation of (magneto)sonic waves, Alfven waves, and the tearing mode instability using the MHD code Aenus. By comparing the simu- lation results with analytical solutions of the resistive-viscous MHD equations and an empirical ansatz for the growth rate of tearing modes we measure the numerical viscosity and resistivity of Aenus. The comparison shows that the fast-magnetosonic speed and wavelength are the characteristic velocity and length, respectively, of the aforementioned (relatively simple) systems. We also determine the dependance of the numerical viscosity and resistivity on the time integration method, the spatial reconstruction scheme and (to a lesser extent) the Riemann solver employed in the simulations. From the measured results we infer the numerical resolution (as a function of the spatial reconstruction ...
Divergence-free MHD Simulations with the HERACLES Code
Vides J.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Numerical simulations of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD equations have played a significant role in plasma research over the years. The need of obtaining physical and stable solutions to these equations has led to the development of several schemes, all requiring to satisfy and preserve the divergence constraint of the magnetic field numerically. In this paper, we aim to show the importance of maintaining this constraint numerically. We investigate in particular the hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique applied to the ideal MHD equations on a collocated grid and compare it to the constrained transport technique that uses a staggered grid to maintain the property. The methods are implemented in the software HERACLES and several numerical tests are presented, where the robustness and accuracy of the different schemes can be directly compared.
Application of ADER Scheme in MHD Simulation
ZHANG Yanyan; FENG Xueshang; JIANG Chaowei; ZHOU Yufen
2012-01-01
The Arbitrary accuracy Derivatives Riemann problem method（ADER） scheme is a new high order numerical scheme based on the concept of finite volume integration,and it is very easy to be extended up to any order of space and time accuracy by using a Taylor time expansion at the cell interface position.So far the approach has been applied successfully to flow mechanics problems.Our objective here is to carry out the extension of multidimensional ADER schemes to multidimensional MHD systems of conservation laws by calculating several MHD problems in one and two dimensions： （ⅰ） Brio-Wu shock tube problem,（ⅱ） Dai-Woodward shock tube problem,（ⅲ） Orszag-Tang MHD vortex problem.The numerical results prove that the ADER scheme possesses the ability to solve MHD problem,remains high order accuracy both in space and time,keeps precise in capturing the shock.Meanwhile,the compared tests show that the ADER scheme can restrain the oscillation and obtain the high order non-oscillatory result.
MHD Simulations of Magnetospheric Accretion, Ejection and Plasma-field Interaction
Romanova M. M.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We review recent axisymmetric and three-dimensional (3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD numerical simulations of magnetospheric accretion, plasma-field interaction and outflows from the disk-magnetosphere boundary.
Inductive ionospheric solver for magnetospheric MHD simulations
H. Vanhamäki
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We present a new scheme for solving the ionospheric boundary conditions required in magnetospheric MHD simulations. In contrast to the electrostatic ionospheric solvers currently in use, the new solver takes ionospheric induction into account by solving Faraday's law simultaneously with Ohm's law and current continuity. From the viewpoint of an MHD simulation, the new inductive solver is similar to the electrostatic solvers, as the same input data is used (field-aligned current [FAC] and ionospheric conductances and similar output is produced (ionospheric electric field. The inductive solver is tested using realistic, databased models of an omega-band and westward traveling surge. Although the tests were performed with local models and MHD simulations require a global ionospheric solution, we may nevertheless conclude that the new solution scheme is feasible also in practice. In the test cases the difference between static and electrodynamic solutions is up to ~10 V km^{−1} in certain locations, or up to 20-40% of the total electric field. This is in agreement with previous estimates. It should also be noted that if FAC is replaced by the ground magnetic field (or ionospheric equivalent current in the input data set, exactly the same formalism can be used to construct an inductive version of the KRM method originally developed by Kamide et al. (1981.
Inductive ionospheric solver for magnetospheric MHD simulations
Vanhamäki, H.
2011-01-01
We present a new scheme for solving the ionospheric boundary conditions required in magnetospheric MHD simulations. In contrast to the electrostatic ionospheric solvers currently in use, the new solver takes ionospheric induction into account by solving Faraday's law simultaneously with Ohm's law and current continuity. From the viewpoint of an MHD simulation, the new inductive solver is similar to the electrostatic solvers, as the same input data is used (field-aligned current [FAC] and ionospheric conductances) and similar output is produced (ionospheric electric field). The inductive solver is tested using realistic, databased models of an omega-band and westward traveling surge. Although the tests were performed with local models and MHD simulations require a global ionospheric solution, we may nevertheless conclude that the new solution scheme is feasible also in practice. In the test cases the difference between static and electrodynamic solutions is up to ~10 V km-1 in certain locations, or up to 20-40% of the total electric field. This is in agreement with previous estimates. It should also be noted that if FAC is replaced by the ground magnetic field (or ionospheric equivalent current) in the input data set, exactly the same formalism can be used to construct an inductive version of the KRM method originally developed by Kamide et al. (1981).
The Biermann Catastrophe in Numerical MHD
Graziani, Carlo; Lee, Dongwook; Lamb, Donald Q; Weide, Klaus; Fatenejad, Milad; Miller, Joshua
2014-01-01
The Biermann Battery effect is a popular mechanism for generating magnetic fields in initially unmagnetized plasmas, and is frequently invoked in cosmic magnetogenesis and studied in High-Energy Density laboratory physics experiments. Generation of magnetic fields by the Biermann effect due to mis-aligned density and temperature gradients in smooth flow _behind_ shocks is well known. We show that a magnetic field is also generated _within_ shocks as a result of the electron-ion charge separation that they induce. A straightforward implementation of the Biermann effect in MHD codes does not capture this physical process, and worse, produces unphysical magnetic fields at shocks whose value does not converge with resolution. We show that this breakdown of convergence is due to naive discretization. We show that a careful consideration of the kinetic picture of ion viscous shocks leads to a formulation of the Biermann effect in terms of the electron temperature -- which is continuous across shocks -- that gives r...
The Biermann catastrophe of numerical MHD
Graziani, C.; Tzeferacos, P.; Lee, D.; Lamb, D. Q.; Weide, K.; Fatenejad, M.; Miller, J.
2016-05-01
The Biermann Battery effect is frequently invoked in cosmic magnetogenesis and studied in High-Energy Density laboratory physics experiments. Unfortunately, direct implementation of the Biermann effect in MHD codes is known to produce unphysical magnetic fields at shocks whose value does not converge with resolution. We show that this convergence breakdown is due to naive discretization, which fails to account for the fact that discretized irrotational vector fields have spurious solenoidal components that grow without bound near a discontinuity. We show that careful consideration of the kinetics of ion viscous shocks leads to a formulation of the Biermann effect that gives rise to a convergent algorithm. We note a novel physical effect a resistive magnetic precursor in which Biermann-generated field in the shock “leaks” resistively upstream. The effect appears to be potentially observable in experiments at laser facilities.
Formation and collimation of relativistic MHD jets - simulations and radio maps
Fendt, Christian; Sheikhnezami, Somayeh
2013-01-01
We present results of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of jet formation and propagation, discussing a variety of astrophysical setups. In the first approach we consider simulations of relativistic MHD jet formation, considering jets launched from the surface of a Keplerian disk, demonstrating numerically - for the first time - the self-collimating ability of relativistic MHD jets. We obtain Lorentz factors up to about 10 while acquiring a high degree of collimation of about 1 degree. We then present synchrotron maps calculated from the intrinsic jet structure derived from the MHD jet formation simulation. We finally present (non-relativistic) MHD simulations of jet lauching, treating the transition between accretion and ejection. These setups include a physical magnetic diffusivity which is essential for loading the accretion material onto the outflow. We find relatively high mass fluxes in the outflow, of the order of 20-40 % of the accretion rate.
Numerical Calculation of the Output Power of a MHD Generator
Adrian CARABINEANU
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Using Lazăr Dragoş’s analytic solution for the electric potential we perform some numerical calculations in order to find the characteristics of a Faraday magnetohydrodymamics (MHD power generator (total power, useful power and Joule dissipation power.
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modelling of solar active phenomena via numerical methods
Wu, S. T.
1988-01-01
Numerical ideal MHD models for the study of solar active phenomena are summarized. Particular attention is given to the following physical phenomena: (1) local heating of a coronal loop in an isothermal and stratified atmosphere, and (2) the coronal dynamic responses due to magnetic field movement. The results suggest that local heating of a magnetic loop will lead to the enhancement of the density of the neighboring loops through MHD wave compression. It is noted that field lines can be pinched off and may form a self-contained magnetized plasma blob that may move outward into interplanetary space.
MHD Simulations for Fusion Applications
Jardin, S.C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)
2011-07-01
Nuclear fusion holds forth the promise of being a clean and safe solution to meet the world's energy demand in the foreseeable future without producing long-lived radioactive waste or weapons-grade material. The most mature configuration for magnetically confining a fusion plasma is the tokamak; a current carrying toroidal plasma characterized by strong externally produced magnetic fields. The temperatures, densities, and current will diffuse across the magnetic field lines at some rate, determining the confinement properties of the tokamak. The tokamak can also develop global instabilities if the current and/or pressure exceed certain instability thresholds. This set of lectures is aimed at describing analytical formulations and associated numerical methods for quantitatively describing both the slow (diffusive) motion associated with transport and the faster (wave-like) motion associated with instabilities. The former uses slow time scale ordering to remove the wave-like motion, and a time dependent field-aligned coordinate transformation to isolate the cross-field transport from the faster transport along the magnetic field lines. The latter uses a combination of high-order finite elements, a particular representation of the magnetic and velocity vector fields, and an implicit time advance algorithm with desirable properties. This paper is followed by the slides of the lectures. (author)
Alekseeva, L M
2015-01-01
The dynamical coupling between the solar chromospheric plasma and magnetic field is investigated by numerically solving a fully self-consistent, two-dimensional initial-value problem for the nonlinear collisional MHD equations including electric resistivity, thermal conduction, and, in some cases, gas-dynamic viscosity. The processes in the contact zone between two horizontal magnetic fields of opposite polarities are considered. The plasma is assumed to be initially motionless and having a temperature of 50,000 K uniform throughout the plasma volume; the characteristic magnetic field corresponds to a plasma $\\beta\\gtrsim 1$. In a physical-time interval of 17~seconds typically covered by a computational run, the plasma temperature gradually increases by a factor of two to three. Against this background, an impulsive (in 0.1 seconds or less) increase in the current-aligned plasma velocity occurs at the site of the current-layer thinning (sausage-type deformation, or $m=0$ pinch instability). Such a "velocity b...
EVIDENCE OF ACTIVE MHD INSTABILITY IN EULAG-MHD SIMULATIONS OF SOLAR CONVECTION
Lawson, Nicolas; Strugarek, Antoine; Charbonneau, Paul, E-mail: nicolas.laws@gmail.ca, E-mail: strugarek@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: paulchar@astro.umontreal.ca [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Qc H3C 3J7 (Canada)
2015-11-10
We investigate the possible development of magnetohydrodynamical instabilities in the EULAG-MHD “millennium simulation” of Passos and Charbonneau. This simulation sustains a large-scale magnetic cycle characterized by solar-like polarity reversals taking place on a regular multidecadal cadence, and in which zonally oriented bands of strong magnetic fields accumulate below the convective layers, in response to turbulent pumping from above in successive magnetic half-cycles. Key aspects of this simulation include low numerical dissipation and a strongly sub-adiabatic fluid layer underlying the convectively unstable layers corresponding to the modeled solar convection zone. These properties are conducive to the growth and development of two-dimensional instabilities that are otherwise suppressed by stronger dissipation. We find evidence for the action of a non-axisymmetric magnetoshear instability operating in the upper portions of the stably stratified fluid layers. We also investigate the possibility that the Tayler instability may be contributing to the destabilization of the large-scale axisymmetric magnetic component at high latitudes. On the basis of our analyses, we propose a global dynamo scenario whereby the magnetic cycle is driven primarily by turbulent dynamo action in the convecting layers, but MHD instabilities accelerate the dissipation of the magnetic field pumped down into the overshoot and stable layers, thus perhaps significantly influencing the magnetic cycle period. Support for this scenario is found in the distinct global dynamo behaviors observed in an otherwise identical EULAG-MHD simulations, using a different degree of sub-adiabaticity in the stable fluid layers underlying the convection zone.
On the Measurements of Numerical Viscosity and Resistivity in Eulerian MHD Codes
Rembiasz, Tomasz; Obergaulinger, Martin; Cerdá-Durán, Pablo; Aloy, Miguel-Ángel; Müller, Ewald
2017-06-01
We propose a simple ansatz for estimating the value of the numerical resistivity and the numerical viscosity of any Eulerian MHD code. We test this ansatz with the help of simulations of the propagation of (magneto)sonic waves, Alfvén waves, and the tearing mode (TM) instability using the MHD code Aenus. By comparing the simulation results with analytical solutions of the resistive-viscous MHD equations and an empirical ansatz for the growth rate of TMs, we measure the numerical viscosity and resistivity of Aenus. The comparison shows that the fast magnetosonic speed and wavelength are the characteristic velocity and length, respectively, of the aforementioned (relatively simple) systems. We also determine the dependence of the numerical viscosity and resistivity on the time integration method, the spatial reconstruction scheme and (to a lesser extent) the Riemann solver employed in the simulations. From the measured results, we infer the numerical resolution (as a function of the spatial reconstruction method) required to properly resolve the growth and saturation level of the magnetic field amplified by the magnetorotational instability in the post-collapsed core of massive stars. Our results show that it is most advantageous to resort to ultra-high-order methods (e.g., the ninth-order monotonicity-preserving method) to tackle this problem properly, in particular, in three-dimensional simulations.
3D MHD simulation of polarized emission in SN 1006
Schneiter, E M; Reynoso, E M; Esquivel, A; De Colle, F
2015-01-01
We use three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to model the supernova remnant SN 1006. From our numerical results, we have carried out a polarization study, obtaining synthetic maps of the polarized intensity, the Stokes parameter $Q$, and the polar-referenced angle, which can be compared with observational results. Synthetic maps were computed considering two possible particle acceleration mechanisms: quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular. The comparison of synthetic maps of the Stokes parameter $Q$ maps with observations proves to be a valuable tool to discern unambiguously which mechanism is taking place in the remnant of SN 1006, giving strong support to the quasi-parallel model.
Global MHD simulations of Neptune's magnetosphere
Mejnertsen, L.; Eastwood, J. P.; Chittenden, J. P.; Masters, A.
2016-08-01
A global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation has been performed in order to investigate the outer boundaries of Neptune's magnetosphere at the time of Voyager 2's flyby in 1989 and to better understand the dynamics of magnetospheres formed by highly inclined planetary dipoles. Using the MHD code Gorgon, we have implemented a precessing dipole to mimic Neptune's tilted magnetic field and rotation axes. By using the solar wind parameters measured by Voyager 2, the simulation is verified by finding good agreement with Voyager 2 magnetometer observations. Overall, there is a large-scale reconfiguration of magnetic topology and plasma distribution. During the "pole-on" magnetospheric configuration, there only exists one tail current sheet, contained between a rarefied lobe region which extends outward from the dayside cusp, and a lobe region attached to the nightside cusp. It is found that the tail current always closes to the magnetopause current system, rather than closing in on itself, as suggested by other models. The bow shock position and shape is found to be dependent on Neptune's daily rotation, with maximum standoff being during the pole-on case. Reconnection is found on the magnetopause but is highly modulated by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and time of day, turning "off" and "on" when the magnetic shear between the IMF and planetary fields is large enough. The simulation shows that the most likely location for reconnection to occur during Voyager 2's flyby was far from the spacecraft trajectory, which may explain the relative lack of associated signatures in the observations.
Numerical simulation of MHD duct flow about laminar and turbulence model%磁流体管流的层流与湍流模型数值模拟
侯俊; 毛洁; 潘华辰
2013-01-01
采用FLUENT软件分别对外加均匀横向磁场的等截面三维充分发展液态金属管流的层流模型和低雷诺数湍流Lam/Bremhost(LB)模型进行了数值模拟,分析了外加磁场对普通方管LB模型速度分布和压降的影响.比较在相同哈特曼数下,层流和湍流模型方管截面上速度分布和管道中MHD压降.其中,对电流的计算采用磁感应方程来求得.数值模拟结果证明了用低雷诺数LB湍流模型解决方管磁流体流动的可行性.通过层流模型和湍流模型的对比可知,层流模型有较短的入口长度,但管内流体的压降却很大；而湍流模型管内速度更加平均化,管内压降较小,但管内入口长度较长.%The numerical analysis of full-developed flow of a liquid metal in a rectangular duct of constant cross-section with a uniform transverse magnetic field was proceeded in laminar and low-Reynolds number Lam/Bremhost turbulence model (for short LB model) using FLUENT software. The paper analyzed the influence of external magnetic field for velocity distribution and MHD pressure drop in turbulence model. Under the same Hartmann number conductions, the paper compared the velocity distribution and MHD pressure drop of laminar model and turbulent model. The solution of current density was obtained by means of induced magnetic field formulation. The result of numerical simulation proved that this was a feasible scheme to use the low-Reynolds LB turbulence model to calculate MHD duct flow. Comparison between laminar model and turbulent model show that laminar model made shorter entrance length, but the pressure drop in the duct increased. Turbulent model had more average speed and smaller pressure drop, but entrance length was longer.
Simulation of MHD collimation from differential rotation
Carey, Christopher
2005-10-01
Recent observations indicate that astrophysical outflows from active galactic nuclei are permeated with helical magnetic fields[1]. The most promising theory for the formation of the magnetic configurations in these magnetically driven jets is the coiling of an initial seed field by the differential rotation of the accretion disk surrounding the central object. We have begun simulations that are relevant to these Poynting jets using the NIMROD code[2]. To simulate dynamics on length scales that are significantly larger than the accretion disk, the non-relativistic MHD equations are evolved on a hemispherical logarithmic mesh. The accretion disk is treated as a condition on the lower boundary by applying a Keplerian velocity to the azimuthal component of the fluid velocity and a prescribed flux of mass through the boundary. The magnetic field configuration is initialized to a dipole like field. Formation of a jet outflow is observed later in time. The initial field is coiled up and collimated, driving a large current density on the axis of symmetry. Slipping of magnetic field lines due to non-ideal effects has been investigated. 1. Asada K. et. al., Pub. of the Astr. Soc. of Japan, 54, L39-L43, 2002 2. Sovinec C. et. al., J. Comp. Phys., 195, 355-386, 2004
Simulations of MHD flows with moving interfaces
Gerbeau, J F; Le Bris, C
2003-01-01
We report on the numerical simulation of a two-fluid magnetohydrodynamics problem arising in the industrial production of aluminium. The motion of the two non-miscible fluids is modeled through the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the Maxwell equations. Stabilized finite elements techniques and an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation (for the motion of the interface separating the two fluids) are used in the numerical simulation. With a view to justifying our strategy, details on the numerical analysis of the problem, with a special emphasis on conservation and stability properties and on the surface tension discretization, as well as results on tests cases are provided. Examples of numerical simulations of the industrial case are eventually presented.
Simulation of three-dimensional nonideal MHD flow at high magnetic Reynolds number
无
2010-01-01
A conservative TVD scheme is adopted to solve the equations governing the three-dimensional flow of a nonideal compressible conducting fluid in a magnetic field.The eight-wave equations for magnetohydrodynamics(MHD) are proved to be a non-strict hyperbolic system,therefore it is difficult to develop its eigenstructure.Powell developed a new set of equations which cannot be numerically simulated by conservative TVD scheme directly due to its non-conservative form.A conservative TVD scheme augmented with a new set of eigenvectors is proposed in the paper.To validate this scheme,1-D MHD shock tube,unsteady MHD Rayleigh problem and steady MHD Hartmann problem for different flow conditions are simulated.The simulated results are in good agreement with the existing analytical results.So this scheme can be used to effectively simulate high-conductivity fluids such as cosmic MHD problem and hypersonic MHD flow over a blunt body,etc.
Nonlinear evolution of parallel propagating Alfven waves: Vlasov - MHD simulation
Nariyuki, Y; Kumashiro, T; Hada, T
2009-01-01
Nonlinear evolution of circularly polarized Alfv\\'en waves are discussed by using the recently developed Vlasov-MHD code, which is a generalized Landau-fluid model. The numerical results indicate that as far as the nonlinearity in the system is not so large, the Vlasov-MHD model can validly solve time evolution of the Alfv\\'enic turbulence both in the linear and nonlinear stages. The present Vlasov-MHD model is proper to discuss the solar coronal heating and solar wind acceleration by Alfve\\'n waves propagating from the photosphere.
Numerical considerations in simulating the global magnetosphere
A. J. Ridley
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models of the global magnetosphere are very good research tools for investigating the topology and dynamics of the near-Earth space environment. While these models have obvious limitations in regions that are not well described by the MHD equations, they can typically be used (or are used to investigate the majority of magnetosphere. Often, a secondary consideration is overlooked by researchers when utilizing global models – the effects of solving the MHD equations on a grid, instead of analytically. Any discretization unavoidably introduces numerical artifacts that affect the solution to various degrees. This paper investigates some of the consequences of the numerical schemes and grids that are used to solve the MHD equations in the global magnetosphere. Specifically, the University of Michigan's MHD code is used to investigate the role of grid resolution, numerical schemes, limiters, inner magnetospheric density boundary conditions, and the artificial lowering of the speed of light on the strength of the ionospheric cross polar cap potential and the build up of the ring current in the inner magnetosphere. It is concluded that even with a very good solver and the highest affordable grid resolution, the inner magnetosphere is not grid converged. Artificially reducing the speed of light reduces the numerical diffusion that helps to achieve better agreement with data. It is further concluded that many numerical effects work nonlinearly to complicate the interpretation of the physics within the magnetosphere, and so simulation results should be scrutinized very carefully before a physical interpretation of the results is made. Our conclusions are not limited to the Michigan MHD code, but apply to all MHD models due to the limitations of computational resources.
Numerical simulations of rotating axisymmetric sunspots
Botha, G. J. J.; Busse, F.H.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Rucklidge, A.M.
2008-01-01
A numerical model of axisymmetric convection in the presence of a vertical magnetic flux bundle and rotation about the axis is presented. The model contains a compressible plasma described by the nonlinear MHD equations, with density and temperature gradients simulating the upper layer of the sun's convection zone. The solutions exhibit a central magnetic flux tube in a cylindrical numerical domain, with convection cells forming collar flows around the tube. When the numerical domain is rotat...
Numerical simulations of rotating axisymmetric sunspots
Botha, Gert; Busse, F.H.; Hurlburt, Neal; Rucklidge, Alistair
2008-01-01
A numerical model of axisymmetric convection in the presence of a vertical magnetic flux bundle and rotation about the axis is presented. The model contains a compressible plasma described by the non-linear MHD equations, with density and temperature gradients simulating the upper layer of the Sun’s convection zone. The solutions exhibit a central magnetic flux tube in a cylindrical numerical domain, with convection cells forming collar flows around the tube. When the numerical domain is rota...
Numerical study for MHD peristaltic flow in a rotating frame.
Hayat, T; Zahir, Hina; Tanveer, Anum; Alsaedi, A
2016-12-01
The aim of present investigation is to model and analyze the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) peristaltic transport of Prandtl fluid in a channel with flexible walls. The whole system consisting of fluid and channel are in a rotating frame of reference with uniform angular velocity. Viscous dissipation in thermal equation is not ignored. The channel boundaries satisfy the convective conditions in terms of temperature. The arising complicated problems are reduced in solvable form using large wavelength and small Reynolds number assumptions. Numerical solution for axial and secondary velocities, temperature and heat transfer coefficient are presented. Main emphasis is given to the outcome of rotation and material parameters of Prandtl fluid on the physical quantities of interest.
Simulation of three-dimensional nonideal MHD flow at low magnetic Reynolds number
LU HaoYu; LEE ChunHian
2009-01-01
A numerical procedure based on a five-wave model associated with non-ideal,low magnetic Reynolds number magnetohydrodynamic(MHD)flows was developed.It is composed of an entropy conditioned scheme for solving the non-homogeneous Navier-Stokes equations,in conjunction with an SOR method for solving the elliptic equation governing the electrical potential of flow field.To validate the developed procedure,two different test cases were used which included MHD Rayleigh problem and MHD Hartmann problem.The simulations were performed under the assumption of low magnetic Reynolds number.The simulated results were found to be in good agreement with the closed form analytical solutions deduced in the present study,showing that the present algorithm could simulate engineering MHD flow at low magnetic Reynolds number effectively.In the end,a flow field between a pair of segmented electrodes in a three dimensional MHD channel was simulated using the present algorithm with and without including Hall effects.Without the introduction of Hall effects,no distortion was observed in the current and potential lines.By taking the Hall effects into account,the potential lines distorted and clustered at the upstream and downstream edges of the cathode and anode,respectively.
Wall functions for numerical modeling of laminar MHD flows
Widlund, O
2003-01-01
general wall function treatment is presented for the numerical modeling of laminar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. The wall function expressions are derived analytically from the steady-state momentum and electric potential equations, making use only of local variables of the numerical solution. No assumptions are made regarding the orientation of the magnetic field relative to the wall, nor of the magnitude of the Hartmann number, or the wall conductivity. The wall functions are used for defining implicit boundary conditions for velocity and electric potential, and for computing mass flow and electrical currents in near wall-cells. The wall function treatment was validated in a finite volume formulation, and compared with an analytic solution for a fully developed channel flow in a transverse magnetic field. For the case with insulating walls, a uniform 20 x 20 grid, and Hartmann numbers Ha = [10,30,100], the accuracy of pressure drop and wall shear stress predictions was [1.1%,1.6%,0.5%], respectively. Com...
MHD simulations on an unstructured mesh
Strauss, H.R. [New York Univ., NY (United States); Park, W.; Belova, E.; Fu, G.Y. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Longcope, D.W. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States); Sugiyama, L.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)
1998-12-31
Two reasons for using an unstructured computational mesh are adaptivity, and alignment with arbitrarily shaped boundaries. Two codes which use finite element discretization on an unstructured mesh are described. FEM3D solves 2D and 3D RMHD using an adaptive grid. MH3D++, which incorporates methods of FEM3D into the MH3D generalized MHD code, can be used with shaped boundaries, which might be 3D.
Advances in Simulation of Wave Interactions with Extended MHD Phenomena
Batchelor, Donald B [ORNL; D' Azevedo, Eduardo [ORNL; Bateman, Glenn [ORNL; Bernholdt, David E [ORNL; Bonoli, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Bramley, Randall B [ORNL; Breslau, Joshua [ORNL; Elwasif, Wael R [ORNL; Foley, S. [Indiana University; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick [ORNL; Jardin, S. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Kruger, Scott E [ORNL; Ku, Long-Poe [ORNL; McCune, Douglas [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ramos, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Schissel, David P [ORNL; Schnack, Dalton D [ORNL
2009-01-01
The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) provides a framework within which some of the most advanced, massively-parallel fusion modeling codes can be interoperated to provide a detailed picture of the multi-physics processes involved in fusion experiments. The presentation will cover four topics: (1) recent improvements to the IPS, (2) application of the IPS for very high resolution simulations of ITER scenarios, (3) studies of resistive and ideal MHD stability in tokamak discharges using IPS facilities, and (4) the application of RF power in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies to control slowly growing MHD modes in tokamaks and initial evaluations of optimized location for RF power deposition.
Advances in Simulation of Wave Interaction with Extended MHD Phenomena
Batchelor, Donald B [ORNL; Abla, Gheni [ORNL; D' Azevedo, Ed F [ORNL; Bateman, Glenn [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Bernholdt, David E [ORNL; Berry, Lee A [ORNL; Bonoli, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Bramley, R [Indiana University; Breslau, Joshua [ORNL; Chance, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Chen, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Choi, M. [General Atomics; Elwasif, Wael R [ORNL; Foley, S. [Indiana University; Fu, GuoYong [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Harvey, R. W. [CompX, Del Mar, CA; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick [ORNL; Jardin, S. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Jenkins, T [University of Wisconsin; Keyes, David E [Columbia University; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Kruger, Scott [Tech-X Corporation; Ku, Long-Poe [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL; McCune, Douglas [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ramos, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Schissel, D. [General Atomics; Schnack, [University of Wisconsin; Wright, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
2009-01-01
The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) provides a framework within which some of the most advanced, massively-parallel fusion modeling codes can be interoperated to provide a detailed picture of the multi-physics processes involved in fusion experiments. The presentation will cover four topics: 1) recent improvements to the IPS, 2) application of the IPS for very high resolution simulations of ITER scenarios, 3) studies of resistive and ideal MHD stability in tokamk discharges using IPS facilities, and 4) the application of RF power in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies to control slowly growing MHD modes in tokamaks and initial evaluations of optimized location for RF power deposition.
Advances in simulation of wave interactions with extended MHD phenomena
Batchelor, D; D' Azevedo, E; Bernholdt, D E; Berry, L; Elwasif, W; Jaeger, E [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Abla, G; Choi, M [General Atomics (United States); Bateman, G [Lehigh University (United States); Bonoli, P [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Bramley, R; Foley, S [Indiana University (United States); Breslau, J; Chance, M; Chen, J; Fu, G; Jardin, S [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (United States); Harvey, R [CompX International (United States); Jenkins, T [University of Wisconsin (United States); Keyes, D, E-mail: batchelordb@ornl.go [Columbia University (United States)
2009-07-01
The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) provides a framework within which some of the most advanced, massively-parallel fusion modeling codes can be interoperated to provide a detailed picture of the multi-physics processes involved in fusion experiments. The presentation will cover four topics: 1) recent improvements to the IPS, 2) application of the IPS for very high resolution simulations of ITER scenarios, 3) studies of resistive and ideal MHD stability in tokamk discharges using IPS facilities, and 4) the application of RF power in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies to control slowly growing MHD modes in tokamaks and initial evaluations of optimized location for RF power deposition.
MHD Simulations of the Plasma Flow in the Magnetic Nozzle
Smith, T. E. R.; Keidar, M.; Sankaran, K.; olzin, K. A.
2013-01-01
The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of plasma through a magnetic nozzle is simulated by solving the governing equations for the plasma flow in the presence of an static magnetic field representing the applied nozzle. This work will numerically investigate the flow and behavior of the plasma as the inlet plasma conditions and magnetic nozzle field strength are varied. The MHD simulations are useful for addressing issues such as plasma detachment and to can be used to gain insight into the physical processes present in plasma flows found in thrusters that use magnetic nozzles. In the model, the MHD equations for a plasma, with separate temperatures calculated for the electrons and ions, are integrated over a finite cell volume with flux through each face computed for each of the conserved variables (mass, momentum, magnetic flux, energy) [1]. Stokes theorem is used to convert the area integrals over the faces of each cell into line integrals around the boundaries of each face. The state of the plasma is described using models of the ionization level, ratio of specific heats, thermal conductivity, and plasma resistivity. Anisotropies in current conduction due to Hall effect are included, and the system is closed using a real-gas equation of state to describe the relationship between the plasma density, temperature, and pressure.A separate magnetostatic solver is used to calculate the applied magnetic field, which is assumed constant for these calculations. The total magnetic field is obtained through superposition of the solution for the applied magnetic field and the self-consistently computed induced magnetic fields that arise as the flowing plasma reacts to the presence of the applied field. A solution for the applied magnetic field is represented in Fig. 1 (from Ref. [2]), exhibiting the classic converging-diverging field pattern. Previous research was able to demonstrate effects such as back-emf at a super-Alfvenic flow, which significantly alters the shape of the
Global and Kinetic MHD Simulation by the Gpic-MHD Code
Hiroshi NAITOU; Yusuke YAMADA; Kenji KAJIWARA; Wei-li LEE; Shinji TOKUDA; Masatoshi YAGI
2011-01-01
In order to implement large-scale and high-beta tokamak simulation, a new algorithm of the electromagnetic gyrokinetic PIC （particle-in-cell） code was proposed and installed on the Gpic-MHD code [Gyrokinetic PIC code for magnetohydrodynamic （MHD） simulation]. In the new algorithm, the vorticity equation and the generalized Ohm＇s law along the magnetic field are derived from the basic equations of the gyrokinetic Vlasov, Poisson, and Ampere system and are used to describe the spatio-temporal evolution of the field quantities of the electrostatic potential φ and the longitudinal component of the vector potential Az. The basic algorithm is equivalent to solving the reduced-MHD-type equations with kinetic corrections, in which MHD physics related to Alfven modes are well described. The estimation of perturbed electron pressure from particle dynamics is dominant, while the effects of other moments are negligible. Another advantage of the algorithm is that the longitudinal induced electric field, ETz = -δAz/δt, is explicitly estimated by the generalized Ohm＇s law and used in the equations of motion. Furthermore, the particle velocities along the magnetic field are used （vz-formulation） instead of generalized momentums （pz-formulation）, hence there is no problem of ＇cancellation＇, which would otherwise appear when Az is estimated from the Ampere＇s law in the pz-formulation. The successful simulation of the collisionless internal kink mode by the new Gpic-MHD with realistic values of the large-scale and high-beta tokamaks revealed the usefulness of the new algorithm.
Lattice Boltzmann Large Eddy Simulation Model of MHD
Flint, Christopher
2016-01-01
The work of Ansumali \\textit{et al.}\\cite{Ansumali} is extended to Two Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in which energy is cascaded to small spatial scales and thus requires subgrid modeling. Applying large eddy simulation (LES) modeling of the macroscopic fluid equations results in the need to apply ad-hoc closure schemes. LES is applied to a suitable mesoscopic lattice Boltzmann representation from which one can recover the MHD equations in the long wavelength, long time scale Chapman-Enskog limit (i.e., the Knudsen limit). Thus on first performing filter width expansions on the lattice Boltzmann equations followed by the standard small Knudsen expansion on the filtered lattice Boltzmann system results in a closed set of MHD turbulence equations provided we enforce the physical constraint that the subgrid effects first enter the dynamics at the transport time scales. In particular, a multi-time relaxation collision operator is considered for the density distribution function and a single rel...
Experimental, Numerical and Analytical Studies of the MHD-driven plasma jet, instabilities and waves
Zhai, Xiang
This thesis describes a series of experimental, numerical, and analytical studies involving the Caltech magnetohydrodynamically (MHD)-driven plasma jet experiment. The plasma jet is created via a capacitor discharge that powers a magnetized coaxial planar electrodes system. The jet is collimated and accelerated by the MHD forces. We present three-dimensional ideal MHD finite-volume simulations of the plasma jet experiment using an astrophysical magnetic tower as the baseline model. A compact magnetic energy/helicity injection is exploited in the simulation analogous to both the experiment and to astrophysical situations. Detailed analysis provides a comprehensive description of the interplay of magnetic force, pressure, and flow effects. We delineate both the jet structure and the transition process that converts the injected magnetic energy to other forms. When the experimental jet is sufficiently long, it undergoes a global kink instability and then a secondary local Rayleigh-Taylor instability caused by lateral acceleration of the kink instability. We present an MHD theory of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability on the cylindrical surface of a plasma flux rope in the presence of a lateral external gravity. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is found to couple to the classic current-driven instability, resulting in a new type of hybrid instability. The coupled instability, produced by combination of helical magnetic field, curvature of the cylindrical geometry, and lateral gravity, is fundamentally different from the classic magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability occurring at a two-dimensional planar interface. In the experiment, this instability cascade from macro-scale to micro-scale eventually leads to the failure of MHD. When the Rayleigh-Taylor instability becomes nonlinear, it compresses and pinches the plasma jet to a scale smaller than the ion skin depth and triggers a fast magnetic reconnection. We built a specially designed high-speed 3D magnetic probe and
Magnetic fields in protoplanetary disks: from MHD simulations to ALMA observations
Bertrang, Gesa H -M; Wolf, Sebastian
2016-01-01
Magnetic fields significantly influence the evolution of protoplanetary disks and the formation of planets, following the predictions of numerous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. However, these predictions are yet observationally unconstrained. To validate the predictions on the influence of magnetic fields on protoplanetary disks, we apply 3D radiative transfer simulations of the polarized emission of aligned aspherical dust grains that directly link 3D global non-ideal MHD simulations to ALMA observations. Our simulations show that it is feasible to observe the predicted toroidal large-scale magnetic field structures, not only in the ideal observations but also with high-angular resolution ALMA observations. Our results show further that high angular resolution observations by ALMA are able to identify vortices embedded in outer magnetized disk regions.
Magnetic fields in protoplanetary discs: from MHD simulations to ALMA observations
Bertrang, G. H.-M.; Flock, M.; Wolf, S.
2017-01-01
Magnetic fields significantly influence the evolution of protoplanetary discs and the formation of planets, following the predictions of numerous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. However, these predictions are yet observationally unconstrained. To validate the predictions on the influence of magnetic fields on protoplanetary discs, we apply 3D radiative transfer simulations of the polarized emission of aligned aspherical dust grains that directly link 3D global non-ideal MHD simulations to Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations. Our simulations show that it is feasible to observe the predicted toroidal large-scale magnetic field structures, not only in the ideal observations but also with high-angular resolution ALMA observations. Our results show further that high-angular resolution observations by ALMA are able to identify vortices embedded in outer magnetized disc regions.
Linear Simulations of the Cylindrical Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability in Hydrodynamics and MHD
Gao, Song
2013-05-01
The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability occurs when density-stratified interfaces are impulsively accelerated, typically by a shock wave. We present a numerical method to simulate the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in cylindrical geometry. The ideal MHD equations are linearized about a time-dependent base state to yield linear partial differential equations governing the perturbed quantities. Convergence tests demonstrate that second order accuracy is achieved for smooth flows, and the order of accuracy is between first and second order for flows with discontinuities. Numerical results are presented for cases of interfaces with positive Atwood number and purely azimuthal perturbations. In hydrodynamics, the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability growth of perturbations is followed by a Rayleigh-Taylor growth phase. In MHD, numerical results indicate that the perturbations can be suppressed for sufficiently large perturbation wavenumbers and magnetic fields.
A CLASS OF TWO-STEP TVD MACCORMACK TYPE NUMERICAL SCHEME FOR MHD EQUATIONS
FENG Xueshang; WEI Fengsi; ZHONG Dingkun
2003-01-01
In this paper, a new numerical scheme of Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) MacCormack type for MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) equations is proposed by taking into account of the characteristics such as convergence, stability, resolution. This new scheme is established by solving the MHD equations with a TVD modified MacCormack scheme for the purpose of developing a scheme of quick convergence as well as of TVD property. To show the validation, simplicity and practicability of the scheme for modelling MHD problems, a self-similar Cauchy problem with the discontinuous initial data consisting of constant states, and the collision of two fast MHD shocks, and two-dimensional Orszag and Tang's MHD vortex problem are discussed with the numerical results conforming to the existing results obtained by the Roe type TVD, the high-order Godunov scheme,and Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) scheme. The numerical tests show that this two-step TVD MacCormack numerical scheme for MHD system is of robust operation in the presence of very strong waves, thin shock fronts, thin contact and slip surface discontinuities.
Aoyagi, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: mao@karma.qse.tohoku.ac.jp; Ito, Satoshi; Hashizume, Hidetoshi
2014-10-15
A 3D MHD flow simulation was conducted to clarify the effects of the inlet flow conditions on the results of the validation experiment carried out previously and on the design window of the first wall using a three-surface-multi-layered channel. MHD pressure drop was largely influenced by the inlet condition. The numerical model with turbulent velocity profile showed qualitatively good agreement with the experimental result. The first wall temperature and pressure distributions obtained by the 3D simulation corresponded well to those obtained by the 2D simulation assuming fully developed flow. This suggested that complicated three-dimensional inlet flow condition generated in the L-shape elbow would not affects the existing design window.
A novel code for numerical 3-D MHD studies of CME expansion
J. Kleimann
2009-03-01
Full Text Available A recent third-order, essentially non-oscillatory central scheme to advance the equations of single-fluid magnetohydrodynamics (MHD in time has been implemented into a new numerical code. This code operates on a 3-D Cartesian, non-staggered grid, and is able to handle shock-like gradients without producing spurious oscillations.
To demonstrate the suitability of our code for the simulation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs and similar heliospheric transients, we present selected results from test cases and perform studies of the solar wind expansion during phases of minimum solar activity. We can demonstrate convergence of the system into a stable Parker-like steady state for both hydrodynamic and MHD winds. The model is subsequently applied to expansion studies of CME-like plasma bubbles, and their evolution is monitored until a stationary state similar to the initial one is achieved. In spite of the model's (current simplicity, we can confirm the CME's nearly self-similar evolution close to the Sun, thus highlighting the importance of detailed modelling especially at small heliospheric radii.
Additionally, alternative methods to implement boundary conditions at the coronal base, as well as strategies to ensure a solenoidal magnetic field, are discussed and evaluated.
Extension of the MURaM radiative MHD code for coronal simulations
Rempel, Matthias
2016-01-01
We present a new version of the MURaM radiative MHD code that allows for simulations spanning from the upper convection zone into the solar corona. We implemented the relevant coronal physics in terms of optically thin radiative loss, field aligned heat conduction and an equilibrium ionization equation of state. We artificially limit the coronal Alfv{\\'e}n and heat conduction speeds to computationally manageable values using an approximation to semi-relativistic MHD with an artificially reduced speed of light (Boris correction). We present example solutions ranging from quiet to active Sun in order to verify the validity of our approach. We quantify the role of numerical diffusivity for the effective coronal heating. We find that the (numerical) magnetic Prandtl number determines the ratio of resistive to viscous heating and that owing to the very large magnetic Prandtl number of the solar corona, heating is expected to happen predominantly through viscous dissipation. We find that reasonable solutions can be...
SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE FROM MHD TO SUB-ION SCALES: HIGH-RESOLUTION HYBRID SIMULATIONS
Franci, Luca; Verdini, Andrea; Landi, Simone [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Matteini, Lorenzo [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hellinger, Petr [Astronomical Institute, AS CR, Bocni II/1401, CZ-14100 Prague (Czech Republic)
2015-05-10
We present results from a high-resolution and large-scale hybrid (fluid electrons and particle-in-cell protons) two-dimensional numerical simulation of decaying turbulence. Two distinct spectral regions (separated by a smooth break at proton scales) develop with clear power-law scaling, each one occupying about a decade in wavenumbers. The simulation results simultaneously exhibit several properties of the observed solar wind fluctuations: spectral indices of the magnetic, kinetic, and residual energy spectra in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) inertial range along with a flattening of the electric field spectrum, an increase in magnetic compressibility, and a strong coupling of the cascade with the density and the parallel component of the magnetic fluctuations at sub-proton scales. Our findings support the interpretation that in the solar wind, large-scale MHD fluctuations naturally evolve beyond proton scales into a turbulent regime that is governed by the generalized Ohm’s law.
Comparisons of Cosmological MHD Galaxy Cluster Simulations to Radio Observations
Xu, Hao; Murgia, Matteo; Li, Hui; Collins, David C; Norman, Michael L; Cen, Renyue; Feretti, Luigina; Giovannini, Gabriele
2012-01-01
Radio observations of galaxy clusters show that there are $\\mu$G magnetic fields permeating the intra-cluster medium (ICM), but it is hard to accurately constrain the strength and structure of the magnetic fields without the help of advanced computer simulations. We present qualitative comparisons of synthetic VLA observations of simulated galaxy clusters to radio observations of Faraday Rotation Measure (RM) and radio halos. The cluster formation is modeled using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations with the assumption that the initial magnetic fields are injected into the ICM by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at high redshift. In addition to simulated clusters in Xu et al. (2010, 2011), we present a new simulation with magnetic field injections from multiple AGNs. We find that the cluster with multiple injection sources is magnetized to a similar level as in previous simulations with a single AGN. The RM profiles from simulated clusters, both $|RM|$ and the dispersion of RM (...
Test particle acceleration in a numerical MHD experiment of an anemone jet
Rosdahl, Karl Joakim
2010-01-01
To use a 3D numerical MHD experiment representing magnetic flux emerging into an open field region as a background field for tracing charged particles. The interaction between the two flux systems generates a localised current sheet where MHD reconnection takes place. We investigate how efficiently the reconnection region accelerates charged particles and what kind of energy distribution they acquire. The particle tracing is done numerically using the Guiding Center Approximation on individual data sets from the numerical MHD experiment. We derive particle and implied photon distribution functions having power law forms, and look at the impact patterns of particles hitting the photosphere. We find that particles reach energies far in excess of those seen in observations of solar flares. However the structure of the impact region in the photosphere gives a good representation of the topological structure of the magnetic field.
A comparative study on 3-D solar wind structure observed by Ulysses and MHD simulation
FENG Xueshang; XIANG Changqing; ZHONG Dingkun; FAN Quanlin
2005-01-01
During Ulysses' first rapid pole-to-pole transit from September 1994 to June 1995, its observations showed that middle- or high-speed solar winds covered all latitudes except those between -20° and +20° near the ecliptic plane,where the velocity was 300-450 km/s. At poleward 40°,however, only fast solar winds at the speed of 700-870 km/s were observed. In addition, the transitions from low-speed wind to high-speed wind or vice versa were abrupt. In this paper, the large-scale structure of solar wind observed by Ulysses near solar minimum is simulated by using the three-dimensional numerical MHD model. The model combines TVD Lax-Friedrich scheme and MacCormack Ⅱ scheme and decomposes the calculation region into two regions: one from 1 to 22 Rs and the other from 18 Rs to 1 AU.Based on the observations of the solar photospheric magnetic field and an addition of the volumetric heating to MHD equations, the large-scale solar wind structure mentioned above is reproduced by using the three-dimensional MHD model and the numerical results are roughly consistent with Ulysses' observations. Our simulation shows that the initial magnetic field topology and the addition of volume heating may govern the bimodal structure of solar wind observed by Ulysses and also demonstrates that the three-dimensional MHD numerical model used here is efficient in modeling the large-scale solar wind structure.
3D simulations of disc-winds extending radially self-similar MHD models
Stute, Matthias; Vlahakis, Nektarios; Tsinganos, Kanaris; Mignone, Andrea; Massaglia, Silvano
2014-01-01
Disc-winds originating from the inner parts of accretion discs are considered as the basic component of magnetically collimated outflows. The only available analytical MHD solutions to describe disc-driven jets are those characterized by the symmetry of radial self-similarity. However, radially self-similar MHD jet models, in general, have three geometrical shortcomings, (i) a singularity at the jet axis, (ii) the necessary assumption of axisymmetry, and (iii) the non-existence of an intrinsic radial scale, i.e. the jets formally extend to radial infinity. Hence, numerical simulations are necessary to extend the analytical solutions towards the axis, by solving the full three-dimensional equations of MHD and impose a termination radius at finite radial distance. We focus here on studying the effects of relaxing the (ii) assumption of axisymmetry, i.e. of performing full 3D numerical simulations of a disc-wind crossing all magnetohydrodynamic critical surfaces. We compare the results of these runs with previou...
3D MHD Simulations of Spheromak Compression
Stuber, James E.; Woodruff, Simon; O'Bryan, John; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.; Darpa Spheromak Team
2015-11-01
The adiabatic compression of compact tori could lead to a compact and hence low cost fusion energy system. The critical scientific issues in spheromak compression relate both to confinement properties and to the stability of the configuration undergoing compression. We present results from the NIMROD code modified with the addition of magnetic field coils that allow us to examine the role of rotation on the stability and confinement of the spheromak (extending prior work for the FRC). We present results from a scan in initial rotation, from 0 to 100km/s. We show that strong rotational shear (10km/s over 1cm) occurs. We compare the simulation results with analytic scaling relations for adiabatic compression. Work performed under DARPA grant N66001-14-1-4044.
Intensity contrast from MHD simulations and from HINODE observations
Afram, N; Solanki, S K; Schuessler, M; Lagg, A; Voegler, A
2010-01-01
Changes in the solar surface area covered by small-scale magnetic elements are thought to cause long-term changes in the solar spectral irradiance, which are important for determining the impact on Earth's climate. To study the effect of small-scale magnetic elements on total and spectral irradiance, we derive their contrasts from 3-D MHD simulations of the solar atmosphere. Such calculations are necessary since measurements of small-scale flux tube contrasts are confined to a few wavelengths and suffer from scattered light and instrument defocus, even for space observations. To test the contrast calculations, we compare rms contrasts from simulations with those obtained with the broad-band filter imager mounted on the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard the Hinode satellite and also analyse centre-to-limb variations (CLV). The 3-D MHD simulations include the interaction between convection and magnetic flux tubes. They have been run with non-grey radiative transfer using the MURaM code. Simulations have an ...
MHD simulation studies of z-pinch shear flow stabilization
Paraschiv, I.; Bauer, B. S.; Sotnikov, V. I.; Makhin, V.; Siemon, R. E.
2003-10-01
The development of the m=0 instability in a z-pinch in the presence of sheared plasma flows is investigated with the aid of a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation code (MHRDR). The linear growth rates are compared to the results obtained by solving the ideal MHD linearized equations [1] and to the results obtained using a 3D hybrid simulation code [2]. The instability development is followed into the nonlinear regime where its growth and saturation are examined. [1] V.I. Sotnikov, I. Paraschiv, V. Makhin, B.S. Bauer, J.-N. Leboeuf, and J.M. Dawson, "Linear analysis of sheared flow stabilization of global magnetohydrodynamic instabilities based on the Hall fluid mode", Phys. Plasmas 9, 913 (2002). [2] V.I. Sotnikov, V. Makhin, B.S. Bauer, P. Hellinger, P. Travnicek, V. Fiala, J.-N. Leboeuf, "Hybrid Simulations of Current-Carrying Instabilities in Z-pinch Plasmas with Sheared Axial Flow", AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume 651, Dense Z-Pinches: 5th International Conference on Dense Z-Pinches, edited by J. Davis et al., page 396, June 2002.
A Numerical Approach to Solving the Hall MHD Equations Including Diamagnetic Drift (Preprint)
2008-02-19
Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9300-06-D-0002 0003 A Numerical Approach to Solving the Hall MHD...Loverich and U. Shumlak. Nonlinear full two-fluid study of m=0 sausage instabilities in an axisymmetric z pinch. Physics of Plasmas, (13), 2006. [19
Understanding Accretion Disks through Three Dimensional Radiation MHD Simulations
Jiang, Yan-Fei
I study the structures and thermal properties of black hole accretion disks in the radiation pressure dominated regime. Angular momentum transfer in the disk is provided by the turbulence generated by the magneto-rotational instability (MRI), which is calculated self-consistently with a recently developed 3D radiation magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) code based on Athena. This code, developed by my collaborators and myself, couples both the radiation momentum and energy source terms with the ideal MHD equations by modifying the standard Godunov method to handle the stiff radiation source terms. We solve the two momentum equations of the radiation transfer equations with a variable Eddington tensor (VET), which is calculated with a time independent short characteristic module. This code is well tested and accurate in both optically thin and optically thick regimes. It is also accurate for both radiation pressure and gas pressure dominated flows. With this code, I find that when photon viscosity becomes significant, the ratio between Maxwell stress and Reynolds stress from the MRI turbulence can increase significantly with radiation pressure. The thermal instability of the radiation pressure dominated disk is then studied with vertically stratified shearing box simulations. Unlike the previous results claiming that the radiation pressure dominated disk with MRI turbulence can reach a steady state without showing any unstable behavior, I find that the radiation pressure dominated disks always either collapse or expand until we have to stop the simulations. During the thermal runaway, the heating and cooling rates from the simulations are consistent with the general criterion of thermal instability. However, details of the thermal runaway are different from the predictions of the standard alpha disk model, as many assumptions in that model are not satisfied in the simulations. We also identify the key reasons why previous simulations do not find the instability. The thermal
Extension of the MURaM Radiative MHD Code for Coronal Simulations
Rempel, M.
2017-01-01
We present a new version of the MURaM radiative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code that allows for simulations spanning from the upper convection zone into the solar corona. We implement the relevant coronal physics in terms of optically thin radiative loss, field aligned heat conduction, and an equilibrium ionization equation of state. We artificially limit the coronal Alfvén and heat conduction speeds to computationally manageable values using an approximation to semi-relativistic MHD with an artificially reduced speed of light (Boris correction). We present example solutions ranging from quiet to active Sun in order to verify the validity of our approach. We quantify the role of numerical diffusivity for the effective coronal heating. We find that the (numerical) magnetic Prandtl number determines the ratio of resistive to viscous heating and that owing to the very large magnetic Prandtl number of the solar corona, heating is expected to happen predominantly through viscous dissipation. We find that reasonable solutions can be obtained with values of the reduced speed of light just marginally larger than the maximum sound speed. Overall this leads to a fully explicit code that can compute the time evolution of the solar corona in response to photospheric driving using numerical time steps not much smaller than 0.1 s. Numerical simulations of the coronal response to flux emergence covering a time span of a few days are well within reach using this approach.
A numerical code for a three-dimensional magnetospheric MHD equilibrium model
Voigt, G.-H.
1992-01-01
Two dimensional and three dimensional MHD equilibrium models were begun for Earth's magnetosphere. The original proposal was motivated by realizing that global, purely data based models of Earth's magnetosphere are inadequate for studying the underlying plasma physical principles according to which the magnetosphere evolves on the quasi-static convection time scale. Complex numerical grid generation schemes were established for a 3-D Poisson solver, and a robust Grad-Shafranov solver was coded for high beta MHD equilibria. Thus, the effects were calculated of both the magnetopause geometry and boundary conditions on the magnetotail current distribution.
On the characterization of magnetic reconnection in global MHD simulations
T. V. Laitinen
2006-11-01
Full Text Available The conventional definition of reconnection rate as the electric field parallel to an x-line is problematic in global MHD simulations for several reasons: the x-line itself may be hard to find in a non-trivial geometry such as at the magnetopause, and the lack of realistic resistivity modelling leaves us without reliable non-convective electric field. In this article we describe reconnection characterization methods that avoid those problems and are practical to apply in global MHD simulations. We propose that the reconnection separator line can be identified as the region where magnetic field lines of different topological properties meet, rather than by local considerations. The global convection associated with reconnection is then quantified by calculating the transfer of mass, energy or magnetic field across the boundary of closed and open field line regions. The extent of the diffusion region is determined from the destruction of electromagnetic energy, given by the divergence of the Poynting vector. Integrals of this energy conversion provide a way to estimate the total reconnection efficiency.
Coupled simulation of kinetic pedestal growth and MHD ELM crash
Park, G [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Cummings, J [California Institute of Technology (United States); Chang, C S [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Podhorszki, N [Univ. California at Davis (United States); Klasky, S [ORNL (United States); Ku, S [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Pankin, A [Lehigh Univ. (United States); Samtaney, R [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (United States); Shoshani, A [LBNL (United States); Snyder, P [General Atomics (United States); Strauss, H [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Sugiyama, L [MIT (United States)
2007-07-15
Edge pedestal height and the accompanying ELM crash are critical elements of ITER physics yet to be understood and predicted through high performance computing. An entirely self-consistent first principles simulation is being pursued as a long term research goal, and the plan is planned for completion in time for ITER operation. However, a proof-of-principle work has already been established using a computational tool that employs the best first principles physics available at the present time. A kinetic edge equilibrium code XGC0, which can simulate the neoclassically dominant pedestal growth from neutral ionization (using a phenomenological residual turbulence diffusion motion superposed upon the neoclassical particle motion) is coupled to an extended MHD code M3D, which can perform the nonlinear ELM crash. The stability boundary of the pedestal is checked by an ideal MHD linear peeling-ballooning code, which has been validated against many experimental data sets for the large scale (type I) ELMs onset boundary. The coupling workflow and scientific results to be enabled by it are described.
Kitiashvili, I N; Goode, P R; Kosovichev, A G; Lele, S K; Mansour, N N; Wray, A A; Yurchyshyn, V B
2012-01-01
Turbulent properties of the quiet Sun represent the basic state of surface conditions, and a background for various processes of solar activity. Therefore understanding of properties and dynamics of this `basic' state is important for investigation of more complex phenomena, formation and development of observed phenomena in the photosphere and atmosphere. For characterization of the turbulent properties we compare kinetic energy spectra on granular and sub-granular scales obtained from infrared TiO observations with the New Solar Telescope (Big Bear Solar Observatory) and from 3D radiative MHD numerical simulations ('SolarBox' code). We find that the numerical simulations require a high spatial resolution with 10 - 25 km grid-step in order to reproduce the inertial (Kolmogorov) turbulence range. The observational data require an averaging procedure to remove noise and potential instrumental artifacts. The resulting kinetic energy spectra show a good agreement between the simulations and observations, opening...
The MHD Kelvin-Helmholtz instability a two-dimensional numerical study
Frank, A I; Ryu, D; Gaalaas, J B; Frank, Adam; Ryu, Dongsu; Gaalaas, Joseph B
1995-01-01
Using a new numerical code we have carried out two-dimensional simulations of the nonlinear evolution of unstable sheared magnetohydrodynamic flows. We considered two cases: a strong magnetic field (Alfven Mach number, M_a = 2.5) and a weak field (M_a =5). Each flow rapidly evolves until it reaches a nearly steady condition, which is fundamentally different from the analogous gasdynamic state. Both MHD flows relax to a stable, laminar flow on timescales less than or of the order of 15 linear growth times, measured from saturation of the instability. That timescale is several orders of magnitude less than the nominal dissipation time for these simulated flows, so this condition represents an quasi-steady relaxed state. The strong magnetic field case reaches saturation as magnetic tension in the displaced flow boundary becomes sufficient to stabilize it. That flow then relaxes in a straightforward way to the steady, laminar flow condition. The weak magnetic field case, on the other hand, begins development of t...
MHD Simulations of Core Collapse Supernovae with Cosmos++
Akiyama, Shizuka
2010-01-01
We performed 2D, axisymmetric, MHD simulations with Cosmos++ in order to examine the growth of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in core--collapse supernovae. We have initialized a non--rotating 15 solar mass progenitor, infused with differential rotation and poloidal magnetic fields. The collapse of the iron core is simulated with the Shen EOS, and the parametric Ye and entropy evolution. The wavelength of the unstable mode in the post--collapse environment is expected to be only ~ 200 m. In order to achieve the fine spatial resolution requirement, we employed remapping technique after the iron core has collapsed and bounced. The MRI unstable region appears near the equator and angular momentum and entropy are transported outward. Higher resolution remap run display more vigorous overturns and stronger transport of angular momentum and entropy. Our results are in agreement with the earlier work by Akiyama et al. (2003) and Obergaulinger et al. (2009).
Final Report: "Large-Eddy Simulation of Anisotropic MHD Turbulence"
Zikanov, Oleg
2008-06-23
To acquire better understanding of turbulence in flows of liquid metals and other electrically conducting fluids in the presence of steady magnetic fields and to develop an accurate and physically adequate LES (large-eddy simulation) model for such flows. The scientific objectives formulated in the project proposal have been fully completed. Several new directions were initiated and advanced in the course of work. Particular achievements include a detailed study of transformation of turbulence caused by the imposed magnetic field, development of an LES model that accurately reproduces this transformation, and solution of several fundamental questions of the interaction between the magnetic field and fluid flows. Eight papers have been published in respected peer-reviewed journals, with two more papers currently undergoing review, and one in preparation for submission. A post-doctoral researcher and a graduate student have been trained in the areas of MHD, turbulence research, and computational methods. Close collaboration ties have been established with the MHD research centers in Germany and Belgium.
Sunspot Modeling: From Simplified Models to Radiative MHD Simulations
Rolf Schlichenmaier
2011-09-01
Full Text Available We review our current understanding of sunspots from the scales of their fine structure to their large scale (global structure including the processes of their formation and decay. Recently, sunspot models have undergone a dramatic change. In the past, several aspects of sunspot structure have been addressed by static MHD models with parametrized energy transport. Models of sunspot fine structure have been relying heavily on strong assumptions about flow and field geometry (e.g., flux-tubes, "gaps", convective rolls, which were motivated in part by the observed filamentary structure of penumbrae or the necessity of explaining the substantial energy transport required to maintain the penumbral brightness. However, none of these models could self-consistently explain all aspects of penumbral structure (energy transport, filamentation, Evershed flow. In recent years, 3D radiative MHD simulations have been advanced dramatically to the point at which models of complete sunspots with sufficient resolution to capture sunspot fine structure are feasible. Here overturning convection is the central element responsible for energy transport, filamentation leading to fine-structure and the driving of strong outflows. On the larger scale these models are also in the progress of addressing the subsurface structure of sunspots as well as sunspot formation. With this shift in modeling capabilities and the recent advances in high resolution observations, the future research will be guided by comparing observation and theory.
MHD Simulation of the Inner-Heliospheric Magnetic Field
Wiengarten, T; Fichtner, H; Cameron, R; Jiang, J; Kissmann, R; Scherer, K; 10.1029/2012JA018089
2013-01-01
Maps of the radial magnetic field at a heliocentric distance of ten solar radii are used as boundary conditions in the MHD code CRONOS to simulate a 3D inner-heliospheric solar wind emanating from the rotating Sun out to 1 AU. The input data for the magnetic field are the result of solar surface flux transport modelling using observational data of sunspot groups coupled with a current sheet source surface model. Amongst several advancements, this allows for higher angular resolution than that of comparable observational data from synoptic magnetograms. The required initial conditions for the other MHD quantities are obtained following an empirical approach using an inverse relation between flux tube expansion and radial solar wind speed. The computations are performed for representative solar minimum and maximum conditions, and the corresponding state of the solar wind up to the Earths orbit is obtained. After a successful comparison of the latter with observational data, they can be used to drive outer-helio...
Hayek, W.; Asplund, M.; Carlsson, M.; Trampedach, R.; Collet, R.; Gudiksen, B. V.; Hansteen, V. H.; Leenaarts, J.
2010-07-01
Aims: We present the implementation of a radiative transfer solver with coherent scattering in the new BIFROST code for radiative magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) simulations of stellar surface convection. The code is fully parallelized using MPI domain decomposition, which allows for large grid sizes and improved resolution of hydrodynamical structures. We apply the code to simulate the surface granulation in a solar-type star, ignoring magnetic fields, and investigate the importance of coherent scattering for the atmospheric structure. Methods: A scattering term is added to the radiative transfer equation, requiring an iterative computation of the radiation field. We use a short-characteristics-based Gauss-Seidel acceleration scheme to compute radiative flux divergences for the energy equation. The effects of coherent scattering are tested by comparing the temperature stratification of three 3D time-dependent hydrodynamical atmosphere models of a solar-type star: without scattering, with continuum scattering only, and with both continuum and line scattering. Results: We show that continuum scattering does not have a significant impact on the photospheric temperature structure for a star like the Sun. Including scattering in line-blanketing, however, leads to a decrease of temperatures by about 350 K below log10 τ5000 ⪉ -4. The effect is opposite to that of 1D hydrostatic models in radiative equilibrium, where scattering reduces the cooling effect of strong LTE lines in the higher layers of the photosphere. Coherent line scattering also changes the temperature distribution in the high atmosphere, where we observe stronger fluctuations compared to a treatment of lines as true absorbers.
Klimas, A. J.; Uritsky, V.; Vassiliadis, D.; Baker, D. N.
2005-01-01
Loading and consequent unloading of magnetic flux is an essential element of the substorm cycle in Earth's magnetotail. We are unaware of an available global MHD magnetospheric simulation model that includes a loading- unloading cycle in its behavior. Given the central role that MHD models presently play in the development of our understanding of magnetospheric dynamics, and given the present plans for the central role that these models will play in ongoing space weather prediction programs, it is clear that this failure must be corrected. A 2-dimensional numerical driven current-sheet model has been developed that incorporates an idealized current- driven instability with a resistive MHD system. Under steady loading, the model exhibits a global loading- unloading cycle. The specific mechanism for producing the loading-unloading cycle will be discussed. It will be shown that scale-free avalanching of electromagnetic energy through the model, from loading to unloading, is carried by repetitive bursts of localized reconnection. Each burst leads, somewhat later, to a field configuration that is capable of exciting a reconnection burst again. This process repeats itself in an intermittent manner while the total field energy in the system falls. At the end of an unloading interval, the total field energy is reduced to well below that necessary to initiate the next unloading event and, thus, a loading-unloading cycle results. It will be shown that, in this model, it is the topology of bursty localized reconnection that is responsible for the appearance of the loading-unloading cycle.
You’re Cut Off: HD and MHD Simulations of Truncated Accretion Disks
Hogg, J. Drew; Reynolds, Christopher S.
2017-01-01
Truncated accretion disks are commonly invoked to explain the spectro-temporal variability from accreting black holes in both small systems, i.e. state transitions in galactic black hole binaries (GBHBs), and large systems, i.e. low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). In the canonical truncated disk model of moderately low accretion rate systems, gas in the inner region of the accretion disk occupies a hot, radiatively inefficient phase, which leads to a geometrically thick disk, while the gas in the outer region occupies a cooler, radiatively efficient phase that resides in the standard geometrically thin disk. Observationally, there is strong empirical evidence to support this phenomenological model, but a detailed understanding of the disk behavior is lacking. We present well-resolved hydrodynamic (HD) and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical models that use a toy cooling prescription to produce the first sustained truncated accretion disks. Using these simulations, we study the dynamics, angular momentum transport, and energetics of a truncated disk in the two different regimes. We compare the behaviors of the HD and MHD disks and emphasize the need to incorporate a full MHD treatment in any discussion of truncated accretion disk evolution.
A Resistive MHD Simulation of the Shear Flow Effects on the Structure of Reconnection Layer
SUN Xiaoxia; WANG Chunhua; LIN Yu; WANG Xiaogang
2007-01-01
By using a one-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, the Rie-mann problem is solved numerically for the structure of the reconnection layer under a sheared flow along the anti-parallel magnetic field components. The simulation is carried out for general cases with symmetric or asymmetric plasma densities and magnetic fields on the two sides of the initial current sheet, and cases with or without a guide magnetic field, as in various space and fusion plasmas. The generation of MHD discontinuities in the reconnection layer is discussed, including time-dependent intermediate shocks, intermediate shocks, slow shocks, slow expansion waves, and the contact discontinuity. It is shown that the structure of the reconnection layer is significantly affected by the presence of the shear flow. For an initial symmetric current sheet, the symmetry condition is altered due to the shear flow. For cases with an asymmetric initial current sheet, as at the Earth's magnetopause, the strengths of MHD discontinuities change significantly with the shear flow speed. Moreover, the general results for the reconnection layers in the outflow regions on either side of the X line are discussed systematically for the first time.
Numerical Solution of Boundary Layer MHD Flow with Viscous Dissipation
S. R. Mishra
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The present paper deals with a steady two-dimensional laminar flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid over a shrinking sheet in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field with viscous dissipation. Using suitable similarity transformations the governing partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations and then solved numerically by fourth-order Runge-Kutta method with shooting technique. Results for velocity and temperature profiles for different values of the governing parameters have been discussed in detail with graphical representation. The numerical evaluation of skin friction and Nusselt number are also given in this paper.
Numerical Propulsion System Simulation
Naiman, Cynthia
2006-01-01
The NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with the aerospace industry, other government agencies, and academia, is leading the effort to develop an advanced multidisciplinary analysis environment for aerospace propulsion systems called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. The initial development of NPSS focused on the analysis and design of airbreathing aircraft engines, but the resulting NPSS framework may be applied to any system, for example: aerospace, rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and even human system modeling. NPSS provides increased flexibility for the user, which reduces the total development time and cost. It is currently being extended to support the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Fundamental Aeronautics Program and the Advanced Virtual Engine Test Cell (AVETeC). NPSS focuses on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, and heat transfer with numerical zooming on component codes. Zooming is the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail. NPSS development includes capabilities to facilitate collaborative engineering. The NPSS will provide improved tools to develop custom components and to use capability for zooming to higher fidelity codes, coupling to multidiscipline codes, transmitting secure data, and distributing simulations across different platforms. These powerful capabilities extend NPSS from a zero-dimensional simulation tool to a multi-fidelity, multidiscipline system-level simulation tool for the full development life cycle.
3D MHD disruptions simulations of tokamaks plasmas
Paccagnella, Roberto; Strauss, Hank; Breslau, Joshua
2008-11-01
Tokamaks Vertical Displacement Events (VDEs) and disruptions simulations in toroidal geometry by means of a single fluid visco-resistive magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) model are presented in this paper. The plasma model, implemented in the M3D code [1], is completed with the presence of a 2D homogeneous wall with finite resistivity. This allows the study of the relatively slowly growing magneto-hydro-dynamical perturbation, the resistive wall mode (RWM), which is, in this work, the main drive of the disruptions. Amplitudes and asymmetries of the halo currents pattern at the wall are also calculated and comparisons with tokamak experimental databases and predictions for ITER are given. [1] W. Park, E.V. Belova, G.Y. Fu, X.Z. Tang, H.R. Strauss, L.E. Sugiyama, Phys. Plasmas 6 (1999) 1796.
MHD simulations with resistive wall and magnetic separatrix
Strauss, H. R.; Pletzer, A.; Park, W.; Jardin, S.; Breslau, J.; Sugiyama, L.
2004-12-01
A number of problems in resistive MHD magnetic fusion simulations describe plasmas with three regions: the core, the halo region, and the resistive boundary. Treating these problems requires maintenance of an adequate resistivity contrast between the core and halo. This can be helped by the presence of a magnetic separatrix, which in any case is required for reasons of realistic modeling. An appropriate mesh generation capability is also needed to include the halo region when a separatrix is present. Finally a resistive wall boundary condition is required, to allow both two dimensional and three dimensional magnetic perturbations to penetrate the wall. Preliminary work is presented on halo current simulations in ITER. The first step is the study of VDE (vertical displacement event) instabilities. The growth rate is consistent with scaling inversely proportional to the resistive wall penetration time. The simulations have resistivity proportional to the -3/2 power of the temperature. Simulations have been done with resistivity contrast between the plasma core and wall of 1000 times, to model the vacuum region between the core and resistive shell. Some 3D simulations are shown of disruptions competing with VDEs. Toroidal peaking factors are up to about 3.
Realistic radiative MHD simulation of a solar flare
Rempel, Matthias D.; Cheung, Mark; Chintzoglou, Georgios; Chen, Feng; Testa, Paola; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Sainz Dalda, Alberto; DeRosa, Marc L.; Viktorovna Malanushenko, Anna; Hansteen, Viggo H.; De Pontieu, Bart; Carlsson, Mats; Gudiksen, Boris; McIntosh, Scott W.
2017-08-01
We present a recently developed version of the MURaM radiative MHD code that includes coronal physics in terms of optically thin radiative loss and field aligned heat conduction. The code employs the "Boris correction" (semi-relativistic MHD with a reduced speed of light) and a hyperbolic treatment of heat conduction, which allow for efficient simulations of the photosphere/corona system by avoiding the severe time-step constraints arising from Alfven wave propagation and heat conduction. We demonstrate that this approach can be used even in dynamic phases such as a flare. We consider a setup in which a flare is triggered by flux emergence into a pre-existing bipolar active region. After the coronal energy release, efficient transport of energy along field lines leads to the formation of flare ribbons within seconds. In the flare ribbons we find downflows for temperatures lower than ~5 MK and upflows at higher temperatures. The resulting soft X-ray emission shows a fast rise and slow decay, reaching a peak corresponding to a mid C-class flare. The post reconnection energy release in the corona leads to average particle energies reaching 50 keV (500 MK under the assumption of a thermal plasma). We show that hard X-ray emission from the corona computed under the assumption of thermal bremsstrahlung can produce a power-law spectrum due to the multi-thermal nature of the plasma. The electron energy flux into the flare ribbons (classic heat conduction with free streaming limit) is highly inhomogeneous and reaches peak values of about 3x1011 erg/cm2/s in a small fraction of the ribbons, indicating regions that could potentially produce hard X-ray footpoint sources. We demonstrate that these findings are robust by comparing simulations computed with different values of the saturation heat flux as well as the "reduced speed of light".
MHD turbulence and distributed chaos
Bershadskii, A
2016-01-01
It is shown, using results of recent direct numerical simulations, that spectral properties of distributed chaos in MHD turbulence with zero mean magnetic field are similar to those of hydrodynamic turbulence. An exception is MHD spontaneous breaking of space translational symmetry, when the stretched exponential spectrum $\\exp(-k/k_{\\beta})^{\\beta}$ has $\\beta=4/7$.
Numerical investigation of recirculation in the UTSI MHD combustor
Schulz, R.J.; Lee, J.J.; Giel, T.V. Jr.
1983-09-01
Numerical studies were carried out to investigate the gross structure of flow in cylindrical combustors. The combustor configurations studied are variations of a working design used at the University of Tennessee Space Institute to burn pulverized coal at temperatures in excess of 3000K for generation of a plasma feeding a magnetohydrodynamic channel. The numerical studies were conducted for an isothermal fluid; the main objective of the calculations was to study the effect of the oxidant injection pattern on the gross structure of recirculating flows within the combustor. The calculations illustrate the basic features of the flow in combustors of this type and suggest implications for the injection of coal and oxidizer in this type of combustor.
Numerical Simulation of the 12 May 1997 CME Event
ZHOU Yu-Fen; FENG Xue-Shang; Wu S.T
2008-01-01
Our newly developed CESE MHD model is used to simulate sun-earth connection event with the well-studied 12 May 1997 CME event as an example.The main features and approximations of our numerical model are as follows:(1)The modified conservation element and solution element(CESE)numerical scheme in spherical geometry is implemented in our code.(2)The background solar wind is derived from a 3D time-dependent numerical MHD model by input measured photospheric magnetic fields.(3)Transient disturbances are derived from solar surface by introducing a mass flow of hot plasma.The numerical simulation has enabled us to predict the arrival of the interplanetary shock and provided us with a relatively satisfactory comparison with the WIND spacecraft observations.
Mabood, F., E-mail: mabood1971@yahoo.com [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia); Khan, W.A., E-mail: wkhan_2000@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Ismail, A.I.M., E-mail: izani@cs.usm.my [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia)
2015-01-15
The MHD laminar boundary layer flow with heat and mass transfer of an electrically conducting water-based nanofluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet with viscous dissipation effect is investigated numerically. This is the extension of the previous study on flow and heat transfer of a nanofluid over nonlinear stretching sheet (Rana and Bhargava, Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 17 (2012) 212–226). The governing equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations using suitable similarity transformation. The effects of the governing parameters on dimensionless quantities like velocity, temperature, nanoparticle concentration, friction factor, local Nusselt, and Sherwood numbers are explored. It is found that the dimensionless velocity decreases and temperature increases with magnetic parameter, and the thermal boundary layer thickness increases with Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters. - Highlights: • MHD flow of nanofluid and heat transfer over a nonlinear stretching sheet has not been studied yet. • Numerical solutions are computed with Runge–Kutta Fehlberg fourth–fifth order method. • Previous published results can be obtained from present study. • Reduced Nusselt and Sherwood numbers decrease with magnetic parameter.
Small scale magnetosphere: Laboratory experiment, physical model and Hall MHD simulation
Shaikhislamov, I F; Zakharov, Yu P; Boyarintsev, E L; Melekhov, A V; Posukh, V G; Ponomarenko, A G
2011-01-01
A problem of magnetosphere formation on ion inertia scale around weakly magnetized bodies is investigated by means of laboratory experiment, analytical analysis and 2.5D Hall MHD simulation. Experimental evidence of specific magnetic field generated by the Hall term is presented. Direct comparison of regimes with small and large ion inertia length revealed striking differences in measured magnetopause position and plasma stand off distance. Analytical model is presented, which explains such basic features of mini-magnetosphere observed in previous kinetic simulations as disappearance of bow shock and plasma stopping at Stoermer particle limit instead of pressure balance distance. Numerical simulation is found to be in a good agreement with experiments and analytical model. It gives detailed spatial structure of Hall field and reveals that while ions penetrate deep inside mini-magnetosphere electrons overflow around it along magnetopause boundary.
Numerical Simulations of Magnetized Winds of Solar-Like Stars
Vidotto, A A; Jatenco-Pereira, V; Gombosi, T I
2009-01-01
We investigate magnetized solar-like stellar winds by means of self-consistent three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) numerical simulations. We analyze winds with different magnetic field intensities and densities as to explore the dependence on the plasma-beta parameter. By solving the fully ideal 3D MHD equations, we show that the plasma-beta parameter is the crucial parameter in the configuration of the steady-state wind. Therefore, there is a group of magnetized flows that would present the same terminal velocity despite of its thermal and magnetic energy densities, as long as the plasma-beta parameter is the same.
Forward and inverse problems in MHD: numerical and experimental results
Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.; Gundrum, T.; Xu, M. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany); Gailitis, A. [Inst. of Physics, Latvian Univ., Salaspils (Latvia)
2007-07-01
When a conducting fluid comes under the influence of a magnetic field, electrical currents are induced that give rise to a modification of this magnetic field. The ratio of induced magnetic field to applied magnetic field is characterized by the magnetic Reynolds number Rm of the flow. For large Rm, even self-excitation of a magnetic field can occur. This hydromagnetic dynamo effect is responsible for the maintenance of the magnetic fields of planets, stars and galaxies. In the present paper, we delineate some recent developments in the numerical treatment of induction effects in arbitrary geometry, and their application for dynamo experiments as well as for a ''contactless inductive flow tomography (CIFT).'' (orig.)
Confidence in Numerical Simulations
Hemez, Francois M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-02-23
This PowerPoint presentation offers a high-level discussion of uncertainty, confidence and credibility in scientific Modeling and Simulation (M&S). It begins by briefly evoking M&S trends in computational physics and engineering. The first thrust of the discussion is to emphasize that the role of M&S in decision-making is either to support reasoning by similarity or to “forecast,” that is, make predictions about the future or extrapolate to settings or environments that cannot be tested experimentally. The second thrust is to explain that M&S-aided decision-making is an exercise in uncertainty management. The three broad classes of uncertainty in computational physics and engineering are variability and randomness, numerical uncertainty and model-form uncertainty. The last part of the discussion addresses how scientists “think.” This thought process parallels the scientific method where by a hypothesis is formulated, often accompanied by simplifying assumptions, then, physical experiments and numerical simulations are performed to confirm or reject the hypothesis. “Confidence” derives, not just from the levels of training and experience of analysts, but also from the rigor with which these assessments are performed, documented and peer-reviewed.
Murphy, G C; Pelletier, Guy
2008-01-01
Magnetic reconnection plays a critical role in many astrophysical processes where high energy emission is observed, e.g. particle acceleration, relativistic accretion powered outflows, pulsar winds and probably in dissipation of Poynting flux in GRBs. The magnetic field acts as a reservoir of energy and can dissipate its energy to thermal and kinetic energy via the tearing mode instability. We have performed 3d nonlinear MHD simulations of the tearing mode instability in a current sheet. Results from a temporal stability analysis in both the linear regime and weakly nonlinear (Rutherford) regime are compared to the numerical simulations. We observe magnetic island formation, island merging and oscillation once the instability has saturated. The growth in the linear regime is exponential in agreement with linear theory. In the second, Rutherford regime the island width grows linearly with time. We find that thermal energy produced in the current sheet strongly dominates the kinetic energy. Finally preliminary ...
Chatterjee, Dipankar; Amiroudine, Sakir
2011-02-01
A comprehensive non-isothermal Lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithm is proposed in this article to simulate the thermofluidic transport phenomena encountered in a direct-current (DC) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump. Inside the pump, an electrically conducting fluid is transported through the microchannel by the action of an electromagnetic Lorentz force evolved out as a consequence of the interaction between applied electric and magnetic fields. The fluid flow and thermal characteristics of the MHD micropump depend on several factors such as the channel geometry, electromagnetic field strength and electrical property of the conducting fluid. An involved analysis is carried out following the LB technique to understand the significant influences of the aforementioned controlling parameters on the overall transport phenomena. In the LB framework, the hydrodynamics is simulated by a distribution function, which obeys a single scalar kinetic equation associated with an externally imposed electromagnetic force field. The thermal history is monitored by a separate temperature distribution function through another scalar kinetic equation incorporating the Joule heating effect. Agreement with analytical, experimental and other available numerical results is found to be quantitative.
Simulated annealing for three-dimensional low-beta reduced MHD equilibria in cylindrical geometry
Furukawa, M
2016-01-01
Simulated annealing (SA) is applied for three-dimensional (3D) equilibrium calculation of ideal, low-beta reduced MHD in cylindrical geometry. The SA is based on the theory of Hamiltonian mechanics. The dynamical equation of the original system, low-beta reduced MHD in this study, is modified so that the energy changes monotonically while preserving the Casimir invariants in the artificial dynamics. An equilibrium of the system is given by an extremum of the energy, therefore SA can be used as a method for calculating ideal MHD equilibrium. Previous studies demonstrated that the SA succeeds to lead to various MHD equilibria in two dimensional rectangular domain. In this paper, the theory is applied to 3D equilibrium of ideal, low-beta reduced MHD. An example of equilibrium with magnetic islands, obtained as a lower energy state, is shown. Several versions of the artificial dynamics are developed that can effect smoothing.
The MHD simulations of 3D magnetic reconnection near null point of magnetic configurations
Bulanov, S.V. [Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Echkina, E.Yu; Inovenkov, I.N.; Pichushkin, V.V. [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pegoraro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universit' a di Pisa and INFM (Italy)
2000-07-01
We investigate 3D plasma flow in the vicinities of critical points of magnetic configurations. The study is based on the analysis of exact self-similar solution of the MHD equations and 3D computer simulations. Both the analytical solution and 3D MHD simulations demonstrate appearance of singular distribution of the electric current density near the magnetic field separatrix surfaces of the form of the current and vortex sheets. (author)
Black Hole Variability in MHD: A Numerical Test of the Propagating Fluctuations Model
Hogg, J. Drew; Reynolds, Christopher S.
2017-08-01
The variability properties of accreting black hole systems offer a crucial probe of the accretion physics providing the angular momentum transport and enabling the mass accretion. A few of the most telling signatures are the characteristic log-normal flux distributions, linear RMS-flux relations, and frequency-dependent time lags between energy bands. These commonly observed properties are often interpreted as evidence of inward propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations where fluctuations in the accretion flow combine multiplicatively. We present recent results from a long, semi-global MHD simulation of a thin (h/r=0.1) accretion disk that naturally reproduces this phenomenology. This bolsters the theoretical underpinnings of the “propagating fluctuations” model and demonstrates the viability of this process manifesting in MHD turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability. We find that a key ingredient to this model is the modulation of the effective α parameter by the magnetic dynamo.
Current systems of coronal loops in 3D MHD simulations
Warnecke, Jörn; Bingert, Sven; Peter, Hardi
2016-01-01
We study the magnetic field and current structure associated with a coronal loop. Through this we investigate to what extent the assumptions of a force-free magnetic field break down. We analyse a three-dimensional MHD model of the solar corona in an emerging active region with the focus on the structure of the forming coronal loops. The lower boundary of this simulation is taken from a model of an emerging active region. As a consequence of the emerging magnetic flux a coronal loop formes self-consistently. We investigate the current density along magnetic field lines inside (and outside) this loop and study the magnetic and plasma properties in and around this loop. The loop is defined as the bundle of field lines that coincides with enhanced emission in extreme UV. We find that the total current along the emerging loop changes its sign from being antiparallel to parallel to the magnetic field. Around the loop the currents form a complex non-force-free helical structure. This is directly related to a bipola...
Relativistic MHD Simulations of Poynting Flux-Driven Jets
Guan, Xiaoyue; Li, Shengtai
2013-01-01
Relativistic, magnetized jets are observed to propagate to very large distances in many Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We use 3D relativistic MHD (RMHD) simulations to study the propagation of Poynting flux-driven jets in AGN. These jets are assumed already being launched from the vicinity ($\\sim 10^3$ gravitational radii) of supermassive black holes. Jet injections are characterized by a model described in Li et al. (2006) and we follow the propagation of these jets to ~ parsec scales. We find that these current-carrying jets are always collimated and mildly relativistic. When $\\alpha$, the ratio of toroidal-to-poloidal magnetic flux injection, is large the jet is subject to non-axisymmetric current-driven instabilities (CDI) which lead to substantial dissipation and reduced jet speed. However, even with the presence of instabilities, the jet is not disrupted and will continue to propagate to large distances. We suggest that the relatively weak impact by the instability is due to the nature of the instability...
Global 3D MHD Simulations of Waves in Accretion Discs
Romanova M.M.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available We discuss results of the first global 3D MHD simulations of warp and density waves in accretion disks excited by a rotating star with a misaligned dipole magnetic field. A wide range of cases are considered. We find for example that if the star’s magnetosphere corotates approximately with the inner disk, then a strong one-arm bending wave or warp forms. The warp corotates with the star and has a maximum amplitude (|zw|/r ~ 0.3 between the corotation radius and the radius of the vertical resonance. If the magnetosphere rotates more slowly than the inner disk, then a bending wave is excited at the disk-magnetosphere boundary, but it does not form a large-scale warp. In this case the angular rotation of the disk [Ω(r] has a maximum as a function of r so that there is an inner region where dΩ/dr > 0. In this region we observe radially trapped density waves in approximate agreement with the theoretical prediction of a Rossby wave instability in this region.
Time-dependent simulation of oblique MHD cosmic-ray shocks using the two-fluid model
Frank, Adam; Jones, T. W.; Ryu, Dongsu
1995-01-01
Using a new, second-order accurate numerical method we present dynamical simulations of oblique MHD cosmic-ray (CR)-modified plane shock evolution. Most of the calculations are done with a two-fluid model for diffusive shock acceleration, but we provide also comparisons between a typical shock computed that way against calculations carried out using the more complete, momentum-dependent, diffusion-advection equation. We also illustrate a test showing that these simulations evolve to dynamical equilibria consistent with previously published steady state analytic calculations for such shocks. In order to improve understanding of the dynamical role of magnetic fields in shocks modified by CR pressure we have explored for time asymptotic states the parameter space of upstream fast mode Mach number, M(sub f), and plasma beta. We compile the results into maps of dynamical steady state CR acceleration efficiency, epsilon(sub c). We have run simulations using constant, and nonisotropic, obliquity (and hence spatially) dependent forms of the diffusion coefficient kappa. Comparison of the results shows that while the final steady states achieved are the same in each case, the history of CR-MHD shocks can be strongly modified by variations in kappa and, therefore, in the acceleration timescale. Also, the coupling of CR and MHD in low beta, oblique shocks substantially influences the transient density spike that forms in strongly CR-modified shocks. We find that inside the density spike a MHD slow mode wave can be generated that eventually steepens into a shock. A strong layer develops within the density spike, driven by MHD stresses. We conjecture that currents in the shear layer could, in nonplanar flows, results in enhanced particle accretion through drift acceleration.
Reuter, K.; Jenko, F.; Forest, C. B.; Bayliss, R. A.
2008-08-01
A parallel implementation of a nonlinear pseudo-spectral MHD code for the simulation of turbulent dynamos in spherical geometry is reported. It employs a dual domain decomposition technique in both real and spectral space. It is shown that this method shows nearly ideal scaling going up to 128 CPUs on Beowulf-type clusters with fast interconnect. Furthermore, the potential of exploiting single precision arithmetic on standard x86 processors is examined. It is pointed out that the MHD code thereby achieves a maximum speedup of 1.7, whereas the validity of the computations is still granted. The combination of both measures will allow for the direct numerical simulation of highly turbulent cases ( 1500
Three-dimensional MHD simulation for the solar wind structure observed by Ulysses
无
2001-01-01
Ulysses has been the first spacecraft to explore the high latitudinal regions of the heliosphere till now. During its first rapid pole-to-pole transit from September 1994to June 1995, Ulysses observed a fast speed flow with magnitude reaching 700-800 km/s at high latitudinal region except + 20° area near the ecliptic plane where the velocity is 300-400 km/s. The observations also showed a sudden jump of the velocity across the two regions. In this note,based on the characteristic and representative observations of the solar magnetic field and K-coronal polarized brightness, the large-scale solar wind structure mentioned above is reproduced by using a three-dimensional MHD model. The numerical results are basically consistent with those of Ulysses observations. Our results also show that the distributions of magnetic field and plasma number density on the solar source surface play an important role in governing this structure. Furthermore, the three-dimensional MHD model used here has a robust ability to simulate this kind of large-scale wind structure.
Sub-Alfvenic Non-Ideal MHD Turbulence Simulations with Ambipolar Diffusion: I. Turbulence Statistics
Klein, R I; Li, P S; McKee, C F; Fisher, R
2008-04-10
Most numerical investigations on the role of magnetic fields in turbulent molecular clouds (MCs) are based on ideal magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD). However, MCs are weakly ionized, so that the time scale required for the magnetic field to diffuse through the neutral component of the plasma by ambipolar diffusion (AD) can be comparable to the dynamical time scale. We have performed a series of 256{sup 3} and 512{sup 3} simulations on supersonic but sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems with AD using the Heavy-Ion Approximation developed in Li et al. (2006). Our calculations are based on the assumption that the number of ions is conserved, but we show that these results approximately apply to the case of time-dependent ionization in molecular clouds as well. Convergence studies allow us to determine the optimal value of the ionization mass fraction when using the heavy-ion approximation for low Mach number, sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems. We find that ambipolar diffusion steepens the velocity and magnetic power spectra compared to the ideal MHD case. Changes in the density PDF, total magnetic energy, and ionization fraction are determined as a function of the AD Reynolds number. The power spectra for the neutral gas properties of a strongly magnetized medium with a low AD Reynolds number are similar to those for a weakly magnetized medium; in particular, the power spectrum of the neutral velocity is close to that for Burgers turbulence.
A Constrained-Gradient Method to Control Divergence Errors in Numerical MHD
Hopkins, Philip F
2015-01-01
In numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), a major challenge is maintaining zero magnetic field-divergence (div-B). Constrained transport (CT) schemes can achieve this at high accuracy, but have generally been restricted to very specific methods. For more general (meshless, moving-mesh, or ALE) methods, 'divergence-cleaning' schemes reduce the div-B errors, however they can still be significant, especially at discontinuities, and can lead to systematic deviations from correct solutions which converge away very slowly. Here we propose a new constrained gradient (CG) scheme which augments these with a hybrid projection step, and can be applied to any numerical scheme with a reconstruction. This iteratively approximates the least-squares minimizing, globally divergence-free reconstruction of the fluid. We emphasize that, unlike 'locally divergence free' methods, this actually minimizes the numerically unstable div-B terms, without affecting the convergence order of the method. We implement this in the mesh-free co...
Cheung, M. C.; Schüssler, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Tarbell, T. D.
2007-12-01
With high angular resolution, high temporal cadence and a stable point spread function, the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard the Hinode satellite is the ideal instrument for the study of magnetic flux emergence and its manifestations on the solar surface. In this presentation, we focus on the development of ephemeral regions and small active regions. In many instances, SOT has been able to capture the entire emergence process from beginning to end: i.e. from the initial stages of flux appearance in granule interiors, through the intermediate stages of G-band bright point formation, and finally to the coalescence of small vertical flux elements to form pores. To investigate the physics of the flux emergence process, we performed 3D numerical MHD simulations with the MURaM code. The models are able to reproduce, and help us explain, various observational signatures of magnetic flux emergence.
3D-MHD simulations of the evolution of magnetic fields in FR II radio sources
Huarte-Espinosa, Martin; Alexander, Paul
2010-01-01
3D-MHD numerical simulations of bipolar, hypersonic, weakly magnetized jets and synthetic synchrotron observations are presented to study the structure and evolution of magnetic fields in FR II radio sources. The magnetic field setup in the jet is initially random. The power of the jets as well as the observational viewing angle are investigated. We find that synthetic polarization maps agree with observations and show that magnetic fields inside the sources are shaped by the jets' backflow. Polarimetry statistics correlates with time, the viewing angle and the jet-to-ambient density contrast. The magnetic structure inside thin elongated sources is more uniform than for ones with fatter cocoons. Jets increase the magnetic energy in cocoons, in proportion to the jet velocity. Both, filaments in synthetic emission maps and 3D magnetic power spectra suggest that turbulence develops in evolved sources.
Characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer in pipe
Huang, Z.Y.; Liu, Y.J., E-mail: yajun@scut.edu.cn
2016-01-01
As gradually wide applications of MHD fluid, transportation as well as control with pumps and valves is unavoidable, which induces MHD fluid hammer. The paper attempts to combine MHD effect and fluid hammer effect and to investigate the characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer. A non-dimensional fluid hammer model, based on Navier–Stocks equations, coupling with Lorentz force is numerically solved in a reservoir–pipe–valve system with uniform external magnetic field. The MHD effect is represented by the interaction number which associates with the conductivity of the MHD fluid as well as the external magnetic field and can be interpreted as the ratio of Lorentz force to Joukowsky force. The transient numerical results of pressure head, average velocity, wall shear stress, velocity profiles and shear stress profiles are provided. The additional MHD effect hinders fluid motion, weakens wave front and homogenizes velocity profiles, contributing to obvious attenuation of oscillation, strengthened line packing and weakened Richardson annular effect. Studying the characteristics of MHD laminar fluid hammer theoretically supplements the gap of knowledge of rapid-transient MHD flow and technically provides beneficial information for MHD pipeline system designers to better devise MHD systems. - Highlights: • Characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer are discussed by simulation. • MHD effect has significant influence on attenuation of wave. • MHD effect strengthens line packing. • MHD effect inhibits Richardson annular effect.
Keppens, R
2002-01-01
We present numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of a magnetized accretion disk launching trans-Alfvenic jets. These simulations, performed in a 2.5 dimensional time-dependent polytropic resistive MHD framework, model a resistive accretion disk threaded by an initial vertical magnetic field. The resistivity is only important inside the disk, and is prescribed as eta = alpha_m V_AH exp(-2Z^2/H^2), where V_A stands for Alfven speed, H is the disk scale height and the coefficient alpha_m is smaller than unity. By performing the simulations over several tens of dynamical disk timescales, we show that the launching of a collimated outflow occurs self-consistently and the ejection of matter is continuous and quasi-stationary. These are the first ever simulations of resistive accretion disks launching non-transient ideal MHD jets. Roughly 15% of accreted mass is persistently ejected. This outflow is safely characterized as a jet since the flow becomes super-fastmagnetosonic, well-collimated and reaches a q...
Ohno, Jun; Liberati, Alessandro; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Okuno, Yoshihiro
Time dependent r-z two-dimensional numerical simulations with LES technique have been carried out in order to clarify the plasma fluid behavior and power generation characteristics of the disk MHD generator under the rated operation conditions demonstrated in the closed loop experimental facility at Tokyo Tech. The generator currently installed could suffer from the non-uniform and low electrical conductivity, and the boundary layer separation even under the rated operation conditions. The large amount of generated electric power is consumed in the boundary layer separation region, which reduces a net output power. Reducing the back pressure and improving the inlet plasma conditions surely provide the higher generator performance. The influence of 90 degree bend downstream duct on the generator performance is found to be not marked.
Numerical simulation of dusty plasmas
Winske, D.
1995-09-01
The numerical simulation of physical processes in dusty plasmas is reviewed, with emphasis on recent results and unresolved issues. Three areas of research are discussed: grain charging, weak dust-plasma interactions, and strong dust-plasma interactions. For each area, we review the basic concepts that are tested by simulations, present some appropriate examples, and examine numerical issues associated with extending present work.
无
2009-01-01
An asynchronous and parallel time-marching method for three-dimensional (3D) time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation is used for large-scale solar wind simulation. It uses different local time steps in the corona and the heliosphere according to the local Courant-Friedrichs-Levy (CFL) conditions. The solar wind background with observed solar photospheric magnetic field as input is first presented. The simulation time for the background solar wind by using the asynchronous method is <1/6 of that by using the normal synchronous time-marching method with the same computation precision. Then, we choose the coronal mass ejection (CME) event of 13 November, 2003 as a test case. The time-dependent variations of the pressure and the velocity configured from a CME model at the inner boundary are applied to generate transient structures in order to study the dynamical interaction of a CME with the background solar wind flow between 1 and 230 Rs. This time-marching method is very effective in terms of computation time for large-scale 3D time-dependent numerical MHD problem. In this validation study, we find that this 3D MHD model, with the asynchronous and parallel time-marching method, provides a relatively satisfactory comparison with the ACE spacecraft obser- vations at L1 point.
Toth, G.; Daldorff, L. K. S.; Jia, X.; Gombosi, T. I.; Lapenta, G.
2014-12-01
We have recently developed a new modeling capability to embed theimplicit Particle-in-Cell (PIC) model iPIC3D into the BATS-R-USmagnetohydrodynamic model. The PIC domain can cover the regions wherekinetic effects are most important, such as reconnection sites. TheBATS-R-US code, on the other hand, can efficiently handle the rest ofthe computational domain where the MHD or Hall MHD description issufficient. As one of the very first applications of the MHD-EPICalgorithm (Daldorff et al. 2014, JCP, 268, 236) we simulate theinteraction between Jupiter's magnetospheric plasma with Ganymede'smagnetosphere, where the separation of kinetic and global scalesappears less severe than for the Earth's magnetosphere. Because theexternal Jovian magnetic field remains in an anti-parallel orientationwith respect to Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field, magneticreconnection is believed to be the major process that couples the twomagnetospheres. As the PIC model is able to describe self-consistentlythe electron behavior, our coupled MHD-EPIC model is well suited forinvestigating the nature of magnetic reconnection in thisreconnection-driven mini-magnetosphere. We will compare the MHD-EPICsimulations with pure Hall MHD simulations and compare both modelresults with Galileo plasma and magnetic field measurements to assess therelative importance of ion and electron kinetics in controlling theconfiguration and dynamics of Ganymede's magnetosphere.
Hayashi, K.; Hmi Team
2010-12-01
We will report results of the MHD simulation of the solar corona and solar wind using the HMI magnetic field data, especially focusing on a simulated eruption of a coronal streamer that reasonably corresponds to a large-scale coronal eruption event observed on August 1, 2010. The pre-event coronal situation is prepared through the time-relaxation MHD simulation using the synoptic map data of the solar surface magnetic field for a period of the Carrington Rotation 2098. Then, the global magnetic field evolutions from CR 2098 to 2099 are introduced in the simulation by means of a boundary model we recently developed, which enable to trace the sub-Alfvenic MHD responses of the corona numerically. The simulated coronal features include the formation of the two twisted coronal magnetic field structures along the magnetically inversion lines at the lowermost corona (coinciding the two observed filaments at west-north part of the solar disk) and the large-scale outward motions and decay of the closed-field streamer above the two twisted-field regions. Our MHD simulation model did not include the triggering event directly, and our simulations were done in somewhat low resolution in space. However, the reasonable success in reproducing coronal features relating a specific event in a well-known manner (using the synoptic map format data and the MHD simulation model) shows that the new dataset from HMI will be useful for the models, such as the MHD and the potential field models, as the previous dataset by SOHO/MDI.
Global simulations of protoplanetary disks with net magnetic flux. I. Non-ideal MHD case
Béthune, William; Lesur, Geoffroy; Ferreira, Jonathan
2017-04-01
Context. The planet-forming region of protoplanetary disks is cold, dense, and therefore weakly ionized. For this reason, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is thought to be mostly absent, and another mechanism has to be found to explain gas accretion. It has been proposed that magnetized winds, launched from the ionized disk surface, could drive accretion in the presence of a large-scale magnetic field. Aims: The efficiency and the impact of these surface winds on the disk structure is still highly uncertain. We present the first global simulations of a weakly ionized disk that exhibits large-scale magnetized winds. We also study the impact of self-organization, which was previously demonstrated only in non-stratified models. Methods: We perform numerical simulations of stratified disks with the PLUTO code. We compute the ionization fraction dynamically, and account for all three non-ideal MHD effects: ohmic and ambipolar diffusions, and the Hall drift. Simplified heating and cooling due to non-thermal radiation is also taken into account in the disk atmosphere. Results: We find that disks can be accreting or not, depending on the configuration of the large-scale magnetic field. Magnetothermal winds, driven both by magnetic acceleration and heating of the atmosphere, are obtained in the accreting case. In some cases, these winds are asymmetric, ejecting predominantly on one side of the disk. The wind mass loss rate depends primarily on the average ratio of magnetic to thermal pressure in the disk midplane. The non-accreting case is characterized by a meridional circulation, with accretion layers at the disk surface and decretion in the midplane. Finally, we observe self-organization, resulting in axisymmetric rings of density and associated pressure "bumps". The underlying mechanism and its impact on observable structures are discussed.
Nabert, Christian; Othmer, Carsten; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz
2017-05-01
The interaction of the solar wind with a planetary magnetic field causes electrical currents that modify the magnetic field distribution around the planet. We present an approach to estimating the planetary magnetic field from in situ spacecraft data using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation approach. The method is developed with respect to the upcoming BepiColombo mission to planet Mercury aimed at determining the planet's magnetic field and its interior electrical conductivity distribution. In contrast to the widely used empirical models, global MHD simulations allow the calculation of the strongly time-dependent interaction process of the solar wind with the planet. As a first approach, we use a simple MHD simulation code that includes time-dependent solar wind and magnetic field parameters. The planetary parameters are estimated by minimizing the misfit of spacecraft data and simulation results with a gradient-based optimization. As the calculation of gradients with respect to many parameters is usually very time-consuming, we investigate the application of an adjoint MHD model. This adjoint MHD model is generated by an automatic differentiation tool to compute the gradients efficiently. The computational cost for determining the gradient with an adjoint approach is nearly independent of the number of parameters. Our method is validated by application to THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) magnetosheath data to estimate Earth's dipole moment.
Comparison of solar photospheric bright points between SUNRISE observations and MHD simulations
Riethmüller, T L; Berdyugina, S V; Schüssler, M; Pillet, V Mart\\'\\inez; Feller, A; Gandorfer, A; Hirzberger, J
2014-01-01
Bright points (BPs) in the solar photosphere are radiative signatures of magnetic elements described by slender flux tubes located in the darker intergranular lanes. They contribute to the ultraviolet (UV) flux variations over the solar cycle and hence may influence the Earth's climate. Here we combine high-resolution UV and spectro-polarimetric observations of BPs by the SUNRISE observatory with 3D radiation MHD simulations. Full spectral line syntheses are performed with the MHD data and a careful degradation is applied to take into account all relevant instrumental effects of the observations. It is demonstrated that the MHD simulations reproduce the measured distributions of intensity at multiple wavelengths, line-of-sight velocity, spectral line width, and polarization degree rather well. Furthermore, the properties of observed BPs are compared with synthetic ones. These match also relatively well, except that the observations display a tail of large and strongly polarized BPs not found in the simulation...
Cosmic-ray pitch-angle scattering in imbalanced MHD turbulence simulations
Weidl, Martin S; Teaca, Bogdan; Schlickeiser, Reinhard
2015-01-01
Pitch-angle scattering rates for cosmic-ray particles in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations with imbalanced turbulence are calculated for fully evolving electromagnetic turbulence. We compare with theoretical predictions derived from the quasilinear theory of cosmic-ray diffusion for an idealized slab spectrum and demonstrate how cross helicity affects the shape of the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient. Additional simulations in evolving magnetic fields or static field configurations provide evidence that the scattering anisotropy in imbalanced turbulence is not primarily due to coherence with propagating Alfven waves, but an effect of the spatial structure of electric fields in cross-helical MHD turbulence.
Integrated Physics Advances in Simulation of Wave Interactions with Extended MHD Phenomena
Batchelor, Donald B [ORNL; D' Azevedo, Eduardo [ORNL; Bateman, Glenn [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Bernholdt, David E [ORNL; Berry, Lee A [ORNL; Bonoli, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Bramley, R [Indiana University; Breslau, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Chance, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Chen, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Choi, M. [General Atomics; Elwasif, Wael R [ORNL; Fu, GuoYong [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Harvey, R. W. [CompX, Del Mar, CA; Houlberg, Wayne A [ORNL; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick [ORNL; Jardin, S. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Keyes, David E [Columbia University; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Kruger, Scott [Tech-X Corporation; Ku, Long-Poe [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); McCune, Douglas [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Schissel, D. [General Atomics; Schnack, D. [University of Wisconsin; Wright, J. C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
2007-06-01
The broad scientific objectives of the SWIM (Simulation of Wave Interaction with MHD) project are: (A) To improve our understanding of interactions that both RF wave and particle sources have on extended-MHD phenomena, and to substantially improve our capability for predicting and optimizing the performance of burning plasmas in devices such as ITER: and (B) To develop an integrated computational system for treating multi-physics phenomena with the required flexibility and extensibility to serve as a prototype for the Fusion Simulation Project (FSP).
Integrated physics advances in simulation of wave interactions with extended MHD phenomena
Batchelor, D B [ORNL (United States); D' Azevedo, E [ORNL (United States); Bateman, G [Lehigh (United States)] (and others)
2007-07-15
The broad scientific objectives of the SWIM (Simulation of Wave Interaction with MHD) project are: (A) To improve our understanding of interactions that both RF wave and particle sources have on extended-MHD phenomena, and to substantially improve our capability for predicting and optimizing the performance of burning plasmas in devices such as ITER: and (B) To develop an integrated computational system for treating multi-physics phenomena with the required flexibility and extensibility to serve as a prototype for the Fusion Simulation Project (FSP)
Winters, Andrew R.; Derigs, Dominik; Gassner, Gregor J.; Walch, Stefanie
2017-03-01
We describe a unique averaging procedure to design an entropy stable dissipation operator for the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and compressible Euler equations. Often in the derivation of an entropy conservative numerical flux function much care is taken in the design and averaging of the entropy conservative numerical flux. We demonstrate in this work that if the discrete dissipation operator is not carefully chosen as well it can have deleterious effects on the numerical approximation. This is particularly true for very strong shocks or high Mach number flows present, for example, in astrophysical simulations. We present the underlying technique of how to construct a unique averaging technique for the discrete dissipation operator. We also demonstrate numerically the increased robustness of the approximation.
Flux Emergence In The Solar Photosphere - Diagnostics Based On 3-D Rradiation-MHD Simulations
Yelles Chaouche, L.; Cheung, M.; Lagg, A.; Solanki, S.
2006-08-01
We investigate flux tube emergence in the solar photosphere using a diagnostic procedure based on analyzing Stokes signals from different spectral lines calculated in 3-D radiation-MHD simulations. The simulations include the effects of radiative transport and partial ionization and cover layers both above and below the solar surface. The simulations consider the emergence of a twisted magnetic flux tube through the solar surface. We consider different stages in the emergence process, starting from the early appearance of the flux tube at the solar surface, and following the emergence process until the emerged flux looks similar to a normal bipolar region. At every stage we compute line profiles by numerically solving the Unno-Rachkovsky equations at every horizontal grid point. Then, following observational practice, we apply Milne-Eddington-type inversions to the synthetic spectra in order to retrieve different atmospheric parameters. We include the influence of spatial smearing on the deduced atmospheric parameters to identify signatures of different stages of flux emergence in the solar photosphere.
Numerical simulation of welding
Hansen, Jan Langkjær; Thorborg, Jesper
Aim of project:To analyse and model the transient thermal field from arc welding (SMAW, V-shaped buttweld in 15mm plate) and to some extend the mechanical response due to the thermal field. - To implement this model in a general purpose finite element program such as ABAQUS.The simulation...... is limited to 2D and as regards the thermal model we assume plain cross section when comparing with experiments and analytical solutions.Stresses and deformations based on the thermal model is mainly described qualitatively in relation to the mechanical model in ABAQUS. As regards the mechanical model, plain...... stress is also taken into account.Work carried out:With few means it is possible to define a thermal model which describes the thermal field from the welding process in reasonable agreement with reality. Identical results are found with ABAQUS and Rosenthal’s analytical solution of the governing heat...
Numerical simulation of welding
Hansen, Jan Langkjær; Thorborg, Jesper
Aim of project:To analyse and model the transient thermal field from arc welding (SMAW, V-shaped buttweld in 15mm plate) and to some extend the mechanical response due to the thermal field. - To implement this model in a general purpose finite element program such as ABAQUS.The simulation...... stress is also taken into account.Work carried out:With few means it is possible to define a thermal model which describes the thermal field from the welding process in reasonable agreement with reality. Identical results are found with ABAQUS and Rosenthal’s analytical solution of the governing heat...... transfer equation under same conditions. It is relative easy tointroduce boundary conditions such as convection and radiation where not surprisingly the radiation has the greatest influence especially from the high temperature regions in the weld pool and the heat affected zone.Due to the large temperature...
Forced Reconnection in the Near Magnetotail: Onset and Energy Conversion in PIC and MHD Simulations
Birn, J.; Hesse, Michael
2014-01-01
Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) together with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Q1 simulations of magnetotail dynamics, we investigate the evolution toward onset of reconnection and the subsequent energy transfer and conversion. In either case, reconnection onset is preceded by a driven phase, during which magnetic flux is added to the tail at the high-latitude boundaries, followed by a relaxation phase, during which the configuration continues to respond to the driving. The boundary deformation leads to the formation of thin embedded current sheets, which are bifurcated in the near tail, converging to a single sheet farther out in the MHD simulations. The thin current sheets in the PIC simulation are carried by electrons and are associated with a strong perpendicular electrostatic field, which may provide a connection to parallel potentials and auroral arcs and an ionospheric signal even prior to the onset of reconnection. The PIC simulation very well satisfies integral entropy conservation (intrinsic to ideal MHD) during this phase, supporting ideal ballooning stability. Eventually, the current intensification leads to the onset of reconnection, the formation and ejection of a plasmoid, and a collapse of the inner tail. The earthward flow shows the characteristics of a dipolarization front: enhancement of Bz, associated with a thin vertical electron current sheet in the PIC simulation. Both MHD and PIC simulations show a dominance of energy conversion from incoming Poynting flux to outgoing enthalpy flux, resulting in heating of the inner tail. Localized Joule dissipation plays only a minor role.
Smolentsev, S., E-mail: sergey@fusion.ucla.edu [University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Courtessole, C.; Abdou, M.; Sharafat, S. [University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Sahu, S. [Institute of Plasma Research (India); Sketchley, T. [University of California, Los Angeles (United States)
2016-10-15
Highlights: • Numerical studies were performed as a pre-experimental analysis to the experiment on MHD PbLi flows in a rectangular duct with a flow channel insert (FCI). • Dynamic testing of foam-based SiC foam-based CVD coated FCI has been performed using MaPLE facility at UCLA. • Two physical models were proposed to explain the experimental results and 3D and 2D computations performed using COMSOL, HIMAG and UCLA codes. • The obtained results suggest that more work on FCI development, fabrication and testing has to be done to assure good hermetic properties before the implementation in a fusion device. - Abstract: A flow channel insert (FCI) is the key element of the DCLL blanket concept. The FCI serves as electrical and thermal insulator to reduce the MHD pressure drop and to decouple the temperature-limited ferritic structure from the flowing hot lead-lithium (PbLi) alloy. The main focus of the paper is on numerical computations to simulate MHD flows in the first experiments on PbLi flows in a stainless steel rectangular duct with a foam-based silicon carbide (SiC) FCI. A single uninterrupted long-term (∼6500 h) test has recently been performed on a CVD coated FCI sample in the flowing PbLi in a magnetic field up to 1.5 T at the PbLi temperature of 300 °C using the MaPLE loop at UCLA. An unexpectedly high MHD pressure drop measured in this experiment suggests that a PbLi ingress into the FCI occurred in the course of the experiment, resulting in degradation of electroinsulating FCI properties. The ingress through the protective CVD layer was further confirmed by the post-experimental microscopic analysis of the FCI. The numerical modeling included 2D and 3D computations using HIMAG, COMSOL and a UCLA research code to address important flow features associated with the FCI finite length, fringing magnetic field, rounded FCI corners and also to predict changes in the MHD pressure drop in the unwanted event of a PbLi ingress. Two physical
Numerical Simulations and Diagnostics in Astrophysics:. a Few Magnetohydrodynamics Examples
Peres, Giovanni; Bonito, Rosaria; Orlando, Salvatore; Reale, Fabio
2007-12-01
We discuss some issues related to numerical simulations in Astrophysics and, in particular, to their use both as a theoretical tool and as a diagnostic tool, to gain insight into the physical phenomena at work. We make our point presenting some examples of Magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) simulations of astrophysical plasmas and illustrating their use. In particular we show the need for appropriate tools to interpret, visualize and present results in an adequate form, and the importance of spectral synthesis for a direct comparison with observations.
Ahmad, Rida [School of Natural Sciences (SNS), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mustafa, M., E-mail: meraj_mm@hotmail.com [School of Natural Sciences (SNS), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Alsaedi, A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2016-06-01
Recent advancements in nanotechnology have led to the discovery of new generation coolants known as nanofluids. Nanofluids possess novel and unique characteristics which are fruitful in numerous cooling applications. Current work is undertaken to address the heat transfer in MHD three-dimensional flow of magnetic nanofluid (ferrofluid) over a bidirectional exponentially stretching sheet. The base fluid is considered as water which consists of magnetite–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. Exponentially varying surface temperature distribution is accounted. Problem formulation is presented through the Maxwell models for effective electrical conductivity and effective thermal conductivity of nanofluid. Similarity transformations give rise to a coupled non-linear differential system which is solved numerically. Appreciable growth in the convective heat transfer coefficient is observed when nanoparticle volume fraction is augmented. Temperature exponent parameter serves to enhance the heat transfer from the surface. Moreover the skin friction coefficient is directly proportional to both magnetic field strength and nanoparticle volume fraction. - Highlights: • Nanofluid flow due to exponentially stretching sheet. • Exponentially varying surface temperature distribution is accounted. • Sparrow–Gregg type Hills (SGH) for temperature distribution exist. • Numerical values of local Nusselt number are presented. • Cooling performance of ferrofluid is superior to pure water.
Extragalactic jets with helical magnetic fields: relativistic MHD simulations
Keppens, R; van der Holst, B; Casse, F
2008-01-01
Extragalactic jets are inferred to harbor dynamically important, organized magnetic fields which presumably aid in the collimation of the relativistic jet flows. We here explore by means of grid-adaptive, high resolution numerical simulations the morphology of AGN jets pervaded by helical field and flow topologies. We concentrate on morphological features of the bow shock and the jet beam behind the Mach disk, for various jet Lorentz factors and magnetic field helicities. We investigate the influence of helical magnetic fields on jet beam propagation in overdense external medium. We use the AMRVAC code, employing a novel hybrid block-based AMR strategy, to compute ideal plasma dynamics in special relativity. The helicity of the beam magnetic field is effectively transported down the beam, with compression zones in between diagonal internal cross-shocks showing stronger toroidal field regions. In comparison with equivalent low-relativistic jets which get surrounded by cocoons with vortical backflows filled by ...
Spicule-like structures observed in 3D realistic MHD simulations
Martinez-Sykora, J; De Pontieu, B; Carlsson, M
2009-01-01
We analyze features that resemble type i spicules in two different 3D numerical simulations in which we include horizontal magnetic flux emergence in a computational domain spanning the upper layers of the convection zone to the lower corona. The two simulations differ mainly in the preexisting ambient magnetic field strength and in the properties of the inserted flux tube. We use the Oslo Staggered Code (OSC) to solve the full MHD equations with non-grey and non-LTE radiative transfer and thermal conduction along the magnetic field lines. We find a multitude of features that show a spatiotemporal evolution that is similar to that observed in type i spicules, which are characterized by parabolic height vs. time profiles, and are dominated by rapid upward motion at speeds of 10-30 km/s, followed by downward motion at similar velocities. We measured the parameters of the parabolic profile of the spicules and find similar correlations between the parameters as those found in observations. The values for height (...
3D MHD Simulations of Laser Plasma Guiding in Curved Magnetic Field
Roupassov, S.; Rankin, R.; Tsui, Y.; Capjack, C.; Fedosejevs, R.
1999-11-01
The guiding and confinement of laser produced plasma in a curved magnetic field has been investigated numerically. These studies were motivated by experiments on pulsed laser deposition of diamond-like films [1] in which a 1kG magnetic field in a curved solenoid geometry was utilized to steer a carbon plasma around a curved trajectory and thus to separate it from unwanted macroparticles produced by the laser ablation. The purpose of the modeling was to characterize the plasma dynamics during the propagation through the magnetic guide field and to investigate the effect of different magnetic field configurations. A 3D curvilinear ADI code developed on the basis of an existing Cartesian code [2] was employed to simulate the underlying resistive one-fluid MHD model. Issues such as large regions of low background density and nonreflective boundary conditions were addressed. Results of the simulations in a curved guide field will be presented and compared to experimental results. [1] Y.Y. Tsui, D. Vick and R. Fedosejevs, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70 (15), pp. 1953-57, 1997. [2] R. Rankin, and I. Voronkov, in "High Performance Computing Systems and Applications", pp. 59-69, Kluwer AP, 1998.
Grete, P; Schmidt, W; Schleicher, D R G
2016-01-01
Even though compressible plasma turbulence is encountered in many astrophysical phenomena, its effect is often not well understood. Furthermore, direct numerical simulations are typically not able to reach the extreme parameters of these processes. For this reason, large-eddy simulations (LES), which only simulate large and intermediate scales directly, are employed. The smallest, unresolved scales and the interactions between small and large scales are introduced by means of a subgrid-scale (SGS) model. We propose and verify a new set of nonlinear SGS closures for future application as an SGS model in LES of compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We use 15 simulations (without explicit SGS model) of forced, isotropic, homogeneous turbulence with varying sonic Mach number $\\mathrm{M_s} = 0.2$ to $20$ as reference data for the most extensive \\textit{a priori} tests performed so far in literature. In these tests we explicitly filter the reference data and compare the performance of the new closures against th...
The intensity contrast of solar granulation: comparing Hinode SP results with MHD simulations
Danilovic, S.; Gandorfer, A.; Lagg, A.; SchÜssler, M.; Solanki, S.K.; Vögler, A.; Katsukawa, Y.; Tsuneta, S.
2008-01-01
Context. The contrast of granulation is an important quantity characterizing solar surface convection. Aims. We compare the intensity contrast at 630 nm, observed using the Spectro-Polarimeter (SP) aboard the Hinode satellite, with the 3D radiative MHD simulations of Vögler & Schüssler (2007, A&A, 4
Constrained Transport vs. Divergence Cleanser Options in Astrophysical MHD Simulations
Lindner, Christopher C.; Fragile, P.
2009-01-01
In previous work, we presented results from global numerical simulations of the evolution of black hole accretion disks using the Cosmos++ GRMHD code. In those simulations we solved the magnetic induction equation using an advection-split form, which is known not to satisfy the divergence-free constraint. To minimize the build-up of divergence error, we used a hyperbolic cleanser function that simultaneously damped the error and propagated it off the grid. We have since found that this method produces qualitatively and quantitatively different behavior in high magnetic field regions than results published by other research groups, particularly in the evacuated funnels of black-hole accretion disks where Poynting-flux jets are reported to form. The main difference between our earlier work and that of our competitors is their use of constrained-transport schemes to preserve a divergence-free magnetic field. Therefore, to study these differences directly, we have implemented a constrained transport scheme into Cosmos++. Because Cosmos++ uses a zone-centered, finite-volume method, we can not use the traditional staggered-mesh constrained transport scheme of Evans & Hawley. Instead we must implement a more general scheme; we chose the Flux-CT scheme as described by Toth. Here we present comparisons of results using the divergence-cleanser and constrained transport options in Cosmos++.
High fidelity studies of exploding foil initiator bridges, Part 3: ALEGRA MHD simulations
Neal, William; Garasi, Christopher
2017-01-01
Simulations of high voltage detonators, such as Exploding Bridgewire (EBW) and Exploding Foil Initiators (EFI), have historically been simple, often empirical, one-dimensional models capable of predicting parameters such as current, voltage, and in the case of EFIs, flyer velocity. Experimental methods have correspondingly generally been limited to the same parameters. With the advent of complex, first principles magnetohydrodynamic codes such as ALEGRA and ALE-MHD, it is now possible to simulate these components in three dimensions, and predict a much greater range of parameters than before. A significant improvement in experimental capability was therefore required to ensure these simulations could be adequately verified. In this third paper of a three part study, the experimental results presented in part 2 are compared against 3-dimensional MHD simulations. This improved experimental capability, along with advanced simulations, offer an opportunity to gain a greater understanding of the processes behind the functioning of EBW and EFI detonators.
MHD simulations of radiative jets from young stellar objects: Halpha emission
De Colle, F; Colle, Fabio De; Raga, Alejandro
2005-01-01
We study the H$\\alpha$ emission from jets using two-dimensional axisymmetrical simulations. We compare the emission obtained from hydrodynamic (HD) simulations with that obtained from magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. The magnetic field is supposed to be present in the jet only, and with a toroidal configuration. The simulations have time-dependent ejection velocities and different intensities for the initial magnetic field. The results show an increase in the H$\\alpha$ emission along the jet for the magnetized cases with respect to the HD case. The increase in the emission is due to a better collimation of the jet in the MHD case, and to a small increase in the shock velocity. These results could have important implications for the interpretation of the observations of jets from young stellar objects.
Comparison of empirical magnetic field models and global MHD simulations: The near-tail currents
Pulkkinen, T. I.; Baker, D. N.; Walker, R. J.; Raeder, J.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.
1995-01-01
The tail currents predicted by empirical magnetic field models and global MHD simulations are compared. It is shown that the near-Earth currents obtained from the MHD simulations are much weaker than the currents predicted by the Tsyganenko models, primarily because the ring current is not properly represented in the simulations. On the other hand, in the mid-tail and distant tail the lobe field strength predicted by the simulations is comparable to what is observed at about 50 R(sub E) distance, significantly larger than the very low lobe field values predicted by the Tsyganenko models at that distance. Ways to improve these complementary approaches to model the actual magnetospheric configuration are discussed.
Effect of the Interplanetary Electric Field on the Magnetopause From Global MHD Simulations
HUANG Zhaohui; DING Kai; WANG Chi
2012-01-01
The north-south component B_z of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field（IMF） and solar wind dynamic pressure P_d are generally treated as the two main factors in the solar wind that determine the geometry of the magnetosphere.By using the 3D global MHD simulations,we investigate the effect of the Interplanetary Electric Field（IEF） on the size and shape of magnetopause quantitatively. Our numerical experiments confirm that the geometry of the magnetopause are mainly determined by P_d and B_z,as expected.However,the dawn-dusk IEFs have great impact on the magnetopause erosion because of the magnetic reconnection,thus affecting the size and shape of the magnetopause.Higher solar wind speed with the same B_z will lead to bigger dawn-dusk IEFs,which means the higher reconnection rate,and then results in more magnetic flux removal from the dayside. Consequently,the dayside magnetopause moves inward and flank magnetopause moves outward.
Sub-Alfvenic Non-Ideal MHD Turbulence Simulations with Ambipolar Diffusion: I. Turbulence Statistics
Li, Pak Shing; Klein, Richard I; Fisher, Robert T
2008-01-01
Most numerical investigations on the role of magnetic fields in turbulent molecular clouds (MCs) are based on ideal magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD). However, MCs are weakly ionized, so that the time scale required for the magnetic field to diffuse through the neutral component of the plasma by ambipolar diffusion (AD) can be comparable to the dynamical time scale. We have performed a series of 256^3 and 512^3 simulations on supersonic but sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems with AD using the Heavy-Ion Approximation developed in Li, McKee, & Klein (2006). Our calculations are based on the assumption that the number of ions is conserved, but we show that these results approximately apply to the case of time-dependent ionization in molecular clouds as well. Convergence studies allow us to determine the optimal value of the ionization mass fraction when using the heavy-ion approximation for low Mach number, sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems. We find that ambipolar diffusion steepens the velocity and magnetic power spectr...
Numerical study of shock waves in non-ideal magnetogasdynamics (MHD
Addepalli Ramu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available One-dimensional unsteady adiabatic flow of strong converging shock waves in cylindrical or spherical symmetry in MHD, which is propagating into plasma, is analyzed. The plasma is assumed to be non-ideal gas whose equation of state is of Mie–Gruneisen type. Suitable transformations reduce the governing equations into ordinary differential equations of Poincare type. In the present work, McQueen and Royce equations of state (EOS have been considered with suitable material constants and the spherical and cylindrical cases are worked out in detail to investigate the behavior and the influence on the shock wave propagation by energy input and β(ρ/ρ0, the measure of shock strength. The similarity solution is valid for adiabatic flow as long as the counter pressure is neglected. The numerical technique applied in this paper provides a global solution to the implosion problem for the flow variables, the similarity exponent α for different Gruneisen parameters. It is shown that increasing β(ρ/ρ0 does not automatically decelerate the shock front but the velocity and pressure behind the shock front increases quickly in the presence of the magnetic field and decreases slowly and become constant. This becomes true whether the piston is accelerated, is moving at constant speed or is decelerated. These results are presented through the illustrative graphs and tables. The magnetic field effects on the flow variables through a medium and total energy under the influence of strong magnetic field are also presented.
Alexakis, A.
2009-04-01
Most astrophysical and planetary systems e.g., solar convection and stellar winds, are in a turbulent state and coupled to magnetic fields. Understanding and quantifying the statistical properties of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) turbulence is crucial to explain the involved physical processes. Although the phenomenological theory of hydro-dynamic (HD) turbulence has been verified up to small corrections, a similar statement cannot be made for MHD turbulence. Since the phenomenological description of Hydrodynamic turbulence by Kolmogorov in 1941 there have been many attempts to derive a similar description for turbulence in conducting fluids (i.e Magneto-Hydrodynamic turbulence). However such a description is going to be based inevitably on strong assumptions (typically borrowed from hydrodynamics) that do not however necessarily apply to the MHD case. In this talk I will discuss some of the properties and differences of the energy and helicity cascades in turbulent MHD and HD flows. The investigation is going to be based on the analysis of direct numerical simulations. The cascades in MHD turbulence appear to be a more non-local process (in scale space) than in Hydrodynamics. Some implications of these results to turbulent modeling will be discussed
Numerical simulation of gas explosions
Van den Berg, A.C.; Van Wingerden, J.M.; Verhagen, T.L.
1989-08-01
Recent developments in numerical fluid dynamics and computer technology enable detailed simulation of gas explosions. Prins Maurits Laboratory TNO of the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research developed the necessary software. This software is a useful tool to develop and evaluate explosion safe installations. One of the possible applications is the design of save offshore rigs. (f.i. to prevent Piper Alpha disasters). The two-dimensional blast model is described and an example is given. 4 figs., 6 refs.
Numerical Simulation of Protoplanetary Vortices
2003-12-01
UNCLASSIFIED Center for Turbulence Research 81 Annual Research Briefs 2003 Numerical simulation of protoplanetary vortices By H. Lin, J.A. Barranco t AND P.S...planetesimals and planets. In earlier works ( Barranco & Marcus 2000; Barranco et al. 2000; Lin et al. 2000) we have briefly described the possible physical...transport. In particular, Barranco et al. (2000) provided a general mathe- matical framework that is suitable for the asymptotic regime of the disk
Deng, Wei; Zhang, Bing; Li, Shengtai
2015-01-01
We perform 3D relativistic ideal MHD simulations to study the collisions between high-$\\sigma$ (Poynting-flux-dominated) blobs which contain both poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components. This is meant to mimic the interactions inside a highly variable Poynting-flux-dominated jet. We discover a significant electromagnetic field (EMF) energy dissipation with an Alfv\\'enic rate with the efficiency around 35\\%. Detailed analyses show that this dissipation is mostly facilitated by the collision-induced magnetic reconnection. Additional resolution and parameter studies show a robust result that the relative EMF energy dissipation efficiency is nearly independent of the numerical resolution or most physical parameters in the relevant parameter range. The reconnection outflows in our simulation can potentially form the multi-orientation relativistic mini-jets as needed for several analytical models. We also find a linear relationship between the $\\sigma$ values before and after the major EMF energy dissipatio...
MHD simulations of three-dimensional Resistive Reconnection in a cylindrical plasma column
Striani, Edoardo; Vaidya, Bhargav; Bodo, Gianluigi; Ferrari, Attilio
2016-01-01
Magnetic reconnection is a plasma phenomenon where a topological rearrangement of magnetic field lines with opposite polarity results in dissipation of magnetic energy into heat, kinetic energy and particle acceleration. Such a phenomenon is considered as an efficient mechanism for energy release in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. An important question is how to make the process fast enough to account for observed explosive energy releases. The classical model for steady state magnetic reconnection predicts reconnection times scaling as $S^{1/2}$ (where $S$ is the Lundquist number) and yields times scales several order of magnitude larger than the observed ones. Earlier two-dimensional MHD simulations showed that for large Lundquist number the reconnection time becomes independent of $S$ ("fast reconnection" regime) due to the presence of the secondary tearing instability that takes place for $S \\gtrsim 1 \\times 10^4$. We report on our 3D MHD simulations of magnetic reconnection in a magnetically confin...
3D simulations of fluctuation spectra in the hall-MHD plasma.
Shaikh, Dastgeer; Shukla, P K
2009-01-30
Turbulent spectral cascades are investigated by means of fully three-dimensional (3D) simulations of a compressible Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (H-MHD) plasma in order to understand the observed spectral break in the solar wind turbulence spectra in the regime where the characteristic length scales associated with electromagnetic fluctuations are smaller than the ion gyroradius. In this regime, the results of our 3D simulations exhibit that turbulent spectral cascades in the presence of a mean magnetic field follow an omnidirectional anisotropic inertial-range spectrum close to k(-7/3). The latter is associated with the Hall current arising from nonequal electron and ion fluid velocities in our 3D H-MHD plasma model.
Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Architecture
Naiman, Cynthia G.
2004-01-01
The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. Because the NPSS was developed using the object-oriented paradigm, the resulting architecture is an extensible and flexible framework that is currently being used by a diverse set of participants in government, academia, and the aerospace industry. NPSS is being used by over 15 different institutions to support rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and aerospace. Full system-level simulations as well as subsystems may be modeled using NPSS. The NPSS architecture enables the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail, which is called numerical zooming. The middleware used to enable zooming and distributed simulations is the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). The NPSS Developer's Kit offers tools for the developer to generate CORBA-based components and wrap codes. The Developer's Kit enables distributed multi-fidelity and multi-discipline simulations, preserves proprietary and legacy codes, and facilitates addition of customized codes. The platforms supported are PC, Linux, HP, Sun, and SGI.
Numerical Simulation of 2D Supersonic Magnetohydrodynamic Channel and Study on Hall Effect
ZHENG Xiaomei; LU Haoyu; XU Dajun; CAI Guobiao
2011-01-01
In this research effort, numerical simulation of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) channel is performed and Hall effect is studied.The computational model consists of the Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations coupled with electrical-magnetic source terms, Maxwell equations and the generalized Ohm's law.Boundary conditions for the electrical potential equation considering Hall effect are derived.To start with, the MHD channel with single-pair electrodes is studied and flow of the electric current is in accordance with physical principle.Then the MHD channel with five-pair electrodes is numerically simulated.The results show that the electrical current concentrates on the downstream of the anode and the upstream of the cathode due to Hall effect, and the flow field becomes asymmetrical.At the current value of the magnetic interaction parameter, the electrical-magnetic force affects the flow remarkably, decreasing the outlet Mach number and increasing the outlet pressure; what's more, the flow structure in the channel becomes extremely complex.Performances of MHD channels with continual electrodes and segmented electrodes are compared.The results show that performance of the MHD channel with segmented electrodes is better than that with continual electrodes with the increase of Hall parameter.
M. RAHIMI EOSBOEE,
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In this study magnetohydrodynamics (MHD boundary layer flow of an upper-convected Maxwell fluid has been investigated. Similarity transformation has been used to reduce the governing differential equations into an ordinary non-linear differential equation. homotopy perturbation Method (HPM has applied to solve this developed nonlinear equation. In this article firstly, the basic idea of the HPM for solving nonlinear differential equations is briefly ntroduced and then it is employed to derive solution of nonlinear governing equation of MHD boundary layer flow with highly nonlinear term. The obtained results from HPM have been compared with numerical Boundary Value problem Method (BVP to verify the accuracy of the proposed method. The effects of the Hartman number (M and Deborah number (β for various conditions have been shown through graphs.
Mikel' son, Yu.Ya.; Yakovich, A.T.; Pavlov, S.I.
1978-01-01
Turbulent stresses are considered in an incompressible fluid due to MHD flow induced within an axisymmetric region by electromagnetic forces on the basis of the linearized equation of motion as well as on the basis of the stress tensor in terms of average velocities and turbulent viscosity. The turbulent viscosity is treated according to the Boussinesq hypothesis (constant turbulent viscosity), according to the generalized Karman hypothesis (turbulent viscosity a function of the derivatives of the velocity components with respect to the respective coordinates), or as the product of its coordinate functions. The results of numerical calculations indicate a close agreement between all these formulas for an average MHD flow and experimental data. Calculations including this additional turbulent force, appropriately related to the flow parameters, are applicable to the design of liquid-metal devices. 7 references, 3 figures.
PROPERTIES OF UMBRAL DOTS AS MEASURED FROM THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE DATA AND MHD SIMULATIONS
Kilcik, A.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Abramenko, V.; Goode, P. R.; Cao, W. [Big Bear Solar Observatory, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States); Rempel, M. [High Altitude Observatory, NCAR, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Kitai, R.; Watanabe, H. [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Kyoto 607-8417 (Japan)
2012-02-01
We studied bright umbral dots (UDs) detected in a moderate size sunspot and compared their statistical properties to recent MHD models. The study is based on high-resolution data recorded by the New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory and three-dimensional (3D) MHD simulations of sunspots. Observed UDs, living longer than 150 s, were detected and tracked in a 46 minute long data set, using an automatic detection code. A total of 1553 (620) UDs were detected in the photospheric (low chromospheric) data. Our main findings are (1) none of the analyzed UDs is precisely circular, (2) the diameter-intensity relationship only holds in bright umbral areas, and (3) UD velocities are inversely related to their lifetime. While nearly all photospheric UDs can be identified in the low chromospheric images, some small closely spaced UDs appear in the low chromosphere as a single cluster. Slow-moving and long-living UDs seem to exist in both the low chromosphere and photosphere, while fast-moving and short-living UDs are mainly detected in the photospheric images. Comparison to the 3D MHD simulations showed that both types of UDs display, on average, very similar statistical characteristics. However, (1) the average number of observed UDs per unit area is smaller than that of the model UDs, and (2) on average, the diameter of model UDs is slightly larger than that of observed ones.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF INSECT FLIGHT
CHENG Mu-lin; MIAO Wen-bo; ZHONG Chang-sheng
2006-01-01
In the non-inertial coordinates attached to the model wing, the two-dimensional unsteady flow field triggered by the motion of the model wing, similar to the flapping of the insect wings, was numerically simulated. One of the advantages of our method is that it has avoided the difficulty related to the moving-boundary problem. Another advantage is that the model has three degrees of freedom and can be used to simulate arbitrary motions of a two-dimensional wing in plane only if the motion is known. Such flexibility allows us to study how insects control their flying. Our results show that there are two parameters that are possibly utilized by insects to control their flight: the phase difference between the wing translation and rotation, and the lateral amplitude of flapping along the direction perpendicular to the average flapping plane.
FTE Dependence on IMF Orientation and Presence of Hall Physics in Global MHD Simulations
Maynard, K. M.; Germaschewski, K.; Lin, L.; Raeder, J.
2013-12-01
Flux Transfer Events (FTEs) are poleward traveling flux ropes that form in the dayside magnetopause and represent significant coupling of the solar wind to the magnetosphere during times of southward IMF. In the 35 years since their discovery, FTEs have been extensively observed and modeled; however, there is still no consensus on their generation mechanism. Previous modeling efforts have shown that FTE occurrence and size depend on the resistivity model that is used in simulations and the structure of X-lines in the magnetopause. We use Hall OpenGGCM, a global Hall-MHD code, to study the formation and propagation of FTEs in the dayside magnetopause using synthetic solar wind conditions. We examine large scale FTE structure and nearby magnetic separators for a range of IMF clock angles and dipole tilts. In addition, we investigate how FTE formation and recurrence rate depends on the presence of the Hall term in the generalized Ohm's law compared with resistive MHD.
3-D Simulations of MHD Jets - The Stability Problem
Nakamura, M; Nakamura, Masanori; Meier, David L.
2003-01-01
Non-relativistic three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of Poynting-flux-dominated (PFD) jets are presented. Our study focuses on the propagation of strongly magnetized hypersonic but sub-Alfv\\'enic flow ($C_{\\rm s}^2 1$), driven in large part by the radial component of the Lorentz force.
Numerical Simulations of Coronal Heating through Footpoint Braiding
Hansteen, Viggo; De Pontieu, Bart; Carlsson, Mats
2015-01-01
Advanced 3D radiative MHD simulations now reproduce many properties of the outer solar atmosphere. When including a domain from the convection zone into the corona, a hot chromosphere and corona are self-consistently maintained. Here we study two realistic models, with different simulated area, magnetic field strength and topology, and numerical resolution. These are compared in order to characterize the heating in the 3D-MHD simulations which self-consistently maintains the structure of the atmosphere. We analyze the heating at both large and small scales and find that heating is episodic and highly structured in space, but occurs along loop shaped structures, and moves along with the magnetic field. On large scales we find that the heating per particle is maximal near the transition region and that widely distributed opposite-polarity field in the photosphere leads to a greater heating scale height in the corona. On smaller scales, heating is concentrated in current sheets, the thicknesses of which are set ...
Dense magnetized plasma numerical simulations
Bilbao, L [INFIP-CONICET, and Physics Department (FCEN-UBA), Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bernal, L, E-mail: bilbao@df.uba.a [Physics Department (FCEYN-UNMDP), Complejo Universitario, Funes y Pena, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2010-06-15
The scope for developing the present numerical method was to perform parametric studies for optimization of several configurations in magnetized plasmas. Nowadays there exist several efficient numerical codes in the subject. However, the construction of one's own computational codes brings the following important advantages: (a) to get a deeper knowledge of the physical processes involved and the numerical methods used to simulate them and (b) more flexibility to adapt the code to particular situations in a more efficient way than would be possible for a closed general code. The code includes ion viscosity, thermal conduction (electrons and ions), magnetic diffusion, thermonuclear or chemical reaction, Bremsstrahlung radiation, and equation of state (from the ideal gas to the degenerate electron gas). After each calculation cycle, mesh vertices are moved arbitrarily over the fluid. The adaptive method consists of shifting mesh vertices over the fluid in order to keep a reasonable mesh structure and increase the spatial resolution where the physical solution demands. The code was a valuable tool for parametric study of different physical problems, mainly optimization of plasma focus machine, detonation and propagation of thermonuclear reactions and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in the boundary layer of the terrestrial magnetopause.
Cosmological MHD simulations of cluster formation with anisotropic thermal conduction
Ruszkowski, M; Bruggen, M; Parrish, I; Oh, S Peng
2010-01-01
(abridged) The ICM has been suggested to be buoyantly unstable in the presence of magnetic field and anisotropic thermal conduction. We perform first cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster formation that simultaneously include magnetic fields, radiative cooling and anisotropic thermal conduction. In isolated and idealized cluster models, the magnetothermal instability (MTI) tends to reorient the magnetic fields radially. Using cosmological simulations of the Santa Barbara cluster we detect radial bias in the velocity and magnetic fields. Such radial bias is consistent with either the inhomogeneous radial gas flows due to substructures or residual MTI-driven field rearangements that are expected even in the presence of turbulence. Although disentangling the two scenarios is challenging, we do not detect excess bias in the runs that include anisotropic thermal conduction. The anisotropy effect is potentially detectable via radio polarization measurements with LOFAR and SKA and future X-ray spectroscopic stu...
Global MHD modeling of resonant ULF waves: Simulations with and without a plasmasphere
Claudepierre, S. G.; Toffoletto, F. R.; Wiltberger, M.
2016-01-01
We investigate the plasmaspheric influence on the resonant mode coupling of magnetospheric ultralow frequency (ULF) waves using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. We present results from two different versions of the model, both driven by the same solar wind conditions: one version that contains a plasmasphere (the LFM coupled to the Rice Convection Model, where the Gallagher plasmasphere model is also included) and another that does not (the stand-alone LFM). We find that the inclusion of a cold, dense plasmasphere has a significant impact on the nature of the simulated ULF waves. For example, the inclusion of a plasmasphere leads to a deeper (more earthward) penetration of the compressional (azimuthal) electric field fluctuations, due to a shift in the location of the wave turning points. Consequently, the locations where the compressional electric field oscillations resonantly couple their energy into local toroidal mode field line resonances also shift earthward. We also find, in both simulations, that higher-frequency compressional (azimuthal) electric field oscillations penetrate deeper than lower frequency oscillations. In addition, the compressional wave mode structure in the simulations is consistent with a radial standing wave oscillation pattern, characteristic of a resonant waveguide. The incorporation of a plasmasphere into the LFM global MHD model represents an advance in the state of the art in regard to ULF wave modeling with such simulations. We offer a brief discussion of the implications for radiation belt modeling techniques that use the electric and magnetic field outputs from global MHD simulations to drive particle dynamics.
Global MHD modeling of resonant ULF waves: Simulations with and without a plasmasphere.
Claudepierre, S G; Toffoletto, F R; Wiltberger, M
2016-01-01
We investigate the plasmaspheric influence on the resonant mode coupling of magnetospheric ultralow frequency (ULF) waves using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. We present results from two different versions of the model, both driven by the same solar wind conditions: one version that contains a plasmasphere (the LFM coupled to the Rice Convection Model, where the Gallagher plasmasphere model is also included) and another that does not (the stand-alone LFM). We find that the inclusion of a cold, dense plasmasphere has a significant impact on the nature of the simulated ULF waves. For example, the inclusion of a plasmasphere leads to a deeper (more earthward) penetration of the compressional (azimuthal) electric field fluctuations, due to a shift in the location of the wave turning points. Consequently, the locations where the compressional electric field oscillations resonantly couple their energy into local toroidal mode field line resonances also shift earthward. We also find, in both simulations, that higher-frequency compressional (azimuthal) electric field oscillations penetrate deeper than lower frequency oscillations. In addition, the compressional wave mode structure in the simulations is consistent with a radial standing wave oscillation pattern, characteristic of a resonant waveguide. The incorporation of a plasmasphere into the LFM global MHD model represents an advance in the state of the art in regard to ULF wave modeling with such simulations. We offer a brief discussion of the implications for radiation belt modeling techniques that use the electric and magnetic field outputs from global MHD simulations to drive particle dynamics.
Yang, H.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Forbes, T. G.
2008-12-01
It has long been suggested that eruptive phenomena such as coronal mass ejections, prominence eruptions, and large flares might be caused by a loss of equilibrium in a coronal flux rope (Van Tend and Kuperus, 1978). Forbes et al. (1994) developed an analytical two-dimensional model in which eruptions occur due to a catastrophic loss of equilibrium and relaxation to a lower-energy state containing a thin current sheet. Magnetic reconnection then intervenes dynamically, leading to the release of magnetic energy and expulsion of a plasmoid. We have carried out high-Lundquist-number simulations to test the loss-of equilibrium mechanism, and demonstrated that it does indeed occur in the quasi-ideal limit. We have studied the subsequent dynamical evolution of the system in resistive and Hall MHD models for single as well as multiple arcades. The typical parallel electric fields are super-Dreicer, which makes it necessary to include collisionless effects via a generalized Ohm's law. It is shown that the nature of the local dissipation mechanism has a significant effect on the global geometry and dynamics of the magnetic configuration. The presence of Hall currents is shown to alter the length of the current sheet and the jets emerging from the reconnection site, directed towards the chromosphere. Furthermore, Hall MHD effects break certain symmetries of resistive MHD dynamics, and we explore their observational consequences.
Laser-Plasma Modeling Using PERSEUS Extended-MHD Simulation Code for HED Plasmas
Hamlin, Nathaniel; Seyler, Charles
2016-10-01
We discuss the use of the PERSEUS extended-MHD simulation code for high-energy-density (HED) plasmas in modeling laser-plasma interactions in relativistic and nonrelativistic regimes. By formulating the fluid equations as a relaxation system in which the current is semi-implicitly time-advanced using the Generalized Ohm's Law, PERSEUS enables modeling of two-fluid phenomena in dense plasmas without the need to resolve the smallest electron length and time scales. For relativistic and nonrelativistic laser-target interactions, we have validated a cycle-averaged absorption (CAA) laser driver model against the direct approach of driving the electromagnetic fields. The CAA model refers to driving the radiation energy and flux rather than the fields, and using hyperbolic radiative transport, coupled to the plasma equations via energy source terms, to model absorption and propagation of the radiation. CAA has the advantage of not requiring adequate grid resolution of each laser wavelength, so that the system can span many wavelengths without requiring prohibitive CPU time. For several laser-target problems, we compare existing MHD results to extended-MHD results generated using PERSEUS with the CAA model, and examine effects arising from Hall physics. This work is supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration stewardship sciences academic program under Department of Energy cooperative agreements DE-FOA-0001153 and DE-NA0001836.
Photon Scattering in 3D Radiative MHD Simulations
Hayek, Wolfgang
2009-09-01
Recent results from 3D time-dependent radiative hydrodynamic simulations of stellar atmospheres are presented, which include the effects of coherent scattering in the radiative transfer treatment. Rayleigh scattering and electron scattering are accounted for in the source function, requiring an iterative solution of the transfer equation. Opacities and scattering coefficients are treated in the multigroup opacity approximation. The impact of scattering on the horizontal mean temperature structure is investigated, which is an important diagnostic for model atmospheres, with implications for line formation and stellar abundance measurements. We find that continuum scattering is not important for the atmosphere of a metal-poor Sun with metailicity [Fe/H] = -3.0, similar to the previously investigated photosphere at solar metallicity.
Numerical Simulation on New Perforator
姚志华; 王志军; 李德战; 付盟
2011-01-01
To study a new shaped charge of perforator, the jet formation and penetration processes in concrete targets are simulated numerically by using LS-DYNA finite element analysis software. The results show that the cylindrical liner can form jet and most materials on top of liner form the tip of jet, while the others form the tail of jet. The jet has a better continuity, and the ratio of cumulative jet length to the liner diameter can reach to 7.56. Furthermore, the ratio of bore diameter to the liner diameter is from 0. 36 and 1, and the ratio of penetration depth to the liner diameter can be up to 5.5.
Relativistic Positioning Systems: Numerical Simulations
Puchades, Neus
2014-01-01
The motion of satellite constellations similar to GPS and Galileo is numerically simulated and, then, the region where bifurcation (double positioning) occurs is appropriately represented. In the cases of double positioning, the true location may be found using additional information (angles or times). The zone where the Jacobian, J, of the transformation from inertial to emission coordinates vanishes is also represented and interpreted. It is shown that the uncertainties in the satellite world lines produce positioning errors, which depend on the value of |J|. The smaller this quantity the greater the expected positioning errors. Among all the available 4-tuples of satellites, the most appropriate one -for a given location- should minimize positioning errors (large enough |J| values) avoiding bifurcation. Our study is particularly important to locate objects which are far away from Earth, e.g., satellites.
Broderick, Avery E
2010-01-01
For the first time it has become possible to compare global 3D general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) jet formation simulations directly to very-long baseline interferometric multi-frequency polarization observations of the pc-scale structure of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets. Unlike the jet emission, which requires post hoc modeling of the non-thermal electrons, the Faraday rotation measures (RMs) depend primarily upon simulated quantities and thus provide a robust way in which to confront simulations with observations. We compute RM distributions of 3D global GRMHD jet formation simulations, with which we explore the dependence upon model and observational parameters, emphasizing the signatures of structures generic to the theory of MHD jets. With typical parameters, we find that it is possible to reproduce the observed magnitudes and many of the structures found in AGN jet RMs, including the presence of transverse RM gradients. In our simulations the RMs are generated within a smooth extensio...
MHD Simulations of a Moving Subclump with Heat Conduction
Asai, N; Matsumoto, R; Asai, Naoki; Fukuda, Naoya; Matsumoto, Ryoji
2004-01-01
High resolution observations of cluster of galaxies by Chandra have revealed the existence of an X-ray emitting comet-like galaxy C153 in the core of cluster of galaxies A2125. The galaxy C153 moving fast in the cluster core has a distinct X-ray tail on one side, obviously due to ram pressure stripping, since the galaxy C153 crossed the central region of A2125. The X-ray emitting plasma in the tail is substantially cooler than the ambient plasma. We present results of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the time evolution of a subclump like C153 moving in magnetized intergalactic matter. Anisotropic heat conduction is included. We found that the magnetic fields are essential for the existence of the cool X-ray tail, because in non-magnetized plasma the cooler subclump tail is heated up by isotropic heat conduction from the hot ambient plasma and does not form such a comet-like tail.
MRI-driven Accretion onto Magnetized stars: Axisymmetric MHD Simulations
Romanova, Marina M; Koldoba, Alexander V; Lovelace, Richard V E
2011-01-01
We present the first results of a global axisymmetric simulation of accretion onto rotating magnetized stars from a turbulent, MRI-driven disk. The angular momentum is transported outward by the magnetic stress of the turbulent flow with a rate corresponding to a Shakura-Sunyaev viscosity parameter alpha\\approx 0.01-0.04. The result of the disk-magnetosphere interaction depends on the orientation of the poloidal field in the disk relative to that of the star at the disk-magnetosphere boundary. If fields have the same polarity, then the magnetic flux is accumulated at the boundary and blocks the accretion which leads to the accumulation of matter at the boundary. Subsequently, this matter accretes to the star in outburst before accumulating again. Hence, the cycling, `bursty' accretion is observed. If the disc and stellar fields have opposite polarity, then the field reconnection enhances the penetration of the disk matter towards the deeper field lines of the magnetosphere. However, the magnetic stress at the...
MHD simulation of solar wind and multiple coronal mass ejections with internal magnetic flux ropes
Shiota, Daiko
2017-08-01
Solar wind and CMEs are the main drivers of various types of space weather disturbance. The profile of IMF Bz is the most important parameter for space weather forecasts because various magnetospheric disturbances are caused by the southward IMF brought on the Earth. Recently, we have developed MHD simulation of the solar wind, including a series of multiple CMEs with internal spheromak-type magnetic fields on the basis of observations of photospheric magnetic fields and coronal images. The MHD simulation is therefore capable of predicting the time profile of the IMF at the Earth, in relation to the passage of a magnetic cloud within a CME. In order to evaluate the current ability of our simulation, we demonstrate a test case: the propagation and interaction process of multiple CMEs associated with the highly complex active region NOAA 10486 in October to November 2003. The results of a simulation successfully reproduced the arrival at the Earth’s position of a large amount of southward magnetic flux, which is capable of causing an intense magnetic storm, and provided an implication of the observed complex time profile of the solar wind parameters at the Earth as a result of the interaction of a few specific CMEs.
Coupled Kinetic-MHD Simulations of Divertor Heat Load with ELM Perturbations
Cummings, Julian; Chang, C. S.; Park, Gunyoung; Sugiyama, Linda; Pankin, Alexei; Klasky, Scott; Podhorszki, Norbert; Docan, Ciprian; Parashar, Manish
2010-11-01
The effect of Type-I ELM activity on divertor plate heat load is a key component of the DOE OFES Joint Research Target milestones for this year. In this talk, we present simulations of kinetic edge physics, ELM activity, and the associated divertor heat loads in which we couple the discrete guiding-center neoclassical transport code XGC0 with the nonlinear extended MHD code M3D using the End-to-end Framework for Fusion Integrated Simulations, or EFFIS. In these coupled simulations, the kinetic code and the MHD code run concurrently on the same massively parallel platform and periodic data exchanges are performed using a memory-to-memory coupling technology provided by EFFIS. The M3D code models the fast ELM event and sends frequent updates of the magnetic field perturbations and electrostatic potential to XGC0, which in turn tracks particle dynamics under the influence of these perturbations and collects divertor particle and energy flux statistics. We describe here how EFFIS technologies facilitate these coupled simulations and discuss results for DIII-D, NSTX and Alcator C-Mod tokamak discharges.
Graphics interfaces and numerical simulations: Mexican Virtual Solar Observatory
Hernández, L.; González, A.; Salas, G.; Santillán, A.
2007-08-01
Preliminary results associated to the computational development and creation of the Mexican Virtual Solar Observatory (MVSO) are presented. Basically, the MVSO prototype consists of two parts: the first, related to observations that have been made during the past ten years at the Solar Observation Station (EOS) and at the Carl Sagan Observatory (OCS) of the Universidad de Sonora in Mexico. The second part is associated to the creation and manipulation of a database produced by numerical simulations related to solar phenomena, we are using the MHD ZEUS-3D code. The development of this prototype was made using mysql, apache, java and VSO 1.2. based GNU and `open source philosophy'. A graphic user interface (GUI) was created in order to make web-based, remote numerical simulations. For this purpose, Mono was used, because it is provides the necessary software to develop and run .NET client and server applications on Linux. Although this project is still under development, we hope to have access, by means of this portal, to other virtual solar observatories and to be able to count on a database created through numerical simulations or, given the case, perform simulations associated to solar phenomena.
3D MHD VDE and disruptions simulations of tokamaks plasmas including some ITER scenarios
Paccagnella, R.; Strauss, H. R.; Breslau, J.
2009-03-01
Tokamaks vertical displacement events (VDEs) and disruptions simulations in toroidal geometry by means of a single fluid visco-resistive magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) model are presented in this paper. The plasma model is completed with the presence of a 2D wall with finite resistivity which allows the study of the relatively slowly growing magnetic perturbation, the resistive wall mode (RWM), which is, in this paper, the main drive of the disruption evolution. Amplitudes and asymmetries of the halo currents pattern at the wall are also calculated and comparisons with tokamak experimental databases and predictions for ITER are given.
Wexler, David B.; Hollweg, Joseph V.; Jensen, Elizabeth; Lionello, Roberto; Macneice, Peter J.; Coster, Anthea J.
2017-08-01
Study of coronal MHD wave energetics relies upon accurate representation of plasma particle number densities (ne) and magnetic field strengths. In the lower corona, these parameters are obtained indirectly, and typically presented as empirical equations as a function of heliocentric radial distance (solar offset, SO). The development of coronal global models using synoptic solar surface magnetogram inputs has provided refined characterization of the coronal plasma organization and magnetic field. We present a cross-analysis between a MHD thermodynamic simulation and Faraday rotation (FR) observations over SO 1.63-1.89 solar radii (Rs) near solar minimum. MESSENGER spacecraft radio signals with a line of sight (LOS) passing through the lower corona were recorded in dual polarization using the Green Bank Telescope in November 2009. Polarization position angle changes were obtained from Stokes parameters. The magnetic field vector (B) and ne along the LOS were obtained from a MHD thermodynamic simulation provided by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center. The modeled FR was computed as the integrated product of ne and LOS-aligned B component. The observations over the given SO range yielded an FR change of 7 radians. The simulation reproduced this change when the modeled ne was scaled up by 2.8x, close to values obtained using the Allen-Baumbach equation. No scaling of B from the model was necessary. A refined fit to the observations was obtained when the observationally based total electron content (TEC) curves were introduced. Changes in LOS TEC were determined from radio frequency shifts as the signal passed to successively lower electron concentrations during egress. A good fit to the observations was achieved with an offset of 7e21 m-2 added. Back-calculating ne along the LOS from the TEC curves, we found that the equivalent ne scaling compared to the model output was higher by a factor of 3. The combination of solar surface magnetogram-based MHD coronal
Inertial Current Generators of Poynting Flux in MHD Simulations of Black Hole Ergospheres
Punsly, B
2005-01-01
This Letter investigates the physics that is responsible for creating the current system that supports the outgoing Poynting flux emanating from the ergosphere of a rotating black hole in the limit that the magnetic energy density greatly exceeds the plasma rest mass density (magnetically dominated limit). The underlying physics is derived from published three-dimensional simulations that obey the general relativistic equations of perfect magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). It is found that the majority of the Poynting flux emitted from the magnetically dominated regions of the ergosphere has a source associated with inertial effects outside of the event horizon.
One year in the Earth's magnetosphere: A global MHD simulation and spacecraft measurements
Facsko, G; Zivkovic, T; Palin, L; Kallio, E; Agren, K; Opgenoorth, H; Tanskanen, E I; Milan, S E
2016-01-01
The response of the Earth's magnetosphere to changing solar wind conditions are studied with a 3D Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. One full year (155 Cluster orbits) of the Earth's magnetosphere is simulated using Grand Unified Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling simulation (GUMICS-4) magnetohydrodynamic code. Real solar wind measurements are given to the code as input to create the longest lasting global magnetohydrodynamics simulation to date. The applicability of the results of the simulation depends critically on the input parameters used in the model. Therefore, the validity and the variance of the OMNIWeb data is first investigated thoroughly using Cluster measurement close to the bow shock. The OMNIWeb and the Cluster data were found to correlate very well before the bow shock. The solar wind magnetic field and plasma parameters are not changed significantly from the $L_1$ Lagrange point to the foreshock, therefore the OMNIWeb data is appropriate input to the GUMICS-4. The Cluster SC3 footprints are dete...
Relativistic modeling capabilities in PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for HED plasmas
Hamlin, Nathaniel D., E-mail: nh322@cornell.edu [438 Rhodes Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 (United States); Seyler, Charles E., E-mail: ces7@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 (United States)
2014-12-15
We discuss the incorporation of relativistic modeling capabilities into the PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for high-energy-density (HED) plasmas, and present the latest hybrid X-pinch simulation results. The use of fully relativistic equations enables the model to remain self-consistent in simulations of such relativistic phenomena as X-pinches and laser-plasma interactions. By suitable formulation of the relativistic generalized Ohm’s law as an evolution equation, we have reduced the recovery of primitive variables, a major technical challenge in relativistic codes, to a straightforward algebraic computation. Our code recovers expected results in the non-relativistic limit, and reveals new physics in the modeling of electron beam acceleration following an X-pinch. Through the use of a relaxation scheme, relativistic PERSEUS is able to handle nine orders of magnitude in density variation, making it the first fluid code, to our knowledge, that can simulate relativistic HED plasmas.
Evolutionary Conditions in the Dissipative MHD System Revisited
Inoue, Tsuyoshi
2007-01-01
The evolutionary conditions for the dissipative continuous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks are studied. We modify Hada's approach in the stability analysis of the MHD shock waves. The matching conditions between perturbed shock structure and asymptotic wave modes shows that all types of the MHD shocks, including the intermediate shocks, are evolutionary and perturbed solutions are uniquely defined. We also adopt our formalism to the MHD shocks in the system with resistivity without viscosity, which is often used in numerical simulation, and show that all types of shocks that are found in the system satisfy the evolutionary condition and perturbed solutions are uniquely defined. These results suggest that the intermediate shocks may appear in reality.
Numerical Simulations of a Flux Rope Ejection
P. Pagano; D. H. Mackay; S. Poedts
2015-03-01
Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most violent phenomena observed on the Sun. One of the most successful models to explain CMEs is the flux rope ejection model, where a magnetic flux rope is expelled from the solar corona after a long phase along which the flux rope stays in equilibrium while magnetic energy is being accumulated. However, still many questions are outstanding on the detailed mechanism of the ejection and observations continuously provide new data to interpret and put in the context. Currently, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) are providing new insights into the early phase of CME evolution. In particular, observations show the ejection of magnetic flux ropes from the solar corona and how they evolve into CMEs. However, these observations are difficult to interpret in terms of basic physical mechanisms and quantities, thus, we need to compare equivalent quantities to test and improve our models. In our work, we intend to bridge the gap between models and observations with our model of flux rope ejection where we consistently describe the full life span of a flux rope from its formation to ejection. This is done by coupling the global non-linear force-free model (GNLFFF) built to describe the slow low- formation phase, with a full MHD simulation run with the software MPI-AMRVAC, suitable to describe the fast MHD evolution of the flux rope ejection that happens in a heterogeneous regime. We also explore the parameter space to identify the conditions upon which the ejection is favoured (gravity stratification and magnetic field intensity) and we produce synthesised AIA observations (171 Å and 211 Å). To carry this out, we run 3D MHD simulation in spherical coordinates where we include the role of thermal conduction and radiative losses, both of which are important for determining the temperature distribution of the solar corona during a CME. Our model of flux
Kawasaki, Akira; Kubota, Kenichi; Funaki, Ikkoh; Okuno, Yoshihiro
2016-09-01
Steady-state and self-field magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster, which utilizes high-intensity direct-current (DC) discharge, is one of the prospective candidates of future high-power electric propulsion devices. In order to accurately assess the thrust performance and the electrode temperature, input electric power and wall heat flux must correctly be evaluated where electrostatic sheaths formed in close proximity of the electrodes affect these quantities. Conventional model simulates only plasma flows occurring in MPD thrusters with the absence of electrostatic sheath consideration. Therefore, this study extends the conventional model to a coupled magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and thermal model by incorporating the phenomena relevant to the electrostatic sheaths. The sheaths are implemented as boundary condition of the MHD model on the walls. This model simulated the operation of the 100-kW-class thruster at discharge current ranging from 6 to 10 kA with argon propellant. The extended model reproduced the discharge voltages and wall heat load which are consistent with past experimental results. In addition, the simulation results indicated that cathode sheath voltages account for approximately 5-7 V subject to approximately 20 V of discharge voltages applied between the electrodes. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 26289328 and 15J10821.
MHD simulations of three-dimensional resistive reconnection in a cylindrical plasma column
Striani, E.; Mignone, A.; Vaidya, B.; Bodo, G.; Ferrari, A.
2016-11-01
Magnetic reconnection is a plasma phenomenon where a topological rearrangement of magnetic field lines with opposite polarity results in dissipation of magnetic energy into heat, kinetic energy and particle acceleration. Such a phenomenon is considered as an efficient mechanism for energy release in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. An important question is how to make the process fast enough to account for observed explosive energy releases. The classical model for steady state magnetic reconnection predicts reconnection times scaling as S1/2 (where S is the Lundquist number) and yields time-scales several order of magnitude larger than the observed ones. Earlier two-dimensional MHD simulations showed that for large Lundquist number the reconnection time becomes independent of S (`fast reconnection' regime) due to the presence of the secondary tearing instability that takes place for S ≳ 1 × 104. We report on our 3D MHD simulations of magnetic reconnection in a magnetically confined cylindrical plasma column under either a pressure balanced or a force-free equilibrium and compare the results with 2D simulations of a circular current sheet. We find that the 3D instabilities acting on these configurations result in a fragmentation of the initial current sheet in small filaments, leading to enhanced dissipation rate that becomes independent of the Lundquist number already at S ≃ 1 × 103.
MHD Turbulence, Turbulent Dynamo and Applications
Beresnyak, Andrey
2014-01-01
MHD Turbulence is common in many space physics and astrophysics environments. We first discuss the properties of incompressible MHD turbulence. A well-conductive fluid amplifies initial magnetic fields in a process called small-scale dynamo. Below equipartition scale for kinetic and magnetic energies the spectrum is steep (Kolmogorov -5/3) and is represented by critically balanced strong MHD turbulence. In this paper we report the basic reasoning behind universal nonlinear small-scale dynamo and the inertial range of MHD turbulence. We measured the efficiency of the small-scale dynamo $C_E=0.05$, Kolmogorov constant $C_K=4.2$ and anisotropy constant $C_A=0.63$ for MHD turbulence in high-resolution direct numerical simulations. We also discuss so-called imbalanced or cross-helical MHD turbulence which is relevant for in many objects, most prominently in the solar wind. We show that properties of incompressible MHD turbulence are similar to the properties of Alfv\\'enic part of MHD cascade in compressible turbul...
Deng, Wei; Li, Hui; Zhang, Bing; Li, Shengtai
2015-06-01
We perform 3D relativistic ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations to study the collisions between high-σ (Poynting-flux-dominated (PFD)) blobs which contain both poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components. This is meant to mimic the interactions inside a highly variable PFD jet. We discover a significant electromagnetic field (EMF) energy dissipation with an Alfvénic rate with the efficiency around 35%. Detailed analyses show that this dissipation is mostly facilitated by the collision-induced magnetic reconnection. Additional resolution and parameter studies show a robust result that the relative EMF energy dissipation efficiency is nearly independent of the numerical resolution or most physical parameters in the relevant parameter range. The reconnection outflows in our simulation can potentially form the multi-orientation relativistic mini jets as needed for several analytical models. We also find a linear relationship between the σ values before and after the major EMF energy dissipation process. Our results give support to the proposed astrophysical models that invoke significant magnetic energy dissipation in PFD jets, such as the internal collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence model for gamma-ray bursts, and reconnection triggered mini jets model for active galactic nuclei. The simulation movies are shown in http://www.physics.unlv.edu/∼deng/simulation1.html.
2D-simulation of stationary MHD flows in the ducts of rectangular cross-section
Khalzov, Ivan; Ilgisonis, Victor
2005-10-01
The numerical code for a calculation of 2D stationary MHD flows of incompressible conducting viscous fluids (liquid metals) in straight and circular ducts of rectangular cross-section is developed. The flows are driven by the electrical current perpendicular both to the duct axis and to the external magnetic field. The code generalizes the well-known iterative Gauss-Seidel method for the case of systems of elliptic equations. The algorithm developed allows us to carry out the calculations of stationary flows in a wide range of Hartmann (Ha=110^3) and Reynolds (Re=110^6) numbers. The numerical results are presented for the experimental device, which is under construction in Russia.
Ju, Wenhua; Zhu, Zhaohuan
2016-01-01
We present results from the first global 3D MHD simulations of accretion disks in Cataclysmic Variable (CV) systems in order to investigate the relative importance of angular momentum transport via turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) compared to that driven by spiral shock waves. Remarkably, we find that even with vigorous MRI turbulence, spiral shocks are an important component to the overall angular momentum budget, at least when temperatures in the disk are high (so that Mach numbers are low). In order to understand the excitation, propagation, and damping of spiral density waves in our simulations more carefully, we perform a series of 2D global hydrodynamical simulations with various equation of states and both with and without mass inflow via the Lagrangian point (L1). Compared with previous similar studies, we find the following new results. 1) Linear wave dispersion relation fits the pitch angles of spiral density waves very well. 2) We demonstrate explicitly that mass accreti...
Angular Momentum Transport by Acoustic Modes Generated in the Boundary Layer II: MHD Simulations
Belyaev, Mikhail A; Stone, James M
2013-01-01
We perform global unstratified 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of an astrophysical boundary layer (BL) -- an interface region between an accretion disk and a weakly magnetized accreting object such as a white dwarf -- with the goal of understanding the effects of magnetic field on the BL. We use cylindrical coordinates with an isothermal equation of state and investigate a number of initial field geometries including toroidal, vertical, and vertical with zero net flux. Our initial setup consists of a Keplerian disk attached to a non-rotating star. In a previous work, we found that in hydrodynamical simulations, sound waves excited by shear in the BL were able to efficiently transport angular momentum and drive mass accretion onto the star. Here we confirm that in MHD simulations, waves serve as an efficient means of angular momentum transport in the vicinity of the BL, despite the magnetorotational instability (MRI) operating in the disk. In particular, the angular momentum current due to waves is at times...
Alignment of Velocity and Magnetic Fluctuations in Simulations of Anisotropic MHD Turbulence
Ng, C. S.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2007-11-01
There has been recent theoretical interest in the effect of the alignment of velocity and magnetic fluctuations in three-dimensional (3D) MHD turbulence with a large-scale magnetic field [Boldyrev 2005, 2006]. This theory predicts that the angle θ between the velocity and magnetic fluctuation vectors has a scaling of θ&1/4circ;, where λ is the spatial scale of the fluctuations. There have also been simulations on 3D forced MHD turbulence that supports this prediction [Mason et al. 2006, 2007]. The scaling has also been tested against observations of solar wind turbulence [Podesta et al. 2007]. We report here simulation results based on decaying 2D turbulence. The scaling of θ&1/4circ; and Iroshnikov-Kraichnan scaling has also been observed within a range of time interval and spatial scales, despite the fact that Boldyrev's theory was developed for fully 3D turbulence in the presence of a strong external field. As the external field is reduced in magnitude and becomes comparable to the magnitude of magnetic fluctuations or lower, the scale-dependent alignment is weakened. Implications for observations of solar wind turbulence will be discussed.
FLASH MHD simulations of experiments that study shock-generated magnetic fields
Tzeferacos, P.; Fatenejad, M.; Flocke, N.; Graziani, C.; Gregori, G.; Lamb, D. Q.; Lee, D.; Meinecke, J.; Scopatz, A.; Weide, K.
2015-12-01
We summarize recent additions and improvements to the high energy density physics capabilities in FLASH, highlighting new non-ideal magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) capabilities. We then describe 3D Cartesian and 2D cylindrical FLASH MHD simulations that have helped to design and analyze experiments conducted at the Vulcan laser facility. In these experiments, a laser illuminates a carbon rod target placed in a gas-filled chamber. A magnetic field diagnostic (called a Bdot) employing three very small induction coils is used to measure all three components of the magnetic field at a chosen point in space. The simulations have revealed that many fascinating physical processes occur in the experiments. These include megagauss magnetic fields generated by the interaction of the laser with the target via the Biermann battery mechanism, which are advected outward by the vaporized target material but decrease in strength due to expansion and resistivity; magnetic fields generated by an outward expanding shock via the Biermann battery mechanism; and a breakout shock that overtakes the first wave, the contact discontinuity between the target material and the gas, and then the initial expanding shock. Finally, we discuss the validation and predictive science we have done for this experiment with FLASH.
Zhang, Haocheng; Li, Hui; Taylor, Gregory B.
2017-08-01
In addition to multiwavelength variability, blazar polarization signatures are highly variable. Optical polarimetry has shown two distinct features: first, in both quiescent and flaring states, blazar polarization degree generally stays around 10% to 30%; second, after major polarization variations, such as polarization angle swings, the polarization degree quickly restores to its initial state. We have performed integrated relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) + radiation and polarization simulations of the blazar emission region. Our approach evolves the magnetic fields and flows using the first principles, so we can calculate the spatial and temporal dependent polarization signatures and compare them with observations.Our results show that the above two observational trends indicate the blazar flaring region should be strongly magnetized with the magnetic energy density higher than the plasma rest mass energy density. In such an environment, the 3D kink instability may trigger magnetic reconnection to accelerate particles and give rise to flares. In view of future high-energy polarimetry, this integrated MHD+polarization simulation technique will deliver new constraints on jet’s physical conditions and particle acceleration mechanisms.
HIDENEK: An implicit particle simulation of kinetic-MHD phenomena in three-dimensional plasmas
Tanaka, Motohiko
1993-05-01
An advanced 'kinetic-MHD' simulation method and its applications to plasma physics are given in this lecture. This method is quite stable for studying strong nonlinear, kinetic processes associated with large space-scale, low-frequency electromagnetic phenomena of plasmas. A full set of the Maxwell equations, and the Newton-Lorentz equations of motion for particle ions and guiding-center electrons are adopted. In order to retain only the low-frquency waves and instabilities, implicit particle-field equations are derived. The present implicit-particle method is proved to reproduce the MHD eigenmodes such as Alfven, magnetosonic and kinetic Alfven waves in a thermally near-equilibrium plasma. In the second part of the lecture, several physics applications are shown. These include not only the growth of the instabilities of beam ions against the background plasmas and helical link of the current, but they also demonstrate nonlinear results such as pitch-angle scattering of the ions. Recent progress in the simulation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is also presented with a special emphasis on the mixing of the plasma particles.
MHD simulations of Plasma Jets and Plasma-surface interactions in Coaxial Plasma Accelerators
Subramaniam, Vivek; Raja, Laxminarayan
2016-10-01
Coaxial plasma accelerators belong to a class of electromagnetic acceleration devices which utilize a self-induced Lorentz force to accelerate magnetized thermal plasma to large velocities ( 40 Km/s). The plasma jet generated as a result, due to its high energy density, can be used to mimic the plasma-surface interactions at the walls of thermonuclear fusion reactors during an Edge Localized Mode (ELM) disruption event. We present the development of a Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation tool to describe the plasma acceleration and jet formation processes in coaxial plasma accelerators. The MHD model is used to study the plasma-surface impact interaction generated by the impingement of the jet on a target material plate. The study will characterize the extreme conditions generated on the target material surface by resolving the magnetized shock boundary layer interaction and the viscous/thermal diffusion effects. Additionally, since the plasma accelerator is operated in vacuum conditions, a novel plasma-vacuum interface tracking algorithm is developed to simulate the expansion of the high density plasma into a vacuum background in a physically consistent manner.
Kubota, Y.; Nagatsuma, T.; Den, M.; Tanaka, T.; Fujita, S.
2015-12-01
We are developing a real-time numerical simulator for the solar-wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling system using next generation magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling global MHD simulation called REPPU (REProduce Plasma Universe) code. The feature of simulation has an advanced robustness to strong solar wind case because a triangular grid is used, which is able to calculate in the uniform accuracy over the whole region. Therefore we can simulate extreme event such as the Bastille day storm. The resolution is 7682 grids in the horizontal direction and 240 grids in the radial direction. The inner boundary of the simulation box is set at 2.6 Re. We investigate the reproduction of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling simulation in strong solar wind case. Therefore we compared the simulation results with the observation of the Bastille day storm event (2000/7/15), in which the solar wind velocity is above 1000 km/s and the value of Bz reached -60 nT. Especially, we focus the cross polar cap potential (CPCP) saturation and time variation because the CPCP represents the value of magnetospheric - ionospheric convection strength via region 1 current. The CPCP depends on solar wind electric field, dynamic pressure and ionospheric conductivity [Siscoe et al., 2002; Kivelson et al., 2008]. The model of Kivelson et al. [2008] shows a good reproduction to the CPCP variation. However their study assumes that the ionospheric conductivity is constant. The conductivity in our simulation of the Bastille day event is varied by the auroral activity. In this lecture, we discuss the effect of both the auroral conductance and solar EUV-driven conductance to CPCP saturation.
Numerical Simulations of Granular Processes
Richardson, Derek C.; Michel, Patrick; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Yu, Yang; Matsumura, Soko
2014-11-01
Spacecraft images and indirect observations including thermal inertia measurements indicate most small bodies have surface regolith. Evidence of granular flow is also apparent in the images. This material motion occurs in very low gravity, therefore in a completely different gravitational environment than on the Earth. Understanding and modeling these motions can aid in the interpretation of imaged surface features that may exhibit signatures of constituent material properties. Also, upcoming sample-return missions to small bodies, and possible future manned missions, will involve interaction with the surface regolith, so it is important to develop tools to predict the surface response. We have added new capabilities to the parallelized N-body gravity tree code pkdgrav [1,2] that permit the simulation of granular dynamics, including multi-contact physics and friction forces, using the soft-sphere discrete-element method [3]. The numerical approach has been validated through comparison with laboratory experiments (e.g., [3,4]). Ongoing and recently completed projects include: impacts into granular materials using different projectile shapes [5]; possible tidal resurfacing of asteroid Apophis during its 2029 encounter [6]; the Brazil-nut effect in low gravity [7]; and avalanche modeling.Acknowledgements: DCR acknowledges NASA (grants NNX08AM39G, NNX10AQ01G, NNX12AG29G) and NSF (AST1009579). PM acknowledges the French agency CNES. SRS works on the NEOShield Project funded under the European Commission’s FP7 program agreement No. 282703. SM acknowledges support from the Center for Theory and Computation at U Maryland and the Dundee Fellowship at U Dundee. Most simulations were performed using the YORP cluster in the Dept. of Astronomy at U Maryland and on the Deepthought High-Performance Computing Cluster at U Maryland.References: [1] Richardson, D.C. et al. 2000, Icarus 143, 45; [2] Stadel, J. 2001, Ph.D. Thesis, U Washington; [3] Schwartz, S.R. et al. 2012, Gran
Kinetic cascade beyond MHD of solar wind turbulence in two-dimensional hybrid simulations
Verscharen, Daniel; Motschmann, Uwe; Müller, Joachim
2012-01-01
The nature of solar wind turbulence in the dissipation range at scales much smaller than the large MHD scales remains under debate. Here a two-dimensional model based on the hybrid code abbreviated as A.I.K.E.F. is presented, which treats massive ions as particles obeying the kinetic Vlasov equation and massless electrons as a neutralizing fluid. Up to a certain wavenumber in the MHD regime, the numerical system is initialized by assuming a superposition of isotropic Alfv\\'en waves with amplitudes that follow the empirically confirmed spectral law of Kolmogorov. Then turbulence develops and energy cascades into the dispersive spectral range, where also dissipative effects occur. Under typical solar wind conditions, weak turbulence develops as a superposition of normal modes in the kinetic regime. Spectral analysis in the direction parallel to the background magnetic field reveals a cascade of left-handed Alfv\\'en/ion-cyclotron waves up to wave vectors where their resonant absorption sets in, as well as a cont...
Dipole Alignment in Rotating MHD Turbulence
Shebalin, John V.; Fu, Terry; Morin, Lee
2012-01-01
We present numerical results from long-term CPU and GPU simulations of rotating, homogeneous, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, and discuss their connection to the spherically bounded case. We compare our numerical results with a statistical theory of geodynamo action that has evolved from the absolute equilibrium ensemble theory of ideal MHD turbulence, which is based on the ideal MHD invariants are energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity. However, for rotating MHD turbulence, the cross helicity is no longer an exact invariant, although rms cross helicity becomes quasistationary during an ideal MHD simulation. This and the anisotropy imposed by rotation suggests an ansatz in which an effective, nonzero value of cross helicity is assigned to axisymmetric modes and zero cross helicity to non-axisymmetric modes. This hybrid statistics predicts a large-scale quasistationary magnetic field due to broken ergodicity , as well as dipole vector alignment with the rotation axis, both of which are observed numerically. We find that only a relatively small value of effective cross helicity leads to the prediction of a dipole moment vector that is closely aligned (less than 10 degrees) with the rotation axis. We also discuss the effect of initial conditions, dissipation and grid size on the numerical simulations and statistical theory.
Three Dimensional MHD Simulation of Circumbinary Accretion Disks -2. Net Accretion Rate
Shi, Ji-Ming
2015-01-01
When an accretion disk surrounds a binary rotating in the same sense, the binary exerts strong torques on the gas. Analytic work in the 1D approximation indicated that these torques sharply diminish or even eliminate accretion from the disk onto the binary. However, recent 2D and 3D simulational work has shown at most modest diminution. We present new MHD simulations demonstrating that for binaries with mass ratios of 1 and 0.1 there is essentially no difference between the accretion rate at large radius in the disk and the accretion rate onto the binary. To resolve the discrepancy with earlier analytic estimates, we identify the small subset of gas trajectories traveling from the inner edge of the disk to the binary and show how the full accretion rate is concentrated onto them.
Hayek, W; Carlsson, M; Trampedach, R; Collet, R; Gudiksen, B V; Hansteen, V H; Leenaarts, J
2010-01-01
We present the implementation of a radiative transfer solver with coherent scattering in the new BIFROST code for radiative magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) simulations of stellar surface convection. The code is fully parallelized using MPI domain decomposition, which allows for large grid sizes and improved resolution of hydrodynamical structures. We apply the code to simulate the surface granulation in a solar-type star, ignoring magnetic fields, and investigate the importance of coherent scattering for the atmospheric structure. A scattering term is added to the radiative transfer equation, requiring an iterative computation of the radiation field. We use a short-characteristics-based Gauss-Seidel acceleration scheme to compute radiative flux divergences for the energy equation. The effects of coherent scattering are tested by comparing the temperature stratification of three 3D time-dependent hydrodynamical atmosphere models of a solar-type star: without scattering, with continuum scattering only, and with bo...
Investigating Magnetic Activity in the Galactic Centre by Global MHD Simulation
Suzuki, Takeru K; Torii, Kazufumi; Machida, Mami; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Kakiuchi, Kensuke
2016-01-01
By performing a global magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulation for the Milky Way with an axisymmetric gravitational potential, we propose that spatially dependent amplification of magnetic fields possibly explains the observed noncircular motion of the gas in the Galactic centre (GC) region. The radial distribution of the rotation frequency in the bulge region is not monotonic in general. The amplification of the magnetic field is enhanced in regions with stronger differential rotation, because magnetorotational instability and field-line stretching are more effective. The strength of the amplified magnetic field reaches >~ 0.5 mG, and radial flows of the gas are excited by the inhomogeneous transport of angular momentum through turbulent magnetic field that is amplified in a spatially dependent manner. As a result, the simulated position-velocity diagram exhibits a time-dependent asymmetric parallelogram-shape owing to the intermittency of the magnetic turbulence; the present model provides a viable alternati...
Nonlinear excitation of low-n harmonics in reduced MHD simulations of edge-localized modes
Krebs, Isabel; Lackner, Karl; Guenter, Sibylle
2013-01-01
Nonlinear simulations of the early ELMphase based on a typical type-I ELMy ASDEX Upgrade discharge have been carried out using the reduced MHD code JOREK. The analysis is focused on the evolution of the toroidal Fourier spectrum. It is found that during the nonlinear evolution, linearly subdominant low-n Fourier components, in particular the n = 1, grow to energies comparable with linearly dominant harmonics. A simple model is developed, based on the idea that energy is transferred among the toroidal harmonics via second order nonlinear interaction. The simple model reproduces and explains very well the early nonlinear evolution of the toroidal spectrum in the JOREK simulations. Furthermore, it is shown for the n = 1 harmonic, that its spatial structure changes significantly during the transition from linear to nonlinearly driven growth. The rigidly growing structure of the linearly barely unstable n = 1 reaches far into the plasma core. In contrast, the nonlinearly driven n = 1 has a rigidly growing structur...
Numerical Simulations of the Central Engine for Long Gamma-Ray Bursts
Nagataki, Shigehiro
Numerical simulations of the central engine for long GRBs are presented. General Relativistic Magneto-Hydro Dynamics (GRMHD) code with some microphysics such as photodisintegration and neutrino cooling is used for the simulations. In the simulations, a realistic progenitor model by Heger et al is used. For comparison, simulations of the central engine of long GRBs with newtonian MHD code are presented. Since neutrino heating effects such as pairannihilation are included in the newtonian code, contribution of the neutrino pair-annihilation process to the GRB jet formation is also discussed.
Proposal of a brand-new gyrokinetic algorithm for global MHD simulation
Naitou, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Hiroki; Andachi, Takehisa; Lee, Wei-Li; Tokuda, Shinji; Yagi, Masatoshi
2009-11-01
A new algorithm for the gyrokinetic PIC code is proposed. The basic equations are energy conserving and composed of (1) the gyrokinetic Vlasov (GKV) equation, (2) the Vortex equation, and (3) the generalized Ohm's law along the magnetic field. Equation (2) is used to advance electrostatic potential in time. Equation (3) is used to advance longitudinal component of vector potential in time as well as estimating longitudinal induced electric field to accelerate charged particles. The particle information is used to estimate pressure terms in equation (3). The idea was obtained in the process of reviewing the split-weight-scheme formalism. This algorithm was incorporated in the Gpic-MHD code. Preliminary results for the m=1/n=1 internal kink mode simulation in the cylindrical geometry indicate good energy conservation, quite low noise due to particle discreteness, and applicability to larger spatial scale and higher beta regimes. The advantage of new Gpic-MHD is that the lower order moments of the GKV equation are estimated by the moment equation while the particle information is used to evaluate the second order moment.
Kanki, Takashi; Nagata, Masayoshi; Kagei, Yasuhiro
2011-10-01
The dynamics of structures of magnetic field, current density, and plasma flow generated during multi-pulsed coaxial helicity injection in spherical torus is investigated by 3-D nonlinear MHD simulations. During the driven phase, the flux and current amplifications occur due to the merging and magnetic reconnection between the preexisting plasma in the confinement region and the ejected plasma from the gun region involving the n = 1 helical kink distortion of the central open flux column (COFC). Interestingly, the diamagnetic poloidal flow which tends toward the gun region is then observed due to the steep pressure gradients of the COFC generated by ohmic heating through an injection current winding around the inboard field lines, resulting in the formation of the strong poloidal flow shear at the interface between the COFC and the core region. This result is consistent with the flow shear observed in the HIST. During the decay phase, the configuration approaches the axisymmetric MHD equilibrium state without flow because of the dissipation of magnetic fluctuation energy to increase the closed flux surfaces, suggesting the generation of ordered magnetic field structure. The parallel current density λ concentrated in the COFC then diffuses to the core region so as to reduce the gradient in λ, relaxing in the direction of the Taylor state.
Numerical simulation package for speckle metrology
Kornis, Janos; Bokor, Nandor; Nemeth, Attila
1998-09-01
A computer program package for numerical simulation of speckle phenomena has been developed. It is suitable for simulating both objective and subjective speckle effects in various optical setups. Several simulation results are presented in this paper. The simulations was made in UNIX and Windows NT environment.
Morphology and dynamics of solar prominences from 3D MHD simulations
Terradas, J; Luna, M; Oliver, R; Ballester, J L
2014-01-01
In this paper we present a numerical study of the time evolution of solar prominences embedded in sheared magnetic arcades. The prominence is represented by a density enhancement in a background stratified atmosphere and is connected to the photosphere through the magnetic field. By solving the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in three dimensions we study the dynamics for a range of parameters representative of real prominences. Depending on the parameters considered, we find prominences that are suspended above the photosphere, i.e., detached prominences, but also configurations resembling curtain or hedgerow prominences whose material continuously connects to the photosphere. The plasma$-\\beta$ is an important parameter that determines the shape of the structure. In many cases magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instabilities and oscillatory phenomena develop. Fingers and plumes are generated, affecting the whole prominence body and producing vertical structures in an essentially horizontal magnetic fie...
Muhim Chutia
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical study on steady laminar magnetohydrodynamics (MHD mixed convection flow of an electrically conducting fluid in a vertical square duct under the action of transverse magnetic field has been investigated. The walls are assumed as perfectly electrically insulated. In this study both force and free convection flows are considered. The viscous dissipation and Joule heat are also considered in the energy equation and walls of the duct are kept at constant temperature. The enclosure is heated by uniform volumetric heat density. The governing equations of momentum, induction and energy are first transformed into dimensionless equations by using dimensionless quantities, then these are solved employing finite difference method for velocity, induced magnetic field and temperature distribution. The computed results for velocity, induced magnetic field and temperature distribution are presented graphically for different dimensionless parameters Hartmaan number M, Prandtl number Pr, Grashof number Gr and magnetic Reynolds number Rm.
Self-organisation in protoplanetary disks: global, non-stratified Hall-MHD simulations
Béthune, William; Ferreira, Jonathan
2016-01-01
Recent observations revealed organised structures in protoplanetary disks, such as axisymmetric rings or horseshoe concen- trations evocative of large-scale vortices. These structures are often interpreted as the result of planet-disc interactions. However, these disks are also known to be unstable to the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) which is believed to be one of the dominant angular momentum transport mechanism in these objects. It is therefore natural to ask if the MRI itself could produce these structures without invoking planets. The nonlinear evolution of the MRI is strongly affected by the low ionisation fraction in protoplanetary disks. The Hall effect in particular, which is dominant in dense and weakly ionised parts of these objects, has been shown to spontaneously drive self- organising flows in shearing box simulations. Here, we investigate the behaviour of global MRI-unstable disc models dominated by the Hall effect and characterise their dynamics. We perform 3D unstratified Hall-MHD simu...
Unstable Disk Accretion to Magnetized Stars: First Global 3D MHD Simulations
Romanova, Marina M; Lovelace, Richard V E
2007-01-01
We report the first global three-dimensional (3D) MHD simulations of disk accretion onto a rotating magnetized star through the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. In this regime, the accreting matter typically forms 2 to 7 vertically elongated "tongues" which penetrate deep into the magnetosphere, until they are stopped by the strong field. Subsequently, the matter is channeled along the field lines to the surface of the star, forming hot spots. The number, position and shape of the hot spots vary with time, so that the light-curves associated with the hot spots are stochastic. A magnetized star may be in the stable (with funnel streams) or unstable (with random tongues) regime of accretion, and consequently have significantly different observational properties. A star may switch between these two regimes depending on the accretion rate.
Testa, Paola; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats
2012-01-01
Determining the temperature distribution of coronal plasmas can provide stringent constraints on coronal heating. Current observations with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph onboard Hinode and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory provide diagnostics of the emission measure distribution (EMD) of the coronal plasma. Here we test the reliability of temperature diagnostics using 3D radiative MHD simulations. We produce synthetic observables from the models, and apply the Monte Carlo Markov chain EMD diagnostic. By comparing the derived EMDs with the "true" distributions from the model we assess the limitations of the diagnostics, as a function of the plasma parameters and of the signal-to-noise of the data. We find that EMDs derived from EIS synthetic data reproduce some general characteristics of the true distributions, but usually show differences from the true EMDs that are much larger than the estimated uncertainties suggest, especially when structures with signif...
A discontinuous Galerkin method for solving the fluid and MHD equations in astrophysical simulations
Mocz, Philip; Sijacki, Debora; Hernquist, Lars
2013-01-01
A discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method suitable for large-scale astrophysical simulations on Cartesian meshes as well as arbitrary static and moving Voronoi meshes is presented. Most major astrophysical fluid dynamics codes use a finite volume (FV) approach. We demonstrate that the DG technique offers distinct advantages over FV formulations on both static and moving meshes. The DG method is also easily generalized to higher than second-order accuracy without requiring the use of extended stencils to estimate derivatives (thereby making the scheme highly parallelizable). We implement the technique in the AREPO code for solving the fluid and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. By examining various test problems, we show that our new formulation provides improved accuracy over FV approaches of the same order, and reduces post-shock oscillations and artificial diffusion of angular momentum. In addition, the DG method makes it possible to represent magnetic fields in a locally divergence-free way, improving th...
Numerical simulation of the RAMAC benchmark test
Leblanc, J.E.; Sugihara, M.; Fujiwara, T. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Nusca, M. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; U.S. Army Research Lab., Ballistics and Weapons Concepts Div., AMSRL-WM-BE, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Wang, X. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; School of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore); Seiler, F. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; French-German Research Inst. of Saint-Louis, ISL, Saint-Louis (France)
2000-11-01
Numerical simulations of the same ramac geometry and boundary conditions by different numerical and physical models highlight the variety of solutions possible and the strong effect of the chemical kinetics model on the solution. The benchmark test was defined and announced within the community of ramac researchers. Three laboratories undertook the project. The numerical simulations include Navier-Stokes and Euler simulations with various levels of physical models and equations of state. The non-reactive part of the simulation produced similar steady state results in the three simulations. The chemically reactive part of the simulation produced widely different outcomes. The original experimental data and experimental conditions are presented. A description of each computer code and the resulting flowfield is included. A comparison between codes and results is achieved. The most critical choice for the simulation was the chemical kinetics model. (orig.)
Numerical Validation and Comparison of Three Solar Wind Heating Methods by the SIP-CESE MHD Model
YANG Li-Ping; FENG Xue-Shang; XIANG Chang-Qing; JIANG Chao-Wei
2011-01-01
We conduct simulations using the three-dimensional(3D) solar-interplanetary conservation element/solution element(SIP-CESE) maguetohydrodynamic(MHD) model and magnetogram data from a Carrington rotation (CR) 1897 to compare the three commonly used heating methods, I.e. The Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin(WKB)Alfvén wave heating method, the turbulence heating method and the volumetric heating method. Our results show that all three heating models can basically reproduce the bimodal structure of the solar wind observed near the solar minimum. The results also demonstrate that the major acceleration interval terminates about 4Rs for the turbulence heating method and 1ORs for both the WKB Alfvén wave heating method and the volumetric heating method. The turbulence heating and the volumetric heating methods can capture the observed changing trends by the WIND satellite, while the WKB Alfvén wave heating method does not.
Numerical simulation of muzzle blast
Tyler-Street, M.
2014-01-01
Structural design methods for naval ships include environmental, operational and military load cases. One of the operational loads acting on a typical naval vessel is the muzzle blast from a gun. Simulating the muzzle blast load acting on a ship structure with CFD and ALE methods leads to large nume
Numerical Simulations of HH 555
Kajdic, Primoz
2007-01-01
We present 3D gasdynamic simulations of the Herbig Haro object HH 555. HH 555 is a bipolar jet emerging from the tip of an elephant trunk entering the Pelican Nebula from the adjacent molecular cloud. Both beams of HH 555 are curved away from the center of the H II region. This indicates that they are being deflected by a side-wind probably coming from a star located inside the nebula or by the expansion of the nebula itself. HH 555 is most likely an irradiated jet emerging from a highly embedded protostar, which has not yet been detected. In our simulations we vary the incident photon flux, which in one of our models is equal to the flux coming from a star 1 pc away emitting 5x10^48 ionizing (i. e., with energies above the H Lyman limit) photons per second. An external, plane-parallel flow (a ``side-wind'') is coming from the same direction as the photoionizing flux. We have made four simulations, decreasing the photon flux by a factor of 10 in each simulation. We discuss the properties of the flow and we co...
Kako, T.; Watanabe, T. [eds.
1999-04-01
This is the proceeding of 'Study on Numerical Methods Related to Plasma Confinement' held in National Institute for Fusion Science. In this workshop, theoretical and numerical analyses of possible plasma equilibria with their stability properties are presented. These are also various talks on mathematical as well as numerical analyses related to the computational methods for fluid dynamics and plasma physics. The 14 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)
Design and numerical simulation of novel DBRs
Wei Su (苏伟); Jingchang Zhong (钟景昌); Wenli Liu (刘文莉); Yan-Kuin Su (苏炎坤); Shoou-Jinn Chang (张守进); Hsin-Chieh Yu (龙信介); Liangwen Ji (姬梁文); Lin Li (李林); Yingjie Zhao (赵英杰)
2003-01-01
In this paper, a numerical simulation of the traditional graded distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and a design of the novel DBR with short period superlattices (SPSs DBR) used by vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) are reported. First, the optical characteristic matrix of the graded DBRs is derived using the theories of thin film optics. Second, its reflective spectrum is numerical simulated and it is found that the simulative results are similar with the experimental data. The difference of the cavity mode position between the experimental and simulative data is discussed. Finally, based on the simulative results of graded DBR, a novel DBR with 4.5-pair GaAs/AlAs SPSs is designed, and its reflective spectrum is numerical simulated and analyzed.
Numerical Simulations of Bouncing Jets
Bonito, Andrea; Lee, Sanghyun
2015-01-01
Bouncing jets are fascinating phenomenons occurring under certain conditions when a jet impinges on a free surface. This effect is observed when the fluid is Newtonian and the jet falls in a bath undergoing a solid motion. It occurs also for non-Newtonian fluids when the jets falls in a vessel at rest containing the same fluid. We investigate numerically the impact of the experimental setting and the rheological properties of the fluid on the onset of the bouncing phenomenon. Our investigations show that the occurrence of a thin lubricating layer of air separating the jet and the rest of the liquid is a key factor for the bouncing of the jet to happen. The numerical technique that is used consists of a projection method for the Navier-Stokes system coupled with a level set formulation for the representation of the interface. The space approximation is done with adaptive finite elements. Adaptive refinement is shown to be very important to capture the thin layer of air that is responsible for the bouncing.
Numerical simulations of quasar absorbers
Theuns, T
2005-01-01
The physical state of the intergalactic medium can be probed in great detail with the intervening absorption systems seen in quasar spectra. The properties of the Hydrogen absorbers depend on many cosmological parameters, such as the matter-power spectrum, reionisation history, ionising background and the nature of the dark matter. The spectra also contain metal lines, which can be used to constrain the star formation history and the feedback processes acting in large and small galaxies. Simulations have been instrumental in investigating to what extent these parameters can be unambiguously constrained with current and future data. This paper is meant as an introduction to this subject, and reviews techniques and methods for simulating the intergalactic medium.
Marx, Alain; Lütjens, Hinrich
2017-03-01
A hybrid MPI/OpenMP parallel version of the XTOR-2F code [Lütjens and Luciani, J. Comput. Phys. 229 (2010) 8130] solving the two-fluid MHD equations in full tokamak geometry by means of an iterative Newton-Krylov matrix-free method has been developed. The present work shows that the code has been parallelized significantly despite the numerical profile of the problem solved by XTOR-2F, i.e. a discretization with pseudo-spectral representations in all angular directions, the stiffness of the two-fluid stability problem in tokamaks, and the use of a direct LU decomposition to invert the physical pre-conditioner at every Krylov iteration of the solver. The execution time of the parallelized version is an order of magnitude smaller than the sequential one for low resolution cases, with an increasing speedup when the discretization mesh is refined. Moreover, it allows to perform simulations with higher resolutions, previously forbidden because of memory limitations.
NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF CAVITATING FLOWS
Wu Lei
2003-01-01
A new model, which involves viscous and multi-phase effects, was given to study cavitating flows. A local compressible model was established by introducing a density-pressure function to account for the two-phase flow of water/vapor and the transition from one phase to the other. An algorithm for calculating variable-density N-S equations of cavitating flow problem was put forward. The present method yields reasonable results for both steady and unsteady cavitating flows in 2D and 3D cases. The numerical results of unsteady character of cavitating flows around hydrofoils coincide well with experimental data. It indicates the feasibility to apply this method to a variety of cavitating flows of practical problems.
Numerical methods in simulation of resistance welding
Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Zhang, Wenqi
2015-01-01
Finite element simulation of resistance welding requires coupling betweenmechanical, thermal and electrical models. This paper presents the numerical models and theircouplings that are utilized in the computer program SORPAS. A mechanical model based onthe irreducible flow formulation is utilized...... a resistance welding point of view, the most essential coupling between the above mentioned models is the heat generation by electrical current due to Joule heating. The interaction between multiple objects is anothercritical feature of the numerical simulation of resistance welding because it influences...
Data-driven MHD simulation of a solar eruption observed in NOAA Active Region 12158
Lee, Hwanhee; Magara, Tetsuya; Kang, Jihye
2017-08-01
We present a data-driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of a solar eruption where the dynamics of a background solar wind is incorporated. The background solar wind exists in the real solar atmosphere, which continuously transports magnetized plasma toward the interplanetary space. This suggests that it may play a role in producing a solar eruption. We perform a simulation for NOAA AR 12158 accompanied with X1.6-class flare and CME on 2014 September 10. We construct a magnetohydrostatic state used as the initial state of data-driven simulation, which is composed of a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) derived from observation data of photospheric vector magnetic field and a hydrostatic atmosphere with prescribed distributions of temperature and gravity. We then reduce the gas pressure well above the solar surface to drive a solar wind. As a result, a magnetic field gradually evolves during an early phase, and eventually eruption is observed. To figure out what causes the transition from gradual evolution to eruption, we analyze the temporal development of force distribution and geometrical shape of magnetic field lines. The result suggests that the curvature and the scale height of a coronal magnetic field play an important role in determining its dynamic state.
Numerical simulation of mechatronic sensors and actuators
Kaltenbacher, Manfred
2007-01-01
Focuses on the physical modeling of mechatronic sensors and actuators and their precise numerical simulation using the Finite Element Method (FEM). This book discusses the physical modeling as well as numerical computation. It also gives a comprehensive introduction to finite elements, including their computer implementation.
Stil, J M; Ouyed, R; Taylor, A R
2008-01-01
We present three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of superbubbles, to study the importance of MHD effects in the interpretation of images from recent surveys of the Galactic plane. These simulations focus mainly on atmospheres defined by an exponential density distribution and the Dickey & Lockman (1990) density distribution. In each case, the magnetic field is parallel to the Galactic plane and we investigate cases with either infinite scale height (constant magnetic field) or a constant ratio of gas pressure to magnetic pressure. The three-dimensional structure of superbubbles in these simulations is discussed with emphasis on the axial ratio of the cavity as a function of magnetic field strength and the age of the bubble. We investigate systematic errors in the age of the bubble and scale height of the surrounding medium that may be introduced by modeling the data with purely hydrodynamic models. Age estimates derived with symmetric hydrodynamic models fitted to an asymmetric magnetize...
Numerical simulations of pendant droplets
Pena, Carlos; Kahouadji, Lyes; Matar, Omar; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir; Shin, Seungwon
2015-11-01
We simulate the evolution of a three-dimensional pendant droplet through pinch-off using a new parallel two-phase flow solver called BLUE. The parallelization of the code is based on the technique of algebraic domain decomposition where the velocity field is solved by a parallel GMRes method for the viscous terms and the pressure by a parallel multigrid/GMRes method. Communication is handled by MPI message passing procedures. The method for the treatment of the fluid interfaces uses a hybrid Front Tracking/Level Set technique which defines the interface both by a discontinuous density field as well as by a local triangular Lagrangian mesh. This structure allows the interface to undergo large deformations including the rupture and coalescence of fluid interfaces. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.
Numerical simulations of the solar atmosphere
Leenaarts, J.
2007-01-01
In this thesis several aspects of the solar atmosphere are investigated using numerical simulations. Simulations and observations of reversed solar granulation are compared. It is concluded that reversed granulation is a hydrodynamical process and is a consequence of convection reversal. Images are
Numerical Simulation of Nanostructure Growth
Hwang, Helen H.; Bose, Deepak; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.
2004-01-01
Nanoscale structures, such as nanowires and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are often grown in gaseous or plasma environments. Successful growth of these structures is defined by achieving a specified crystallinity or chirality, size or diameter, alignment, etc., which in turn depend on gas mixture ratios. pressure, flow rate, substrate temperature, and other operating conditions. To date, there has not been a rigorous growth model that addresses the specific concerns of crystalline nanowire growth, while demonstrating the correct trends of the processing conditions on growth rates. Most crystal growth models are based on the Burton, Cabrera, and Frank (BCF) method, where adatoms are incorporated into a growing crystal at surface steps or spirals. When the supersaturation of the vapor is high, islands nucleate to form steps, and these steps subsequently spread (grow). The overall bulk growth rate is determined by solving for the evolving motion of the steps. Our approach is to use a phase field model to simulate the growth of finite sized nanowire crystals, linking the free energy equation with the diffusion equation of the adatoms. The phase field method solves for an order parameter that defines the evolving steps in a concentration field. This eliminates the need for explicit front tracking/location, or complicated shadowing routines, both of which can be computationally expensive, particularly in higher dimensions. We will present results demonstrating the effect of process conditions, such as substrate temperature, vapor supersaturation, etc. on the evolving morphologies and overall growth rates of the nanostructures.
Attempts to Simulate Anisotropies of Solar Wind Fluctuations Using MHD with a Turning Magnetic Field
Ghosh, Sanjoy; Roberts, D. Aaron
2010-01-01
We examine a "two-component" model of the solar wind to see if any of the observed anisotropies of the fields can be explained in light of the need for various quantities, such as the magnetic minimum variance direction, to turn along with the Parker spiral. Previous results used a 3-D MHD spectral code to show that neither Q2D nor slab-wave components will turn their wave vectors in a turning Parker-like field, and that nonlinear interactions between the components are required to reproduce observations. In these new simulations we use higher resolution in both decaying and driven cases, and with and without a turning background field, to see what, if any, conditions lead to variance anisotropies similar to observations. We focus especially on the middle spectral range, and not the energy-containing scales, of the simulation for comparison with the solar wind. Preliminary results have shown that it is very difficult to produce the required variances with a turbulent cascade.
MHD Simulations of the ISM: The Importance of the Galactic Magnetic Field on the ISM "Phases"
D'Avillez, M A
2003-01-01
We have carried out 1.25 pc resolution MHD simulations of the ISM, on a Cartesian grid of $0 \\leq (x,y) \\leq 1$ kpc size in the galactic plane and $-10 \\leq z \\leq 10$ kpc into the halo, thus being able to fully trace the time-dependent evolution of the galactic fountain. The simulations show that large scale gas streams emerge, driven by SN explosions, which are responsible for the formation and destruction of shocked compressed layers. The shocked gas can have densities as high as 800 cm$^{-3}$ and lifetimes up to 15 Myr. The cold gas is distributed into filaments which tend to show a preferred orientation due to the anisotropy of the flow induced by the galactic magnetic field. Ram pressure dominates the flow in the unstable branch $10^{2}<$T$\\leq 10^{3.9}$ K, while for T$\\leq 100$ K (stable branch) magnetic pressure takes over. Near supernovae thermal and ram pressures determine the dynamics of the flow. Up to 80% of the mass in the disk is concentrated in the thermally unstable regime $10^{2}<$T$\\l...
Wareing, C J; Falle, S A E G; Van Loo, S
2016-01-01
We have used the AMR hydrodynamic code, MG, to perform 3D MHD simulations of the formation of clumpy and filamentary structure in a thermally unstable medium. A stationary thermally unstable spherical diffuse cloud with uniform density in pressure equilibrium with low density surroundings was seeded with random density variations and allowed to evolve. A range of magnetic field strengths threading the cloud have been explored, from beta=0.1 to beta=1.0 to the zero magnetic field case (beta=infinity), where beta is the ratio of thermal pressure to magnetic pressure. Once the density inhomogeneities had developed to the point where gravity started to become important, self-gravity was introduced to the simulation. With no magnetic field, clumps form within the cloud with aspect ratios of around unity, whereas in the presence of a relatively strong field (beta=0.1) these become filaments, then evolve into interconnected corrugated sheets that are predominantly perpendicular to the magnetic field. With magnetic a...
Investigating Magnetic Activity in the Galactic Centre by Global MHD Simulation
Suzuki, Takeru K.; Fukui, Yasuo; Torii, Kazufumi; Machida, Mami; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Kakiuchi, Kensuke
2017-01-01
By performing a global magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulation for the Milky Way with an axisymmetric gravitational potential, we propose that spatially dependent amplification of magnetic fields possibly explains the observed noncircular motion of the gas in the Galactic centre (GC) region. The radial distribution of the rotation frequency in the bulge region is not monotonic in general. The amplification of the magnetic field is enhanced in regions with stronger differential rotation, because magnetorotational instability and field-line stretching are more effective. The strength of the amplified magnetic field reaches >~ 0.5 mG, and radial flows of the gas are excited by the inhomogeneous transport of angular momentum through turbulent magnetic field that is amplified in a spatially dependent manner. As a result, the simulated position-velocity diagram exhibits a time-dependent asymmetric parallelogram-shape owing to the intermittency of the magnetic turbulence; the present model provides a viable alternative to the bar-potential-driven model for the parallelogram shape of the central molecular zone. In addition, Parker instability (magnetic buoyancy) creates vertical magnetic structure, which would correspond to observed molecular loops, and frequently excited vertical flows. Furthermore, the time-averaged net gas flow is directed outward, whereas the flows are highly time dependent, which would contribute to the outflow from the bulge.
MHD simulations of protostellar jets: formation and stability of shock diamonds
Ustamujic, Sabina
2016-07-01
The early stages of a star birth are characterised by a variety of mass ejection phenomena, including outflows and collimated jets, that are strongly related with the accretion process developed in the context of the star-disc interaction. After been ejected, jets move through the ambient medium, interacting and producing shocks and complex structures that are observed at different wavelength bands. In particular, X-ray observations show evidence of strong shocks heating the plasma up to temperatures of a few million degrees. In some cases, the shocked features appear to be stationary and have been interpreted as shock diamonds. We aim at investigating the physical properties of the shocked plasma and the role of the magnetic field on the collimation performing 2.5D MHD simulations, including the effects of the thermal conduction and the radiative losses. We modelled the propagation of a jet ramming with a supersonic speed into an initially isothermal and homogeneous magnetized medium. We studied the physics that guides the formation of a stationary shock (for instance a shock diamond) and compared the results with observations, via the emission measure distribution vs. temperature and the luminosity synthesised from the simulations.
Multistage Turbomachinery Flows Simulated Numerically
Hathaway, Michael D.; Adamczyk, John J.; Shabbir, Aamir; Wellborn, Steven R.
1999-01-01
At the NASA Lewis Research Center, a comprehensive assessment was made of the predictive capability of the average passage flow model as applied to multistage axial-flow compressors. This model, which describes the time-averaged flow field within a typical passage of a blade row embedded in a multistage configuration, is being widely used throughout U.S. aircraft industry as an integral part of their design systems. Rotor flow-angle deviation. In this work, detailed data taken within a four and one-half stage large low-speed compressor were used to assess the weaknesses and strengths of the predictive capabilities of the average passage flow model. The low-speed compressor blading is of modern design and employs stator end-bends. Measurements were made with slow- and high response instrumentation. The high-response measurements revealed the velocity components of both the rotor and stator wakes. From the measured wake profiles, we found that the flow exiting the rotors deviated from the rotor exit metal angle to a lesser degree than was predicted by the average passage flow model. This was found to be due to blade boundary layer transition, which recently has been shown to exist on multistage axial compressor rotor and stator blades, but was not accounted for in the average passage model. Consequently, a model that mimics the effects of blade boundary layer transition, Shih k-epsilon model, was incorporated into the average passage model. Simulations that incorporated this transition model showed a dramatic improvement in agreement with data. The altered model thus improved predictive capability for multistage axial-flow compressors, and this was verified by detailed experimental measurement.
On the numerical simulation of machining processes
Vaz Jr.,M.
2000-01-01
Numerical simulation of machining processes can be traced back to the early seventies when finite element models for continuous chip formation were proposed. The advent of fast computers and development of new techniques to model large plastic deformations have favoured machining simulation. Relevant aspects of finite element simulation of machining processes are discussed in this paper, such as solution methods, material models, thermo-mechanical coupling, friction models, chip separation an...
Boundary acquisition for setup of numerical simulation
Diegert, C. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1997-12-31
The author presents a work flow diagram that includes a path that begins with taking experimental measurements, and ends with obtaining insight from results produced by numerical simulation. Two examples illustrate this path: (1) Three-dimensional imaging measurement at micron scale, using X-ray tomography, provides information on the boundaries of irregularly-shaped alumina oxide particles held in an epoxy matrix. A subsequent numerical simulation predicts the electrical field concentrations that would occur in the observed particle configurations. (2) Three-dimensional imaging measurement at meter scale, again using X-ray tomography, provides information on the boundaries fossilized bone fragments in a Parasaurolophus crest recently discovered in New Mexico. A subsequent numerical simulation predicts acoustic response of the elaborate internal structure of nasal passageways defined by the fossil record. The author must both add value, and must change the format of the three-dimensional imaging measurements before the define the geometric boundary initial conditions for the automatic mesh generation, and subsequent numerical simulation. The author applies a variety of filters and statistical classification algorithms to estimate the extents of the structures relevant to the subsequent numerical simulation, and capture these extents as faceted geometries. The author will describe the particular combination of manual and automatic methods used in the above two examples.
Numerical Simulation of a Hypersonic Air Intake
Soumyajit Saha
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Numerical simulations were carried out to study the unsteady flow in an intake of hypersonic air-breathing vehicle. Unsteady RANS simulations were performed to examine started flow of the intake when cowl surface is parallel to the ramp surface. Though started, the flow was unsteady due to flow separation bubbles inside intake. Intake with larger cowl opening at which intake unstarted was also simulated. Simulations indicated unstarted flow, with large pressure oscillations. The numerically simulation results match reasonably well with experimental data. Calculated unstarting Mach number was found to be 3.0-3.2 in comparison of wind tunnel data of 3.6 for the same cowl opening angle.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 3, May 2015, pp.189-195, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.8254
Chinyoka, T.; Makinde, O. D.
2013-01-01
The thermodynamic second law analysis is utilized to investigate the inherent irreversibility in an unsteady hydromagnetic generalized Couette flow with variable electrical conductivity in the presence of induced electric field. Based on some simplified assumption, the model nonlinear governing equations are obtained and solved numerically using semidiscretization finite difference techniques. Effects of various thermophysical parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature, current density, skin friction, the Nusselt number, entropy generation number, and the Bejan number are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively. PMID:23956691
Proceedings of the workshop on nonlinear MHD and extended MHD
NONE
1998-12-01
Nonlinear MHD simulations have proven their value in interpreting experimental results over the years. As magnetic fusion experiments reach higher performance regimes, more sophisticated experimental diagnostics coupled with ever expanding computer capabilities have increased both the need for and the feasibility of nonlinear global simulations using models more realistic than regular ideal and resistive MHD. Such extended-MHD nonlinear simulations have already begun to produce useful results. These studies are expected to lead to ever more comprehensive simulation models in the future and to play a vital role in fully understanding fusion plasmas. Topics include the following: (1) current state of nonlinear MHD and extended-MHD simulations; (2) comparisons to experimental data; (3) discussions between experimentalists and theorists; (4) /equations for extended-MHD models, kinetic-based closures; and (5) paths toward more comprehensive simulation models, etc. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
Numerical simulation of fundamental trapped sausage modes
Cécere, M; Reula, O
2011-01-01
Context: We integrate the 2D MHD ideal equations of a straight slab to simulate observational results associated with fundamental sausage trapped modes. Aims: Starting from a non-equilibrium state with a dense chromospheric layer, we analyse the evolution of the internal plasma dynamics of magnetic loops, subject to line-tying boundary conditions, and with the coronal parameters described in Asai et al. (2001) and Melnikov et al. (2002) to investigate the onset and damping of sausage modes. Methods: To integrate the equations we used a high resolution shock-capturing (HRSC) method specially designed to deal appropriately with flow discontinuities. Results: Due to non-linearities and inhomogeneities, pure modes are difficult to sustain and always occur coupled among them so as to satisfy, e.g., the line-tying constraint. We found that, in one case, the resonant coupling of the sausage fundamental mode with a slow one results in a non-dissipative damping of the former. Conclusions: In scenarios of thick and den...
Numerical Simulation of Underwater Explosion Loads
XIN Chunliang; XU Gengguang; LIU Kezhong
2008-01-01
Numerical simulation of TNT underwater explosion was carried out with AUTODYN software.Influences of artificial viscosity and mesh density on simulation results were discussed.Detonation waves in explosive and shock wave in water during early time of explosion are high frequency waves.Fine meshes (less than 1 mm) in explosive and water nearby,and small linear viscosity coefficients and quadratic viscosity coefficients (0.02 and 0.1 respectively,1/10 of default values) are needed in numerical simulation model.According to these rules,numerical computing pressure profiles can match well with those calculated by Zamyshlyayev empirical formula.Otherwise peak pressure would be smeared off and upstream relative errors would be cumulated downstream to make downstream peak pressure lower.
ZHANG XianGuo; PU ZuYin; MA ZhiWei; ZHOU XuZhi
2008-01-01
A three-dimensional (3-D) Hall MHD simulation is carried out to study the roles of initial current carrier in the topology of magnetic field,the generation and distribuering the contribution of ions to the initial current,the topology of the obtained magnetic field turns to be more complex. In some cases,it is found that not only the traditional By quadrupole structure but also a reversal By quadrupole structure appears in the simulation box. This can explain the observational features near the diffusion region,which are inconsistent with the Hall MHD theory with the total initial current carried by electrons. Several other interesting features are also emerged. First,motions of electrons and ions are decoupled from each other in the small plasma region (Hall effect region) with a scale less than or comparable with the ion inertial length or ion skin depth di=c/ωp. In the non-Hall effect region,the global magnetic structure is shifted in +y direction under the influence of ions with initial y directional motion. However,in the Hall effect region,magnetic field lines are bent in -y direction,mainly controlled by the motion of electrons,then By is generated. Second,FACs emerge as a result of the appearance of By. Compared with the prior Hall MHD simulation results,the generated FACs shift in +y direction,
Analysis of Voyager Observed High-Energy Electron Fluxes in the Heliosheath Using MHD Simulations
Washimi, Haruichi; Webber, W. R.; Zank, Gary P.; Hu, Qiang; Florinski, Vladimir; Adams, James; Kubo, Yuki
2011-01-01
The Voyager spacecraft (V1 and V2) observed electrons of 6-14 MeV in the heliosheath which showed several incidences of flux variation relative to a background of gradually increasing flux with distance from the Sun. The increasing flux of background electrons is thought to result from inward radial diffusion. We compare the temporal electron flux variation with dynamical phenomena in the heliosheath that are obtained from our MHD simulations. Because our simulation is based on V2 observed plasma data before V2 crossed the termination shock, this analysis is effective up to late 2008, i.e., about a year after the V2-crossing, during which disturbances, driven prior to the crossing time, survived in the heliosheath. Several electron flux variations correspond to times directly associated with interplanetary shock events. One noteworthy example corresponds to various times associated with the March 2006 interplanetary shock, these being the collision with the termination shock, the passage past the V1 spacecraft, and the collision with the region near the heliopause, as identified by W.R. Webber et al. for proton/helium of 7-200 MeV. Our simulations indicate that all other electron flux variations, except one, correspond well to the times when a shock-driven magneto-sonic pulse and its reflection in the heliosheath either passed across V1/V2, or collided with the termination shock or with the plasma sheet near the heliopause. This result suggests that variation in the electron flux should be due to either direct or indirect effects of magnetosonic pulses in the heliosheath driven by interplanetary shocks
Numerical simulation of "An American Haboob"
Vukovic, A; M. Vujadinovic; Pejanovic, G.; J. Andric; Kumjian, M. R.; V. Djurdjevic; M. Dacic; Prasad, A. K.; H. M. El-Askary; B. C. Paris; S. Petkovic; S. Nickovic; Sprigg, W. A.
2013-01-01
A dust storm of fearful proportions hit Phoenix in the early evening hours of 5 July 2011. This storm, an American haboob, was predicted hours in advance because numerical, land-atmosphere modeling, computing power and remote sensing of dust events have improved greatly over the past decade. High resolution numerical models are required for accurate simulation of the small-scales of the haboob process, with high velocity surface winds produced by strong convection and severe downbursts...
Blanket-relevant liquid metal MHD channel flows: Data base and optimization simulation development
Evtushenko, I.A.; Kirillov, I.R.; Sidorenkov, S.I. [D.V. Efremov Inst. of Electrophysical Apparatus, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)
1995-12-31
The problems of generalization and integration of test, theoretical and design data relevant to liquid metal (LM) blanket are discussed in present work. First results on MHD data base and LM blanket optimization codes are presented.
Constraints on particle acceleration sites in the Crab Nebula from relativistic MHD simulations
Olmi, Barbara; Amato, Elena; Bucciantini, Niccolò
2015-01-01
The Crab Nebula is one of the most efficient accelerators in the Galaxy and the only galactic source showing direct evidence of PeV particles. In spite of this, the physical process behind such effective acceleration is still a deep mystery. While particle acceleration, at least at the highest energies, is commonly thought to occur at the pulsar wind termination shock, the properties of the upstream flow are thought to be non-uniform along the shock surface, and important constraints on the mechanism at work come from exact knowledge of where along this surface particles are being accelerated. Here we use axisymmetric relativistic MHD simulations to obtain constraints on the acceleration site(s) of particles of different energies in the Crab Nebula. Various scenarios are considered for the injection of particles responsible for synchrotron radiation in the different frequency bands, radio, optical and X-rays. The resulting emission properties are compared with available data on the multi wavelength time varia...
MHD simulations of near-surface convection in cool main-sequence stars
Beeck, Benjamin; Reiners, Ansgar
2014-01-01
The solar photospheric magnetic field is highly structured owing to its interaction with the convective flows. Its local structure has a strong influence on the profiles of spectral lines not only by virtue of the Zeeman effect, but also through the modification of the thermodynamical structure (e.g. line weakening in hot small-scale magnetic structures). Many stars harbor surface magnetic fields comparable to or larger than the Sun at solar maximum. Therefore, a strong influence of the field on the surface convection and on spectral line profiles can be expected. We carried out 3D local-box MHD simulations of unipolar magnetized regions (average fields of 20, 100, and 500G) with parameters corresponding to six main-sequence stars (spectral types F3V to M2V). The influence of the magnetic field on the convection and the local thermodynamical structure were analyzed in detail. For three spectral lines, we determined the impact of the magnetic field on the disc-integrated Stokes-I profiles. Line weakening has i...
Numerical investigation of the LM MHD flows in a curved duct with an FCI with varying slot locations
Yang, Jong Hoon; Yan, Yue [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Yong-in si, Kyunggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Nyung, E-mail: cnkim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yong-in si, Kyunggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-04-15
Highlights: • This study numerically investigates the liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic flows in a curved duct with an FCI. • The effects of the location of FCI slot and of the curvature radius on the flow behavior are reviewed. • The influence of the FCI slot position on the equalization of the pressure in the inner fluid region (inside the FCI) and the gap fluid region (outer the FCI) is examined. - Abstract: This study numerically investigates the liquid-metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in a curved duct with an FCI having three different slot locations and having no slot under a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the duct. The flow velocity, current density, electric potential, Lorentz force, and pressure in different flow situations are presented in detail. The effects of the location of FCI slot and of the curvature radius on the flow behavior are reviewed. The flow field is examined with an introduction of the electric-field component and electro-motive component of the current, allowing us to analyze the interdependency of the flow variables. The effect of the FCI slot position on the equalization of the pressure in the inner fluid region (inside the FCI) and the gap fluid region (outer the FCI) is examined. The result shows that and the case with an FCI slot located in the neutral position yields the smallest pressure gradient in the main flow direction among the cases with an FCI slot, resulting in the smallest pressure drop. Also, in a flow situation with smaller radius of curvature with the FCI slot in the neutral position, the axial velocity near the inner (in terms of the curvature) part of a cross-section is higher than that near the outer part.
Study of Cardiac Defibrillation Through Numerical Simulations
Bragard, J.; Marin, S.; Cherry, E. M.; Fenton, F. H.
Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the defibrillation problem are presented. In particular, in this study we use the rabbit ventricular geometry as a realistic model system for evaluating the efficacy of defibrillatory shocks. Statistical data obtained from the simulations were analyzed in term of a dose-response curve. Good quantitative agreement between our numerical results and clinically relevant values is obtained. An electric field strength of about 6.6 V/cm indicates a fifty percent probability of successful defibrillation for a 12-ms monophasic shock. Our validated model will be useful for optimizing defibrillation protocols.
MHD Effect of Liquid Metal Film Flows as Plasma-Facing Components
ZHANG Xiujie; XU Zengyu; PAN Chuanjie
2008-01-01
Stability of liquid metal film flow under gradient magnetic field is investigated. Three dimensional numerical simulations on magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) effect of free surface film flow were carried out, with emphasis on the film thickness variation and its surface stability. Three different MHD phenomena of film flow were observed in the experiment, namely, retardant, rivulet and flat film flow. From our experiment and numerical simulation it can be concluded that flat film flow is a good choice for plasma-facing components (PFCs)
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SEPARATED FLOW NEAR GROYNE
无
2002-01-01
A numerical model was developed to simulate flow around non-submeged groyne in two dimensions, which was based on N-S equations with Smagorinsky's subgrid-scale turbulence model. Flow phenomenon and results measured practically agree with the calculation results very well, and this model could be used to simulate the characteristics of the eddies of upper and down reaches around spur-dikes successfully.
Transportation of MHD nanofluid free convection in a porous semi annulus using numerical approach
Sheikholeslami, M.; Ganji, D. D.
2017-02-01
Nanofluid free convection in presence of Lorentz forces in a permeable semi annulus is simulated using Control Volume based Finite Element Method. Impact of porous media on governing equations is considered by means of Darcy law. Brownian motion impact on properties of nanofluid is taken into account using Koo-Kleinstreuer-Li (KKL) model. Important parameters are inclination angle (ξ) , CuO-water volume fraction (ϕ) , Hartmann (Ha) and Rayleigh (Ra) numbers for porous medium. A formula for Nuave is provided. Results indicated that temperature gradient detracts with enhance of Ha but it enhances with rise of ξ, Ra . Heat transfer augmentation enhances with rise of Lorentz forces.
Large plasmoids in global MHD simulations: Solar wind dependence and ionospheric mapping
Honkonen, Ilja; Palmroth, Minna; Pulkkinen, T.; Janhunen, Pekka
The energy from the solar wind drives magnetospheric dynamics. An important, but the most difficult to measure, factor is the energy released in plasmoids. Plasmoids are large magnetic structures that form in the Earth's magnetotail during substorms, which are the main mecha-nism of extracting and releasing solar wind energy from the magnetosphere. During plasmoid formation the 3-d structure of the magnetotail becomes complicated, with spatially alternating closed and open magnetic topologies. While the formation and the release of plasmoids are unresolved, they are classically thought to detach from the magnetotail at the substorm onset. Using our global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation GUMICS-4, we investigate how different parameters of the solar wind affect the formation of plasmoids. Specifically we con-centrate on the role of the solar wind magnetic field parameters. We also investigate the solar wind dependence of plasmoid foot points, which are the end points of the plasmoid magnetic field in the ionosphere. Preliminary results suggest that plasmoid formation and plasmoid foot point location in the ionosphere strongly depend on the solar wind magnetic field param-eters. Our work may be of importance when interpreting some observed, but unexplained, ionospheric phenomena. We also present an operational definition of plasmoids, which enables their automatic detection in simulations. The project has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) / ERC Starting Grant agree-ment number 200141-QuESpace. The work of IH and MP is supported by the Academy of Finland.
Merkin, V. G.; Lyon, J.; Claudepierre, S. G.
2013-12-01
The Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability (KHI) has long been suggested to operate on the magnetospheric boundary, where the magnetosheath plasma streams past the magnetosphere. The instability is thought to be responsible for inducing various wave populations in the magnetosphere and for mass, momentum and energy transport across the magnetospheric boundary. Waves attributed to the KHI have been observed at the Earth's magnetosphere flanks as well as at Saturn and Mercury during spacecraft crossings, and remotely at boundaries of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). Recent high-resolution global 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the magnetosphere confirm the existence of pronounced perturbations of the magnetospheric boundary, which are thought to be due to KHI. Such global simulations had been challenging in the past because of the need to encompass the entire magnetosphere, while sufficiently resolving the boundary layer. Here we present results of such a high-resolution simulation of the magnetosphere, using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) model, under steady northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) conditions. We find the magnetospheric boundary to be globally unstable, including the high-latitude boundary layer (meridional plane), where magnetic tension is apparently not sufficient to stabilize the growth of oscillations. Roughly beyond the terminator, global modes, coupled into the surface modes, become apparent, so that the entire body of the magnetosphere is engaged in an oscillatory motion. The wave vector of the surface oscillations has a component perpendicular to the background flow and tangential to the shear layer (in the equatorial plane, k_z component of the wave vector), which is consistent with the generation of field-aligned currents that flow on closed field lines between the inner portion of the boundary layer and the ionosphere. We calculate the distribution of wave power in the equatorial plane and find it consistent with the existence of a
Numerical simulation of polariton Bose gas thermalization
Kartsev, P. F.; Kuznetsov, I. O.
2016-08-01
In this work, we present the numerical simulation of the process a Bose gas thermalization and the formation of the condensate. Our approach is based on kinetic equations and “Fermi's golden rule” in the incoherent approximation. Direct summation of terms is performed using GPGPU OpenCL parallel code using AMD Radeon HD 7970.
Spectral Methods in Numerical Plasma Simulation
Coutsias, E.A.; Hansen, F.R.; Huld, T.;
1989-01-01
An introduction is given to the use of spectral methods in numerical plasma simulation. As examples of the use of spectral methods, solutions to the two-dimensional Euler equations in both a simple, doubly periodic region, and on an annulus will be shown. In the first case, the solution is expanded...
Numerical Simulations of a Vibrating Elasticum
Sinclair, Robert
1999-01-01
Two robust numerical algorithms for simulating the dynamics of a clamped, massless, incompressibleelasticum with a unit point mass at the free end are presented, along with some first results concerning various modes of oscillation, and further data with some relevance to the question of whether...
Numerical investigation of MHD flow of blood and heat transfer in a stenosed arterial segment
Majee, Sreeparna; Shit, G. C.
2017-02-01
A numerical investigation of unsteady flow of blood and heat transfer has been performed with an aim to provide better understanding of blood flow through arteries under stenotic condition. The blood is treated as Newtonian fluid and the arterial wall is considered to be rigid having deposition of plaque in its lumen. The heat transfer characteristic has been analyzed by taking into consideration of the dissipation of energy due to applied magnetic field and the viscosity of blood. The vorticity-stream function formulation has been adopted to solve the problem using implicit finite difference method by developing well known Peaceman-Rachford Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme. The quantitative profile analysis of velocity, temperature and wall shear stress as well as Nusselt number is carried out over the entire arterial segment. The streamline and temperature contours have been plotted to understand the flow pattern in the diseased artery, which alters significantly in the downstream of the stenosis in the presence of magnetic field. Both the wall shear stress and Nusselt number increases with increasing magnetic field strength. However, wall shear stress decreases and Nusselt number enhances with Reynolds number. The results show that with an increase in the magnetic field strength upto 8 T, does not causes any damage to the arterial wall, but the study is significant for assessing temperature rise during hyperthermic treatment.
Numerical investigation of the turbulent MHD flow in a circular pipe with transverse magnetic field
Dechamps, Xavier; Rasquin, Michel; Degrez, Gérard
2012-11-01
In modern industrial metallurgical processes, external magnetic fields are often applied to control the motion of liquid metals by a non-intrusive means. The desired results are for example the damping of unwanted motions or the homogenization of a liquid zone in a partially solidified ingot. Because of the commonly appearing parameters in these processes, one can assume the quasi-static assumption for the magnetohydrodynamic equations. Here we are interested in the numerical study of the turbulent flow of a liquid metal inside an electrically insulated pipe with a transverse uniform magnetic field. For this purpose, we will use a hybrid spectral/finite element solver, which allows to study complex flows in Cartesian and axisymmetric geometries. For the case of interest, we consider a bulk Reynolds number of 8200 and a Hartmann number ranging between 5 and 30. Here, the main points of interest are the evolution of the skin friction coefficient as a function of the ratio of the Hartmann number Ha over the Reynolds number Re (with 0 FNRS) is aknowledged.
Database application platform for earthquake numerical simulation
LUO Yan; ZHENG Yue-jun; CHEN Lian-wang; LU Yuan-zhong; HUANG Zhong-xian
2006-01-01
@@ Introduction In recent years, all kinds of observation networks of seismology have been established, which have been continuously producing numerous digital information. In addition, there are many study results about 3D velocity structure model and tectonic model of crust (Huang and Zhao, 2006; Huang et al, 2003; Li and Mooney, 1998),which are valuable for studying the inner structure of the earth and earthquake preparation process. It is badly needed to combine the observed data, experimental study and theoretical analyses results by the way of numerical simulation and develop a database and a corresponding application platform to be used by numerical simulation,and is also a significant way to promote earthquake prediction.
Numerical Simulation of Asynchronous Simulated Moving Bed Chromatography
卢建刚
2004-01-01
Asynchronous simulated moving bed chromatography (ASMBC), known also as the "VARICOL" process, is more efficient and flexible than the well-known and traditional simulated moving bed chromatography (SMBC). A detailed model of ASMBC, taking account of non-linear competitive isotherms, mass transfer parameters, and complex port switching schedule parameters, was developed to simulate the complex dynamics of ASMBC.The simulated performance is in close agreement with the experimental data of chiral separation reported in the literature. The simulation results show that ASMBC can achieve the performance similar to SMBC with fewer columns and can achieve better performance than SMBC with the same total column number. All design and operation parameters can be chosen correctly by numerical simulation. This detailed ASMBC model and the numerical technique are useful for design, operation, optimization and scale-up of ASMBC.
Fluid dynamics theory, computation, and numerical simulation
Pozrikidis, C
2001-01-01
Fluid Dynamics Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation is the only available book that extends the classical field of fluid dynamics into the realm of scientific computing in a way that is both comprehensive and accessible to the beginner The theory of fluid dynamics, and the implementation of solution procedures into numerical algorithms, are discussed hand-in-hand and with reference to computer programming This book is an accessible introduction to theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), written from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical practice There are several additions and subject expansions in the Second Edition of Fluid Dynamics, including new Matlab and FORTRAN codes Two distinguishing features of the discourse are solution procedures and algorithms are developed immediately after problem formulations are presented, and numerical methods are introduced on a need-to-know basis and in increasing order of difficulty Matlab codes are presented and discussed for a broad...
Fluid Dynamics Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation
Pozrikidis, Constantine
2009-01-01
Fluid Dynamics: Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation is the only available book that extends the classical field of fluid dynamics into the realm of scientific computing in a way that is both comprehensive and accessible to the beginner. The theory of fluid dynamics, and the implementation of solution procedures into numerical algorithms, are discussed hand-in-hand and with reference to computer programming. This book is an accessible introduction to theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), written from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical practice. There are several additions and subject expansions in the Second Edition of Fluid Dynamics, including new Matlab and FORTRAN codes. Two distinguishing features of the discourse are: solution procedures and algorithms are developed immediately after problem formulations are presented, and numerical methods are introduced on a need-to-know basis and in increasing order of difficulty. Matlab codes are presented and discussed for ...
Using Two-Ribbon Flare Observations and MHD Simulations to Constrain Flare Properties
Kazachenko, Maria D.; Lynch, Benjamin J.; Welsch, Brian
2016-05-01
Flare ribbons are emission structures that are frequently observed during flares in transition-region and chromospheric radiation. These typically straddle a polarity inversion line (PIL) of the radial magnetic field at the photosphere, and move apart as the flare progresses. The ribbon flux - the amount of unsigned photospheric magnetic flux swept out by flare ribbons - is thought to be related to the amount coronal magnetic reconnection, and hence provides a key diagnostic tool for understanding the physical processes at work in flares and CMEs. Previous measurements of the magnetic flux swept out by flare ribbons required time-consuming co-alignment between magnetograph and intensity data from different instruments, explaining why those studies only analyzed, at most, a few events. The launch of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), both aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), presented a rare opportunity to compile a much larger sample of flare-ribbon events than could readily be assembled before. We created a dataset of 363 events of both flare ribbon positions and fluxes, as a function of time, for all C9.-class and greater flares within 45 degrees of disk center observed by SDO from June 2010 till April 2015. For this purpose, we used vector magnetograms (2D magnetic field maps) from HMI and UV images from AIA. A critical problem with using unprocessed AIA data is the existence of spurious intensities in AIA data associated with strong flare emission, most notably "blooming" (spurious smearing of saturated signal into neighboring pixels, often in streaks). To overcome this difficulty, we have developed an algorithmic procedure that effectively excludes artifacts like blooming. We present our database and compare statistical properties of flare ribbons, e.g. evolutions of ribbon reconnection fluxes, reconnection flux rates and vertical currents with the properties from MHD simulations.
VisAn MHD: a toolbox in Matlab for MHD computer model data visualisation and analysis
P. Daum
2007-03-01
Full Text Available Among the many challenges facing modern space physics today is the need for a visualisation and analysis package which can examine the results from the diversity of numerical and empirical computer models as well as observational data. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models represent the latest numerical models of the complex Earth's space environment and have the unique ability to span the enormous distances present in the magnetosphere from several hundred kilometres to several thousand kilometres above the Earth surface. This feature enables scientist to study complex structures of processes where otherwise only point measurements from satellites or ground-based instruments are available. Only by combining these observational data and the MHD simulations it is possible to enlarge the scope of the point-to-point observations and to fill the gaps left by measurements in order to get a full 3-D representation of the processes in our geospace environment. In this paper we introduce the VisAn MHD toolbox for Matlab as a tool for the visualisation and analysis of observational data and MHD simulations. We have created an easy to use tool which is capable of highly sophisticated visualisations and data analysis of the results from a diverse set of MHD models in combination with in situ measurements from satellites and ground-based instruments. The toolbox is being released under an open-source licensing agreement to facilitate and encourage community use and contribution.
MHD Turbulence and Magnetic Dynamos
Shebalin, John V
2014-01-01
Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and magnetic dynamos, which occur in magnetofluids with large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers, will be discussed. When Reynolds numbers are large and energy decays slowly, the distribution of energy with respect to length scale becomes quasi-stationary and MHD turbulence can be described statistically. In the limit of infinite Reynolds numbers, viscosity and resistivity become zero and if these values are used in the MHD equations ab initio, a model system called ideal MHD turbulence results. This model system is typically confined in simple geometries with some form of homogeneous boundary conditions, allowing for velocity and magnetic field to be represented by orthogonal function expansions. One advantage to this is that the coefficients of the expansions form a set of nonlinearly interacting variables whose behavior can be described by equilibrium statistical mechanics, i.e., by a canonical ensemble theory based on the global invariants (energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity) of ideal MHD turbulence. Another advantage is that truncated expansions provide a finite dynamical system whose time evolution can be numerically simulated to test the predictions of the associated statistical mechanics. If ensemble predictions are the same as time averages, then the system is said to be ergodic; if not, the system is nonergodic. Although it had been implicitly assumed in the early days of ideal MHD statistical theory development that these finite dynamical systems were ergodic, numerical simulations provided sufficient evidence that they were, in fact, nonergodic. Specifically, while canonical ensemble theory predicted that expansion coefficients would be (i) zero-mean random variables with (ii) energy that decreased with length scale, it was found that although (ii) was correct, (i) was not and the expected ergodicity was broken. The exact cause of this broken ergodicity was explained, after much
Numerical Simulation of a Tornado Generating Supercell
Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.
2012-01-01
The development of tornadoes from a tornado generating supercell is investigated with a large eddy simulation weather model. Numerical simulations are initialized with a sounding representing the environment of a tornado producing supercell that affected North Carolina and Virginia during the Spring of 2011. The structure of the simulated storm was very similar to that of a classic supercell, and compared favorably to the storm that affected the vicinity of Raleigh, North Carolina. The presence of mid-level moisture was found to be important in determining whether a supercell would generate tornadoes. The simulations generated multiple tornadoes, including cyclonic-anticyclonic pairs. The structure and the evolution of these tornadoes are examined during their lifecycle.
Numerical simulation of centrifugal casting of pipes
Kaschnitz, E.
2012-07-01
A numerical simulation model for the horizontal centrifugal pipe casting process was developed with the commercial simulation package Flow3D. It considers - additionally to mass, energy and momentum conservation equations and free surface tracking - the fast radial and slower horizontal movement of the mold. The iron inflow is not steady state but time dependent. Of special importance is the friction between the liquid and the mold in connection with the viscosity and turbulence of the iron. Experiments with the mold at controlled revolution speeds were carried out using a high-speed camera. From these experiments friction coefficients for the description of the interaction between mold and melt were obtained. With the simulation model, the influence of typical process parameters (e.g. melts inflow, mold movement, melt temperature, cooling media) on the wall thickness of the pipes can be studied. The comparison to results of pipes from production shows a good agreement between simulation and reality.
2008-01-01
A three-dimensional (3-D) Hall MHD simulation is carried out to study the roles of initial current carrier in the topology of magnetic field, the generation and distribu- tion of field aligned currents (FACs), and the appearance of Alfvén waves. Consid- ering the contribution of ions to the initial current, the topology of the obtained magnetic field turns to be more complex. In some cases, it is found that not only the traditional By quadrupole structure but also a reversal By quadrupole structure appears in the simulation box. This can explain the observational features near the diffusion region, which are inconsistent with the Hall MHD theory with the total ini- tial current carried by electrons. Several other interesting features are also emerged. First, motions of electrons and ions are decoupled from each other in the small plasma region (Hall effect region) with a scale less than or comparable with the ion inertial length or ion skin depth di=c/ωp. In the non-Hall effect region, the global magnetic structure is shifted in +y direction under the influence of ions with initial y directional motion. However, in the Hall effect region, magnetic field lines are bent in ?y direction, mainly controlled by the motion of electrons, then By is generated. Second, FACs emerge as a result of the appearance of By. Compared with the prior Hall MHD simulation results, the generated FACs shift in +y direction, and hence the dawn-dusk symmetry is broken. Third, the Walén relation in our simulations is consistent with the Walén relation in Hall plasma, thus the presence of Alfvén wave is confirmed.
Issues in Numerical Simulation of Fire Suppression
Tieszen, S.R.; Lopez, A.R.
1999-04-12
This paper outlines general physical and computational issues associated with performing numerical simulation of fire suppression. Fire suppression encompasses a broad range of chemistry and physics over a large range of time and length scales. The authors discuss the dominant physical/chemical processes important to fire suppression that must be captured by a fire suppression model to be of engineering usefulness. First-principles solutions are not possible due to computational limitations, even with the new generation of tera-flop computers. A basic strategy combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation techniques with sub-grid model approximations for processes that have length scales unresolvable by gridding is presented.
Numerical simulation of semisolid continuous casting process
无
2001-01-01
A general mathematical model and boundary condition applicable to momentum and heat transfer in the semisolid continuous casting(SCC) process was established. Using the model, the numerical simulation of the momentum and heat transfer of molten metal was carried out in the SCC system. The obtained results fit well with the measured ones. Moreover, using the numerical simulating software, the effect of various factors on breakout and breakage was explored. The obtained results show that heat flow density of copper mold and the withdrawal beginning time are two major influencing factors. The larger the heat flow density of copper mold, or the shorter the withdrawal beginning time, the more stable the semisolid continuous casting process.
Numerical simulations of catastrophic disruption: Recent results
Benz, W.; Asphaug, E.; Ryan, E. V.
1994-01-01
Numerical simulations have been used to study high velocity two-body impacts. In this paper, a two-dimensional Largrangian finite difference hydro-code and a three-dimensional smooth particle hydro-code (SPH) are described and initial results reported. These codes can be, and have been, used to make specific predictions about particular objects in our solar system. But more significantly, they allow us to explore a broad range of collisional events. Certain parameters (size, time) can be studied only over a very restricted range within the laboratory; other parameters (initial spin, low gravity, exotic structure or composition) are difficult to study at all experimentally. The outcomes of numerical simulations lead to a more general and accurate understanding of impacts in their many forms.
First Numerical Simulations of Anomalous Hydrodynamics
Hongo, Masaru; Hirano, Tetsufumi
2013-01-01
Anomalous hydrodynamics is a low-energy effective theory that captures effects of quantum anomalies. We develop a numerical code of anomalous hydrodynamics and apply it to dynamics of heavy-ion collisions, where anomalous transports are expected to occur. This is the first attempt to perform fully non-linear numerical simulations of anomalous hydrodynamics. We discuss implications of the simulations for possible experimental observations of anomalous transport effects. From analyses of the charge-dependent elliptic flow parameters ($v_2^\\pm$) as a function of the net charge asymmetry $A_\\pm$, we quantitatively verify that the linear dependence of $\\Delta v_2 \\equiv v_2^- - v_2^+$ on the net charge asymmetry $A_\\pm$ cannot be regarded as a sensitive signal of anomalous transports, contrary to previous studies. We, however, find that the intercept $\\Delta v_2(A_\\pm=0)$ is sensitive to anomalous transport effects.
Numerical simulation and nasal air-conditioning
Keck, Tilman
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Heating and humidification of the respiratory air are the main functions of the nasal airways in addition to cleansing and olfaction. Optimal nasal air conditioning is mandatory for an ideal pulmonary gas exchange in order to avoid desiccation and adhesion of the alveolar capillary bed. The complex three-dimensional anatomical structure of the nose makes it impossible to perform detailed in vivo studies on intranasal heating and humidification within the entire nasal airways applying various technical set-ups. The main problem of in vivo temperature and humidity measurements is a poor spatial and time resolution. Therefore, in vivo measurements are feasible only to a restricted extent, solely providing single temperature values as the complete nose is not entirely accessible. Therefore, data on the overall performance of the nose are only based on one single measurement within each nasal segment. In vivo measurements within the entire nose are not feasible. These serious technical issues concerning in vivo measurements led to a large number of numerical simulation projects in the last few years providing novel information about the complex functions of the nasal airways. In general, numerical simulations merely calculate predictions in a computational model, e.g. a realistic nose model, depending on the setting of the boundary conditions. Therefore, numerical simulations achieve only approximations of a possible real situation. The aim of this review is the synopsis of the technical expertise on the field of in vivo nasal air conditioning, the novel information of numerical simulations and the current state of knowledge on the influence of nasal and sinus surgery on nasal air conditioning.
Numerical simulation of axial flow compressors.
Jesuino Takachi Tomita
2002-01-01
This work deals with the numerical simulation of axial flow compressors, from design to performance prediction. The stage performance prediction uses the meanline flow properties. Stage-stacking is used to analyse a multi-stage compressor. A computer program, written in FORTRAN, was developed and is able to design an axial flow compressor given air mass flow, total pressure ratio, overall efficiency and design speed. All geometrical data relevant to the compressor performance prediction is ca...
Numerical Simulation on CCOS Controllable Variable
CHENG Hao-bo; FENG Zhi-jing
2003-01-01
On the basis of Preston hypothesis,the motion relationship between tool and workpiece upon the tool's motion in planar model is analyzed.The effect on computer controlled optical surfacing (CCOS) caused by controllable variable is simulated except for the dwelling time,thus,some reference on theory is provided to optimize the former numerical control (NC) model,and fast manufacturing of large departure aspherics is realized.
Efficient Numerical Inversion for Financial Simulations
Derflinger, Gerhard; Hörmann, Wolfgang; Leydold, Josef; Sak, Halis
2009-01-01
Generating samples from generalized hyperbolic distributions and non-central chi-square distributions by inversion has become an important task for the simulation of recent models in finance in the framework of (quasi-) Monte Carlo. However, their distribution functions are quite expensive to evaluate and thus numerical methods like root finding algorithms are extremely slow. In this paper we demonstrate how our new method based on Newton interpolation and Gauss-Lobatto quadrature can be util...
Numerical simulation of droplet impact on interfaces
Kahouadji, Lyes; Che, Zhizhao; Matar, Omar; Shin, Seungwon; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir
2015-11-01
Simulations of three-dimensional droplet impact on interfaces are carried out using BLUE, a massively-parallel code based on a hybrid Front-Tracking/Level-Set algorithm for Lagrangian tracking of arbitrarily deformable phase interfaces. High resolution numerical results show fine details and features of droplet ejection, crown formation and rim instability observed under similar experimental conditions. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.
M. Palmroth
2005-09-01
Full Text Available We investigate the Northern Hemisphere Joule heating from several observational and computational sources with the purpose of calibrating a previously identified functional dependence between solar wind parameters and ionospheric total energy consumption computed from a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD simulation (Grand Unified Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling Simulation, GUMICS-4. In this paper, the calibration focuses on determining the amount and temporal characteristics of Northern Hemisphere Joule heating. Joule heating during a substorm is estimated from global observations, including electric fields provided by Super Dual Auroral Network (SuperDARN and Pedersen conductances given by the ultraviolet (UV and X-ray imagers on board the Polar satellite. Furthermore, Joule heating is assessed from several activity index proxies, large statistical surveys, assimilative data methods (AMIE, and the global MHD simulation GUMICS-4. We show that the temporal and spatial variation of the Joule heating computed from the GUMICS-4 simulation is consistent with observational and statistical methods. However, the different observational methods do not give a consistent estimate for the magnitude of the global Joule heating. We suggest that multiplying the GUMICS-4 total Joule heating by a factor of 10 approximates the observed Joule heating reasonably well. The lesser amount of Joule heating in GUMICS-4 is essentially caused by weaker Region 2 currents and polar cap potentials. We also show by theoretical arguments that multiplying independent measurements of averaged electric fields and Pedersen conductances yields an overestimation of Joule heating.
Keywords. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere; Modeling and forecasting; Electric fields and currents
Palmroth, M.; Janhunen, P.; Pulkkinen, T. I.; Aksnes, A.; Lu, G.; Østgaard, N.; Watermann, J.; Reeves, G. D.; Germany, G. A.
2005-09-01
We investigate the Northern Hemisphere Joule heating from several observational and computational sources with the purpose of calibrating a previously identified functional dependence between solar wind parameters and ionospheric total energy consumption computed from a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation (Grand Unified Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling Simulation, GUMICS-4). In this paper, the calibration focuses on determining the amount and temporal characteristics of Northern Hemisphere Joule heating. Joule heating during a substorm is estimated from global observations, including electric fields provided by Super Dual Auroral Network (SuperDARN) and Pedersen conductances given by the ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray imagers on board the Polar satellite. Furthermore, Joule heating is assessed from several activity index proxies, large statistical surveys, assimilative data methods (AMIE), and the global MHD simulation GUMICS-4. We show that the temporal and spatial variation of the Joule heating computed from the GUMICS-4 simulation is consistent with observational and statistical methods. However, the different observational methods do not give a consistent estimate for the magnitude of the global Joule heating. We suggest that multiplying the GUMICS-4 total Joule heating by a factor of 10 approximates the observed Joule heating reasonably well. The lesser amount of Joule heating in GUMICS-4 is essentially caused by weaker Region 2 currents and polar cap potentials. We also show by theoretical arguments that multiplying independent measurements of averaged electric fields and Pedersen conductances yields an overestimation of Joule heating. Keywords. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere; Modeling and forecasting; Electric fields and currents)
Numerical simulation of nuclear pebble bed configurations
Shams, A., E-mail: shams@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Roelofs, F., E-mail: roelofs@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Komen, E.M.J., E-mail: komen@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Baglietto, E., E-mail: emiliob@MIT.EDU [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (United States)
2015-08-15
Highlights: • Numerical simulations of a single face cubic centred pebble bed are performed. • Wide range of turbulence modelling techniques are used to perform these calculations. • The methods include 1-DNS, 1-LES, 3-Hybrid (RANS/LES) and 3-RANS models, respectively. • The obtained results are extensively compared to provide guidelines for such flow regimes. • These guidelines are used to perform reference LES for a limited sized random pebble bed. - Abstract: High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) are being considered all over the world. An HTR uses helium gas as a coolant, while the moderator function is taken up by graphite. The fuel is embedded in the graphite moderator. A particular inherent safety advantage of HTR designs is that the graphite can withstand very high temperatures, that the fuel inside will stay inside the graphite pebble and cannot escape to the surroundings even in the event of loss of cooling. Generally, the core can be designed using a graphite pebble bed. Some experimental and demonstration reactors have been operated using a pebble bed design. The test reactors have shown safe and efficient operation, however questions have been raised about possible occurrence of local hot spots in the pebble bed which may affect the pebble integrity. Analysis of the fuel integrity requires detailed evaluation of local heat transport phenomena in a pebble bed, and since such phenomena cannot easily be modelled experimentally, numerical simulations are a useful tool. As a part of a European project, named Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems (THINS), a benchmarking quasi-direct numerical simulation (q-DNS) of a well-defined pebble bed configuration has been performed. This q-DNS will serve as a reference database in order to evaluate the prediction capabilities of different turbulence modelling approaches. A wide range of numerical simulations based on different available turbulence modelling approaches are performed and compared with
2001 Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Review
Lytle, John; Follen, Gregory; Naiman, Cynthia; Veres, Joseph; Owen, Karl; Lopez, Isaac
2002-01-01
The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective, high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. Major accomplishments include the first formal release of the NPSS object-oriented architecture (NPSS Version 1) and the demonstration of a one order of magnitude reduction in computing cost-to-performance ratio using a cluster of personal computers. The paper also describes the future NPSS milestones, which include the simulation of space transportation propulsion systems in response to increased emphasis on safe, low cost access to space within NASA's Aerospace Technology Enterprise. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners on the fiscal year 2000 effort and the actions taken over the past year to
2000 Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Review
Lytle, John; Follen, Greg; Naiman, Cynthia; Veres, Joseph; Owen, Karl; Lopez, Isaac
2001-01-01
The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia, and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective. high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. Major accomplishments include the first formal release of the NPSS object-oriented architecture (NPSS Version 1) and the demonstration of a one order of magnitude reduction in computing cost-to-performance ratio using a cluster of personal computers. The paper also describes the future NPSS milestones, which include the simulation of space transportation propulsion systems in response to increased emphasis on safe, low cost access to space within NASA'S Aerospace Technology Enterprise. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners on the fiscal year 1999 effort and the actions taken over the past year to
Large Scale Earth’s Bow Shock with Northern IMF as Simulated by PIC Code in Parallel with MHD Model
Suleiman Baraka
2016-06-01
In this paper, we propose a 3D kinetic model (particle-in-cell, PIC) for the description of the large scale Earth’s bow shock. The proposed version is stable and does not require huge or extensive computer resources. Because PIC simulations work with scaled plasma and field parameters, we also propose to validate our code by comparing its results with the available MHD simulations under same scaled solar wind (SW) and (IMF) conditions. We report new results from the two models. In both codes the Earth’s bow shock position is found to be $\\approx 14.8 R_{{\\rm E}}$ along the Sun–Earth line, and $\\approx 29 R_{{\\rm E}}$ on the dusk side. Those findings are consistent with past in situ observations. Both simulations reproduce the theoretical jump conditions at the shock. However, the PIC code density and temperature distributions are inflated and slightly shifted sunward when compared to the MHD results. Kinetic electron motions and reflected ions upstream may cause this sunward shift. Species distributions in the foreshock region are depicted within the transition of the shock (measured $\\approx$2$c/\\omega_{pi}$ for $ \\Theta_{Bn}=90^{\\circ}$ and $M_{{\\rm MS}} = 4.7 $) and in the downstream. The size of the foot jump in the magnetic field at the shock is measured to be ($1.7 c/ \\omega_{pi} $). In the foreshocked region, the thermal velocity is found equal to 213 km $s^{−1}$ at $15R_{{\\rm E}}$ and is equal to $63 km s^{-1}$ at $12 R_{{\\rm E}}$ (magnetosheath region). Despite the large cell size of the current version of the PIC code, it is powerful to retain macrostructure of planets magnetospheres in very short time, thus it can be used for pedagogical test purposes. It is also likely complementary with MHD to deepen our understanding of the large scale magnetosphere.
NUMERICAL MODEL APPLICATION IN ROWING SIMULATOR DESIGN
Petr Chmátal
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The aim of the research was to carry out a hydraulic design of rowing/sculling and paddling simulator. Nowadays there are two main approaches in the simulator design. The first one includes a static water with no artificial movement and counts on specially cut oars to provide the same resistance in the water. The second approach, on the other hand uses pumps or similar devices to force the water to circulate but both of the designs share many problems. Such problems are affecting already built facilities and can be summarized as unrealistic feeling, unwanted turbulent flow and bad velocity profile. Therefore, the goal was to design a new rowing simulator that would provide nature-like conditions for the racers and provide an unmatched experience. In order to accomplish this challenge, it was decided to use in-depth numerical modeling to solve the hydraulic problems. The general measures for the design were taken in accordance with space availability of the simulator ́s housing. The entire research was coordinated with other stages of the construction using BIM. The detailed geometry was designed using a numerical model in Ansys Fluent and parametric auto-optimization tools which led to minimum negative hydraulic phenomena and decreased investment and operational costs due to the decreased hydraulic losses in the system.
Numerical simulation of a natural circulation loop
Verissimo, Gabriel L.; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes; Faccini, Jose Luiz H., E-mail: gabrielverissimo@poli.ufrj.b, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.b, E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2011-07-01
This work presents a numerical simulation of a natural circulation loop using computational fluid dynamics. The simulated loop is an experimental model in a reduced scale of 1:10 of a passive heat removal system typical of advanced PWR reactors. The loop is composed of a heating vessel containing 52 electric heaters, a vertical shell-tube heat exchanger and a column of expansion. The working fluid is distilled water. Initially it was created a tridimensional geometric model of the loop components. After that, it was generated a tridimensional mesh of finite elements in order to calculate the variables of the problem. The boundaries of the numerical simulation were the power of the electric resistances and the cooling flow in the secondary side of the heat exchanger. The initial conditions were the temperature, the pressure and the fluid velocity at the time just before the power has been switched on. The results of this simulation were compared with the experimental data, in terms of the evolution of the temperatures in different locations of the loop, and of the average natural circulation flow as a function of time for a given power. (author)
Mathematical models and numerical simulation in electromagnetism
Bermúdez, Alfredo; Salgado, Pilar
2014-01-01
The book represents a basic support for a master course in electromagnetism oriented to numerical simulation. The main goal of the book is that the reader knows the boundary-value problems of partial differential equations that should be solved in order to perform computer simulation of electromagnetic processes. Moreover it includes a part devoted to electric circuit theory based on ordinary differential equations. The book is mainly oriented to electric engineering applications, going from the general to the specific, namely, from the full Maxwell’s equations to the particular cases of electrostatics, direct current, magnetostatics and eddy currents models. Apart from standard exercises related to analytical calculus, the book includes some others oriented to real-life applications solved with MaxFEM free simulation software.
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent liquid metal flow entering a magnetic field
Albets-Chico, X., E-mail: xalbets@ucy.ac.cy; Grigoriadis, D.G.E.; Votyakov, E.V.; Kassinos, S.
2013-12-15
Highlights: • Analysis of turbulence persistence of fully developed MHD pipe flow at Re{sub b} = 4000. • Turbulence decay of fully developed turbulence flow entering low, moderate and strong magnetic fields. • Analysis of the wall conductivity on the aforementioned phenomena. • Discovering and further analysis of flow instabilities of the flow entering a strong magnetic field. -- Abstract: This paper presents direct numerical simulations (DNS) of fully developed turbulent liquid-metal flow in a circular duct entering a magnetic field. The case of a magnetohydrodynamic flow leaving a strong magnetic field has been extensively studied experimentally and numerically owing to its similarity to typical flow configurations appearing in liquid metal blankets of nuclear fusion reactors. Although also relevant to the design of fusion reactor blankets, the flow entering the fringing field of a magnet remains unexplored because its high intricacy precludes any simplification of the governing equations. Indeed, the complexity of the magnetohydrodynamic–turbulence interaction can only be analysed by direct numerical simulations or experiments. With that purpose, this paper addresses the case of a fully developed turbulent flow (Re{sub τ} ≈ 520) entering low, intermediate and strong magnetic fields under electrically insulating and poorly conducting walls by means of three-dimensional direct numerical simulations. Purely hydrodynamic computations (without the effect of the magnetic field) reveal an excellent agreement against previous experimental and numerical results. Current MHD results provide a very detailed information of the turbulence decay and reveal new three-dimensional features related to liquid-metal flow entering strong increasing magnetic fields, such as flow instabilities due to the effect of the Lorentz forces within the fringing region at high Ha numbers.
Khomenko, E; de Vicente, A; Collados, M; Luna, M
2014-01-01
We study the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) at a prominence-corona transition region in a non-linear regime. Our aim is to understand how the presence of neutral atoms in the prominence plasma influences the instability growth rate, and the evolution of velocity, magnetic field vector and thermodynamic parameters of turbulent drops. We perform 2.5D numerical simulations of the instability initiated by a multi-mode perturbation at the corona-prominence interface using a single-fluid MHD approach including a generalized Ohm's law. The initial equilibrium configuration is purely hydrostatic and contains a homogeneous horizontal magnetic field forming an angle with the direction in which the plasma is perturbed. We analyze simulations with two different orientations of the magnetic field. For each field orientation we compare two simulations, one for the pure MHD case, and one including the ambipolar diffusion in the Ohm's law (AD case). Other than that, both simulations for each field orientation are identica...
Numerical recipes for mold filling simulation
Kothe, D.; Juric, D.; Lam, K.; Lally, B.
1998-07-01
Has the ability to simulate the filling of a mold progressed to a point where an appropriate numerical recipe achieves the desired results? If results are defined to be topological robustness, computational efficiency, quantitative accuracy, and predictability, all within a computational domain that faithfully represents complex three-dimensional foundry molds, then the answer unfortunately remains no. Significant interfacial flow algorithm developments have occurred over the last decade, however, that could bring this answer closer to maybe. These developments have been both evolutionary and revolutionary, will continue to transpire for the near future. Might they become useful numerical recipes for mold filling simulations? Quite possibly. Recent progress in algorithms for interface kinematics and dynamics, linear solution methods, computer science issues such as parallelization and object-oriented programming, high resolution Navier-Stokes (NS) solution methods, and unstructured mesh techniques, must all be pursued as possible paths toward higher fidelity mold filling simulations. A detailed exposition of these algorithmic developments is beyond the scope of this paper, hence the authors choose to focus here exclusively on algorithms for interface kinematics. These interface tracking algorithms are designed to model the movement of interfaces relative to a reference frame such as a fixed mesh. Current interface tracking algorithm choices are numerous, so is any one best suited for mold filling simulation? Although a clear winner is not (yet) apparent, pros and cons are given in the following brief, critical review. Highlighted are those outstanding interface tracking algorithm issues the authors feel can hamper the reliable modeling of today`s foundry mold filling processes.
Large Scale Earth's Bow Shock with Northern IMF as simulated by PIC code in parallel with MHD model
Baraka, Suleiman M
2016-01-01
In this paper, we propose a 3D kinetic model (Particle-in-Cell PIC ) for the description of the large scale Earth's bow shock. The proposed version is stable and does not require huge or extensive computer resources. Because PIC simulations work with scaled plasma and field parameters, we also propose to validate our code by comparing its results with the available MHD simulations under same scaled Solar wind ( SW ) and ( IMF ) conditions. We report new results from the two models. In both codes the Earth's bow shock position is found to be ~14.8 RE along the Sun-Earth line, and ~ 29 RE on the dusk side. Those findings are consistent with past in situ observations. Both simulations reproduce the theoretical jump conditions at the shock. However, the PIC code density and temperature distributions are inflated and slightly shifted sunward when compared to the MHD results. Kinetic electron motions and reflected ions upstream may cause this sunward shift. Species distributions in the foreshock region are depicted...
Non-equilibrium helium ionization in an MHD simulation of the solar atmosphere
Golding, Thomas Peter; Carlsson, Mats
2015-01-01
The ionization state of the gas in the dynamic solar chromosphere can depart strongly from the instantaneous statistical equilibrium commonly assumed in numerical modeling. We improve on earlier simulations of the solar atmosphere that only included non-equilbrium hydrogen ionization by performing a 2D radiation-magneto-hydrodynamics simulation featuring non-equilibrium ionization of both hydrogen and helium. The simulation includes the effect of hydrogen Lyman-$\\alpha$ and the EUV radiation from the corona on the ionization and heating of the atmosphere. Details on code implementation are given. We obtain helium ion fractions that are far from their equilibrium values. Comparison with models with LTE ionization shows that non-equilibrium helium ionization leads to higher temperatures in wave fronts and lower temperatures in the gas between shocks. Assuming LTE ionization results in a thermostat-like behaviour with matter accumulating around the temperatures where the LTE ionization fractions change rapidly. ...
MHD simulations reveal crucial differences between solar and very-cool star magnetic structures
Beeck, Benjamin; Reiners, Ansgar
2011-01-01
We carried out 3D radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the convective and magnetic structure in the surface layers (uppermost part of the convection zone and photosphere) of main-sequence stars of spectral types F3 to M2. The simulation results were analyzed in terms of sizes and properties of the convection cells (granules) and magnetic flux concentrations as well as velocity, pressure, density, and temperature profiles. Our numerical simulations show for the first time a qualitative difference in the magneto-convection between solar-like stars and M dwarfs. Owing to higher surface gravity, lower opacity (resulting in higher density at optical depth unity), and more stable downflows, small-scale magnetic structures concentrate into pore-like configurations of reduced intensity. This implies that in very cool stars magnetic surface structures like plage regions and starspots significantly differ from the solar example. Such a difference would have major impact on the interpretation of Doppler imaging ...
A Numerical Simulation of the Density Oscilator
Hernandez Zapata, Sergio; Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo
2016-11-01
In this work we carry out a numerical simulation for the dynamics that originates when a fluid (salty water) is located on top of another less dense fluid (pure water) in the presence of gravity. This is an unstable situation that leads to the development of intercalating lines of descending salty water and ascending pure water. Another situation is studied where the fluids are in two containers joined by a small hole. In this case a time pattern of alternating flows develops leading to an oscillator. The study of the velocity field around the hole shows than in a certain interval of time it develops intercalating lines like in the former situation. An interesting result is the fact that when a given fluid is flowing in one direction a vorticity pattern develops in the other fluid. The Navier-Stokes, continuity and salt diffusion equations, are solved numerically in cylindrical coordinates, using a finite difference scheme in the axial and radial directions and a Fourier spectral method for the angular coordinate. On the other hand, the second order Adams-Bashfort method is used for the time evolution. The results are compared to a numerical simulation of a pedestrian oscillator we developed based on the Hebling and Molnar social force model. The authors want to acknowledge support by DGAPA-UNAM (Project PAPIIT IN-115315 "Ondas y estructuras coherentes en dinámica de fluidos".
Z. G. Makukula
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We use recent innovative solution techniques to investigate the problem of MHD viscous flow due to a shrinking sheet with a chemical reaction. A comparison is made of the convergence rates, ease of use, and expensiveness (the number of iterations required to give convergent results of three seminumerical techniques in solving systems of nonlinear boundary value problems. The results were validated using a multistep, multimethod approach comprising the use of the shooting method, the Matlab bvp4c numerical routine, and with results in the literature.
Numerical simulation of real-world flows
Hayase, Toshiyuki
2015-10-01
Obtaining real flow information is important in various fields, but is a difficult issue because measurement data are usually limited in time and space, and computational results usually do not represent the exact state of real flows. Problems inherent in the realization of numerical simulation of real-world flows include the difficulty in representing exact initial and boundary conditions and the difficulty in representing unstable flow characteristics. This article reviews studies dealing with these problems. First, an overview of basic flow measurement methodologies and measurement data interpolation/approximation techniques is presented. Then, studies on methods of integrating numerical simulation and measurement, namely, four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var), Kalman filters (KFs), state observers, etc are discussed. The first problem is properly solved by these integration methodologies. The second problem can be partially solved with 4D-Var in which only initial and boundary conditions are control parameters. If an appropriate control parameter capable of modifying the dynamical structure of the model is included in the formulation of 4D-Var, unstable modes are properly suppressed and the second problem is solved. The state observer and KFs also solve the second problem by modifying mathematical models to stabilize the unstable modes of the original dynamical system by applying feedback signals. These integration methodologies are now applied in simulation of real-world flows in a wide variety of research fields. Examples are presented for basic fluid dynamics and applications in meteorology, aerospace, medicine, etc.
Numerical simulation of real-world flows
Hayase, Toshiyuki, E-mail: hayase@ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)
2015-10-15
Obtaining real flow information is important in various fields, but is a difficult issue because measurement data are usually limited in time and space, and computational results usually do not represent the exact state of real flows. Problems inherent in the realization of numerical simulation of real-world flows include the difficulty in representing exact initial and boundary conditions and the difficulty in representing unstable flow characteristics. This article reviews studies dealing with these problems. First, an overview of basic flow measurement methodologies and measurement data interpolation/approximation techniques is presented. Then, studies on methods of integrating numerical simulation and measurement, namely, four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var), Kalman filters (KFs), state observers, etc are discussed. The first problem is properly solved by these integration methodologies. The second problem can be partially solved with 4D-Var in which only initial and boundary conditions are control parameters. If an appropriate control parameter capable of modifying the dynamical structure of the model is included in the formulation of 4D-Var, unstable modes are properly suppressed and the second problem is solved. The state observer and KFs also solve the second problem by modifying mathematical models to stabilize the unstable modes of the original dynamical system by applying feedback signals. These integration methodologies are now applied in simulation of real-world flows in a wide variety of research fields. Examples are presented for basic fluid dynamics and applications in meteorology, aerospace, medicine, etc. (topical review)
Cyclic thermal signature in a global MHD simulation of solar convection
Cossette, J.; Charbonneau, P.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.
2013-12-01
Space-based observations have clearly established that total solar irradiance (TSI) varies on time scales from minutes to days and months as well as on the longer time scale of the 11-year solar cycle. The most conspicuous of these variations is arguably the slight increase of TSI (0.1%) at solar maxima relative to solar minima. Models that include contributions from surface solar magnetism alone (i.e. sunspots, faculae and magnetic network) have been very successful at reproducing the observed TSI fluctuations on time scales shorter than a year, but leave some doubts as to the origin of the longer decadal fluctuations. In particular, one school of thought argues that surface magnetism alone can explain the entire TSI variance; see (Lean & al. 1998, ApJ, 492, 390), whereas; the other emphasizes on taking into account the effect of a global modulation of solar thermal structure by magnetic activity; see (Li & al. 2003, ApJ, 591, 1267). Observationally, the potential for the occurrence of magnetically-modulated global structural changes is supported by a positive correlation between p-mode oscillation frequencies and the TSI cycle as well as by recent evidence for a long-term trend in the TSI record that is not seen in indicators of surface magnetism; see (Bhatnagar & al. 1999, ApJ, 521, 885; Fröhlich 2013, Space Sci Rev,176, 237). Additionally, 1D structural solar models have demonstrated that the inclusion of a magnetically-modulated turbulent mechanism could explain the observed p-mode oscillation frequency changes with great accuracy. However, these models relied upon an ad-hoc parametrization of the alleged process and therefore obtaining a complete physical picture of the modulating mechanism requires solving the equations governing the self-consistent evolution of the solar plasma. Here we present a global magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulation of solar convection extending over more than a millennium that produces large-scale solar-like axisymmetric magnetic
Cosmic ray transport in MHD turbulence
Yan, Huirong
2007-01-01
Numerical simulations shed light onto earlier not trackable problem of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. They allowed to test the predictions of different models and choose the correct ones. Inevitably, this progress calls for revisions in the picture of cosmic ray (CR) transport. It also shed light on the problems with the present day numerical modeling of CR. In this paper we focus on the analytical way of describing CR propagation and scattering, which should be used in synergy with the numerical studies. In particular, we use recently established scaling laws for MHD modes to obtain the transport properties for CRs. We include nonlinear effects arising from large scale trapping, to remove the 90 degree divergence. We determine how the efficiency of the scattering and CR mean free path depend on the characteristics of ionized media, e.g. plasma $\\beta$, Coulomb collisional mean free path. Implications for particle transport in interstellar medium and solar corona are discussed. We also examine the perp...
Numerical simulations of vibrating sessile drop
Kahouadji, Lyes; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir; Shin, Seungwon; Craster, Richard; Matar, Omar
2016-11-01
A vibrated drop constitutes a very rich physical system, blending both interfacial and volume phenomena. A remarkable experimental study was performed by M. Costalonga highlighting sessile drop motion subject to horizontal, vertical and oblique vibration. Several intriguing phenomena are observed such as drop walking and rapid droplet ejection. We perform three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of vibrating sessile drops where the phenomena described above are computed using the massively parallel multiphase code BLUE. EPSRC UK Programme Grant MEMPHIS (EP/K003976/1).
Tornado structure interaction: a numerical simulation
Wilson, T.
1977-05-20
The effects of tornadoes on buildings are examined to determine the wind forces on structures. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has developed guidelines for building code requirements for the minimum wind loads a building must be designed to withstand. The conservatism or nonconservatism on the ANSI approach is evaluated by simulating tornado-structure interaction numerically with a two-dimensional fluid dynamics computer code and a vortex model. Only external pressures are considered. The computer calculations yield the following percentages of the ANSI design pressures: rigid frame, 50 to 90%; individual wall panels, 75 to 200%; and wall corners, 50 to 75%.
Naganthran, Kohilavani; Nazar, Roslinda
2017-08-01
In this study, the influence of the first order chemical reaction towards the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) stagnation-point boundary layer flow past a permeable stretching/shrinking surface (sheet) is considered numerically. The governing boundary layer equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations from the system of partial differential equations by using a proper similarity transformation so that it can be solved numerically by the "bvp4c" function in Matlab software. The main numerical solutions are presented graphically and discussed in the relevance of the governing parameters. It is found that dual solutions exist when the sheet is stretched and shrunk. Stability analysis is done to determine which solution is stable and valid physically. The results of the stability analysis show that the first solution (upper branch) is physically stable and realizable while the second solution (lower branch) is impracticable.
Numerical Simulation of Level Magnetic Field
无
2003-01-01
According to Maxwell electromagnetic field theory and magnetic vector potential integral equation, a mathematical model of LMF (Level Magnetic Field) for EMBR (Electromagnetic brake) was proposed, and the reliable software for LMF calculation was developed. The distribution of magnetic flux density given by numerical simulation shows that the magnetic flux density is greater in the magnet and magnetic leakage is observed in the gap. The magnetic flux density is uniform in horizontal plane and a peak is observed in vertical plane. Furthermore, the effects of electromagnetic and structural parameters on magnetic flux density were discussed. The relationship between magnetic flux, electromagnetic parameters and structural parameters is obtained by dimensional analysis, simulation experiment and least square method.
Numerical simulation of large fabric filter
Kovařík Petr
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Fabric filters are used in the wide range of industrial technologies for cleaning of incoming or exhaust gases. To achieve maximal efficiency of the discrete phase separation and long lifetime of the filter hoses, it is necessary to ensure uniform load on filter surface and to avoid impacts of heavy particles with high velocities to the filter hoses. The paper deals with numerical simulation of two phase flow field in a large fabric filter. The filter is composed of six chambers with approx. 1600 filter hoses in total. The model was simplified to one half of the filter, the filter hoses walls were substituted by porous zones. The model settings were based on experimental data, especially on the filter pressure drop. Unsteady simulations with different turbulence models were done. Flow field together with particles trajectories were analyzed. The results were compared with experimental observations.
Numerical simulation of large fabric filter
Sedláček, Jan; Kovařík, Petr
2012-04-01
Fabric filters are used in the wide range of industrial technologies for cleaning of incoming or exhaust gases. To achieve maximal efficiency of the discrete phase separation and long lifetime of the filter hoses, it is necessary to ensure uniform load on filter surface and to avoid impacts of heavy particles with high velocities to the filter hoses. The paper deals with numerical simulation of two phase flow field in a large fabric filter. The filter is composed of six chambers with approx. 1600 filter hoses in total. The model was simplified to one half of the filter, the filter hoses walls were substituted by porous zones. The model settings were based on experimental data, especially on the filter pressure drop. Unsteady simulations with different turbulence models were done. Flow field together with particles trajectories were analyzed. The results were compared with experimental observations.
Numerical simulation of space UV spectrographs
Yushkin, Maksim; Fatkhullin, Timur; Panchuk, Vladimir; Sachkov, Mikhail; Kanev, Evgeny
2016-07-01
Based on the ray tracing method, we developed algorithms for constructing numerical model of spectroscopic instrumentation. The Software is realized in C ++ using nVidia CUDA technology. The software package consists of three separate modules: the ray tracing module, a module for calculating energy efficiency and module of CCD image simulation. The main objective of this work was to obtain images of the spectra for the cross-dispersed spectrographs as well as segmented aperture Long Slit Spectrograph. The software can be potentially used by WSO-UV project. To test our algorithms and the software package we have performed simulations of the ground cross-dispersed Nasmyth Echelle Spectrometer (NES) installed on the platform of the Nasmyth focus of the Russian 6-meter BTA telescope. The comparison of model images of stellar spectra with observations on this device confirms that the software works well. The high degree of agreement between the theoretical and real spectra is shown.
Numerical Simulation on Ship Bubbly Wake
Huiping Fu; Pengcheng Wan
2011-01-01
Based on a volume of fluid two-phase model imbedded in the general computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT6.3.26,the viscous flow with free surface around a model-scaled KRISO container ship(KCS)was first numerically simulated.Then with a rigid-lid-free-surface method,the underwater flow field was computed based on the mixture multiphase model to simulate the bubbly wake around the KCS hull.The realizable k-ε two-equation turbulence model and Reynolds stress model were used to analyze the effects of turbulence model on the ship bubbly wake.The air entrainment model,which is relative to the normal velocity gradient of the free surface,and the solving method were verified by the qualitatively reasonable computed results.
Numerical simulation of flow through orifice meters
Barry, J. J.; Sheikholeslami, M. Z.; Patel, B. R.
1992-05-01
The FLUENT and FLUENT/BFC computer programs have been used to numerically model turbulent flow through orifice meters. These simulations were based on solution of the Navier-Stokes equations incorporating a k-epsilon turbulence model. For ideal installations, trends in the discharge coefficient with Reynolds number, beta ratio, and surface roughness have been reproduced, and the value of the discharge coefficient has been computed to within 2 percent. Nonideal installations have also been simulated, including the effects of expanders, reducers, valves, and bends. Detailed modeling of flow through a bend has yielded results in good agreement with experimental data. The trend in discharge coefficient shifts for orifice meters downstream of bends has been predicted reasonably well.
Xie, Lianghai; Li, Lei; Zhang, Yiteng; Feng, Yongyong; Wang, Xinyue; Zhang, Aibing; Kong, Linggao
2015-08-01
Lunar minimagnetosphere formed by the interaction between the solar wind and a local crustal field often has a scale size comparable to the ion inertia length, in which the Hall effect is very important. In this paper, the general characteristics of lunar minimagnetosphere are investigated by three-dimensional Hall MHD simulations. It is found that the solar wind ions can penetrate across the magnetopause to reduce the density depletion and cause the merging of the shock and magnetopause, but the electrons are still blocked at the boundary. Besides, asymmetric convection occurs, resulting in the magnetic field piles up on one side while the plasma gathers on the other side. The size of the minimagnetosphere is determined by both the solar zenith angle and the magnetosonic Mach number, while the Hall effect is determined by the ratio of the pressure balance distance to the ion inertia length. When the ratio gets small, the shock may disappear. Finally, we present a global Hall MHD simulation for comparison with the observation from Chang'E-2 satellite on 11 October 2010 and confirm that Chang'E-2 flew across compression regions of two separate minimagnetospheres.
Study of numerical errors in direct numerical simulation and large eddy simulation
YANG Xiao-long; FU Song
2008-01-01
By comparing the energy spectrum and total kinetic energy, the effects of numerical errors (which arise from aliasing and discretization errors), subgrid-scale (SGS) models, and their interactions on direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) are investigated. The decaying isotropic turbulence is chosen as the test case. To simulate complex geometries, both the spectral method and Pade compact difference schemes are studied. The truncated Navier-Stokes (TNS) equation model with Pade discrete filter is adopted as the SGS model. It is found that the discretization error plays a key role in DNS. Low order difference schemes may be unsuitable. However, for LES, it is found that the SGS model can represent the effect of small scales to large scales and dump the numerical errors. Therefore, reasonable results can also be obtained with a low order discretization scheme.
A 3D MHD simulation of SN 1006: a polarized emission study for the turbulent case
Velázquez, P. F.; Schneiter, E. M.; Reynoso, E. M.; Esquivel, A.; De Colle, F.; Toledo-Roy, J. C.; Gómez, D. O.; Sieyra, M. V.; Moranchel-Basurto, A.
2017-01-01
Three dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations were carried out in order to perform a new polarization study of the radio emission of the supernova remnant SN 1006. These simulations consider that the remnant expands into a turbulent interstellar medium (including both magnetic field and figuredensity perturbations). Based on the referenced-polar angle technique, a statistical study was done on observational and numerical magnetic field position-angle distributions. Our results show that a turbulent medium with an adiabatic index of 1.3 can reproduce the polarization properties of the SN 1006 remnant. This statistical study reveals itself as a useful tool for obtaining the orientation of the ambient magnetic field, previous to be swept up by the main supernova remnant shock.
Numerical Simulation of a Centrifugal Compressor
S.M.Swamy
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the tip clearance effects on flow field of a low speed centrifugal compressor without and with partial shroud (PS fitted on to the rotor blade tip at three values of tip clearance, viz. = 2.2%, 5.1% and 7.9% of rotor blade height at the exit at three flow coefficients, namely, = 0.18, 0.28, and 0.34, was studied. Based on the theory of computational fluid dynamics (CFD, performance curves and parameter distributions of the compressor were obtained from the 3-D numerical simulation by using ANSYS CFX 15.0. The centrifugal compressor in aerodynamic requirement is that edge velocities along the impeller channel passage surfaces like hub, shroud, pressure and suction surfaces vary smoothly without sudden decelerations, which cause flow separation leading to losses. Using the periodic boundaries and defined flow conditions at inflow / exit flow and blade rotations, the turbulent viscous flow between blade channels are computed. The efficiency related parameters using average quantities, besides flow pattern in terms of velocities, streamlines and pressure distribution on blade surfaces are graphically interpreted. An attempt is also made to study the influence of pressure loads on structural deformations in the chosen blade profile. This paper highlights aero-mechanical features of centrifugal impeller obtained from several numerical simulations, which are expected to provide a sound basis for further investigations
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flows
Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)
1993-12-01
The development of turbulent combustion models that reflect some of the most important characteristics of turbulent reacting flows requires knowledge about the behavior of key quantities in well defined combustion regimes. In turbulent flames, the coupling between the turbulence and the chemistry is so strong in certain regimes that is is very difficult to isolate the role played by one individual phenomenon. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is an extremely useful tool to study in detail the turbulence-chemistry interactions in certain well defined regimes. Globally, non-premixed flames are controlled by two limiting cases: the fast chemistry limit, where the turbulent fluctuations. In between these two limits, finite-rate chemical effects are important and the turbulence interacts strongly with the chemical processes. This regime is important because industrial burners operate in regimes in which, locally the flame undergoes extinction, or is at least in some nonequilibrium condition. Furthermore, these nonequilibrium conditions strongly influence the production of pollutants. To quantify the finite-rate chemistry effect, direct numerical simulations are performed to study the interaction between an initially laminar non-premixed flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of extinction and on transient effects on the fine scale mixing process. Differential molecular diffusion among species is also examined with this approach, both for nonreacting and reacting situations. To address the problem of large-scale mixing and to examine the effects of mean shear, efforts are underway to perform large eddy simulations of round three-dimensional jets.
Huang, Z.; Toth, G.; Gombosi, T. I.; Jia, X.; Rubin, M.; Hansen, K. C.; Fougere, N.; Bieler, A. M.; Shou, Y.; Altwegg, K.; Combi, M. R.; Tenishev, V.
2015-12-01
The neutral and plasma environment is critical in understanding the interaction of comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG), the target of the Rosetta mission, and the solar wind. To serve this need and support the Rosetta mission, we develop a 3-D four fluid model, which is based on BATS-R-US within the SWMF (Space Weather Modeling Framework) that solves the governing multi-fluid MHD equations and the Euler equations for the neutral gas fluid. These equations describe the behavior and interactions of the cometary heavy ions, the solar wind protons, the electrons, and the neutrals. This model incorporates different mass loading processes, including photo and electron impact ionization, charge exchange, dissociative ion-electron recombination, and collisional interactions between different fluids. We simulate the near nucleus plasma and neutral gas environment near perihelion with a realistic shape model of CG and compare our simulation results with Rosetta observations.
Yokoyama, Takaaki; Oi, Yoshiaki; Toriumi, Shin
2017-08-01
Active regions holding a delta-sunspot are known to produce the largest class of solar flares. How, where, and when such large flares occur above a delta-sunspot are still under debate. For studying this, 3D MHD simulations of the emergence of a subsurface flux tube at two locations in a simulation box modeling the convection zone to the corona were conducted. We found that a flux rope is formed as a consequence of magnetic reconnection of two bipolar loops and sunspot rotation caused by the twist of the subsurface flux tube. Moreover, the flux rope stops ascending when the initial background is not magnetized, whereas it rises up to the upper boundary when a reconnection favorably oriented pre-existing field is introduced to the initial background.
Direct numerical simulation of human phonation
Saurabh, Shakti; Bodony, Daniel
2016-11-01
A direct numerical simulation study of the generation and propagation of the human voice in a full-body domain is conducted. A fully compressible fluid flow model, anatomically representative vocal tract geometry, finite deformation model for vocal fold (VF) motion and a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction model are employed. The dynamics of the multi-layered VF tissue with varying stiffness are solved using a quadratic finite element code. The fluid-solid domains are coupled through a boundary-fitted interface and utilize a Poisson equation-based mesh deformation method. A new inflow boundary condition, based upon a quasi-1D formulation with constant sub-glottal volume velocity, linked to the VF movement, has been adopted. Simulations for both child and adult phonation were performed. Acoustic characteristics obtained from these simulation are consistent with expected values. A sensitivity analysis based on VF stiffness variation is undertaken and sound pressure level/fundamental frequency trends are established. An evaluation of the data against the commonly-used quasi-1D equations suggest that the latter are not sufficient to model phonation. Phonation threshold pressures are measured for several VF stiffness variations and comparisons to clinical data are carried out. Supported by the National Science Foundation (CAREER Award Number 1150439).
The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: An Overview
Lytle, John K.
2000-01-01
Advances in computational technology and in physics-based modeling are making large-scale, detailed simulations of complex systems possible within the design environment. For example, the integration of computing, communications, and aerodynamics has reduced the time required to analyze major propulsion system components from days and weeks to minutes and hours. This breakthrough has enabled the detailed simulation of major propulsion system components to become a routine part of designing systems, providing the designer with critical information about the components early in the design process. This paper describes the development of the numerical propulsion system simulation (NPSS), a modular and extensible framework for the integration of multicomponent and multidisciplinary analysis tools using geographically distributed resources such as computing platforms, data bases, and people. The analysis is currently focused on large-scale modeling of complete aircraft engines. This will provide the product developer with a "virtual wind tunnel" that will reduce the number of hardware builds and tests required during the development of advanced aerospace propulsion systems.
Numerical simulations of turbulent ionized gas flows in the circumsolar protoplanetary disk
Marov, M. Ya.; Kuksa, M. M.
2015-09-01
An axisymmetric protoplanetary disk model that takes into account the interaction of turbulent gas flows with the magnetic field is considered. A closed system of equations of homogeneous compressible magnetohydrodynamics in the regime of developed turbulence in the gravitational and magnetic fields of a star has been constructed. Apart from the traditional probability-theoretical averaging of the MHD equations, the weighted Favre averaging is used. The approach by A.V. Kolesnichenko and M.Ya. Marov to modeling the turbulent transport coefficients in a weakly ionized disk has been implemented. It allows the inverse effects of the generated magnetic field on a turbulent gas flow and the dissipation of turbulence through kinematic and magnetic viscosities to be taken into account. A parallel code for numerically solving the system of averaged MHD equations has been developed. The averaged gas density and velocity distributions as well as the configuration of the disk's intrinsic magnetic field at a distance of 1 AU from the star have been obtained through numerical simulations. The assumption that the vertical (parallel to the disk's rotation axis) magnetic induction component changes much more profoundly in height than in radius and, hence, gives grounds to take into account its gradient in the model of the turbulent kinematic viscosity coefficient has been confirmed.
Tesileanu, O; Mignone, A; Bodo, G; Bacciotti, F
2009-01-01
The coupling between time-dependent, multidimensional MHD numerical codes and radiative line emission is of utmost importance in the studies of the interplay between dynamical and radiative processes in many astrophysical environments, with particular interest for problems involving radiative shocks. There is a widespread consensus that line emitting knots observed in Herbig-Haro jets can be interpreted as radiative shocks. In this paper we address two different aspects relevant to the time-dependent calculations of the line intensity ratios of forbidden transitions, resulting from the excitation by planar, time-dependent radiative shocks traveling in a stratified medium. The first one concerns the impact of the radiation and ionization processes included in the cooling model, and the second one the effects of the numerical grid resolution. In this paper we apply the AMR methodology to the treatment of radiating shocks and show how this method is able to vastly reduce the integration time. The technique is ap...
NON-EQUILIBRIUM HELIUM IONIZATION IN AN MHD SIMULATION OF THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE
Golding, Thomas Peter; Carlsson, Mats [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Leenaarts, Jorrit, E-mail: thomas.golding@astro.uio.no, E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.no, E-mail: jorrit.leenaarts@astro.su.se [Institute for Solar Physics, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)
2016-02-01
The ionization state of the gas in the dynamic solar chromosphere can depart strongly from the instantaneous statistical equilibrium commonly assumed in numerical modeling. We improve on earlier simulations of the solar atmosphere that only included non-equilibrium hydrogen ionization by performing a 2D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics simulation featuring non-equilibrium ionization of both hydrogen and helium. The simulation includes the effect of hydrogen Lyα and the EUV radiation from the corona on the ionization and heating of the atmosphere. Details on code implementation are given. We obtain helium ion fractions that are far from their equilibrium values. Comparison with models with local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) ionization shows that non-equilibrium helium ionization leads to higher temperatures in wavefronts and lower temperatures in the gas between shocks. Assuming LTE ionization results in a thermostat-like behavior with matter accumulating around the temperatures where the LTE ionization fractions change rapidly. Comparison of DEM curves computed from our models shows that non-equilibrium ionization leads to more radiating material in the temperature range 11–18 kK, compared to models with LTE helium ionization. We conclude that non-equilibrium helium ionization is important for the dynamics and thermal structure of the upper chromosphere and transition region. It might also help resolve the problem that intensities of chromospheric lines computed from current models are smaller than those observed.
Cheung, M. C. M.; Schüssler, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.
2007-05-01
Aims:We study the emergence of magnetic flux from the near-surface layers of the solar convection zone into the photosphere. Methods: To model magnetic flux emergence, we carried out a set of numerical radiative magnetohydrodynamics simulations. Our simulations take into account the effects of compressibility, energy exchange via radiative transfer, and partial ionization in the equation of state. All these physical ingredients are essential for a proper treatment of the problem. Furthermore, the inclusion of radiative transfer allows us to directly compare the simulation results with actual observations of emerging flux. Results: We find that the interaction between the magnetic flux tube and the external flow field has an important influence on the emergent morphology of the magnetic field. Depending on the initial properties of the flux tube (e.g. field strength, twist, entropy etc.), the emergence process can also modify the local granulation pattern. The emergence of magnetic flux tubes with a flux of 1019 Mx disturbs the granulation and leads to the transient appearance of a dark lane, which is coincident with upflowing material. These results are consistent with observed properties of emerging magnetic flux. Movies are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: An Overview
Lytle, John K.
2000-01-01
The cost of implementing new technology in aerospace propulsion systems is becoming prohibitively expensive and time consuming. One of the main contributors to the high cost and lengthy time is the need to perform many large-scale hardware tests and the inability to integrate all appropriate subsystems early in the design process. The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing the technologies required to enable simulations of full aerospace propulsion systems in sufficient detail to resolve critical design issues early in the design process before hardware is built. This concept, called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS), is focused on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structures and heat transfer with computing and communication technologies to capture complex physical processes in a timely and cost-effective manner. The vision for NPSS, as illustrated, is to be a "numerical test cell" that enables full engine simulation overnight on cost-effective computing platforms. There are several key elements within NPSS that are required to achieve this capability: 1) clear data interfaces through the development and/or use of data exchange standards, 2) modular and flexible program construction through the use of object-oriented programming, 3) integrated multiple fidelity analysis (zooming) techniques that capture the appropriate physics at the appropriate fidelity for the engine systems, 4) multidisciplinary coupling techniques and finally 5) high performance parallel and distributed computing. The current state of development in these five area focuses on air breathing gas turbine engines and is reported in this paper. However, many of the technologies are generic and can be readily applied to rocket based systems and combined cycles currently being considered for low-cost access-to-space applications. Recent accomplishments include: (1) the development of an industry-standard engine cycle analysis program and plug 'n play
Numerical simulations of black-hole spacetimes
Chu, Tony
This thesis covers various aspects of the numerical simulation of black-hole spacetimes according to Einstein's general theory of relativity, using the Spectral Einstein Code developed by the Caltech-Cornell-CITA collaboration. The first topic is improvement of binary-black-hole initial data. One such issue is the construction of binary-black-hole initial data with nearly extremal spins that remain nearly constant during the initial relaxation in an evolution. Another concern is the inclusion of physically realistic tidal deformations of the black holes to reduce the high-frequency components of the spurious gravitational radiation content, and represents a first step in incorporating post-Newtonian results in constraint-satisfying initial data. The next topic is the evolution of black-hole binaries and the gravitational waves they emit. The first spectral simulation of two inspiralling black holes through merger and ringdown is presented, in which the black holes are nonspinning and have equal masses. This work is extended to perform the first spectral simulations of two inspiralling black holes with moderate spins and equal masses, including the merger and ringdown. Two configurations are considered, in which both spins are either anti-aligned or aligned with the orbital angular momentum. Highly accurate gravitational waveforms are computed for all these cases, and are used to calibrate waveforms in the effective-one-body model. The final topic is the behavior of quasilocal black-hole horizons in highly dynamical situations. Simulations of a rotating black hole that is distort ed by a pulse of ingoing gravitational radiation are performed. Multiple marginally outer trapped surfaces are seen to appear and annihilate with each other during the evolution, and the world tubes th ey trace out are all dynamical horizons. The dynamical horizon and angular momentum flux laws are evaluated in this context, and the dynamical horizons are contrasted with the event horizon
Numerical Simulation of DC Coronal Heating
Dahlburg, Russell B.; Einaudi, G.; Taylor, Brian D.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry; Rappazzo, A. F.; Velli, Marco
2016-05-01
Recent research on observational signatures of turbulent heating of a coronal loop will be discussed. The evolution of the loop is is studied by means of numerical simulations of the fully compressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations using the HYPERION code. HYPERION calculates the full energy cycle involving footpoint convection, magnetic reconnection, nonlinear thermal conduction and optically thin radiation. The footpoints of the loop magnetic field are convected by random photospheric motions. As a consequence the magnetic field in the loop is energized and develops turbulent nonlinear dynamics characterized by the continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets: energy is deposited at small scales where heating occurs. Dissipation is non-uniformly distributed so that only a fraction of thecoronal mass and volume gets heated at any time. Temperature and density are highly structured at scales which, in the solar corona, remain observationally unresolved: the plasma of the simulated loop is multi thermal, where highly dynamical hotter and cooler plasma strands are scattered throughout the loop at sub-observational scales. Typical simulated coronal loops are 50000 km length and have axial magnetic field intensities ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 Tesla. To connect these simulations to observations the computed number densities and temperatures are used to synthesize the intensities expected in emission lines typically observed with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode. These intensities are then employed to compute differential emission measure distributions, which are found to be very similar to those derived from observations of solar active regions.
Numerical simulations of coupled problems in engineering
2014-01-01
This book presents and discusses mathematical models, numerical methods and computational techniques used for solving coupled problems in science and engineering. It takes a step forward in the formulation and solution of real-life problems with a multidisciplinary vision, accounting for all of the complex couplings involved in the physical description. Simulation of multifaceted physics problems is a common task in applied research and industry. Often a suitable solver is built by connecting together several single-aspect solvers into a network. In this book, research in various fields was selected for consideration: adaptive methodology for multi-physics solvers, multi-physics phenomena and coupled-field solutions, leading to computationally intensive structural analysis. The strategies which are used to keep these problems computationally affordable are of special interest, and make this an essential book.
Numerical Simulation of Solitary Kinetic Alfven Waves
DING Jian; LI Yi; WANG Shui
2008-01-01
Using the two-fluid model in the case of α1 (α=β/2Q, β is the ratio of thermal pressure to magnetic pressure, and Q=m,e/m,I), we numerically investigate the interactions between two solitary kinetic Alfven waves (SKAWs) and between an SKAW and a density discontinuity. The results show that the two SKAWs would remain in their original shapes and propagate at their initiating speeds, which indicates that SKAWs behave just like standard solitons. The simulation also shows that SKAWs will reflect and refract when crossing a discontinuity and propagating into a higher density region. The transmission wave is an SKAW with increasing density, and the reverberation is a disturbance with lower amplitude.
Direct numerical simulation of compressible isotropic turbulence
LI; Xinliang(李新亮); FU; Dexun(傅德薰); MAYanwen(马延文)
2002-01-01
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of decaying compressible isotropic turbulence at tur-bulence Mach numbers of Mt = 0.2-0.7 and Taylor Reynolds numbers of 72 and 153 is per-formed by using the 7th order upwind-biased difference and 8th order center difference schemes.Results show that proper upwind-biased difference schemes can release the limit of "start-up"problem to Mach numbers.Compressibility effects on the statistics of turbulent flow as well as the mechanics of shockletsin compressible turbulence are also studied, and the conclusion is drawn that high Mach numberleads to more dissipation. Scaling laws in compressible turbulence are also analyzed. Evidence isobtained that scaling laws and extended self similarity (ESS) hold in the compressible turbulentflow in spite of the presence of shocklets, and compressibility has little effect on scaling exponents.
Direct numerical simulation of axisymmetric turbulence
Qu, Bo; Bos, Wouter J. T.; Naso, Aurore
2017-09-01
The dynamics of decaying, strictly axisymmetric, incompressible turbulence is investigated using direct numerical simulations. It is found that the angular momentum is a robust invariant of the system. It is further shown that long-lived coherent structures are generated by the flow. These structures can be associated with stationary solutions of the Euler equations. The structures obey relations in agreement with predictions from selective decay principles, compatible with the decay laws of the system. Two different types of decay scenarios are highlighted. The first case results in a quasi-two-dimensional flow with a dynamical behavior in the poloidal plane similar to freely decaying two-dimensional turbulence. In a second regime, the long-time dynamics is dominated by a single three-dimensional mode.
Numerical simulation of facet dendrite growth
CHEN Zhi; CHEN Chang-le; HAO Li-mei
2008-01-01
Numerical simulation based on phase field method was performed to describe the solidification of silicon. The effect of anisotropy, undercooling and coupling parameter on dendrite growth shape was investigated. It is indicated that the entire facet dendrite shapes are obtained by using regularized phase field model. Steady state tip velocity of dendrite drives to a fixed value when γ≤0.13. With further increasing the anisotropy value, steady state tip velocity decreases and the size is smaller. With the increase in the undercooling and coupling parameter, crystal grows from facet to facet dendrite. In addition, with increasing coupling parameter, the facet part of facet dendrite decreases gradually, which is in good agreement with Wulff theory.
Collisionless microinstabilities in stellarators II - numerical simulations
Proll, Josefine Henriette Elise; Helander, Per
2013-01-01
Microinstabilities exhibit a rich variety of behavior in stellarators due to the many degrees of freedom in the magnetic geometry. It has recently been found that certain stellarators (quasi-isodynamic ones with maximum-$J$ geometry) are partly resilient to trapped-particle instabilities, because fast-bouncing particles tend to extract energy from these modes near marginal stability. In reality, stellarators are never perfectly quasi-isodynamic, and the question thus arises whether they still benefit from enhanced stability. Here the stability properties of Wendelstein 7-X and a more quasi-isodynamic configuration, QIPC, are investigated numerically and compared with the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) and the DIII-D tokamak. In gyrokinetic simulations, performed with the gyrokinetic code GENE in the electrostatic and collisionless approximation, ion-temperature-gradient modes, trapped-electron modes and mixed-type instabilities are studied. Wendelstein 7-X and QIPC exhibit significantly reduce...
Numerical simulation of transonic flows in diffusers
Liou, M.-S.; Coakley, T. J.; Bergmann, M. Y.
1981-01-01
Numerical simulations were made of two-dimensional transonic flows in diffusers, including flow separation induced by a shock or adverse pressure gradient. The mass-averaged, time-dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations, simplified by the thin-layer approximation, were solved using MacCormack's hybrid method. The eddy-viscosity formulation was described by the Wilcox-Rubesin's two-equation, k-omega model. Detailed comparison of the computed results with measurements showed good agreement in all cases, including one with massive separation induced by a strong shock. The computation correctly predicted the details of a distinct lambda shock pattern, closely duplicating the configuration observed experimentally in spark-schlieren photographs.
The Heating of Test Particles in Numerical Simulations of Alfvenic Turbulence
Lehe, Remi; Quataert, Eliot
2009-01-01
We study the heating of charged test particles in three-dimensional numerical simulations of weakly compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence (``Alfvenic turbulence''); these results are relevant to particle heating and acceleration in the solar wind, solar flares, accretion disks onto black holes, and other astrophysics and heliospheric environments. The physics of particle heating depends on whether the gyrofrequency of a particle is comparable to the frequency of a turbulent fluctuation that is resolved on the computational domain. Particles with these frequencies nearly equal undergo strong perpendicular heating (relative to the local magnetic field) and pitch angle scattering. By contrast, particles with large gyrofrequency undergo strong parallel heating. Simulations with a finite resistivity produce additional parallel heating due to parallel electric fields in small-scale current sheets. Many of our results are consistent with linear theory predictions for the particle heating produced by the ...
Numerical simulation of turbulent slurry flows
Haghgoo, Mohammad Reza; Spiteri, Reymond J.; Bergstrom, Donlad J.
2016-11-01
Slurry flows, i.e., the flow of an agglomeration of liquid and particles, are widely employed in many industrial applications, such as hydro-transport systems, pharmaceutical batch crystallizers, and wastewater disposal. Although there are numerous studies available in the literature on turbulent gas-particle flows, the hydrodynamics of turbulent liquid-particle flows has received much less attention. In particular, the fluid-phase turbulence modulation due to the particle fluctuating motion is not yet well understood and remains challenging to model. This study reports the results of a numerical simulation of a vertically oriented slurry pipe flow using a two-fluid model based on the kinetic theory of granular flows. The particle stress model also includes the effects of frictional contact. Different turbulence modulation models are considered, and their capability to capture the characteristic features of the turbulent flow is assessed. The model predictions are validated against published experimental data and demonstrate the significant effect of the particles on the fluid-phase turbulence.
Numerical simulations of dissipationless disk accretion
Bogovalov, S. V.; Tronin, I. V.
2017-09-01
Our goal is to study the regime of disk accretion in which almost all of the angular momentum and energy is carried away by the wind outflowing from the disk in numerical experiments. For this type of accretion the kinetic energy flux in the outflowing wind can exceed considerably the bolometric luminosity of the accretion disk, what is observed in the plasma flow from galactic nuclei in a number of cases. In this paper we consider the nonrelativistic case of an outflow from a cold Keplerian disk. All of the conclusions derived previously for such a system in the self-similar approximation are shown to be correct. The numerical results agree well with the analytical predictions. The inclination angle of the magnetic field lines in the disk is less than 60°, which ensures a free wind outflow from the disk, while the energy flux per wind particle is greater than the particle rotation energy in its Keplerian orbit by several orders of magnitude, provided that the ratio r A/ r ≫ 1, where r A is the Alfvénic radius and r is the radius of the Keplerian orbit. In this case, the particle kinetic energy reaches half the maximum possible energy in the simulation region. The magnetic field collimates the outflowing wind near the rotation axis and decollimates appreciably the wind outflowing from the outer disk periphery.
Numerical simulation of installation of skirt foundations
Vangelsten, Bjoern Vidar
1997-12-31
Skirt foundation has been increasingly used for permanent offshore oil installations and anchors for drilling ships. Suction is commonly used in skirt foundation installing. If a large amount of suction is applied, the soil around the foundation may fail and the foundation become useless. This thesis studies failure due to high seepage gradients, aiming to provide a basis for reducing the risk of such failures. Skirt penetration model testing has shown that to solve the problem one must understand what is going on at the skirt tip during suction installation. A numerical model based on micro mechanics was developed as continuum hypothesis was seen to be unsuitable to describe the processes in the critical phases of the failure. The numerical model combines two-dimensional elliptical particles with the finite difference method for flow to model water flow in a granular material. The key idea is to formulate the permeability as a function of the porosity of the grain assembly and so obtain an interaction between the finite difference method on flow and the particle movement. A computer program, DYNELL, was developed and used to simulate: (1) weight penetration of a skirt wall, (2) combined suction and weight penetration of a skirt wall, and (3) critical gradient tests around a skirt wall to study failure mechanisms. The model calculations agree well with laboratory experiments. 16 refs., 124 figs., 21 tabs.
Numerical simulation of detonation failure in nitromethane
Kipp, M E; Nunziato, J W
1981-01-01
Detonation failure in the homogeneous liquid explosive nitromethane has been observed experimentally in a wide variety of confining geometries. However, numerical simulation of these failure situations with a wave propagation code has been essentially non-existent due to the large differences between the critical diameter and the length of the reaction zone - characteristic dimensions which differ by about two orders of magnitude. This inability to spatially resolve both the reaction zone and geometries of significant size has led us to propose a new numerical technique, based on the stability criterion for rate-type material models, in which only temporal resolution of the reaction zone is required. Using an improved model for nitromethane, we have carried out a series of two-dimensional calculations which illustrate the utility of the present approach in predicting a wide range of experimental observations. Of particular computational significance is the removal of the difficulty requiring spatial resolution of the reaction zone, so that problems of practical size can be analyzed with existing computer capabilities.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Automobile Cavity Tones
Kurbatskii, Konstantin; Tam, Christopher K. W.
2000-01-01
The Navier Stokes equation is solved computationally by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme for the flow and acoustic fields associated with a laminar boundary layer flow over an automobile door cavity. In this work, the flow Reynolds number is restricted to R(sub delta*) < 3400; the range of Reynolds number for which laminar flow may be maintained. This investigation focuses on two aspects of the problem, namely, the effect of boundary layer thickness on the cavity tone frequency and intensity and the effect of the size of the computation domain on the accuracy of the numerical simulation. It is found that the tone frequency decreases with an increase in boundary layer thickness. When the boundary layer is thicker than a certain critical value, depending on the flow speed, no tone is emitted by the cavity. Computationally, solutions of aeroacoustics problems are known to be sensitive to the size of the computation domain. Numerical experiments indicate that the use of a small domain could result in normal mode type acoustic oscillations in the entire computation domain leading to an increase in tone frequency and intensity. When the computation domain is expanded so that the boundaries are at least one wavelength away from the noise source, the computed tone frequency and intensity are found to be computation domain size independent.
Numerical simulation of friction stir welding
Mijajlović Miroslav
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Friction stir welding is a solid-state welding technique that utilizes thermo-mechanical influence of the rotating welding tool on parent material resulting with monolith joint-weld. On the contact of welding tool and parent material, significant stirring and deformation of parent material appears, and during this process mechanical energy is partially transformed into heat. The paper describes the software for the numerical simulation of friction stir welding developed at Mechanical Engineering Faculty, University of Nis. Numerical solution for estimation of welding plates temperature is estimated using finite difference method-explicit scheme with adaptive grid, considering influence of temperature on material's conductivity, contact conditions between welding tool and parent material, material flow around welding tool etc. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35034: The research of modern non-conventional technologies application in manufacturing companies with the aim of increase efficiency of use, product quality, reduce of costs and save energy and materials
Ovchinnikov, V.L.
1982-01-01
In a 3-dimensional statement, a study is made of the effect of finite sectioning, shapes of electrodes and heterogeneity of the plasma parameters on the characteristics of the diagonal MHD generator. It is indicated that increase in specific electrical conductance of the plasma at the insulator wall results in a monotonic decrease in the voltage idling. There is an optimal specific electrical conductance of plasma at the electrode wall in which the voltage idling is the maximum. The expediency is shown of making channels with external commutation. There is an optimal ratio between the lengths of the electrode and the insulator.
Numerical simulation of tulip flame dynamics
Cloutman, L.D.
1991-11-30
A finite difference reactive flow hydrodynamics program based on the full Navier-Stokes equations was used to simulate the combustion process in a homogeneous-charge, constant-volume combustion bomb in which an oddly shaped flame, known as a ``tulip flame`` in the literature, occurred. The ``tulip flame`` was readily reproduced in the numerical simulations, producing good agreement with the experimental flame shapes and positions at various times. The calculations provide sufficient detail about the dynamics of the experiment to provide some insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the peculiar flame shape. Several factors seem to contribute to the tulip formation. The most important process is the baroclinic production of vorticity by the flame front, and this rate of production appears to be dramatically increased by the nonaxial flow generated when the initial semicircular flame front burns out along the sides of the chamber. The vorticity produces a pair of vortices behind the flame that advects the flame into the tulip shape. Boundary layer effects contribute to the details of the flame shape next to the walls of the chamber, but are otherwise not important. 24 refs.
Numerical simulation of tulip flame dynamics
Cloutman, L.D.
1991-11-30
A finite difference reactive flow hydrodynamics program based on the full Navier-Stokes equations was used to simulate the combustion process in a homogeneous-charge, constant-volume combustion bomb in which an oddly shaped flame, known as a tulip flame'' in the literature, occurred. The tulip flame'' was readily reproduced in the numerical simulations, producing good agreement with the experimental flame shapes and positions at various times. The calculations provide sufficient detail about the dynamics of the experiment to provide some insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the peculiar flame shape. Several factors seem to contribute to the tulip formation. The most important process is the baroclinic production of vorticity by the flame front, and this rate of production appears to be dramatically increased by the nonaxial flow generated when the initial semicircular flame front burns out along the sides of the chamber. The vorticity produces a pair of vortices behind the flame that advects the flame into the tulip shape. Boundary layer effects contribute to the details of the flame shape next to the walls of the chamber, but are otherwise not important. 24 refs.
Numerical simulations of capillary barrier field tests
Morris, C.E. [Univ. of Wollongong (Australia); Stormont, J.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1997-12-31
Numerical simulations of two capillary barrier systems tested in the field were conducted to determine if an unsaturated flow model could accurately represent the observed results. The field data was collected from two 7-m long, 1.2-m thick capillary barriers built on a 10% grade that were being tested to investigate their ability to laterally divert water downslope. One system had a homogeneous fine layer, while the fine soil of the second barrier was layered to increase its ability to laterally divert infiltrating moisture. The barriers were subjected first to constant infiltration while minimizing evaporative losses and then were exposed to ambient conditions. The continuous infiltration period of the field tests for the two barrier systems was modelled to determine the ability of an existing code to accurately represent capillary barrier behavior embodied in these two designs. Differences between the field test and the model data were found, but in general the simulations appeared to adequately reproduce the response of the test systems. Accounting for moisture retention hysteresis in the layered system will potentially lead to more accurate modelling results and is likely to be important when developing reasonable predictions of capillary barrier behavior.
Numerical simulation for nuclear pumped laser
Sakasai, Kaoru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)
1998-07-01
To apply nuclear pumped laser of {sup 3}He-Ne-Ar gas to detect neutron, the optimum gas mixture was investigated by numerical simulation. When {sup 3}He-Ne-Ar mixture gas are irradiated by neutron, proton and triton with high velocity are produced by {sup 3}He(np)T and two charge particles ionized {sup 3}He, Ne and Ar which reacted each other and attained to 3p`(1/2){sub 0}-3S`(1/2). The calculation method is constructed by defining the rate equations of each ion and exited atom and the electron energy balance equation and by time integrating the simultaneous differential equations of the above two equations and the law of conservation of charge. Penning ionization and energy transport by elastic collision of neutral atom were considered in the transport process of electron energy direct ionization by secondary charge particle. Calculation time was 1 msec. The optimum component was shown 3 atm He, 24 Torr He and 8 Torr Ar by simulation. Laser oscilation was generated under the conditions 3.3 x 10{sup 14} (N/cm{sup 2}/5) thermal neutron flux at 50 cm laser cell length and 99% coefficient of reflection of mirror. After laser oscilation, laser output was proportional to neutron flux. These results showed nuclear pumped laser of {sup 3}He-Ne-Ar was able to detect optically neutron. (S.Y)
Numerical simulation of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability
FU Dexun; MA Yanwen; ZHANG Linbo; TIAN Baolin
2004-01-01
The compressible Navier-Stokes equations discretized with a fourth order accurate compact finite difference scheme with group velocity control are used to simulate the Richtmyer-Meshkov (R-M) instability problem produced by cylindrical shock-cylindrical material interface with shock Mach number Ms=1.2 and density ratio 1:20 (interior density/outer density). Effect of shock refraction, reflection, interaction of the reflected shock with the material interface, and effect of initial perturbation modes on R-M instability are investigated numerically. It is noted that the shock refraction is a main physical mechanism of the initial phase changing of the material surface. The multiple interactions of the reflected shock from the origin with the interface and the R-M instability near the material interface are the reason for formation of the spike-bubble structures. Different viscosities lead to different spike-bubble structure characteristics. The vortex pairing phenomenon is found in the initial double mode simulation. The mode interaction is the main factor of small structures production near the interface.
Numerical Simulations of Disk-Planet Interactions
D'Angelo, Gennaro
2003-06-01
The aim of this thesis is the study the dynamical interactions occurring between a forming planet and its surrounding protostellar environment. This task is accomplished by means of both 2D and 3D numerical simulations. The first part of this work concerned global simulations in 3D. These were intended to investigate large-scale effects caused by a Jupiter-size body still in the process of accreting matter from its surroundings. Simulations show that, despite a density gap forms along the orbital path, Jupiter-mass protoplanets still accrete at a rate on the order of 0.01 Earth's masses per year when they are embedded in a minimum-mass Solar nebula. In the same conditions, the migration time scale due to gravitational torques by the disk is around 100000 years. The second part of the work was dedicated to perform 2D calculations, by employing a nested-grid technique. This method allows to carry out global simulations of planets orbiting in disks and, at the same time, to resolve in great detail the dynamics of the flow inside the Roche lobe of both massive and low-mass planets. Regardless of the planet mass, the high resolution supplied by the nested-grid technique permits an evaluation of the torques, resulting from short and very short range gravitational interactions, more reliable than the one previously estimated with the aid of numerical methods. Likewise, the mass flow onto the planet is computed in a more accurate fashion. Resulting migration time scales are in the range from 20000 years, for intermediate-mass planets, to 1000000 years, for very low-mass as well as high-mass planets. Circumplanetary disks form inside of the Roche lobe of Jupiter-size secondaries. In order to evaluate the consequences of the flat geometry on the local flow structure around planets, 3D nested-grid simulations were carried out to investigate a range of planetary masses spanning from 1.5 Earth's masses to one Jupiter's mass. Outcomes show that migration rates are relatively
Numerical simulation of a semi-indirect evaporative cooler
Martin, R. Herrero [Departamento de Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, C/Dr. Fleming, s/n (Campus Muralla), 30202 Cartagena, Murcia (Spain)
2009-11-15
This paper presents the experimental study and numerical simulation of a semi-indirect evaporative cooler (SIEC), which acts as an energy recovery device in air conditioning systems. The numerical simulation was conducted by applying the CFD software FLUENT implementing a UDF to model evaporation/condensation. The numerical model was validated by comparing the simulation results with experimental data. Experimental data and numerical results agree for the lower relative humidity series but not for higher relative humidity values. (author)
Advanced numerical simulation of collapsible earth dams
De Farias, M.M.; Cordao Neto, M.P. [Brasilia Univ., Federal District (Brazil). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering
2010-12-15
This paper discussed a systematic methodology for the hydromechanical coupled numerical analysis of earth dams constructed with unsaturated collapsible soil. Every design stage was considered, including construction, reservoir filling, and advance of saturation front until the steady-state flow condition is attained. A transient analysis of safety factors applicable to 3-dimensional conditions was presented, giving consideration to unsaturated materials and the interrelation between hydraulic and mechanical phenomena by solving equilibrium and continuity conditions at the same time. The finite element method was used to formulate equilibrium and continuity conditions for both soil skeleton and pore water, which necessitated a realistic mechanical model for the stress-strain-suction relation in unsaturated porous material and adequate constitutive models related to water flow and storage, giving special consideration to imposing appropriate boundary conditions for each simulation stage. The methodology was applied to the analysis of earth dams composed of soils at optimum, dry of optimum, and mixed compaction conditions. The dry section simulated dams constructed using poorly compacted, dry material, which are prone to collapse. By strategically placing the optimum materials in the areas of the earth fill that are most stressed, the mixed section could be designed less expensively with the same or better performance as the homogenous section at optimum conditions. The coupled analysis provides a higher safety factor than uncoupled analysis and a realistic picture of end-of-construction pore pressure distribution. The simulation of reservoir filling and saturation front advance permitted clear identification of the initialization, development, and evolution of internal failure mechanisms. 21 refs., 6 tabs., 19 figs.
A New MHD-assisted Stokes Inversion Technique
Riethmüller, T. L.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; van Noort, M.; Blanco Rodríguez, J.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Schmidt, W.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Knölker, M.
2017-03-01
We present a new method of Stokes inversion of spectropolarimetric data and evaluate it by taking the example of a Sunrise/IMaX observation. An archive of synthetic Stokes profiles is obtained by the spectral synthesis of state-of-the-art magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations and a realistic degradation to the level of the observed data. The definition of a merit function allows the archive to be searched for the synthetic Stokes profiles that best match the observed profiles. In contrast to traditional Stokes inversion codes, which solve the Unno-Rachkovsky equations for the polarized radiative transfer numerically and fit the Stokes profiles iteratively, the new technique provides the full set of atmospheric parameters. This gives us the ability to start an MHD simulation that takes the inversion result as an initial condition. After a relaxation process of half an hour solar time we obtain physically consistent MHD data sets with a target similar to the observation. The new MHD simulation is used to repeat the method in a second iteration, which further improves the match between observation and simulation, resulting in a factor of 2.2 lower mean {χ }2 value. One advantage of the new technique is that it provides the physical parameters on a geometrical height scale. It constitutes a first step toward inversions that give results consistent with the MHD equations.
3D MHD simulation of post--flare supra--arcade downflows in a turbulent current sheet medium
Cécere, M; Costa, A; Schneiter, M
2014-01-01
Supra--arcade downflows (SADs) are sunward, generally dark, plasma density depletions originated above posteruption flare arcades. In this paper using 3D MHD simulations we investigate if the SAD cavities can be produced by a direct combination of the tearing mode and Kelvin--Helmholtz instabilities leading to a turbulent current sheet (CS) medium or if the current sheet is merely the background where SADs are produced triggered by an impulsive deposition of energy. We find that to give account of the observational dark lane structures an addition of local energy provided by a reconnection event is required. This local reconnection can trigger a nonlinear internal wave dynamic, generated by the bouncing and interfering of shocks and expansion waves that compose relatively stable voids.
Kang, Jihye
2014-01-01
Force-freeness of a solar magnetic field is a key to reconstructing invisible coronal magnetic structure of an emerging flux region on the Sun where active phenomena such as flares and coronal mass ejections frequently occur. We have performed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations which are adjusted to investigate force-freeness of an emerging magnetic field by using the virial theorem. Our focus is on how the force-free range of an emerging flux region develops and how it depends on the twist of a pre-emerged magnetic field. As an emerging flux region evolves, the upper limit of the force-free range continuously increases while the lower limit is asymptotically reduced to the order of a photospheric pressure scale height above the solar surface. As the twist becomes small the lower limit increases and then seems to be saturated. We also discuss the applicability of the virial theorem to an evolving magnetic structure on the Sun.
Zhang, Weiqun; Wang, Peng
2008-01-01
Magnetic field strengths inferred for relativistic outflows including gamma-ray bursts (GRB) and active galactic nuclei (AGN) are larger than naively expected by orders of magnitude. We present three-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations demonstrating amplification and saturation of magnetic field by a macroscopic turbulent dynamo triggered by the Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instability. We find rapid growth of electromagnetic energy due to the stretching and folding of field lines in the turbulent velocity field resulting from non-linear development of the instability. Using conditions relevant for GRB internal shocks and late phases of GRB afterglow, we obtain amplification of the electromagnetic energy fraction to $\\epsilon_B \\sim 5 \\times 10^{-3}$. This value decays slowly after the shear is dissipated and appears to be largely independent of the initial field strength. The conditions required for operation of the dynamo are the presence of velocity shear and some seed magnetization b...
李莉; 刘悦; 许欣洋; 夏新念
2012-01-01
A cylindrical model of linear MHD instabilities in tokamaks is presented. In the model, the cylindrical plasma is surrounded by a vacuum which is divided into inner and outer vacuum areas by a conducting wall. Linearized resistivity MHD equations with plasma viscosity are adopted to describe our model, and the equations are solved numerically as an initial value problem. Some of the results are used as benchmark tests for the code, and then a series of equilibrium current profiles are used to simulate the bootstrap current profiles in actual experiments with a bump on tail. Thus the effects of these kinds of profiles on MHD instabilities in tokamaks are revealed. From the analysis of the numerical results, it is found that more plasma can be confined when the center of the current bump is closer to the plasma surface, and a higher and narrower current bump has a better stabilizing effect on the MHD instabilities.
Numerical simulation of "An American Haboob"
A. Vukovic
2013-10-01
Full Text Available A dust storm of fearful proportions hit Phoenix in the early evening hours of 5 July 2011. This storm, an American haboob, was predicted hours in advance because numerical, land-atmosphere modeling, computing power and remote sensing of dust events have improved greatly over the past decade. High resolution numerical models are required for accurate simulation of the small-scales of the haboob process, with high velocity surface winds produced by strong convection and severe downbursts. Dust productive areas in this region consist mainly of agricultural fields, with soil surfaces disturbed by plowing and tracks of land in the high Sonoran desert laid barren by ongoing draught. Model simulation of the 5 July 2011 dust storm uses the coupled atmospheric-dust model NMME-DREAM with 3.5 km horizontal resolution. A mask of the potentially dust productive regions is obtained from the land cover and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. Model results are compared with radar and other satellite-based images and surface meteorological and PM10 observations. The atmospheric model successfully hindcasted the position of the front in space and time, with about 1 h late arrival in Phoenix. The dust model predicted the rapid uptake of dust and high values of dust concentration in the ensuing storm. South of Phoenix, over the closest source regions (~ 25 km, the model PM10 surface dust concentration reached ~ 2500 μg m−3, but underestimated the values measured by the PM10stations within the city. Model results are also validated by the MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD, employing deep blue (DB algorithms for aerosol loadings. Model validation included Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO, equipped with the lidar instrument, to disclose the vertical structure of dust aerosols as well as aerosol subtypes. Promising results encourage further
Non-thermal emission from relativistic MHD simulations of PWNe: from synchrotron to inverse Compton
Volpi, D; Amato, E; Bucciantini, N
2008-01-01
In this paper we complete the set of diagnostic tools for synchrotron emitting sources presented by Del Zanna et al. (Astron. Astrophys. 453, 621, 2006) with the computation of inverse Compton radiation from the same relativistic particles. Moreover we investigate, for the first time, the gamma-ray emission properties of Pulsar Wind Nebulae in the light of the axisymmetric jet-torus scenario. The method consists in evolving the relativistic MHD equations and the maximum energy of the emitting particles. The particle energy distribution function is split in two components: the radio one connected to a relic population born at the outburst of the supernova and the other associated to the wind population continuously accelerated at the termination shock and emitting up to the gamma-ray band. We consider the general Klein-Nishina cross section and three different photon targets: the nebular synchrotron photons, far-infrared thermal ones and the cosmic microwave background. The overall synchrotron spectrum is fitt...
Numerical simulations of unsteady flows in turbomachines
Dorney, Daniel Joseph
The performance of axial and centrifugal turbomachines is significantly affected by the presence of unsteady and viscous flow mechanisms. Most contemporary design systems, however, use steady or linearized unsteady inviscid flow analyses to generate new blade shapes. In an effort to increase the understanding of unsteady viscous flows in turbomachinery blade rows, and to determine the limitations of linearized inviscid flow analyses, a two-part investigation was conducted. In the first portion of this investigation, a nonlinear viscous flow analysis was developed for the prediction of unsteady flows in two dimensional axial turbomachinery blade rows. The boundary conditions were formulated to allow the specification of vortical, entropic and acoustic excitations at the inlet, and acoustic excitations at exit, of a cascade. Numerical simulations were performed for flat plate and compressor exit guide vane cascades, and the predicted results were compared with solutions from classical linearized theory and linearized inviscid flow analysis. The unsteady pressure fields predicted with the current analysis showed close agreement with the linearized solutions for low to moderate temporal frequency vortical and acoustic excitations. As the temporal frequency of the excitations was increased, nonlinear effects caused discrepancies to develop between the linearized and Navier-Stokes solution sets. The inclusion of viscosity had a significant impact on the unsteady vorticity field, but only a minimal effect on the unsteady pressure field. In the second part of this investigation, a quasi-three-dimensional Navier-Stokes analysis was modified and applied to flows in centrifugal turbomachinery blade rows. Inviscid and viscous flow simulations were performed for a centrifugal impeller at three operating conditions. By comparing the predicted and experimental circumferential distributions of the relative frame velocity and flow angle downstream of the impeller, it was
Leroy, Matthieu; Keppens, Rony
2016-04-01
The transfer of matter from the solar-wind to the Earth's magnetosphere during southward solar wind is mostly well understood but the processes governing the same phenomenon during northward solar wind remains to be fully apprehended. Numerous numerical studies have investigated the topic with many interesting results but most of these were considering two-dimensional situations with simplified magnetic configuration and often neglecting the inhomogeneities for the sake of clarity. Given the typical parameters at the magnetosphere-solar wind interface, the situation must be considered in the frame of Hall-MHD, due to the fact that the current layers widths and the gradient lengths can be in the order of the ion inertial length. As a consequence of Hall-MHD creating a third vector component from two planar ones, and also because magnetic perturbations can affect the field configuration at a distance in all directions and not only locally, three-dimensional treatment is necessary. In this spirit three-dimensional simulations of a configuration approaching the conditions leading to the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at the flank of the magnetosphere during northward oriented solar-wind are performed as means to study the entry of solar-wind matter into Earth's magnetic field. In the scope of assessing the effect of the Hall-term in the physical processes, the simulations are also performed in the MHD frame. Furthermore the influence of the density and velocity jump through the shear layer on the rate of mass entering the magnetosphere is explored. Indeed, depending on the exact values of the physical quantities, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability may have to compete with secondary instabilities and the non-linear phase may exhibit vortex merging and large-scale structures reorganisation, creating very different mixing layers, or generate different reconnection sites, locally and at a distance. These different configurations may have discernible signatures
Transonic aeroelastic numerical simulation in aeronautical engineering
Yang, G. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, LHD of the Inst. of Mechanics, Beijing (China)]. E-mail: gwyang@imech.ac.cn
2005-07-01
An LU-SGS (lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel) subiteration scheme is constructed for time-marching of the fluid equations. The HLLEW (Harten-Lax-van Leer-Einfeldt-Wada) scheme is used for the spatial discretization. The same subiteration formulation is applied directly to the structural equations of motion in generalized coordinates. Through subiteration between the fluid and structural equations, a fully implicit aeroelastic solver is obtained for the numerical simulation of fluid/structure interaction. To improve the ability for application to complex configurations, a multiblock grid is used for the flow field calculation and Transfinite Interpolation (TFI) is employed for the adaptive moving grid deformation. The infinite plate spline (IPS) and the principal of virtual work are utilized for the data transformation between the fluid and structure. The developed code was first validated through the comparison of experimental and computational results for the AGARD 445.6 standard aeroelastic wing. Then the flutter character of a tail wing with control surface was analyzed. Finally, flutter boundaries of a complex aircraft configuration were predicted. (author)
Numerical simulation of condensation on structured surfaces.
Fu, Xiaowu; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei
2014-11-25
Condensation of liquid droplets on solid surfaces happens widely in nature and industrial processes. This phase-change phenomenon has great effect on the performance of some microfluidic devices. On the basis of micro- and nanotechnology, superhydrophobic structured surfaces can be well-fabricated. In this work, the nucleating and growth of droplets on different structured surfaces are investigated numerically. The dynamic behavior of droplets during the condensation is simulated by the multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which has the ability to incorporate the microscopic interactions, including fluid-fluid interaction and fluid-surface interaction. The results by the LBM show that, besides the chemical properties of surfaces, the topography of structures on solid surfaces influences the condensation process. For superhydrophobic surfaces, the spacing and height of microridges have significant influence on the nucleation sites. This mechanism provides an effective way for prevention of wetting on surfaces in engineering applications. Moreover, it suggests a way to prevent ice formation on surfaces caused by the condensation of subcooled water. For hydrophilic surfaces, however, microstructures may be submerged by the liquid films adhering to the surfaces. In this case, microstructures will fail to control the condensation process. Our research provides an optimized way for designing surfaces for condensation in engineering systems.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Cell Printing
Qiao, Rui; He, Ping
2010-11-01
Structural cell printing, i.e., printing three dimensional (3D) structures of cells held in a tissue matrix, is gaining significant attention in the biomedical community. The key idea is to use desktop printer or similar devices to print cells into 3D patterns with a resolution comparable to the size of mammalian cells, similar to that in living organs. Achieving such a resolution in vitro can lead to breakthroughs in areas such as organ transplantation and understanding of cell-cell interactions in truly 3D spaces. Although the feasibility of cell printing has been demonstrated in the recent years, the printing resolution and cell viability remain to be improved. In this work, we investigate one of the unit operations in cell printing, namely, the impact of a cell-laden droplet into a pool of highly viscous liquids using direct numerical simulations. The dynamics of droplet impact (e.g., crater formation and droplet spreading and penetration) and the evolution of cell shape and internal stress are quantified in details.
Babu, D. Harish; Narayana, P. V. Satya
2016-08-01
An analysis has been carried out to study the Joule heating effect on MHD heat transfer of an incompressible Jeffrey fluid due to a stretching porous sheet with power law heat flux and heat source. A constant magnetic field is applied normal to the stretching surface. The basic governing equations are reduced into the coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformations. The resulting equations are then solved numerically by shooting method with fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme. The effects of various physical parameters entering into the problem on dimensionless velocity and temperature distribution are discussed through graphs and tables. The results reveal that the momentum and thermal boundary layer thickness are significantly influenced by Deborah number (β), ratio of relaxation and retardation times parameter (λ), heat generation parameter (β*), Eckert number (Ec) and magnetic field parameter (M). A comparison with the previously published works shows excellent agreement.
Numerical simulation of interactions between pulsed laser and soild targets in an ambient gas
Peterkin, , Jr.
1998-10-01
When a GW/cm^2 repetitively pulsed laser strikes a solid target that is immersed in a gas at 1 atm, numerous interesting plasma phenomena are observed. To help us understand these observations, we perform time-dependent numerical simulations of the propagation and partial absorption via inverse bremsstrahlung of a pulsed CO2 laser beam through He and N, and the interaction with a solid copper target aligned at various angles with respect to the incident laser beam. For this numerical study, we use the general-purpose 2 1/2-dimensional finite-volume MHD code uc(mach2.) The early portion of the laser pulses is deposited into the solid target and produces a jet of target material that is almost aligned with the target normal. Most of the subsequent laser energy is deposited into the ambient gas at the critical surface. For a repetitive pulsed laser, we observe a series of laser supported detonation (LSD) waves each of which originates at the instantaneous location of the critical surface. The space- and time-dependent electron number density defines this surface. For the numerical code to reproduce accurately the relevant physics, the overall energy budget must be computed accurately. The solid ejecta interacts with the LSD waves in a complex fashion, allowing the spontaneous generation of a magnetic field via the grad(P) term of a generalized Ohm's law. We illustrate the dynamics with graphical results from uc(mach2) simulations.
Kowal, Grzegorz; Lazarian, A
2010-01-01
In the past years we have experienced an increasing interest in understanding of the physical properties of collisionless plasmas, mostly because of the large number of astrophysical environments, e.g. the intracluster medium (ICM), containing magnetic fields which are strong enough to be coupled with the ionized gas and characterized by densities sufficiently low to prevent the pressure isotropization with respect to the magnetic line direction. Under these conditions a new class of kinetic instabilities arises, such as firehose and mirror ones, which were extensively studied in the literature. Their role in the turbulence evolution and cascade process in the presence of pressure anisotropy, however, is still unclear. In this work we present the first statistical analysis of turbulence in collisionless plasmas using three dimensional double isothermal magnetohydrodynamical with the Chew-Goldberger-Low closure (CGL-MHD) numerical simulations. We study models with different initial conditions to account for th...
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF BED DEFORMATION IN DIKE BURST
无
2001-01-01
The key point in the numerical simulation of breach growth and bed deformation process in a dike burst is the accurate computation of flow and sediment transport. A numerical model for horizontal 2-D non-uniform sediment was developed to simulate the bed deformation process in the dike burst. The first-order scheme was used in computation. Several simulated results were worked out to demonstrate the applicability of the numerical model.
Nonlinear Terms of MHD Equations for Homogeneous Magnetized Shear Flow
Dimitrov, Z D; Hristov, T S; Mishonov, T M
2011-01-01
We have derived the full set of MHD equations for incompressible shear flow of a magnetized fluid and considered their solution in the wave-vector space. The linearized equations give the famous amplification of slow magnetosonic waves and describe the magnetorotational instability. The nonlinear terms in our analysis are responsible for the creation of turbulence and self-sustained spectral density of the MHD (Alfven and pseudo-Alfven) waves. Perspectives for numerical simulations of weak turbulence and calculation of the effective viscosity of accretion disks are shortly discussed in k-space.
Deng, Wei [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2015-07-21
The question of the energy composition of the jets/outflows in high-energy astrophysical systems, e.g. GRBs, AGNs, is taken up first: Matter-flux-dominated (MFD), σ < 1, and/or Poynting-flux-dominated (PFD), σ >1? The standard fireball IS model and dissipative photosphere model are MFD, while the ICMART (Internal-Collision-induced MAgnetic Reconnection and Turbulence) model is PFD. Motivated by ICMART model and other relevant problems, such as “jets in a jet” model of AGNs, the author investigates the models from the EMF energy dissipation efficiency, relativistic outflow generation, and σ evolution points of view, and simulates collisions between high-σ blobs to mimic the situation of the interactions inside the PFD jets/outflows by using a 3D SRMHD code which solves the conservative form of the ideal MHD equations. σ_{b,f} is calculated from the simulation results (threshold = 1). The efficiency obtained from this hybrid method is similar to the efficiency got from the energy evolution of the simulations (35.2%). Efficiency is nearly σ independent, which is also confirmed by the hybrid method. σ_{b,i} - σ_{b,f} provides an interesting linear relationship. Results of several parameter studies of EMF energy dissipation efficiency are shown.
Comparison of helioseismic cut-off frequency formulations by the means of MHD simulation results
Bourdin, Philippe-A.; Thaler, Irina; Roth, Markus
2017-04-01
The discussion of helioseismic wave phenomena requires a self-consistent description of the plasma pressure. Magnetically active regions on the Sun are observed to have distinct wave phenomena as compared to quiet regions. With better helioseismologic diagnostics near active regions one may also better understand not only the chromospheric energy budget, but also halo formation and running penumbral waves. The line formation height (with respect to the beta=1 level) and the magnetic field inclination near the solar surface are in the same time difficult to measure and important to correctly interpret observations. With the help of a large-scale 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model, that features an active region as bottom boundary and has shown good agreement to various observations, we may compute values for theoretically derived formulations of cut-off frequencies from the model plasma parameters. Our results show strongly varying vertical atmospheric profiles and we give estimates of their influence on the expected cut-off frequencies.
The Effects of Differential Rotation on the Magnetic Structure of the Solar Corona: MHD Simulations
Lionello, Roberto; Riley, Pete; Linker, Jon A.; Mikic, Zoran
2004-01-01
Coronal holes are magnetically open regions from which the solar wind streams. Magnetic reconnection has been invoked to reconcile the apparently rigid rotation of coronal holes with the differential rotation of magnetic flux in the photosphere. This mechanism might also be relevant to the formation of the slow solar wind, the properties of which seem to indicate an origin from the opening of closed magnetic field lines. We have developed a global MHD model to study the effect of differential rotation on the coronal magnetic field. Starting from a magnetic flux distribution similar to that of Wang et al., which consists of a bipolar magnetic region added to a background dipole field, we applied differential rotation over a period of 5 solar rotations. The evolution of the magnetic field and of the boundaries of coronal holes are in substantial agreement with the findings of Wang et al.. We identified examples of interchange reconnection and other changes of topology of the magnetic field. Possible consequences for the origin of the slow solar wind are also discussed.
Imbert-Gérard Lise-Marie
2011-11-01
Full Text Available We propose numerical methods on Cartesian meshes for solving the 2-D axisymmetric two-temperature resistivive magnetohydrodynamics equations with self-generated magnetic field and Braginskii’s [1] closures. These rely on a splitting of the complete system in several subsystems according to the nature of the underlying mathematical operator. The hyperbolic part is solved using conservative high-order dimensionally split Lagrange-remap schemes whereas semi-implicit diffusion operators have been developed for the thermal and resistive conduction equations. Source terms are treated explictly. Numerical results on the deceleration phase of an ICF implosion test problem are proposed, a benchmark which was initially proposed in [2]. Nous proposons dans cet article des méthodes numériques pour les équations de la magnétohydrodynamique résistive à deux températures avec champ magnétique auto-généré et relations de fermeture de Braginskii [1] en géométrie 2-D axisymétrique sur maillage cartésien. Celles-ci sont basées sur une décomposition du système complet selon la nature des opérateurs mathématiques sous-jacents. La partie hyperbolique est résolue par des schémas conservatifs Lagrange-projection d’ordre élevé en directions alternées tandis que des opérateurs de diffusion semi-implicites ont été développés pour les équations de conduction thermique et résistive. Les termes sources sont traités de manière explicite. Des résultats numériques sur un cas-test simulant la phase de décélération d’une implosion de capsule FCI sont proposés, ce benchmark ayant été initialement présenté dans [2].
M. Umamaheswar
2016-09-01
Full Text Available A numerical investigation is carried out on an unsteady MHD free convection flow of a well-known non-Newtonian visco elastic second order Rivlin-Erickson fluid past an impulsively started semi-infinite vertical plate in the presence of homogeneous chemical reaction, thermal radiation, thermal diffusion, radiation absorption and heat absorption with constant mass flux. The presence of viscous dissipation is also considered at the plate under the influence of uniform transverse magnetic field. The flow is governed by a coupled nonlinear system of partial differential equations which are solved numerically by using finite difference method. The effects of various physical parameters on the flow quantities viz. velocity, temperature, concentration, Skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are studied numerically. The results are discussed with the help of graphs. We observed that the velocity decreases with an increase in magnetic field parameter, Schmidt number, and Prandtl number while it increases with an increase in Grashof number, modified Grashof number, visco-elastic parameter and Soret number. Temperature increases with an increase in radiation absorption parameter, Eckert number and visco-elastic parameter while it decreases with increasing values of radiation parameter, Prandtl number and heat absorption parameter. Concentration increases with increase in Soret number while it decreases with an increase in Schmidt number and chemical reaction parameter.
Park, K.; Ogino, T.; Lee, D.; Walker, R. J.; Kim, K.
2013-12-01
One of the significant problems in magnetospheric physics concerns the nature and properties of the processes which occur at the magnetopause boundary; in particular how energy, momentum, and plasma the magnetosphere receives from the solar wind. Basic processes are magnetic reconnection [Dungey, 1961] and viscouslike interaction, such as Kelvin-Helmholtz instability [Dungey 1955, Miura, 1984] and pressure-pulse driven [Sibeck et al. 1989]. In generally, magnetic reconnection occurs efficiently when the IMF is southward and the rate is largest where the magnetosheath magnetic field is antiparallel to the geomagnetic field. [Sonnerup, 1974; Crooker, 1979; Luhmann et al., 1984; Park et al., 2006, 2009]. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is driven by the velocity shear at the boundary, which occur frequently when the IMF is northward. Also variation of the magnetic field and the plasma properties is reported to be quasi-periodic with 2-3min [Otto and Fairfield, 2000] and period of vortex train with 3 to 4 minutes by global MHD simulation [Ogino, 2011]. The pressure-pulse is driven by the solar wind. And the observations of the magnetospheric magnetic field response show quasi-periodic with a period of 8 minutes [Sibeck et al., 1989; Kivelson and Chen, 1995]. There have been few studies of the vortices in the magnetospheric boundary under southward IMF condition. However it is not easy to find the generation mechanism and characteristic for vortices in complicated 3-dimensional space. Thus we have performed global MHD simulation for the steady solar wind and southward IMF conditions. From the simulation results, we find that the vortex occurs at R= 11.7Re (IMF Bz = -2 nT) and R= 10.2Re (IMF Bz = -10 nT) in the dayside magnetopause boundary. Also the vortex rotates counterclockwise in duskside magnetopause (clockwise in dawnside) and propagates tailward. Across the vortex, magnetic field and plasma properties clearly show quasi-periodic fluctuations with a period of 8
Numerical simulation of seasonal groundwater pumping
Filimonova, Elena; Baldenkov, Mikhail
2015-04-01
Increasing scarcity and contamination of water recourses require innovative water management strategies such as combined water system. The combined water system is a complex technology comprising two separate wells, major catchment-zone well and compensation pumping well, located inside a single stream basin. The major well is supplied by the well's catchment zone or surface flow, thus depleting the stream flow. The pumping rate of a major well is determined by the difference between the current stream flow and the minimum permissible stream flow. The deficiency of the stream flow in dry seasons can be compensated for by the short-term pumping of groundwater. The compensation pumping rate is determined by the difference between water demand and the permissible water withdrawal of the major well. The source for the compensation well is the aquifer storage. The estimation of streamflow depletion caused by compensation pumping is major question to evaluate the efficiency of the combined water system. Short-term groundwater pumping can use aquifer storage instead of catchment-zone water until the drawdown reaches the edge of the stream. Traditionally pumping simulation calculates in two-step procedure. Natural conditions, an aquifer system is in an approximate dynamic equilibrium, describe by steady-state model. A steady-state solution provides an initial heads, a set of flows through boundaries, and used as initial state for transient solutions, when pumping is imposed on an aquifer system. The transient solutions provide the total change in flows through the boundaries. A difference between the transient and steady-state solutions estimates the capture and the streamflow depletion. Numerical modeling of cyclical compensation pumping has special features: the periodic solution, the seasonal changes through the boundaries and the importance even small drawdown of stream level. When seasonality is a modeling feature, traditional approach leads to mistaken values of
The Parker Instability in a Thick Gaseous Disk II Numerical Simulations in 2D
Santillan, A; Franco, J; Martos, M A; Hong, S S; Ryu, D; Santillan, Alfredo; Kim, Jongsoo; Franco, Jose; Martos, Marco; Ryu, Dongsu
2000-01-01
We present 2D, ideal-MHD numerical simulations of the Parker instability in a multi-component warm disk model. The calculations were done using two numerical codes with different algorithms, TVD and ZEUS-3D. The outcome of the numerical experiments performed with both codes is very similar, and confirms the results of the linear analysis for the undular mode derived by Kim et al. (2000): the most unstable wavelength is about 3 kpc and its growth timescale is between 30-50 Myr (the growth rate is sensitive to the position of the upper boundary of the numerical grid). Thus, the time and length scales of this multicomponent disk model are substantially larger than those derived for thin disk models. We use three different types of perturbations, random, symmetric, and antisymmetric, to trigger the instability. The antisymmetric mode is dominant, and determines the minimum time for the onset of the nonlinear regime. The instability generates dense condensations and the final peak column density value in the antis...
Probing Strong Field Gravity Through Numerical Simulations
Choptuik, Matthew W; Pretorius, Frans
2015-01-01
This article is an overview of the contributions numerical relativity has made to our understanding of strong field gravity, to be published in the book "General Relativity and Gravitation: A Centennial Perspective", commemorating the 100th anniversary of general relativity.
Coherent Structures in Numerically Simulated Plasma Turbulence
Kofoed-Hansen, O.; Pécseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.
1989-01-01
Low level electrostatic ion acoustic turbulence generated by the ion-ion beam instability was investigated numerically. The fluctuations in potential were investigated by a conditional statistical analysis revealing propagating coherent structures having the form of negative potential wells which...
Denton, R.; Sonnerup, B. U. O.; Swisdak, M.; Birn, J.; Drake, J. F.; Heese, M.
2012-01-01
When analyzing data from an array of spacecraft (such as Cluster or MMS) crossing a site of magnetic reconnection, it is desirable to be able to accurately determine the orientation of the reconnection site. If the reconnection is quasi-two dimensional, there are three key directions, the direction of maximum inhomogeneity (the direction across the reconnection site), the direction of the reconnecting component of the magnetic field, and the direction of rough invariance (the "out of plane" direction). Using simulated spacecraft observations of magnetic reconnection in the geomagnetic tail, we extend our previous tests of the direction-finding method developed by Shi et al. (2005) and the method to determine the structure velocity relative to the spacecraft Vstr. These methods require data from four proximate spacecraft. We add artificial noise and calibration errors to the simulation fields, and then use the perturbed gradient of the magnetic field B and perturbed time derivative dB/dt, as described by Denton et al. (2010). Three new simulations are examined: a weakly three-dimensional, i.e., quasi-two-dimensional, MHD simulation without a guide field, a quasi-two-dimensional MHD simulation with a guide field, and a two-dimensional full dynamics kinetic simulation with inherent noise so that the apparent minimum gradient was not exactly zero, even without added artificial errors. We also examined variations of the spacecraft trajectory for the kinetic simulation. The accuracy of the directions found varied depending on the simulation and spacecraft trajectory, but all the directions could be found within about 10 for all cases. Various aspects of the method were examined, including how to choose averaging intervals and the best intervals for determining the directions and velocity. For the kinetic simulation, we also investigated in detail how the errors in the inferred gradient directions from the unmodified Shi et al. method (using the unperturbed gradient
MHD Flows in Compact Astrophysical Objects Accretion, Winds and Jets
Beskin, Vasily S
2010-01-01
Accretion flows, winds and jets of compact astrophysical objects and stars are generally described within the framework of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) flows. Analytical analysis of the problem provides profound physical insights, which are essential for interpreting and understanding the results of numerical simulations. Providing such a physical understanding of MHD Flows in Compact Astrophysical Objects is the main goal of this book, which is an updated translation of a successful Russian graduate textbook. The book provides the first detailed introduction into the method of the Grad-Shafranov equation, describing analytically the very broad class of hydrodynamical and MHD flows. It starts with the classical examples of hydrodynamical accretion onto relativistic and nonrelativistic objects. The force-free limit of the Grad-Shafranov equation allows us to analyze in detail the physics of the magnetospheres of radio pulsars and black holes, including the Blandford-Znajek process of energy e...
Kako, T.; Watanabe, T. [eds.
2000-06-01
This is the proceeding of 'study on numerical methods related to plasma confinement' held in National Institute for Fusion Science. In this workshop, theoretical and numerical analyses of possible plasma equilibria with their stability properties are presented. There are also various lectures on mathematical as well as numerical analyses related to the computational methods for fluid dynamics and plasma physics. Separate abstracts were presented for 13 of the papers in this report. The remaining 6 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)
Protostellar collapse and fragmentation using an MHD GADGET
Bürzle, Florian; Stasyszyn, Federico; Greif, Thomas; Dolag, Klaus; Klessen, Ralf S; Nielaba, Peter
2010-01-01
Although the influence of magnetic fields is regarded as vital in the star formation process, only a few magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations have been performed on this subject within the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. This is largely due to the unsatisfactory treatment of non-vanishing divergence of the magnetic field. Recently smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) simulations based on Euler potentials have proven to be successful in treating MHD collapse and fragmentation problems, however these methods are known to have some intrinsical difficulties. We have performed SPMHD simulations based on a traditional approach evolving the magnetic field itself using the induction equation. To account for the numerical divergence, we have chosen an approach that subtracts the effects of numerical divergence from the force equation, and additionally we employ artificial magnetic dissipation as a regularization scheme. We apply this realization of SPMHD to a widely known setup, a variation o...
Numerical simulation of busbar configuration in large aluminum electrolysis cell
LI Mao; ZHOU Jie-ming
2008-01-01
Various busbar configurations were built and modeled by the custom code based on the commercial package ANSYS for the 500 kA aluminum electrolysis cell. The configuration parameters, such as side riser entry ratio, number of cathode bars connected to each riser, vertical location of side cathode busbar and short side cathode busbar, distance between rows of cells in potline, the number of neighboring cells, ratio of compensation busbar carried passing under cell and its horizontal location under cell along with large magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) computation based on the enstom evaluation function were simulated and discussed. The results show that a cell with riser entry ratio of 11:9:8:9:11 and cathode busbar located at the level of aluminum solution, 50% upstream cathode current passing under cell for magnetic field compensation, the distance between rows of 50 m is more stable.
Numerical Simulation of Cyclic Thermodynamic Processes
Andersen, Stig Kildegård
2006-01-01
and a brief overview of the current state of the art in methods for simulating such machines is presented. It was found that different simulation approaches, which model the machines with different levels of detail, currently coexist. Methods using many simplifications can be easy to use and can provide......, and with simulation results from current state of the art software, for two Stirling machines and two pulse tube coolers. Parallelised single and multiple shooting methods were studied and were found to be reliable for finding periodic steady state solutions. Multiple shooting methods had better parallel scalability...
Numerical Propulsion System Simulation for Space Transportation
Owen, Karl
2000-01-01
Current system simulations are mature, difficult to modify, and poorly documented. Probabilistic life prediction techniques for space applications are in their early application stage. Many parts of the full system, variable fidelity simulation, have been demonstrated individually or technology is available from aeronautical applications. A 20% reduction in time to design with improvements in performance and risk reduction is anticipated. GRC software development will proceed with similar development efforts in aeronautical simulations. Where appropriate, parallel efforts will be encouraged/tracked in high risk areas until success is assured.
Shen, Fang; Zhang, Jie; Hess, Phillip; Wang, Yuming; Feng, Xueshang; Cheng, Hongze; Yang, Yi
2015-01-01
The dynamic process of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the heliosphere provides us the key information for evaluating CMEs' geo-effectiveness and improving the accurate prediction of CME induced Shock Arrival Time (SAT) at the Earth. We present a data constrained three dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the evolution of the CME in a realistic ambient solar wind for the July 12-16, 2012 event by using the 3D COIN-TVD MHD code. A detailed comparison of the kinematic evolution of the CME between the observations and the simulation is carried out, including the usage of the time-elongation maps from the perspectives of both Stereo A and Stereo B. In this case study, we find that our 3D COIN-TVD MHD model, with the magnetized plasma blob as the driver, is able to re-produce relatively well the real 3D nature of the CME in morphology and their evolution from the Sun to Earth. The simulation also provides a relatively satisfactory comparison with the in-situ plasma data from the Wind spacecraf...
Van der Swaluw, E
2003-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamical simulations are presented of a magnetized pulsar wind interacting directly with the interstellar medium, or, in the case of a surrounding supernova remnant, with the associated freely expanding ejecta of the progenitor star. In both cases the simulations show that the pulsar wind nebula will be elongated due to the dynamical influence of the toroidal magnetic fields, which confirm predictions from a semi-analytical model presented by Begelman & Li. The simulations follow the expansion of the pulsar wind nebula when the latter is bounded by a strong shock and show that the expansion can be modeled with a standard power-law expansion rate. By performing different simulations with different magnetization parameters, I show that the latter weakly correlates with the elongation of the pulsar wind nebula. The results from the simulations are applied to determine the nature of the expansion rate of the pulsar wind nebula 3C58. It is shown that there is both observational and theoretical evi...
Numerical simulation of the fractional Langevin equation
Guo Peng
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study the fractional Langevin equation, whose derivative is in Caputo sense. By using the derived numerical algorithm, we obtain the displacement and the mean square displacement which describe the dynamic behaviors of the fractional Langevin equation.
Numerical simulations of stellar winds: polytropic models
Keppens, R.; Goedbloed, J. P.
1999-01-01
We discuss steady-state transonic outflows obtained by direct numerical solution of the hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic equations. We make use of the Versatile Advection Code, a software package for solving systems of (hyperbolic) partial differential equations. We proceed stepwise from a spher
Numerical simulation of tyre/road noise
Schutte, Jan Henk
2011-01-01
In modern society, traffic noise has become an important issue for mental health. A significant contributor to this noise pollution is exterior tyre/road noise, which is caused by the interaction between tyre and road surface and. In order to reduce tyre/road noise at the source, accurate numerical
Detailed numerical simulations of laser cooling processes
Ramirez-Serrano, J.; Kohel, J.; Thompson, R.; Yu, N.
2001-01-01
We developed a detailed semiclassical numerical code of the forces applied on atoms in optical and magnetic fields to increase the understanding of the different roles that light, atomic collisions, background pressure, and number of particles play in experiments with laser cooled and trapped atoms.
Tchekhovskoy, Alexander
2015-01-01
Active galactic nuclei jets are thought to form in the immediate vicinity of the event horizons of supermassive black holes. Therefore, jets could be excellent probes of general relativity. However, in practice, using jets to infer near-black hole physics is not straightforward since the cause of their most basic morphological features is not understood. For instance, there is no agreement on the cause of the well-known Fanaroff-Riley (FR) morphological dichotomy of jets, with FRI jets being shorter and wiggly and FRII jets being longer and more stable. Here, we carry out 3D relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of relativistic jets propagating through the ambient medium. Because in flat density cores of galaxies ($n \\propto r^{-\\alpha}$ with $\\alpha < 2$) the mass per unit distance ahead of the jets increases with distance, the jets slow down and collimate into smaller opening angles. This makes the jets more vulnerable to the 3D magnetic kink ("corkscrew") instability, which develops faster ...
Wu, Chin-Chun; Liou, Kan; Wu, S. T.; Dryer, Murray; Plunkett, Simon
2016-03-01
We study an unusual solar energetic particle (SEP) event that was associated with the coronal mass ejection (CME) on March 15, 2013. Enhancements of the SEP fluxes were first detected by the ACE spacecraft at 14:00 UT, ˜7 hours after the onset of the CME (07:00 UT), and the SEP's peak intensities were recorded ˜36 hours after the onset of the CME. Our recent study showed that the CME-driven shock Mach number, based on a global three-dimensional (3-D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, is well correlated with the time-intensity of 10-30 MeV and 30-80 MeV protons. Here we focus on the radial dependence (r-α) of 4He (3.43-41.2 MeV/n) and O (7.30-89.8 MeV/n) energetic particles from ACE/SIS. It is found that the scaling factor (α) ranges between 2 and 4 for most of the energy channels. We also found that the correlation coefficients tend to increase with SEP energies.
Dolag, Klaus; Beck, Alexander M.; Arth, Alexander
Using the MHD version of Gadget3 (Stasyszyn, Dolag & Beck 2013) and a model for the seeding of magnetic fields by supernovae (SN), we performed simulations of the evolution of the magnetic fields in galaxy clusters and study their effects on the heat transport within the intra cluster medium (ICM). This mechanism - where SN explosions during the assembly of galaxies provide magnetic seed fields - has been shown to reproduce the magnetic field in Milky Way-like galactic halos (Beck et al. 2013). The build up of the magnetic field at redshifts before z = 5 and the accordingly predicted rotation measure evolution are also in good agreement with current observations. Such magnetic fields present at high redshift are then transported out of the forming protogalaxies into the large-scale structure and pollute the ICM (in a similar fashion to metals transport). Here, complex velocity patterns, driven by the formation process of cosmic structures are further amplifying and distributing the magnetic fields. In galaxy clusters, the magnetic fields therefore get amplified to the observed μG level and produce the observed amplitude of rotation measures of several hundreds of rad/m2. We also demonstrate that heat conduction in such turbulent fields on average is equivalent to a suppression factor around 1/20th of the classical Spitzer value and in contrast to classical, isotropic heat transport leads to temperature structures within the ICM compatible with observations (Arth et al. 2014).
Westerhof, E.; de Blank, H. J.; Pratt, J.
2016-03-01
Two dimensional reduced MHD simulations of neoclassical tearing mode growth and suppression by ECCD are performed. The perturbation of the bootstrap current density and the EC drive current density perturbation are assumed to be functions of the perturbed flux surfaces. In the case of ECCD, this implies that the applied power is flux surface averaged to obtain the EC driven current density distribution. The results are consistent with predictions from the generalized Rutherford equation using common expressions for Δ \\text{bs}\\prime and Δ \\text{ECCD}\\prime . These expressions are commonly perceived to describe only the effect on the tearing mode growth of the helical component of the respective current perturbation acting through the modification of Ohm’s law. Our results show that they describe in addition the effect of the poloidally averaged current density perturbation which acts through modification of the tearing mode stability index. Except for modulated ECCD, the largest contribution to the mode growth comes from this poloidally averaged current density perturbation.
Ade, P A R; Alves, M I R; Aniano, G; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Arzoumanian, D; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bracco, A; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fanciullo, L; Ferrière, K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Guillet, V; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D L; Helou, G; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Pelkonen, V -M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Scott, D; Soler, J D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Zonca, A
2014-01-01
Polarized emission observed by Planck HFI at 353 GHz towards a sample of nearby fields is presented, focusing on the statistics of polarization fractions $p$ and angles $\\psi$. The polarization fractions and column densities in these nearby fields are representative of the range of values obtained over the whole sky. We find that: (i) the largest polarization fractions are reached in the most diffuse fields; (ii) the maximum polarization fraction $p_\\mathrm{max}$ decreases with column density $N_\\mathrm{H}$ in the more opaque fields with $N_\\mathrm{H} > 10^{21}\\,\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}$; and (iii) the polarization fraction along a given line of sight is correlated with the local spatial coherence of the polarization angle. These observations are compared to polarized emission maps computed in simulations of anisotropic magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) turbulence in which we assume a uniform intrinsic polarization fraction of the dust grains. We find that an estimate of this parameter may be recovered from the maximum pol...
Numerical Simulation of a Linear Filter.
1967-05-05
spectral density function . The study determines to what degree this method simulates a linear filter. Also included are correlation analyses of equidistributed sequences which are used in the method. (Author)
Polarization transmission at RHIC, numerical simulations
Meot F.; Bai, M.; Liu, C.; Minty, M.; Ranjbar, V.
2012-05-20
Typical tracking simulations regarding the transmission of the polarization in the proton-proton collider RHIC are discussed. They participate in general studies aimed at understanding and improving polarization performances during polarized proton-proton runs.
A numerical simulation of a contrail
Levkov, L.; Boin, M.; Meinert, D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht (Germany)
1997-12-31
The formation of a contrail from an aircraft flying near the tropopause is simulated using a three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model including a very complex scheme of parameterized cloud microphysical processes. The model predicted ice concentrations are in very good agreement with data measured during the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE), 1989. Sensitivity simulations were run to determine humidity forcing on the life time of contrails. (author) 4 refs.
Magneto-acoustic wave energy from numerical simulations of an observed sunspot umbra
Felipe, T; Collados, M
2011-01-01
We aim at reproducing the height dependence of sunspot wave signatures obtained from spectropolarimetric observations through 3D MHD numerical simulations. A magneto-static sunspot model based on the properties of the observed sunspot is constructed and perturbed at the photosphere introducing the fluctuations measured with the \\SiI\\ $\\lambda$ 10827 \\AA\\ line. The results of the simulations are compared with the oscillations observed simultaneously at different heights from the \\HeI\\ $\\lambda$ 10830 \\AA\\ line, the \\CaIIH\\ core and the \\FeI\\ blends in the wings of the \\CaIIH\\ line. The simulations show a remarkable agreement with the observations. They reproduce the velocity maps and power spectra at the formation heights of the observed lines, as well as the phase and amplification spectra between several pair of lines. We find that the stronger shocks at the chromosphere are accompanied with a delay between the observed signal and the simulated one at the corresponding height, indicating that shocks shift th...
Numerical Simulation of the Eddy Current Effects on the Arc Splitting Process
杨飞; 荣命哲; 吴翊; 孙昊; 马瑞光; 纽春萍
2012-01-01
This paper focuses on a numerical simulation of the arc plasma behavior in the arc splitting process, considering the eddy currents in the electrodes and the splitter plate. Based on three-dimensional (3D) magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) theory, a thin layer of nonlinear electrical resistance elements is used in the model to represent the voltage drop of plasma sheath and the formation of new arc root in order to include the arc splitting process in the simulation. In the arcing process, eddy currents in metal parts are generated by a time-varying magnetic field. The arc model is calculated with the time-varying magnetic field term, so that the eddy current effects can be considered. The effect of nonlinear permeability of a ferromagnetic material is also involved in the calculation. Using the simulation results for the temperature, velocity and current density distribution, the arc splitting process is analyzed in detail. The calculated results are compared with the simulation neglecting eddy currents.
Yuan, Xuefei
2012-07-01
Numerical simulations of the four-field extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations with hyper-resistivity terms present a difficult challenge because of demanding spatial resolution requirements. A time-dependent sequence of . r-refinement adaptive grids obtained from solving a single Monge-Ampère (MA) equation addresses the high-resolution requirements near the . x-point for numerical simulation of the magnetic reconnection problem. The MHD equations are transformed from Cartesian coordinates to solution-defined curvilinear coordinates. After the application of an implicit scheme to the time-dependent problem, the parallel Newton-Krylov-Schwarz (NKS) algorithm is used to solve the system at each time step. Convergence and accuracy studies show that the curvilinear solution requires less computational effort than a pure Cartesian treatment. This is due both to the more optimal placement of the grid points and to the improved convergence of the implicit solver, nonlinearly and linearly. The latter effect, which is significant (more than an order of magnitude in number of inner linear iterations for equivalent accuracy), does not yet seem to be widely appreciated. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Numerical Simulation of the Lightning Return Stroke.
da Frota Mattos, Marcos Andre
Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Several lightning return stroke models were developed in this work. Initially very simple models were developed, and subsequently many of the main features of the channel were added. The corona effect, the geometrical parameters, non-linear losses and the cloud losses are these features. To solve the RLC network model of the channel the numerical technique known as TLM was used. A numerical sensitivity study was made to analyse the influence of the filtering and the Gibbs effects on the results. A sensitivity study of the channel's parameters was also made. For the first time three of the main measured lightning channel quantities were calculated showing good agreement with observations. These quantities are the electromagnetic field, current waveshape at ground and the velocity of propagation. The surge impedence and the current rise-time were also calculated at all heights.
Numerical Simulation of Oil Spill in Ocean
Yong-Sik Cho
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The spreading of oil in an open ocean may cause serious damage to a marine environmental system. Thus, an accurate prediction of oil spill is very important to minimize coastal damage due to unexpected oil spill accident. The movement of oil may be represented with a numerical model that solves an advection-diffusion-reaction equation with a proper numerical scheme. In this study, the spilled oil dispersion model has been established in consideration of tide and tidal currents simultaneously. The velocity components in the advection-diffusion-reaction equation are obtained from the shallow-water equations. The accuracy of the model is verified by applying it to a simple but significant problem. The results produced by the model agree with corresponding analytical solutions and field-observed data. The model is then applied to predict the spreading of an oil spill in a real coastal environment.
Numerical Simulation of Piston Ring Lubrication
Felter, Christian Lotz
2006-01-01
This paper describes a numerical method that can be used to model the lubrication of piston rings. Classical lubrication theory is based on the Reynolds equation which is ap- plicable to confined geometries and open geometries where the flooding conditions are known. Lubrication of piston rings...... is extended to include also the oil film outside the piston rings. The numerical model consists of a 2D free surface code that solves the time dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The equations are cast in Lagrangian form and discretized by a meshfree moving least squares method using the primitive......, however, fall outside this category of problems since the piston rings might suffer from starved running conditions. This means that the com- putational domain where Reynold equation is applicable (including a cavitation criteria) is unknown. In order to overcome this problem the computational domain...
Numerical characteristics of quantum computer simulation
Chernyavskiy, A.; Khamitov, K.; Teplov, A.; Voevodin, V.; Voevodin, Vl.
2016-12-01
The simulation of quantum circuits is significantly important for the implementation of quantum information technologies. The main difficulty of such modeling is the exponential growth of dimensionality, thus the usage of modern high-performance parallel computations is relevant. As it is well known, arbitrary quantum computation in circuit model can be done by only single- and two-qubit gates, and we analyze the computational structure and properties of the simulation of such gates. We investigate the fact that the unique properties of quantum nature lead to the computational properties of the considered algorithms: the quantum parallelism make the simulation of quantum gates highly parallel, and on the other hand, quantum entanglement leads to the problem of computational locality during simulation. We use the methodology of the AlgoWiki project (algowiki-project.org) to analyze the algorithm. This methodology consists of theoretical (sequential and parallel complexity, macro structure, and visual informational graph) and experimental (locality and memory access, scalability and more specific dynamic characteristics) parts. Experimental part was made by using the petascale Lomonosov supercomputer (Moscow State University, Russia). We show that the simulation of quantum gates is a good base for the research and testing of the development methods for data intense parallel software, and considered methodology of the analysis can be successfully used for the improvement of the algorithms in quantum information science.
Fastening elements in concrete structures - numerical simulations
Ozbolt, Josko; Eligehausen, Rolf
1993-01-01
Anchoring elements such as headed and expansion studs and grouted or undercut anchors, are often used for local transfer of loads into concrete members. In order to better understand the failure mechanism, a large number of experiments have been carried out in the past. However, due to the complicated three-dimensional load transfer a very few or no numerical studies have been performed for a number of different fastening situations i.e. influence of the embedment depth, crack-width inftuence...
Numerical simulation of magmatic hydrothermal systems
Ingebritsen, S.E.; Geiger, S.; Hurwitz, S.; Driesner, T.
2010-01-01
The dynamic behavior of magmatic hydrothermal systems entails coupled and nonlinear multiphase flow, heat and solute transport, and deformation in highly heterogeneous media. Thus, quantitative analysis of these systems depends mainly on numerical solution of coupled partial differential equations and complementary equations of state (EOS). The past 2 decades have seen steady growth of computational power and the development of numerical models that have eliminated or minimized the need for various simplifying assumptions. Considerable heuristic insight has been gained from process-oriented numerical modeling. Recent modeling efforts employing relatively complete EOS and accurate transport calculations have revealed dynamic behavior that was damped by linearized, less accurate models, including fluid property control of hydrothermal plume temperatures and three-dimensional geometries. Other recent modeling results have further elucidated the controlling role of permeability structure and revealed the potential for significant hydrothermally driven deformation. Key areas for future reSearch include incorporation of accurate EOS for the complete H2O-NaCl-CO2 system, more realistic treatment of material heterogeneity in space and time, realistic description of large-scale relative permeability behavior, and intercode benchmarking comparisons. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.
MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR DENSE PARTICULATE FLOWS
WU Chun-liang
2004-01-01
Sedimentation of particles in inclined and vertical vessels is numerically simulated by the Eulerian two-fluid model. The numerical results show an interesting phenomenon with two circulation vortexes in a vertical vessel but one in the inclined vessel. Sensitivity tests indicate that the boundary layer effect is the key to induce this phenomenon. A numerical method based on 2D unstructured meshes is presented to solve the hard-sphere discrete particle model. Several applications show the numerical method has a good performance to simulate dense particulate flows in irregular domains without regard to element types of the mesh.
Numerical simulation of AM1 microstructure
Rougier Luc
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A modelling approach is developed for the description of microstructure formation in the industrial AM1 Ni-base superalloy. Solidification and homogenization simulations are first carried out using a microsegregation model, before using the local compositions as an input for precipitation calculations, in order to characterize the influence of segregation on precipitation. First, the precipitation model was validated by comparing simulated and measured evolutions of the average precipitate radius during isothermal heat treatments at 1100 ∘C and 1210 ∘C. The chained microsegregation and precipitation simulations indicate that the global sequences of precipitation events remains are qualitatively the same at the different locations in the microstructure, but the growth and dissolution kinetics are strongly influenced by the local compositions. Local supersaturations have a larger effect on the average radius of the precipitates than certain stages of the precipitation heat treatment.
Study on numerical simulation of nodular graphite iron microstructure formation
无
2004-01-01
In this paper, the mathematical and physical model was developed based on thermodynamics and solidification theory before the eutectoid transformation of nodular graphite iron occurred. The Local Element Substitute and Magnification Method was brought forward and 3-dimensional numerical simulation program based on the model and the new assistant algorithm was developed and used to calculate the samples. Results of calculation have good agreement with experimental data. To display the microstructure formation during solidification of nodular graphite iron, a 2-dimensional numerical simulation program combined with the result of the 3-dimensional numerical simulation of experimental samples was compiled.
Numerical simulation of hot stamping of side impact beam
Guo Yihui; Ma Mingtu; Fang Gang; Song Leifeng; Liu Qiang; Wang Xiaona; Zhou Dianwu
2012-01-01
Ls-DYNA software is adopted to conduct research of numerical simulation on hot stamping of side impact beam to calculate the temperature field distribution, stress field distribution, forming limit diagram (FLD) figure, etc. in the course of hot stamping so as to predict and analyze the formability of parts. ProCAST software is employed to conduct research of numerical simulation on solid quenching course concerning hot stamping to calculate temperature field distri- bution of tools and component of muhiple stamping cycles. The results obtained from numerical simulation can provide significant reference value to hot stamping part design, formability predication and tools cooling system design.
3-D MHD disk wind simulations of jets and outflows from high-mass protostars
Staff, Jan E.; Tanaka, Kei; Tan, Jonathan C.; Zhang, Yichen; Liu, Mengyao
2017-01-01
We present the results of a series of nested, large scale, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations of disk winds with a Blandford-Payne like magnetic field configuration, resolving scales from the stellar surface to beyond the core. The goal is to understand the structure of massive protostellar cores at various stages of their formation as the protostellar mass grows from a massive core. At each stage of a given protostellar mass, first, we study how jets and winds develop from the inner accretion disk to ~100 AU scales. We use the results from these simulations to dictate the inner boundary condition of a set of simulation extending to the core boundary at ~10,000 AU of an initially 60 solar mass core. We run separate simulations where the protostellar mass is 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24 Msun, and we are working on making a small grid of models in the context of the Turbulent Core Model with three different core masses and three different core surface densities. The wind is blown into the simulation box with properties derived from the previous jet simulations. We examine the opening angle of the outflow cavity and thus the star formation efficiency from the core due to outflow feedback. We find that the opening angle increases as the protostellar mass grows, but it is always less than 10 degrees, which is surprisingly small compared with previous analytic models. This is caused by the core which confines the outflow. Finally, we use our simulation results as input to a radiative transfer calculation, to compare with observations made by the SOMA survey.
Statistical Theory of the Ideal MHD Geodynamo
Shebalin, J. V.
2012-01-01
A statistical theory of geodynamo action is developed, using a mathematical model of the geodynamo as a rotating outer core containing an ideal (i.e., no dissipation), incompressible, turbulent, convecting magnetofluid. On the concentric inner and outer spherical bounding surfaces the normal components of the velocity, magnetic field, vorticity and electric current are zero, as is the temperature fluctuation. This allows the use of a set of Galerkin expansion functions that are common to both velocity and magnetic field, as well as vorticity, current and the temperature fluctuation. The resulting dynamical system, based on the Boussinesq form of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, represents MHD turbulence in a spherical domain. These basic equations (minus the temperature equation) and boundary conditions have been used previously in numerical simulations of forced, decaying MHD turbulence inside a sphere [1,2]. Here, the ideal case is studied through statistical analysis and leads to a prediction that an ideal coherent structure will be found in the form of a large-scale quasistationary magnetic field that results from broken ergodicity, an effect that has been previously studied both analytically and numerically for homogeneous MHD turbulence [3,4]. The axial dipole component becomes prominent when there is a relatively large magnetic helicity (proportional to the global correlation of magnetic vector potential and magnetic field) and a stationary, nonzero cross helicity (proportional to the global correlation of velocity and magnetic field). The expected angle of the dipole moment vector with respect to the rotation axis is found to decrease to a minimum as the average cross helicity increases for a fixed value of magnetic helicity and then to increase again when average cross helicity approaches its maximum possible value. Only a relatively small value of cross helicity is needed to produce a dipole moment vector that is aligned at approx.10deg with the
Numerical earthquake simulations for seismic hazard assessment
Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Sokolov, Vladimir; Soloviev, Alexander
2017-04-01
A comprehensive seismic hazard assessment can contribute to earthquake preparedness and preventive measures aimed to reduce impacts of earthquakes, especially in the view of growing population and increasing vulnerability and exposure. Realistic earthquake simulations coupled with a seismic hazard analysis can provide better assessments of potential ground shaking due to large earthquakes. We present a model of block-and-fault dynamics, which simulates earthquakes in response to lithosphere movements and allows for studying the influence of fault network properties on seismic patterns. Using case studies (e.g., the Tibet-Himalayan region and the Caucasian region), we analyse the model's performance in terms of reproduction of basic features of the observed seismicity, such as the frequency-magnitude relationship, clustering of earthquakes, occurrences of large events, fault slip rates, and earthquake mechanisms. We examine a new approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, which is based on instrumentally recorded, historical and simulated earthquakes. Based on predicted and observed peak ground acceleration values, we show that the hazard level associated with large events significantly increases if the long record of simulated seismicity is considered in the hazard assessment.
Numerical simulations of nanostructured gold films
Repän, Taavi; Frydendahl, Christian; Novikov, Sergey M.
2017-01-01
We present an approach to analyse near-field effects on nanostructured gold films by finite element simulations. The studied samples are formed by fabricating gold films near the percolation threshold and then applying laser damage. Resulting samples have complicated structures, which...
Ju, Wenhua; Stone, James M.; Zhu, Zhaohuan
2017-05-01
We perform global three-dimensional MHD simulations of unstratified accretion disks in cataclysmic variables (CVs). By including mass inflow via an accretion stream, we are able to evolve the disk to a steady state. We investigate the relative importance of spiral shocks and the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in driving angular momentum transport and how each depend on the geometry and strength of the seed magnetic field and the Mach number of the disk (where Mach number is the ratio of the azimuthal velocity and the sound speed of gas). We use a locally isothermal equation of state and adopt temperature profiles that are consistent with CV disk observations. Our results indicate that the relative importance of spiral shocks and MRI in driving angular momentum transport is controlled by the gas Mach number and the seed magnetic field strength. MRI and spiral shocks provide comparable efficiency of angular momentum transport when the disk Mach number is around 10 and the seed magnetic field has plasma β =400 (where β is the ratio of gas pressure and magnetic pressure). The MRI dominates whenever the seed field strength, or the disk Mach number, is increased. Among all of our simulations, the effective viscosity parameter {α }{eff}˜ 0.016{--}0.1 after MRI saturates and the disk reaches steady state. Larger values of {α }{eff} are favored when the seed magnetic field has vertical components or the flow has stronger magnetization (1/β ). Our models all indicate that the role of MRI in driving angular momentum transport thus mass accretion in CV disks is indispensable, especially in cool disks with weak spiral shocks.
Evolution of cosmic filaments and of their galaxy population from MHD cosmological simulations
Gheller, Claudio; Brueggen, Marcus; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Holwerda, Benne Willem; Hopkins, Andrew; Liske, Jochen
2016-01-01
Despite containing about a half of the total matter in the Universe, at most wavelengths the filamentary structure of the cosmic web is difficult to observe. In this work, we use large unigrid cosmological simulations to investigate how the geometrical, thermodynamical and magnetic properties of cosmological filaments vary with mass and redshift (z $\\leq 1$). We find that the average temperature, length, volume and magnetic field of filaments are tightly log-log correlated with the underlying total gravitational mass. This reflects the role of self-gravity in shaping their properties and enables statistical predictions of their observational properties based on their mass. We also focus on the properties of the simulated population of galaxy-sized halos within filaments, and compare their properties to the results obtained from the spectroscopic GAMA survey. Simulated and observed filaments with the same length are found to contain an equal number of galaxies, with very similar distribution of halo masses. Th...
Secondary Models for Radio Mini-Halos in Galaxy Clusters with MHD Simulations of Gas Sloshing
ZuHone, John; Giacintucci, Simona; Markevitch, Maxim
2014-01-01
We present simulations of a radio minihalo in a galaxy cluster core with sloshing cold fronts, under the assumption that the source of the synchrotron-emitting electrons is hadronic interactions between cosmic-ray protons with the thermal intracluster gas. This is an alternative to the hypothesis where the cosmic ray electrons are reaccelerated by the intracluster turbulence, which we have discussed in an earlier work. We follow the evolution of cosmic-ray electron spectra associated with passive tracer particles, taking into account the time-dependent injection of new electrons from the hadronic interactions and energy losses along each particle's trajectory. We then simulate the radio emission from these particles. The drop in radio emission at the cold front surfaces is less prominent than that in our previous simulations, based on electron reacceleration from sloshing-induced turbulence, where the emission is definitively confined to the regions within cold fronts. The result is that the emission is overa...
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SCOURING PROCESS UNDER SPILLWAY
无
2001-01-01
The scour problem under spillway has received a lot of attention in the past decades. For such a complicated problem, most numerical modeling presented only dealt with the water flows in equilibrium scour pools without considering the changing topography of the riverbed. In this paper, the dynamic process is handled with moving grids, and the governing equations are solved using finite volume method with colocated variable arrangement on boundary-fitted non-orthogonal grids. The results show that the given method is efficient, with which the variation of flow parameters, such as mean velocity and mean pressure, etc., can be computed correctly.
Visualization of the Flux Rope Generation Process Using Large Quantities of MHD Simulation Data
Y Kubota
2013-03-01
Full Text Available We present a new concept of analysis using visualization of large quantities of simulation data. The time development of 3D objects with high temporal resolution provides the opportunity for scientific discovery. We visualize large quantities of simulation data using the visualization application 'Virtual Aurora' based on AVS (Advanced Visual Systems and the parallel distributed processing at "Space Weather Cloud" in NICT based on Gfarm technology. We introduce two results of high temporal resolution visualization: the magnetic flux rope generation process and dayside reconnection using a system of magnetic field line tracing.
Sahin Ahmed
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Analytical and numerical solutions of a non-linear MHD flow with heat and mass transfer characteristics of an incompressible, viscous, electrically conducting and Boussinesq’s fluid over a vertical oscillating plate embedded in a Darcian porous medium in the presence of thermal radiation effect have been presented. The fluid considered here is gray, absorbing/emitting radiating, but non-scattering medium. At time t > 0, the plate temperature and concentration near the plate raised linearly with time t. The dimensionless governing coupled, non-linear boundary layer partial differential equations are solved by an efficient, accurate, extensively validated and unconditionally stable finite difference scheme of the Crank–Nicolson type as well as by the Laplace Transform technique. An increase in porosity parameter (K is found to depress fluid velocities and shear stress in the regime. Also it has been found that, when the conduction-radiation (R increased, the fluid velocity and the temperature profiles decreased. Applications of the study arise in materials processing and solar energy collector systems.
Numerical Simulation of Rotating Vertical Bridgman Growth
S. Nouri
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The present work is proposed a numerical parametric study of heat and mass transfer in a rotating vertical cylinder during the solidification of a binary metallic alloy. The aim of this paper is to present an enthalpy formulation based on the fixed grid methodology for the numerical solution of convective-diffusion during the phase change in the case of the steady crucible rotation. The extended Darcy model including the time derivative and Coriolis terms was applied as momentum equation. It was found that the buoyancy driven flow and solute distribution can be affected significantly by the rotating cylinder. The problem is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the conservation laws of energy and solute. The resulting system was discretized by the control volume method and solved by the SIMPLER algorithm proposed by Patankar. A computer code was developed and validated by comparison with previous studies. It can be observed that the forced convection introduced by rotation, dramatically changes the flow and solute distribution at the interface (liquid-mushy zone. The effect of Reynolds number on the Nusselt number, flow and solute distribution is presented and discussed.
Numerical simulation of avascular tumor growth
Slezak, D Fernandez; Suarez, C; Soba, A; Risk, M; Marshall, G [Laboratorio de Sistemas Complejos, Departamento de Computacion, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (C1428EGA) Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2007-11-15
A mathematical and numerical model for the description of different aspects of microtumor development is presented. The model is based in the solution of a system of partial differential equations describing an avascular tumor growth. A detailed second-order numeric algorithm for solving this system is described. Parameters are swiped to cover a range of feasible physiological values. While previous published works used a single set of parameters values, here we present a wide range of feasible solutions for tumor growth, covering a more realistic scenario. The model is validated by experimental data obtained with a multicellular spheroid model, a specific type of in vitro biological model which is at present considered to be optimum for the study of complex aspects of avascular microtumor physiology. Moreover, a dynamical analysis and local behaviour of the system is presented, showing chaotic situations for particular sets of parameter values at some fixed points. Further biological experiments related to those specific points may give potentially interesting results.
MHD Simulations of AGN Jets in a Dynamic Galaxy Cluster Medium
Mendygral, Peter; Dolag, Klaus
2012-01-01
We present a pair of 3-d magnetohydrodynamical simulations of intermittent jets from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN) in a galaxy cluster extracted from a high resolution cosmological simulation. The selected cluster was chosen as an apparently relatively relaxed system, not having undergone a major merger in almost 7 Gyr. Despite this characterization and history, the intra-cluster medium (ICM) contains quite active "weather". We explore the effects of this ICM weather on the morphological evolution of the AGN jets and lobes. The orientation of the jets is different in the two simulations so that they probe different aspects of the ICM structure and dynamics. We find that even for this cluster that can be characterized as relaxed by an observational standard, the large-scale, bulk ICM motions can significantly distort the jets and lobes. Synthetic X-ray observations of the simulations show that the jets produce complex cavity systems, while synthetic radio observations reveal bending of the jets and l...
Coronal Mass Ejections and Dimmings: A Comparative Study using MHD Simulations and SDO Observations
Jin, Meng; Cheung, Mark; DeRosa, Marc L.; Nitta, Nariaki; Schrijver, Karel
2017-08-01
Solar coronal dimmings have been observed extensively in the past two decades. Due to their close association with coronal mass ejections (CMEs), there is a critical need to improve our understanding of the physical processes that cause dimmings and determine their relationship with CMEs. In this study, we investigate coronal dimmings by combining simulation and observational efforts. By utilizing a data-driven global magnetohydrodynamics model (AWSoM: Alfven-wave Solar Model), we simulate coronal dimmings resulting from different CME energetics and flux rope configurations. We synthesize the emissions of different EUV spectral bands/lines and compare with SDO/AIA and EVE observations. A detailed analysis of simulation and observation data suggests that the “core” dimming is mainly caused by the mass loss from the CME, while the “remote” dimming could have a different origin (e.g., plasma heating). Moreover, the interaction between the erupting flux rope with different orientations and the global solar corona could significantly influence the coronal dimming patterns. Using metrics such as dimming depth, dimming slope, and recovery time, we investigate the relationship between dimmings and CME properties (e.g., CME mass, CME speed) in the simulation. Our result suggests that coronal dimmings encode important information about CMEs. We also discuss how our knowledge about solar coronal dimmings could be extended to the study of stellar CMEs.
Radiative Transfer in 3D Numerical Simulations
Stein, R; Stein, Robert; Nordlund, Aake
2002-01-01
We simulate convection near the solar surface, where the continuum optical depth is of order unity. Hence, to determine the radiative heating and cooling in the energy conservation equation, we must solve the radiative transfer equation (instead of using the diffusion or optically thin cooling approximations). A method efficient enough to calculate the radiation for thousands of time steps is needed. We assume LTE and a non-gray opacity grouped into 4 bins according to strength. We perform a formal solution of the Feautrier equation along a vertical and four straight, slanted, rays (at four azimuthal angles which are rotated 15 deg. every time step). We present details of our method. We also give some results: comparing simulated and observed line profiles for the Sun, showing the importance of 3D transfer for the structure of the mean atmosphere and the eigenfrequencies of p-modes, illustrating Stokes profiles for micropores, and analyzing the effect of radiation on p-mode asymmetries.
Numerical simulation of imaging laser radar system
Han, Shaokun; Lu, Bo; Jiang, Ming; Liu, Xunliang
2008-03-01
Rational and effective design of imaging laser radar systems is the key of imaging laser radar system research. Design must fully consider the interrelationship between various parameters. According to the parameters, choose suitable laser, detector and other components. To use of mathematical modeling and computer simulation is an effective imaging laser radar system design methods. This paper based on the distance equation, using the detection statistical methods, from the laser radar range coverage, detection probability, false-alarm rate, SNR to build the laser radar system mathematical models. In the process of setting up the mathematical models to fully consider the laser, atmosphere, detector and other factors on the performance that is to make the models be able to respond accurately the real situation. Based on this using C# and Matlab designed a simulation software.
Frutos-Alfaro, Francisco
2015-01-01
A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full Magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program used the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the MHD equations to obtain a code that can be used as a seed for a MHD code for numerical applications. As an example, we present part of output of our programs for Cartesian coordinates and how to do the discretization.
Numerical simulation of the LAGEOS thermal behavior and thermal accelerations
Andrés, J.I.; Noomen, R.; Vecellio None, S.
2006-01-01
The temperature distribution throughout the LAGEOS satellites is simulated numerically with the objective to determine the resulting thermal force. The different elements and materials comprising the spacecraft, with their energy transfer, have been modeled with unprecedented detail. The radiation i
Fluid dynamics theory, computation, and numerical simulation
Pozrikidis, C
2017-01-01
This book provides an accessible introduction to the basic theory of fluid mechanics and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical computation. Methods of scientific computing are introduced alongside with theoretical analysis and MATLAB® codes are presented and discussed for a broad range of topics: from interfacial shapes in hydrostatics, to vortex dynamics, to viscous flow, to turbulent flow, to panel methods for flow past airfoils. The third edition includes new topics, additional examples, solved and unsolved problems, and revised images. It adds more computational algorithms and MATLAB programs. It also incorporates discussion of the latest version of the fluid dynamics software library FDLIB, which is freely available online. FDLIB offers an extensive range of computer codes that demonstrate the implementation of elementary and advanced algorithms and provide an invaluable resource for research, teaching, classroom instruction, and self-study. This ...
Numerical Simulation of a Negative Impulsive Wave
ToshiakiSETOGUCHI; ShenYU; 等
1996-01-01
A compression wave discharged from an open end of a tube causes positive impulsive noise,Active noise cancellation which is the cancelling of the noise by the addition of an inverse wave is a useful technique for reducing impulsive noise,The main objective of this study is to present the design for a negative impulsive wave generator utilizing unsteady mass influx.In this paper,in order to clarify the relationship between the unsteady mass influx and the negative impulsive wave,numerical and aeroacoustic analyses have been carried out using an unsteady expansion wave discharged from an open end of a shock tube.As a result,the effect of an unsteady expansion wave on a negative impulsive wave was charified.
Partial Differential Equations Modeling and Numerical Simulation
Glowinski, Roland
2008-01-01
This book is dedicated to Olivier Pironneau. For more than 250 years partial differential equations have been clearly the most important tool available to mankind in order to understand a large variety of phenomena, natural at first and then those originating from human activity and technological development. Mechanics, physics and their engineering applications were the first to benefit from the impact of partial differential equations on modeling and design, but a little less than a century ago the Schrödinger equation was the key opening the door to the application of partial differential equations to quantum chemistry, for small atomic and molecular systems at first, but then for systems of fast growing complexity. Mathematical modeling methods based on partial differential equations form an important part of contemporary science and are widely used in engineering and scientific applications. In this book several experts in this field present their latest results and discuss trends in the numerical analy...
Numerical simulations of stellar winds polytropic models
Keppens, R
1999-01-01
We discuss steady-state transonic outflows obtained by direct numerical solution of the hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic equations. We make use of the Versatile Advection Code, a software package for solving systems of (hyperbolic) partial differential equations. We proceed stepwise from a spherically symmetric, isothermal, unmagnetized, non-rotating Parker wind to arrive at axisymmetric, polytropic, magnetized, rotating models. These represent 2D generalisations of the analytical 1D Weber-Davis wind solution, which we obtain in the process. Axisymmetric wind solutions containing both a `wind' and a `dead' zone are presented. Since we are solving for steady-state solutions, we efficiently exploit fully implicit time stepping. The method allows us to model thermally and/or magneto-centrifugally driven stellar outflows. We particularly emphasize the boundary conditions imposed at the stellar surface. For these axisymmetric, steady-state solutions, we can use the knowledge of the flux functions to verify the...
Numerical simulation of distributed parameter processes
Colosi, Tiberiu; Unguresan, Mihaela-Ligia; Muresan, Vlad
2013-01-01
The present monograph defines, interprets and uses the matrix of partial derivatives of the state vector with applications for the study of some common categories of engineering. The book covers broad categories of processes that are formed by systems of partial derivative equations (PDEs), including systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The work includes numerous applications specific to Systems Theory based on Mpdx, such as parallel, serial as well as feed-back connections for the processes defined by PDEs. For similar, more complex processes based on Mpdx with PDEs and ODEs as components, we have developed control schemes with PID effects for the propagation phenomena, in continuous media (spaces) or discontinuous ones (chemistry, power system, thermo-energetic) or in electro-mechanics (railway – traction) and so on. The monograph has a purely engineering focus and is intended for a target audience working in extremely diverse fields of application (propagation phenomena, diffusion, hydrodyn...
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SEDIMENT RELEASE FROM RESERVOIRS
无
2006-01-01
For the computation of the sediment quantity released from reservoirs, a vertical two-dimensional hydrodynamic model is combined with a sediment transport model. The hydrodynamic model is based on the equations of mass and momentum conservation along with a k - ε model for closure of the Reynolds stresses. The sediment transport model is based on the convection-diffusion equation of sediment concentration and the sediment continuity equation. Both the hydrodynamic and sediment transport models are developed in a boundary-fitted curvilinear co-ordinate system. Comparison of the predicted mean velocity field with laboratory results indicates that the present model captures most experimental trends with reasonable accuracy. Also good agreement is found in comparison of the sediment transport results for the numerical model and the experimental model.
Numerical simulation of icing, deicing, and shedding
Wright, W. B.; Dewitt, K. J.; Keith, T. G., Jr.
1991-01-01
An algorithm has been developed to numerically model the concurrent phenomena of two-dimensional transient heat transfer, ice accretion, ice shedding and ice trajectory which arise from the use of electrothermal pad. The Alternating Direction Implicit method is used to simultaneously solve the heat transfer and accretion equations occurring in the multilayered body covered with ice. In order to model the phase change between ice and water, a technique was used which assumes a phase for each node. This allows the equations to be linearized such that a direct solution is possible. This technique requires an iterative procedure to find the correct phase at each node. The computer program developed to find this solution has been integrated with the NASA-Lewis flow/trajectory code LEWICE.
Vector Potential Generation for Numerical Relativity Simulations
Silberman, Zachary; Faber, Joshua; Adams, Thomas; Etienne, Zachariah; Ruchlin, Ian
2017-01-01
Many different numerical codes are employed in studies of highly relativistic magnetized accretion flows around black holes. Based on the formalisms each uses, some codes evolve the magnetic field vector B, while others evolve the magnetic vector potential A, the two being related by the curl: B=curl(A). Here, we discuss how to generate vector potentials corresponding to specified magnetic fields on staggered grids, a surprisingly difficult task on finite cubic domains. The code we have developed solves this problem in two ways: a brute-force method, whose scaling is nearly linear in the number of grid cells, and a direct linear algebra approach. We discuss the success both algorithms have in generating smooth vector potential configurations and how both may be extended to more complicated cases involving multiple mesh-refinement levels. NSF ACI-1550436
Observational evidence of CMEs interacting in the inner heliosphere as inferred from MHD simulations
Lugaz, N; Roussev, I I; Gombosi, T I
2008-01-01
The interaction of multiple Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) has been observed by LASCO coronagraphs and by near-Earth spacecraft, and it is thought to be an important cause of geo-effective storms, large Solar Energetic Particles events and intense Type II radio bursts. New and future missions such as STEREO, the LWS Sentinels, and the Solar Orbiter will provide additional observations of the interaction of multiple CMEs between the Sun and the Earth. We present the results of simulations of two and more CMEs interacting in the inner heliosphere performed with the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF). Based on those simulations, we discuss the observational evidence of the interaction of multiple CMEs, both in situ and from coronagraphs. The clearest evidence of the interaction of the CMEs are the large temperature in the sheath, due to the shocks merging, and the brightness increase in coronagraphic images, associated with the interaction of the leading edges. The importance of having multiple satellites at...
First 3D radiative transfer with scattering for domain-decomposed MHD simulations
Hayek, W [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek ACT 2611 (Australia)], E-mail: hayek@mpa-garching.mpg.de
2008-12-15
This paper presents an implementation of the Gauss-Seidel solver for radiative transfer with scattering in the Oslo Stagger Code. It fully supports MPI parallelism through domain decomposition of the simulation box, enabling fast computation of radiative transfer at a high resolution. Continuum and line opacities are treated with either a multigroup method or opacity sampling. Line scattering probabilities are estimated using the van Regemorter approximation for de-excitation rates of electron collisions. A solar-type test simulation with continuum and line scattering exhibits a steeper temperature gradient due to decreased radiative heating above the optical surface when compared with the strict local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) case. The classical van Regemorter approximation may overestimate the importance of line scattering, implying that the true temperature structure will be in between the LTE case and the scattering case considered here. It is demonstrated that continuum scattering is unimportant in the case of the Sun.
First 3D radiative transfer with scattering for domain-decomposed MHD simulations
Hayek, W.
2008-12-01
This paper presents an implementation of the Gauss Seidel solver for radiative transfer with scattering in the Oslo Stagger Code. It fully supports MPI parallelism through domain decomposition of the simulation box, enabling fast computation of radiative transfer at a high resolution. Continuum and line opacities are treated with either a multigroup method or opacity sampling. Line scattering probabilities are estimated using the van Regemorter approximation for de-excitation rates of electron collisions. A solar-type test simulation with continuum and line scattering exhibits a steeper temperature gradient due to decreased radiative heating above the optical surface when compared with the strict local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) case. The classical van Regemorter approximation may overestimate the importance of line scattering, implying that the true temperature structure will be in between the LTE case and the scattering case considered here. It is demonstrated that continuum scattering is unimportant in the case of the Sun.
Radiation-MHD simulations for the development of a spark discharge channel.
Niederhaus, John Henry; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Warne, Larry K.; Chen, Kenneth C.
2017-04-01
The growth of a cylindrical s park discharge channel in water and Lexan is studied using a series of one - dimensional simulations with the finite - element radiation - magnetohydrodynamics code ALEGRA. Computed solutions are analyzed in order to characterize the rate of growth and dynamics of the spark c hannels during the rising - current phase of the drive pulse. The current ramp rate is varied between 0.2 and 3.0 kA/ns, and values of the mechanical coupling coefficient K p are extracted for each case. The simulations predict spark channel expansion veloc ities primarily in the range of 2000 to 3500 m/s, channel pressures primarily in the range 10 - 40 GPa, and K p values primarily between 1.1 and 1.4. When Lexan is preheated, slightly larger expansion velocities and smaller K p values are predicted , but the o verall behavior is unchanged.
Numerical Simulations of a Possible Hypercomputational Quantum Algorithm
Sicard, Andrés; Ospina, Juan; Vélez, Mario
2005-01-01
The hypercomputers compute functions or numbers, or more generally solve problems or carry out tasks, that cannot be computed or solved by a Turing machine. Several numerical simulations of a possible hypercomputational algorithm based on quantum computations previously constructed by the authors are presented. The hypercomputability of our algorithm is based on the fact that this algorithm could solve a classically non-computable decision problem, Hilbert's tenth problem. The numerical simul...
Numerical Simulation of Physical and Chemical Processes in Fluidized Bed
Baturin, D. A.; Gil, A. V.
2015-10-01
The paper presents a numerical simulation of the furnace with a circulating fluidized bed. Numerical study carried out for the bottom of the combustion chamber with the varying heights of volume filling. The results contours of particulate matter concentration and of velocities, as well as a graphical representation of changes in the concentration of particles on the bed height are shown. Simulation performed in Eulerian - Eulerian representation on a 2D model.
Rajendar, A.; Paty, C. S.; Arridge, C. S.; Jackman, C. M.; Smith, H. T.
2013-12-01
Saturn's magnetosphere is driven externally, by the solar wind, and internally, by the planet's strong magnetic field, rapid rotation rate, and the addition of new plasma created from Saturn's neutral cloud. Externally, the alignment of the rotational and magnetic dipole axes, combined with Saturn's substantial inclination to its plane of orbit result in substantial curvature of the plasma sheet during solstice. Internally, new water group ions are produced in the inner regions of the magnetosphere from photoionization and electron-impact ionization of the water vapor and OH cloud sourced from Enceladus and other icy bodies in Saturn's planetary system. In addition to this, charge-exchange collisions between the relatively fast-moving water group ions and the slower neutrals results in a net loss of momentum from the plasma. In order to study these phenomena, we have made significant modifications to the Saturn multifluid model. This model has been previously used to investigate the external triggering of plasmoids and the interchange process using a fixed internal source rate. In order to improve the fidelity of the model, we have incorporated a physical source of mass- and momentum-loading by including an empirical representation of Saturn's neutral cloud and modifying the multifluid MHD equations to include mass- and momentum-loading terms. Collision cross-sections between ions, electrons, and neutrals are calculated as functions of closure velocity and energy at each grid point and time step, enabling us to simulate the spatially and temporally varying plasma-neutral interactions. In addition to this, by altering the angle of incidence of the solar wind relative to Saturn's rotational axis and applying a realistic latitudinally- and seasonally-varying ionospheric conductivity, we are also able to study seasonal effects on Saturn's magnetosphere. We use the updated multifluid simulation to investigate the dynamics of Saturn's magnetosphere, focusing specifically
3D MHD Simulations of accreting neutron stars: evidence of QPO emission from the surface
Bachetti, Matteo; Kulkarni, Akshay; Burderi, Luciano; di Salvo, Tiziana; .,
2009-01-01
3D Magnetohydrodynamic simulations show that when matter accretes onto neutron stars, in particular if the misalignment angle is small, it does not constantly fall at a fixed spot. Instead, the location at which matter reaches the star moves. These moving hot spots can be produced both during stable accretion, where matter falls near the magnetic poles of the star, and unstable accretion, characterized by the presence of several tongues of matter which fall on the star near the equator, due to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Precise modeling with Monte Carlo simulations shows that those movements could be observed as high frequency Quasi Periodic Oscillations. We performed a number of new simulation runs with a much wider set of parameters, focusing on neutron stars with a small misalignment angle. In most cases we observe oscillations whose frequency is correlated with the mass accretion rate $\\dot{M}$. Moreover, in some cases double QPOs appear, each of them showing the same correlation with $\\dot{M}$.
Evolution of cosmic filaments and of their galaxy population from MHD cosmological simulations
Gheller, C.; Vazza, F.; Brüggen, M.; Alpaslan, M.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Liske, J.
2016-10-01
Despite containing about a half of the total matter in the Universe, at most wavelengths the filamentary structure of the cosmic web is difficult to observe. In this work, we use large unigrid cosmological simulations to investigate how the geometrical, thermodynamical and magnetic properties of cosmological filaments vary with mass and redshift (z ≤ 1). We find that the average temperature, length, volume and magnetic field of filaments scales well with their total mass. This reflects the role of self-gravity in shaping their properties and enables statistical predictions of their observational properties based on their mass. We also focus on the properties of the simulated population of galaxy-sized haloes within filaments, and compare their properties to the results obtained from the spectroscopic GAMA survey. Simulated and observed filaments with the same length are found to contain an equal number of galaxies, with very similar distribution of masses. The total number of galaxies within each filament and the total/average stellar mass in galaxies can now be used to predict also the large-scale properties of the gas in the host filaments across tens or hundreds of Mpc in scale. These results are the first steps towards the future use of galaxy catalogues in order to select the best targets for observations of the warm-hot intergalactic medium.
A numerical relativity scheme for cosmological simulations
Daverio, David; Mitsou, Ermis
2016-01-01
Fully non-linear cosmological simulations may prove relevant in understanding relativistic/non-linear features and, therefore, in taking full advantage of the upcoming survey data. We propose a new 3+1 integration scheme which is based on the presence of a perfect fluid (hydro) field, evolves only physical states by construction and passes the robustness test on an FLRW space-time. Although we use General Relativity as an example, the idea behind that scheme is applicable to any generally-covariant modified gravity theory and/or matter content, including a N-body sector.
Numerical simulations of cardiovascular diseases and global matter transport
Simakov, S S; Evdokimov, A V; Kholodov, Y A
2007-01-01
Numerical model of the peripheral circulation and dynamical model of the large vessels and the heart are discussed in this paper. They combined together into the global model of blood circulation. Some results of numerical simulations concerning matter transport through the human organism and heart diseases are represented in the end.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TRANSIENT THERMAL FIELD IN LASER MELTING PROCESS
姚国凤; 陈光南
2004-01-01
Numerical simulation of thermal field was studied in laser processing. The 3 -D finite element model of transient thermal calculation is given by thermal conductive equation.The effects of phase transformation latent are considered. Numerical example is given to verify the model. Finally the real example of transient thermal field is given.
Stochastic Analysis Method of Sea Environment Simulated by Numerical Models
刘德辅; 焦桂英; 张明霞; 温书勤
2003-01-01
This paper proposes the stochastic analysis method of sea environment simulated by numerical models, such as wave height, current field, design sea levels and longshore sediment transport. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of input and output factors of numerical models, their long-term distribution and confidence intervals are described in this paper.
Global MHD model of the earth's magnetosphere
Wu, C. C.
1983-01-01
A global MHD model of the earth's magnetosphere is defined. An introduction to numerical methods for solving the MHD equations is given with emphasis on the shock-capturing technique. Finally, results concerning the shape of the magnetosphere and the plasma flows inside the magnetosphere are presented.
Numerical and laboratory simulations of auroral acceleration
Gunell, H.; De Keyser, J. [1Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Mann, I. [EISCAT Scientific Association, P.O. Box 812, SE-981 28 Kiruna, Sweden and Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden)
2013-10-15
The existence of parallel electric fields is an essential ingredient of auroral physics, leading to the acceleration of particles that give rise to the auroral displays. An auroral flux tube is modelled using electrostatic Vlasov simulations, and the results are compared to simulations of a proposed laboratory device that is meant for studies of the plasma physical processes that occur on auroral field lines. The hot magnetospheric plasma is represented by a gas discharge plasma source in the laboratory device, and the cold plasma mimicking the ionospheric plasma is generated by a Q-machine source. In both systems, double layers form with plasma density gradients concentrated on their high potential sides. The systems differ regarding the properties of ion acoustic waves that are heavily damped in the magnetosphere, where the ion population is hot, but weakly damped in the laboratory, where the discharge ions are cold. Ion waves are excited by the ion beam that is created by acceleration in the double layer in both systems. The efficiency of this beam-plasma interaction depends on the acceleration voltage. For voltages where the interaction is less efficient, the laboratory experiment is more space-like.
Numerical simulation of ventilation in blinding heading
CHANG De-qiang; LIU Jing-xian; CHEN Bao-zhi
2008-01-01
The way of ventilation in all its forms and characteristics in the blinding heading was studied. On the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the turbulence model of restrained ventilation in blinding heading was set up, and the calculation boundary condi-tions were analyzed. According to the practice application the three-dimensional flow field of ventilation in blinding heading was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics soft-ware. The characteristics of the ventilation flow field such as the temperature field zone and the flow filed zone and the rule of the flow velocity were obtained. The ventilation in blinding heading under certain circumstances was calculated and simulated for optimiza-tion. The optimal ventilation form and related parameters under given condition were ob-tained. The rule of the ventilation in blinding heading was theoretical analyzed, which pro-vided reference for the research on the process of mass transfer, the rule of hazardous substances transportation and ventilation efficiency, provided a new method for the study of reasonable and effective ventilation in blinding heading.
Numerical simulation of ventilation in blinding heading
CHANG De-qiang; LIU Jing-xian; CHEN Bao-zhi
2008-01-01
The way of ventilation in all its forms and characteristics in the blinding heading was studied.On the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the turbulence model of restrained ventilation in blinding heading was set up,and the calculation boundary conditions were analyzed.According to the practice application the three-dimensional flow field of ventilation in blinding heading was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics software.The characteristics of the ventilation flow field such as the temperature field zone and the flow filed zone and the rule of the flow velocity were obtained.The ventilation in blinding heading under certain circumstances was calculated and simulated for optimization.The optimal ventilation form and related parameters under given condition were obtained.The rule of the ventilation in blinding heading was theoretical analyzed,which provided reference for the research on the process of mass transfer,the rule of hazardous substances transportation and ventilation efficiency,provided a new method for the study of reasonable and effective ventilation in blinding heading.
A new MHD-assisted Stokes inversion technique
Riethmüller, T L; Barthol, P; Gandorfer, A; Gizon, L; Hirzberger, J; van Noort, M; Rodríguez, J Blanco; Iniesta, J C Del Toro; Suárez, D Orozco; Schmidt, W; Pillet, V Martínez; Knölker, M
2016-01-01
We present a new method of Stokes inversion of spectropolarimetric data and evaluate it by taking the example of a SUNRISE/IMaX observation. An archive of synthetic Stokes profiles is obtained by the spectral synthesis of state-of-the-art magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations and a realistic degradation to the level of the observed data. The definition of a merit function allows the archive to be searched for the synthetic Stokes profiles that match the observed profiles best. In contrast to traditional Stokes inversion codes, which solve the Unno-Rachkovsky equations for the polarized radiative transfer numerically and fit the Stokes profiles iteratively, the new technique provides the full set of atmospheric parameters. This gives us the ability to start an MHD simulation that takes the inversion result as initial condition. After a relaxation process of half an hour solar time we obtain physically consistent MHD data sets with a target similar to the observation. The new MHD simulation is used to repeat t...
MORPHOLOGY AND DYNAMICS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES FROM 3D MHD SIMULATIONS
Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Luna, M., E-mail: jaume.terradas@uib.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)
2015-01-20
In this paper we present a numerical study of the time evolution of solar prominences embedded in sheared magnetic arcades. The prominence is represented by a density enhancement in a background-stratified atmosphere and is connected to the photosphere through the magnetic field. By solving the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in three dimensions, we study the dynamics for a range of parameters representative of real prominences. Depending on the parameters considered, we find prominences that are suspended above the photosphere, i.e., detached prominences, but also configurations resembling curtain or hedgerow prominences whose material continuously connects to the photosphere. The plasma-β is an important parameter that determines the shape of the structure. In many cases magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and oscillatory phenomena develop. Fingers and plumes are generated, affecting the whole prominence body and producing vertical structures in an essentially horizontal magnetic field. However, magnetic shear is able to reduce or even to suppress this instability.
Terradas, J; Luna, M; Oliver, R; Ballester, J L; Wright, A N
2015-01-01
The temporal evolution of a solar prominence inserted in a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope is investigated numerically. Using the model of Titov Demoulin (1999) under the regime of weak twist, the cold and dense prominence counteracts gravity by modifying the initially force-free magnetic configuration. In some cases a quasi-stationary situation is achieved after the relaxation phase, characterized by the excitation of standing vertical oscillations. These oscillations show a strong attenuation with time produced by the mechanism of continuum damping due to the inhomogeneous transition between the prominence and solar corona. The characteristic period of the vertical oscillations does not depend strongly on the twist of the flux rope. Nonlinearity is the responsible for triggering the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability associated to the vertical oscillations and that eventually produces horizontal structures. Contrary to other configurations in which the longitudinal axis of the prominence is permeated by a pe...
MHD thrust vectoring of a rocket engine
Labaune, Julien; Packan, Denis; Tholin, Fabien; Chemartin, Laurent; Stillace, Thierry; Masson, Frederic
2016-09-01
In this work, the possibility to use MagnetoHydroDynamics (MHD) to vectorize the thrust of a solid propellant rocket engine exhaust is investigated. Using a magnetic field for vectoring offers a mass gain and a reusability advantage compared to standard gimbaled, elastomer-joint systems. Analytical and numerical models were used to evaluate the flow deviation with a 1 Tesla magnetic field inside the nozzle. The fluid flow in the resistive MHD approximation is calculated using the KRONOS code from ONERA, coupling the hypersonic CFD platform CEDRE and the electrical code SATURNE from EDF. A critical parameter of these simulations is the electrical conductivity, which was evaluated using a set of equilibrium calculations with 25 species. Two models were used: local thermodynamic equilibrium and frozen flow. In both cases, chlorine captures a large fraction of free electrons, limiting the electrical conductivity to a value inadequate for thrust vectoring applications. However, when using chlorine-free propergols with 1% in mass of alkali, an MHD thrust vectoring of several degrees was obtained.
Nonlinear MHD dynamo operating at equipartition
Archontis, V.; Dorch, Bertil; Nordlund, Åke
2007-01-01
Context.We present results from non linear MHD dynamo experiments with a three-dimensional steady and smooth flow that drives fast dynamo action in the kinematic regime. In the saturation regime, the system yields strong magnetic fields, which undergo transitions between an energy-equipartition a......Context.We present results from non linear MHD dynamo experiments with a three-dimensional steady and smooth flow that drives fast dynamo action in the kinematic regime. In the saturation regime, the system yields strong magnetic fields, which undergo transitions between an energy......-equipartition and a turbulent state. The generation and evolution of such strong magnetic fields is relevant for the understanding of dynamo action that occurs in stars and other astrophysical objects. Aims.We study the mode of operation of this dynamo, in the linear and non-linear saturation regimes. We also consider...... the effect of varying the magnetic and fluid Reymolds number on the non-linear behaviour of the system. Methods.We perform three-dimensional non-linear MHD simulations and visualization using a high resolution numerical scheme. Results.We find that this dynamo has a high growth rate in the linear regime...
Kowal, G [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Falceta-Goncalves, D A; Lazarian, A, E-mail: kowal@astro.iag.usp.br [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)
2011-05-15
In recent years, we have experienced increasing interest in the understanding of the physical properties of collisionless plasmas, mostly because of the large number of astrophysical environments (e.g. the intracluster medium (ICM)) containing magnetic fields that are strong enough to be coupled with the ionized gas and characterized by densities sufficiently low to prevent the pressure isotropization with respect to the magnetic line direction. Under these conditions, a new class of kinetic instabilities arises, such as firehose and mirror instabilities, which have been studied extensively in the literature. Their role in the turbulence evolution and cascade process in the presence of pressure anisotropy, however, is still unclear. In this work, we present the first statistical analysis of turbulence in collisionless plasmas using three-dimensional numerical simulations and solving double-isothermal magnetohydrodynamic equations with the Chew-Goldberger-Low laws closure (CGL-MHD). We study models with different initial conditions to account for the firehose and mirror instabilities and to obtain different turbulent regimes. We found that the CGL-MHD subsonic and supersonic turbulences show small differences compared to the MHD models in most cases. However, in the regimes of strong kinetic instabilities, the statistics, i.e. the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of density and velocity, are very different. In subsonic models, the instabilities cause an increase in the dispersion of density, while the dispersion of velocity is increased by a large factor in some cases. Moreover, the spectra of density and velocity show increased power at small scales explained by the high growth rate of the instabilities. Finally, we calculated the structure functions of velocity and density fluctuations in the local reference frame defined by the direction of magnetic lines. The results indicate that in some cases the instabilities significantly increase the anisotropy of
Numerical simulation of supersonic gap flow.
Jing, Xu; Haiming, Huang; Guo, Huang; Song, Mo
2015-01-01
Various gaps in the surface of the supersonic aircraft have a significant effect on airflows. In order to predict the effects of attack angle, Mach number and width-to-depth ratio of gap on the local aerodynamic heating environment of supersonic flow, two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the finite volume method, where convective flux of space term adopts the Roe format, and discretization of time term is achieved by 5-step Runge-Kutta algorithm. The numerical results reveal that the heat flux ratio is U-shaped distribution on the gap wall and maximum at the windward corner of the gap. The heat flux ratio decreases as the gap depth and Mach number increase, however, it increases as the attack angle increases. In addition, it is important to find that chamfer in the windward corner can effectively reduce gap effect coefficient. The study will be helpful for the design of the thermal protection system in reentry vehicles.
Numerical simulation of supersonic gap flow.
Xu Jing
Full Text Available Various gaps in the surface of the supersonic aircraft have a significant effect on airflows. In order to predict the effects of attack angle, Mach number and width-to-depth ratio of gap on the local aerodynamic heating environment of supersonic flow, two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the finite volume method, where convective flux of space term adopts the Roe format, and discretization of time term is achieved by 5-step Runge-Kutta algorithm. The numerical results reveal that the heat flux ratio is U-shaped distribution on the gap wall and maximum at the windward corner of the gap. The heat flux ratio decreases as the gap depth and Mach number increase, however, it increases as the attack angle increases. In addition, it is important to find that chamfer in the windward corner can effectively reduce gap effect coefficient. The study will be helpful for the design of the thermal protection system in reentry vehicles.
AGN feedback in elliptical galaxies: numerical simulations
Ciotti, L
2011-01-01
The importance of feedback (radiative and mechanical) from massive black holes at the centers of elliptical galaxies is not in doubt, given the well established relation among black hole mass and galaxy optical luminosity. Here, with the aid of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations, we discuss how this feedback affects the hot ISM of isolated elliptical galaxies of different mass. The cooling and heating functions include photoionization plus Compton heating, the radiative transport equations are solved, and the mechanical feedback due to the nuclear wind is also described on a physical basis; star formation is considered. In the medium-high mass galaxies the resulting evolution is highly unsteady. At early times major accretion episodes caused by cooling flows in the recycled gas produced by stellar evolution trigger AGN flaring: relaxation instabilities occur so that duty cycles are small enough to account for the very small fraction of massive ellipticals observed to be in the QSO-phase, when the accr...
Numerical simulation of the world ocean circulation
Takano, K.; Mintz, Y.; Han, Y. J.
1973-01-01
A multi-level model, based on the primitive equations, is developed for simulating the temperature and velocity fields produced in the world ocean by differential heating and surface wind stress. The model ocean has constant depth, free slip at the lower boundary, and neglects momentum advection; so that there is no energy exchange between the barotropic and baroclinic components of the motion, although the former influences the latter through temperature advection. The ocean model was designed to be coupled to the UCLA atmospheric general circulation model, for the study of the dynamics of climate and climate changes. But here, the model is tested by prescribing the observed seasonally varying surface wind stress and the incident solar radiation, the surface air temperature and humidity, cloudiness and the surface wind speed, which, together with the predicted ocean surface temperature, determine the surface flux of radiant energy, sensible heat and latent heat.
Numerical simulation of synthesis gas incineration
Kazakov, A. V.; Khaustov, S. A.; Tabakaev, R. B.; Belousova, Y. A.
2016-04-01
The authors have analysed the expediency of the suggested low-grade fuels application method. Thermal processing of solid raw materials in the gaseous fuel, called synthesis gas, is investigated. The technical challenges concerning the applicability of the existing gas equipment developed and extensively tested exclusively for natural gas were considered. For this purpose computer simulation of three-dimensional syngas-incinerating flame dynamics was performed by means of the ANSYS Multiphysics engineering software. The subjects of studying were: a three-dimensional aerodynamic flame structure, heat-release and temperature fields, a set of combustion properties: a flare range and the concentration distribution of burnout reagents. The obtained results were presented in the form of a time-averaged pathlines with color indexing. The obtained results can be used for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of complex multicomponent gas incineration singularities.
Identification of DVT diseases using numerical simulations.
Simão, M; Ferreira, J M; Mora-Rodriguez, J; Ramos, H M
2016-10-01
This research provides useful insights for better diagnosis and understanding the vein blockage induced by a deep venous thrombosis and the occurrence of reverse flow in human veins, allowing a proper detection of serious diseases related to deep venous insufficiency. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation is used in a coupled model (i.e. fluid and structure equations solved together), considering two domains, specifically the blood flow and the flexible structures (i.e. vein and valves). Computational fluid dynamics mathematical model based on finite element method, with special elements and boundary characterization, is addressed to find the best solution. This research presents a novel model to study the interaction between non-Newtonian laminar fluid flows, the blood, within nonlinear structures, the vein walls. Simulation results are validated using in vivo echo-Doppler measurements.
Numerical tools for Molten salt reactor simulation
Doligez, X.; Heuer, D.; Merle-Lucotte, E.; Allibert, M.; Ghetta, V. [LPSC-IN2P3-CNRS/Universite Joseph Fourier/Grenoble-INP, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)
2009-06-15
Molten salt reactors (MSR) are basically different from other reactors mainly because the fuel is liquid. It flows through the core, pipes, pumps and heat exchangers. Previous studies showed that a particular configuration of a molten salt reactor perfectly fulfils criteria chosen by the Generation 4 International Forum (GIF). This configuration, called non-moderated Thorium Molten Salt Reactor is a 1000 GW electrical thorium cycle based molten salt reactor with no moderator inside the core. Consequently, the neutron spectrum is fast. The reactor is coupled with a salt control unit, which complicates the studies. Reactors simulation is based on resolving Bateman's equations, which give the population of each nucleus inside the core at each moment. Because of MSR's fundamental characteristics, those equations have to be modified adding two terms: a fertile/fissile alimentation for the reactivity and the salt composition control, and the reprocessing associated term. Equations become: {delta}N{sub i}/{delta}t = {sigma}{sub j{ne}}{sub i} {lambda}{sub j{yields}}{sub i} N{sub j} + X{sub j} <{sigma}{sub j}{phi}> N{sub j} - {lambda}{sub i}N{sub i} - <{sigma}{sub i}{phi}> N{sub i} {lambda}{sub chem} N{sub i} + A where {lambda}{sub chem} represents the reprocessing capacities and A represents the fertile/fissile alimentation. All our studies are made with a homemade code, REM, which is a precision driven code for material evolution. Neutron flux and neutron reactions rate are calculated thanks MCNP and the temporal integration is made thanks a Runge-Kutta fourth order method. This code REM, whose calculation scheme will be described in the paper, does not allow a coupling flexible enough between the reprocessing and the core physics. Indeed, reprocessing terms in the previous equation ({lambda}{sub chem}) are set for the whole evolution that can last several hundreds of years. A new way is to drive chemical needs to keep the core critical. Therefore, we are
Light Curves from an MHD Simulation of a Black Hole Accretion Disk
Schnittman, J D; Hawley, J F; Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Krolik, Julian H.; Hawley, John F.
2006-01-01
We use a relativistic ray-tracing code to calculate the light curves observed from a global general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic simulation of an accretion flow onto a Schwarzschild black hole. We apply three basic emission models to sample different properties of the time-dependent accretion disk. With one of these models, which assumes thermal blackbody emission and free-free absorption, we can predict qualitative features of the high-frequency power spectrum from stellar-mass black holes in the "Thermal Dominant" state. The simulated power spectrum is characterized by a power law of index Gamma ~ 3 and total rms fractional variance of ~ 1 % near the orbital frequency at the inner-most stable orbit. Initial results indicate the existence of transient QPO peaks with frequency ratios of nearly 2:3 at a 99.9% confidence limit, but they are not generic features because at any given time they are seen only from certain observer directions. Additionally, we present detailed analysis of the azimuthal structur...
Light Curves from an MHD Simulation of a Black Hole Accretion Disk
Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Krolik, Julian H.; Hawley, John F.
2006-11-01
We use a relativistic ray-tracing code to calculate the light curves observed from a global, general relativistic, magnetohydrodynamic simulation of an accretion flow onto a Schwarzschild black hole. We apply three basic emission models to sample different properties of the time-dependent accretion disk. With one of these models, which assumes thermal blackbody emission and free-free absorption, we can predict qualitative features of the high-frequency power spectrum from stellar-mass black holes in the ``thermal dominant'' state. The simulated power spectrum is characterized by a power law of index Γ~3 and total rms fractional variance of ~1% near the orbital frequency at the innermost stable orbit. Initial results indicate the existence of transient QPO peaks with frequency ratios of nearly 2:3 at a 99.9% confidence limit, but they are not generic features, because at any given time they are seen only from certain observer directions. In addition, we present detailed analysis of the azimuthal structure of the accretion disk and the evolution of density perturbations in the inner disk. These ``hot-spot'' structures appear to be roughly self-similar over a range of disk radii, with a single characteristic size δφ=25deg and δr/r=0.3, and typical lifetimes Tl~0.3Torb.
Two-component jet simulations: I. Topological stability of analytical MHD outflow solutions
Matsakos, T; Vlahakis, N; Massaglia, S; Mignone, A; Trussoni, E
2007-01-01
Observations of collimated outflows in young stellar objects indicate that several features of the jets can be understood by adopting the picture of a two-component outflow, wherein a central stellar component around the jet axis is surrounded by an extended disk-wind. The precise contribution of each component may depend on the intrinsic physical properties of the YSO-disk system as well as its evolutionary stage. In this context, the present article starts a systematic investigation of two-component jet models via time-dependent simulations of two prototypical and complementary analytical solutions, each closely related to the properties of stellar-outflows and disk-winds. These models describe a meridionally and a radially self-similar exact solution of the steady-state, ideal hydromagnetic equations, respectively. By using the PLUTO code to carry out the simulations, the study focuses on the topological stability of each of the two analytical solutions, which are successfully extended to all space by remo...
Global MHD simulation and analysis of Feb. 22, 2009 THEMIS substorm event
Zhu, P.; Raeder, J.; Sakaguchi, K.; Shiokawa, K.; Hegna, C.
2009-12-01
Rayleigh-Taylor (RT)-like finger patterns have been observed in the diffuse aurora image at the beginning of recovery phase during recent Feb. 22, 2009 THEMIS substorm event [Sagaguchi and Shiokawa, 2009]. In this work, efforts are undertaken to identify the plasma processes in the magnetotail region that may be associated with or contribute to the formation of the RT-like aurora structure. Using the solar wind data from ACE satellite observation for the substorm event as an input at day-side, OpenGGCM simulations are used to reconstruct a sequence of global magnetospheric configurations around the Feb. 22, 2009 substorm onset. We benchmark the simulation with the THEMIS satellite data and compare the electron precipitation flux pattern in ionosphere region with the aurora images from all-sky ground observations. The ballooning stability criterion and growth rates of the near-Earth plasma sheet region are evaluated prior to the substorm onset time. The question we are addressing is if the RT-like aurora image pattern could be a footprint or projection of the ballooning-interchange processes in the plasma sheet. Research supported by NSF Grant No. ATM-0902360.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TIP-CLEARANCE FLOW IN CASCADE
无
2003-01-01
The tip-clearance flow in a cascade was numerically simulated by solving the RANS equations of incompressible fluids. The computational model was based upon the artificial compressibility formulation proposed by Chorin. The Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model was used to make the governing equations closed. For the specific structure of tip-clearance flow, a multi-block grid structure was adopted to facilitate numerical computations. The comparison of numerical results with experimental data indicates that the present method is capable of simulating tip-clearance flows with satisfactory accuracy.
Bilal, S.; Rehman, Khalil Ur; Malik, M. Y.; Hussain, Arif; Awais, M.
The current communication is carried to contemplate the unique and novel characteristics of nanofluids by constructing formulation of Prandtl fluid model. The fascinating aspects of thermo diffusion effects are also accounted in this communication. Mathematical modelling is performed by employing boundary layer approach. Afterwards, similarity variables are selected to convert dimensional non-linear system into dimensionless expressions. The solution of governing dimensionless problem is executed by shooting method (SM). Graphical evaluation is displayed to depict the intrinsic behavior of embedded parameters on dimensionless velocity, temperature, solutal concentration and nanoparticle concentration profiles. Furthermore, the numerical variation for skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, Sherwood number and nano Sherwood number is scrutinized through tables. The assurance of current analysis is affirmed by developing comparison with previous findings available in literature, which sets a benchmark for implementation of computational approach. It is inferred from the computation that concentration profile increases whereas Sherwood number decreases for progressive values of Dufour solutal number.
Batman-cracks. Observations and numerical simulations
Selvadurai, A. P. S.; Busschen, A. Ten; Ernst, L. J.
1991-05-01
To ensure mechanical strength of fiber reinforced plastics (FRP), good adhesion between fibers and the matrix is considered to be an essential requirement. An efficient test of fiber-matrix interface characterization is the fragmentation test which provides information about the interface slip mechanism. This test consists of the longitudinal loading of a single fiber which is embedded in a matrix specimen. At critical loads the fiber experiences fragmentation. This fragmentation will terminate depending upon the shear-slip strength of the fiber-matrix adhesion, which is inversely proportional to average fragment lengths. Depending upon interface strength characteristics either bond or slip matrix fracture can occur at the onset of fiber fracture. Certain particular features of matrix fracture are observed at the locations of fiber fracture in situations where there is sufficient interface bond strength. These refer to the development of fractures with a complex surface topography. The experimental procedure involved in the fragmentation tests is discussed and the boundary element technique to examine the development of multiple matrix fractures at the fiber fracture locations is examined. The mechanics of matrix fracture is examined. When bond integrity is maintained, a fiber fracture results in a matrix fracture. The matrix fracture topography in a fragmentation test is complex; however, simplified conoidal fracture patterns can be used to investigate the crack extension phenomena. Via a mixed-mode fracture criterion, the generation of a conoidal fracture pattern in the matrix is investigated. The numerical results compare favorably with observed experimental data derived from tests conducted on fragmentation test specimens consisting of a single glass fiber which is embedded in a polyester matrix.
Numerical simulation of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment
Miglio, E.
2015-12-01
In the Earth's crust, stress can be subdivided into tectonic background stress, overburden pressure, and pore-fluid pressure. The superposition of the first two and the variation of the third part are key factors in controlling movement along faults. Furthermore, stresses due to sedimentation and erosion contribute to the total stress field. In deglaciated regions, an additional stress must be considered: the rebound stress, which is related to rebounding of the crust and mantle after deglaciation. During the growth of a continental ice sheet, the lithosphere under the iceload is deformed and the removal of the ice load during deglaciation initiates a rebound process. The uplift is well known in formerly glaciated areas, e.g.North America and Scandinavia, and in currently deglaciating areas, e.g.Alaska, Antarctica, and Greenland. The whole process of subsiding and uplifting during the growth and melting of an iceload and all related phenomena is known as glacial isostatic adjustment. During the process of glaciation, the surface of the lithosphere is depressed underneath the ice load and compressional flexural stresses are induced in the upper lithosphere, whereas the bottom of the lithosphere experiences extensional flexural stresses; an additional vertical stress due to the ice load is present and it decreases to zero during deglaciation. During rebound, flexural stresses relax slowly. These stresses are able to change the original stress directions and regime.In this work we aim to study the effect of the GIA process in the context of petroleum engineering. The main aspect we will focus on is the mathematical and numerical modeling of the GIA including thermal effects. We plan also to include a preliminary study of the effect of the glacial erosion. All these phenomena are of paramount importance in petroleum engineering: for example some reservoir have been depleted due to tilting caused by both GIA, erosion and thermal effects.
Numerical Simulations of Helicity Condensation in the Solar Corona
Zhao, L.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.
2015-01-01
The helicity condensation model has been proposed by Antiochos (2013) to explain the observed smoothness of coronal loops and the observed buildup of magnetic shear at filament channels. The basic hypothesis of the model is that magnetic reconnection in the corona causes the magnetic stress injected by photospheric motions to collect only at those special locations where prominences form. In this work we present the first detailed quantitative MHD simulations of the reconnection evolution proposed by the helicity condensation model. We use the well-known ansatz of modeling the closed corona as an initially uniform field between two horizontal photospheric plates. The system is driven by applying photospheric rotational flows that inject magnetic helicity into the system. The flows are confined to a finite region on the photosphere so as to mimic the finite flux system of, for example, a bipolar active region. The calculations demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, coronal loops having opposite helicity do not reconnect, whereas loops having the same sense of helicity do reconnect. Furthermore, we find that for a given amount of helicity injected into the corona, the evolution of the magnetic shear is insensitive to whether the pattern of driving photospheric motions is fixed or quasi-random. In all cases, the shear propagates via reconnection to the boundary of the flow region while the total magnetic helicity is conserved, as predicted by the model. We discuss the implications of our results for solar observations and for future, more realistic simulations of the helicity condensation process.
Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Luna, M. [Instituto de Astrofsíca de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Wright, A. N., E-mail: jaume.terradas@uib.es [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)
2016-04-01
The temporal evolution of a solar prominence inserted in a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope is investigated numerically. Using the model of Titov and Démoulin under the regime of weak twist, the cold and dense prominence counteracts gravity by modifying the initially force-free magnetic configuration. In some cases a quasi-stationary situation is achieved after the relaxation phase, characterized by the excitation of standing vertical oscillations. These oscillations show a strong attenuation with time produced by the mechanism of continuum damping due to the inhomogeneous transition between the prominence and solar corona. The characteristic period of the vertical oscillations does not depend strongly on the twist of the flux rope. Nonlinearity is responsible for triggering the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability associated with the vertical oscillations and that eventually produces horizontal structures. Contrary to other configurations in which the longitudinal axis of the prominence is permeated by a perpendicular magnetic field, like in unsheared arcades, the orientation of the prominence along the flux rope axis prevents the development of Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities and therefore the appearance of vertical structuring along this axis.
Simard, C; Dube, C
2016-01-01
We perform a mean-field analysis of the EULAG-MHD millenium simulation of global magnetohydrodynamical convection presented in Passos et al. 2014. The turbulent electromotive force operating in the simulation is assumed to be linearly related to the cyclic axisymmetric mean magnetic field and its first spatial derivatives. At every grid point in the simulation's meridional plane, this assumed relationship involves 27 independent tensorial coefficients. Expanding on Racine et al. 2011, we extract these coefficients from the simulation data through a least-squares minimization procedure based on singular value decomposition. The reconstructed alpha-tensor shows good agreement with that obtained by Racine et al. 2011, who did not include derivatives of the mean-field in their fit, as well as with the alpha-tensor extracted by Augustson et al. 2015 from a distinct ASH MHD simulation. The isotropic part of the turbulent magnetic diffusivity tensor beta is positive definite and reaches values of 5.0x10^7 m2s-1 in t...
3D Relativistic MHD Simulation of a Tilted Accretion Disk Around a Rapidly Rotating Black Hole
Fragile, P Chris; Blaes, Omer M; Salmonson, Jay D
2016-01-01
We posit that accreting compact objects, including stellar mass black holes and neutron stars as well as supermassive black holes, may undergo extended periods of accretion during which the angular momentum of the disk at large scales is misaligned with that of the compact object. In such a scenario, Lense-Thirring precession caused by the rotating compact object can dramatically affect the disk. In this presentation we describe results from a three-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulation of an MRI turbulent disk accreting onto a tilted rapidly rotating black hole. For this case, the disk does not achieve the commonly described Bardeen-Petterson configuration; rather, it remains nearly planar, undergoing a slow global precession. Accretion from the disk onto the hole occurs predominantly through two opposing plunging streams that start from high latitudes with respect to both the black-hole and disk midplanes. This is a consequence of the non-sphericity of the gravitational spacetime of the bl...
Cosmological MHD Simulations of Galaxy Cluster Radio Relics: Insights and Warnings for Observations
Skillman, Samuel W; Hallman, Eric J; O'Shea, Brian W; Burns, Jack O; Li, Hui; Collins, David C; Norman, Michael L
2012-01-01
Non-thermal radio emission from cosmic ray electrons in the vicinity of merging galaxy clusters is an important tracer of cluster merger activity, and is the result of complex physical processes that involve magnetic fields, particle acceleration, gas dynamics, and radiation. In particular, objects known as radio relics are thought to be the result of shock-accelerated electrons that, when embedded in a magnetic field, emit synchrotron radiation in the radio wavelengths. In order to properly model this emission, we utilize the adaptive mesh refinement simulation of the magnetohydrodynamic evolution of a galaxy cluster from cosmological initial conditions. We locate shock fronts and apply models of cosmic ray electron acceleration that are then input into radio emission models. We have determined the thermodynamic properties of this radio-emitting plasma and constructed synthetic radio observations to compare to observed galaxy clusters. We find a significant dependence of the observed morphology and radio rel...
Relativistic MHD simulations of core-collapse GRB jets: 3D instabilities and magnetic dissipation
Bromberg, Omer
2015-01-01
Relativistic jets naturally occur in astrophysical systems that involve accretion onto compact objects, such as core collapse of massive stars in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and accretion onto supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN). It is generally accepted that these jets are powered electromagnetically, by the magnetised rotation of a central compact object. However, how they produce the observed emission and survive the propagation for many orders of magnitude in distance without being disrupted by current-driven non-axisymmetric instabilities is the subject of active debate. We carry out time-dependent 3D relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of relativistic, Poynting flux dominated jets. The jets are launched self-consistently by the rotation of a strongly magnetised central compact object. This determines the natural degree of azimuthal magnetic field winding, a crucial factor that controls jet stability. We find that the jets are susceptible to two types of instability: (i) a globa...
Fairfield, Donald H.; Otto, A.
1999-01-01
On March 24, 1995 the Geotail spacecraft observed large fluctuations of the magnetic field and plasma properties in the Low Latitude Boundary Layer (LLBL) about 15 R(sub E) tailward of the dusk meridian. Although the magnetospheric and the magnetosheath field were strongly northward, the B(sub z) component showed strong short duration fluctuations in which B(sub z) could even reach negative values. We have used two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations with magnetospheric and magnetosheath input parameters specifically chosen for this. Geotail event to identify the processes which cause the observed boundary properties. It is shown that these fluctuations can be explained by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability if the k vector of the instability has a component along the magnetic field direction. The simulation results show many of the characteristic properties of the Geotail observations. In particular, the quasi-periodic strong fluctuations are well explained by satellite crossings through the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices. It is illustrated how the interior structure of the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices leads to the rapid fluctuations in the Geotail observations. Our results suggest an average Kelvin-Helmholtz wavelength of about 5 R(sub E) with a vortex size of close to 2 R(sub E) for an average repetition time of 2.5 minutes. The growth time for these waves implies a source region of about 10 to 16 R(sub E) upstream from the location of the Geotail spacecraft (i.e., near the dusk meridian). The results also indicate a considerable mass transport of magnetosheath material into the magnetosphere by magnetic reconnection in the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices.
Numerical simulations for terrestrial planets formation
Ji J.
2011-07-01
Full Text Available We investigate the formation of terrestrial planets in the late stage of planetary formation using two-planet model. At that time, the protostar has formed for about 3 Myr and the gas disk has dissipated. In the model, the perturbations from Jupiter and Saturn are considered. We also consider variations of the mass of outer planet, and the initial eccentricities and inclinations of embryos and planetesimals. Our results show that, terrestrial planets are formed in 50 Myr, and the accretion rate is about 60%–80%. In each simulation, 3–4 terrestrial planets are formed inside “Jupiter” with masses of 0.15–3.6 M⊕. In the 0.5–4 AU, when the eccentricities of planetesimals are excited, planetesimals are able to accrete material from wide radial direction. The plenty of water material of the terrestrial planet in the Habitable Zone may be transferred from the farther places by this mechanism. Accretion may also happen a few times between two giant planets only if the outer planet has a moderate mass and the small terrestrial planet could survive at some resonances over time scale of 108 yr.
Numerical Simulation of Pulse Shortening in RBWOs
GONG Yu-bin; ZHANG Zhang; WANG Wen-xiang; MENG Fan-bao; FAN Zhi-kai; HUANG Min-zhi
2005-01-01
Pulse shortening hinders improvement of microwave output energy for high power microwave tubes. So far, it is also an unresolved problem in the field of high power microwave devices. In this paper, relativistic backward wave tube (RBWO) is treated as an example to study the pulse shortening phenomena. The influences of gas existing in the tube and explosive emission in inner surface of RBWO are all investigated by means of the particle-in-cell method. Through the simulation results, it can be predicted that the background gas in the tube is one but not the most important factor resulting in pulse shortening, in order to broaden the pulse width of gas-filled RBWO, the pressure of the filled gas must be controlled in a proper value. The explosive emission in the surface of slow wave structure due to intense electric field is one of the most important factors causing pulse shortening in high power microwave tube.Some methods to overcome this find of explosive emission are also given.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF ICE ACCRETION ON AIRFOIL
Nicusor ALEXANDRESCU
2009-09-01
Full Text Available This work consists in the simulation of the ice accretion in the leading edge of aerodynamic profiles and our proposed model encompasses: geometry generation, calculation of the potential flow around the body, boundary layer thickness computation, water droplet trajectory computation, heat and mass balances and the consequent modification of the geometry by the ice growth. The flow calculation is realized with panel methods, using only segments defined over the body contour. The viscous effects are considered using the Karman-Pohlhausen method for the laminar boundary layer. The local heat transfer coefficient is obtained by applying the Smith-Spalding method for the thermal boundary layer. The ice accretion limits and the collection efficiency are determined by computing water droplet trajectories impinging the surface. The heat transfer process is analyzed with an energy and a mass balance in each segment defining the body. Finally, the geometry is modified by the addition of the computed ice thickness to the respective panel. The process by repeating all the steps. The model validation is done using a selection of problems with experimental solution, CIRA (the CESAR project. Hereinafter, results are obtained for different aerodynamic profiles, angles of attack and meteorological parameters
Numerical simulation of thermocapillary wetting suppression
Chen, Jyh-Chen; Kuo, C.-W.; Neitzel, G. Paul
2002-11-01
The commercial code FIDAP, based on the finite-element method, is used to investigate a nonwetting phenomenon that occurs when a liquid drop is pressed against a solid wall held at a sufficiently lower temperature. In this situation, an interstitial gas film is induced by thermocapillary convection and separates the drop from the wall, forming a self-lubricating system. The flow in both the gas and liquid phases must be computed to simulate the non-wetting phenomenon. We explore the velocity and thermal fields of both the interstitial film and the liquid drop. A steady-state solution is discussed, with many parameters being considered, i.e., drop/wall temperature differences and relative displacement from the point of first apparent contact, as well as varying drop liquids. The results of the present study indicate that a silicone-oil drop may experience nonwetting while a water drop may not. The mechanism promoting the existence or non-existence of the nonwetting state is also discussed.
Numerical simulation of flow past circular duct
Ze-gao YIN; Xian-wei Cao; Hong-da SHI; Jian MA
2010-01-01
The Renormalization Group(RNG)k-ε turbulence model and Volume of Fluid(VOF)method were employed to simulate the flow past a circular duct in order to obtain and analyze hydraulic parameters.According to various upper and bottom gap ratios,the force on the duct was calculated.When the bottom gap ratio is 0,the drag force coefficient,lift force coefficient,and composite force reach their maximum values,and the azimuth reaches its minimum.With an increase of the bottom gap ratio from 0 to 1,the drag force coefficient and composite force decrease sharply,and the lift force coefficient does not decreases so much,but the azimuth increases dramatically.With a continuous increase of the bottom gap ratio from 1 upward,the drag force coefficient,lift force coefficient,composite force,and azimuth vary little.Thus,the bottom gap ratio is the key factor influencing the force on the circular duct.When the bottom gap ratio is less than 1,the upper gap ratio has a remarkable influence on the force of the circular duct.When the bottom gap ratio is greater than 1,the variation of the upper gap ratio has little influence on the force of the circular duct.
Numerical simulation of transient flow in horizontal drainage systems
Ze-yu MAO; Han XIAO; Ying LIU; Ying-jun HU
2009-01-01
A numerical simulation model based on the characteristic-based finite-difference method with a time-line interpolation scheme was developed for predicting transient free surface flow in horizontal drainage systems. The fundamental accuracy of the numerical model was first clarified by comparison with the experimental results for a single drainage pipe. Boundary conditions for junctions and bends, which are often encountered in drainage systems, were studied both experimentally and numerically. The numerical model was applied to an actual drainage system. Comparison with a full-scale model experiment indicates that the model can be used to accurately predict flow characteristics in actual drainage networks.
Numerical simulation of photoexcited polaron states in water
Zemlyanaya, E. V., E-mail: elena@jinr.ru; Volokhova, A. V.; Amirkhanov, I. V.; Puzynin, I. V.; Puzynina, T. P.; Rikhvitskiy, V. S. [Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Lakhno, V. D. [Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology, Russian Academy of Science, Pushchino 142290 (Russian Federation); Atanasova, P. Kh. [Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, Paisii Hilendarski University of Plovdiv 4003 (Bulgaria)
2015-10-28
We consider the dynamic polaron model of the hydrated electron state on the basis of a system of three nonlinear partial differential equations with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. A parallel numerical algorithm for the numerical solution of this system has been developed. Its effectiveness has been tested on a few multi-processor systems. A numerical simulation of the polaron states formation in water under the action of the ultraviolet range laser irradiation has been performed. The numerical results are shown to be in a reasonable agreement with experimental data and theoretical predictions.