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Sample records for mgi helle sikka

  1. Matemaatika õpimotiivid ja nende kujunemine / Helle Sikka

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikka, Helle, 1949-

    2001-01-01

    Õpimotivatsioonist ja selle mõjuteguritest, matemaatika õppimise motiveerimisest. 1999.a. TPÜ algõpetuse õppetooli poolt läbi viidud uuringust Tallinna koolide 2.-6. klasside õpilaste ja klassiõpetajate seas. Uurimuse eesmärgiks oli selgitada õpilaste üldisi õpimotiive, matemaatika õppimise motiive, aineseoseid argieluga, analüüsida nii õpilaste kui õpetajate hinnanguid probleemülesannete lahendamisele

  2. Mr Devraj Sikka

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 1984 Section: Earth & Planetary Sciences. Sikka, Mr Devraj M.Sc. (Agra). Date of birth: 1 March 1932. Date of death: 18 March 2017. Specialization: Monsoon, Tropical & Satellite Meteorology, Climate Change, Dynamics of Himalayan Glaciers and Climate Research Last known address: 40, Mausam ...

  3. Andeka lapse arengukeskkond ja toimetulek koolis / Helle Sikka

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikka, Helle

    2001-01-01

    Andekuse mõistest ja selle arengust, andeka lapse isiksuseomadustest. 1998-2000.a. läbi viidud küsitlusuuringust, mille eesmärgiks oli selgitada andekate laste koolimeeldivust, hinnanguid õpetajatele, õpilaste asendit kaaslaste seas, õpilaste arvamusi oma isiksuseomaduste kohta ning andekate harrastusi ja huvisid

  4. Matemaatika õppimise motiveerimine - võimalused ja tegelikkus / Helle Sikka

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikka, Helle

    2001-01-01

    1999/2000.a. õpilaste ja algklassiõpetajate seas läbi viidud küsitlusuuringust, millega selgitati 2.-6. kl. õpilaste matemaatika õpimotiive ja analüüsiti õpetajate ja õpilaste hinnanguid matemaatikatunni erinevatele osadele ning tundides kasutatavate tegevuste ja tööviiside sageduse kohta

  5. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MGI is the international database resource for the laboratory mouse, providing integrated genetic, genomic, and biological data to facilitate the study of human...

  6. Matemaatika võimalused algkooliõpilase mõtlemise arendamisel / Helle Sikka

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikka, Helle

    2000-01-01

    Mõtlemise arendamisest matemaatikatundides, 1996-1997.a. 3.-6. klassi õpilaste seas läbi viidud uurimusest, mille eesmärgid olid diagnoosida õpilaste mõtlemisoskust ja analüüsida õpetajate töö tulemusi õpilaste mõtlemise arendamisel matemaatikatundides

  7. Uuringud TPÜ algõpetuse õppetoolis : Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli algõpetuse õppetool / Helle Sikka, Leida Talts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikka, Helle

    2003-01-01

    Ajavahemikul 1995-2003 on TPÜ algõpetuse õppetoolis publitseeritud õppejõudude ja magistrantide ühistööna kaheksa teaduskogumikku, kusjuures kaks viimast neist on avaldatud koostöös Helsingi Ülikooli õpetajakoolituse osakonna õppejõududega. Seisuga mai 2003 on kaitstud 30 magistritööd, 706 bakalaureuse- ja diplomitööd, mis puudutavad noorema kooliea õpilasi ja õpetajaid

  8. Educational objectives as the basis for successful coping at school / Leida Talts, Ene Mägi, Helle Sikka... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Artiklis käsitletakse sotsiaalsete ja eetiliste eesmärkide saavutatust kooliminevate laste rühmades ja esimese kooliaasta lõpus. Uurimus tugineb kolmele küsitlusele, mis viidi läbi ajavahemikus 2002-2004

  9. EVALUASI KEGIATAN POSYANDU DI KABUPATEN BOJONEGORO, JOMBANG, SIKKA DAN CIANJUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswanto Siswanto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Since economic crisis in 1997 there has been a slowdown of community based health services, especially 'posyandu'. The study aims to evaluate 'posyandu' activities with the approach of input, process and output. This is an evaluative study, with the design of a cross-sectional survey. Sample of regencies was selected purposively, i.e. Jombang, Bojonegoro, Sikka and Cianjur Regencies. Each regency was taken 2 health centers, and then 5 villages were selected randomly. Each village was taken 3 'posyandu' randomly as well. Data were collected  by structured questionnaire, in-depth interview and Focus Group Discussion, analyzed in a descriptive way. The study has shown that the largest proportion of posyandu's chief was active household wives, with the education level of elementary, junior and senior high school. The assessment found the lack of posyandu's appliances (weighting scale, scale pants, healthy cards, SKDN graphs, medicines, and posters, the inadequacy of health center's and intersectoral personnel's commitment (supervision of 'posyandu' assigned to village midwives, the decline of five-program posyandu's activities (those routines were underfive weighting, educational food supplementation, and immunization, the 'ecline of posyandu's supporting activities ('BKB', TOGA', 'UKGMD', health fund, etc.. as well as, the low achievemen, of posyandu's targets (seen from SKDN indicators and MCH coverage. The study recommends that central and local government continue to conduct posyandu's revitalization programs, by strengthening input and process aspects for achieving a better population coverage and performance.  Key words: posyandu, evaluative study, input, process, output

  10. Pengembangan Bahan Ajar Menulis Berbagai Jenis Teks Bertema Kearifan Lokal Sikka Bagi Siswa SMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertus Adi Sarjono Owon

    2017-05-01

    ABSTRAC Writing is language skills in which integrated preached with the third other skills. In curriculum 2013, the learning done based on the text, but the sources of teaching materials still limited on students’ book published by Department of Education National. So that, it’s needed to developed teaching materials Writing Various Type of Text Themed Local Wisdom of Sikka Regency, NTT by Using Contextual Approach for The Junior High School Student. This research is aims to (1 identify prototype teaching materials writing various type of text themed Sikka local wisdom as students’ and teacher’s needed, (2 knowing the result of prototype expediency writing various type themed Sikka local wisdom in terms of and the contents of, and (3 knowing the effectiveness writing teaching materials to improving the learner’s ability in writing. This research is R& D. The data are collected by using questionnaire to identifies the necessity of teaching materials and to examine prototype expediency of teaching materials. Besides the data also are collected from Students’ result of study toward the ability in writing text themed Sikka local wisdom to examine effectiveness of product. This research indicates that (1 prototype teaching materials writing various type of text themed Sikka local wisdom by using contextual approach based on students’ and teacher’s necessity included:  text model, structure of the text, strategy of writing development, exercises, rating directive and supplement EYD. There is also contextual approach integrated in learning process, (2 the rating result of validation expert on the average score is 77, 45 (good mean while the rating result of validation user average score is 85, 53 (excellent and (3 teaching materials writing text effectively can develop the ability of students’ writing shown by the percentage of students’ classical completeness 80% in groups and 80% students can develop the text based on structure, content, spelling

  11. Põimunud ajastud vanalinnakodus / Helle Neemre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neemre, Helle

    1998-01-01

    Kaasajastatud vanalinnakorter Väike-Karja tänavas. Muljeid ja meenutusi tehtust sisekujundaja Helle Neemrelt. Pildiallkirjad - Jüri Kuuskemaa. Korterist võib leida Hansa-aegseid detaile, regionalistlikku laadi, moodsaid mugavusi kaasaegses kujunduses. Sepised (kardinapuud, trepikäsipuu, kaminariistad, -rest) - sepp Raivo Uus. Paekivist detailid restaureeris KAR Grupp. Diivan ja laud - Mang.

  12. Ritual and reflexes of lost sovereignty in Sikka, a regency of Flores in eastern Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Lewis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1993 some among the Sikkanese population of the town of Maumere on the north coast of Flores in eastern Indonesia attended a ritual to reconcile the members of two branches of the family of the rajas of Sikka, a dynasty that had once ruled the district. The two branches had fallen out over differences in opinion about the last succession to the office of raja a few years before the end of the rajadom in the late 1950s. A description of the ritual, which was conducted in an urban rather than a village setting, and an analysis of the performance demonstrate much about the persistence of elements of the old Sikkanese religion in modern Sikkanese society. The contemporary Sikkanese are Christians and the regency of Sikka is part of the modern Indonesian nation-state.

  13. Needs Assesment of Cocoa Business Development Using the Value Chain Approach & National Movement of Cocoa Production and Quality Improvement (GERNAS KAKAO): Case Study on Sikka Regency, East Nusa Tenggara

    OpenAIRE

    Ig. Sigit Murwito; Sri Mulyati

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are as follows: 1) Describe the general picture of cocoa in Sikka Regency; 2) Analyze the problems that occur in any cocoa business value chain in Sikka Regency; 3) Analyze the action plan for each problem in each of the business climate value chain for the future improvement of cocoa business development value chain in Sikka. Results of this study are expected to provide information about problems and stakeholder analysis in each cocoa value chain...

  14. Riwayat gizi buruk masa lalu (stunted tidak berhubungan dengan prestasi belajar siswa SD di Kabupaten Sikka Nusa Tenggara Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobianus Hasan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: The main nutritional problem existed in Sikka District was high prevalence of stunting in children (49.6%. Sikka District Health Office data at 2009 and 2010 confirmed that Mego Subdistrict was categorized as area in which the citizens (particularly infants had high risk experiencing health and nutritionissues with percentage of 43.3 in 2009 and 42.3 in 2010. Elementary school student’s passing percentage at Mego Subdistrict in education year of 2009/2010 placed in rank of 15 of 21 subdistricts in Sikka District.Objectives: To determine the association between history of malnutrition (stunted and academic achievement of elementary school students at Sikka District, NTT.Methods: This was an observational study with cross sectional study design. Sample of this research were 3rd grade elementary school students who met inclusive and exclusive criteria. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was used ini this research.Results: Research result showed that bivariatelly stunted condition affects study achievement (p=0.027. External factors affecting study achievement was mother’s education (p=0.001, father’s education (p=0.001 and child’s intelligence (p=0.027. Multivariatelly, most affective factor in student’s study achievement at Mego Subdistrict was parent’s education. The most dominant factor affecting elementary student’s study achievement was mother’s education (p=0.001.Conclusions: Most students suffering stunted had low study achievement (87.2% and stunted had no significant relation to study achievement. Student’s study achievement was affected by parent’s education.KEYWORDS: stunted, study achievementABSTRAKLatar belakang: Masalah gizi utama yang ada di Kabupaten Sikka adalah tingginya balita dengan status pendek dan sangat pendek yang mencapai 49,6%. Data Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Sikka tahun 2009 dan 2010 menyatakan bahwa Kecamatan Mego dikategorikan sebagai wilayah dengan masyarakat

  15. In Predicadores hell. Cautive children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María ARAGÜÉS ESTRAGUÉS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the city of Zaragoza, on April 6th of 1939, 512 women and 53 children were moved from Torrero’s prison to the Qualified jail of Predicadores. The accumulation, the bad conditions of the building, the punishments, the vexations, the bad supply and the violence did of Predicator’s one of the hardest prison of the postwar period: a real hell. Their only crime in most cases was be mothers, wifes or daughters of republican men. They were denied the right of being political prisoners as they were just considered common prisoners. Since 1939 up to its definitive closing in 1955, a great number of women went through its dependences, some of them with their children, «protected» by the Royal decree of November 14, 1930, where it was established that the small children could join prison with their mothers until they were fulfilling the age of four years. The above mentioned decree would suffer a modification on march 30, 1940, by means of an order of the Department of Justice by which the age of the child was reduced at the age of three. Many of them would not manage to survive, luckier others were put at liberty together with their mothers or delivered to some relative. But there were others who accompanied their mothers in a long periplus, going of jail in jail, until they were three that they were separated from them, join institutions of welfare under the guardianship of the State, or given in adoption without previous assent of their progenitors or legal representatives. All of them, held captive by the victors and labelled red children must go through a long rehabilitation process that became loyal and obedient subjects of the New State.

  16. Professional preparation of teachers - problems and possibilities. The Estonian case / Katrin Poom-Valickis, Ülle Saarits, Helle Sikka... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Artikkel kirjeldab õpetajakoolituse olukorda Eestis aastal 2003. Aineõpetajate, klassiõpetajate ja koolieelsete lasteasutuste õpetajate ettevalmistusest Tallinna Ülikoolis ning nende karjääriperspektiive tööturul

  17. MouseMine: a new data warehouse for MGI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motenko, H; Neuhauser, S B; O'Keefe, M; Richardson, J E

    2015-08-01

    MouseMine (www.mousemine.org) is a new data warehouse for accessing mouse data from Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Based on the InterMine software framework, MouseMine supports powerful query, reporting, and analysis capabilities, the ability to save and combine results from different queries, easy integration into larger workflows, and a comprehensive Web Services layer. Through MouseMine, users can access a significant portion of MGI data in new and useful ways. Importantly, MouseMine is also a member of a growing community of online data resources based on InterMine, including those established by other model organism databases. Adopting common interfaces and collaborating on data representation standards are critical to fostering cross-species data analysis. This paper presents a general introduction to MouseMine, presents examples of its use, and discusses the potential for further integration into the MGI interface.

  18. GAMBARAN DISTRIBUSI RABIES DI KABUPATEN SIKKA PROVINSI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR 2004-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridolina Mau

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractRabies has long been known as one of the major public healht problems in Sikka district, East Nusa Tenggara Province,Indonesia. Flores is an isolated preveiously rabies- free. It started with the importation of three dogs from rabies endemicSulawesi in September 1997. The rabies virus is present in the saliva of infected animals; all warm-blooded animals aresusceptible to rabies, and some may serve as natural reservoirs of the virus. Rabies is still a problem for world healthincluding Indonesia. Data of deathcase of rabies (lyssa in Indonesia register 125 cases each year. Rabies in Indonesia is aserious health problem because almost fatal after clinical symptom of the disease with death rate of 100%. Since 2004 toDecember 2009 rabies spread to 24 provinces in East Nusa Tenggara Province. Number of cases due to bite of a mad dogwas 16.000 cases. The aim of this study is to know distribution of rabies casse and the main control measures isimmunizing dogs. Tipe of this study is cross sectional. The result of this study showed the improvement in the last five years(2004 until August 2008 of the occurences of dog bite in cases and human deaths highest in 128 cases (32,48% incommunity health centers Waipare and population dog highest in Kewapante subdistrict 7213 (26,27% although thecoverage of immunization was very low that was 2523 (10,77% out of 6210 population. In average the dog bite casesoccurred in April.Key Word; Description, Distribution, Rabies

  19. ANALISIS FAKTOR – FAKTOR PEMILIHAN PEMENANG LELANG JASA KONSTRUKSI PADA PROYEK PEMERINTAH DI KABUPATEN SIKKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaudensius Nong Pio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors that influence the selection of the winning bidder in the construction of government projects in Sikka district and determine the most dominant factors. The sample in this study was 57 respondents. Sampling was conducted using a non-probability sampling technique with purposive sampling. Data analysis was performed by factor analysis.   The results of the study obtained 4 factors that influenced the selection of the winning bidder with 84.004% cumulative variance. Factors that influenced were the dominant factor I from 15 variables namely, completeness and suitability of substantial terms requested in the bidding documents; the experience of the company/contractor; bank reference/support of banks; completeness and availability as well as the number of different types of tools/equipment/construction equipment; the availability of education and experience of personnel/field project staff; relationship/ proximity to the project owner; the validity and completeness of the offer letter; the validity of a business license; a contractor offers had to be the lowest prices and the detailed points were competitively priced; meeting tax obligations; the company was not in the custody of the court and was not included in the black list; the contractor would follow and respond quickly to requests; instructions and orders of the project owner for the repair/construction design changes; originality, suitability and validity of bid security letters; methods and strategies for the use and control of the work; the contractor completed the work in accordance with the quality required and in accordance with the specifications of the contract price.

  20. Lines of MgI Detected in Solar Prominences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heinzel, Petr; Kupryakov, Yu. A.; Schwartz, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2016), s. 87-91 ISSN 1845-8319. [Hvar Astrophysical Colloquium /14./. Hvar, 26.09.2016-30.09.2016] Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : prominences * limb-flare * MgI emession Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  1. K Mbugua The Problem of Hell Revisited pp93-103

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K Mbugua

    The Problem of Hell Revisited: Towards a Gentler Theology of Hell 93 ... One who, after He has killed, has authority to cast into hell; yes, I tell you, fear. Him! .... Suppose your spouse or parent or child goes to hell and you go to heaven.

  2. Heaven and Hell at the Paradise Motel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Chudy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This piece is taken from the novel “Heaven and Hell at the Paradise Motel” and the exegesis that together forms my PhD thesis. The three main strands of this thesis are Gothic, Noir and sense of place. The novel, ‘‘Heaven and Hell at the Paradise Motel”, is preoccupied with the natural environment, its subtle seasonal changes and the way the environment impacts on its human inhabitants and how they in turn affect it. The novel is, in a very Gothic sense, haunted by dreams, apparitions and narratives – specifically mini-narratives that reflect the nature of fairy tales, horror stories and urban myths. It contains elements of melodrama, horror, romance. The story follows a deeply dysfunctional family through a seasonal cycle: beginning in Spring and ending once again in Spring. A key focus for both the creative and the theoretical work was the everyday application of the Gothic and Noir – for example a house doesn’t have to be a castle to be haunted; people don’t have to be monsters to be monstrous. The dark, the strange, the sinister and the perverse lurk in the shadows of everyday reality, but also how these elements intertwined within the landscape.

  3. Small-x resummation from HELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonvini, Marco [University of Oxford, Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Oxford, England (United Kingdom); Marzani, Simone [University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Peraro, Tiziano [The University of Edinburgh, Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Small-x logarithmic enhancements arising from high-energy gluon emissions affect both the evolution of collinearly-factorized parton densities and partonic coefficient functions. With the higher collider energy reached by the LHC, the prospect of a future high-energy collider, and the recent deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) results at small-x from HERA, providing phenomenological tools for performing small-x resummation has become of great relevance. In this paper we discuss a framework to perform small-x resummation for both parton evolution and partonic coefficient functions and we describe its implementation in a computer code named High-Energy Large Logarithms (HELL). We present resummed and matched results for the DGLAP splitting functions and, as a proof of principle, for the massless structure functions in DIS. Furthermore, we discuss the uncertainty from subleading terms on our results. (orig.)

  4. Multi-MGy Radiation Hardened Camera for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Sylvain; Boukenter, Aziz; Ouerdane, Youcef; Goiffon, Vincent; Corbiere, Franck; Rolando, Sebastien; Molina, Romain; Estribeau, Magali; Avon, Barbara; Magnan, Pierre; Paillet, Philippe; Duhamel, Olivier; Gaillardin, Marc; Raine, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in developing cameras for surveillance systems to monitor nuclear facilities or nuclear waste storages. Particularly, for today's and the next generation of nuclear facilities increasing safety requirements consecutive to Fukushima Daiichi's disaster have to be considered. For some applications, radiation tolerance needs to overcome doses in the MGy(SiO 2 ) range whereas the most tolerant commercial or prototypes products based on solid state image sensors withstand doses up to few kGy. The objective of this work is to present the radiation hardening strategy developed by our research groups to enhance the tolerance to ionizing radiations of the various subparts of these imaging systems by working simultaneously at the component and system design levels. Developing radiation-hardened camera implies to combine several radiation-hardening strategies. In our case, we decided not to use the simplest one, the shielding approach. This approach is efficient but limits the camera miniaturization and is not compatible with its future integration in remote-handling or robotic systems. Then, the hardening-by-component strategy appears mandatory to avoid the failure of one of the camera subparts at doses lower than the MGy. Concerning the image sensor itself, the used technology is a CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) designed by ISAE team with custom pixel designs used to mitigate the total ionizing dose (TID) effects that occur well below the MGy range in classical image sensors (e.g. Charge Coupled Devices (CCD), Charge Injection Devices (CID) and classical Active Pixel Sensors (APS)), such as the complete loss of functionality, the dark current increase and the gain drop. We'll present at the conference a comparative study between these radiation-hardened pixel radiation responses with respect to conventional ones, demonstrating the efficiency of the choices made. The targeted strategy to develop the complete radiation hard camera

  5. Multi-MGy Radiation Hardened Camera for Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Sylvain; Boukenter, Aziz; Ouerdane, Youcef [Universite de Saint-Etienne, Lab. Hubert Curien, UMR-CNRS 5516, F-42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Goiffon, Vincent; Corbiere, Franck; Rolando, Sebastien; Molina, Romain; Estribeau, Magali; Avon, Barbara; Magnan, Pierre [ISAE, Universite de Toulouse, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Paillet, Philippe; Duhamel, Olivier; Gaillardin, Marc; Raine, Melanie [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2015-07-01

    There is an increasing interest in developing cameras for surveillance systems to monitor nuclear facilities or nuclear waste storages. Particularly, for today's and the next generation of nuclear facilities increasing safety requirements consecutive to Fukushima Daiichi's disaster have to be considered. For some applications, radiation tolerance needs to overcome doses in the MGy(SiO{sub 2}) range whereas the most tolerant commercial or prototypes products based on solid state image sensors withstand doses up to few kGy. The objective of this work is to present the radiation hardening strategy developed by our research groups to enhance the tolerance to ionizing radiations of the various subparts of these imaging systems by working simultaneously at the component and system design levels. Developing radiation-hardened camera implies to combine several radiation-hardening strategies. In our case, we decided not to use the simplest one, the shielding approach. This approach is efficient but limits the camera miniaturization and is not compatible with its future integration in remote-handling or robotic systems. Then, the hardening-by-component strategy appears mandatory to avoid the failure of one of the camera subparts at doses lower than the MGy. Concerning the image sensor itself, the used technology is a CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) designed by ISAE team with custom pixel designs used to mitigate the total ionizing dose (TID) effects that occur well below the MGy range in classical image sensors (e.g. Charge Coupled Devices (CCD), Charge Injection Devices (CID) and classical Active Pixel Sensors (APS)), such as the complete loss of functionality, the dark current increase and the gain drop. We'll present at the conference a comparative study between these radiation-hardened pixel radiation responses with respect to conventional ones, demonstrating the efficiency of the choices made. The targeted strategy to develop the complete radiation hard camera

  6. Fuel retention and recovery in natural and MGI disruptions on KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Y.W.; Hong, S.H.; Yoon, S.W.; Kim, K.P.; Kim, W.C.; Seo, D.C.

    2013-01-01

    Fuel retention and recovery are studied during natural and Massive Gas Injection (MGI) induced disruptions in KSTAR with full graphite wall. The amount of released particles in natural disruptions in 15 s after the discharge is ∼5–10 times higher than that of non-disruption shots, but the difference is only ∼ 2 MGI induced disruptions depends on magnetic field (B t ) and MGI amount. The MGI disruption under a low B t and a medium MGI amount shows shorter thermal quench (TQ) and current quench (CQ), thereby higher fuel recovery. High B t plasma requires higher MGI amount for both disruption mitigation and fuel recovery. A high recovery of 4.2 × 10 22 D (∼0.78 monolayers) is obtained by MGI disruption in KSTAR 2011

  7. A Visual Narration of Hells in Buddhism and Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Budianto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The visualization of the Hell’s Tortures both in Buddhism and in Islam is exactly similar. However, their kind of ‘theological’ tendencies may result different outcome. By comparing the visual narration of the Buddhism and Islamic comic books dealing with hell illustrations, I made an‘imaginary’ dialogue between the concept and visuality of hells tortures that exist in both traditions, and see the impact on how far a sincere dialogue could be achieved in these two religious people. During this comparison, I found that both Buddhism and Islam in Java had ever made such an interesting dialogue.Keywords: Hell tortures, Islam-Buddhism comparison, encounter of Java-IndonesiaDOI: 10.15408/ref.v13i1.995

  8. God, Heaven and Hell : The Philosophy of Belief | Asekhauno | Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While heaven is God's promised reward for all who accept Christ and do His will, hell is the abode for all who denounce him. To merit heaven, one is required to renounce worldliness and love God in one's neighbour. While many are undecided, some others remain confused about the reality or otherwise of both the ...

  9. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) Resource: Genetic, Genomic, and Biological Knowledgebase for the Laboratory Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppig, Janan T

    2017-07-01

    The Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) Resource supports basic, translational, and computational research by providing high-quality, integrated data on the genetics, genomics, and biology of the laboratory mouse. MGI serves a strategic role for the scientific community in facilitating biomedical, experimental, and computational studies investigating the genetics and processes of diseases and enabling the development and testing of new disease models and therapeutic interventions. This review describes the nexus of the body of growing genetic and biological data and the advances in computer technology in the late 1980s, including the World Wide Web, that together launched the beginnings of MGI. MGI develops and maintains a gold-standard resource that reflects the current state of knowledge, provides semantic and contextual data integration that fosters hypothesis testing, continually develops new and improved tools for searching and analysis, and partners with the scientific community to assure research data needs are met. Here we describe one slice of MGI relating to the development of community-wide large-scale mutagenesis and phenotyping projects and introduce ways to access and use these MGI data. References and links to additional MGI aspects are provided. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. The radiation asymmetry in MGI rapid shutdown on J-TEXT tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ruihai; Chen, Zhongyong; Huang, Duwei; Cheng, Zhifeng; Zhang, Xiaolong; Zhuang, Ge; J-TEXT Team

    2017-10-01

    Disruptions, the sudden termination of tokamak fusion plasmas by instabilities, have the potential to cause severe material wall damage to large tokamaks like ITER. The mitigation of disruption damage is an essential part of any fusion reactor system. Massive gas injection (MGI) rapid shutdown is a technique in which large amounts of noble gas are injected into the plasma in order to safely radiate the plasma energy evenly over the entire plasma-facing first wall. However, the radiated energy during the thermal quench (TQ) in massive gas injection (MGI) induced disruptions is found toroidal asymmetric, and the degrees of asymmetry correlate with the gas penetration and MGI induced magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) activities. A toroidal and poloidal array of ultraviolet photodiodes (AXUV) has been developed to investigate the radiation asymmetry on J-TEXT tokamak. Together with the upgraded mirnov probe arrays, the relation between MGI triggered MHD activities with radiation asymmetry is studied.

  11. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) Is the International Resource for Information on the Laboratory Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, MeiYee; Shaw, David R

    2018-01-01

    Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI, http://www.informatics.jax.org/ ) web resources provide free access to meticulously curated information about the laboratory mouse. MGI's primary goal is to help researchers investigate the genetic foundations of human diseases by translating information from mouse phenotypes and disease models studies to human systems. MGI provides comprehensive phenotypes for over 50,000 mutant alleles in mice and provides experimental model descriptions for over 1500 human diseases. Curated data from scientific publications are integrated with those from high-throughput phenotyping and gene expression centers. Data are standardized using defined, hierarchical vocabularies such as the Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology, Mouse Developmental Anatomy and the Gene Ontologies (GO). This chapter introduces you to Gene and Allele Detail pages and provides step-by-step instructions for simple searches and those that take advantage of the breadth of MGI data integration.

  12. Maurice Car̊me'i lihtsad laulud lastele / Helle Michelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Michelson, Helle, 1929-

    2003-01-01

    Car̊me, Maurice. Muinasjutud Caprine'ile / tõlkinud Helle Michelson. [Tallinn] : Tiritamm, 2002 ; Car̊me, Maurice. Naeruhull kirsipuu : [luuletused] / prantsuse keelest tõlkinud Helvi Jürisson. [Tallinn] : Tiritamm, 2002 ; Car̊me, Maurice. Margareetapäev : [jutustused] / tõlkinud Helle Michelson. [Tallinn] : Varrak, 2000

  13. Microstructural evolution during dry wear test in magnesium and Mg-Y alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somekawa, Hidetoshi, E-mail: SOMEKAWA.Hidetoshi@nims.go.jp [Research Center for Strategic Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Maeda, Shunsuke; Hirayama, Tomoko; Matsuoka, Takashi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Miyakodani, Tatara, Kyotanabe 610-0321 (Japan); Inoue, Tadanobu [Research Center for Strategic Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Mukai, Toshiji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Kobe, 657-8501 (Japan)

    2013-01-20

    The friction and wear properties of pure magnesium and the Mg-Y alloy were investigated using the pin-on-disk configuration. The friction and wear resistance of the Mg-Y alloy was superior to those of pure magnesium. The wear mechanism was abrasion under all the conditions. The deformed microstructural evolutions near the surface region were observed by transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. The stress and strain states were also evaluated by finite element analysis (FEA). The deformed microstructures of both alloys consisted of the {l_brace}10-12{r_brace} twinning formation and the FEA results showed the occurrence of plastic deformation even at the beginning of the test. The formation of low angle grain boundaries was also confirmed with an increase in the applied load in the Mg-Y alloy. On the other hand, grain refinement due to dynamic recrystallization was observed in pure magnesium as the wear test progressed. The different microstructures resulted from difference in the surface temperature during the wear test, which was estimated to be around 393 K and 363 K for pure magnesium and the Mg-Y alloy, respectively. The high increment temperature in the fine-grained alloys brought about the occurrence of grain boundary sliding, i.e., material softening, which led to a decrease in the friction and wear properties. The present results indicated that one of the methods for enhancing the friction and wear properties is to increase the dynamic recrystallization temperature.

  14. Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyyah and Allameh Tabataba’i on Immortality in Hell

    OpenAIRE

    Janan Izadi; Majid Sadeqi Hasan Abadi; Fatemeh Yusefi kazaj

    2016-01-01

    The Immortality of the people of hell and their eternal torment is one of the most important and complex debates, preoccupying religious scholars of different religions and sects. Each of them has taken a different way based on their intellectual principles of belief to solve this problem and the questions thereof, including how the immortality of the inhabitants of hell hellions and their eternal torment is consistent with the mercy and justice of God. How is it reasonable to endure infinite...

  15. HUBUNGAN CITRA MERK BUS (MGI DENGAN KEPUASAN KONSUMEN PADA TRAYEK BANDUNG-SUKABUMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfa Chairunnisa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study correlation between brand image and customer satisfaction. Quantitative design using correlational method involved 350 MGI bus customer in Bandung-Sukabumi route. Instruments used are Brand Image Inventory (37 item and Customer Satisfaction Index (37 item. Cooeficient  correlation resulted is 0.684 which means that there is positive correlation between brand image and customer satisfction. High brand image correlated with high customer satisfaction while low brand image correlated with low customer satisfaction.

  16. HUBUNGAN CITRA MERK BUS (MGI) DENGAN KEPUASAN KONSUMEN PADA TRAYEK BANDUNG-SUKABUMI

    OpenAIRE

    Ulfa Chairunnisa

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to study correlation between brand image and customer satisfaction. Quantitative design using correlational method involved 350 MGI bus customer in Bandung-Sukabumi route. Instruments used are Brand Image Inventory (37 item) and Customer Satisfaction Index (37 item). Cooeficient  correlation resulted is 0.684 which means that there is positive correlation between brand image and customer satisfction. High brand image correlated with high customer satisfaction while low bran...

  17. The influence of yttrium (Y) on the corrosion of Mg-Y binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ming; Schmutz, Patrik; Uggowitzer, Peter J.; Song Guangling; Atrens, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The Y-intermetallic can accelerate corrosion and Y can increase the protectiveness of the surface layer. → In 0.1 M NaCl, the corrosion rate of Mg-Y alloys increased with increasing Y due to the Y intermetallic. → In 0.1 M NaCl, there was filiform corrosion. → In 0.1 M Na 2 SO 4 , the corrosion rate of Mg-Y alloys decreased with increasing Y in the range 3-7%Y. → Hydrogen evolution was observed from particular parts of the alloy surface. - Abstract: Corrosion of Mg-Y alloys was studied using electrochemical evaluations, immersion tests and direct observations. There were two important effects. In 0.1 M NaCl, the corrosion rate increased with increasing Y content due to increasing amounts of the Y-containing intermetallic. In 0.1 M Na 2 SO 4 , the corrosion rate decreased with increasing Y content above 3%, attributed to a more protective surface film, despite the intermetallic. The corrosion rate evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was somewhat smaller than that evaluated from H evolution as expected from the Mg corrosion mechanism. A mechanism is proposed for filiform corrosion. Direct in situ corrosion observations revealed that a predominant feature was hydrogen evolution from particular parts of the alloy surface.

  18. Reflecting on Hell in Anticipation of Armageddon: The Impact of Reflection and Adaptation on the Education of the US Army Officer Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Reflecting on Hell in Anticipation of Armageddon: The Impact of Reflection and...Hell in Anticipation of Armageddon: The Impact of Reflection and Adaptation on the Education of the US Army Officer Corps Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc...Monograph Title: Reflecting on Hell in Anticipation of Armageddon: The Impact of Reflection and Adaptation on the Education of the US Army Officer Corps

  19. Determination of gold and silver in geological standard samples MGI by instrument neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Huijiuan; Zhou; Yunlu

    1987-01-01

    Gold and silver in geological standard samples MGI were determined by instrument neutron activation analysis. The various interferences of nuclides were considered. Corrected factors of the geometry in different positions have been determined. Using the geological standard sample MGM and radiochemical separation neutron activation method as reference, the reliability of this method is proved. Gold content in samples is 0.4-0.009 g/t, silver content is 9-0.3 g/t. Standard deviation is less than 3.5%, the precision of the measurement is 4.8-11.6%

  20. Effects of spin-orbit coupling on laser cooling of BeI and MgI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Mingjie, E-mail: wanmingjie1983@sina.com; Huang, Duohui; Shao, Juxiang; Li, Yuanyuan [Computational Physics Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Yibin University, Yibin 644007 (China); Yu, You [College of Optoelectronic Technology, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225 (China); Li, Song [College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023 (China)

    2015-10-28

    We present the ab initio study of spin-orbit coupling effects on laser cooling of BeI and MgI molecules. Potential energy curves for the X{sup 2}Σ{sup +}{sub 1/2}, A{sup 2}Π{sub 1/2,3/2}, and 2{sup 2}Π{sub 3/2,1/2} states are calculated using multi-reference configuration interaction method plus Davidson corrections. Spectroscopic parameters of BeI and MgI are in excellent agreement with available experimental and theoretical values. The A{sup 2}Π{sub 3/2} state of MgI is a repulsive state. It is an unsuitable scheme for the A{sup 2}Π{sub 3/2}(υ′)← X{sup 2}Σ{sup +}{sub 1/2} (υ″) transition for laser cooling of MgI. Highly diagonally distributed Franck-Condon factors f{sub 00} for the A{sup 2}Π{sub 1/2,3/2} (υ′ = 0) ← X{sup 2}Σ{sup +}{sub 1/2} (υ″ = 0) transitions and suitable radiative lifetimes τ for the A{sup 2}Π{sub 1/2,3/2} (υ′ = 0) of BeI and MgI are obtained. Three laser wavelength drives are required for the A{sup 2}Π{sub 1/2,3/2}(υ′)←X{sup 2}Σ{sup +}{sub 1/2} (υ″) transitions of BeI and MgI. The proposed cooling wavelengths of BeI and MgI are both in the violet region. The results imply the feasibility of laser cooling of BeI and MgI, and that laser cooling of BeI is more possible.

  1. Investigations on MGy ionizing dose effects in thin oxides of micro-electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillardin, M.; Paillet, P.; Raine, M.; Martinez, M.; Marcandella, C.; Duhamel, O.; Richard, N.; Leray, J.L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Goiffon, V.; Corbiere, F.; Rolando, S.; Molina, R.; Magnan, P. [ISAE, Universite de Toulouse, 10 avenue Edouard Belin, BP 54032, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A. [Universite de Saint-Etienne, Laboratoire H. Curien, UMR-5516, 42000, Saint-Etienne (France)

    2015-07-01

    Total ionizing dose (TID) effects have been studied for a long time in micro-electronic components designed to operate in natural and artificial environments. In most cases, TID induces both charge trapping in the bulk of irradiated oxides and the buildup of interface traps located at semiconductor/dielectric interfaces. Such effects result from basic mechanisms driven by both the shape of the electric field which stands into the oxide and by fabrication process parameters inducing pre-existing traps in the oxide's bulk. From the pioneering studies based on 'thick' oxide technologies to the most recent ones dedicated to innovative technologies, most studies concluded that the impact of total ionizing dose effects reduces with the oxide thinning. This is specifically the case for the gate-oxide of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET) for which it is generally considered that TID is not a major issue anymore at kGy dose ranges. TID effects are now mainly due to charge trapping in the field oxides such as Shallow Trench Isolation. This creates either parasitic conduction paths or Radiation-Induced Narrow Channel Effects (RINCE). Static current-voltage (I-V) electrical characteristics are then modified through a significant increase of the off-current of NMOS transistors or by shifting the whole I-V curves (of both NMOS and PMOS transistors). Based on these assumptions, no significant shift of I-V curves should be observed in modern bulk CMOS technologies. However, such phenomenon may not be directly extrapolated to higher TID ranges, typically of several MGy for which only few data are available in the literature. This paper presents evidences of large threshold voltage shifts measured at MGy dose levels despite the fact that transistors are designed in a submicron bulk technology which features a 7-nm thin gate-oxide on GO2 transistors dedicated to mixed analog/digital integrated circuits. Such electrical shifts are encountered

  2. Investigations on MGy ionizing dose effects in thin oxides of micro-electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillardin, M.; Paillet, P.; Raine, M.; Martinez, M.; Marcandella, C.; Duhamel, O.; Richard, N.; Leray, J.L.; Goiffon, V.; Corbiere, F.; Rolando, S.; Molina, R.; Magnan, P.; Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A.

    2015-01-01

    Total ionizing dose (TID) effects have been studied for a long time in micro-electronic components designed to operate in natural and artificial environments. In most cases, TID induces both charge trapping in the bulk of irradiated oxides and the buildup of interface traps located at semiconductor/dielectric interfaces. Such effects result from basic mechanisms driven by both the shape of the electric field which stands into the oxide and by fabrication process parameters inducing pre-existing traps in the oxide's bulk. From the pioneering studies based on 'thick' oxide technologies to the most recent ones dedicated to innovative technologies, most studies concluded that the impact of total ionizing dose effects reduces with the oxide thinning. This is specifically the case for the gate-oxide of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET) for which it is generally considered that TID is not a major issue anymore at kGy dose ranges. TID effects are now mainly due to charge trapping in the field oxides such as Shallow Trench Isolation. This creates either parasitic conduction paths or Radiation-Induced Narrow Channel Effects (RINCE). Static current-voltage (I-V) electrical characteristics are then modified through a significant increase of the off-current of NMOS transistors or by shifting the whole I-V curves (of both NMOS and PMOS transistors). Based on these assumptions, no significant shift of I-V curves should be observed in modern bulk CMOS technologies. However, such phenomenon may not be directly extrapolated to higher TID ranges, typically of several MGy for which only few data are available in the literature. This paper presents evidences of large threshold voltage shifts measured at MGy dose levels despite the fact that transistors are designed in a submicron bulk technology which features a 7-nm thin gate-oxide on GO2 transistors dedicated to mixed analog/digital integrated circuits. Such electrical shifts are encountered

  3. A MGy radiation-hardened sensor instrumentation link for nuclear reactor monitoring and remote handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeeck, Jens; Cao, Ying [KU Leuven - KUL, Div. LRD-MAGyICS, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Van Uffelen, Marco; Mont Casellas, Laura; Damiani, Carlo; Morales, Emilio Ruiz; Santana, Roberto Ranz [Fusion for Energy - F4E, c/Josep,n deg. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Ed. B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Meek, Richard; Haist, Bernhard [Oxford Technologies Ltd. OTL, 7 Nuffield Way, Abingdon OX14 1RL (United Kingdom); De Cock, Wouter; Vermeeren, Ludo [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Steyaert, Michiel [KU Leuven, ESAT-MICAS, KasteelparkArenberg 10, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Leroux, Paul [KU Leuven, ESAT-MICAS, KasteelparkArenberg 10, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    Decommissioning, dismantling and remote handling applications in nuclear facilities all require robotic solutions that are able to survive in radiation environments. Recently raised safety, radiation hardness and cost efficiency demands from both the nuclear regulatory and the society impose severe challenges in traditional methods. For example, in case of the dismantling of the Fukushima sites, solutions that survive accumulated doses higher than 1 MGy are mandatory. To allow remote operation of these tools in nuclear environments, electronics were used to be shielded with several centimeters of lead or even completely banned in these solutions. However, shielding electronics always leads to bulky and heavy solutions, which reduces the flexibility of robotic tools. It also requires longer repair time and produces extra waste further in a dismantling or decommissioning cycle. In addition, often in current reactor designs, due to size restrictions and the need to inspect very tight areas there are limitations to the use of shielding. A MGy radiation-hardened sensor instrumentation link developed by MAGyICS provides a solution to build a flexible, easy removable and small I and C module with MGy radiation tolerance without any shielding. Hereby it removes all these pains to implement electronics in robotic tools. The demonstrated solution in this poster is developed for ITER Remote Handling equipments operating in high radiation environments (>1 MGy) in and around the Tokamak. In order to obtain adequately accurate instrumentation and control information, as well as to ease the umbilical management, there is a need of front-end electronics that will have to be located close to those actuators and sensors on the remote handling tool. In particular, for diverter remote handling, it is estimated that these components will face gamma radiation up to 300 Gy/h (in-vessel) and a total dose of 1 MGy. The radiation-hardened sensor instrumentation link presented here, consists

  4. Hell revisited: A socio-critical enquiry into the roots and relevance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for certain concepts in particular contexts and circumstances, as they are all utilitarian concepts which are employed and abandoned as needs change and sentiments shift. This article will investigate the rise of the concept of hell by investigating the ancient sources in which it first appeared, in order to establish what factors ...

  5. Tiffany Diamonds and Classical Music as Influences on the Performance of "Don Juan in Hell".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jim

    This paper analyzes Paul Gregory's 1951 production of "Don Juan in Hell," now considered to be a seminal work in the development of professional and educational readers theatre. The paper contends that the production, which presented a nondramatic work without the usual emphasis on design and spectacle, forced a reexamination of the role…

  6. With Dante in Hell on 9/11: "That Day We Read No Further"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Roy

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Roy Rosenstein shares the events that occurred during his first day of teaching the Dante and Medieval Culture course in the fall semester of 2001 at the American University of Paris (AUP). On, September 11, 2001, immediately following Rosenstein's opening statement of "Welcome to hell," the class was alerted to the…

  7. Arupärimine rahandusministrile eurokalkulaatoritest / Jürgen Ligi, Ene Ergma, Helle Kalda...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Riigikogu liikmete Helle Kalda, Toomas Vareki, Aivar Riisalu, Lauri Laasi, Mailis Repsi, Enn Eesmaa, Kalle Laaneti, Eldar Efendijevi, Nelli Privalova, Vladimir Velmani, Olga Sõtniku, Kalev Kallo, Toivo Tootseni, Arvo Sarapuu, Nikolai Põdramägi Evelyn Sepa, Ain Seppiku ja Valeri Korbi poolt 17. novembril esitatud arupärimine

  8. War Isn’t Hell, It’s Entertainment: 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    The interdisciplinary anthology War Isn’t Hell, It’s Entertainment analyses the relationship between war and the military on the one hand, and, on the other hand, entertainment, fiction, visual media, and cultural products. It examines war and film stars; war and films; war memorials; war...

  9. Tavatu juhtum / Toomas Rein, Helle Gans, Leonhard Lapin ; interv. Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rein, Toomas, 1940-

    2007-01-01

    Arhitektid Toomas Rein ja Leonhard Lapin ning sisearhitekt Helle Gans meenutavad Valgevene näidiskolhoosile Rassvet projekteeritud lasteaeda, mis valmis 1987. aastal. Kompleks pälvis 1987. a. NSVL Arhitektide Liidu preemia ja üleliidulise ametiühingupreemia

  10. Hell revisited: A socio-critical enquiry into the roots and relevance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    emotional reaction to hell – those with the greatest ability to empathise have the biggest ... 1998:141). God will overcome every remnant of evil and all rational creatures ..... of Jesus' message was taken up and intensified by many in the Jesus.

  11. Study on the early surface films formed on Mg-Y molten alloy in different atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Mirak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the non-isothermal early stages of surface oxidation of liquid Mg-1%Y alloy during casting were studied under UPH argon, dry air, and air mixed with protective fluorine-bearing gases. The chemistry and morphology of the surface films were characterized by SEM and EDX analyses. The results indicate a layer of smooth and tightly coherent oxidation film composed of MgO and Y2O3 formed on the molten Mg-Y alloy surface with 40–60 nm thickness under dry air. A dendritic/cellular microstructure is clearly visible with Y-rich second phases gathered in surface of the melt and precipitated along the grain/cell boundaries under all gas conditions. Under fluorine-bearing gas mixtures, the surface film was a mixed oxide and fluoride and more even; a flat and folded morphology can be seen under SF6 with oxide as dominated phase and under 1, 1, 1, 2-tetra-fluoroethane, a smooth and compact surface film uniformly covering the inner surface of the bubble with equal oxide and fluoride thickness, which results in a film without any major defects. MgF2 phase appears to be the key characteristic of a good protective film.

  12. In situ electrochemical XRD study of (de)hydrogenation of MgyTi100-y thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, P.; Wondergem, H.J.; Graat, P.C.J.; Borsa, D.M.; Schreuders, H.; Dam, B.; Griessen, R.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and electrochemical (de)hydrogenation were performed in situ to monitor the symmetry of the unit cells of MgyTi100-y thin film alloys (with 70 to 90 at.% Mg) along the pressure composition isotherms at room temperature. The diffraction patterns show that the crystal structures of

  13. Teine muutuva keele ettekandepäev / Helle Metslang, Ilona Tragel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Metslang, Helle, 1950-

    2007-01-01

    Teisest muutuva keele ettekandepäevast Tartus, 3.11.2006. Muutuva keele ettekandepäevi korraldab ETF-i kahe grandiprojekti töörühm: "Eesti keele grammatilise süsteemi muutumine ja selle põhjused : keelemuutuste analüüs kasutuskontekstis" (Tartu Ülikool, grandihoidja Ilona Tragel) ja "Eesti keele grammatika ja sõnavara dünaamika 1990-2000. aastatel" (Tallinna Ülikool, grandihoidja Helle Metslang)

  14. The archaeological context of Levantine rock Art in Campo de Hellín (Albacete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel GARCÍA ATIÉNZAR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the knowledge of human settlement and the Levantine rock Art in a specific geographical context. The spatial reading of these elements allows to present hypotheses on human communities that occupied lands of the Campo de Hellín (Albacete during the first phases of Holocene and how they built a landscape that reflects their social, economic and symbolic needs.

  15. Simulation of MGI efficiency for plasma energy conversion into Ar radiation in JET and implications for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestchanyi, Serguei, E-mail: serguei.pestchanyi@kit.edu [Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Koslowski, Rudi; Reux, Cedric [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lehnen, Michael [Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We simulated disruption mitigation using massive gas injection with the TOKES code. • Cross-reference analysis of JET experiments on MGI and their simulations have been done. • The analysis allows suggesting the mechanism for saturation of radiated energy fraction at 70–80%. • Rough extrapolation of the result on ITER conditions has been done. - Abstract: Effectiveness of massive gas injection (MGI) for mitigation of disruptive wall damage has been investigated. Cross-reference analysis of the available JET experiments on MGI and their simulations with the TOKES code allow suggesting that in JET conditions one can convert into radiation the electron thermal energy and the plasma current energy, but the ion thermal energy does not convert into radiation because of very ineffective excitation of injected noble gas (NG) ions by D ions and long equipartition time between D ions and electrons. The model assumes rather high electron temperature during current quench (CQ), which contradicts with its time duration. Rough extrapolation of the result on ITER conditions shows that one can expect irradiation of total plasma energy if CQ duration in ITER is not shorter as in JET.

  16. Politicians, Patriots and Plotters: Unlikely Debates Occasioned by Maximilian Hell's Venus Transit Expedition of 1769

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontler, Laszlo

    2013-05-01

    This paper discusses the cultural and political contexts and reception of the most important by-product of Maximilian Hell's famous Venus transit expedition of 1768-69, the Demonstratio. Idioma Ungarorum et Lapponum idem esse (1770) by Hell's associate Janos Sajnovics. Now considered a landmark in Finno-Ugrian linguistics, the Demonstratio addressed an academic subject that was at that time almost destined to be caught up in an ideological battlefield defined by the shifting relationship between the Habsburg government, the Society of Jesus, and the Hungarian nobility. The "enlightened absolutist" policies of the former aimed at consolidating the Habsburg monarchy as an empire, at the expense of privileged groups, including religious orders as well as the noble estates. In the situation created by the 1773 suppression of the Jesuit order (a signal of declining patronage from the dynasty), the growing preoccupation on the part of ex-Jesuits like Hell and Sajnovics with "things Hungarian" could have been part of an attempt to re-situate themselves on the Central European map of learning. At the same time, the founding document of this interest, the Demonstratio, evoked violent protests from the other target of Habsburg policies, the Hungarian nobility, because its basic assumptions - the kinship of the Hungarian and the Sami (Lappian) language - potentially undermined the noble ideology of social exclusiveness, established on the alleged "Scythian" ancestry of Hungarians. By exploring the complex motives, intentions, reactions and responses of the chief agents in this story, it is possible to highlight the extra-scientific constraints and facilitators for the practice of knowledge in late eighteenth century Central Europe.

  17. Evaluation of Cultural and Ideological Manipulations in Four Persian Translations of Jhumpa Lahiri’s Hell-Heaven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Kaveyaninia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examined cultural and ideological implications in translation studies. For  this purpose, four Persian translations of Hell-Heaven were chosen. Hell-Heaven is a story adopted from “Unaccustomed Earth” (2008, written by the Indian-American writer, Jhumpa Lahiri.  Therefore, the translations were explored to detect translators’ ideological shifts; in the way that all components of translations were pondered to detect translational adaptations chosen by four translators. The result showed that translators had adopted translational strategies such as addition, deletion and substitution to deal with American and Indian’s cultural and ideological differences.

  18. Iodide-conducting polymer electrolytes based on poly-ethylene glycol and MgI2: Synthesis and structural characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittadello, Michele; Waxman, David I.; Sideris, Paul J.; Gan Zhehong; Vezzù, Keti; Negro, Enrico; Safari, Ahmad; Greenbaum, Steve G.; Di Noto, Vito

    2011-01-01

    A major obstacle for a viable technological development of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is still the synthesis of a high performance iodide-conducting polymer electrolyte. Here we present a series of eight electrolytic complexes with formula PEG1000/(MgI 2 ) x (I 2 ) y (0.0038 ≤ x ≤ 0.5801, 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.0636). The synthesis involves the preparation of a disordered form of MgI 2 by a metallorganic route, which enables us to dissolve high amounts of salt in the chosen polymer host. The thermal analysis of the resulting polymer electrolytes was performed using modulated differential scanning calorimetry measurements. Vibrational studies were carried out using medium FT-IR, far FT-IR and FT-Raman. The variation of the CO and OH stretching modes in the medium infrared, as a function of the mole-to-mole ratio n Mg /n O , was investigated by Gaussian decomposition to provide insight into the polymer–polymer and salt–polymer interactions in these materials. The FT-Raman spectra confirmed and complemented the vibrational assignment. The conductivity study of these systems was performed by electrical spectroscopy in the frequency interval 10 mHz–10 MHz. The direct current conductivity (σ DC ) profiles versus the reciprocal temperature exhibited a Vögel-Tamman-Fülcher (VTF) behavior. The best σ DC at 50 °C was 5 × 10 −5 S cm −1 . The overall results indicate the presence of bivalent, monovalent and neutral species, Mg 2+ , [MgI] + and MgI 2 , respectively, which participate in the conduction process. These results are consistent with what was previously observed in PEG400-based systems doped with δ-MgCl 2 . The presence of at least one Mg site containing a distribution in parameters was observed using 25 Mg solid state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopy. The site has been assigned to a Mg complex involving the coordination by oxygen atoms of the polymer backbone.

  19. A > 4 MGy radiation tolerant 8 THzOhm transimpedance amplifier with 50 dB dynamic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbeeck, J; Steyaert, M; Leroux, P

    2013-01-01

    A 130 nm Transimpedance Amplifier has been developed with a 255 MHz bandwidth, 90 dBΩ transimpedance gain and a dynamic input range of 1:325 or 50 dB for a photo-diode capacitance of 0.75 pF. The equivalent integrated input noise is 160 nA - 25°C. The gain of the voltage amplifier, used in the transimpedance amplifier (TIA), degrades less than 3% over a temperature range from -40 °C up to 125 °C. The TIA and attenuator exhibit a radiation tolerance larger than 4 MGy, as evidenced by radiation assessment.

  20. Immuno-enhancement in tumor-bearing mice induced by whole body X-irradiation with 75 mGy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ying; Li Xiuyi; Gong Shouliang; Liu Shuzheng

    2000-01-01

    Objective: In present study the authors observed the effect of whole body irradiation (WBI) with 75 mGy X-rays on the immune function of tumor-bearing mice. Methods: Lewis lung carcinoma cells were implanted into the right thigh muscle of C57BL/6J mice. Ten days after tumor implantation, the tumor-bearing mice were administrated with 75 mGy X-rays WBI, then the mice were sacrificed 18 h after irradiation to detect the immune parameters including the spontaneous proliferation of thymocytes, the proliferative response of splenocytes to ConA and LPS, the cytotoxic activities of specific cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer cells (NK), as well as lymphokine activated killer cells (LAK) in spleen. The methods the authors used were 3 H-TdR incorporation or release assay. Results: the immune parameters of exposed tumor-bearing mice were much higher than those of sham-irradiated tumor-bearing mice (P<0.01). Conclusion: These results suggested that low dose radiation (LDR) could enhance the immune function of tumor-bearing mice, which might be of practical significance in the prevention and therapy of cancer

  1. Design of a MGy radiation tolerant resolver-to-digital convertor IC for remotely operated maintenance in harsh environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroux, Paul, E-mail: paul.leroux@kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Dept. of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), AdvISe, Kleinhoefstraat 4, 2440 Geel (Belgium); Van Koeckhoven, Wesley; Verbeeck, Jens [KU Leuven, Dept. of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), AdvISe, Kleinhoefstraat 4, 2440 Geel (Belgium); Van Uffelen, Marco; Esqué, Salvador; Ranz, Roberto; Damiani, Carlo [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Hamilton, David [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2014-10-15

    During future ITER maintenance operations, sensors and their embarked electronics will be exposed to a hostile and radioactive environment. This paper presents the design of a MGy radiation tolerant 16 bit resolver-to-digital converter (RDC) in 130 nm CMOS technology. The RDC features a Type II digital tracking loop, able to track resolvers with speeds up to 300 rps, and excitation frequencies up to 4 kHz. The RDC uses two integrated ΔΣ-analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) to digitize the resolver outputs. The 16 bit, 10 kHz ADCs utilize a correlated double sampling technique to remove radiation induced offset and 1/f-noise. The front-end features a static angular resolution of 16 bits (4.2 arcsec{sub rms}) and a resolution of 10 bits (6 arcmin{sub rms}) at a rotor speed of 100 rps. The circuit has a simulated radiation tolerance exceeding 1 MGy. It has the ability to operate under temperatures up to 125 °C, and to allow multiplexing with signals from other conventional sensors for compact, robust read-out architectures.

  2. Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyyah and Allameh Tabataba’i on Immortality in Hell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janan Izadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Immortality of the people of hell and their eternal torment is one of the most important and complex debates, preoccupying religious scholars of different religions and sects. Each of them has taken a different way based on their intellectual principles of belief to solve this problem and the questions thereof, including how the immortality of the inhabitants of hell hellions and their eternal torment is consistent with the mercy and justice of God. How is it reasonable to endure infinite torment for limited and finite sins? Does a Merciful God, born a sinful slave forever in the fire of the hereafter? Or  is this not the case and He punishes the sinful people for a limited period of time, whether it is short or long, and then releases them from  torture and provides them with  comfort. There is a difference of opinions on these problems in the works of Ibn Qayyim Al- Jawziyyah Al-Ash͑ari and Allameh Tabataba’i, the Shiite philosopher and commentator.Ibn Qayyim addresses widely and systematically the issue of the immortality of the inhabitants of hell. In fact, he interprets immortality (khulūd as a long time, so that the long fire and scourge annihilate the evil from the souls that evil has mixed in their being.  In his viewpoint God has created human monotheist. If the monotheistic nature of the person is changed by vices, these vices and the corrupted nature can be changed by torment and fire. He quotes in his works the ideas of the believers in immortality in torment and criticizes and rebuts them. Stating so many arguments, Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya tries to deny the immortality and eternality in torment. Interpreting the verses of The Holy Quran on immortality of the inhabitants of hell in torment, Allameh Tabataba’i strongly asserts the immortality principle. He relates the happiness and misery, and good and evil among human beings to the development and appearance of the carnal states and habits they gained in the earthly

  3. Stories of Hell and Healing: Internet Users' Construction of Benzodiazepine Distress and Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixsen, Alison M; Ridge, Damien

    2017-11-01

    Benzodiazepines are a group of drugs used mainly as sedatives, hypnotics, antiepileptics, and muscle relaxants. Consumption is recommended for 2 to 4 weeks only, due to fast onset of dependency and potentially distressing withdrawal symptoms. Few peer-review studies have drawn on the user experiences and language to appreciate firsthand experiences of benzodiazepine withdrawal or discontinuation syndrome. We looked extensively at patient stories of benzodiazepine withdrawal and recovery on Internet support sites and YouTube. Our analysis indicated that users employ rich metaphors to portray the psychologically disturbing and protracted nature of their suffering. We identified seven major themes: hell and isolation, anxiety and depression, alienation, physical distress, anger and remorse, waves and windows, and healing and renewal. By posting success stories, ex-users make known that "healing" can be a long, unpredictable process, but distress does lessen, and recovery can happen.

  4. Divergent Effects of Beliefs in Heaven and Hell on National Crime Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Azim F.; Rhemtulla, Mijke

    2012-01-01

    Though religion has been shown to have generally positive effects on normative ‘prosocial’ behavior, recent laboratory research suggests that these effects may be driven primarily by supernatural punishment. Supernatural benevolence, on the other hand, may actually be associated with less prosocial behavior. Here, we investigate these effects at the societal level, showing that the proportion of people who believe in hell negatively predicts national crime rates whereas belief in heaven predicts higher crime rates. These effects remain after accounting for a host of covariates, and ultimately prove stronger predictors of national crime rates than economic variables such as GDP and income inequality. Expanding on laboratory research on religious prosociality, this is the first study to tie religious beliefs to large-scale cross-national trends in pro- and anti-social behavior. PMID:22723927

  5. Divergent effects of beliefs in heaven and hell on national crime rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azim F Shariff

    Full Text Available Though religion has been shown to have generally positive effects on normative 'prosocial' behavior, recent laboratory research suggests that these effects may be driven primarily by supernatural punishment. Supernatural benevolence, on the other hand, may actually be associated with less prosocial behavior. Here, we investigate these effects at the societal level, showing that the proportion of people who believe in hell negatively predicts national crime rates whereas belief in heaven predicts higher crime rates. These effects remain after accounting for a host of covariates, and ultimately prove stronger predictors of national crime rates than economic variables such as GDP and income inequality. Expanding on laboratory research on religious prosociality, this is the first study to tie religious beliefs to large-scale cross-national trends in pro- and anti-social behavior.

  6. Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Myhrvold, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Background A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed. Methodology/Principal Findings Tyrannosaurus skeletons are as abundant as Edmontosaurus, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., Troodon and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests Tyrannosaurus was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa. Tyrannosaurus adults may not have competed with Tyrannosaurus juveniles if the potential for selecting carrion increased with size during ontogeny. Conclusions/Significance Triceratops is the most common dinosaur and isolated skulls contribute to a significant portion of this census. Associated specimens of Triceratops consisting of both cranial and postcranial elements remain relatively rare. This rarity may be explained

  7. Synthesis and characterization of BaxMgyAl2O4: Eu,Dy nanophosphors prepared using solution-combustion method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, MA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Europium-doped barium magnesium aluminate (BaxMgyAl2O4:Eu) phosphors were obtained at low temperature using the solution-combustion of corresponding metal nitrate-urea solution mixtures. The particle sizes, morphology, structural and luminescent...

  8. Afraid of the Dark and the Light: Visceralizing Ecocide in The Road and Hell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Weik von Mossner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay is concerned with the ways in which contemporary science fiction films explore the future subjectivities and societies that may result from radical ecological changes, looking at two pertinent examples from two different national traditions: John Hillcoat’s 2009 film adaptation of Cormac McCarthy’s Pulitzer Prize-winning novel The Road (2006, and one of the very few German-Swiss science fiction films with an environmental theme, Tim Fehlbaum’s Hell (2011. It is particularly interested in the relationship between the films’ imagined ecological spaces and the actions of the protagonists of each film on the one hand, and in the relationship between these futuristic diegetic spaces and the contemporary real-life ecological spaces that “play” them on the other hand. Together with the performances of the human actors and the tension and suspense built by the narratives, it argues, the spectacle and insinuated agency of these ecological spaces are centrally responsible for the films’ emotional force and for their ability to engage viewers in stories of global ecocide and human survival.

  9. Listen; There's a Hell of a Good Universe Next Door; Let's Go

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2012-01-01

    Scientific research is key to our nation's technological and economic development. One can attempt to focus research toward specific applications, but science has a way of surprising us. Think for example of the "charge-couple device", which was originally invented for memory storage, but became the modern digital camera that is used everywhere from camera phones to the Hubble Space Telescope. Using digital cameras, Hubble has taken pictures that reach back 12 billion light-years into the past, when the Universe was only 1-2 billion years old. Such results would never have been possible with the film cameras Hubble was originally supposed to use. Over the past two decades, Hubble and other telescopes have shown us much about the Universe -- many of these results are shocking. Our galaxy is swarming with planets; most of the mass in the Universe is invisible; and our Universe is accelerating ever faster and faster for unknown reasons. Thus, we live in a "hell of a good universe", to quote e.e. cummings, that we fundamentally don't understand. This means that you, as young scientists, have many worlds to discover

  10. ULYSSES IN THE DIVINE COMEDY – HELL – A COMPARISON OF THE HERO IN DANTE, HOMER AND VIRGIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alysson Ramos Artuso

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ulysses is a constant character in Western literature and Dante Alighieri was an author that rework him. In the Divine Comedy, Ulysses is in Hell, in the eighth ditch of the eighth circle, corresponding to the fraudsters. In the construction of this character, Dante recovered Ulysses characteristics from Greek and Latin tradition, which is analyzed and compared in this article with the Homer’s and Virgil’s characters. At the end, Ulysses and Dantes - author and character of Comedy – are related.

  11. La basílica y el baptisterio del Tolmo de Minateda (Hellín, Albacete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abad Casal, Lorenzo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a religious complex unearthed in the upper part of the high medieval city of Tolmo de Minateda (Hellín, Albacete, matching the Madînat lyih mentioned by Arab sources. In the authors' opinion, it was the see of Eio, created at the start of the 7th century. The religious complex comprises a basilica with three aisles, a semicircular apse and an adjoining baptistry at the feet of the building, also in three sections. The paper provides a detailed study of the baptistry and of the different remodelling of the baptismal font and theorises on the location of the liturgical space.Se presenta el complejo religioso exhumado en la parte alta de la ciudad altomedieval del Tolmo de Minateda (Hellín, Albacete, correspondiente a la Madînat Iyih de las fuentes árabes y, en opinión de los autores, a la sede episcopal Eiotana/Elotana creada a principios del siglo VII. El conjunto religioso está compuesto por una basílica de tres naves con ábside semicircular y un baptisterio anexo situado a los pies del edificio, también con distribución tripartita. En este artículo se estudia detalladamente el baptisterio, así como las distintas remodelaciones de la piscina bautismal, y se propone una restitución del espacio litúrgico.

  12. Interview: Professor Helle Neergaard, President of the European Council for Small Business and Entrepreneurship, on the Nature of Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industry and Higher Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    On August 13, 2014, Rita G. Klapper conducted a Skype interview with Helle Neergaard. Neergaard is not only President of the European Council for Small Business and Entrepreneurship, but also Docent at the Hanken School of Economics, and Professor at iCARE, Department of Business Administration, School of Business and Social Sciences, University…

  13. A kidney from hell? A nephrological view of the Whitechapel murders in 1888.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gunter

    2008-10-01

    In the poor Whitechapel district of the East End of London in the fall of 1888, at least five prostitutes were brutally murdered, and in all but one case, also mutilated. The murderer was never caught and became known by his nickname 'Jack the Ripper'. The left kidney and the uterus were cut out and taken away from one of the victims named Catherine Eddowes. A kidney was also cut out of the body from another victim, but not taken away. Two weeks later, George Lusk, president of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee, received a small cardboard box with half of a longitudinally divided kidney and a letter entitled 'From hell' claiming that the kidney inside the box was taken from the victim. The kidney was brought to Dr Thomas Horrocks Openshaw, the Curator of the London Pathological Museum, where the kidney could be microscopically examined. The press jumped on the topic and made a circumstantial case that this kidney had been indeed torn from the body of Catherine Eddowes. According to the later memoirs of Major Henry Smith of the City Police published more than 20 years after the incident, the kidney left in the corpse of Catherine Eddowes was in an advanced stage of Bright's disease and the kidney sent to George Lusk was in exactly a similar stage. Today, the majority of criminologists believe that the kidney sent to Mr Lusk was a hoax as were other letters signed with Jack the Ripper. However, the murderer took organs from his victims, and in the case of Catherine Eddowes, the kidney. Serial killers often mutilate their victims and abscond with the removed body parts as trophies. By removing the kidney from Catherine Eddowes, Jack the Ripper may have tried to take possession of the conscience, emotions and desires of one of his victims, attributes residing in the kidney as described in the Bible. Jack the Ripper was never caught; many suspects have been suggested, and the murder series ended as suddenly as it had begun. We will never know who this mentally

  14. Mineralized soft-tissue structure and chemistry in a mummified hadrosaur from the Hell Creek Formation, North Dakota (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Phillip L; Morris, Peter M; McMahon, Adam; Jones, Emrys; Gize, Andy; Macquaker, Joe H S; Wolff, George; Thompson, Anu; Marshall, Jim; Taylor, Kevin G; Lyson, Tyler; Gaskell, Simon; Reamtong, Onrapak; Sellers, William I; van Dongen, Bart E; Buckley, Mike; Wogelius, Roy A

    2009-10-07

    An extremely well-preserved dinosaur (Cf. Edmontosaurus sp.) found in the Hell Creek Formation (Upper Cretaceous, North Dakota) retains soft-tissue replacement structures and associated organic compounds. Mineral cements precipitated in the skin apparently follow original cell boundaries, partially preserving epidermis microstructure. Infrared and electron microprobe images of ossified tendon clearly show preserved mineral zonation, with silica and trapped carbon dioxide forming thin linings on Haversian canals within apatite. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of materials recovered from the skin and terminal ungual phalanx suggests the presence of compounds containing amide groups. Amino acid composition analyses of the mineralized skin envelope clearly differ from the surrounding matrix; however, intact proteins could not be obtained using protein mass spectrometry. The presence of endogenously derived organics from the skin was further demonstrated by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Py-GCMS), indicating survival and presence of macromolecules that were in part aliphatic (see the electronic supplementary material).

  15. The Toledo Qur’ān and Islamic Eschatology: Translating the Names of Hell in Aljamiado Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tottoli, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the Toledo Qur’ān states that the text in the Latin alphabet was copied from an Aljamiado translation. In fact, the translation of terms and expressions relating to hell shows some specific characteristics of Aljamiado literature, such as the privileged use of calques from Arabic and a preference for the term Jahannam, though the most quoted term al-nār (“fuego” is also attested. These characteristics are more evident when compared to Latin translations prior or contemporaneous to the Toledo Qur’ān. It is clear that in the translation of terms related to hell, these works display greater attention to Latin style and final result thus evidencing another perspective and consequently another audience. The preference given to the term Jahannam is closely linked to the evidence emerging from the Aljamiado eschatological literature, where Jahannam is generally preferred to al-nār/ “fuego.” This preference reflects more than specific characteristics of the literature of the Moriscos, an evolution of Muslim literature as a whole, which is reflected in the kind of literary materials circulating and trasmitted. Futher, along with this, Aljamiado literature on hell and also the Toledo Qur’ān reflect similar developments in the late medieval Muslim Arabic literature, and therefore also in eschatological traditions, in which Jahannam emerges strongly as the term used to describe hell in narratives.La introducción del Corán de Toledo dice que el texto en alfabeto latino se copió de una traducción aljamiada. De hecho, la traducción de términos y expresiones relacionadas con el infierno muestra algunas características muy especiales de la literatura aljamiada, como la preferencia por el uso de calcos del árabe o del término Ŷahannam, aunque el término más citado, al-nār (“fuego”, está también atestiguado. Estas características son incluso más evidentes cuando se comparan con las traducciones latinas

  16. Design and assessment of a 6 ps-resolution time-to-digital converter with 5 MGy gamma-dose tolerance for nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Y.; Leroux, P.; De Cock, W.; Steyaert, M.

    2011-01-01

    Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) are key building blocks in time-based mixed-signal systems, used for the digitization of analog signals in time domain. A short survey on state-of-the-art TDCs is given. In order to realize a TDC with picosecond time resolution as well as multi MGy gamma-dose radiation tolerance, a novel multi-stage noise-shaping (MASH) delta-sigma (ΔΣ) TDC structure is proposed. The converter, implemented in 0.13 μm, achieves a time resolution of 5.6 ps and an ENOB of 11 bits, when the over sampling ratio (OSR) is 250. The TDC core consumes only 1.7 mW, and occupies an area of 0.11 mm 2 . Owing to the usage of circuit level radiation hardened-by-design techniques, such as passive RC oscillators and constant-g m biasing, the TDC exhibits enhanced radiation tolerance. At a low dose rate of 1.2 kGy/h, the frequency of the counting clock in the TDC remains constant up to at least 160 kGy. Even after a total dose of 3.4 MGy at a high dose rate of 30 kGy/h, the TDC still achieves a time resolution of 10.5 ps with an OSR of 250. (authors)

  17. Design and assessment of a 6 ps-resolution time-to-digital converter with 5 MGy gamma-dose tolerance for nuclear instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Y. [ESAT-MICAS Div., Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Leroux, P. [ESAT-MICAS Div., Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); ICT-RELIC Div., Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); De Cock, W. [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Steyaert, M. [ESAT-MICAS Div., Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2011-07-01

    Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) are key building blocks in time-based mixed-signal systems, used for the digitization of analog signals in time domain. A short survey on state-of-the-art TDCs is given. In order to realize a TDC with picosecond time resolution as well as multi MGy gamma-dose radiation tolerance, a novel multi-stage noise-shaping (MASH) delta-sigma ({Delta}{Sigma}) TDC structure is proposed. The converter, implemented in 0.13 {mu}m, achieves a time resolution of 5.6 ps and an ENOB of 11 bits, when the over sampling ratio (OSR) is 250. The TDC core consumes only 1.7 mW, and occupies an area of 0.11 mm{sup 2}. Owing to the usage of circuit level radiation hardened-by-design techniques, such as passive RC oscillators and constant-g{sub m} biasing, the TDC exhibits enhanced radiation tolerance. At a low dose rate of 1.2 kGy/h, the frequency of the counting clock in the TDC remains constant up to at least 160 kGy. Even after a total dose of 3.4 MGy at a high dose rate of 30 kGy/h, the TDC still achieves a time resolution of 10.5 ps with an OSR of 250. (authors)

  18. Total body 100-mGy X-irradiation does not induce Alzheimer's disease-like pathogenesis or memory impairment in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Ji, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The cause and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are poorly understood. Possible cognitive and behavioral consequences induced by low-dose radiation are important because humans are exposed to ionizing radiation from various sources. Early transcriptional response in murine brain to low-dose X-rays (100 mGy) has been reported, suggesting alterations of molecular networks and pathways associated with cognitive functions, advanced aging and AD. To investigate acute and late transcriptional, pathological and cognitive consequences of low-dose radiation, we applied an acute dose of 100-mGy total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays to C57BL/6J Jms mice. We collected hippocampi and analyzed expression of 84 AD-related genes. Mouse learning ability and memory were assessed with the Morris water maze test. We performed in vivo PET scans with 11 C-PIB, a radiolabeled ligand for amyloid imaging, to detect fibrillary amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) accumulation, and examined characteristic AD pathologies with immunohistochemical staining of amyloid precursor protein (APP), Aβ, tau and phosphorylated tau (p-tau). mRNA studies showed significant downregulation of only two of 84 AD-related genes, Apbb1 and Lrp1, at 4 h after irradiation, and of only one gene, Il1α, at 1 year after irradiation. Spatial learning ability and memory were not significantly affected at 1 or 2 years after irradiation. No induction of amyloid fibrillogenesis or changes in APP, Aβ, tau, or p-tau expression was detected at 4 months or 2 years after irradiation. TBI induced early or late transcriptional alteration in only a few AD-related genes but did not significantly affect spatial learning, memory or AD-like pathological change in mice. (author)

  19. Restauración paisajística de Cantera Rosales. Hellín (Albacete, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Moreno Ruiz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El texto describe y dibuja una estrategia de recuperación ecológica de una explotación minera de piedra ornamental en activo, situada en el entorno del parque arqueológico del Tolmo de Minateda, en el Término municipal de Hellín (Albacete, España. En el año 2015, la empresa Areniscas Rosal, propietaria de los derechos de explotación de dicha cantera, encargó a la oficina de Arquitectura y Urbanismo SSS (Spanish Studio of Space un Plan de Restauración para establecer las directrices básicas de una recuperación paisajística que revierta el impacto de la actividad extractiva en un futuro próximo. El proyecto, fundamentado en la filosofía del Land Art, es una reconstrucción geométrica del terreno por medio de la reutilización de los sobrantes de la propia actividad, para así crear un paisaje totalmente nuevo y contemporáneo. El reciclaje, la re-vegetación y una solución proyectual innovadora fundamentan las directrices de esta intervención paisajística y territorial. Las posibilidades de reutilización y disfrute de este nuevo entorno natural podrán ser variadas y enriquecedoras y solo dependerán de una gestión sensible y respetuosa de la relación del hombre con la naturaleza. The former document describes and draws a strategy of ecological recovery of an ornamental stone mine in active, located in the archaeological park environment of Tolmo de Minateda in the municipality of Hellín (Albacete, Spain. Back in 2015, the company Rosal Sandstones, which owns the rights to exploit the quarry, commissioned the Office of Architecture and Urbanism SSS (Spanish Studio of Space a Restoration Plan in order to establish the basic guidelines for a landscape recovery to revert the impact of mining activity in the near future. The project, based on the philosophy of Land Art, is a geometric reconstruction of the ground by means of reusing the leftovers of the activity itself, to thereby create a totally new and contemporary landscape

  20. Stratigraphy and environments of deposition of the Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (reconnaissance) and the Paleocene Ludlow Formation (detailed), southwestern North Dakota. Report of investigations No. 56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    The Cretaceous Hell Creek and Paleocene Ludlow Formations of southwestern North Dakota, with the exception of the included lignite beds and minor amounts of concretions and nodules, are almost exclusively clastic sediments and sedimentary rocks. Massive clays, clays alternating with silts and sands, sandstones filling channels and other depressions, sheet sandstones, and lignites are the dominant sediment and rock types present. These sediments and sedimentary rocks were mostly deposited in a continental environment and were largely alluvial, lacustrine or paludal in origin; though marginal marine deposition, in part, is indicated by the occurrence of brackish water faunas in portions of the upper Ludlow Formation. With the possible exception of a persistent lignite near the base, persistent lignites are not present in the Hell Creek Formation. The Ludlow can be subdivided into several informal units, typically coal-bounded, which can be traced laterally over large areas. This informal subdivision permits isolation of stratigraphic units for the study of local environments of deposition. Channel and depression fill sandstones of the Ludlow Formation have a relatively low permeability and a high organic content at the surface and, for this reason, are considered poor prospective uranium host rocks. The lighter colored yellow winnowed sheet sandstones of the Ludlow are more permeable and relatively free of organic matter. They are considered as possible host rocks for uranium occurring in association with an oxidation/reduction interface at shallow depths. The uranium potential is enhanced where the latter sandstones occur along paleodivides which have been overlain by the Oligocene White River Formation, or in local areas where the latter formation is still preserved. Light yellow winnowed sheet sandstones are rare in the Hell Creek Formation, and the chances for uranium prospects in this interval seem correspondingly reduced

  1. Experience with two large-scale Hell-cryostats for a superconducting RF particle separator working in closed cycle with a 300 W refrigerator

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, W

    1976-01-01

    The contribution of the Karlsruhe Institut fur Experimental Kernphysik to the RF particle separator at the SPS/CERN consists of the two superconducting deflectors and their Hell-cryostats with the cryogenic and vacuum accessories. The cryostats have to fulfil specifications concerning tightness, thermal insulation, adjustment of the cavities to the beam and reliability. Corresponding cryogenic and RF tests are performed in Karlsruhe before a 300 W refrigerator simulating normal and emergency conditions. Following a description of cryostats design the results of these measurements are compared with the specifications. Operating experience with the cryostats in closed circuit with the refrigerator are reported. (5 refs).

  2. Optimal conditions of LDR to protect the kidney from diabetes: exposure to 12.5 mGy X-rays for 8 weeks efficiently protects the kidney from diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Li, Fengsheng; Cui, Jiuwei; Guo, Weiying; Li, Cai; Li, Wei; Wang, Guixia; Xing, Xiao; Gao, Ying; Ge, Yuanyuan; Wang, Guanjun; Cai, Lu

    2014-05-08

    We reported the attenuation of diabetes-induced renal dysfunction by exposure to multiple low-dose radiation (LDR) at 25 mGy every other day by suppressing renal oxidative damage. We here explored the optimal conditions of LDR to protect the kidney from diabetes. Male C57BL/6J mice with type 1 diabetes were induced with multiple injections of low-dose streptozotocin. Diabetic mice received whole body X-irradiation at a dose of 12.5, 25 or 50 mGy every other day for either 4 or 8 weeks. Age-matched normal mice were similarly irradiated at the dose of 25 mGy for 4 or 8 weeks. The renal function and histopathological changes were examined at the 4th and 8th weeks of the study. Diabetes induced renal dysfunction is shown by the decreased creatinine and increased microalbumin in the urine. Renal oxidative damage, detected by protein nitration and lipid oxidation, and remodeling, reflected by increased expression of connective tissue growth factor, collagen IV and fibronectin, were significantly increased in diabetic mice. All these renal pathological and function changes in diabetic mice were significantly attenuated by exposure to LDR at all regimens, among which, however, exposure to LDR at 12.5 mGy for 8 weeks provided the best protective effect on the kidney of diabetic mice. Our results suggest that whole-body LDR at 12.5 mGy every other day for 8 weeks is the optimal condition of LDR to protect the kidney from diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. From nGy to MGy - new TL dosimetry of complex radiation at high-energy accelerators and thermonuclear fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obryk, B.; Bilski, P.; Budzanowski, M.; Olko, P.

    2011-01-01

    One of the well known advantages of thermoluminescence (TL) detectors made of lithium fluoride doped with magnesium, copper and phosphorus (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) is their very high sensitivity to ionizing radiation. LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors enable measurements of radiation doses from tens of nano grays up to a few kilo grays, when the total saturation of the signal of the so-called main dosimetric peak (at about 220 C. degrees) occurs. In 2006 for the first time we observed unprecedented high-temperature emission of LiF detectors heated to temperatures up to 600 C. degrees, after exposures to radiation doses ranging from 1 kGy to 1 MGy. For quantification of the glow curve shape changes of LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors in this range of doses and determination of the absorbed dose, the high temperature coefficient (UHTR) was defined. This newly established dosimetric method was tested in a range of radiation qualities, such as gamma radiation, electron and proton beams, thermal neutron fields and in high-energy mixed fields around the SPS and PS accelerators at CERN. A number of dosimetric sets with LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors are currently installed around the LHC at CERN. The new method for ultra-high dose range monitoring with a single LiF:Mg,Cu,P detector, which is capable of covering at least twelve orders of magnitude of doses, can be used for dosimetry at high energy accelerators and has great potential for accident dosimetry in particular. (authors)

  4. The Proud Prime Evil of Hell: Characterization of Satan as the Capital Vice of Pride in Milton’s Paradise Lost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hazemali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into the characterisation of Satan as the Capital Vice of Pride in John Milton’s Paradise Lost. It thus supports the findings of Robert Charles Fox, who in his study The Seven Deadly Sins in Paradise Lost first thoroughly analysed and comprehensively presented this issue and its importance in Milton’s epic. The authors of the study share Fox’s belief that Milton consciously used the system of the Seven Capital Vices in his epic as a structural device to present the entire scope of evil to the willing reader, and he achieved this by giving Satan and six other major denizens of Hell each the characteristics of a particular Vice. In other words, each of the seven major diabolical figures that appear in Paradise Lost embodies or personifies one of the Seven Capital Vices. As the most eloquent and characteristically perfected of the diabolical figures of Hell, Satan embodies Pride, the prime Capital Vice.

  5. Optimization of Monocrystalline MgxCd1-xTe/MgyCd1-yTe Double-Heterostructure Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jacob J.

    Polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells continue to dominate the thin-film photovoltaics industry with an achieved record efficiency of over 22% demonstrated by First Solar, yet monocrystalline CdTe devices have received considerably less attention over the years. Monocrystalline CdTe double-heterostructure solar cells show great promise with respect to addressing the problem of low Voc with the passing of the 1 V benchmark. Rapid progress has been made in driving the efficiency in these devices ever closer to the record presently held by polycrystalline thin-films. This achievement is primarily due to the utilization of a remote p-n heterojunction in which the heavily doped contact materials, which are so problematic in terms of increasing non-radiative recombination inside the absorber, are moved outside of the CdTe double heterostructure with two MgyCd1-yTe barrier layers to provide confinement and passivation at the CdTe surfaces. Using this design, the pursuit and demonstration of efficiencies beyond 20% in CdTe solar cells is reported through the study and optimization of the structure barriers, contacts layers, and optical design. Further development of a wider bandgap MgxCd1-xTe solar cell based on the same design is included with the intention of applying this knowledge to the development of a tandem solar cell constructed on a silicon subcell. The exploration of different hole-contact materials--ZnTe, CuZnS, and a-Si:H--and their optimization is presented throughout the work. Devices utilizing a-Si:H hole contacts exhibit open-circuit voltages of up to 1.11 V, a maximum total-area efficiency of 18.5% measured under AM1.5G, and an active-area efficiency of 20.3% for CdTe absorber based devices. The achievement of voltages beyond 1.1V while still maintaining relatively high fill factors with no rollover, either before or after open-circuit, is a promising indicator that this approach can result in devices surpassing the 22% record set by polycrystalline

  6. Uuslavastused Ugalas / Helle Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leppik, Helle

    2007-01-01

    Ugalas käib töö nelja uuslavastusega : Ott Aardam lavastab "Börs ja Börsitar", Helen Rekkor toob lavale "Nora/Maja", Peeter Tammearu suvelavastus on "Sirelikassid" ja Margus Vaher lavastab suvelavastuse "Naabri Mari"

  7. Very low-dose (0.15 mGy) chest CT protocols using the COPDGene 2 test object and a third-generation dual-source CT scanner with corresponding third-generation iterative reconstruction software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, John D; Fuld, Matthew K; Allmendinger, Thomas; Sieren, Jered P; Chan, Kung-Sik; Guo, Junfeng; Hoffman, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of ultralow radiation dose single-energy computed tomographic (CT) acquisitions with Sn prefiltration and third-generation iterative reconstruction on density-based quantitative measures of growing interest in phenotyping pulmonary disease. The effects of both decreasing dose and different body habitus on the accuracy of the mean CT attenuation measurements and the level of image noise (SD) were evaluated using the COPDGene 2 test object, containing 8 different materials of interest ranging from air to acrylic and including various density foams. A third-generation dual-source multidetector CT scanner (Siemens SOMATOM FORCE; Siemens Healthcare AG, Erlangen, Germany) running advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) software (Siemens Healthcare AG) was used.We used normal and very large body habitus rings at dose levels varying from 1.5 to 0.15 mGy using a spectral-shaped (0.6-mm Sn) tube output of 100 kV(p). Three CT scans were obtained at each dose level using both rings. Regions of interest for each material in the test object scans were automatically extracted. The Hounsfield unit values of each material using weighted filtered back projection (WFBP) at 1.5 mGy was used as the reference value to evaluate shifts in CT attenuation at lower dose levels using either WFBP or ADMIRE. Statistical analysis included basic statistics, Welch t tests, multivariable covariant model using the F test to assess the significance of the explanatory (independent) variables on the response (dependent) variable, and CT mean attenuation, in the multivariable covariant model including reconstruction method. Multivariable regression analysis of the mean CT attenuation values showed a significant difference with decreasing dose between ADMIRE and WFBP. The ADMIRE has reduced noise and more stable CT attenuation compared with WFBP. There was a strong effect on the mean CT attenuation values of the scanned materials for ring

  8. Applied watercourse research - An analysis of future needs. Report from a seminar at Hell, North Troendelag, November 20-21, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarboevik, E.; Faugli, P.E.

    1996-02-01

    The future needs for research on issues related to Norwegian watercourse management were discussed at a seminar at Hell near Trondheim, on November 20-21, 1995. This publication reviews the work done on the seminar. Several topics in hydrology and applied watercourse management were discussed and suggestions were made for future research activities. General factors believed to influence future research activities include the possible shift in hydrologic and water science perspective from a segmented to a more holistic view of the watercourse: the expected increasing need for interdisciplinary research and institutional cooperation, the continued need for in-depth understanding of certain disciplines, the significance of an upcoming law on watercourse issues, and the effect of climate change. It is recommended that future research should be concentrated to a few watercourses and that a research programme on watercourse environment should be established. Projects are recommended on floods and flood control, on climate change and its effect on watercourses, on knowledge distribution, on the effects of new strategies such as peaking for management of hydroelectric power plants. These recommendations will be used to develop a research programme for the period 1997-2000. 35 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Qualification method for a 1 MGy-tolerant front-end chip designed in 65 nm CMOS for the read-out of remotely operated sensors and actuators during maintenance in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeeck, Jens, E-mail: jens.verbeeck@esat.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven (KUL), Div. LRD-MAGyICS, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Cao, Ying [KU Leuven (KUL), Div. LRD-MAGyICS, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Van Uffelen, Marco; Casellas, Laura Mont; Damiani, Carlo; Morales, Emilio Ruiz; Santana, Roberto Ranz [Fusion for Energy (F4E), c/Josep, no. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Ed. B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Meek, Richard; Haist, Bernhard [Oxford Technologies Ltd. (OTL), 7 Nuffield Way, Abingdon OX14 1RL (United Kingdom); Hamilton, David [ITER Organisation (IO), Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul les Durance Cedex (France); Steyaert, Michiel [KU Leuven, ESAT-MICAS, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Leroux, Paul [KU Leuven, ESAT-MICAS, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); KU Leuven, ESAT, Advanced Integrated Sensing Lab (AdvISe), Kleinhoefstraat 4, 2440 Geel (Belgium)

    2015-10-15

    This paper describes the radiation qualification procedure for a 1 MGy-tolerant Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) developed in 65 nm CMOS technology. The chip is intended for the read-out of electrical signals of sensors and actuators during maintenance in ITER. First the general working principle of the ASIC is shown. The developed IC allows to read-out, condition and digitize multiple low bandwidth (<10 kHz) sensors. In addition the IC is able to multiplex the digitized sensor signals. To comply with ITER-relevant constraints an adapted radiation qualification procedure has been proposed. The radiation-qualification procedure describes the test criteria and test conditions of the developed ASICs, which are also compared with COTS alternatives, to meet the stringent qualification procedures for electronics exposed to radiation in ITER.

  10. Applied watercourse research - An analysis of future needs. Report from a seminar at Hell, North Troendelag, November 20-21, 1995; Anvendt vassdragsforskning - en analyse av fremtidige behov. Rapport fra seminar paa Hell, Nord-Troendelag, 20-21 november 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarboevik, E; Faugli, P E [eds.

    1996-02-01

    The future needs for research on issues related to Norwegian watercourse management were discussed at a seminar at Hell near Trondheim, on November 20-21, 1995. This publication reviews the work done on the seminar. Several topics in hydrology and applied watercourse management were discussed and suggestions were made for future research activities. General factors believed to influence future research activities include the possible shift in hydrologic and water science perspective from a segmented to a more holistic view of the watercourse: the expected increasing need for interdisciplinary research and institutional cooperation, the continued need for in-depth understanding of certain disciplines, the significance of an upcoming law on watercourse issues, and the effect of climate change. It is recommended that future research should be concentrated to a few watercourses and that a research programme on watercourse environment should be established. Projects are recommended on floods and flood control, on climate change and its effect on watercourses, on knowledge distribution, on the effects of new strategies such as peaking for management of hydroelectric power plants. These recommendations will be used to develop a research programme for the period 1997-2000. 35 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. As-Deposited (La1-xSrx)(Ga1-y-zMgyCoz)O3-(x+y+z)/2 Crystallized Thin Films Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition for Application to Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Kanazawa, Seiji; Ohkubo, Toshikazu; Nomoto, Yukiharu; Ishihara, Tatsumi; Takita, Yusaku

    2004-01-01

    Doped lanthanum gallate (La1-xSrx)(Ga1-y-zMgyCoz)O3-(x+y+z)/2 (LSGMCO) perovskite oxide films were deposited on a quartz glass, LaAlO3 single-crystal substrate and porous anode electrode of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) by pulsed laser deposition. It was necessary to increase the substrate temperature up to 800°C for a crystallization of the LSGMCO films. The film deposited on the LaAlO3 single-crystal substrate grew along the c-axis. The as-deposited LSGMCO thick film fabricated on the porous substrate at 800°C and at an oxygen pressure of 20Pa was formed from polycrystal columns and showed a high conductivity of 0.7S/cm at a measurement temperature of 800°C. The activation energies were 0.72 eV at 600-800°C and 1.05 eV at 400-600°C.

  12. Specific considerations for obtaining appropriate La1-xSrxGa1-yMgyO3-δ thin films using pulsed-laser deposition and its influence on the performance of solid-oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jaeyeon; Lee, Heon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Yoon, Kyung Joong; Kim, Hyoungchul; Hong, Jongsup; Son, Ji-Won

    2015-01-01

    To obtain La1-xSrxGa1-yMgyO3-δ (LSGM) thin films with the appropriate properties, pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) is employed, and specific considerations regarding control of the deposition parameters is investigated. It is demonstrated that with a target of stoichiometric composition, appropriate LSGM thin films cannot be produced because of the deviation of the composition from the target to the thin film. Only after adjusting the target composition an LSGM thin film with an appropriate composition and phase can be obtained. The optimized LSGM thin film possesses an electrical conductivity close to that of the bulk LSGM. In contrast, non-optimized thin films do not yield any measurable electrical conductivity. The impact of the optimization of the LSGM thin-film electrolyte on the cell performance is quite significant, in that a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with an optimized LSGM thin-film electrolyte produces a maximum power density of 1.1 W cm-2 at 600 °C, whereas an SOFC with a non-optimal LSGM thin-film electrolyte is not operable.

  13. O sertão amazônico: o inferno de Alberto Rangel The amazonian sertão: the hell of Alberto Rangel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Coelho de Paiva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir da análise do livro de estreia de Alberto Rangel, Inferno verde, publicado em 1908, o artigo busca identificar as motivações e os constrangimentos presentes no processo criativo do autor quanto à formulação de uma representação da Amazônia como sertão. A sua filiação ao estilo de Euclides da Cunha e a sua vinculação ao aparato administrativo estatal quando da sua presença na região confluíram para uma ideia de região então assentada em seu aspecto infernista. O entendimento da realidade nacional a partir dos sertões fez com que a Amazônia fosse tomada pelo autor como um mundo relegado ao esquecimento. Uma interpretação dos diferentes contos do livro e a identificação de uma representação infernista da Amazônia só poderão ser logradas caso leve-se em consideração os aspectos vinculados aos anseios e angústias de Alberto Rangel em tornar-se um escritor e ser reconhecido como tal.Based on the book debut of Alberto Rangel, Inferno Verde (Green Hell, published in 1908, this article investigates the motivations and constraints present in the author's creative process, regarding the representation of the Amazon as sertão (backlands. His adherence to the style of Euclides da Cunha, and his relationship with the state administrative apparatus when he was in the region, contributed to the idea of what seemed to be a hellish aspect of the Amazon. In his understanding of the national reality, in relation to the backlands, the author saw the Amazon as a forgotten world. For a different interpretation of the stories in the book, and the recognition of this hellish representation of the Amazon, it is necessary to take into consideration the aspects related to the aspirations and anxieties of Alberto Rangel on becoming a writer and to be recognized as such.

  14. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefs, Nancy (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-02-01

    During 1997 the first phase of the Nez Perce Tribe White Sturgeon Project was completed and the second phase was initiated. During Phase I the ''Upper Snake River White Sturgeon Biological Assessment'' was completed, successfully: (1) compiling regional white sturgeon management objectives, and (2) identifying potential mitigation actions needed to rebuild the white sturgeon population in the Snake River between Hells Canyon and Lower Granite dams. Risks and uncertainties associated with implementation of these potential mitigative actions could not be fully assessed because critical information concerning the status of the population and their habitat requirements were unknown. The biological risk assessment identified the fundamental information concerning the white sturgeon population that is needed to fully evaluate the effectiveness of alternative mitigative strategies. Accordingly, a multi-year research plan was developed to collect specific biological and environmental data needed to assess the health and status of the population and characterize habitat used for spawning and rearing. In addition, in 1997 Phase II of the project was initiated. White sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. During 1997, 316 white sturgeon were captured in the Snake River. Of these, 298 were marked. Differences in the fork length frequency distributions of the white sturgeon were not affected by collection method. No significant differences in length frequency distributions of sturgeon captured in Lower Granite Reservoir and the mid- and upper free-flowing reaches of the Snake River were detected. The length frequency distribution indicated that white sturgeon between 92 and 183 cm are prevalent in the reaches of the Snake River that were sampled. However, white sturgeon >183 have not changed markedly since 1970. I would speculate that some factor other than past over

  15. White Sturgeon Management Plan in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams; Nez Perce Tribe, 1997-2005 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe Resources Management Staff, (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-09-01

    White sturgeon in the Hells Canyon reach (HCR) of the Snake River are of cultural importance to the Nez Perce Tribe. However, subsistence and ceremonial fishing opportunities have been severely limited as a result of low numbers of white sturgeon in the HCR. Hydrosystem development in the Columbia River Basin has depressed numbers and productivity of white sturgeon in the HCR by isolating fish in impounded reaches of the basin, restricting access to optimal rearing habitats, reducing the anadromous forage base, and modifying early life-history habitats. Consequently, a proactive management plan is needed to mitigate for the loss of white sturgeon production in the HCR, and to identify and implement feasible measures that will restore and rebuild the white sturgeon population to a level that sustains viability and can support an annual harvest. This comprehensive and adaptive management plan describes the goals, objectives, strategies, actions, and expected evaluative timeframes for restoring the white sturgeon population in the HCR. The goal of this plan, which is to maintain a viable, persistent population that can support a sustainable fishery, is supported by the following objectives: (1) a natural, stable age structure comprising both juveniles and a broad spectrum of spawning age-classes; (2) stable or increasing numbers of both juveniles and adults; (3) consistent levels of average recruitment to ensure future contribution to reproductive potential; (4) stable genetic diversity comparable to current levels; (5) a minimum level of abundance of 2,500 adults to minimize extinction risk; and (6) provision of an annual sustainable harvest of 5 kg/ha. To achieve management objectives, potential mitigative actions were developed by a Biological Risk Assessment Team (BRAT). Identified strategies and actions included enhancing growth and survival rates by restoring anadromous fish runs and increasing passage opportunities for white sturgeon, reducing mortality rates

  16. Come hell or high water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Current theory suggests that if the warming effect of the buildup of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases reaches the equivalent of twice the preindustrial level, the atmosphere will be committed to warm by 3 to 9 degrees Fahrenheit. At the rate we are now going, that symbolic set point will probably be reached before the middle of the twenty-first century, perhaps before 2030. If fossil fuel combustion were reduced and other complementary measures were taken, that day, of course, could be delayed. No matter what is done now, we can't avoid some future climate change. Even if they were to stop all greenhouse gas emissions tomorrow, we still face an accumulated buildup from the last century whose physical effects won't be fully known at least until the end of this century. A global warming will increase urban ozone levels and the frequency of smog alerts. This chapter explores some of the possible impacts of a rapid global warming. Not all will necessarily occur. Some may be inhibited or aggravated by others, and some may be less severe than the worst scenarios suggest. But the economic costs of even scaled-down damages to human societies and natural ecosystems - which we can do something about - are likely to be tremendous, and the rate of climate change will determine just how serious those damages are

  17. Lastekirjandus aabitsast õudusjutuni / Helle Laanpere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laanpere, Helle

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Lastekirjanduse sõnastik / [Reet Krusten, Krista Kumberg, Mare Müürsepp ... jt. ; toimetajad ja eessõna: Jaanika Palm, Ülle Väljataga]. Tallinn : Eesti Lastekirjanduse Teabekeskus, 2006

  18. The hell of a radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, G.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear accident, contaminations, pollutions and never-ending hazards: nuclear energy and especially radioactivity frightens the collective unconscious in an unreasoned way. The object of this book is to explain in a simple manner the bases and real values of natural radioactivity, nuclear energy and even of nuclear bombs. Without any will of proselytism, but with all the necessary scientific exactness, the author uses a novel style and the fancied story of a young couple for the exploration of the industrial and natural environment of radioactivity. From field measurements to laboratory visits, the reader, whatever his scientific culture, will be able to make his own opinion about this important question of science and society. (J.S.)

  19. Coping with the logistical hell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Cathrine Sand; Kramer, Tina; Borgnakke, Karen

    Based on two ethnographic studies in the profession-oriented learning context, the purpose of the presentation is to consider the challenges involved in developing a patient-centered, interprofessional and cross-sectorial study-pathway across health educations. The Ethnographic studies follow...... education together, following a patient pathway through the healthcare sectors. The two ethnographic studies focus on how students and supervisors develope interprofessional competencies and (inter)professional identities. The methodological approach is described as a mix of ethnographic methods (Hammersley...... the practical context, and the fieldwork reflects how the healthcare system is undergoing changes and how the cooperation between professionals and patients is challenged in practical sense. When the leaders and teachers from four different health science programmes, as well as the leaders and clinical...

  20. Jeunes-Turcs et Hellénisme : de l’enthousiasme à la réalité The Young Turks and Hellenism: from enthusiasm to realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkistis Sofou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Relations, tensions, oppositions entre les Grecs et les Jeunes-Turcs, entre 1908 et 1914 : la révolution des Jeunes-Turcs a été un tournant dans l’histoire de l’hellénisme. Beaucoup de Rums, malgré quelques voix discordantes, crurent que le nouveau régime poserait les bases d’une collaboration des peuples de l’Empire qui tournerait à leur avantage. Le durcissement progressif de la politique des Jeunes-Turcs dissipa peu à peu ces illusions. Après les défaites et les guerres balkaniques, le gouvernement turc s’orienta vers une politique plus « nationale » : boycott des commerces chrétiens, installation des réfugiés ottomans des Balkans en région à fort pourcentage et chrétien et expulsion violente des Rums des côtes d’Asie Mineure avant même le déclenchement de la Première Guerre mondiale.Relations, tensions, conflicts between the Greek and the Young Turks from 1908 to 1914: the revolution of the Young Turks was a turning point in the history of hellenism. Many Rum, despite some dissenting voices, believed that the new regime would lay the groundwork for collaboration of the people of the Empire to their advantage. The progressive hardening of the Young Turks policy gradually dispelled such illusions. After defeats and the Balkan Wars, the Turkish government turned to a more nationalistic policy: boycotting businesses owned by Christian population and violently expulsion of the Rums from the Asia Minor coast, even before the outbreak of the First World War.

  1. In situ X-ray and neutron diffraction of the Ruddlesden-Popper compounds (RE2-xSrx)0.98(Fe0.8Co0.2)1-yMgyO4-δ (RE=La, Pr): Structure and CO2 stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Hauback, B.C.; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of the Ruddlesden-Popper compounds (La 1.0Sr1.0)0.98Fe0.8Co 0.2O4-δ and (La1.2Sr0.8) 0.98(Fe0.8Co0.2)0.8Mg 0.2O4-δ was investigated at 1000 °C in N 2 (aO2=1×10-4) by in-situ powder neutron diffraction. In-situ powder X-ray diffraction (PXD) was also employed to investigate....... The equivalent pseudo-cubic thermal and chemical expansion coefficients are in agreement with values determined by dilatometry. The chemical stability in CO2 containing environments of various Ruddlesden-Popper compounds with chemical formula (RE2-xSr x)0.98(Fe0.8Co0.2) 1-yMgyO4-δ (RE=La, Pr), as well...

  2. O social entre o céu e o inferno: a antropologia filosófica de Pierre Bourdieu The social between heaven and hell: Pierre Bourdieu's philosophical anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Peters

    2012-01-01

    , attempted to make explicit that his historical-sociological investigations were founded upon, and the same time contributed to elaborate, an 'idea of "Man"'. The article retraces Bourdieu's path towards this philosophical anthropology, starting with his genetic sociology of symbolic power, conceived as a form of critical theory (latu sensu, and concluding with an account of the human condition in which recognition ("symbolic capital" appears as both the fundamental existential goal through which individuals attempt to obtain meaning to their lives and the source of the endless symbolic competition that keeps social life moving. The agonistic vision of the social universe that grounds his sociological studies returns in his philosophical anthropology under the guise of a singular synthesis between Durkheim's idea that 'Society is God' and Sartre's thesis that 'hell is other people'.

  3. Hurricane Harvey & Houston: Hell or High Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedient, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    Harvey was the largest rainfall and most damaging flood event in US history. By all measures the widespread impact was a devastating blow to all of Houston and surrounding areas. It dropped between 36 and 52 inches along the Texas coast over 5 days, exceeding all previous rainfall records, with up to 20 inches in a day. However, two earlier events from 2015 and 2016 also brought widespread flooding to many parts of Houston, especially concentrated in a few watersheds. Most bayous during Harvey were over bank by as much as 10 ft, and flooded an estimated 136000 homes in Harris county alone, greatly exceeding the massive TS Allison impact of 2001. While the area deals with a significant recovery effort, there is a massive call to action on the part of politicians, governmental agencies, and those affected by this event. There is need for a better statistical basis of rainfalls and floodplain mapping in Houston. Development patterns and density have come into question, as homes have been either built in 100 yr floodplains or taken into those floodplains over time. Estimates say > 47 % of homes flooded in TS Allison were outside the floodplain. Many homes were built behind Addicks/Barker reservoirs that protect downtown, many with no knowledge that they were in harms way (over 8000 were flooded there alone), and flooded as water reached record setting levels. New technologies have allowed the measurement and prediction of floods to make great strides since the mid 1990s, (Radar, LIDAR, GIS, hydrologic models, floodplain updates) and the Houston area has benefited from these efforts. While the plan going forward is daunting, there are a number of positive steps that are occurring and should lead to more resiliency. There needs to be policy changes on storage and detention requirements, green space & infrastructure improvements, and perhaps a third regional reservoir above Addicks. Also there is a renewed interest in flood warning systems to better inform the public about risk within specific watersheds. There is still a great deal of suffering out there after Harvey, but the three big floods we have just seen should cause a change in the way Houston addresses floodplains and develops into the future.

  4. HELLE: Health Effects of Low Level Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoten, Eert

    1998-01-01

    The Health Council is closely involved in establishing the scientific foundation of exposure limits for substances and radiation in order to protect public health. Through the years, the Council has contributed to the formulation of principles and procedures, both for carcinogenic and for noncarcinogenic agents. As a rule, the discussion with regard to the derivation of health-based recommended exposure limits centers around the appropriateness of extrapolation methods (What can be inferred from data on high exposure levels and on experimental animals?). Generally speaking, there is a lack of direct information on the health effects of low levels of exposure. Effects at these levels cannot usually be detected by means of traditional animal experiments or epidemiological research. The capacity of these analytical instruments to distinguish between ''signal'' and ''noise'' is inadequate in most cases. Annex B of this report contains a brief outline of the difficulties and the established methods for tackling this problem. In spite of this, the hope exists that the posited weak signals, if they are indeed present, can be detected by other means. The search will have to take place on a deeper level. In other words, effort must be made to discover what occurs at underlying levels of biological organization when organisms are exposed to low doses of radiation or substances. Molecular and cell biology provide various methods and techniques which give an insight into the processes within the cell. This results in an increase in the knowledge about the molecular and cellular effects of exposure to agents, or stated differently, the working mechanisms which form the basis of the health effects. Last year, the Health Council considered that the time was ripe to take stock of the state of knowledge in this field. To this end, an international working conference was held from 19 to 21 October 1997, entitled ''Health Effects of Low Level Exposures: Scientific Developments and Perspectives for Risk Assessment''. The central question was the extent to which the sometimes fast-growing knowledge about molecular and cellular effects offers the desired basis for extrapolation. Against this setting, a number of more specific questions which have been hotly debated for some time were also addressed. One of the primary questions concerned the traditional but increasingly questioned division between stochastic and non-stochastic working agents, and the corresponding division between exposure-effect relations without a threshold and with a threshold. Thoughts were also exchanged on what is often referred to as hormesis: the notion that low levels of exposure could actually improve health. For the purpose of illuminating the many aspects of these issues, experts from a number of areas were invited. In addition to this, three agents were selected to serve as points of crystallization for the general debate: ionizing radiation, ultraviolet (UV) radiation and dioxins. The present report calls attention to a selection of issues which emerged during the discussions on the above-mentioned central topic. Various more detailed questions and the wider context of the points considered are described at greater length in the enclosed conference report and in the background documents attached to the report. What follows is a series of considerations regarding the scientific basis for the derivation of recommended exposure levels, viewed in the light of current procedures and against the background of the work of the Health Council. In the preparation of the following comments and recommendations, various Dutch experts have been consulted

  5. 2006. aasta kalendrid / Moonika Teemus, Helle Remmelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teemus, Moonika

    2006-01-01

    TÜR-i kalendrist "Maalilised reisid : vaategraafikat TÜ Raamatukogu kogudes" ning RR-i kalendrist "Eesti aabitsad/Estonian ABC-books". Ka TLÜ AR kalendrist "Tallinn vanadel postkaartidel : kalender 2006"

  6. Helle Brabrand body_space_interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2016-01-01

    The WEBSITE presents a responsive body-space-media praxis and questions architectonic space-making as a field of artistic research. What are the implications of architectonic modelling, conceived on terms of becoming and in exchange with, but different from actually rising buildings? How to handle...... the complexity of models as performing and presenting agencies and expressions, rather than as re-presenting a building to be? Body_space_interface questions architectural making, asking what kind of world-material may be seized and transformed to produce sensual dimensions in modeling - and vice-versa, which...... you to take part in the above outlined reflections on modeling. It presents different projects as series of both moving and still images that call on improvising rhythm, duration, and order of succession; and it imply resonance and diagram as diverse modes of reflection....

  7. Arhitektuurikonkurss õnnestus / Tiia-Helle Schmitte

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schmitte, Tiia-Helle

    2005-01-01

    Arhitektuurivõistlusest, mille eesmärgiks oli saada parim lahendus Mahtra talurahvamuuseumi kaasajastamiseks ja laiendamiseks. Žürii (osalejad loetletud) tunnistas parimaks Tomomi Hayashi ja Hanno Grossschmidti (HG Arhitektuur) võistlustöö. Näitus konkursitöödest oli vaadata muuseumis

  8. Mälestis on õpikeskkond / Helle Lepik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepik, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Viimasel aastatel on koostatud põnevaid õppematerjale, mille abil kultuuripärand leiab tee koolitundi. Õppematerjalidega saab tutvuda Muinsuskaitseameti kodulehel http://www.muinas.ee/muinsuskaitsetegevus/haridus Mäluasutustega tutvumiseks on koostatud projekt "Muuseum ja arhiiv õppekeskkonnana". Hermen Rode altariuuringute põhjal valminud teadusveebist. Värske lähenemisega ajalooõppele paistab silma õppematerjal "Ajalooõpetus ja -pildid"

  9. THE EFFECTS OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR ON THE LANGUAGE OF ART; Max Beckmann’s Die Hölle (The Hell, Käthe Kollwitz’s Der Krieg (The War Portfolios / I. DÜNYA SAVAŞI’NIN SANAT DİLİNE ETKİLERİ; Max Beckmann (... , Käthe Kollwitz (...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Şahan KURU

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; the way that the history has been recorded in the work of artists who lived and produced during and after the First World War in Weimar Republic in Germany will be examined. The impact of the war on the language of art and how it transformed the artistic scene will be examined through the differences between print series of Max Beckmann and Käthe Kollwitz. First two chapters will explore the impact of the war on the European art, roles of artist during that time, and finally the artistic trend of New Objectivism, which occured in Germany. Last two chapters will examine Max Beckmann’s Die Hölle (The Hell and Käthe Kollwitz’s Der Krieg (The War print files in a comparative manner in terms of their structural and conceptual aspects. The artists critical approach to the social crises and their response to war in artistic terms will be examined through the works of two artists. [TR: Bu çalışmada Birinci Dünya Savaşı sırasında Almanya’da yaşayan ve üreten sanatçıların, savaş sürerken ve hemen ardından yaşanan Weimar Cumhuriyeti döneminde ortaya koydukları eserler üzerinden yaşananları ne şekilde kayıt altına aldıkları incelenecektir. Dünyanın ilk “topyekûn savaş”ı olarak kayıtlara geçen büyük savaşın sanat diline etkileri, savaş öncesi süregelen sanatsal çizgiyi nasıl kırdığı ve onu nasıl dönüştürdüğü üzerinde durulacak ve Max Beckmann ile Käthe Kollwitz’in benzer dönemde ürettikleri iki baskı serisi arasındaki farklar incelenecektir. Çalışmada ilk iki bölüm, Birinci Dünya Savaşı’nın Avrupa sanatını nasıl etkilediği, bizatihi savaşta yer alan bazı sanatçıların savaş sırasındaki rolleri ve Almanya’da şekillenen Yeni Nesnelcilik akımının sanatsal yörüngesini tarihsel bir izlekte ele alacaktır. Son iki bölüm ise, Weimar Cumhuriyeti döneminin belli başlı sanatçılarından olan Max Beckmann’ın Die Hölle (Cehennem ve K

  10. Teaching Human Rights? "All Hell Will Break Loose!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Claire; Brunner, Richard; Webster, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Human rights education is a prominent concern of a number of international organisations and has been dominant on the United Nations' agenda for the past 20 years. The UN Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) has been followed by the World Programme for Human Rights Education (2005-ongoing) and the recently adopted UN Declaration on Human…

  11. Colombia: Gateway to Defeating Transnational Hell in the Western Hemisphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiler, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    .... These transnational threats cannot be neutralized without U.S. assistance. The United States has a national interest in Colombia because the illicit drugs from there are destroying large numbers of U.S...

  12. HOLIDAY FROM HELL : Bad travel experiences of Finnish people

    OpenAIRE

    Miettinen, Milja

    2015-01-01

    The topic of this thesis was the bad travel experiences of Finnish people. This thesis is divided into two parts. The theoretical framework consists of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, tourism consumer behaviour, experience and experience economy. In the empirical part, a survey was used and answers were collected by a questionnaire on the Internet. The link to the questionnaire was published in Facebook and also on Suomi24 forum’s travel section. It was possible to answer to the questionnai...

  13. God, Heaven and Hell : The Philosophy of Belief | Asekhauno | Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ilorin Journal of Religious Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  14. Õppima õppimine ja õppimisoskus / Helle-Mall Kadajas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kadajas, Helle-Mall, 1943-

    2000-01-01

    Õppima õppimise seos õppimisoskusega, õppimisoskuse kujundamine. Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli õpetajakoolituse üliõpilaste seas läbi viidud uuringust, millega selgitati nende enesehinnangut õppimisoskusele, mida nad õpetajana õppima õpetamisel oluliseks peavad, nende edukust õppimisel

  15. From El to Hell: On Stage in the Urban Underworld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Chapman SHARPE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Les images du métro new-yorkais et de ses précurseurs, le métro aérien et la voiture à chevaux occupent une place à part dans la culture américaine. Si la descente dans le métro et le déplacement sur des kilomètres de voies souterraines sont presque inévitablement envisagés comme un voyage aux Enfers, cet événement est aussi inéluctablement social. Les passagers s’adonnent à un jeu complexe de cache-cache les uns avec les autres, en essayant de scruter les gens autour d’eux sans toutefois se faire prendre. Dans cet article, j’explore la représentation visuelle et verbale du système de transports de New York dans ses dimensions les plus frappantes — la théâtralité et l’observation des spectateurs. J’emprunte des exemples à la poésie et à la prose, à la peinture et à la photographie, et plus particulièrement aux œuvres de Stephen Crane, Hart Crane, Charles Reznikoff, Allen Ginsberg, Elizabeth Bishop, Paul Blackburn, George Tooker, Edward Hopper, Everett Shinn, Thomas Hart Benton, John Sloan, Leroi Jones, et Ralph Ellison. Je me consacre en dernier lieu à une observation plus attentive des photographies de métro obsédantes que Walker Evans prit entre 1938 et 1941. Dans ces photographies d’Evans, le court-circuit visuel caractérisant le rôle des spectateurs dans le métro (voir sans être vu trouve son expression la plus poignante.Images of the New York subway and its precursors, the Elevated train and the horse-car, hold a special place in American culture. While the descent into the subway station and the ride along endless miles of subterranean tracks are almost inevitably figured as a journey to the Underworld, the whole affair is an inescapably social event. Passengers play a complex game of visual hide-and-seek with each other as they try to scrutinize the people around them without being caught in the act. In this essay I explore the visual and verbal representation of New York’s otherworldly transit system in terms of what may be its most striking motifs—theatricality and spectatorship. My examples are taken from poetry and prose, painting and photography, including works by Stephen Crane, Hart Crane, Charles Reznikoff, Allen Ginsberg, Elizabeth Bishop, Paul Blackburn, George Tooker, Edward Hopper, Everett Shinn, Thomas Hart Benton, John Sloan, Leroi Jones, and Ralph Ellison. I conclude with a more sustained look at the haunting subway photographs taken secretly by Walker Evans from 1938-1941. In Evans’s photos, the visual short circuit that characterizes subway spectatorship (look but don’t get looked at finds its most striking expression.

  16. Eesti ei pea ümberasujatele midagi tagastama / Helle Kalda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalda, Helle, 1950-

    2006-01-01

    Omandireformi aluste seaduse 7 paragrahvi lõikest 3 ja varade tagastamisest nn. järelümberasunutele. Sama ka Meie Maa 12. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Vooremaa 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Virumaa Teataja 2. veeb. 2006, lk. 11 ; Pärnu Postimees 9. veeb. 2006, lk. 15 ; Pärnu Postimees 9. veeb. 2006, lk. 15, pealkiri kujul : Ümberasujatele ei pea midagi tagastama

  17. School Is Hell: Gendered Fears in Teenage Horror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Explores the use of schools as settings for teenage horror films. Asserts that these narratives reflect the stress of social pressures and uncertainties, particularly young girls. Focuses on the television show, "Buffy the Vampire Slayer," while making this argument. Includes references. (CMK)

  18. Lauluga läbi Ameerika 4 / Helle Reinaru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinaru, Helle, 1955-

    2006-01-01

    EELK Misjonikoori kontsertturneest 5.-25. juulini Ameerika Ühendriikides ja Kanadas: jumalateenistusest 16. juulil Missoula St Paul'i luteri kirikus, kontserdist 17. juulil Calvary luteri kirikus, 18. juulil Seattle's Phinney Ridge kirikus, 20. juulil Kanada Scarborough St Timothy anglikaani kirikus ja 21. juulil Toronto baptistikirikus

  19. Eesti Muinsuskaitse Seltsi rahvusvaheline koostöö / Helle Solnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Solnask, Helle

    2009-01-01

    Osalemisest Euroopa Muinsuskaitsepäevade koordinaatorite töögrupis, HEREIN'is, Europa Nostras, Euroopa Ajalooliste Kalmistute Assotsiatsioonis ASCE, Euroopa Muuseumi- ja Turismiraudteede Föderatsioonis

  20. Colour centres in LiF for measurement of abssorbed doses up to 100 MGy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation damage studies on electronic components, polymers, composites, ceramics, metals and insulating materials exposed to very large doses of ionising photons and particles (i.e. electrons, protons, and neutrons) require reproducible and accurate passive dosimetry. Absorbed doses in the range 10 2 -2 x 10 6 Gy have previously been measured with optical quality, undoped LiF by spectrophotometry of radiation-induced absorption bands of stable colour centres. These include the relatively stable F centre (247 nm), M centre (443 nm), R 1 centre (315 nm), R 2 centre (374 nm), and N 2 centre (547 nm). It is now possible to extend this range to 10 8 Gy by spectrophotometry of the N 1 centre (517 nm) and an 'X' centre (785 nm). These dosemeters can be used from cryogenic (4 K) to relatively high radiation temperatures (up to 500 K). The radiation-induced coloration can be bleached for re-use of the dosemeters by a two hour thermal annealing treatment at 830 K. (Author)

  1. Ductility improvement by twinning and twin–slip interaction in a Mg-Y alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Na; Zhang, Zhenyan; Jin, Li; Dong, Jie; Chen, Bin; Ding, Wenjiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A high elongation of ∼33% was achieved for magnesium alloy through common extrusion. • Basal slip and extension twinning are the dominant deformation modes for the high ductility. • Non-basal slip, contraction twinning and twin-slip interaction also contribute to the ductility. - Abstract: An extruded Mg-3.0Y alloy with non-basal texture of 〈42 ¯ 2 ¯ 3〉 component was fabricated by common extrusion and exhibited a high elongation of ∼33%. The deformation modes and microstructure evolution of the extruded Mg-3.0Y alloy during the tensile test at room temperature were investigated to explore the reasons for the high ductility by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The results suggested that texture changed from 〈42 ¯ 2 ¯ 3〉 to 〈101 ¯ 0〉 component during the tensile deformation, which is attributed the slip and twinning activity. Basal slip and extension twinning are the dominant deformation modes for the high ductility. Meanwhile, the activation of non-basal slip, contraction twinning and twin–slip interaction also contributes to the good ductility of Mg-3.0Y alloy

  2. MGI-oriented High-throughput Measurement of Interdiffusion Coefficient Matrices in Ni-based Superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Ying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the research hotspots in the field of high-temperature alloys was to search the substitutional elements for Re in order to prepare the single-crystal Ni-based superalloys with less or even no Re addition. To find the elements with similar or even lower diffusion coefficients in comparison with that of Re was one of the effective strategies. In multicomponent alloys, the interdiffusivity matrix were used to comprehensively characterize the diffusion ability of any alloying elements. Therefore, accurate determination of the composition-dependant and temperature-dependent interdiffusivities matrices of different elements in γ and γ' phases of Ni-based superalloys was high priority. The paper briefly introduces of the status of the interdiffusivity matrices determination in Ni-based superalloys, and the methods for determining the interdiffusivities in multicomponent alloys, including the traditional Matano-Kirkaldy method and recently proposed numerical inverse method. Because the traditional Matano-Kirkaldy method is of low efficiency, the experimental reports on interdiffusivity matrices in ternary and higher order sub-systems of the Ni-based superalloys were very scarce in the literature. While the numerical inverse method newly proposed in our research group based on Fick's second law can be utilized for high-throughput measurement of accurate interdiffusivity matrices in alloys with any number of components. After that, the successful application of the numerical inverse method in the high-throughput measurement of interdiffusivity matrices in alloys is demonstrated in fcc (γ phase of the ternary Ni-Al-Ta system. Moreover, the validation of the resulting composition-dependant and temperature-dependent interdiffusivity matrices is also comprehensively made. Then, this paper summarizes the recent progress in the measurement of interdiffusivity matrices in γ and γ' phases of a series of core ternary Ni-based superalloys achieved in our research group. Up to now, the interdiffusivity matrices in γ and γ' phases of the core ternary systems including Ni-Al-X (X=Rh, Ta, W, Re, Os and Ir have been efficiently measured, and their reliability has also been carefully validated. Based on the experimental results, the interdiffusivities for different elements in Ni-based superalloys are carefully compared, from which the potential substitutional alloying elements for Re in Ni-based supperalloys as well as the points for alloy composition design are proposed. Finally, the research work of next step on the measurement of interdiffusivity matrices in Ni-based superalloys as well as the development trends of high-throughput measurement of interdiffusivities in our research group are pointed out.

  3. Photoluminescence, modulation spectroscopy and surface photovoltage characterization of quaternary Zn1-x-yCdxMgySe compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumcenco, D.O.; Levcenco, S.V.; Huang, Y.S.; Firszt, F.; Hsu, H.P.; Tiong, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    An optical characterization of wurtzite Zn 1-x-y Cd x Mg y Se crystalline alloys grown by the modified high-pressure Bridgman method has been carried out by temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) and contactless electroreflectance (CER) in the temperature range of 10-300 K, and photoreflectance (PR) measurements between 300-400 K as well as surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) at 300 K. Low temperature PL spectra of the investigated samples consist of an excitonic line, the 'edge emission' due to radiative recombination of shallow donor-acceptor pairs and a broad band related to recombination through deep level defects. Three excitonic features, A, B and C, in the vicinity of band edge were observed in the CER and PR spectra. The peak positions of band-edge excitonic features in the PL spectra are shifted slightly towards lower energies as compared to the lowest corresponding transition energies of A exciton determined from CER and PR data. The increase of the CER-PL shift with the increasing of Mg content in the investigated crystals is explained by the rising of compositional disorder causing the smearing of the band-edge energies. In addition, the coincidence of energy positions of features obtained from SPS measurements with excitonic transition energies E 0 A determined from CER/PR data at 300 K confirm the proper surface treatment of the samples. (authors)

  4. Global radiation damage at 300 and 260 K with dose rates approaching 1 MGy s{sup −1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warkentin, Matthew; Badeau, Ryan; Hopkins, Jesse B. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Mulichak, Anne M.; Keefe, Lisa J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Thorne, Robert E., E-mail: ret6@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Approximately half of global radiation damage to thaumatin crystals can be outrun at 260 K if data are collected in less than 1 s. Global radiation damage to 19 thaumatin crystals has been measured using dose rates from 3 to 680 kGy s{sup −1}. At room temperature damage per unit dose appears to be roughly independent of dose rate, suggesting that the timescales for important damage processes are less than ∼1 s. However, at T = 260 K approximately half of the global damage manifested at dose rates of ∼10 kGy s{sup −1} can be outrun by collecting data at 680 kGy s{sup −1}. Appreciable sample-to-sample variability in global radiation sensitivity at fixed dose rate is observed. This variability cannot be accounted for by errors in dose calculation, crystal slippage or the size of the data sets in the assay.

  5. Raman scattering in three-cation diluted magnetic semiconductor Cd1-x-yMnxMgyTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agekyan, V.F.; Gridneva, L.K.; Karpov, S.V.; Serov, A.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations of Raman scattering (RS) in quaternary compounds were conducted to determine and interpret LO and TO frequencies, characterizing CdTe, MnTe, MgTe components in mixed crystal. Raman spectrum in the range of low frequencies is interpreted as interaction of quasi local vibrations with acoustic continuum

  6. Ugalas valmivad uuslavastused suurtele ja väikestele / Helle Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leppik, Helle

    2009-01-01

    Ugala teatris esietendub 27. novembril "Nii nagu taevas", mille on Kay Pollaki samanimelise filmi järgi dramatiseerinud Sofia Aminoff, lavastanud Ingo Normet. Valmimas on jõululavastus lastele "Nähtamatu varandus". Silvia Soro näidendi lavastab Leino Rei

  7. Vanuajalehti sirvides : 1984 : 25 aastat tagasi / Raigo Kollom, Heldur Peterson, Helle Rätsep

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kollom, Raigo, 1936-

    2009-01-01

    Kolm ratsaspordi artiklit aastast 1984: Krasnodaris toimunud üleliidulisest kolhooside, sohvooside ja põllumajandusasutuste ratsavõistlusest; Luunjas ja Vooremäel hooajalõpu üritusena taaselustatud Balti liiduvabariikide kohtumisest kolmevõistluses; Väike-Maarja kolhoosi VII ratsaspordi päevast.

  8. Ühinemine on kohapealse arengu seisukohalt strateegiline otsus / interv. Helle Ruusing

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Riigikogu liikmed Jaak Aab ja Rein Aidma, regionaalminister Siim-Valmar Kiisler, Linnade Liidu tegevdirektor Jüri Võigemast, Maaomavalitsuste Liidu tegevdirektor Ott Kasuri ja Tallinna Ülikooli avaliku poliitika professor Georg Sootla arutavad vestlusringis kohalike omavalitsuse õigusi ja kohustusi, liitumise olulisust ja haldusreformi arenguperspektiive

  9. Through Hell and High Water: A Librarian’s Autoethnography of Community Resilience after Hurricane Katrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Patin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This autoethnographic essay presents a critical reflection on personal experiences of the process of rebuilding and working in a library in the Lower Ninth Ward in New Orleans, Louisiana following Hurricane Katrina. I examine meaningful moments during this process in the context of information science and community resiliency. The framework of community resilience is used to help structure the reflection and analysis in a systematic way. I share examples of the adaptive capacities of the school library as evidence of how the community adjusted to demonstrate resiliency.

  10. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-08-01

    In the western United States, exotic brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis frequently have a deleterious effect on native salmonids, and biologists often attempt to remove brook trout in streams using electrofishing. Although the success of electrofishing removal projects typically is low, few studies have assessed the underlying mechanisms of failure, especially in terms of compensatory responses. We evaluated the effectiveness of a three-year removal project in reducing brook trout and enhancing native salmonids in 7.8 km of an Idaho stream and looked for brook trout compensatory responses such as decreased natural mortality, increased growth, increased fecundity at length, or earlier maturation. Due to underestimates of the distribution of brook trout in the first year and personnel shortages in the third year, the multiagency watershed advisory group that performed the project fully treated the stream (i.e. multipass removals over the entire stream) in only one year. In 1998, 1999, and 2000, a total of 1,401, 1,241, and 890 brook trout were removed, respectively. For 1999 and 2000, an estimated 88 and 79% of the total number of brook trout in the stream were removed. For the section of stream that was treated in all years, the abundance of age-1 and older brook trout decreased by 85% from 1998 to 2003. In the same area, the abundance of age-0 brook trout decreased 86% from 1998 to 1999 but by 2003 had rebounded to near the original abundance. Abundance of native redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss decreased for age-1 and older fish but did not change significantly for age-0 fish. Despite high rates of removal, total annual survival rate for brook trout increased from 0.08 {+-} 0.02 in 1998 to 0.20 {+-} 0.04 in 1999 and 0.21 {+-} 0.04 in 2000. Growth of age-0 brook trout was significantly higher in 2000 (the year after their abundance was lowest) compared to other years, and growth of age-1 and age-2 brook trout was significantly lower following the initial removal years but recovered by 2003. Few other brook trout demographic parameters changed appreciably over the course of the project. Electrofishing removals required 210 person-days of effort. Despite experiencing slight changes in abundance, growth, and survival, brook trout in Pikes Fork appeared little affected by three years of intensive removal efforts, most likely because mortality within the population was high prior to initiation of the project such that the removal efforts merely replaced natural mortality with exploitation.

  11. Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli magistreid 2004 / Katrin Aava, Toomas Liiv, Helle Metslang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aava, Katrin, 1963-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti keele, soome keele ja kommunikatsiooni eriala magistritöödest. Ka viis kirjandusteaduslikku tööd: Kerli Linnati "The vision of history of E. L. Doctorow in English and in Estonian: a comarative study of "Ragtime" and "Look Lake" and their translations", Anneli Niitsoo "Postmodern play with power and masculinity in Jeanette Winterson's Novels", Pille Riismaa "Gümnaasiumi kirjandusõpik "Eelmise sajandi eesti kirjandus"", Anneli Kõvamehe "Baltisakslased Jaan Krossi "Kolmandates mägedes", "Keisri hullus" ja Rakvere romaanis"", Jaak Urmeti "Kultuuri eest ja religiooni vastu. Max Laossoni usuvastasest paljastustööst ajakirjas "Ratsionalist" (1932-1933)"

  12. 76 FR 22670 - Black Hills National Forest, Hell Canyon Ranger District, South Dakota, Vestal Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... on a proposal to use multiple vegetation treatments focused on reducing the threat to ecosystem components including forest resources from an existing insect epidemic (mountain pine beetle), creating a landscape condition that reduces the potential for high severity wildfire adjacent to the at-risk community...

  13. If 'There is nothing like Australia', then 'Where the Bloody Hell' does it leave us?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    and safely white Australia, and, on the other, the remarkable resilience and the dynamic processes of recreating/redefining/reifying the homogeneous (white) nation. In other words I intend to explore how the dynamics of resurrecting the homogeneous interacts/collides/coincides with (the expectedly......) dynamically globalised, post-multicultural reality of contemporary Australia. And I might just do this through the tourist lense, as one site where the dynamic heterogeneity of a globalised society confronts the neatly packaged image of the nation in its most reduced form....

  14. Nuclear power in today's world - paradise lost, hell, or just purgatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleski, C.P.

    1983-01-01

    Prospects for the nuclear industry for the next 10 years are discussed with respect to official forecasts made by governments through the IAEA and IEA. Forecasts made by the IAEA in the early 1970s of from 3600 to > 5000 GW(e) of nuclear plant in operation worldwide by the year 2000 have been revised and in 1983 the same forecasts are down to well below 1000 GW(e). The main reasons for the decrease in official forecasts and major uncertainties for future development are discussed. The nuclear programmes of the USA and France are used as examples. (UK)

  15. Hell and High Water: Diminished Septic System Performance in Coastal Regions Due to Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer A; Loomis, George W; Amador, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    Climate change may affect the ability of soil-based onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) to treat wastewater in coastal regions of the Northeastern United States. Higher temperatures and water tables can affect treatment by reducing the volume of unsaturated soil and oxygen available for treatment, which may result in greater transport of pathogens, nutrients, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) to groundwater, jeopardizing public and aquatic ecosystem health. The soil treatment area (STA) of an OWTS removes contaminants as wastewater percolates through the soil. Conventional STAs receive wastewater from the septic tank, with infiltration occurring deeper in the soil profile. In contrast, shallow narrow STAs receive pre-treated wastewater that infiltrates higher in the soil profile, which may make them more resilient to climate change. We used intact soil mesocosms to quantify the water quality functions of a conventional and two types of shallow narrow STAs under present climate (PC; 20°C) and climate change (CC; 25°C, 30 cm elevation in water table). Significantly greater removal of BOD5 was observed under CC for all STA types. Phosphorus removal decreased significantly from 75% (PC) to 66% (CC) in the conventional STA, and from 100% to 71-72% in shallow narrow STAs. No fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) were released under PC, whereas up to 17 and 20 CFU 100 mL-1 were released in conventional and shallow narrow STAs, respectively, under CC. Total N removal increased from 14% (PC) to 19% (CC) in the conventional STA, but decreased in shallow narrow STAs, from 6-7% to less than 3.0%. Differences in removal of FCB and total N were not significant. Leaching of N in excess of inputs was also observed in shallow narrow STAs under CC. Our results indicate that climate change can affect contaminant removal from wastewater, with effects dependent on the contaminant and STA type.

  16. Hell is other people: The conception of the other in self–help’s ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Souroujon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available "Self-help" literature has become one of the most significant cultural manifestations of the last 90 years in Argentina. It has established a new way of conceiving the self. In this article we trace the conception of "the other" that can be found in these books, and the consequences that this has for the social world. We find that self-help literature sets up "the other" as a hindrance or as an aid, to self- realization. That diminishes the importance that other people have for the constitution of one's personal identity.     

  17. "To Hell with the Paperwork:" Deciphering the Culture of the Air Commandos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Justin

    2008-01-01

    The title of this thesis refers to a quote attributed to General "Hap" Arnold as he parted ways with the two commanders of a newly created unit that would soon become designated the 1st Air Commando Group...

  18. Nuclear Hell On Wheels Examining The Need For A Mobile ICBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    ICBMs," Dec 1980, 65. 13 Department of State, "The New START Treaty," 22 Oct 2013. http://www.state.gov/t/ avc /rls/215726.htm (accessed 21 Nov 2014...http://www.state.gov/t/ avc /rls/215726.htm (accessed 21 Nov 2014) Feickert, Andrew. "Missile Survey; Ballistic and Cruise Missiles of Foreign

  19. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho; 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    1999-03-01

    Native resident salmonids in the western United States are in decline throughout much of their range. The purpose of the multi-phased project is to restore native salmonids in the upper Snake River basin to self-sustaining, harvestable levels.

  20. Hell on Rails. The Continuing Violence in La Mara by Rafael Ramirez Heredia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Camacho Delgado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La Mara (2004 is one of the greatest Latin American novels about the violence plaguing the border between Mexico and Guatemala, where the maras (gangs, drug traffickers and all kinds of mafia organizations operate. Rafael Ramirez Heredia recreates the pitiful pilgrimage of thousands of undocumented immigrants who try to cross Mexico on a train known as the Beast.

  1. Performing Economic Evaluation of Integrated Care: Highway to Hell or Stairway to Heaven?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, K. Viktoria; Evers, Silvia; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Health economists are increasingly interested in integrated care in order to support decision-makers to find cost-effective solutions able to tackle the threat that chronic diseases pose on population health and health and social care budgets. However, economic evaluation in integrated care is still in its early years, facing several difficulties. The aim of this paper is to describe the unique nature of integrated care as a topic for economic evaluation, explore the obstacles to perform economic evaluation, discuss methods and techniques that can be used to address them, and set the basis to develop a research agenda for health economics in integrated care. The paper joins the voices that call health economists to pay more attention to integrated care and argues that there should be no more time wasted for doing it. PMID:28316543

  2. Täna 20 aastat tagasi : jaanuar 1988 / Indrek Toome ; interv. Helle Raidla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toome, Indrek

    2008-01-01

    Uus rubriik, milles meenutatakse kuust kuusse Eesti iseseisvumise taastamise aja olulisi sündmusi. Vestlus Indrek Toomega, kes nimetati 1988. aasta jaanuaris Eesti Kommunistliku Partei Keskkomitee uueks ideoloogiasekretäriks

  3. Petrol excises in the Netherlands under review; Benzine-accijns op de helling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruinsma, F.R.; Rietveld, P. [Vakgroep Ruimtelijke Economie, Faculteit der Economische Wetenschappen en Econometrie, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Vuuren, D. [Tinbergen Instituut, Amsterdam/Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-11-27

    Dutch people at the border of Germany fill up the tanks of their cars in Germany while the price per liter petrol is much lower there. The Dutch government tries to protect the Dutch petrol station owners by lowering the tax for petrol within a specific area near the border and thus to refrain Dutch car owners from refuelling their cars in Germany. The problems of `border tanking` (`grenstanken`) and the results of the petrol tax decrease for the petrol station owners are briefly discussed. 3 refs.

  4. Stories of Hell and Healing: Internet Users’ Construction of Benzodiazepine Distress and Withdrawal

    OpenAIRE

    Fixsen, Alison; Ridge, Damien T.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Benzodiazepines are a group of drugs used mainly as sedatives, hypnotics, antiepileptics, and muscle relaxants. Consumption is recommended for 2 to 4 weeks only, due to fast onset of dependency and potentially distressing withdrawal symptoms. Few peer-review studies have drawn on the user experiences and language to appreciate firsthand experiences of benzodiazepine withdrawal or discontinuation syndrome. We looked extensively at patient stories of benzodiazepine withdrawal and recov...

  5. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2004-08-01

    Despite the substantial declines in distribution and abundance that the Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri has experienced over the past century, quantitative evaluations of existing population sizes over broad portions of its historical range have not been made. In this study, we estimate trout abundance throughout the Upper Snake River basin in Idaho (and portions of adjacent states), based on stratified sample extrapolations of electrofishing surveys conducted at 961 study sites, the vast majority of which (84%) were selected randomly. Yellowstone cutthroat trout were the most widely distributed species of trout (caught at 457 study sites), followed by brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (242 sites), rainbow trout O. mykiss and rainbow x cutthroat hybrids (136 sites), and brown trout Salmo trutta (70 sites). Of the sites that contained cutthroat trout, more than half did not contain any other species of trout. Where nonnative trout were sympatric with cutthroat trout, brook trout were most commonly present. In the 11 Geographic Management Units (GMUs) where sample size permitted abundance estimates, there were about 2.2 million trout {ge}100 mm, and of these, about one-half were cutthroat trout. Similarly, we estimated that about 2.0 million trout <100 mm were present, of which about 1.2 million were cutthroat trout. The latter estimate is biased low because our inability to estimate abundance of trout <100 mm in larger-order rivers negated our ability to account for them at all. Cutthroat trout were divided into approximately 70 subpopulations but estimates could be made for only 55 subpopulations; of these, 44 subpopulations contained more than 1,000 cutthroat trout and 28 contained more than 2,500 cutthroat trout. Using a logistic regression model to predict the number of spawning cutthroat trout at a given study site, we estimate that an average of about 30% of the cutthroat trout {ge}100 mm are spawners. We compared visually-based phenotypic assessments of hybridization with subsequent genetic analyses from 55 of the study sites and found that: (1) genetic analysis corroborated our visual determination that hybridization was absent at 37 of 55 sites; (2) at the seven sites where we visually failed to discern genetically-detected hybridization, the percent of rainbow trout alleles in the population was low (<1 %) at all but two locations; and (3) where we detected hybridization both visually and genetically (11 sites), levels of introgression were positively correlated between methods (r{sub 2} = 0.65). Based on this strong agreement, we phenotypically classified cutthroat trout as ''pure'' and ''{ge}90% pure'' at 81% and 90%, respectively, of the study sites within these GMUs. Our results suggest that, despite the presence of nonnative threats (genetic and competitive) in much of their current range in Idaho, Yellowstone cutthroat trout populations remain widely distributed and appear healthy in several river drainages in the Upper Snake River basin. Nevertheless, ongoing efforts to secure core cutthroat trout populations, protect areas from further nonnative invasions, and restore disturbed habitat are recommended for further protection of Yellowstone cutthroat trout in Idaho.

  6. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2004-03-01

    We assessed the relationships between specific stream attributes and Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri distribution and biomass at 773 stream reaches (averaging 100 m in length) throughout the Upper Snake River Basin in Idaho, in an effort to identify possible limiting factors. Because limiting factors were expected to vary across the range of cutthroat trout distribution in Idaho, separate logistic and multiple regression models were developed for each of the nine major river drainages to relate stream conditions to occurrence and biomass of cutthroat trout. Adequate stream flow to measure fish and habitat existed at 566 sites, and of those, Yellowstone cutthroat trout were present at 322 sites, while rainbow trout O. mykiss (or rainbow x cutthroat hybrids) and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis occurred at 108 and 181 sites, respectively. In general, cutthroat trout presence at a specific site within a drainage was associated with a higher percentage of public property, higher elevation, more gravel and less fine substrate, and more upright riparian vegetation. However, there was much variation between drainages in the direction and magnitude of the relationships between stream characteristics and Yellowstone cutthroat trout occurrence and biomass, and in model strength. This was especially true for biomass models, in which we were able to develop models for only five drainages that explained more than 50% of the variation in cutthroat trout biomass. Sample size appeared to affect the strength of the biomass models, with a higher explanation of biomass variation in drainages with lower sample sizes. The occurrence of nonnative salmonids was not strongly related to cutthroat trout occurrence, but their widespread distribution and apparent ability to displace native cutthroat trout suggest they may nevertheless pose the largest threat to long-term cutthroat trout persistence in the Upper Snake River Basin.

  7. Scholarship of teaching and learning: `what the hell' are we getting ourselves into?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Arthur James; Luwes, Nicolaas; Olwagen, Lienie; Greyling, Cameron; Korff, Carel

    2017-11-01

    Academics must be encouraged to reflect on their teaching, to apply new pedagogies to support student learning and to report on the results of these actions, which really forms part of programmes relating to Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL). However, there seems to be resistance among some academics to get involved in these programmes due to fear of change or discrimination. The purpose of this article is to highlight the perceptions of four academics from different engineering fields towards such a programme from a University of Technology in South Africa. A qualitative study is employed where a focus group interview was used to gather data which are correlated to the SoTL unicycle detailed in the article. A benefit of joining an SoTL programme includes 'developing a teaching action plan' while a key challenge relates to time concerns. An implication may be to stimulate awareness among non-participating academics about what an SoTL programme really engenders.

  8. A distilled fire of thirteen hells – Jens Baggesen between the Germans and the Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher, Henrik

    Venskabet mellem Carl Friedrich Cramer og Jens Baggesen blev et politisk anliggende for første gang under den såkaldte Tyskerfejde i 1789, da latente spændinger mellem en indflydelsesrig tysk gruppering i København en og en større nationalt orienteret gruppe borgere blev til åben konflikt. Jens B...... tyske aristokrati i København. Det prekære forhold har sat sig indirekte, men tydelige spor i rejseskildringen Labyrinten (bd. 1-2, 1792-93), der på denne baggrund fremstår som en apologi for Jens Baggesens position....

  9. Meremaa võluriga päeva kallastele / Helle Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leppik, Helle

    1999-01-01

    29. apr. esietendub Ugalas "Meremaa võlur. Päeva kaldad", lavalugu Ursula K. Le Guini Meremaa-lugude alusel, lavastaja Andres Noormets, kunstnikud Silver Vahtre ja Airi Eras, peaosades Margus Vaher, Martin Algus, Aarne Soro, Leila Säälik, Gert Raudsepp, Silvia Sarrap

  10. Kogeja vormistamine eesti keeles : nihkeid SAE perifeerias / Mati Erelt, Helle Metslang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erelt, Mati, 1941-

    2008-01-01

    Artiklis vaadeldakse kogeja vormistamist ning alternatiivsete mallide kasutust ajakirjanduskeeles ajavahemikul 1995-2005 eesmärgiga välja selgitada toimunud muutused ning nende põhjused. SAE - Euroopa keskmine standard

  11. Kogeja vormistamine eesti keeles : nihkeid SAE perifeerias / Mati Erelt, Helle Metslang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erelt, Mati, 1941-

    2008-01-01

    Vaadeldakse kogeja vormistamist ning alternatiivsete mallide kasutust ajakirjanduskeeles ajavahemikul 1995-2005. Püütakse välja selgitada toimunud muutused ja nende põhjused. SAE - Euroopa keskmine standard

  12. Hell no, they’ll think you’re mad as a hatter”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringer, Agnes; Holen, Mari

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how discourses on mental illness are negotiated in mental health practice and their implications for the subjective experiences of psychiatric patients. Based on a Foucauldian analysis of ethnographic data from two mental health institutions in Denmark—an outpatient clinic a...

  13. Rahvusvaheline muinsuskaitseauhind Eestisse: maailma lennundusajaloo suurimad angaarid väikses Eestis / Helle Solnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Solnask, Helle

    2014-01-01

    Muinsuskaitseorganisatsioonist Europa Nostra. Europa Nostra muinsuskaitseauhindadest. 2013. aastal osutus üheks 15-st laureaadist I kategoorias (restaureeerimine/konserveerimine) Tallinna vesilennukite angaaride taastamine ning kohandamine kaasaegseks meremuuseumiks

  14. "U nih odna doroga - võiti iz etogo zdanija..." / Aleksei Poskatshev, Helle Kalda, Tõnis Kurrik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poskatshev, Aleksei

    2003-01-01

    Akadeemia tee 46 ühiselamu elanike küsimust kommenteerivad hoone omaniku AS Capital Kinnisvara, Mustamäe Linnaosa Valitsuse ning Tallinna Säästva Arengu ja Planeerimise Ameti esindajad. Üles kirjutanud Nikolai Nortov

  15. Approaching hell's kitchen: Molecular daredevil clouds in the vicinity of Sagittarius A* ⋆⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Lydia; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Eckart, Andreas; Requena-Torres, Miguel A.; García-Marin, Macarena; Kunneriath, Devaky; Zensus, Anton; Britzen, Silke; Sabha, Nadeen; Shahzamanian, Banafsheh; Borkar, Abhijeet; Fischer, Sebastian

    2017-07-01

    We report serendipitous detections of line emission with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in bands 3, 6, and 7 in the central parsec down to within 1'' around Sgr A* at an up to now highest resolution (electron temperature around Te 6000 K for the minispiral. The spectral index (S ∝ να) of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) is 0.5 at 100-250 GHz and 0.0 at 230-340 GHz. The bright sources in the center show spectral indices around -0.1 implying Bremsstrahlung emission, while dust emission is emerging in the minispiral exterior. Apart from CS, which is most widespread in the center, H13CO+, HC3N, SiO, SO, C2H, CH3OH, 13CS and N2H+ are also detected. The bulk of the clumpy emission regions is at positive velocities and in a region confined by the minispiral northern arm (NA), bar, and the sources IRS 3 and 7. Although partly spatially overlapping with the radio recombination line (RRL) emission at same negative velocities, the relation to the minispiral remains unclear. A likely explanation is an infalling clump consisting of denser cloud cores embedded in diffuse gas. This central association (CA) of clouds shows three times higher CS/X (X: any other observed molecule) ratios than the circumnuclear disk (CND) suggesting a combination of higher excitation, by a temperature gradient and/or infrared (IR) pumping, and abundance enhancement due to UV and/or X-ray emission. Hence, we conclude that this CA is closer to the center than the CND is to the center. Moreover, we find molecular line emission at velocities up to 200 km s-1. Apart from the CA, we identified two intriguing regions in the CND. One region shows emission in all molecular species and higher energy levels tested in this and previous observations and contains a methanol class I maser. The other region shows similar behavior of the line ratios such as the CA. Outside the CND, we find the traditionally quiescent gas tracer N2H+ coinciding with the largest IR dark clouds in the field. Methanol emission is found at and around previously detected methanol class I masers in the same region. We propose to make these particular regions subject to further studies in the scope of hot core, cold core, and extreme photon and/or X-ray dominated region (PDR/XDR) chemistry and consequent star formation in the central few parsecs. Based on ALMA observations under the project number 2011.0.00887.S, which were executed on 18 May 2012.Supplementary data (reduced FITS cubes and images) of the continuum and line emission listed in Tables 1 and 2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/603/A68

  16. Time-dependent recovery from Hell film boiling: confined geometry case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, Yu.P.; Sergeev, I.A.

    1991-01-01

    Experiment results for transient cooldown of a solid in saturated superfluid helium after heat load switch-off are reported. The fluid space restriction in the vicinity of a heater is a specific feature of the tested heat transfer configuration. In this case the recovery duration is found to be set as ≅70% by the stage of film boiling received by the end of heat generation, as ≅20% -by the value of bulk fluid temperature, as ≅15% - by the confinement degree. The sample orientation does not affect the recovery time directly. The investigation has been performed at the Particle Physics Laboratory, JINR

  17. Raginal rannavormi / kommenteerinud Reet Puks, Merily Lehis, Helle Nurmsalu, Galina Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Ilusalongides pakutavatest salendavatest kehahooldusprotseduuridest aparaatidega - LPG edermoloogiline massaaž, Universal Contour Wrap, ULTRATONE intensiivne tselluliidiravi ja mittekirurgiline facelift, Shockmaster AWT meetod (akustilise laine ravi)

  18. 'What the hell is water?' How to use deliberate clinical inertia in common emergency department situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton-Warburton, Diana; Cullen, Louise; Keijzers, Gerben; Fatovich, Daniel M

    2018-06-01

    Appropriate deliberate clinical inertia refers to the art of doing nothing as a positive clinical response. It includes shared decision-making to improve patient care with the use of clinical judgement. We discuss common clinical scenarios where the use of deliberate clinical inertia can occur. The insertion of peripheral intravenous cannulae, investigating patients with suspected renal colic and the investigation of low risk chest pain are all opportunities for the thoughtful clinician to 'stand there' and use effective patient communication to avoid low value tests and procedures. Awareness is key to identifying these opportunities to practice deliberate clinical inertia, as many of the situations may be so much a part of our environment that they are hidden in plain view. © 2018 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  19. A hell of a life: addiction and marginality in post-industrial Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draus, Paul J; Roddy, Juliette K; Greenwald, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Drawing on concepts from Foucault and Agamben, we maintain that the lives of daily heroin users provide a prime illustration of bare life in the zone of indistinction that is contemporary Detroit. First, we consider the case of Detroit as a stigmatized and racially segregated city, with concrete consequences for its residents. We then present evidence from in-depth ethnographic and economic interviews to illustrate the various spaces of confinement-that of addiction, that of economic marginality, and that of gender-occupied by these men and women, as well as the indeterminacy of their daily lives, captured through their descriptions of daily routines and interactions. We examine their expressions of worth as expressed in economic, emotional and moral terms. Finally, we draw connections between the sustained marginality of these individuals, as a contemporary category of homo sacer, and the policies and powers that both despise and depend upon them. Heroin, we contend, helps to fill and numb this social void, making bare life bearable, but also cementing one's marginality into semi-permanence.

  20. Assessment of native salmonids above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho; 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Kevin A.

    1999-01-01

    Native resident salmonids in the western United States are in decline throughout much of their range. The purpose of the multi-phased project is to restore native salmonids in the upper Snake River basin to self-sustaining, harvestable levels

  1. Gamma exposure rates in the Steel Creek and Little Hell landing areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marter, W.L.

    1975-01-01

    Aeroradiographic and ground transect γ surveys in the summer of 1974 were conducted to determine the degree of offsite radioactive contamination in an area immediately below the Savannah River plant boundary. Since it is recognized that mechanisms in the biosphere tend to cause nonhomogenous distribution and redistribution of radionuclides released to the environment, a plan was developed to continually evaluate the radioactivity of the offsite area. As part of this plan, a 1300-foot-long section of offsite swamp (42.9 acres) adjacent to the SRP boundary was surveyed in the latter half of October 1974 on a 10-foot grid pattern. The results of this survey show that 6.6 of the 42.9 acres surveyed in detail has γ exposure rates exceeding 57 μR/hr (approximately 500 mR/yr). The maximum exposure rate found at a single grid point was 120 μR/hr. Approximately 5.8 Ci of 137 Cs was deposited in the 42.9-acre 10-foot grid survey area. It was calculated a hypothetical person residing continuously in the location of highest exposure rate when the swamp is not flooded (77 percent of the time each year) could receive an annual dose of about 809 mR. Previous surveys of this area indicated a maximum external annual dose of 357 mR under the same residency conditions. Even with the higher exposure rates detected in the 10-foot grid survey, the more probable incremental radiation dose (above background) to hunters and fishermen who spend a few hours to a few hundred hours in this section of swamp would range from less than 1 mR to a few tens of mR per year

  2. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2002-11-01

    We investigated factors affecting the distribution and abundance of Yellowstone cutthroat trout (YCT), the abundance of all trout, and species richness in several drainages in the upper Snake River basin in Idaho. A total of 326 randomly selected sites were visited within the four study drainages, and of these, there was sufficient water to inventory fish and habitat in 56 of the sites in the Goose Creek drainage, 64 in the Raft River drainage, 54 in the Blackfoot River drainage, and 27 in the Willow Creek drainage. Fish were captured in 36, 55, 49, and 22 of the sites, respectively, and YCT were present at 17, 37, 32, and 13 of the sites, respectively. There was little consistency or strength in the models developed to predict YCT presence/absence and density, trout density, or species richness. Typically, the strongest models had the lowest sample sizes. In the Goose Creek drainage, sites with YCT were higher in elevation and lower in conductivity. In the Raft River drainage, trout cover was more abundant at sites with YCT than without YCT. In the Blackfoot River drainage, there was less fine substrate and more gravel substrate at sites with YCT than at sites without YCT. In the Willow Creek drainage, 70% of the sites located on public land contained YCT, but only 35% of private land contained YCT. The differences in variable importance between drainages suggests that factors that influence the distribution of YCT vary between drainages, and that for the most part the variables we measured had little influence on YCT distribution. n sites containing YCT, average cutthroat trout density was 0.11/m{sup 2}, 0.08/m{sup 2}, 0.10/m{sup 2}, and 0.08/m{sup 2} in the Goose Creek, Raft River, Blackfoot River, and Willow Creek drainages, respectively. In sites containing trout in general, average total trout density in these same drainages was 0.16/m{sup 2}, 0.15/m{sup 2}, 0.10/m{sup 2}, and 0.10/m{sup 2}. Models to predict YCT density, total trout density, and species richness were either weak (i.e., explained little variation) or contained small sample sizes. Based on our results, it appears that factors other than those we measured are affecting fish populations in these drainages.

  3. La Macédoine des Jeunes-Turcs et l’hellénisme à travers la presse grecque : 1908-1910 Hellenism and the Young Turks Macedonia through the Greek newspapers 1908-1910 Ο αγώνας για τη μακεδονική γη : ένα ελληνικό σχέδιο του 1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Anagnostopoulou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Entre juillet 1908 et le début de 1910, la presse grecque, face aux Jeunes-Turcs, passe de l’enthousiasme à la méfiance puis à la critique radicale. Elle espère d’abord que la liberté et l’égalité permettront l’helléno-ottomanisme, une domination gréco-turque de l’Empire qui éviterait l’emprise bulgare en Macédoine, sujet d’inquiétude principal des nationalistes grecs de 1908. En fait, le patriotisme « ottoman » est pour chaque « nation » de l’Empire une bonne occasion pour masquer son propre nationalisme. Au printemps 1909, la presse grecque découvre que l’ottomanisme peut laisser la place au « turcisme », son enthousiasme pour les Jeunes-Turcs tombe rapidement, le salut ne viendra pas de l’ottomanisme, mais de la Grèce, de sa préparation militaire face aux Turcs définitivement « barbares ».Between July 1908 and the beginning of 1910, the Greek press, towards the Young Turks, from enthusiasm changed to suspicion and radical criticism. Its first hopes are in a liberty and equality allowing to the helleno-ottomanism a greek-turkish domination which could push away any bulgarian hold over Macedonia, that is to say the main concern of Greek nationalists in 1908. In spring 1909, the Greek press understands that “helleno-ottomanism” may lead to “turkism”, its enthusiasm for the Young Turks soon and quickly falls down, salvation won’t come from “ottomanism” but from Greece itself and from its military preparation versus the Turks, for ever “barbarians”.Μεταξύ Ιουλίου του 1908 και αρχών του 1910, ο ελληνικός τύπος αντιμετωπίζει το κίνημα των Νεότουρκων περνώντας από τον ενθουσιασμό στη δυσπιστία, καταλήγοντας σε απόλυτη κριτική. Κατ´αρχάς ελπίζει ότι ελευθερία και ισότητα θα επιτρέψουν

  4. Effect of Porous Structure on the Magnetic Properties of NixMgyZn1−x−yFe2O4 Magnetic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Xin; Zhou Xin; Shu Di; Zhao Jing-Jing; Wang Wei; Chen Juan

    2011-01-01

    We deal with the preparation of NiMgZnFe III -SO 4 layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with the layered precursor method and introduce excessive ZnO into the NiMgZnFe III -SO 4 LDHs to produce Ni x Mg y Zn 1−x−y Fe 2 O 4 ferrites that contain massive ZnO. Then the Ni x Mg y Zn 1−x−y Fe 2 O 4 ferrites are treated with NaOH solution to remove ZnO to produce the porous Ni x Mg y Zn 1−x−y Fe 2 O 4 magnetic material: when y = 0, porous NiZnFe 2 O 4 ferrite magnetic materials are obtained; when y ≠ 0, porous NiMgZnFe 2 O 4 ferrite magnetic materials are obtained. From analyses of these two ferrites, their pore-forming mechanism and comparison of their properties before and after they undergo the alkali treatment, we find that after being treated by the NaOH solution, NiZnFe 2 O 4 /NiMgZnFe 2 O 4 have better uniform-structure pores, which will greatly expand their pore volume, widen their application scope and improve their magnetic properties. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  5. Assessment of the Prognostic and Treatment-Predictive Performance of the Combined HOXB13:IL17BR-MGI Gene Expression Signature in the Trans-ATAC Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Shak S, Tang G, et al. A multigene assay to predict recurrence of tamoxifen-treated, node-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 2817–26. 7...Barlow WE, Shak S, et al, for The Breast Cancer Intergroup of North America. Prognostic and predictive value of the 21-gene recurrence score assay in

  6. Use of the Materials Genome Initiative (MGI approach in the design of improved-performance fiber-reinforced SiC/SiC ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Snipes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available New materials are traditionally developed using costly and time-consuming trial-and-error experimental efforts. This is followed by an even lengthier material-certification process. Consequently, it takes 10 to 20 years before a newly-discovered material is commercially employed. An alternative approach to the development of new materials is the so-called materials-by-design approach within which a material is treated as a complex hierarchical system, and its design and optimization is carried out by employing computer-aided engineering analyses, predictive tools and available material databases. In the present work, the materials-by-design approach is utilized to design a grade of fiber-reinforced (FR SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs, the type of materials which are currently being used in stationary components, and are considered for use in rotating components, of the hot sections of gas-turbine engines. Towards that end, a number of mathematical functions and numerical models are developed which relate CMC constituents’ (fibers, fiber coating and matrix microstructure and their properties to the properties and performance of the CMC as a whole. To validate the newly-developed materials-by-design approach, comparisons are made between experimentally measured and computationally predicted selected CMC mechanical properties. Then an optimization procedure is employed to determine the chemical makeup and processing routes for the CMC constituents so that the selected mechanical properties of the CMCs are increased to a preset target level.

  7. Kitchenette: Hell or Home? Different"Kitchenette"Images Created by Richard Wright and Gwendolyn Brooks%Kitchenette:Hell or Home?Different"Kitchenette"Images Created by Richard Wright and Gwendolyn Brooks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖志宏

    2017-01-01

    How the southern black migrants navigate and survive the northern urban space is a question profoundly explored and realistically documented in many migration narratives in African American literature. This paper concentrates on the image of Chicago"kitchenette"in the works of Richard Wright and Gwendolyn Brooks, in an attempt to demonstrate the different inter-pretations of migrant spaces on the urban landscape.

  8. Quérilo y la geranomaquia. Sobre el fr. 13 Colace (= 14 Kinkel = Suppl. Hell. 332

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bernabé

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Gerania instead Germania must be read in this fragment of Choerilus of Samos. So, this ancient author dealt in his poem with the battle between the cranes and the pygmies, and Callimachus refers to Choerilus in Aet. fr. 1, 13 ss. Pfeiffer.

  9. Night-Time Decibel Hell: Mapping Noise Exposure Zones and Individual Annoyance Ratings in an Urban Environment in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel N. Zakpala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although accumulating evidence over the past thirty years indicates that noise is an environmental stressor in residential settings, much of the data emanated from studies in high-intensity, noise impact zones around airports or major roads. Little is known about religious noise, especially at night, which is increasingly a growing concern for both the general public and policy-makers in sub-Saharan Africa. Using geographical information systems (GIS, this study measured and mapped exposure to religious noise in a rapidly urbanising municipality in Ghana. Quantitative noise risk assessment was used to evaluate the risk of religious noise-induced hearing loss to residents in the exposed neighbourhoods. The results show that all neighbourhoods where churches were situated had at least one location with significant risk of noise-induced hearing loss. However, there was no statistically significant relationship between neighbourhoods where religious noise exposure was the highest and where noise annoyance was the highest. The magnitude of the noise values for night-time exposure is remarkable particularly given that excessive night-time noise exposure has the greatest detrimental effect on public health. There is the need to focus on vulnerable groups, sensitive hours of the night, and possible confounding with air pollution in order to wholly address this potential hazard.

  10. Fukushima, Into the Forbidden Zone - A Trip through Hell and High Water in Post-earthquake Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmann, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Just weeks after earthquake and tsunami struck Japan, the author ventured into the nuclear hot zone of the Fukushima Daiichi plant, outfitted only with rubber gloves, a cloth face-mask, and armed with a capricious dosimeter. He emerged with a haunting report on daily life in a now-ravaged Japan, a country he has known and loved for many years. He stopped to interview people in the cities and towns hit hardest by the earthquake, the tsunami, and the radioactive contamination. The answers he could get are sometimes surprising, in particular regarding the kindness and enduring spirit of the people he encountered and considering what was going on in their lives

  11. Unpaving the Road to Hell: Disrupting Good Intentions and Bad Science about Islam and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensoy, Özlem; Ali-Khan, Carolyne

    2016-01-01

    Teachers across all subject areas engage students, in some way, in the study of "otherness"--other societies, other cultures, other practices. Often teachers and teacher educators attend to teaching about others with strong desires toward social justice as they seek to make a difference and do good. However, with insufficient tools to…

  12. The Marriage of Heaven and Hell: On the Functional Approach to Translating Libretti for Modernised Opera Productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Ożarowska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the issue of translating operatic libretti in the form of surtitles. This is a very specific type of translation, and it becomes even more challenging when operatic productions for which surtitles are created are modernised. In such cases the application of skopos theory proves to be the most useful and effective, even though some of its premises may be regarded as controversial. The data for the present study come from the most reputable opera houses, for example the Metropolitan Opera House or Royal Opera House, as they are known for providing their audiences with high-quality libretti translations.

  13. Sparks sädeleb Rabarocki öös. Ettevaatust! Eliidi rünnak. Hu? Hu da hell?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika ansamblist Sparks. Vaiko Eplik & Eliit heliplaatidest "1: Aastaajad", "2: Aastaajad" ja "3: Kosmoseodüsseia", esinemisest festivalil Rabarock. Hannaliisa Uusma, Leslie Da Bassi ja DJ Criticali projektist HU?, singlitest "Kosmos" ja "Absoluutselt" (Rabarockil esitusel materjal HU? debüütalbumilt "Film")

  14. A Chance in Hell: Evaluating the Efficacy of U.S. Military Health Systems in Foreign Disaster Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    brochures /Somalia/Somalia.htm (downloaded 10 October, 2008), 8-10. 86Ibid., 9-10. 87U.S. Department of the Army, United States Forces After Action Review...Modeling, and Prediction, College Park, MD, April 3-5, 2012). 232U.S. Department of the Air Force, Air Mobility Planning Factors, Air Force Pamphlet 10...U.S. Department of the Air Force. Air Mobility Planning Factors. Air Force Pamphlet 10-1403. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office (2003

  15. Demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF): Apache Longbow - Hell Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R.A.

    2002-05-09

    This ecological risk assessment for a testing program at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, is a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF; Suter et al. 2001). The demonstration is intended to illustrate how risk assessment guidance concerning-generic military training and testing activities and guidance concerning a specific type of activity (e.g., low-altitude aircraft overflights) may be implemented at a military installation. MERAF was developed with funding from the Strategic Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the Department of Defense. Novel aspects of MERAF include: (1) the assessment of risks from physical stressors using an ecological risk assessment framework, (2) the consideration of contingent or indirect effects of stressors (e.g., population-level effects that are derived from habitat or hydrological changes), (3) the integration of risks associated with different component activities or stressors, (4) the emphasis on quantitative risk estimates and estimates of uncertainty, and (5) the modularity of design, permitting components of the framework to be used in various military risk assessments that include similar activities. The particular subject of this report is the assessment of ecological risks associated with a testing program at Cibola Range of Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The program involves an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. Thus, the three component activities of the Apache-Hellfire test were: (1) helicopter overflight, (2) missile firing, and (3) tracked vehicle movement. The demonstration was limited, to two ecological endpoint entities (i.e., potentially susceptible and valued populations or communities): woody desert wash communities and mule deer populations. The core assessment area is composed of about 126 km{sup 2} between the Chocolate and Middle Mountains. The core time of the program is a three-week period, including fourteen days of activity in August of 2000.

  16. 'This chimp will kick your ass at memory games - but how the hell does he do it?'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Nicholas

    2012-07-01

    Extraordinary evidence generates extraordinary claims. I discuss the remarkable memory skills of chimpanzees tested in the Kyoto Primate Laboratory, and suggest a novel – but deflationary – hypothesis to explain them. Could the chimpanzees, who have been highly trained to learn the sequence of Arabic numerals, have developed number–colour synaesthesia?

  17. Tax havens or tax hells? A discussion of the historical roots and present consequences of tax havens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Raposo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tax havens are not recent phenomena. However, in contrast to historical precedents, tax havens in the age of mobile capital allow for non-consensual transfers and are not profitable for every citizen. We discuss the four main groups of tax havens (former Western possessions, sovereign nations, countries controlled by cartels, and emerging economies. This article also synthesizes the history of tax havens and describes their current heterogeneity, discussing the main methods available to regulate tax haven flows. Some of the most efficient methods involve unilateral measures (such as the Fiscal Transparency of Outland Societies but also encompass multilateral measures (such as Tax Harmonization and the Request for Information.

  18. Shape-changing in Hell: Metamorphosis and Katabasis in Rushdie’s The  Ground Beneath Her Feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel FALCONER

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available On the evening before the start of hostilities in Iraq in March 2003, an American soldier sat in the sand, reading Dante’s Inferno in an English translation by Robert Pinsky. What should we make of such an image, broadcast nationwide on the British TV News (BBC, 10/03/03? Should we be reassured that the military are engaging with serious literature at such a time? Or disturbed that a soldier might be thinking of Iraq as a region of damned souls? I took it as a sign, singular but chilling, of...

  19. Electricity prices in Spain between 2000 and 2011: lessons to be learnt from a descent into Hell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This note aims at analysing the impact of public authorities' decisions on the Spanish electricity tariffing system since the year 2000: 1 - the Spanish electricity tariff out of touch; 2 - the strategic choice made by Spain; 3 - 2008 crisis and securitization; 4 - a desperate attempt to move backward; 5 - the last ten years balance sheet for the Spanish power system; 6 - the lessons to be learnt from the Spanish experience

  20. Demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF): Apache Longbow - Hell Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efroymson, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    This ecological risk assessment for a testing program at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, is a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF; Suter et al. 2001). The demonstration is intended to illustrate how risk assessment guidance concerning-generic military training and testing activities and guidance concerning a specific type of activity (e.g., low-altitude aircraft overflights) may be implemented at a military installation. MERAF was developed with funding from the Strategic Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the Department of Defense. Novel aspects of MERAF include: (1) the assessment of risks from physical stressors using an ecological risk assessment framework, (2) the consideration of contingent or indirect effects of stressors (e.g., population-level effects that are derived from habitat or hydrological changes), (3) the integration of risks associated with different component activities or stressors, (4) the emphasis on quantitative risk estimates and estimates of uncertainty, and (5) the modularity of design, permitting components of the framework to be used in various military risk assessments that include similar activities. The particular subject of this report is the assessment of ecological risks associated with a testing program at Cibola Range of Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The program involves an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. Thus, the three component activities of the Apache-Hellfire test were: (1) helicopter overflight, (2) missile firing, and (3) tracked vehicle movement. The demonstration was limited, to two ecological endpoint entities (i.e., potentially susceptible and valued populations or communities): woody desert wash communities and mule deer populations. The core assessment area is composed of about 126 km 2 between the Chocolate and Middle Mountains. The core time of the program is a three-week period, including fourteen days of activity in August of 2000

  1. Wilderness - between the promise of hell and paradise: A cultural-historical exploration of a Dutch National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen Arts; Anke Fischer; Rene van der Wal

    2011-01-01

    ‘Wilderness' is often seen as an ideal state in contemporary debates on ecological restoration. This paper asks what is left of ‘wilderness' in present-day Western Europe and explores this question by drawing on a case study of the Hoge Veluwe National Park in the Netherlands. An overview of intellectual histories of wilderness ideas is used as a backdrop to...

  2. Blocages et Stratégies en expression orale : le cas des chypriotes hellénophones FLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoforou Nathalie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de cette contribution est de présenter les résultats d'une étude sur les raisons des blocages, en expression orale, des apprenants de Français Langue Étrangère (FLE en cours de langue, ainsi que des techniques de remédiation fondées sur l’enseignement-apprentissage des stratégies communicatives. Dans la présente étude quantitative et qualitative, nous analysons les réponses à un questionnaire que nous avons fabriqué, de 60 apprenants de niveaux A1 - B2 du CECR, afin de nous rendre compte des facteurs provoquant le silence et les blocages en classe. Après avoir analysé les résultats de l’étude nous avons conçu et développé un atelier d’expression orale, dans le but de lutter contre les blocages, à travers l’enseignement-apprentissage de stratégies communicatives.

  3. Magnetic soft mode behaviour investigated via multi-spin flip Raman spectroscopy on near surface Cd1-xMnxTe/Cd1-yMgyTe quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehl, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The main motivation for this thesis was the experimental confirmation of the theoretically predicted magnetic soft mode and the analysis of its dependence on the hole-concentration and external B-field, as well as its disappearance with increasing sample temperature. For that purpose, CdMnTe/CdMgTe QWs (Mn: 0.6%, 1.0%) positioned close to the sample surface (13-19 nm) were investigated in an in-plane applied external magnetic field (up to 4.5 T in Voigt-geometry) via a two-colour experiment i.e. using two light sources. This allows the spin excitation of Mn-ions by simultaneously tuning the hole-concentration towards the ferromagnetic phase transition by photo-generated carriers. Thus, one tuneable laser is responsible for resonant below-barrier excitation as a probe for Multi-SF Raman scattering. The other laser excites photo-generated carriers from above barrier (2.41 eV) for tuning the hole concentration in the QW. Positioning the QW close to the sample surface causes a surface-induced p-doping of the QW (intrinsic hole concentration in the QW) and enables the active tuning of the hole concentration by photo-generated carriers due to different tunnelling behaviour of electrons and holes from the QW to the surface. The Mn-g-factor was decreased by quasi-continuously increasing the above-barrier illumination, while the below-barrier excitation was kept at a constant low power. This results in a Mn-g-factor reduction starting from its atomic value g=2.01 to lowest evaluated Mn-g-factor in this thesis g=1.77. This is a magnetic softening of 12%. Apart from the general magnetic soft mode behaviour at low temperatures, one of the main experimental results in this thesis is the confirmation of the theoretical prediction that the magnetic soft mode behaviour in the external B-field does not only depend on the carrier concentration but also on the B-field strength itself. An additional aspect is the temperature dependence of the magnetic soft mode. The Mn-g-factor decrease is suppressed with increasing temperature almost reaching the atomic Mn-g-factor at 4.2 K (g=1.99). The results of the investigations concerning the cap layer thickness impact on the QW carrier characteristics were investigated in the cap thickness range of 13 nm to 19 nm. The cap thickness configures on the one hand the intrinsic hole concentration of the QW due to the surface-induced p-doping and sets the ''starting point'' for the Mn-g-factor reduction. On the other hand the cap thickness determines the probability of electron tunnelling to the surface and thus the efficiency of the hole tuning by light. The latter is the criterion for the range of Mn-g-factor reduction by light. This two dependences were pointed out by the photo-generated hole influence on the QW PL-spectra which results in tuning the exciton-trion ratio. In summary both mechanisms are of relevance for the hole tuning and thus for the magnetic soft-mode behaviour. The mechanism of tunnelling time prevails at small cap layer thicknesses while the surface-induced p-doping plays the major role for larger cap thicknesses (>25 nm). (orig.)

  4. Excitation functions of 120Te(d,xn)121,120m,gI reactions from threshold up to 13.5 MeV: comparative studies on the production of 120gI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohn, A.; Coenen, H.H.; Qaim, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Excitation functions of the nuclear reactions 120 Te(d,xn) 121,120m,g I were measured for the first time from their respective thresholds up to 13.5 MeV. Thin samples prepared by electrolytic deposition of 99.0% enriched 120 Te on Ti-backing were used. Integral yields of 121,120m,g I were calculated from the measured cross section data. A comparison of the 122 Te(p,3n)-, 120 Te(p,n)- and 120 Te(d,2n)-processes for the production of 120g I is given. The 120 Te(d,2n)-process is unsuitable for production purposes since the yield of 120g I is very low and the level of 121 I impurity very high. The choice lies either on the 122 Te(p,3n)- or the 120 Te(p,n)-reaction and is governed by the available proton energy and the financial resources for procuring the enriched target material

  5. Tööturg võttis majanduslanguse löögi enda peale / Hanno Pevkur, Raul Eamets, Ivi Proos, Sten Anspal ; intervjueerinud Helle Ruusing

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Sotsiaaalminister Hanno Pevkur, Tartu Ülikooli makroökonoomika õppetooli juhataja Raul Eamets, Avatud Ühiskonna Instituudi juhataja Ivi Proos ja Eesti Rakendusuuringute Keskuse CENTAR vanemanalüütik Sten Anspal arutlevad Eesti tööturu olukorra ja tulevikuperspektiivide üle

  6. HELLE: Health Effects of Low Level Exposures/ Gezondheidseffecten van lage blootstellingniveaus [International workshop: Influence of low level exposures to chemicals and radiation on human and ecological health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoten, Eert

    1998-11-26

    The Health Council is closely involved in establishing the scientific foundation of exposure limits for substances and radiation in order to protect public health. Through the years, the Council has contributed to the formulation of principles and procedures, both for carcinogenic and for noncarcinogenic agents. As a rule, the discussion with regard to the derivation of health-based recommended exposure limits centers around the appropriateness of extrapolation methods (What can be inferred from data on high exposure levels and on experimental animals?). Generally speaking, there is a lack of direct information on the health effects of low levels of exposure. Effects at these levels cannot usually be detected by means of traditional animal experiments or epidemiological research. The capacity of these analytical instruments to distinguish between ''signal'' and ''noise'' is inadequate in most cases. Annex B of this report contains a brief outline of the difficulties and the established methods for tackling this problem. In spite of this, the hope exists that the posited weak signals, if they are indeed present, can be detected by other means. The search will have to take place on a deeper level. In other words, effort must be made to discover what occurs at underlying levels of biological organization when organisms are exposed to low doses of radiation or substances. Molecular and cell biology provide various methods and techniques which give an insight into the processes within the cell. This results in an increase in the knowledge about the molecular and cellular effects of exposure to agents, or stated differently, the working mechanisms which form the basis of the health effects. Last year, the Health Council considered that the time was ripe to take stock of the state of knowledge in this field. To this end, an international working conference was held from 19 to 21 October 1997, entitled ''Health Effects of Low Level Exposures: Scientific Developments and Perspectives for Risk Assessment''. The central question was the extent to which the sometimes fast-growing knowledge about molecular and cellular effects offers the desired basis for extrapolation. Against this setting, a number of more specific questions which have been hotly debated for some time were also addressed. One of the primary questions concerned the traditional but increasingly questioned division between stochastic and non-stochastic working agents, and the corresponding division between exposure-effect relations without a threshold and with a threshold. Thoughts were also exchanged on what is often referred to as hormesis: the notion that low levels of exposure could actually improve health. For the purpose of illuminating the many aspects of these issues, experts from a number of areas were invited. In addition to this, three agents were selected to serve as points of crystallization for the general debate: ionizing radiation, ultraviolet (UV) radiation and dioxins. The present report calls attention to a selection of issues which emerged during the discussions on the above-mentioned central topic. Various more detailed questions and the wider context of the points considered are described at greater length in the enclosed conference report and in the background documents attached to the report. What follows is a series of considerations regarding the scientific basis for the derivation of recommended exposure levels, viewed in the light of current procedures and against the background of the work of the Health Council. In the preparation of the following comments and recommendations, various Dutch experts have been consulted.

  7. The Road to Hell Is Paved with Good Intentions: Why Harm-Benefit Analysis and Its Emphasis on Practical Benefit Jeopardizes the Credibility of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Herwig; Eggel, Matthias; Deplazes-Zemp, Anna; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2017-09-11

    It is our concern that European Union Directive 2010/63/EU with its current project evaluation of animal research in the form of a harm-benefit analysis may lead to an erosion of the credibility of research. The HBA assesses whether the inflicted harm on animals is outweighed by potential prospective benefits. Recent literature on prospective benefit analysis prioritizes "societal benefits" that have a foreseeable, positive impact on humans, animals, or the environment over benefit in the form of knowledge. In this study, we will argue that whether practical benefits are realized is (a) impossible to predict and (b) exceeds the scope and responsibility of researchers. Furthermore, we believe that the emphasis on practical benefits has the drawback of driving researchers into speculation on the societal benefit of their research and, therefore, into promising too much, thereby leading to a loss of trust and credibility. Thus, the concepts of benefit and benefit assessment in the HBA require a re-evaluation in a spirit that embraces the value of knowledge in our society. The generation of scientific knowledge has been utilised to great benefit for humans, animals, and the environment. The HBA, as it currently stands, tends to turn this idea upside down and implies that research is of value only if the resulting findings bring about immediate societal benefit.

  8. What the Hell Do We Do Now? A Policy Options Analysis of State, Local, and Tribal Law Enforcement Participation in Immigration Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    enforcement is efficient from a logistical standpoint (dismissing valuation judgments of the policy)—resources are available elsewhere. Resources and...New York, Crown Business, 2012), 160–161. 247. Sonu Munshi, “Mesa Revises Immigration Status Policy,” East Valley Tribune July 2, 2008, http...municipalcodeofchicago?f=templates$fn=default.htm$3.0$vid=amleg al:chicago_il. Munshi, Sonu. “Mesa Revises Immigration Status Policy.” East Valley

  9. From "flowery hell" to the hope of sanitation: Science, Nature, and Health in the State of Amazonas during Brazilian First Republic (1890-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nísia Trindade Lima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first two decades of the 20th century, publications of Euclides da Cunha, Alberto Rangel and Carlos Chagas about the Amazon presented from different perspectives a critique of what they considered unrealistic visions originated in the travel accounts of naturalists of 18th and 19th centuries. Alternatively, they proposed the analysis of the region from the perspective of new scientific knowledge, which included several areas - from geology to tropical medicine. Recent studies have indicated the need for more research on the institutions and local scientific practices, both in the development of ideas about the region and the definition of public policies. This article is proposed on this perspective, to reflect on the different ideas that were built by the medical-scientific thought about Nature and Society in the state of Amazonas during the Brazilian First Republic, when the rise and decline of the Amazonian rubber was experienced. It is understood that local physicians actively participated in scientific discussions related to tropical medicine, and put into practice the main theses about control and prevention of endemic diseases like malaria and yellow fever. This set of ideas and practices contributed to the definition of sanitation of the city of Manaus and the hinterland of state of Amazonas.

  10. "Hell no, they'll think you're mad as a hatter": Illness discourses and their implications for patients in mental health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringer, Agnes; Holen, Mari

    2016-03-01

    This article examines how discourses on mental illness are negotiated in mental health practice and their implications for the subjective experiences of psychiatric patients. Based on a Foucauldian analysis of ethnographic data from two mental health institutions in Denmark--an outpatient clinic and an inpatient ward--this article identifies three discourses in the institutions: the instability discourse, the discourse of "really ill," and the lack of insight discourse. This article indicates that patients were required to develop a finely tuned and precise sense of the discourses and ways to appear in front of professionals if they wished to have a say in their treatment. We suggest that the extent to which an individual patient was positioned as ill seemed to rely more on his or her ability to navigate the discourses and the psychiatric setting than on any objective diagnostic criteria. Thus, we argue that illness discourses in mental health practice are not just materialized as static biomedical understandings, but are complex and diverse--and have implications for patients' possibilities to understand themselves and become understandable to professionals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Näitlejad ühes mullis, esietendus ukse ees / Hendrik Toompere jr. jr., Liisa Pulk, Mait Joorits ... [jt.] ; intervjueerinud Liisi Seil ; kommenteerinud Helle Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Vestlus Eesti muusika- ja teatriakadeemia lavakunstikooli XXIV lennu tudengitega, kelle lõputöö Tom Stoppardi näidend "Arkaadia" etendub Ugala laval. Lisatud Ugala teatri kirjandustoimetaja arvamus

  12. Économie et société en Grèce aux époques classique et hellénistique : le monde rural

    OpenAIRE

    Brunet , Michèle

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The mass of data from the investigations conducted over more than 30 years in the Greek countrysides precludes the presentation of an exhaustive assessment within the framework of this symposium. This is the reason why, in view of the forthcoming question de concours, it seems more expedient to put the stress on a certain number of difficulties arising from the implementation of those new sources. To what extent and with what due precaution can, at this date and in its...

  13. Need Authorities for the Gray Zone Stop Whining. Instead, Help Yourself to Title 100. Hell,Take Some Title 200 While Youre at it

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-07

    greatly enabled by cap - ture options, and directly feeds the last two steps. “Exploit” refers to both the individual captured and all of the...difficult, and placing decisionmakers in a space where it is becoming more the norm that a decision must be taken, absent all (or even most) of the...of the Gray Zone. Because of the United States’ conventional (and nuclear ) military overmatch against any near peer competitor for the foreseeable

  14. “Terrorism plus Canada in the 1960’s equals hell frozen over”: Learning about the October Crisis with computer technology in the Canadian classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Lévesque

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the role and impact of a digital history program (the Virtual Historian© on students’ historical thinking and reasoning about a controversial episode in Canadian history. The purpose was to examine whether the use of the Virtual Historian©, a web-based inquiry program to teach Canadian history, improves the learning of a key episode in the school curriculum (French-English relations and the October Crisis, 1970. Using a quasi-experimental design, two Ontario Grade 10 classes were assigned to a treatment group (Virtual Historian© and comparison group (classroom lessons on the topic. Findings indicate that using the Virtual Historian© can significantly increase students’ understanding of the subject-matter and their ability to think and write historically more than classroom inquiry-based lessons. Résumé : Cet article présente les résultats d’une étude quasi-expérimentale menée auprès de deux groupes d’élèves ontariens de la 10e année inscrit au cours d’histoire du Canada. L’étude avait pour but d’examiner le rôle et l’impact des technologies de l’information et des communications (TIC, et plus particulièrement d’un nouveau didacticiel en histoire canadienne, l’historien virtuel©, sur l’apprentissage d’un épisode marquant de l’histoire scolaire (la Crise d’octobre, 1970. Les résultats de l’étude indiquent que les élèves du groupe expérimental (l’historien virtuel© ont développé une meilleure compréhension de l’histoire et de la Crise d’octobre que ceux du groupe de comparaison (enseignement en classe.

  15. Evaluate Potenial Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.; Hesse, Jay A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-02-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This report presents a summary of results from the 1997-2002 Phase II data collection and represents the end of phase II. From 1997 to 2001 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon. A total of 1,785 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 77 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 25.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. Relative density of white sturgeon was highest in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River, with reduced densities of fish in Lower Granite Reservoir, and low densities the Salmon River. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir, the free-flowing Snake River and the Salmon River (Chi-Square test, P<0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 30 percent since the 1970's. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,483 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,208-7,477. Total annual mortality rate was estimated to be 0.14 (95% confidence interval of 0.12 to 0.17). A total of 35 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags during 1999-2002. The movement of these fish ranged from 53 km (33 miles) downstream to 77 km (48 miles) upstream; however, 38.8 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir had a higher relative weight factor than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River. The results suggest fish are currently growing faster than fish historically inhabiting the study area, as well as other Columbia River basin white sturgeon populations. Artificial substrate egg mats documented white sturgeon spawning in four consecutive years. A total of 49 white sturgeon eggs were recovered in the Snake River from 1999-2002, and seven from the Salmon River during 2000.

  16. Üldküsimuse vorm ja funktsioonid läbi nelja sajandi ja kuue tekstiliigi / Tiit Hennoste, Helle Metslang, Külli Habicht ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    Käsitletakse üldküsimuse vormivahendeid ja funktsioone ning vormi, funktsiooni ja tekstiliigi seoseid kirjalikus eesti keeles: 17. -18. sajandi tekstides ning tänapäeva ilukirjanduses ja ajakirjanduses, ka netikommentaarides

  17. "I'm Sure as Hell Not Putting Any Man on a Pedestal": Male Privilege and Accountability in Domestic and Sexual Violence Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macomber, Kris

    2018-05-01

    Efforts to involve men as allies in domestic and sexual violence work are expanding, marking a shift for these historically women-led movements. Although this shift is beneficial, it also generates new challenges. From a multi-method qualitative study, this article presents descriptive findings about the internal tensions accompanying the "men as allies" development, namely the gender inequality and male privilege reproduced within movement organizations. I draw on sociological theorizing about men in female-dominated professions to explain the reproduction of gender inequality within movement spaces. I also examine how people are dealing with these tensions by developing a discourse around "men's accountability." My findings suggest that, although discourse about accountability has been successfully integrated into the culture of domestic and sexual violence work, there are key challenges that hinder effective accountability practices. I end by offering suggestions for implementing accountability practices at the organizational level. This study contributes important empirical and theoretical insights currently missing from the literature on male allies, which can be used to inform men's growing involvement in anti-violence work.

  18. "The Road to Hell Is Paved with Good Intentions": A Historical, Theoretical, and Legal Analysis of Zero-Tolerance Weapons Policies in American Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongan, Philip; Walker, Robert

    2012-01-01

    With the passing of the Gun Free School Act of 1994, the 1990s bore witness to the birth of zero-tolerance policies. During the remainder of that decade, several school shootings occurred that solidified zero-tolerance in schools across the United States. With the possibility of threats constantly increasing, school personnel having a thorough…

  19. The road to hell is paved with good intentions — A critical evaluation of WADA’s anti-doping campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Verner

    2016-01-01

    -doping code by central stakeholders, as the essential problem. According to the working group human and political factors are the reason why anti-doping has been unsuccessful. There is no critique of WADA and the purpose of anti-doping as such. So the aim of this paper is to measure if world anti-doping – its......In 2012 following a foundation board meeting a working group under the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) was established in order to investigate the lack of effectiveness of the anti-doping testing programs. The working group identified a number of weaknesses with lack of compliance with the anti...... to participate in doping-free sport and thus promote health, fairness and equality for athletes worldwide”. After a brief introduction to the background for the foundation of WADA followed by an explanation of political success it goes on to evaluate the stated purpose step-by-step. Based on the working groups...

  20. Ladies from hell, Aberdeen free gardeners, and the Russian influenza: an anthropometric analysis of WWI-era Scottish soldiers and civilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Paul; Cuff, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    We analyze data on the height of Scottish men, both civilians and members of the military forces serving in World War I measured in the 1910s, in order to provide another window into the biological well-being of late nineteenth-century birth cohorts. The evidence indicates that rural residents still had a distinct height advantage over their urban counterparts and that military men displayed a slower growth profile than did civilians, but mean heights for the two groups of adults were similar. Mean stature for both groups is well above those found by Floud for British troops born in the 1880s and greater than that of Scottish convicts from the 1830s. Men who were in utero between 1889 and 1893 were slightly stunted, "marked for life" by an encounter with the Russian influenza which struck the region repeatedly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2002-03-01

    In 1998 white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake River between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. A total of 13,785 hours of setline effort and 389 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1998. Of the 278 white sturgeon captured in the Snake River, 238 were marked for future identification. Three sturgeon were captured in the Salmon River and none were captured in the Clearwater River. Since 1997, 6.9% of the tagged fish have been recovered. Movement of recaptured white sturgeon ranged from 98.5 kilometers downstream to 60.7 kilometers upstream, however, less than 25% of the fish moved more than 16 kilometers (10 miles). In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 51.5 cm to 286 cm and averaged 118.9 cm. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). In addition, the proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 37% since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir were slightly larger than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River.

  2. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fishereis Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 2000 annual report covers the fourth year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 2000 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. The Snake River was sampled between Lower Granite Dam (rkm 174) and the mouth of the Salmon River (rkm 303), and the Salmon River was sampled from its mouth upstream to Hammer Creek (rkm 84). A total of 53,277 hours of setline effort and 630 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 2000. A total of 538 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 25 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 32.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 48 cm to 271 cm and averaged 107 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 103 cm to 227 cm and averaged 163 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber open population estimator, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,725 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,668-5,783. A total of 10 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 54.7 km (34 miles) downstream to 78.8 km (49 miles) upstream; however, 43.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P<0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 31 percent since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir had a higher relative weight factor than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River. A von Bertalanffy growth curve was fitted to 138 aged white sturgeon. The results suggests fish are currently growing faster than fish historically inhabiting the study area, as well as other Columbia River basin white sturgeon populations. Artificial substrate mats were used to document white sturgeon spawning. A total of 34 white sturgeon eggs were recovered: 27 in the Snake River, and seven in the Salmon River.

  3. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuell, Michael A.; Everett, Scott R. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 1999 annual report covers the third year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 1999 white sturgeon were captured, marked and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. A total of 33,943 hours of setline effort and 2,112 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1999. A total of 289 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 29 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 11.1 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 27 cm to 261 cm and averaged 110 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 98 cm to 244 cm and averaged 183.5 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon < 60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 1,823 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,052-4,221. A total of 15 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 6.4 km (4 miles) downstream to 13.7 km (8.5 miles) upstream; however, 83.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 kilometers (0.5 miles). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 29 percent since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir were slightly larger than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River. A von Bertalanffy growth curve was fitted to 49 aged white sturgeon. The results suggests the fish are currently growing faster than fish historicly inhabiting the study area, as well as other Columbia River basin white sturgeon populations. Artificial substrate mats were used to document white sturgeon spawning. Five white sturgeon eggs were recovered in the Snake River.

  4. The Grim Reaper, Hounds of Hell, and Dr. Death: The Role of Storytelling for Palliative Care in Competing Medical Meaning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omilion-Hodges, Leah M; Swords, Nathan M

    2017-10-01

    Palliative care (PC) is a medical specialty that strives to fulfill the physical, psychosocial, emotional, practical, and spiritual needs of individuals at end of life or in tandem with curative treatment. Although exponentially rising in use and beneficial to patient well-being at end of life, the purpose of PC is often misunderstood and those providing its services frequently report resistance from organizational members. Such resistance can be attributed to tensions between traditional biomedical models of medicine that privilege curative treatment and biosocial models of medicine that holistically care for patients. Thus, this study addresses what tensions PC providers experience in their institutions and what communicative strategies they use at the interpersonal level in managing those tensions. Using structuration theory in tandem with relational dialectics theory, we inductively analyzed semistructured interviews with 24 Circle of Life award-winning PC providers. Findings indicate two dialectics experienced by PC providers in their institutions: the living-dying dialectic and the practicing-advocating dialectic. We conclude that these interpersonal dialectics emerge through interaction in competing medical meaning systems and found that storytelling was a particularly salient form of communication that participants used for management.

  5. Taotlused ja tulemus / Rein Tootmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tootmaa, Rein

    2002-01-01

    Helle Karise kavandatava portreefilmide sarja "Contra mortem" esimene film "Dr. Andres Ellamaa" : operaatorid Peter Murdmaa ja Marko Piirsoo : monteerija Eero Karis : produtsendid Helle Karis ja Maret Hirtentreu : kasutatud Carl Orffi muusikat : Myth Film 2002

  6. Doktor Ellamaa elutants / Linnar Priimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Priimägi, Linnar, 1954-

    2002-01-01

    Helle Karise kavandatava portreefilmide sarja "Contra mortem" esimene film "Dr. Andres Ellamaa" : operaatorid Peter Murdmaa ja Marko Piirsoo : monteerija Eero Karis : produtsendid Helle Karis ja Maret Hirtentreu : kasutatud Carl Orffi muusikat : Myth Film 2002

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 111 of 111 ... Vol 3, No 1 (2011), The Ethics of Government Privatisation in Nigeria, Abstract PDF ... Business: Transforming Waste Into Wealth Through The Iko Toilet ... Hell Revisited: Towards a Gentler Theology of Hell, Abstract PDF.

  8. Application of architectonic analysis in domestic Islamic architecture in the Tolmo de Minateda (Hellín, Albacete | La aplicación de análisis arqueotectónicos en la arquitectura doméstica emiral del Tolmo de Minateda (Hellín, Albacete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Cañavate Castejón

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This work shows spatial structures produced by the Islamic development process in the settlement of El Tolmo de Minateda. The analysis has been done from a very specific point of view: the domestic spaces that are beginning to take form in this settlement are studied, as well as their progressive privacy in relation to the public space. The spatial configuration of three houses is shown, which express different growing processes. The comparison of their spatial structures show the private central yard, the hierarchy of some rooms, the increasing dificculty of owning a house, and the decentralization of domestic activities. The result makes beak with the old model of settlement occupation. | Este trabajo presenta estructuras espaciales resultantes por el proceso de desarrollo islámico en el yacimiento del Tolmo de Minateda. El análisis está realizado bajo una óptica muy específica: se estudian los espacios domésticos que se vienen configurando en este asentamiento, así como su progresiva privacidad con respecto al espacio publico. Se presenta la configuración espacial de tres viviendas, las cuales expresan diferentes procesos de crecimiento. La comparación de sus estructuras espaciales muestra la aparición del patio central privado, la jerarquía de ciertas estancias, el incremento de la dificultad de acceso a la vivienda y la descentralización de las actividades domésticas. El resultado supone una ruptura con el anterior modelo de ocupación del yacimiento.

  9. Summer monsoon onset over Kerala: New definition and prediction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hotmail. ... Further, a set of empirical models based on the principal component regression ... J. Earth Syst. Sci. 118 ... tip of India, a maximum cloud zone as identified by. Sikka and ..... indicative of the influence of intraseasonal oscil- lation over ...

  10. Indian monsoon variability in relation to Regional Pressure Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    From the analysis it has been seen that RPI in the month of May ... made attempts to search the new parameters and .... Sen Roy N and Sikka D R 1991 A power regression model for long ... Thapliyal V 1982 Stochastic dynamic model for long.

  11. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Bhuj Earthquake, Gujarat, India, 2001. Guest Editors: Roger Bilham and S. K. Srivastav. pp 129-312 Volume 112 Issue 2 June 2003. Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) 1999. Guest Editor: D. R. Sikka. pp 187-378 Volume 111 Issue 3 September 2002. Pan Ocean Remote Sensing Conference (PORSEC).

  12. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Integrated safety assessment of Indian nuclear power plants for extreme events: Reducing impact on public mind · Anil Kakodkar Ram Kumar Singh ... Effect of geological medium on seismic signals from underground nuclear explosion events – A case study for Baneberry site · R K Singh S K Sikka Anil Kakodkar.

  13. Anaesthetic management of endoscopic resection of juvenile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P Khanna, BR Ray, R Sinha, R Kumar, K Sikka, AC Singh ... We present the anaesthetic management of endoscopic resection of 14 JNAs, together with a review. ... Mean duration of surgery was 197.14 ± 77 minutes, and median blood loss ...

  14. B K Godwal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. B K Godwal. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 23 Issue 2 April 2000 pp 151-154 Instrumentation. A CCD area detector for X-ray diffraction under high pressure for rotating anode source · Amar Sinha Alka B Garg V Vijayakumar B K Godwal S K Sikka.

  15. Hell is other people: The conception of the other in self–help’s ethics “El infierno son los demás”. La concepción del otro en la ética de la autoayuda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Souroujon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    "Self-help" literature has become one of the most significant cultural manifestations of the last 90 years in Argentina. It has established a new way of conceiving the self. In this article we trace the conception of "the other" that can be found in these books, and the consequences that this has for the social world. We find that self-help literature sets up "the other" as a hindrance or as an aid, to self- realization. That diminishes the importance that other people have for the constitution of one's personal identity.     

    La literatura de autoayuda logró convertirse en una de las manifestaciones culturales más significativas de los años 90 en Argentina, erigiéndose como un fenómeno sintomático y constitutivo de una nueva forma de concebir el yo. En estos escritos nos proponemos rastrear la concepción del otro, de la alteridad, que se halla en los libros de autoayuda, y las consecuencias que esta tienen para pensar la vida social. Hallando que esta literatura insta a concebir al otro como un obstáculo o como un medio para la autorrealización, lo que dificulta comprender la importancia que poseen los otros para la constitución de la identidad personal.

  16. Hell, what a chance to have a go at the classics”: Tove Jansson’s take on Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, The Hunting of the Snark, and The Hobbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holownia, Olga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tove Jansson is above all known as the creator of the Moomin world which includes novels, short stories, picture-books and comic strips. Between 1958 and 1966, however, she produced over a hundred illustrations offering a novel and idiosyncratic take on three English classics. With one exception, for over four decades these editions were not reprinted outside of Sweden and Finland. This article examines selected aspects of Jansson’s visual translations with references to the original illustrations and her own works. It proposes to consider these commissions as following some of the ideas expressed in her 1961 essay “Den lömska barnboksförfattaren” (“The Deceitful Children’s Author”, especially with regard to elements of “horror” and “the disguised”. Furthermore, by treating these illustrations as one consistently developed project, this article traces the strategies the artist used for her declared dissociation from the Moomin style.

  17. Nukulavastus sai Brestis auhinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Nuku- ja Noorsooteatri nukulavastus "Tsuhh, tsuhh, tsuhh..." ( autor ja lavastaja Helle Laas) võitis Valgevenes Brestis toimunud rahvusvahelisel teatrifestivalil Belaja Vezha lastelavastuste võistlusprogrammi peapreemia

  18. Televaatajani jõuab kodumaine arstide seriaal / Marii Karell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karell, Marii, 1980-

    2002-01-01

    12. veebruaril tutvustab Helle Karis kavandatava portreefilmide sarja "Contra mortem" esimest filmi "Dr. Andres Ellamaa". Sarja eesti arstidest hakatakse alates aprillikuust näitama Eesti Televisioonis

  19. In situ X-ray and neutron diffraction of the Ruddlesden–Popper compounds (RE2−xSrx)0.98(Fe0.8Co0.2)1−yMgyO4−δ (RE=La, Pr): Structure and CO2 stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzichristodoulou, C.; Hauback, B.C.; Hendriksen, P.V.

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of the Ruddlesden–Popper compounds (La 1.0 Sr 1.0 ) 0.98 Fe 0.8 Co 0.2 O 4−δ and (La 1.2 Sr 0.8 ) 0.98 (Fe 0.8 Co 0.2 ) 0.8 Mg 0.2 O 4−δ was investigated at 1000 °C in N 2 (a O2 =1×10 −4 ) by in-situ powder neutron diffraction. In-situ powder X-ray diffraction (PXD) was also employed to investigate the temperature dependence of the lattice parameters of the compounds in air and the oxygen activity dependence of the lattice parameters at 800 °C and 1000 °C. The thermal and chemical expansion coefficients, determined along the two crystallographic directions of the tetragonal unit cell, are highly anisotropic. The equivalent pseudo-cubic thermal and chemical expansion coefficients are in agreement with values determined by dilatometry. The chemical stability in CO 2 containing environments of various Ruddlesden–Popper compounds with chemical formula (RE 2−x Sr x ) 0.98 (Fe 0.8 Co 0.2 ) 1−y Mg y O 4−δ (RE=La, Pr), as well as their stability limit in H 2 /H 2 O=4.5 were also determined by in-situ PXD for x=0.9, 1.0 and y=0, 0.2. - Graphical abstract: Influence of electronic configuration on bond length, lattice parameters and anisotropic thermal and chemical expansion. Highlights: ► The thermal and chemical expansion coefficients are largely anisotropic. ► The expansion of the perovskite layers is constrained along the a direction. ► The studied compositions show remarkable thermodynamic stability upon reduction. ► The thermal and chemical expansion coefficients are lower than related perovskites. ► The investigated materials decompose in CO 2 containing atmospheres

  20. Modelling lactation curve for milk fat to protein ratio in Iranian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using non-linear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare seven non-linear mathematical models (Brody, Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Rook and Dijkstra) to examine their efficiency in describing the lactation curves for milk fat to protein ratio (FPR) in Iranian buffaloes. Data were 43 818 test-day records for FPR from the first three lactations of Iranian buffaloes which were collected on 523 dairy herds in the period from 1996 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly FPR records of buffaloes using the non-linear mixed model procedure (PROC NLMIXED) in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and log maximum likelihood (-2 Log L). The Nelder and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the first and second lactations of Iranian buffaloes, respectively. However, Wood, Dhanoa and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the third parity buffaloes. Evaluation of first, second and third lactation features showed that all models, except for Dijkstra model in the third lactation, under-predicted test time at which daily FPR was minimum. On the other hand, minimum FPR was over-predicted by all equations. Evaluation of the different models used in this study indicated that non-linear mixed models were sufficient for fitting test-day FPR records of Iranian buffaloes.

  1. Platinum Jubilee of the Indian Academy of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Platinum Jubilee of the Indian Academy of Science βγ-Crystallins and the bacterial immunoglobulines fold: Two calcium binding folds. Yogendra Sharma. Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB). "Hell is a half-filled auditorium ". Hell is a half-filled auditorium. - Robert Frost (1874-1963) ...

  2. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enormous pool, a frightening stretch of water, dark green in colour and very deep. In this pool the ... his flesh that is coming back, only his outer self; as for his true self, that has remained ... The imaginative depth in the exploration of a descent into hell, a moral hell. I think .... It assured me total control over my creative space. It.

  3. En ansats til en teori om Situationel Dialektisk Ledelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dakwar, Julia Rytter; Lorentzen, Anne-Christine Rosfeldt; Smedegaard, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    typer af organisations-medlemmer, bl.a. Helle Heins arketypeteori, Thomas Højrups livsformsteori og Helle Petersens cen-lok teori om forandringskommunikation. I en ramme af et dialektisk mindset samles tankerne i artiklens afsluttende afsnit, hvor der skitseres en række krav, som ledelse og ledere i...

  4. Äraigatsuse salakajad / Aita Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Aita, 1954-

    2001-01-01

    Sisu : Rein Põder. Hula; David Shahar. Tema majesteedi agent; Stephen Kuusisto. Pimedate planeet; Joanna Trollope. Mehed ja tütarlapsed; Detlef Jena. Venemaa tsaarinnad; Helle Helle. Maja ja kodu; Nick Hornby. Ühest poisist; Deepak Chopra. Eatu keha, ajatu vaim

  5. Frankensteins uhyre hærger stadig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgård, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Mary Shelley, Frankenstein, eller den moderne Prometheus (Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus), oversat af Jakob Levinsen, med forord af Merete Pryds Helle, Rosinante 2014.......Anmeldelse af Mary Shelley, Frankenstein, eller den moderne Prometheus (Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus), oversat af Jakob Levinsen, med forord af Merete Pryds Helle, Rosinante 2014....

  6. Fællesskabende didaktikker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye

    2013-01-01

    Begrebet ’Fællesskabende didaktikker’ er brugt af Helle Plauborg, men som hun skriver udviklet af kollegerne Helle Rabøl Hansen og Dorte Marie Søndergaard, alle tre er forskere indenfor mobning. De er også mine kolleger, og derfor ved jeg, at en vigtig inspirationskilde til dette begreb, viser sig...

  7. Comparison of X-ray radiation exposure during digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and multislice CT angiography (CTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Mei; Liu, Bin; Zheng, Junzheng

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: To compare radiation risk during digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and CT angiography (CTA). Materials and methods: Eighty patients randomly divided into two groups of 40 patients each, were evaluated for coronary atherosclerotic heart disease with 64-slice spiral CT angiography and DSA respectively. For CTA group we divided patients into two subgroups: regular mode and ECG modulation mode. Matix of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed on patients' skin surface during each examination to access peak skin dose (PSD). A male ART phantom was equipped with TLDs in six different positions to assess achievable organ dose. Effective dose was calculated by commercially available computer programs. Results: For DSA, PSD was 64mGy. Phantom organ dose for lung, heart, stomach, liver, kidney and brain were 11.07mGy, 5.87mGy, 1.42mGy, 2.11mGy, 6.76mGy and 0.001mGy respectively, and effective dose was 4mSv. For regular mode CTA, PSD was 74.5mGy, and CTD vol was 37.9mGy. Phantom organ dose for lung, heart, stomach, liver, kidney and brain were 58mGy, 64.2mGy, 6.6mGy, 9.9mGy, 2.7mGy, 0.072mGy respectively, and effective dose was 16mSv. For ECG modulation mode, PSD was 50.9mGy, and CTD vol was 26.3mGy. Conclusion: According to measured PSD value, deterministic radiation risk for regular mode CTA was little higher than DSA. However for stochastic radiation risk which can be indicated by organ dose and effective dose, regular mode CTA was much higher than DSA. Comparing with regular mode, ECG modulation mode can effectively reduce both stochastic and deterministic radiation risk. (author)

  8. 2013 MDEQ-FEMA Rankin-Simpson Co. Lidar Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fugro as a subconsultant to MGI was authorized to undertake this project, as a part of Work Order No. 112, dated November 1, 2012, issued to MGI in accordance with...

  9. Adult exposures from MDCT including multiphase studies: first Italian nationwide survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palorini, Federica; Origgi, Daniela [Fisica Sanitaria Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milan (Italy); Granata, Claudio [UOC di Radiologia Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa (Italy); Matranga, Domenica [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze per la Promozione della Salute e Materno-infantile ' ' G. D' Alessandro' ' , Palermo (Italy); Salerno, Sergio [Policlinico Universita di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Palermo (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the radiation dose in routine multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examinations in Italian population. This was a retrospective multicentre study included 5,668 patients from 65 radiology departments who had undergone common CT protocols: head, chest, abdomen, chest-abdomen-pelvis (CAP), spine and cardiac. Data included patient characteristics, CT parameters, volumetric CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose length product (DLP) for each CT acquisition phase. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and a multi-regression analysis was used to outline the main factors affecting exposure. The 75th percentiles of CTDI{sub vol} (mGy) and DLP (mGy cm) for whole head were 69 mGy and 1,312 mGy cm, respectively; for chest, 15 mGy and 569 mGy cm; spine, 42 mGy and 888 mGy cm; cardiac, 7 mGy and 131 mGy cm for calcium score, and 61 mGy and 1,208 mGy cm for angiographic CT studies. High variability was present in the DLP of abdomen and CAP protocols, where multiphase examinations dominated (71 % and 73 % respectively): for abdomen, 18 mGy, with 555 and 920 mGy cm in abdomen and abdomen-pelvis acquisitions respectively; for CAP, 17 mGy, with 508, 850 and 1,200 mGy cm in abdomen, abdomen-pelvis and CAP acquisitions respectively. The results of this survey could help in the definition of updated diagnostic reference levels (DRL). (orig.)

  10. IMPLEMENTASI PENGELOLAAN AIR MINUM RUMAH TANGGA (PAM RT DI JAWA BARAT DAN (NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Anwar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to reduce waterborne diseases, the current government and its partners are developing ahousehold water treatment and safety storage (HWTS. This article is part of a study on Development ofAn Evidence-Based Guidelines for Promotion of HWTS which is conducted in three pilot sites: Bandungcity, Bandung district (West Java and Sikka district (East Nusa Tenggara in 2008. The aim of this studywas to find out how the program was implemented and how is the public opinion about the management(processing and storage of drinking water. Data collection was done by interview through a questionnaire.Data source were health officers and partners (qualitative data and the community (quantitative data.Qualitative data processing was performed by the content and the domain method, while quantitative datawas processed through SPSS software. The results show that the government develop the HWTS alongwith its partner: Aman Tirta (Bandung City, Pelita Indonesia (Bandung District, and Dian Desa (SikkaDistrict. Activity of HWTS was done through several stages, such as preparation/dissemination,implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Every partner will have its own way in carrying out the stagesof activity. Not all health officers of district/city states involved in the implementation of the HWTSprogram. It was only Sikka District Health officer that claimed to have fully engaged in the implementationof HWTS in the region. The results of processing and data analysis showed that more than 80% ofrespondents said the HWTS methods were suitable with drinking water treatment for their region. In termsof increasing the water quality, price of materials/tools, and easyness in the water treatment; respondents'opinions very widely.Keywords: HWTS, drinking water, water treatment Abstrak Dalam upaya menurunkan penyakit yang ditularkan melalui air, saat ini pemerintah dan mitrasedang mengembangkan pengelolaan air minum rumah tangga (PAM RT atau household water

  11. Author Meets Readers

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Flory; Leah Kalmanson; Peter K.J. Park; Mark Larrimore; Sonia Sikka

    2017-01-01

    The exchange between Peter Park, Dan Flory and Leah Kalmanson on Park’s book Africa, Asia and the History of Philosophy: Racism in the Formation of the Philosophical Canon (Albany: SUNY Press, 2013) took place during the APA’s 2016 Central Division meeting (Chicago, Illinios) on a panel sponsored by the Committee on Asian and Asian-American Philosophers and Philosophies. After having peer-reviewed the exchange, JWP invited Sonia Sikka and Mark Larrimore to engage with these papers. All the fi...

  12. Author Meets Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Flory

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The exchange between Peter Park, Dan Flory and Leah Kalmanson on Park’s book Africa, Asia and the History of Philosophy: Racism in the Formation of the Philosophical Canon (Albany: SUNY Press, 2013 took place during the APA’s 2016 Central Division meeting (Chicago, Illinios on a panel sponsored by the Committee on Asian and Asian-American Philosophers and Philosophies. After having peer-reviewed the exchange, JWP invited Sonia Sikka and Mark Larrimore to engage with these papers. All the five papers are being published together in this issue.

  13. The Tax Profession: Tax Avoidance and the Public Interest

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, AnneMarie; Murphy, Breda

    2017-01-01

    Professions possess a service ideal orientation (Dillard 2008; Starr 1982; Toren 1975) and play an important role in the 'pursuit of public interest and the common good’ (Jennings et al. 1987, 3). This incorporates ‘serving the public’ or ‘protecting the public interest’ (Pierce 2007, 7). While there is no agreement on what the ‘public interest’ means or how to measure it (Baker 2005; Boseman 2007; Canning and O’Dwyer 2001; Dellaportas and Davenport 2008; Sikka et al.1989), salient suggestion...

  14. Tere taas, XIII sajand! / Kalle Käsper

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käsper, Kalle, 1952-

    2002-01-01

    Helle Karise portreefilm alternatiivse meditsiini abil ravitsejast Aleksander Heintalust alias Vigala Sassist : operaatorid Ago Ruus, Peter Murdmaa ja Madis Mihkelsoo : monteerija Eero Karis : kostüümid Mare Raidmalt : kasutatud Veljo Tormise ballaadi "Raua needmine" : Myth Film 2002

  15. Careers in astronomy in Germany and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohlmeister, Janine; Helling, Christiane

    2014-04-01

    Janine Fohlmeister and Christiane Helling discuss the outcomes of surveys addressing the career situation of astronomers in Germany and the UK, finding social and cultural differences between communities as well as gender bias in both.

  16. Popmuusika / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Jane's Addiction "Up From The Catacombs", Black Label Society "Shot To Hell", Evanescence "The Open Door", Ludacris "Release Therapy", Lionel Richie "Coming Home", "Freerange Records", Ojos De Brujo "Techari"

  17. Kuu plaat : Märt Sults "Kõigest koolipapa...". Plaadid kauplusest Lasering

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest : Märt Sults "Kõigest koolipapa...", Madonna "Confessions on a Dance Floor", Tõnis Mägi "Vestlus Hermanniga", Rammstein "Rosenrot", a-ha "Analogue", Darkness "One Way Ticket to Hell...And Back"

  18. Kubija Hotell-Loodusspaa = Kubija Hotel-Nature Spa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Võrus Männiku tee 43A asuva Kubija Hotell-Loodusspaa sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Birgit Jaanus (Stuudio Truus). Arhitektid Indrek Tiigi ja Helle-Triin Hansumäe. Loetletud Stuudio Truus tehtud töid

  19. Seltskond : [fotod] / tekst ja fotod Annika Haas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    8. dets. esitles Helle Michelson Eesti Lastekirjanduse Keskuses mälestusteraamatut "Lehitsetud leheküljed: Meenutusi elust ja lastekirjandusest" (Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2008) Kohal viibisid lastekirjanikud Ellen Niit, Jaak Urmet jt.

  20. conference report thai me up, thai me down — the xv ias conference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-01

    Aug 1, 2004 ... makers, network with collaborators, sample the local Asian cuisine, and try to ... Bangkok is hot, bustling and polluted, with traffic from hell; it's also fun, ..... for us were the surprisingly large number of 'data-empty' presentations,.

  1. Popmuusika / Margus Haav

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haav, Margus, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Def Räädu "Succiety", Sepeltura "The BEst Of", "Reich Remixed", Chris Rea "The Road To Hell & Back", Solveig Slettahjell "Good Rain", The Fratellis "Costello Music", Siouxsie And The Banshees "VoicesOn The Air"

  2. Popmuusika / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest The Darkness "One Way Ticket To Hell... And Back", Ryan Adams & The CArdinals "Jacksonvile City Nights", Ammoncontact "New Birth", Shakira "Oral Fixation", Rammstein "Rosenrot", Alanis Morissete "The Collection", Iron Maiden "Death On The Road"

  3. Pop / Aivar Tõnso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnso, Aivar, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Plastikman "Closer", A Perfect Circle "Thirteenth Step", UNKLE "Never, Never, Land", Man In Formaldehyde "Copper Sulphate Crystals", Blondie "The Curse Of Blondie", Pantera "Reinventing Hell: The Best of Pantera", Pepe Deluxe "Beatitude", Elvis Costello "North"

  4. Popmuusika / Margus Haav

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haav, Margus, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest 2 Pac "Pac's Life", "Kitsune Maison", Kenny Garrett "Beyond the Wall", Marcus Miller "Power: The Essential Marcus Miller", Clipse "Hell Hath No Fury", Moby "Go ئ The Very Best Of", Ian Archer "Magnetic North"

  5. U teatra "Ilmarine" takogo diploma jeshtsho ne bõlo! / Jekaterina Moskalenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Moskalenko, Jekaterina

    2000-01-01

    Petrozavodski Rahvusvaheline Kammerlavastuste festivalil (Karjala) sai Narva linnateater "Ilmarine" näidendiga "Brõss v preispodnjuju" kaks diplomit. Muinasjutt-näidendi kohandas Helle Laasi jutustuse järgi teatrile P. Rimski. Lavastaja Juri Mihhaljov

  6. "Metsluiged" re-edited / S. T.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    S. T.

    2005-01-01

    Helle Karise 1987.a. Hans Christian Anderseni muinasjutu järgi valminud lastefilm "Metsluiged" linastus edukalt Taanis 16. NatFilmi festivalil Anderseni juubeliprogrammis ning ringleb nüüd rahvusvahelistel festivalidel

  7. Plaadid / Urmas Piht, Katrin Malt, Virko Pirrus...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Destruction "D.E.V.O.L. U.T.I.O.N.", Ihsahn "angL", Neuraxis "The Thin Line Between", Kamphar "Heimgang", Satyricon """My Skin Is Cold", Venom "Hell", Bloodbath "The Waken Carnage"

  8. Caffeine Effects on Marksmanship During High-Stress Military Training with 72 Hours Sleep Deprivation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tharion, William J; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Lieberman, Harris R

    2003-01-01

    Marksmanship accuracy and sighting time were quantified with 62 male trainees during Navy SEAL Hell Week, which involves the combined stress of sleep loss, operational combat scenarios, and cold-wet...

  9. [Raamat] / Mati Erelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erelt, Mati, 1941-

    1995-01-01

    Arvustus: Metslang, Helle. Temporal relations in the predicate and the grammatical system of Estonian and Finnish : [dissertation]. Oulu : Oulun yliopisto, 1994. (Oulun yliopiston suomen ja saamen kielen laitoksen tutkimusraportteja, ISSN 0356-6773 ; 39)

  10. Heitlikud üheksakümnendad / Pekka Erelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erelt, Pekka, 1965-

    2008-01-01

    Ülevaade sündmustest Eestis 1990ndatel aastatel. Ühel juuresolevatest fotodest president Lennart Meri, proua Helle Meri, USA kaitseminister William Perry ja Eesti suursaadik USAs Toomas Hendrik Ilves 1995. a. novembris

  11. Biostratigraphy and palaeontology of the Scollard Formation, late Cretaceous and Paleocene of Alberta

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russell, Loris S

    1987-01-01

    .... The lower portion of the formation contains fossil vertebrates, including dinosaurs and mammals that correlate with those of the Lance Formation of Wyoming and the Hell Creek Formation of Montana...

  12. Factors affecting reproduction in Merino ewes of the Tygerhoek flock

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ouderdomsgroepe ... paarmassa teen 'n skerper helling toe te neem as by enkelinge. S.-Afr. Tydskr. Veek. 1986, 16: 36 - 42. Keywords: ..... growth and reproductive performance in young sheep given differential nutrition from 9 to 18 months of age.

  13. Taevo Gans / Ene Ammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammer, Ene

    1998-01-01

    Sisearhitekt Taevo Gansist. Tudengipõlvest, selle aja projektidest, sõpruskonnast, tandemist Summatavet & Gans, Venemaa tellimustest, kaastöölistest. Üksinda Hommilkumaal vene tarbekunsti näitusega 1974. a. 1988. a. loodud perefirmast "GaDis" (omanikud Taevo, Helle Gans, Riia Oja), mis nõustab ka "Wermot" mööbli osas. "GaDise" sisekujundusprojektidest, millega Taevo ja Helle Gans tegelevad üheskoos

  14. Statistikeren skiftede spor som 49-årig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølund, Sune; Rootzén, Helle

    2010-01-01

    En uddannelse til coach har ændret Helle Rototzens liv. Som 49-årig forlod hun et forskerliv på deltid til fordel for en karriere som DTU's eneste kvindelige institutdirektør.......En uddannelse til coach har ændret Helle Rototzens liv. Som 49-årig forlod hun et forskerliv på deltid til fordel for en karriere som DTU's eneste kvindelige institutdirektør....

  15. Taler i krisens tegn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Barnholdt

    2012-01-01

    I dette indlæg anmelder jeg Helle Thorning-Schmidts og Dronning Margrethe II's nytårstaler med særligt fokus på deres mundtlige fremførelse.......I dette indlæg anmelder jeg Helle Thorning-Schmidts og Dronning Margrethe II's nytårstaler med særligt fokus på deres mundtlige fremførelse....

  16. Vækstplan DK er en snuptagsløsning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje Rasmussen, Martin Møller

    2013-01-01

    Med Vækstplan DK har Helle Thorning-Schmidt glemt en socialdemokratisk kongstanke i ambitionen om at skyde hurtig genvej til genvalg. Planen er først og fremmest udtryk for kortsigtet finanspolitik og ikke langsigtet konkurrenceevnepolitik.......Med Vækstplan DK har Helle Thorning-Schmidt glemt en socialdemokratisk kongstanke i ambitionen om at skyde hurtig genvej til genvalg. Planen er først og fremmest udtryk for kortsigtet finanspolitik og ikke langsigtet konkurrenceevnepolitik....

  17. A survey of patients dose management in computed tomography with special emphasis to paetriatric patients in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inkoon, S.; Emi-Reynolds, G.; Boadu, M.; Schandorf, C.

    2010-01-01

    A survey of the frequency of common computed tomography (CT) examinations and the doses of six (6) CT facilities in Ghana has been undertaken. The technique factors for both adult and paediatric examinations were assessed. The dosimetric parameter used was the weighted computerized tomography dose index (CTDIw) for a single slice and the dose length product (DLP) for complete CT examinations of chest, chest high resolution (HR), lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. The effective dose (E) was estimated to give the stochastic radiation risk of a non-uniform exposure in terms of a whole body exposure. It was observed that some facilities used the same adult CT technique factors for paediatric patients. Mean values of adult CTDIw ranged as: chest (7.1-29.7 mGy), chest HR (7.1-30.0 mGy), lumbar spine (13.4-42.4 mGy), abdomen (7.8-42.4 mGy) and pelvis (8.9-42.4 mGy). Mean paediatric CTDIw values ranged as: chest (6.4-29.7 mGy), chest HR (6.4-30.0 mGy), lumbar spine (10.1-42.4 mGy), abdomen (10.1-42.4 mGy) and pelvis (10.1-42.4 mGy). The mean adult DLP values ranged as: chest (178-594 mGy cm), chest HR (168-594 mGy cm), lumbar spine (287-848 mGy cm), abdomen (233-848 mGy cm) and pelvis (228-848 mGy cm). However the mean paediatric DLP values ranged as: chest (128-594 mGy cm), chest HR (113-594 mGy cm), lumbar spine (253-848 mGy cm), abdomen (146-848 mGy cm) and pelvis (202-848 mGy cm). The E values for adults ranged as follows: chest (3.0-10.1 mSv), chest HR (2.9-10.1 mSv), lumbar spine (4.3-12.7 mSv), abdomen (3.5-12.7 mSv) and pelvis (4.3-12.7 mSv). The results show some agreement with diagnostic reference levels of CTDIw DLP and E values from literature. Nevertheless, further optimisation studies are needed to further reduce patient doses and modifications of technique factors especially for paediatrics (author)

  18. Patient dosimetry in hysterosalpingography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, H.J.; Maia, A.; Oliveira, M.; Kramer, R.; Drexler, G.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the entrance surface dose to the patient and to estimate the dose to the uterus and ovaries due to hysterosalpingography (HSG) diagnostic examinations performed in Recife-Pe, Brazil. The entrance doses were measured using four thermoluminescent dosimeters per patient, attached to anatomical landmarks on the patient's skin. The study was carried out on 25 patients between 21 and 45 years of age who underwent the HSG examinations in two training hospitals and one private radiodiagnostic institute. The number of exposures performed ranged from 4 to 15 radiographs per patient measured. Entrance surface doses varied between 4.99 and 36.6 mGy, with an average of 12.6mGy. The doses to the ovaries and uterus ranged from 0.80 mGy to 5.8 mGy and 1.10mGy to 8.05 mGy, respectively. (author)

  19. Optimizing the balance between radiation dose and image quality in pediatric head CT: findings before and after intensive radiologic staff training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolicchi, Fabio; Faggioni, Lorenzo; Bastiani, Luca; Molinaro, Sabrina; Puglioli, Michele; Caramella, Davide; Bartolozzi, Carlo

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the radiation dose and image quality of pediatric head CT examinations before and after radiologic staff training. Outpatients 1 month to 14 years old underwent 215 unenhanced head CT examinations before and after intensive training of staff radiologists and technologists in optimization of CT technique. Patients were divided into three age groups (0-4, 5-9, and 10-14 years), and CT dose index, dose-length product, tube voltage, and tube current-rotation time product values before and after training were retrieved from the hospital PACS. Gray matter conspicuity and contrast-to-noise ratio before and after training were calculated, and subjective image quality in terms of artifacts, gray-white matter differentiation, noise, visualization of posterior fossa structures, and need for repeat CT examination was visually evaluated by three neuroradiologists. The median CT dose index and dose-length product values were significantly lower after than before training in all age groups (27 mGy and 338 mGy ∙ cm vs 107 mGy and 1444 mGy ∙ cm in the 0- to 4-year-old group, 41 mGy and 483 mGy ∙ cm vs 68 mGy and 976 mGy ∙ cm in the 5- to 9-year-old group, and 51 mGy and 679 mGy ∙ cm vs 107 mGy and 1480 mGy ∙ cm in the 10- to 14-year-old group; p training were significantly lower than the levels before training (p staff training can be effective in reducing radiation dose while preserving diagnostic image quality in pediatric head CT examinations.

  20. Estimation of radiation dose for adult and pediatric patients during X-ray examinations in Khartoum State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altahir, Ataalmanan Yosif Ataalmanan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study to evaluate the patient doses in X-ray examinations for skull and in three main hospitals in Khartoum State. The examination parameters took from 125 radiographs for both male and female were the females was 58 and the male 67 patients undergoing skull (AP), were the age of pediatric patients 1-18 years and adults 19-79 years. The result shows that the calculation of ESAK for according to gender for male skull 0.206 mGy, and ESAK according to gender for male skull 0.0719 mGy, for female skull 0.0942 mGy, for male chest 0.082 mGy and female for female chest 0.098 mGy. The calculation of ESAK according to patients age, adults and pediatric, the ESAK estimation for adults 0.122 mGy for skull, 0.1306 mGy for chest, and for pediatric 0.0432 mGy for skull, 0.055 mGy for chest. This data will be useful for the formulation of national reference levels as recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (Author)

  1. Radiation absorbed doses in cephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliasson, S.; Julin, P.; Richter, S.; Stenstroem, B.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation absorbed doses to different organs in the head and neck region in lateral (LAT) and postero-anterior (PA) cephalography were investigated. The doses were measured by thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) on a tissue equivalent phantom head. Lanthanide screens in speed group 4 were used at 90 and 85 k Vp. A near-focus aluminium dodger was used and the radiation beam was collimated strictly to the face. The maximum entrance dose from LAT was 0.25 mGy and 0.42 mGy from a PA exposure. The doses to the salivary glands ranged between 0.2 and 0.02 mGy at LAT and between 0.15 and 0.04 mGy at PA exposures. The average thyroid gland dose without any shielding was 0.11 mGy (LAT) and 0.06 mGy (PA). When a dodger was used the dose was reduced to 0.07 mGy (LAT). If the thyroid gland was sheilded off, the dose was further reduced to 0.01 mGy and if the thyroid region was collimated out of the primary radiation field the dose was reduced to only 0.005 mGy. (authors)

  2. Selling or telling? A theory of ruin value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    2011-01-01

    number of possible apocalyptic scenarios. But what do they tell us these visions of "the end of days" and hell, why are there always demons, flames and fire? Why are hell and heaven always in a different place on the other side, in the after life, is it rather the reverse, that hell is here...... on this planet? War and disasters have a deep impact and are major aesthetic objects of fascination. The Nazi death cult was carefully designed mass propaganda based on a fascinating, mass hysterical carnival of the dead. Architecture and design play an important yet unpleasant part in this.   This paper...... games, comics and films that unfold the aesthetics of the vision of the apocalypse, and the important question, is the message pacifistic or just blind speculation and fascination? Cases on: "Half life 2", "Barefoot Gen", "Akira", "Spawn", "Doom", and "Constantine". 4. Finally, this paper will look...

  3. Assessment of radiation exposure on a dual-source computed tomography-scanner performing coronary computed tomography-angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhoff, S.; Herzog, P.; Johnson, T.; Boehm, H.; Nikolaou, K.; Reiser, M.F.; Becker, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The radiation exposure of a dual-source-64-channel multi-detector-computed-tomography-scanner (Somatom-Defintion, Siemens, Germany) was assessed in a phantom-study performing coronary-CT-angiography (CTCA) in comparison to patients' data randomly selected from routine scanning. Methods: 240 CT-acquisitions of a computed tomography dose index (CTDI)-phantom (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) were performed using a synthetically generated Electrocardiography (ECG)-signal with variable heart rates (30-180 beats per minute (bpm)). 120 measurements were acquired using continuous tube-output; 120 measurements were performed using ECG-synchronized tube-modulation. The pulsing window was set at minimum duration at 65% of the cardiac cycle between 30 and 75 bpm. From 90-180 bpm the pulsing window was set at 30-70% of the cardiac cycle. Automated pitch adaptation was always used. A comparison between phantom CTDI and two patient groups' CTDI corresponding to the two pulsing groups was performed. Results: Without ECG-tube-modulation CDTI-values were affected by heart-rate-changes resulting in 85.7 mGray (mGy) at 30 and 45 bpm, 65.5 mGy/60 bpm, 54.7 mGy/75 bpm, 46.5 mGy/90 bpm, 34.2 mGy/120 bpm, 27.0 mGy/150 bpm and 22.1 mGy/180 bpm equal to effective doses between 14.5 mSievert (mSv) at 30/45 bpm and 3.6 mSv at 180 bpm. Using ECG-tube-modulation these CTDI-values resulted: 32.6 mGy/30 bpm, 36.6 mGy/45 bpm, 31.4 mGy/60 bpm, 26.8 mGy/75 bpm, 23.7 mGy/90 bpm, 19.4 mGy/120 bpm, 17.2 mGy/150 bpm and 15.6 mGy/180 bpm equal to effective doses between 5.5 mSv at 30 bpm and 2.6 mSv at 180 bpm. Significant CTDI-differences were found between patients with lower/moderate and higher heart rates in comparison to the phantom CTDI-results. Conclusions: Dual source CTCA is particularly dose efficient at high heart rates when automated pitch adaptation, especially in combination with ECG-based tube-modulation is used. However in clinical routine scanning for patients with higher heart rates

  4. Niche partitioning of marine group I Crenarchaeota in the euphotic and upper mesopelagic zones of the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anyi; Jiao, Nianzhi; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Zao

    2011-11-01

    Marine group I Crenarchaeota (MGI) represents a ubiquitous and numerically predominant microbial population in marine environments. An understanding of the spatial dynamics of MGI and its controlling mechanisms is essential for an understanding of the role of MGI in energy and element cycling in the ocean. In the present study, we investigated the diversity and abundance of MGI in the East China Sea (ECS) by analysis of crenarchaeal 16S rRNA gene, the ammonia monooxygenase gene amoA, and the biotin carboxylase gene accA. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed that these genes were higher in abundance in the mesopelagic than in the euphotic zone. In addition, the crenarchaeal amoA gene was positively correlated with the copy number of the MGI 16S rRNA gene, suggesting that most of the MGI in the ECS are nitrifiers. Furthermore, the ratios of crenarchaeal accA to amoA or to MGI 16S rRNA genes increased from the euphotic to the mesopelagic zone, suggesting that the role of MGI in carbon cycling may change from the epipelagic to the mesopelagic zones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic profiling of the 16S rRNA genes revealed depth partitioning in MGI community structures. Clone libraries of the crenarchaeal amoA and accA genes showed both "shallow" and "deep" groups, and their relative abundances varied in the water column. Ecotype simulation analysis revealed that MGI in the upper ocean could diverge into special ecotypes associated with depth to adapt to the light gradient across the water column. Overall, our results showed niche partitioning of the MGI population and suggested a shift in their ecological functions between the euphotic and mesopelagic zones of the ECS.

  5. A footnote on the prehistory of interpretation of stellar colours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosche, P.

    2001-10-01

    Father Maximilian Hell S.J. (1720-92) was one of the first astronomers to formulate a theory of aurorae. This paper speculates on the possibility that Hell somehow could have associated his theory with the colours of stars, possibly by assuming that in some stellar atmospheres frozen particles are prevailing whereas in other stellar atmospheres water droplets dominate; the first would be more white-yellow, the others could show all colours of the rainbow. Our main point consists in the fact that somebody had seen and recorded colours of stars as an intrinsic phenomenon which called for an explanation.

  6. Derfor svarer politikerne ikke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jonas; Jønch-Clausen, Heidi; Pontoppidan, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Helle Thorning-Schmidts beslutning om at droppe det ugentlige tirsdagspressemøde er blevet set som en svækkelse af dialogen mellem journalister og politikere. Spørgsmålet er dog, om ikke journalisterne for længst har undergravet det demokratiske potentiale i tirsdagspressemøderne?......Helle Thorning-Schmidts beslutning om at droppe det ugentlige tirsdagspressemøde er blevet set som en svækkelse af dialogen mellem journalister og politikere. Spørgsmålet er dog, om ikke journalisterne for længst har undergravet det demokratiske potentiale i tirsdagspressemøderne?...

  7. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  8. Avaliação de modelos não-lineares e da relação do consumo voluntário de vacas primíparas e de bezerros com a curva de lactação de vacas Nelore Evaluation of non-linear models and the effects of primiparous cows and calves intake on the lactation curve of Nelore cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Toledo Henriques

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se avaliar a precisão de cinco modelos não-lineares em descrever a forma da curva de produção de leite de vacas Nelore e o efeito do consumo voluntário (CV da vaca e do bezerro sobre a produção de leite (PL. Foram testados os modelos de Sikka, Nelder, Wood, Jenkins & Ferrell, e Jenkins & Ferrell com um parâmetro de ajustamento. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas primíparas com peso corporal médio de 359 kg (± 8 e seus respectivos bezerros. A produção de leite foi estimada pela pesagem do bezerro antes e após a mamada, do nascimento aos 180 dias de idade. As pesagens foram efetuadas duas vezes ao dia, semanalmente, após 6 horas de jejum de líquido e sólidos. Os modelos não-lineares de Sikka, Jenkins & Ferrell, Nelder e Wood não descreveram a curva de lactação apropriada devido ao excesso ou subestimação d o pico da produção de leite. O melhor ajustamento foi encontrado para o modelo de Jenkins & Ferrell com um parâmetro de ajustamento. O efeito do consumo voluntário da vaca e do bezerro, avaliado separadamente, não se correlacionou com a produção de leite. Entretanto, ao avaliar o consumo da vaca e do bezerro conjuntamente, foi encontrada uma correlação positiva e negativa com a produção de leite, respectivamente. A produção de leite está intimamente correlacionada com o consumo da vaca e do bezerro, e a capacidade de ingerir sólidos não lácteos reulta na redução da necessidade de leite da mãe.This research was carried out to evaluate five non-linear mathematical models to describe lactation curves of Nelore cows and effect of the cow and calf intake on milk yield. In this study we compared the models of Sikka (1950, Nelder (1966, Wood (1967, Jenkins & Ferrell (1984 and Jenkins & Ferrell (1984 with a fit parameter. Data of production were collected from 12 primiparous cows with a mean live weight of 359 kg (± 8 and its offspring. The milk production was estimated weighing the calf before and after

  9. An investigation into CT radiation dose variations for head examinations on matched equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarb, Francis; Foley, Shane; Toomey, Rachel; Rainford, Louise; Holm, Susanne; Evanoff, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated radiation dose and image quality differences for computed tomography (CT) head examinations across centres with matched CT equipment. Radiation dose records and imaging protocols currently employed across three European university teaching hospitals were collated, compared and coded as Centres A, B and C from specification matched CT equipment models. Patient scans (n = 40) obtained from Centres A and C were evaluated for image quality, based on the visualisation of Commission of European Community (CEC) image quality criteria using visual grading characteristic (VGC) analysis, where American Board of Radiology examiners (n = 11) stated their confidence in identifying anatomical criteria. Mean doses in terms of CT dose index (CTDI vol -mGy) and dose length product (DLP-mGy cm) were as follows: Centre A-33.12 mGy and 461.45 mGy cm; Centre B -101 mGy (base)/32 mGy (cerebrum) and 762 mGy cm and Centre C-71.98 mGy and 1047.26 mGy cm, showing a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in DLP across centres. VGC analysis indicated better visualisation of CEC criteria on Centre C images (VGC AUC 0.225). All three imaging protocols are routinely used clinically, and image quality is acceptable in each centre. Clinical centres with identical model CT scanners have variously customised their protocols achieving a range of dose savings and still resulting in clinically acceptable image quality. (authors)

  10. Long-Term Musical Group Interaction Has a Positive Influence on Empathy in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitch, Tal-Chen; Cross, Ian; Burnard, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Musical group interaction (MGI) is a complex social setting requiring certain cognitive skills that may also elicit shared psychological states. We argue that many MGI-specific features may also be important for emotional empathy, the ability to experience another person's emotional state. We thus hypothesized that long-term repeated participation…

  11. Uptake of Rabies Control Measures by Dog Owners in Flores Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C. M.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies has been a serious public health threat in Flores Island, Indonesia since it was introduced in 1997. To control the disease, annual dog vaccination campaigns have been implemented to vaccinate all dogs free of charge. Nevertheless, the uptake rate of the vaccination campaigns has been low. The objective of this paper is to identify risk factors associated with the uptake of rabies control measures by individual dog owners in Flores Island. Methodology/principal findings A total of 450 dog owners from 44 randomly selected villages in the Sikka and Manggarai regencies were interviewed regarding their socio-demographic factors, knowledge of rabies, and their uptake of rabies control measures. The majority of dog owners surveyed (>90%) knew that rabies is a fatal disease and that it can be prevented. Moreover, 68% of the dog owners had a high level of knowledge about available rabies control measures. Fifty-two percent of the dog owners had had at least one of their dogs vaccinated during the 2012 vaccination campaign. Vaccination uptake was significantly higher for dog owners who resided in Sikka, kept female dogs for breeding, had an income of more than one million Rupiah, and had easy access to their village. The most important reasons not to join the vaccination campaign were lack of information about the vaccination campaign schedule (40%) and difficulty to catch the dog during the vaccination campaign (37%). Conclusions/significance Dog owners in Flores Island had a high level of knowledge of rabies and its control, but this was not associated with uptake of the 2012 vaccination campaign. Geographical accessibility was one of the important factors influencing the vaccination uptake among dog owners. Targeted distribution of information on vaccination schedules and methods to catch and restrain dogs in those villages with poor accessibility may increase vaccination uptake in the future. PMID:25782019

  12. Evaluation of radiation dose during the percutaneous angioplasty for arteriovenous shunt assembling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chien-Yi; Wu, Wen-Shiann; Tang, Kuo-Ting; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Lin, Chun-Chih

    2017-11-01

    Percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) for dysfunctional hemodialysis is usually performed by radiologists, but not cardiologists, in Taiwan, so that the radiation dose in patients and physicians are usually unknown and related studies are rare. In this study, we are pioneering an investigation into the radiation dose in percutaneous angioplasty for arteriovenous shunt assembling and the effect of RADPAD device, a lead-free surgical drape containing Bi and Ba, on the decrease of a radiation dose in the non-targeted organs of the patient and also the operator. The radiation dose in a typical digital subtraction angiography (DSA) by the PTA protocol under a fixed field of view (FOV), was measured with optically simulated luminescent dosimeters arranged in a PIXY RS-102 anthropomorphic phantom. The results indicate that there is a significant dose reduction at the hands (0.022±0.002 mGy before treatment vs. 0.014±0.001 mGy after treatment; P=0.021), but not at the lens (0.027±0.003 mGy before treatment vs. 0.018±0.001 mGy after treatment; P=0.058), and the gonads (0.026±0.003 mGy before treatment vs. 0.020±0.001 mGy after treatment; P=0.058), of the cardiologist/operator after treatment with the RADPAD drape. At the patient's abdomen, the dose significantly decreased from 1.597±0.104 mGy to 0.031±0.002 mGy (PRADPAD shield. For the chest, lens and thyroid in the patient, the doses were respectively 0.154±0.100 mGy (compared to 0.049±0.001 mGy after treated with the RADPAD drape; P=0.0002), 0.066±0.001 mGy (compared to 0.021±0.001 mGy after the RADPAD treatment; P=0.009), and 0.208±0.002 mGy (compared to 0.042±0.003 mGy after shielded with the RADPAD drape; PRADPAD drape significantly reduced radiation exposure to the patient during the PTA for the arteriovenous shunt assembling, which is suggested should be applied to the current cardiac catheterization.

  13. Absorbed dose thresholds and absorbed dose rate limitations for studies of electron radiation effects on polyetherimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Edward R., Jr.; Long, Sheila Ann T.; Gray, Stephanie L.; Collins, William D.

    1989-01-01

    The threshold values of total absorbed dose for causing changes in tensile properties of a polyetherimide film and the limitations of the absorbed dose rate for accelerated-exposure evaluation of the effects of electron radiation in geosynchronous orbit were studied. Total absorbed doses from 1 kGy to 100 MGy and absorbed dose rates from 0.01 MGy/hr to 100 MGy/hr were investigated, where 1 Gy equals 100 rads. Total doses less than 2.5 MGy did not significantly change the tensile properties of the film whereas doses higher than 2.5 MGy significantly reduced elongation-to-failure. There was no measurable effect of the dose rate on the tensile properties for accelerated electron exposures.

  14. The effects of low dose radiation (LDR) on mice of immune function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Li; Deng Daping

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To find out the Effects of Low Dose Radiation(LDR) on mice of immune function. Methods: Through flow cytometry to observe and analyse the effects of the leukomonocyte. Through immunohistochemistry to study IL-2, TNF-α. Results: At dose of 100mGy the stimulative effect on CD 4 + cells, CD 8 + cells and NK activity was higher than that at other doses. At dose of 500mGy leukomonocyte activity was lower. At dose of 100mGy, the colorations about IL-2, TNF-α deepen. Conclusion: LDR could stimulate immune function, especially at dose of 100mGy. while at dose of 500mGy, radiation could restrain the leukomonocyte activity. (authors)

  15. Measurement and estimation of maximum skin dose to the patient for different interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yuxi; Liu Lantao; Wei Kedao; Yu Peng; Yan Shulin; Li Tianchang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the dose distribution and maximum skin dose to the patient for four interventional procedures: coronary angiography (CA), hepatic angiography (HA), radiofrequency ablation (RF) and cerebral angiography (CAG), and to estimate the definitive effect of radiation on skin. Methods: Skin dose was measured using LiF: Mg, Cu, P TLD chips. A total of 9 measuring points were chosen on the back of the patient with two TLDs placed at each point, for CA, HA and RF interventional procedures, whereas two TLDs were placed on one point each at the postero-anterior (PA) and lateral side (LAT) respectively, during the CAG procedure. Results: The results revealed that the maximum skin dose to the patient was 1683.91 mGy for the HA procedure with a mean value of 607.29 mGy. The maximum skin dose at the PA point was 959.3 mGy for the CAG with a mean value of 418.79 mGy; While the maximum and the mean doses at the LAT point were 704 mGy and 191.52 mGy, respectively. For the RF procedure the maximum dose was 853.82 mGy and the mean was 219.67 mGy. For the CA procedure the maximum dose was 456.1 mGy and the mean was 227.63 mGy. Conclusion: All the measured dose values in this study are estimated ones which could not provide the accurate maximum value because it is difficult to measure using a great deal of TLDs. On the other hand, the small area of skin exposed to high dose could be missed as the distribution of the dose is successive. (authors)

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation at intermediate doses on the performance of reverse osmosis membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combernoux, Nicolas; Labed, Véronique; Schrive, Luc; Wyart, Yvan; Carretier, Emilie; Moulin, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to explain the degradation of Polyamide (PA) composite reverse osmosis membrane (RO) in function of the irradiation dose. Irradiations were performed with a gamma 60 Co source in wet conditions and under oxygen atmosphere. For different doses of 0.2 and 0.5 MGy with a constant dose rate of 0.5 kGy h −1 , RO membranes performances (NaCl retention, permeability) were studied before and after irradiation. ATR-FTIR, ion chromatography and gas chromatography were used to characterize structural modification. Results showed that the permeability of RO membranes irradiated at 0.2 MGy exhibited a small decrease, related to scissions of the PVA coating. However, retention did not change at this dose. At 0.5 MGy, permeability showed a large increase of a factor around 2 and retention began to decrease from 99% to 95%. Chromatography measurements revealed a strong link between permselectivity properties variation, ion leakage and oxygen consumption. Add to ATR-FTIR observations, these results emphasized that the cleavages of amide and ester bonds were observed at 0.5 MGy, more precisely the loss of hydrogen bonds between polyamide chains. By different analysis, modifications of the polysulfone layer occur until a dose of 0.2 MGy. - Highlights: • Irradiation of RO membranes at intermediate dose (0.2 and 0.5 MGy). • For a dose rate of 0.5 kGy h −1 RO membranes are radiation resistant until 0.2 MGy. • Cleavages of polymer bonds in the active layer at 0.5 MGy. • Decrease in permselectivity properties of the membrane at 0.5 MGy. • High oxygen consumption between 0.2 and 0.5 MGy related to the membranes degradation.

  17. Report of questionnaire concerning the conditions and exposure doses at thoracoabdominal radiography and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Japan Association of Radiological Technologists, at 2 years after its presentation of the Guideline for Medical Radiation Exposure (2006), made a questionnaire in the title on its homepage on Nov. 6-Dec. 5, 2008, and this paper is its report. The questionnaire asked the conditions and exposure doses at thoracoabdominal radiography and CT: in the former, asked were conditions like the machine/detector, tube voltage, filter, incident angle, entrance plane dose (EPD) (mGy) etc., and 237 facilities including 56 public hospitals and 15 universities answered. EPD calculated by numerical dose determination was found to be 0.22 and 0.76 mGy at the frontal and lateral thoracic projection, respectively, which were less than the upper limit defined in International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) guidance (0.4 and 1.5 mGy). However, doses in 6 and 2.6% of facilities at the respective projection exceeded the IAEA levels. EPD at the frontal abdominal projection calculated was 2.22 mGy, and all facilities met with the IAEA demand level (<10 mGy). In the CT questionnaire, conditions asked were the machine manufacturer/brand, scanning mode and range, tube voltage, rotation time, beam width and pitch, slice width, CTDIvol (CT Dose Index weighted/pitch) (mGy) and so on, which 212 facilities involving 58 public hospitals and 14 universities answered. CTDIvol was found to be 91.7 mGy at head CT which greatly exceeded the maximal levels of International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP), IAEA and the Association (60, 50 and 65 mGy, respectively). CTDIvol at thoracic CT was 15.2 mGy (no standard upper limit at present), and at abdominal CT, 20.0 mGy (the same as the Association level). The latter suggested the suitable dose setting at this CT. Thus the problem at head CT was much highlighted here. (K.T.)

  18. 76 FR 34690 - Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... electronic filing, documents may also be paper-filed. To paper-file, mail an original and seven copies to... (project) has two principal water storage reservoirs, French Meadows and Hell Hole. These reservoirs are...-Middle Fork tunnel into French Meadows reservoir (134,993 ac-ft of gross storage). Flows in the Middle...

  19. Storyline as a Space for Simulated Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Birthe; Tang Jørgensen, Lone; Pagh Fisker, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Omhandler brugen af StoryLine som et undervisningsmæssigt eksperiment i pædagoguddannelsen som eksempel på et simuleret rum med henblik på at forbinde teori og praksis i undervisningen. Medforfattere: LONE TANG JORGENSEN, HELLE PAGH FISKER AND HENRIETTE SKAARUP GEJEL JENSEN...

  20. Warfare 1914-2014: The most violent century in human history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkert, W.

    2016-01-01

    In the Spring of 1915 the French literary critic, journalist and theatre director Alphonse Séché (1876-1964) published a book on the Great War which was about six months old at the time. He called his extensive analysis Les guerres d’ enfer (Wars of Hell) and this unlikely expert displayed a

  1. Compensating Scientism through "The Black Hole."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lane

    The focal image of the film "The Black Hole" functions as a visual metaphor for the sacred, order, unity, and eternal time. The black hole is a symbol that unites the antinomic pairs of conscious/unconscious, water/fire, immersion/emersion, death/rebirth, and hell/heaven. The black hole is further associated with the quest for…

  2. Subatomic inferno under the Alps

    CERN Multimedia

    Borland, John

    2006-01-01

    "Sky is the Swiss-French border, pastoral Geneva countryside in the shadow of soaring alpine mountains. Hell is "The machine" - a 16.8-mile underground ring where, in almost precisely a year, superconducting magnets will begin accelerating atomic particles to within a hairsbreadth of the speed of light, and smash them into each other." (2 pages)

  3. Global biogeography and evolution of Cuvierina pteropods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burridge, A.K.; Goetze, E.; Raes, N.; Huisman, J.; Peijnenburg, K.T.C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: helled pteropods are planktonic gastropods that are potentially good indicators of the effects of ocean acidification. They also have high potential for the study of zooplankton evolution because they are metazoan plankton with a good fossil record. We investigated phenotypic and genetic

  4. Socialt entreprenørskab på RUC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ; Social Impact Measurement and finding a balance between academic criteria and professional relevance. Helle Hygum Espersen: At kvalificere samskabelses-dagsordenen i en kommune - overvejelser over mulige afgørende principper. Stine Skov Øllgård Efter-videreuddannelsesstrukturer – et afgørende parameter...

  5. Olla originaalne ja tähelepandud / Eve Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepp, Eve

    1989-01-01

    Tuntud daamide originaalehetest - tekstiilikunstnik Anna Gerretzi Ülle Kõutsi valmistatud kõrvarõngad, disainer Helle Gansi Katrin Amose loodud rinnanõel, raamatukogudirektrissi Anne Randeli Tiina Käeseli loodud ehted, arhitekt Marka Lõokese Kadri Mälgu loodud komplekt, kunstiteadlase Krista Kodrese Tiina Käeseli loodud komplekt, grimeerija Krista Pärdi abikaasa Rein Metsa loodud ehted

  6. Vanavara pärastlõuna / Silvia Silvéus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Silvéus, Silvia, 1926-2016

    2002-01-01

    20. oktoobril 2002 toimunud Sydney Eesti Seltsi Kunsti-ja Käsitööringi ning Eesti Etnograafiaringi Austraalias kultuuripärastlõunal oli vanavara näitus, esitati laule ja tantse, Helle-Mall Risti esines kõnega

  7. Plaat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Laseringi kauplustes müügilolevatest heliplaatidest: J.M.K.E. "Mälestusi Eesti NSV-st", Ladytron "Withing Hour", The Darkness "One Way Ticket To Hell", Popidiot "1111", Eminem "Curtain Call - The Hits", Deep Purple "Rapture Of The Deep"

  8. ISLAM IN THE NON-MUSLIM AREAS OF NORTHERN NIGERIA, c

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QUADRI Y A

    the logic/sense in believing heaven/hell real or otherwise. It indicates that heaven ..... are serious objects of human affection—trying “to satisfy infinite needs with finite entities” in a ... he were drowned in the depths of the sea. 40. Interestingly ...

  9. 77 FR 39694 - National Currents Energy Services, LLC; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Services, LLC. e. Name of Project: Wards Island Tidal Energy Project. f. Location: The proposed Wards Island Tidal Energy Project will be located off the south shore of Wards Island, in the Hell Gate... Manhattan, New York City, NY. g. Filed Pursuant to: 18 CFR part 24, section 24.1. h. Applicant Contact...

  10. Maternal influence on eggshell maculation: implications for cryptic camouflaged eggs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duval, C.; Cassey, P.; Lovell, P.G.; Mikšík, Ivan; Reynolds, S.J.; Spencer, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 1 (2016), s. 303-310 ISSN 0021-8375 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : body condition * camouflage * Coturnix coturnix japonica * eggs hell maculation * Protoporphyrin Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2016

  11. First light for avian embryos: eggshell thickness and pigmentation mediate variation in development and UV exposure in wild bird eggs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maurer, G.; Portugal, S. J.; Hauber, M. E.; Mikšík, Ivan; Russell, D. G. D.; Cassey, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2015), s. 209-218 ISSN 0269-8463 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : breeding birds * eggs hell colour * light transmission * nesting behaviour * pigments * ultraviolet light Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.210, year: 2015

  12. Maarjamäe loss (Marienberg) / Robert Gödicke, Nikolai vanem Thamm, Jüri Renter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gödicke, Robert

    2004-01-01

    5 välisvaadet, üks 1930. aastast; mõisa ajaloost, omanikest, lossi arhitektuurist, interjöörist, pargist; 1975. a. anti loss üle Eesti Ajaloomuuseumile; hoone restaureeriti aastatel 1983-88 (arhitekt Jüri Renter, sisearhitekt Helle Gans)

  13. Diffusion coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    kbhattacharjee

    in bulk water becomes Au. 13 inside cell. Fluorescent Gold Nanocluster Inside a Human Breast Cell. Au. 25. Au. 13. Bulk water. Live cell. Emission energy = E f. / N1/3. Cancer. N = number of Au atoms in cluster ..... <λ/2. Super Resolution Microscopy: < λ/2. STED = Stimulated Emission Depletion (S. HELL). Strategy: two ...

  14. Stordrift af sundhedsteknologi kræver ny organisering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Når det gælder telemedicin, er det ikke alle patienter, der kan tilbydes den samme tekniske løsning. Det stiller nogle helt særlige krav, når man vil indføre sundhedsteknologiske løsninger i stor skala, skriver senior projektleder Helle Wentzer fra KORA i dette debatindlæg....

  15. Kips / Pekka Erelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erelt, Pekka, 1965-

    2009-01-01

    Katkendeid Rait Avestiku raamatust "Urmas Kibuspuu 31 aastat" (Tänapäev, 2009). Meenutavad vend Marko Kibuspuu, venna abikaasa Helle, Reet ja Ivo Linna, Ilo Kokamägi, Aarne Üksküla, Anne Paluver, Ago-Endrik Kerge, Elle Kull

  16. Limitations on K-T mass extinction theories based upon the vertebrate record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, J. David; Bryant, Laurie J.

    1988-01-01

    Theories of extinction are only as good as the patterns of extinction that they purport to explain. Often such patterns are ignored. For the terminal Cretaceous events, different groups of organisms in different environments show different patterns of extinction that to date cannot be explained by a single causal mechanism. Several patterns of extinction (and/or preservational bias) can be observed for the various groups of vertebrates from the uppermost Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation and lower Paleocene Tullock Formation in eastern Montana. The taxonomic level at which the percentage of survivals (or extinctions) is calculated will have an effect upon the perception of faunal turnover. In addition to the better known mammals and better publicized dinosaurs, there are almost 60 additional species of reptiles, birds, amphibians, and fish in the HELL Creek Formation. Simple arithmetic suggests only 33 percent survival of these vertebrates from the Hell Creek Fm. into the Tullock Fm. A more critical examination of the data shows that almost all Hell Creek species not found in the Tullock are represented in one of the following categories; extremely rare forms, elasmobranch fish that underwent rapid speciation taxa that although not known or rare in the Tullock, are found elsewhere. Each of the categories is largely the result of the following biases: taphonomy, ecological differences, taxonomic artifact paleogeography. The two most important factors appear to be the possible taphonomic biases and the taxonomic artifacts. The extinction patterns among the vertebrates do not appear to be attributable to any single cause, catastrophic or otherwise.

  17. Vertigo substriata Jeffreys, faunae neerlandicae nova species, een zoogenaamd glaciaalrelikt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunier, A.L.J.

    1926-01-01

    I. HET NEDERLANDSCHE MATERIAAL VAN VERTIGO SUBSTRIATA JEFFR.. Onder het vaak interessante materiaal van Nederlandsche Mollusca, dat den laatsten tijd door de Heeren W. F. van Hell en J. A. Nijkamp, studenten in de biologie te Leiden, aan 's Rijks Museum van Natuurlijke Historie werd afgestaan, trof

  18. Obrázky z pekla. Souvislosti několika vyobrazení Posledního soudu z počátku 14. století

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dienstbier, Jan; Faktor, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 6 (2015), s. 434-457 ISSN 0049-5123 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-39192S Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : medieval wall paintings * hell * alewife Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  19. “Jan de Dood en sy bende”: Vergestaltings van die dood in die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pale skin and either an emaciated woman in black, or a black woman as in Landskap met vroue en slang (Landscape with women and snake, 1996) Buller se plan and Niggie (translated as To Hell with Cronjé, 2002, 2007). These personifications function as so-called memento mori – iconographic reminders of mortality.

  20. Environmental Investigations and Analyses for Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbors, Los Angeles, California, 1973-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    Christine Yonai Fred Piltz Ichthyology Jay Carroll Karl Lyde John Helle Scott Ralston S. Ishikawa Steve Subber Catherine Kusick Catherine Terry...Charles Greaves Catherine Link Susan Harrison Julie Thompson Kaoru 0. Kendis Ismay Stanley Randall Kendis Marine Technicians Bruce Adams Gene Mummert

  1. Breakdown: Mind Terror in Sylvia Plath and Doris Lessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, Marie

    Both Sylvia Plath and Doris Lessing use themes prevalent in Gothic horror tales--fear, madness, dissolution of personality, the dream journey, and the grotesque--but both writers make use of these themes in their own inimitable way. This paper discusses Plath's "The Bell Jar" and Lessing's "Briefing for a Descent into Hell" in…

  2. TÜ nõukogu nimetas neli uut professorit ja emeriitdotsendi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    TÜ nõukogu valis 2011.a. detsembri istugil professoriteks Helle Karro (sünnitusabi ja günekoloogia alal), Jaak Vilo (bioinformaatika alal), Varmo Vene (programmeerimiskeelte semantika alal), Marlon Dumas (tarkvaratehnika alal) ja emeriitdotsendiks majandusõppejõud Kersti Meiesaar

  3. Politisk Kronik 1.halvår 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Lars

    2016-01-01

    I sin nytårstale anslog statsminister Helle Thorning-Schmidt en moderat optimistisk tone. Godt nok var krisen ikke ovre, men stemningen var ved at vende, og der var grund til at tro på fremgang i 2014. Danmark var et solidarisk land, og det skulle det vedblive med at være. Derfor ville regeringen...

  4. Клетка для зверя

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Emil Lotjanu filmi "Mu hell ja õrn metsloom" saamislugu (1978). Film põhineb Anton Tšehhovi jutustusel "Draama jahil". Peaosatäitja Galina Beljajeva meenutab. Ka filmi helilooja Jevgeni Doga oma kuulsaks saanud valsi sünniloost

  5. Pop / Tõnu Kaalep

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaalep, Tõnu, 1966-2018

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Tunnetusüksus "Ida ja Lääne vahel / Between East and West", Amy Winehouse "Back to Black", Kylie "Showgirl: Homecoming Live", Pet Shop Boys "Concrete", Gang Starr "Mass Appeal: The Best Of", Kling Klang "The Esthetik of Destruction", Clipse "Hell Hath NoFury", Tim Buckley "The Best of Tim Buckley"

  6. Huvitav läbikukkumine / Mari Laaniste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laaniste, Mari, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Allan Moore'i ja Eddie Campbelli koomiksil põhinev õuduspõnevik "Otse põrgust" ("From Hell") : režissöörid Allen ja Albert Hughes, peaosas Johnny Depp : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Suurbritannia 2001. Pikemalt A. Moore'ist (s. 1953)

  7. Enam-vähem otse põrgust / Mari Laaniste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laaniste, Mari, 1977-

    2002-01-01

    Mängufilm "Põrgust" ("From Hell") : režissöörid Albert ja Allen Hughes : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Tšehhi Vabariik 2001. Analüüsitud filmi lähtekohaks olnud Alan Moore'i 1988. a. ilmunud raamatu, selle varasemate eeskujude ja filmi vahekorda

  8. Nime võimust : naine või artishokk / Leena Kurvet-Käosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurvet-Käosaar, Leena, 1969-

    2003-01-01

    Tagasivaade naisrežissööride filmifestivalile Helsingis. Lähemalt 4 mängufilmist : itaallanna Monica Stambrini "Benzina" (2001), inglanna Lynne Ramsay "Morvern Callar" (2002), prantslanna Sophie Tatscheffi "Baarilett" (1997) ja iraani päritolu rootsi režissööri Susan Taslimi "All Hell Let Loose" (2002)

  9. Najib Mahfuz on Power, Status and Authority in Africa's Public Sphere

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2010-04-14

    Apr 14, 2010 ... Outside the Great House, life becomes a hell for Adham and his wife. ... people in the quarter believe is responsible for the death of the former. ... might be found to be true at least going by the structure of Muslim cities in ...... Mahfouz, Sonallah Ibrahim and Gamal al-Ghitani, Cairo: American University.

  10. Microencapsulation of Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-31

    nuts, chestnuts, f ilberts, hazelnuts, pecans , walnuts (all nuts, in %hells). In other countries, the appropriate government regulatory agencies...75012 Paris, France, 10 Rue Villiot .. ...... . . . . . . 347.87-45 NEAR EAST 20124 Milan, Italy , Via Rosellini 12 ... ...... ...... 688.4563 Hemel

  11. Antiviral Mechanisms of the 2'-5' Oligoadenylate Synthetases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Helle

    During the course of her PhD studies, Helle Kristiansen carried out research into proteins that play a role in the defence against viral infection in humans and animals. All cells contain a considerable number of proteins that can directly or directly attack a virus and inhibit or completely stop...

  12. Oral Tradition as the Literary Skeleton of African Novels: A Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    s way of life, often expressed in what they do (social functions and roles); what they think (their philosophy of life about birth, death, God, heaven, hell, health, ancestors, wealth, poverty etc) and what they have (the material aspects of culture ...

  13. The Rise And Fall Of The Afterlife : The 1995 Read-Tuckwell Lectures at the University of Bristol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan N.

    2002-01-01

    The afterlife is still very much alive in Western civilisation, even though the truth of its existence is no longer universally accepted. Surprisingly, however, heaven, hell and the immortal soul were all ideas which arrived relatively late in the ancient world. Originally Greece and Israel - the

  14. Pärnu uued majad väljakujunenud linnaruumis / Anni Nool

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nool, Anni

    2006-01-01

    Jannseni ja Jaani tänava nurgamaja (Hardi Lehemaa, Helle-Ann Urgard). Tallinna mnt. ja Rohu tänava nurgamaja (Rein Raie). Aisa tänava kortermaja (arhitektuuribüroo Luhse ja Tuhal). Kommenteerivad Liis Keskküla ja Üllar Hinno

  15. Plaadid / Priit Juurmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurmann, Priit

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Nicole Willis and The Soul Investigators "Keep Reachin' Up", Pricess Superstar "My Machine", The Darkness "One Way Ticket To Hell...And Back", System Of A Down "Hypnotize", Röövel Ööbik "Supersymmetry", Fort Minor "The Rising Tied", Korn "See You On The Other Side"

  16. Plaadid / Erkki Luuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luuk, Erkki, 1971-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest "Ulmeralismi tähised", Destiny's Child "Destiny FulFilled", Brian McFadden "Irish Son", dream Theater "Live at Budokan", Meat Loaf "Bat Out Of Hell Life", Axis of Justice "Concert Series vol. 1", Incubus "Alive at Red Rocks"

  17. "Arising from Sullen Earth": The 52nd Street Project's Transformative Teen Shakespeare Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg-Zakian, Megan

    2010-01-01

    The author of this document spent time as the Associate Artistic Director of The 52nd Street Project, a not-for-profit theater company dedicated to the creation and production of new plays for, and often by, kids between the ages of nine and eighteen that reside in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood of New York City. Through a series of unique…

  18. Hello...Hello...This Is the Poet Speaking...Do You Read Me...?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Maurice

    1972-01-01

    In dialogue between Poet" and English teacher", author writes, Kids will know a hell of a lot more about poetry if they read, experience, enjoy, talk, probe, criticize, respond and create...than if they line-by-line a few set poems." His thesis: the set poetry curriculum turns pupils off. (Author/PD)

  19. ”Hvad taler vi om, når vi taler om Bernhard?”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzen, Mikkel Krause; Nielsen, Claus Beck

    2013-01-01

    of depression, melancholia & mania, the state of walking versus the state of getting nowhere at high speed, not to mention the scandal of the toilets in Austrian restaurants. And it – of course – all ends in the deadly Bernhardian laughter and Austria as the only qualified heavenly hell on earth....

  20. 76 FR 82296 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Treatments and Prescribed Burning to Reduce Mountain Pine Beetle Risk and Fire Hazard, Hell Canyon Ranger... EIS, NOAA, AK, Effects of Oil and Gas Activities in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, AK..., Fish, Soil, and Water Resources and Restoration of 2010 Forest Plan Vegetation Conditions, Emmett...

  1. Euclid and his modern rivals

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Lewis

    2004-01-01

    The author of Alice in Wonderland (and an Oxford professor of mathematics) employs the fanciful format of a play set in Hell to take a hard look at late-19th-century interpretations of Euclidean geometry. Carroll's penetrating observations on geometry are accompanied by ample doses of his famous wit. 1885 edition.

  2. Vana-aasta filmiõhtu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Kanal2s oli sügisel telesari eesti tuntud arstidest, keda on filmitud aasta vältel. Helle Karise portreefilmide sarja "Contra mortem" näidatakse ka 30. detsembril Kinomajas filmiõhtul. Kohtuda saab ka arstide endiga

  3. Within- and between-season repeatability of eggshell colouration in the great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr; Požgayová, Milica

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2012), s. 91-96 ISSN 0908-8857 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * eggs hell coloration * repeatability Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.020, year: 2012

  4. Protection or proscription? Cultural practices against the background of religious pluralism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2007-01-01

    Behind the substance of human rights are strong convictions that do not always convert into positive forces towards implementation. Calvin’s successor Theodore Beza, for example, saw freedom of religion as a very bad idea “because it means that everyone should be left to go to hell in his own way.”

  5. Keemia- ja füüsikapreemiate märksõna on valgus / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2014-01-01

    Nobeli keemiapreemia pälvisid sakslane Stefan Hell ning ameeriklased Eric Betzig ja William Moerner, kes leidsid viisi, kuidas uurida valgusmikroskoobiga eluslooduse pisimaid komponente. Füüsikapreemia pälvisid Jaapani teadlased Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano ja Shuji Nakamura sinise valgusdioodi leiutamise eest

  6. "7 vaprat" ei lõpeta ka suvel / H. S.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    H. S.

    2002-01-01

    Populaarne muusikaedetabelisaade "7 vaprat" läheb juunis ansamblitega Terminaator, Tuberkuloited, No Big Silence, Blacky, Speed Free ja Hell Can Wait suvetuurile. 11. juunil antakse kontsert Tartus, 12. juunil Rakveres, 13. juunil Pärnus ja 15. juunil Tallinnas. Kontsertidest valmivad ka telesaated, saatejuht Villu Tamme

  7. Avalik pöördumine seoses Kihnu rahvamajaga / Toomas Rein, Leonhard Lapin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rein, Toomas, 1940-

    2001-01-01

    Eskiisprojektist, Arhitektuuribüroo Toomas Rein poolt 31. V 2000. a. Kihnu vallavalitsusele üle antud tehnilisest projektist (arhitektid T. Rein, L. Lapin, sisearhitekt Helle Gans), ehitaja riigihankekonkursist, ehitusfirma FKSM tööjooniste ja valmishoone erinevusest tehnilisest projektist, autoriõigusest jm

  8. Esitletakse Eesti ja Soome keeleteadlaste ühisraamatuid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Täna esitletakse Tallinna Ülikoolis Krista Kerge ja Maria-Maren Sepperi toimetatud raamatut "Finest Linguistics : proceedings of the annual Finnish and Estonian conference of linguistics : Tallinn, May 6-7, 2004" ning Helle Metslangi ja Siiri Soidro toimetatud teost "Lähivertailuja 16 : soome-eesti kontrastiivseminar 8.-9.05.2004"

  9. Kes kunstnik on selle pildi teinud ? / Riina Noodapera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noodapera, Riina, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Autor selgitab Eesti paadipõgenike foto ajalugu. Samas lisatud ka foto, millel kujutatud Lennart Meri, Christina Anderson, Helle Meri, Ellen Holmert ja Thorsten Andersson. Foto on tehtud 1995. a. seoses Lennart Meri külaskäiguga Gotlandile 1995. a.

  10. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | News

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akshay Kulkarni P Ramadevi · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 42-55 General Article. Infinite Descent – but not into Hell! Shailesh A Shirali · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 56-64 General Article. Flight Research using Radio-controlled Small Airplanes · S P Govinda Raju · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 65-75 General Article.

  11. V V Raman is Emeritus Professor of Physics and Humanities at the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    edu http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varadaraja_V. _Raman petty piece of charcoal; rubies, sapphires and emeralds would all be dark as the depths of hell. The effect of light on the world around us is of incredible variety. The magnificent aurora and.

  12. "Kuldne kolmnurk" ja "punapõsine kornet" / Kaire Nurk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nurk, Kaire, 1960-

    2000-01-01

    Tartu kunst XX sajandil: sajandi alguse pildina Kristjan Raua tööst "Puhkus rännakul", kokkuvõttena sajandile Ado Vabbe preemia saanud kunstnikest ئ Peeter Allik, Lola Liivat, Helle Vahersalu ئ ja nende loomingust. Sõjajärgse Tartu kunsti jõudmisest Tallinna ning selle kajastamisest S. Helme, J. Kangilaski "Lühikeses eesti kunsti ajaloos".

  13. Richard Avedon ja Annie Leibovitz laulsid kaanonit / Marika Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Marika

    2008-01-01

    Richard Avedoni (1923-2004) retrospektiivnäitusest (fotod aastatest 1946-2004) kuraator Helle Crenzien (Lousiana Kaasaegse Kunsti muuseum Taanis), millega kaasnes ka Helen Whitney film "Richard Avedon : darkness and light" ja Annie Leibovitzi (1949) suurprojektist "A photographer's life 1990-2005" Pariisis

  14. Reply to the comment by Thorsen et al. on "Diverging incentives for afforestation from carbon sequestration: An economic analysis of the EU afforestation program in the south of Italy"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassone, V.C.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Nesci, F.S.

    2006-01-01

    In their comment Thorsen, Strange, and Helles (this journal) suggest that the model we use in our paper "Diverging incentives for afforestation from carbon sequestration: an economic analysis of the EU afforestation program in the south of Italy." Forest Policy and Economics 6, 567-578 includes a

  15. The Homeland Security Enterprise: Where Do We Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    derivative. ( Junod , 2009, p. 1) Seeing that a single incident influences the whole, how do we make sense of our individual place in the larger complex...Quotations, 10th ed. 1919e. [Walt Whitman] Retrieved April 27, 2009, from http://www.bartleby.com/100/503.34.html Junod , Tom (2009) What the hell

  16. Moving Clocks Do Not Always Appear to Slow down: Don't Neglect the Doppler Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In popular accounts of the time dilation effect in Einstein's special relativity, one often encounters the statement that moving clocks run slow. For instance, in the acclaimed PBS program "NOVA," Professor Brian Greene says, "[I]f I walk toward that guy... he'll perceive my watch ticking slower." Also in his earlier piece for The New York Times,…

  17. Urknall im labor: das grösste experiment der welt entsteht bei Genf - unter der erde

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Big Bang in the laboratory has only few more energy than two colliding mosquitoes. But if we put together billions of mosquitoes, a hell bursts out. For that, near Geneva the biggest experiment in the world is being built.(1,2 page)

  18. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  19. Hõivatute edetabelisse jõudis kolm meest Ugalast / Tea Raidsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raidsalu, Tea

    2009-01-01

    Postimehe nädalalõpulisa "Arter" kõige hõivatumate näitlejate loendis on Ugalast Tanel Ingi, Arvo Raimo ja Arvi Mägi. Andmeid nimekirja koostamiseks andsid teatrite trupijuhid. Ugala näitlejate kaalukamate rollide väljaselgitamist kommenteerib kirjandustoimetaja Helle Leppik

  20. Hvis Thorning var CEO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje Rasmussen, Martin Møller

    2013-01-01

    Helle Thorning-Schmidt er som statsminister blevet konfronteret med de samme syv overraskelser, som ifølge strategi- og ledelsesguruen Michael Porter udfordrer enhver nyudnævnt topleder. Regeringens fortsatte overlevelse afhænger af, hvor hurtigt statsministeren erkender det og handler....

  1. Turistid-sõjaõhutajad : dessant Iisraeli / Karin Hallas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallas, Karin, 1957-

    1999-01-01

    Kultuuridessandist Marika Valgu ja Helle Puusepaga Iisraeli. Jeruusalemma Yad Vashemist ئ Holocausti muuseumist. Arhitekt Moshe Safdie Laste Memoriaali ja Yad Vashemi memoriaali uue hoone lahendusest. Tel Avivi ja Jeruusalemma arhitektuurist ئ funktsionalismist, praegusest arhitektuurist, arhitekte. James Turrelli kunstiteosest "Ruum, mis näeb" Jeruusalemma muuseumi pargis

  2. Against the Intentional Fallacy: Legocentrism and Continuity in the Rhetoric of Indian Dispossession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The road of US Indian law and policy, like its companion to hell, is paved with good intentions. Critics of its generally diabolic outcomes have had little difficulty demonstrating the moral chasm between the appealing rhetoric in which a policy or judgment was framed and the oppressive consequences to which it practically conduced. With a nod to…

  3. Rasta-revolutsioon : ikka ja jälle. White label : Nikns Suns - Imed. Kuula / DJ Pickney Tiger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DJ Pickney Tiger, pseud., 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaadist "Bob Marley And The Wailers. Exodus". Ansamblist. Heliplaatidest: Taraf De Haidouks "Maskarada", Los Desterrados "Tu", Prince "Planet Earth", Manu Chao "La Radiolinia", Kanye West "Graduation", 50 Cent "Curtis", Vaiko Eplik ja Eliit 2", "Shahrukh. The King Khan. Vol 3", Big &Rich "Between Raising Hell and Amazing Graze", Tiit Kikas"String Theory"

  4. Presidendi valimine - erakondade konsensuspoliitika proovikivi / interv. Aivar Jarne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Konsensuskandidaadi otsimisest ja presidendi valimise võimalikkusest Riigikogus, valimiskampaaniast, seostest kohalike ja Riigikogu valimistega, meedia rollist, presidendi institutsioonist tulevikus ning võimalustest muuta presidendi valimise korda. Vestlusringis osalevad: Rain Rosimannus, Eiki Nestor, Vello Pettai, Agu Uudelepp ja Argo Ideon. Valiku vestlusest tegi Riigikogu Toimetiste peatoimetaja Helle Ruusing

  5. Pop / Andri Riid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riid, Andri, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: The Darkness "One Way Ticket to Hell... and Back", Peven Everett "Latest Craze (Part 1)", David Branner "Certified", Eminem "Curtain Call: The Hits", Horricane "The Lynch-Lawyers", Wilco "Kicking Television. Live in Chicago", The Mars Volta "Scab Dates", The Roots "Home Grown! The Beginners Guide To Understanding The Roots Volume 1-2"

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft-tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (MRSA) has become a key pathogen in skin and soft-tissue infections. (SSTIs). The emergence of ..... SSTI isolates; (iii) improved hospital infection control guidelines and practices to prevent .... So exposed in the field. And he'll never run off ...

  7. Study on human mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow pretreated with low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yan; Wang Guangjun; Wang Juan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study effects of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSC) from bone marrow pretreated with low dose radiation (LDR). Methods: The cells were the hBM-MSC. They were exposed to X rays at the dose of 50 mGy, 75 mGy, 100 mGy (dose rate 12.5 mGy/min). The growth curve, cell cycle and apoptosis of hBM-MSC treated by LDR were investigated. The content changes of stem cell factor(SCF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), macrophage colony stimulating factor(M-CSF) secreted by hBM-MSC after treated by LDR were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Results: The growth rates of hBM-MSC treated by LDR obviously increase from 72 h. The cell cycle and apoptosis were examined with FORTRAN Atomatic Checkout Systom. The results show that the G 0 /G 1 stage cells decrease after exposure to LDR, the percent of G 0 /G 1 stage cells of 75 mGy at 72 h is the lowest(30.86%). However, the S stage cells percentage gradually increase at 48 h and 72 h. The most one is 75 mGy group at 72 h, which reaches to 68.88%. The apoptosis percentages have increased tendency at 24 h and 48h in all dose groups, especially in 100 mGy at 24 h(25.99%), while have decreased tendency at 72 h and the most decreased group is the 50 mGy(6.8%), transient enhancement of apoptosis in the early stage and soon being decreased. The contents of SCF have increased tendency at 24 h, 48 h. As for IL-6, the contents in different dose groups at 24 h and 48 h have up-regulation. These groups, 50 mGy at 24 h, 48 h, 75 mGy at 24 h, 48 h, 100 mGy at 24 h have statistical difference compared with their control groups respectively. The content of IL-6 has greatest enhancement at dose of 50 mGy. The contents of M-SCF in all the groups at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h except for the 50 mGy dose at 72 h have also been found increased. The greatest increased content occur in the 75 mGy dose group at 72 h. Conclusion: This conclusion show that LDR has hormesis effect on hBM-MSC in cell growth, cell cycle and content

  8. Ultralow-dose CT of the craniofacial bone for navigated surgery using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and model-based iterative reconstruction: 2D and 3D image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmann, Gerlig; Schullian, Peter; Gassner, Eva-Maria; Hoermann, Romed; Bale, Reto; Puelacher, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to evaluate 2D and 3D image quality of high-resolution ultralow-dose CT images of the craniofacial bone for navigated surgery using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in comparison with standard filtered backprojection (FBP). MATERIALS AND METHODS. A formalin-fixed human cadaver head was scanned using a clinical reference protocol at a CT dose index volume of 30.48 mGy and a series of five ultralow-dose protocols at 3.48, 2.19, 0.82, 0.44, and 0.22 mGy using FBP and ASIR at 50% (ASIR-50), ASIR at 100% (ASIR-100), and MBIR. Blinded 2D axial and 3D volume-rendered images were compared with each other by three readers using top-down scoring. Scores were analyzed per protocol or dose and reconstruction. All images were compared with the FBP reference at 30.48 mGy. A nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used. Statistical significance was set at p ASIR-100 at 3.48 mGy, ASIR-100 at 2.19 mGy, and MBIR at 0.82 mGy. MBIR at 2.19 and 3.48 mGy scored statistically significantly better than the FBP reference (p = 0.032 and 0.001, respectively). For 3D images, the FBP reference at 30.48 mGy did not statistically significantly differ from all reconstructions at 3.48 mGy; FBP and ASIR-100 at 2.19 mGy; FBP, ASIR-100, and MBIR at 0.82 mGy; MBIR at 0.44 mGy; and MBIR at 0.22 mGy. CONCLUSION. MBIR (2D and 3D) and ASIR-100 (2D) may significantly improve subjective image quality of ultralow-dose images and may allow more than 90% dose reductions.

  9. Dosimetry for Patients undergoing Radiographic Examinations in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halato, M.A.; Kafi, S.T.; Ahmed, A.M.; Sid Ahamed, F.A.; Ibrahim, Z.; Suliman, M.F.; Suliman, I.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we estimated the entrance skin doses ESDs for patients undergoing selected diagnostic X -ray examinations in two large public hospitals in Khartoum state, Sudan. The study included the examinations of the chest posterior-anterior (PA) , skull antero-posterior (AP), skull Lateral (LAT) , Lumber spine AP/LAT, abdomen Intravenous urogram (IVU) and Pelvis AP. Totally, 241 patients were included in this study. ESDs were estimated from patients specific exposure parameters using established relation between output (μ Gy/mAs) and tube voltage (kVp). The estimated ESDs ranged from 0.18 - 1.05 mGy for chest PA, 0.98 - 3.48 mGy for Skull (AP), 0.66 - 2.75 mGy for skull (LAT), 1.22 - 4.35 mGy for abdomen (IVU), 1.18 - 5.75 mGy for Pelvis, 1.52 - 5.01 mGy Lumbar spine AP and 2.48 - 10.41 mGy for Lumbar spine (LAT). These values compare well with the international reference dose levels. This study provides additional data that can help the regulatory authority to establish reference dose level for diagnostic radiology in Sudan

  10. The Third International Intercomparison on EPR Tooth Dosimetry: Part 2, final analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; Debuyst, R.; Fattibene, P.; Meghzifene, A.; Onori, S.; Bayankin, S. N.; Brik, A.; Bugay, A.; Chumak, V.; Ciesielski, B.; Hoshi, M.; Imata, H.; Ivannikov, A.; Ivanov, D.; Junczewska, M.; Miyazawa, C.; Penkowski, M.; Pivovarov, S.; Romanyukha, A.; Romanyukha, L.; Schauer, D.; Scherbina, O.; Schultka, K.; Sholom, S.; Skvortsov, V.; Stepanenko, V.; Thomas, J. A.; Tielewuhan, E.; Toyoda, S.; Trompier, F.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the Third International Intercomparison on EPR Tooth Dosimetry was to evaluate laboratories performing tooth enamel dosimetry <300 mGy. Final analysis of results included a correlation analysis between features of laboratory dose reconstruction protocols and dosimetry performance. Applicability of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) tooth dosimetry at low dose was shown at two applied dose levels of 79 and 176 mGy. Most (9 of 12) laboratories reported the dose to be within 50 mGy of the delivered dose of 79 mGy, and 10 of 12 laboratories reported the dose to be within 100 mGy of the delivered dose of 176 mGy. At the high-dose tested (704 mGy) agreement within 25% of the delivered dose was found in 10 laboratories. Features of EPR dose reconstruction protocols that affect dosimetry performance were found to be magnetic field modulation amplitude in EPR spectrum recording, EPR signal model in spectrum deconvolution and duration of latency period for tooth enamel samples after preparation. (authors)

  11. IN VITRO CULTURE OF HOLOPARASITE Rafflesia arnoldii R. Brown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus Agus Sukamto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Potongan kuncup bunga digunakan sebagai eksplan yang ditumbuhkan pada media dasar Murashige and Skoog (MS dengan tambahan 0; 0.1; 0.5; 1 and 5 mg/I 2,4-D atau Picloram dan 2 g/I Phytagel. Eksplan tumbuh menjadi kalus pada media yang ditambahkan 0,1 dan 1 mg/I 2,4-D atau 0,5 dan 1 mg/I Picloram. Kultur kalus tersebut dipelihara pada media MS + 1 mg/I 2,4-D. Kemudian kalus ditumbuhkan pada medium dengan penambahan 1, 3, 5 dan 10 mg/I 2,4-D atau Picloram. Setelah dua bulan 66,67-100% kultur membentuk kalus. Semua kalus berstruktur kompak. Beberapa kalus yang diperlakuan dengan 5-10 mg/I 2,4-D menumbuhkan benang-benang putih pada permukaannya. Perlakuan Picloram menghasilkan kalus yang lebih banyak, tetapi 2,4-D menghasilkan kualitas kalus yang lebih baik. Kalus R. arnoldii tidak membentuk somatik embrio dengan penambahan 0,1 mg/I Zeatin dalam media kultur. Ini adalah laporan yang pertama kali tentang pembentukan kalus dari kultur R. arnoldii secara in vitro.

  12. Occupational and patient exposure in coronary angiography procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.; Alzimami, K.; Gafar, R.; Babikir, E.; Alsafi, K.; Suliman, I.I.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac catheterization is the gold standard in the diagnosis and management of coronary artery diseases. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the radiation dose of patients and staff during cardiology procedures. Staff was monitored using thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) chips for 86 procedures. The mean patient dose was 2813.6 µGy m 2 and the mean fluoroscopic time was 4.8 min. The mean radiation doses for cardiologists were 0.9 mGy for the forehead, 0.92 mGy for the thyroid, 1.38 mGy for the chest, 1.28 mGy for the waist and 1.41 mGy for the hand. The mean radiation doses for assistants were 0.72 mGy for the chest, 0.82 mGy for the hand. High patient and staff exposure is due to lack of experience and protective equipment, exacerbated by a high workload. Interventional procedures remain operator dependent; therefore, continuous training is crucial. - Highlights: • Patients and staff radiation doses were evaluated during coronary angiography procedures. • Radiation doses were measured using calibrated TLD GR200A. • Radiation doses to patients and staff are comparable with previous studies. • Patient radiation doses fall below the threshold for radiation-induced skin injuries

  13. Determination of gonad, eye and bone marrow doses with EMI-5005 head and whole body scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Kanae; Iwata, Takeo; Furuya, Yoshiro; Maruyama, Takashi; Hashizume, Tadashi.

    1979-01-01

    Dose determinations of tissues and organs during head and whole body scanning with an EMI computed tomographic equipment have been carried out using a Rando woman phantom. The surface dose on the phantom was measured with a Sakura lith Contact film dosimeter system. The absorbed doses in the eyes, thyroids, ovaries and the bone marrow were measured with a thermoluminescent dosimeter. The resultant surface doses for head scanning were 2.8 rad (28 mGy) per scan at maximum and 0.26 rad (2.6 mGy) per scan at minimum, and the doses for whole body scanning were 2.7 rad (27 mGy) per scan at maximum and 0.1 rad (1.0 mGy) per scan at minimum. For the complete gynecological scanning consisting of 8 slices, the eye, thyroid, ovary and the bone marrow dose was 2.4 mrad (24 μGy), 3.5 mrad (35 μGy), 500 mrad (5 mGy) and 225 mrad (2.25 mGy), respectively. And, for a typical head scanning consisting of 5 slices, the eye, thyroid, ovary and the bone marrow dose was 1400 mrad (14 mGy), 46 mrad (460 μGy), 0.60 mrad (6 μGy) and 73 mrad (730 μGy), respectively. (author)

  14. Measurements of radiation dose to patients undergoing some common radiographic x-ray examinations in Wad Madani hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedzein, T. S.

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess patient doses in most common radiographic x-ray examinations in Wad Madani hospitals of Al Gazera State. The examination parameters of 388 radiographs were used to calculate the Entrance Surface Air Kerma (ESAK) of patients undergoing skull (AP and LAT), chest (PA), pelvis (AP), abdomen (AP) and lumbar spin (AP and LAT) in six major hospitals. Hospital mean ESAKs estimated range from 0.0729-0.69 mGy for chest PA, 0.338-6.64 mGy for skull PA, 0.195-5.8 mGy for skull LAT, 0.595-3.42 mGy for pelvis AP, 0.772-6.31 mGy for lumbar spine AP, 2.1-15.2 mGy for lumbar spine LAT and 0.742-5.79 mGy for abdomen. This data will be useful for the formulation of national reference levels as recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (Author)

  15. Low-dose neutron dose response of zebrafish embryos obtained from the Neutron exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE) facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.Y.P.; Kong, E.Y.; Konishi, T.; Kobayashi, A.; Suya, N.; Cheng, S.H.; Yu, K.N.

    2015-01-01

    The dose response of embryos of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, irradiated at 5 h post fertilization (hpf) by 2-MeV neutrons with ≤100 mGy was determined. The neutron irradiations were made at the Neutron exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE) facility in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. A total of 10 neutron doses ranging from 0.6 to 100 mGy were employed (with a gamma-ray contribution of 14% to the total dose), and the biological effects were studied through quantification of apoptosis at 25 hpf. The responses for neutron doses of 10, 20, 25, and 50 mGy approximately fitted on a straight line, while those for neutron doses of 0.6, 1 and 2.5 mGy exhibited neutron hormetic effects. As such, hormetic responses were generically developed by different kinds of ionizing radiations with different linear energy transfer (LET) values. The responses for neutron doses of 70 and 100 mGy were significantly below the lower 95% confidence band of the best-fit line, which strongly suggested the presence of gamma-ray hormesis. - Highlights: • Neutron dose response was determined for embryos of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. • Neutron doses of 0.6, 1 and 2.5 mGy led to neutron hormetic effects. • Neutron doses of 70 and 100 mGy accompanied by gamma rays led to gamma-ray hormesis

  16. Estimation of entrance dose during selected fluoroscopic examinations in some hospitals in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Heba Abdalkareem Osman

    2016-01-01

    A diagnostic fluoroscopy is a modality that involves visualizing the anatomy using radiation in real time. Therefore, patients doses have a potential for being great, increasing the chance of the radiation induced carcinogenesis. The objective of this study was to determine the mean entrance surface dose (ESD) from selected fluoroscopic examinations namely, hysterosalpingography (HSG) and ascendingurethogram (ASU) in three hospitals in Khartoum State. A total of 87 and 110 patents for HSG and ASU respectively were examined. The data were collected over four months. The mean ESD for patients who underwent HSG were 16.2 mGy, 20.6 mGy and 25.9 mGY respectively, while the ESD for patient who underwent ascendingurethrogram for AP view were 3.5mGy, 2.9mGy and 11.9mGy and for OB view 15.9 mGy, 18.3 mGy and 25.4 mGy. Patient doses were calculated using mathematical equation and the results were compared with the ESDs calculated using mathematical equation and the results were found to be comparable with the ESDs reported in previous studies and within the guidance level established by the ICRP. Fluoroscopy time, operator skills, x-ray machine type and clinical complexity of the procedures were shown to be major contributors to the variations reported in the measured ESDs. The study demonstrated the need for standardization of techniques throughout the hospitals and suggested that there ia a need to optimize the procedures.(Author)

  17. Dose evaluation in special fluoroscopy procedures: Hysterosalpingography and Dacryocystography; Avaliacao de dose em procedimentos especiais de fluoroscopia: histerossalpingografia e dacriocistografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Cintya Carolina Barbosa

    2006-04-15

    The hysterosalpingography (HSG) and dacryocystography (DCG) are among the special fluoroscopy procedures. The HSG is a radiodiagnostic technique used to detect uterine and tubal pathologies and it is fundamental for the investigation of infertility. The DCG is a form of lacrimal system imaging, being important to show the level of obstruction, the presence of dilatation of the lacrimal sac, as well as alterations in nearby structures. At this research, the study of skin entrance dose was evaluated for these two special fluoroscopy procedures, besides the analyses of staff doses whose performs the exams. The exams of 22 HSG patients and 8 DCG patients were evaluated using TL-100 dosimeters attached on patient' skin at anatomical landmarks evolved on each exam. In the case of HSG, the results showed that skin entrance doses varied from 0.5 mGy to 73.4 mGy, with an average value of 22.1 mGy. The estimated uterus dose was 5.5 mGy, and 6.6 mGy was the average dose estimated to the ovaries. The patient' skin entrance dose undergoing to DCG examinations varied from 2.1 mGy to 10.6 mGy, and the average eye's dose was 6.1 mGy. The results of staff dose showed that, on HSG, the average dose on doctor's right hand was 4.3 mGy per examination. This value had to the fact that the physician introduces the contrast manually while all contrast exposures. In relation of DCG, the staff's dose values were nearby background radiation, evidencing that, inside of permitted limits, there is no risk for the physicians at this procedure. (author)

  18. Validation of the mother-generated index in Iran: A specific postnatal quality-of-life instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Khabiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mother-generated index (MGI is one of only a few existing specific questionnaires for assessing the postnatal quality of life (QoL. MGI is a single-form questionnaire that asks postnatal mothers to specify up to eight areas of their lives which have been affected by giving birth to a baby. Using this tool, it is possible to score and rank the QoL of mothers. This study aimed to validate the questionnaire for use in Iran. Methods : Forward translation was used to translate the questionnaire from English to Farsi (Persian. The questionnaire was then administered to a sample of postnatal women attending two teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Face validity and criterion validity were performed to establish the validity for the Iranian version of the MGI. Face validity was assessed by asking women to indicate whether they understood the wording of the questions, how easy the questionnaire was, and so on. Criterion validity was examined using the Short Form 36-item (SF-36 Health Survey. It was hypothesized that the MGI would significantly correlate with the SF-36. Results: In all, 124 women were approached. Of these, 119 women were eligible and 96 women agreed to take part in the study. Face validity was good and all of the women found the MGI straightforward to complete; as criterion validity, the MGI scores and the subscales of the SF-36 were moderately correlated (for all subscales: Pearson r > 0.4; P < 0.001. The mean MGI primary score was 5.38 (SD = 3.05. Women who had comorbidity had significantly lower MGI scores than women without comorbidity (P = 0.04. Correlation between aggregate of comments and primary score was high (r = 0.68, P < 0.01. Conclusions: In general, the Iranian version of the MGI performed well and our data suggest that it is a valid measure to assess health-related QoL among postnatal women.

  19. Dose evaluation in special fluoroscopy procedures: Hysterosalpingography and Dacryocystography; Avaliacao de dose em procedimentos especiais de fluoroscopia: histerossalpingografia e dacriocistografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Cintya Carolina Barbosa

    2006-04-15

    The hysterosalpingography (HSG) and dacryocystography (DCG) are among the special fluoroscopy procedures. The HSG is a radiodiagnostic technique used to detect uterine and tubal pathologies and it is fundamental for the investigation of infertility. The DCG is a form of lacrimal system imaging, being important to show the level of obstruction, the presence of dilatation of the lacrimal sac, as well as alterations in nearby structures. At this research, the study of skin entrance dose was evaluated for these two special fluoroscopy procedures, besides the analyses of staff doses whose performs the exams. The exams of 22 HSG patients and 8 DCG patients were evaluated using TL-100 dosimeters attached on patient' skin at anatomical landmarks evolved on each exam. In the case of HSG, the results showed that skin entrance doses varied from 0.5 mGy to 73.4 mGy, with an average value of 22.1 mGy. The estimated uterus dose was 5.5 mGy, and 6.6 mGy was the average dose estimated to the ovaries. The patient' skin entrance dose undergoing to DCG examinations varied from 2.1 mGy to 10.6 mGy, and the average eye's dose was 6.1 mGy. The results of staff dose showed that, on HSG, the average dose on doctor's right hand was 4.3 mGy per examination. This value had to the fact that the physician introduces the contrast manually while all contrast exposures. In relation of DCG, the staff's dose values were nearby background radiation, evidencing that, inside of permitted limits, there is no risk for the physicians at this procedure. (author)

  20. Dose evaluation in special fluoroscopy procedures: Hysterosalpingography and Dacryocystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Cintya Carolina Barbosa

    2006-04-01

    The hysterosalpingography (HSG) and dacryocystography (DCG) are among the special fluoroscopy procedures. The HSG is a radiodiagnostic technique used to detect uterine and tubal pathologies and it is fundamental for the investigation of infertility. The DCG is a form of lacrimal system imaging, being important to show the level of obstruction, the presence of dilatation of the lacrimal sac, as well as alterations in nearby structures. At this research, the study of skin entrance dose was evaluated for these two special fluoroscopy procedures, besides the analyses of staff doses whose performs the exams. The exams of 22 HSG patients and 8 DCG patients were evaluated using TL-100 dosimeters attached on patient' skin at anatomical landmarks evolved on each exam. In the case of HSG, the results showed that skin entrance doses varied from 0.5 mGy to 73.4 mGy, with an average value of 22.1 mGy. The estimated uterus dose was 5.5 mGy, and 6.6 mGy was the average dose estimated to the ovaries. The patient' skin entrance dose undergoing to DCG examinations varied from 2.1 mGy to 10.6 mGy, and the average eye's dose was 6.1 mGy. The results of staff dose showed that, on HSG, the average dose on doctor's right hand was 4.3 mGy per examination. This value had to the fact that the physician introduces the contrast manually while all contrast exposures. In relation of DCG, the staff's dose values were nearby background radiation, evidencing that, inside of permitted limits, there is no risk for the physicians at this procedure. (author)

  1. Preliminary evaluation of exposures of computerized tomography patients in Latin America: IAEA project RLA/9/67

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodlulovich, S.; Silveira, V.; Khoury, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain preliminary values of reference levels in CT . Were sent to each country forms with information of radiological protection and routine CT protocols. The CT dose index and absorbed dose to organs was estimated from the technical data for each equipment . The results showed that the total number of examinations performed 92 % are adult patients and 8 % are children. The most frequent examination of the skull was adult (40 % ) and abdomen for children (42 % ) . About the service , 67 % of the equipment are multicut and 76 % have specific protocols for pediatric patients. The CTDI vol values for head exams of adults vary between 2 and 352 mGy for pediatric patients under 1 year 1-191 mGy under 7 years old 5-335 mGy. For chest values ranged from 3 to 26 mGy for adults, between 1 and 89 mGy for children under 1 year and between 3-114 mGy for children between 1 and 7 years. Exams of the abdomen/pelvis of adults the range was 3-47 mGy , between 4-90 mGy for children under 1 year and between 2-31 mGy for children between 1 and 7 years. This study showed that although there are pediatric protocols, there is a wide variation in values of CTDl vol indicating a high potential for dose reduction. This result requires immediate action for optimization and implementation of diagnostic reference values in Latin America

  2. Preliminary evaluation of exposures of computerized tomography patients in Latin America: IAEA project RLA/9/67; Avaliacao preliminar das exposicoes de pacientes em tomografia computadorizada na America Latina: Projeto IAEA RLA/9/67

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodlulovich, S.; Silveira, V. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Khoury, H.J. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamcnto de Energia Nuclear; and others

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain preliminary values of reference levels in CT . Were sent to each country forms with information of radiological protection and routine CT protocols. The CT dose index and absorbed dose to organs was estimated from the technical data for each equipment . The results showed that the total number of examinations performed 92 % are adult patients and 8 % are children. The most frequent examination of the skull was adult (40 % ) and abdomen for children (42 % ) . About the service , 67 % of the equipment are multicut and 76 % have specific protocols for pediatric patients. The CTDI{sub vol} values for head exams of adults vary between 2 and 352 mGy for pediatric patients under 1 year 1-191 mGy under 7 years old 5-335 mGy. For chest values ranged from 3 to 26 mGy for adults, between 1 and 89 mGy for children under 1 year and between 3-114 mGy for children between 1 and 7 years. Exams of the abdomen/pelvis of adults the range was 3-47 mGy , between 4-90 mGy for children under 1 year and between 2-31 mGy for children between 1 and 7 years. This study showed that although there are pediatric protocols, there is a wide variation in values of CTDl{sub vol} indicating a high potential for dose reduction. This result requires immediate action for optimization and implementation of diagnostic reference values in Latin America.

  3. Radiation Measurement And Risk Estimation For Pediatric Patients During Routine Diagnostic Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushra, E.; Sulieman, A.; Osman, H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) to the patient using Thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLD) during some common routine pediatrics X-ray examinations in main pediatrics hospitals in Sudan. ESD and Effective Dose (E) for pediatrics have been carried out for 250 patients undergoing five different examinations. The mean ESD ranged for neonates ranged between 0.17 mGy-0.30 mGy per radiograph with scattered thyroid dose 0.01 to 0.19 mGy. The risk of radiation induced cancer of was 0.13 x 10-6.

  4. Evaluation of patient exposure with Flat Panel Detector (FPD) in X-ray TV system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, M.; Komiya, N.; Kawaguchi, A.; Suzuki, M.; Suzuki, Shoichi; Asada, Yasuki

    2008-01-01

    The use of flat-panel detector (FPD) systems in TV equipment for gastrointestinal tract examination is increasing. The use of FPD systems is believed to reduce the exposure dose. When our institution changed its TV equipment from an image intensifier (GE; MS90Tj) system to an FPD (Shimadzu; SONIALVISION safire DAR-3500) system, we measured the doses produced and carried out a comparative examination of the extent to which exposure could be reduced. Two TV systems were used. We used an analyzer to measure output waveform, tube voltage, and half-value layer (HVL), and an ionization chamber dosimeter to carry out dose-in-air measurements. Body thickness, number of image acquisitions, and fluoroscopy time are required for the calculation of entrance skin dose (ESD). We therefore measured body thicknesses in 1000 upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI) and barium enemas and obtained average body thicknesses for males and females by age group. Values used for number of image acquisitions and fluoroscopy times were the averages in our institution over a two-year period. When an I.I. system was used, the average ESD during UGI examination were 126.8 mGy fluoroscopy dose and 11.62 mGy imaging dose, for an average total dose of 138.42 mGy per examination. ESD during barium enema averaged 201.73 mGy fluoroscopy dose and 45.2 mGy imaging dose, for an average total dose of 246.92 mGy per examination. When an FPD system was used, the average ESD during UGI examination were 58.71 mGy fluoroscopy dose and 5.72 mGy imaging dose, for an average total dose of 64.43 mGy per examination. ESD during barium enema averaged 112.21 mGy fluoroscopy dose and 24.55 mGy imaging dose, for an average total dose of 136.76 mGy per examination. The use of an FPD system reduced both fluoroscopy dose and imaging dose by 50%. The number of TV systems equipped with FPD in Japan has increased from around 1300 in 2006 to around 1700 in 2007. The use of FPD systems can be expected to increase in future. This

  5. Application of low-dose radiation protocols in survey CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Qiang; Liu Ting; Lu Tao; Xu Ke; Zhang Lin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the protocols with low-dose radiation in survey CT scans for localization. Methods: Eighty standard adult patients, head and body phantoms were recruited. Default protocols provided by operator's manual setting were that all the tube voltage for head, chest, abdomen and lumbar was 120 kV; the tube currents were 20,10,20 and 40 mA, respectively. Values of kV and mA in the low-dose experiments were optimized according to the device options. For chest and abdomen, the tube position were compared between default (0 degree) and 180 degree. Phantoms were scanned with above protocols, and the radiation doses were measured respectively. Paired t-test were used for comparisons of standard deviation in CT value, noise and exposure surface dose (ESD) between group with default protocols and group with optimized protocols. Results: The optimized protocols in low-dose CT survey scans were 80 kV, 10 mA for head, 80 kV, 10 mA for chest, 80 kV, 10 mA for abdomen and 100 kV, 10 mA for lumbar. The values of ESD for phantom scan in default and optimized protocols were 0.38 mGy/0.16 mGy in head, 0.30 mGy/0.20 mGy in chest, 0.74 mGy/0.30 mGy in abdomen and 0.81 mGy/0.44 mGy in lumbar, respectively. Compared with default protocols, the optimized protocols reduced the radiation doses 59%, 33%, 59% and 46% in head, chest, abdomen and lumbar. When tube position changed from 0 degree to 180 degree, the ESD were 0.24 mGy/0.20 mGy for chest; 0.37 mGy/0.30 mGy for abdomen, and the radiation doses were reduced 20% and 17%. Conclusion: A certain amount of image noise is increased in low-dose protocols, but image quality is still acceptable without problem in CT localization. The reduction of radiation dose and the radiation harm to patients are the superiority. (authors)

  6. Positron annihilation and thermally stimulated current of electron beam irradiated polyetheretherketone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Shigetaka; Shinyama, Katsuyoshi; Baba, Makoto [Hachinohe Inst. of Tech., Hachinohe, Aomori (Japan); Suzuki, Takenori

    1997-03-01

    Positron lifetime measurements were applied to electron beam irradiated poly(ether-ether-ketone). The lifetime, {tau}{sub 3}, of the ortho-positronium of unirradiated and 5 MGy irradiated specimen became rapidly longer above about 150degC. {tau}{sub 3} of 50 MGy and 100 MGy irradiated specimen was shorter than that of unirradiated one. Thermally stimulated current (TSC) decreased with increasing the dose before voltage application. In the case of voltage application, a TSC peak appeared and the peak value decreased with increased the dose. The correlation between the results of positron annihilation and TSC was investigated. (author)

  7. Breast Radiation Dose With CESM Compared With 2D FFDM and 3D Tomosynthesis Mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Judy R; Pavlicek, William; Hanson, James A; Boltz, Thomas F; Patel, Bhavika K

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to compare radiation dose received during contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) using high- and low-energy projections with radiation dose received during 2D full field digital mammography (FFDM) and 3D tomosynthesis on phantoms and patients with varying breast thickness and density. A single left craniocaudal projection was chosen to determine the doses for 6214 patients who underwent 2D FFDM, 3662 patients who underwent 3D tomosynthesis, and 173 patients who underwent CESM in this retrospective study. Dose measurements were also collected in phantoms with composition mimicking nondense and dense breast tissue. Average glandular dose (AGD) ± SD was 3.0 ± 1.1 mGy for CESM exposures at a mean breast thickness of 63 mm. At this thickness, the dose was 2.1 mGy from 2D FFDM and 2.5 mGy from 3D tomosynthesis. The nondense phantom had a mean AGD of 1.0 mGy with 2D FFDM, 1.3 mGy with 3D tomosynthesis, and 1.6 mGy with CESM. The dense breast phantom had a mean AGD of 1.3 mGy with 2D FFDM, 1.4 mGy with 3D tomosynthesis, and 2.1 mGy with CESM. At a compressed thickness of 4.5 cm, radiation exposure from CESM was approximately 25% higher in dense breast phantoms than in nondense breast phantoms. The dose in the dense phantom at a compressed thickness of 6 cm was approximately 42% higher than the dose in the nondense phantom at a compressed thickness of 4.5 cm. CESM was found to increase AGD at a mean breast thickness of 63 mm by approximately 0.9 mGy and 0.5 mGy compared with 2D FFDM and 3D tomosynthesis, respectively. Of note, CESM provides a standard image (similar to 2D FFDM) that is obtained using the low-energy projection. Overall, the AGD from CESM falls below the dose limit of 3 mGy set by Mammography Quality Standards Act regulations.

  8. Occupational external radiation exposure in the GDR in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, W.

    1980-01-01

    In 1976 a total of 36,794 occupationally exposed persons were monitored by the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection, using film badges. The monthly over-exposures (more than 4 mGy) totalled 415. In 11 cases the monthly exposure exceeded 30 mGy and 6 annual exposure values were in the range of 50 to 120 mGy. An attempt has been made to assess the annual collective and annual per caput doses for the exposed population as a whole and some subgroups without completely summing up the individual exposure data. (author)

  9. Evaluation of experimental animal biological state at exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanov, V.A.; Rejtarova, T.Je.; Chernyikov, G.B.; Timoshevs'ka, Je.V.; Kozozojeva, O.O.

    1997-01-01

    New approaches to quantitative evaluation of ionizing radiation absorbed dose within the low-dose range (up to 400 mGy) according to the degree of the organism biological response was developed. The purpose of the stage of the work published in Communication 1 is to evaluate the shifts in the animal behaviour and cellular composition of the blood at irradiation by the dose of 100,200 and 400 mGy. Distinct dose dependence of behaviour reactions and hematological indices within the dose range of 100-400 mGy was not noted

  10. Radiation dose in vertebroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizade, A.; Lovblad, K.O.; Wilhelm, K.E.; Somon, T.; Wetzel, S.G.; Kelekis, A.D.; Yilmaz, H.; Abdo, G.; Martin, J.B.; Viera, J.M.; Ruefenacht, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    We wished to measure the absorbed radiation dose during fluoroscopically controlled vertebroplasty and to assess the possibility of deterministic radiation effects to the operator. The dose was measured in 11 consecutive procedures using thermoluminescent ring dosimeters on the hand of the operator and electronic dosimeters inside and outside of the operator's lead apron. We found doses of 0.022-3.256 mGy outside and 0.01-0.47 mGy inside the lead apron. Doses on the hand were higher, 0.5-8.5 mGy. This preliminary study indicates greater exposure to the operator's hands than expected from traditional apron measurements. (orig.)

  11. Radiation hormesis of radish using an X-ray photography device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Atsushi [Asahikawa Kousei Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Radiation hormesis was studied at an X-ray photography room. Seed of radish (Kaiwaredaikon) was irradiated by X-ray, from 10 to 3000 mGy. Since the growth of plant was the highest around 500 mGy, 100 seeds were irradiated at a dose of 500 mGy. Fifty seeds were selected and the growth rate was measured after 1 and 2 weeks. After 2 weeks, the growth of the seeds irradiated (129{+-}5 mm) was found to be higher than those without irradiation (115{+-}5 mm). (author)

  12. Coronary cineangiography and ionizing radiation exposure to patients: analysis of primary and secondary beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Alfredo; Leyton, Fernando; Silva, Ana Maria; Farias, Eric

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the level of exposure dose to patients during coronariographies in different areas of body. This study has presented the medical surveillance of 18 cases and the radiation monitoring of these patients by TLD in thyroid and pelvis (secondary beam) and, in the right and left scapular region (primary beam) for each one of these procedures. The ionizing radiation received was 215 ± 200 mGy in left scapular region (range 1-710) and 255±213 mGy in the right scapular region (range 22-635) p=NS. In the pelvic region the ionizing radiation was 0,22±0,06 mGy and in the thyroid region was 3,62±2,44 mGy

  13. Investigation of LiF, Mg and Ti (TLD-100 Reproducibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available LiF, Mg and Ti cubical TLD chips (known as TLD-100 are widely used for dosimetry purposes. The repeatability of TL dosimetry is investigated by exposing them to doses of (81, 162 and 40.5 mGy with 662keV photons of Cs-137. A group of 40 cubical TLD chips was randomly selected from a batch and the values of Element Correction Coefficient (ECC were obtained 4 times by irradiating them to doses of 81 mGy (two times, 162mGy and 40.5mGy. Results of this study indicate that the average reproducibility of ECC calculation for 40 TLDs is 1.5%, while these values for all chips do not exceed 5%.

  14. Investigation of LiF, Mg and Ti (TLD-100) Reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, M; Sina, S; Faghihi, R

    2015-12-01

    LiF, Mg and Ti cubical TLD chips (known as TLD-100) are widely used for dosimetry purposes. The repeatability of TL dosimetry is investigated by exposing them to doses of (81, 162 and 40.5 mGy) with 662keV photons of Cs-137. A group of 40 cubical TLD chips was randomly selected from a batch and the values of Element Correction Coefficient (ECC) were obtained 4 times by irradiating them to doses of 81 mGy (two times), 162mGy and 40.5mGy. Results of this study indicate that the average reproducibility of ECC calculation for 40 TLDs is 1.5%, while these values for all chips do not exceed 5%.

  15. Dosimetry comparison of pelvimetry methods using conventional radiographs and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resten, A.; Suissa, M.; Musset, D.; Mausoleo, F.; Valero, M.; Taylor, S.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the fetal and maternal exposure to radiation by use of thermoluminescent dosimeters in order to compare conventional and CT-scan X-ray. Dosimetry was performed with an anthropomorph phantom. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were positioned on the surface and in the depth of the phantom. Digital radiography of the pelvis was performed according to a standard technique. CT-scan of the pelvis was performed according to the Buthiau's technique. With CT, the dose reached 0.31 to 4.95 mGy, with a dose of 2.32 mGy for the fetal gonads. With standard technique, the doses reached 0.03 to 0.39 mGy, with a dose of 0.39 mGy for the fetal gonads. With CT the fetus and the mother were exposed to 1/10. of the total dose delivered using conventional X-rays and the dose distribution was more homogeneous. (author)

  16. Evaluation of occupational and patient radiation doses in orthopedic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.; Alzimami, K.; Habeeballa, B.; Osman, H.; Abdelaziz, I.; Sassi, S.A.; Sam, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    This study intends to measure the radiation dose to patients and staff during (i) Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS) and (ii) Dynamic Cannula Screw (DCS) and to evaluate entrance surface Air kerma (ESAK) dose and organ doses and effective doses. Calibrated Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD-GR200A) were used. The mean patients’ doses were 0.46 mGy and 0.07 mGy for DHS and DCS procedures, respectively. The mean staff doses at the thyroid and chest were 4.69 mGy and 1.21 mGy per procedure. The mean organ and effective dose for patients and staff were higher in DHS compared to DCS. Orthopedic surgeons were exposed to unnecessary radiation doses due to the lack of protection measures. The radiation dose per hip procedure is within the safety limit and less than the previous studies

  17. Maltese CT doses for commonly performed examinations demonstrate alignment with published DRLs across europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarb, F.; McEntee, M.; Rainford, L.

    2012-01-01

    This work recommends dose reference levels (DRLs) for abdomen, chest and head computerised tomography (CT) examinations in Malta as the first step towards national CT dose optimisation. Third quartiles volume CT dose index values for abdomen: 12.1 mGy, chest: 13.1 mGy and head: 41 mGy and third quartile dose-length product values for abdomen: 539.4, chest: 492 and head: 736 mGy cm -1 are recommended as Maltese DRLs derived from this first Maltese CT dose survey. These values compare well with DRLs of other European countries indicating that CT scanning in Malta is consistent with standards of good practice. Further work to minimise dose without affecting image quality and extending the establishment of DRLs for other CT examinations is recommended. (authors)

  18. Occupational radiation exposure in the GDR in 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulheim, K.F.; Rothe, W.; Scheler, R.

    1982-01-01

    As in the previous year, the centralized monitoring of radiation workers for occupational exposure was carried out on the basis of film badges (38,781 persons), measurements with a whole-body counter and analyses of biosamples (351 persons in all). According to the film data, the monthly exposures exceeding 4 mGy totalled 682 including 48 doses higher than 10 mGy. Four workers received annual doses above 50 mGy, with the highest value being 1410 mGy. For the exposed population as a whole and some sub-groups, annual collective and mean annual doses have been given. In assessing internal exposure situation, use has been made of both data from the centralized monitoring program and those determined by some nuclear facilities themselves under the auspices of the SAAS. The results gave no indication of internal doses exceeding the annual limits of intake. (author)

  19. Occupational radiation exposure in the GDR in 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulheim, K.F.; Rothe, W.; Scheler, R.

    1982-01-01

    As in the previous year, the centralized monitoring of radiation workers for occupational exposure was carried out on the basis of film badges (38,178 persons), measurements with a whole-body counter (247 persons) and analyses of biosamples (318 persons). According to the film data, the monthly exposures exceeding 4 mGy totalled 610 including 92 doses higher than 10 mGy. Six workers received annual doses above 50 mGy, with the highest value being 123 mGy. For the exposed population as a whole and some sub-groups, annual collective and mean annual doses have been given. In assessing the internal exposure situation, use has been made of both data from the centralized monitoring program and those determined by some nuclear facilities themselves under the auspices of the SAAS. The results gave no indication of internal doses exceeding the annual limits of intake. (author)

  20. Ultra-Fast All-Optical Self-Aware Protection Switching Based on a Bistable Laser Diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Yi; Vukovic, Dragana; Lorences Riesgo, Abel

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel concept of all-optical protection switching with link failure automatic awareness based on AOWFF. The scheme is experimentally demonstrated using a single MG-Y laser diode with a record switching time ~200 ps....

  1. Evaluation of external and internal irradiation on uranium mining enterprise staff by tooth enamel EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhumadilov, Kassym; Ivannikov, Alexander; Khailov, Artem; Orlenko, Sergei; Skvortsov, Valeriy; Stepanenko, Valeriy; Kuterbekov, Kairat; Toyoda, Shin; Kazymbet, Polat; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2017-11-01

    In order to estimate radiation effects on uranium enterprise staff and population teeth samples were collected for EPR tooth enamel dosimetry from population of Stepnogorsk city and staff of uranium mining enterprise in Shantobe settlment (Akmola region, North of Kazakhstan). By measurements of tooth enamel EPR spectra, the total absorbed dose in the enamel samples and added doses after subtraction of the contribution of natural background radiation are determined. For the population of Stepnogorsk city average added dose value of 4 +/- 11 mGy with variation of 51 mGy was obtained. For the staff of uranium mining enterprise in Shantobe settlment average value of added dose 95 +/- 20 mGy, with 85 mGy variation was obtained. Higher doses and the average value and a large variation for the staff, probably is due to the contribution of occupational exposure.

  2. Coronary cineangiography and ionizing radiation exposure to patients: analysis of primary and secondary beam; Cineangiografia coronaria y radiacion ionizante a pacientes. Analisis en haz primario y secundario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Alfredo; Leyton, Fernando; Silva, Ana Maria; Farias, Eric [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Hospital Clinico; Gamarra, Jorge; Oyarzun, Carlos [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCHEN), Santiago (Chile)

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the level of exposure dose to patients during coronariographies in different areas of body. This study has presented the medical surveillance of 18 cases and the radiation monitoring of these patients by TLD in thyroid and pelvis (secondary beam) and, in the right and left scapular region (primary beam) for each one of these procedures. The ionizing radiation received was 215 {+-} 200 mGy in left scapular region (range 1-710) and 255{+-}213 mGy in the right scapular region (range 22-635) p=NS. In the pelvic region the ionizing radiation was 0,22{+-}0,06 mGy and in the thyroid region was 3,62{+-}2,44 mGy.

  3. Patient and staff dose during hysterosalpinography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buls, N.; Osteaux, M.

    2001-01-01

    Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is a useful and widely employed technique which uses X-ray fluoroscopy to investigate the female genital tract. Fluoroscopy is assessed by a gynaecologist, a physician who is not always trained to work with ionising radiation. Dose-area product measurements in a group of 34 patients allowed an estimation of the median effective dose (0,83 mSv) and the median dose to the ovaries (1,63 mGy) of the patient per procedure. The dose to the staff was estimated using thermoluminescent dosimetry. The following median entrance surface doses were estimated per procedure: 0,22 mGy to the lens of the eye, 0,15 mGy to the neck at thyroid level and 0,19 mGy to the back of the hand. The annual eye dose limit could be exceeded if the gynaecologist is a member of the public. (author)

  4. Survey of image quality and patient dose in simple radiographic examinations: establishing guidance levels and comparison with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manatrakul, N.; Bunsoong, T.; Krisanachinda, A.; Suwanpradit, P.; Rungruengthanakit, P.; Kanchart, S.; Chaiwong, Rajikorn; Tsapakig, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate image quality and patient dose for commonly radiographic examinations in Thailand, to establish national reference or guidance levels (GL) and compare with international standards, as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project on Radiation Protection of Patients and Medical Exposure Control (RAS/9/034 and RAS/9/047). Materials and Methods: Film reject rate analysis, image quality and patient dose assessment before and after Quality Control (QC) implementation were investigated in 8 X-ray machines in 4 hospitals. Air kerma (in mGy) at 1 meter focus-detector-distance for different kVp settings for each X-ray machines were measured using an ionization chamber under standardized condition. The entrance skin air kerma (ESAK) for Chest PA, Lumbar spine AP, Lumbar spine LAT, Pelvis AP, Abdomen AP, Skull AP and Skull LAT were calculated for at least 10 adult patients of average body mass (60 to 80 kg) for each projection. The obtained values were compared with international standards. Results: The highest film rejection rate reduction recorded after corrective actions from 9.15% to 6.8%. Mean ESAK values were less than international standards both before and after QC implementation in all projections but Chest PA projection. Maximum ESAK in Chest PA projection before corrective action was 0.55 mGy which was higher than the IAEA GL of 0.2 mGy. However, it was reduced to 0.25 mGy after QC tests on X- ray machine and using high kilovoltage (kV) technique. Conclusion: Proposed national GL of Thailand were obtained by estimating the 3rd quartile of the whole sample: Chest PA: 0.1 mGy, Lumbar Spine AP: 2.1 mGy, Lumbar Spine LAT: 6.3 mGy, Pelvis AP: 1.8 mGy, Abdomen: 1.5 mGy, Skull PA: 1.3 mGy and Skull LAT: 0.9 mGy. (author)

  5. Thyroid Radiation Dose to Patients from Diagnostic Radiology Procedures over Eight Decades: 1930-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lienard A; Miller, Donald L; Lee, Choonsik; Melo, Dunstana R; Villoing, Daphnée; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Winters, Sarah J; Labrake, Michael; Myers, Charles F; Lim, Hyeyeun; Kitahara, Cari M; Linet, Martha S; Simon, Steven L

    2017-12-01

    This study summarizes and compares estimates of radiation absorbed dose to the thyroid gland for typical patients who underwent diagnostic radiology examinations in the years from 1930 to 2010. The authors estimated the thyroid dose for common examinations, including radiography, mammography, dental radiography, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, and computed tomography (CT). For the most part, a clear downward trend in thyroid dose over time for each procedure was observed. Historically, the highest thyroid doses came from the nuclear medicine thyroid scans in the 1960s (630 mGy), full-mouth series dental radiography (390 mGy) in the early years of the use of x rays in dentistry (1930s), and the barium swallow (esophagram) fluoroscopic exam also in the 1930s (140 mGy). Thyroid uptake nuclear medicine examinations and pancreatic scans also gave relatively high doses to the thyroid (64 mGy and 21 mGy, respectively, in the 1960s). In the 21st century, the highest thyroid doses still result from nuclear medicine thyroid scans (130 mGy), but high thyroid doses are also associated with chest/abdomen/pelvis CT scans (18 and 19 mGy for males and females, respectively). Thyroid doses from CT scans did not exhibit the same downward trend as observed for other examinations. The largest thyroid doses from conventional radiography came from cervical spine and skull examinations. Thyroid doses from mammography (which began in the 1960s) were generally a fraction of 1 mGy. The highest average doses to the thyroid from mammography were about 0.42 mGy, with modestly larger doses associated with imaging of breasts with large compressed thicknesses. Thyroid doses from dental radiographic procedures have decreased markedly throughout the decades, from an average of 390 mGy for a full-mouth series in the 1930s to an average of 0.31 mGy today. Upper GI series fluoroscopy examinations resulted in up to two orders of magnitude lower thyroid doses than the barium swallow. There are

  6. DNA alterations and effects on growth and reproduction in Daphnia magna during chronic exposure to gamma radiation over three successive generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisot, Florian; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Plaire, Delphine; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Alonzo, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We exposed three successive generations of Daphnia magna to chronic gamma radiation. • We examined DNA alterations and effects on survival, growth and reproduction. • DNA alterations were accumulated over a generation and transmitted to the progeny. • Effects on survival and reproduction, and delay in growth increased over generations. - Abstract: This study examined chronic effects of external Cs-137 gamma radiation on Daphnia magna exposed over three successive generations (F0, F1 and F2) to environmentally relevant dose rates (ranging from 0.007 to 35.4 mGy h −1 ). Investigated endpoints included survival, growth, reproduction and DNA alterations quantified using random-amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Results demonstrated that radiation effects on survival, growth and reproduction increased in severity from generation F0 to generation F2. Mortality after 21 days at 35.4 mGy h −1 increased from 20% in F0 to 30% in F2. Growth was affected by a slight reduction in maximum length at 35.4 mGy h −1 in F0 and by reductions of 5 and 13% in growth rate, respectively, at 4.70 and 35.4 mGy h −1 in F2. Reproduction was affected by a reduction of 19% in 21 day-fecundity at 35.4 mGy h −1 in F0 and by a delay of 1.9 days in brood release as low as 0.070 mGy h −1 in F2. In parallel, DNA alterations became significant at decreasing dose rates over the course of F0 (from 4.70 mGy h −1 at hatching to 0.007 mGy h −1 after ∼21 days) and from F0 to F2 (0.070 mGy h −1 at hatching to 0.007 mGy h −1 after ∼21 days), demonstrating their rapid accumulation in F0 daphnids and their transmission to offspring generations. Transiently more efficient DNA repair leading to some recovery at the organism level was suggested in F1, with no effect on survival, a slight reduction of 12% in 21 day-fecundity at 35.4 mGy h −1 and DNA alterations significant at highest dose rates only. The study improved our understanding of

  7. Evaluation of average glandular dose in mammography services in 10 cities of Colombia; Avaliacao de dose glandular media em servicos de mamografia de 10 cidades de Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alejo-Martinez, H.; Salazar-Hurtado, E.; Puerto-Jimenez, D. [Grupo de Prevencion Temprana Del Cancer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an assessment of dose in 60 mammography services that have screening programs for breast cancer in 10 cities of Colombia. The third quartile of the average glandular dose was 2,29 mGy, range between 1,0 and 5,6 mGy, for the phantom equivalent to a standard breast. This study included mammography units with conventional and digital technology. (author)

  8. Evaluation of average glandular dose in mammography services in 10 cities of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejo-Martinez, H.; Salazar-Hurtado, E.; Puerto-Jimenez, D.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an assessment of dose in 60 mammography services that have screening programs for breast cancer in 10 cities of Colombia. The third quartile of the average glandular dose was 2,29 mGy, range between 1,0 and 5,6 mGy, for the phantom equivalent to a standard breast. This study included mammography units with conventional and digital technology. (author)

  9. Comparison of radiation absorbed dose in target organs in maxillofacial imaging with panoramic, conventional linear tomography, cone beam computed tomography and computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjnoush M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: The objective of this study was to measure and compare the tissue absorbed dose in thyroid gland, salivary glands, eye and skin in maxillofacial imaging with panoramic, conventional linear tomography, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT and computed tomography (CT."nMaterials and Methods: Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD were implanted in 14 sites of RANDO phantom to measure average tissue absorbed dose in thyroid gland, parotid glands, submandibular glands, sublingual gland, lenses and buccal skin. The Promax (PLANMECA, Helsinki, Finland unit was selected for Panoramic, conventional linear tomography and cone beam computed tomography examinations and spiral Hispeed/Fxi (General Electric,USA was selected for CT examination. The average tissue absorbed doses were used for the calculation of the equivalent and effective doses in each organ."nResults: The average absorbed dose for Panoramic ranged from 0.038 mGY (Buccal skin to 0.308 mGY (submandibular gland, linear tomography ranged from 0.048 mGY (Lens to 0.510 mGY (submandibular gland,CBCT ranged from 0.322 mGY (thyroid glad to 1.144 mGY (Parotid gland and in CT ranged from 2.495 mGY (sublingual gland to 3.424 mGY (submandibular gland. Total effective dose in CBCT is 5 times greater than Panoramic and 4 times greater than linear tomography, and in CT, 30 and 22 times greater than Panoramic and linear tomography, respectively. Total effective dose in CT is 6 times greater than CBCT."nConclusion: For obtaining 3-dimensional (3D information in maxillofacial region, CBCT delivers the lower dose than CT, and should be preferred over a medical CT imaging. Furthermore, during maxillofacial imaging, salivary glands receive the highest dose of radiation.

  10. Patient exposures in Swedish diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.; Blomgren, P.-G.; Bergman, K.; Aaberg, L.

    1977-01-01

    Variations in doses between individuals and hospitals are discussed. Mean values and collective doses for Sweden are estimated. The mean annual collective dose per individual was estimated as follows: thyroid 0.75 mGy; mammae 0.54 mGy; lungs 0.64 mGy; bone marrow 0.92 mGy; ovaries 0.68 mGy and testes 0.65 mGy. The genetically significant dose was estimated as 0.7 mGy, a doubling since 1955. The annual mean whole body dose calculated from the energy imparted was 1.00 mGy. These figures should be subject to errors of about a factor of 2, mainly originating from the poor sampling technique. Some simplified risk estimates relating to the various examinations are made using the mean organ doses. These estimates indicated that within a factor of 3 up or down, the overall cancer risk might be 10 -4 J -1 , that is, an imparted energy of 10 000 J would lead to one radiation induced cancer. The estimate would apply to all examinations except those on extremities. The estimate of radiation induced cancer, uncertain as it may be, totals 8 cases per million Swedes per year, which is small compared with the natural cancer incidence of about 2000 per million and year. No corresponding simplification using energy absorbed seemed possible concerning the genetic risks. The study shows that using available examination techniques a dose reduction by a factor of 2 or more should be po

  11. Phototransfered thermoluminescence for dose reassessment in LiF:mg,ti , LiF: mg,Cu,p TL detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Otazo, M.; Baly, L.

    2001-01-01

    Phototransfered Thermoluminescence (PTTL) from LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) and LiF: Mg,Cu,P (GR-200) was studied at different conditions using different sources of UV light for dose reassessment purposes. The TL dosimeters were irradiated with 137Cs in the range 2 mGy to 100 mGy. The convenience of using PTTL for dose reassessment was analyzed

  12. Bridging the Gap: Linking Simulation and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewski, Paul E.; Carsley, John; Stoudt, Mark R.; Hovanski, Yuri

    2012-09-01

    The Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) which is a key enabler for the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership, announced in 2011 by U.S. President Barack Obama, was established to accelerate the development and deployment of advanced materials. The MGI is driven by the need to "bridge the gap" between (I) experimental results and computational analysis to enable the rapid development and validation of new mateirals, and (II) the processes required to convert these materials into useable goods.

  13. Emergency CT head and neck imaging: effects of swimmer's position on dose and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueck, Fabian G.; Roesch, Sebastian; Geyer, Lucas; Scherr, Michael; Seidenbusch, Michael; Stahl, Robert; Deak, Zsuzsanna; Wirth, Stefan [LMU Klinikum Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2014-05-15

    To compare the effects of different arm positions on dose exposure and image quality (IQ) in cervical spine CT after trauma in different patient groups. Patients in standard (STD = 126) and in swimmer's position (SWIM = 254) were included. Body mass index (BMI subgroup 1 = underweight to subgroup 4 = obese), anterior-posterior diameter (AP), left-right diameter (LR), area of an ellipse (AoE) and angle between the humeral heads (optimal STD < 3 , optimal SWIM > 10 ) were used as grouping criteria. Computed tomography dose index (CTDI) was documented. Two radiologists rated the IQ at three levels (CV1/2, CV4/5, CV7/T1) using a semi-quantitative scale (0 = not diagnostic, 1 = diagnostic with limitations, 2 = diagnostic without limitations). The Mann-Whitney U test correlations of grouping criteria with dose effects and intra-class correlation (ICC) were calculated. ICC was 0.87. BMI grouping showed the strongest correlation with dose effects: CTDI of optimal STD versus optimal SWIM positioning was 3.17 mGy versus 2.46 mGy (subgroup 1), 5.47 mGy versus 3.97 mGy (subgroup 2), 7.35 mGy versus 5.96 mGy (subgroup 3) and 8.71 mGy versus 8.18 mGy (subgroup 4). Mean IQ at CV7/T1 was 1.65 versus 1.23 (subgroup 1), 1.27 versus 1.46 (subgroup 2), 1.06 versus 1.46 (subgroup 3), 0.79 versus 1.5 (subgroup 4). Patients with a BMI > 20 kg/m{sup 2} benefited from both potential dose reduction and improved image quality at the critical cervicothoracic junction when swimmer's position was used. (orig.)

  14. Standardised approach to optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren-Forward, Helen M.; Beckhaus, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Optimisation of radiographic images is said to have been obtained if the patient has achieved an acceptable level of dose and the image is of diagnostic value. In the near future, it will probably be recommended that radiographers measure patient doses and compare them to reference levels. The aim of this paper is to describe a standardised approach to optimisation of radiographic examinations in a diagnostic imaging department. A three-step approach is outlined with specific examples for some common examinations (chest, abdomen, pelvis and lumbar spine series). Step One: Patient doses are calculated. Step Two: Doses are compared to existing reference levels and the technique used compared to image quality criteria. Step Three: Appropriate action is taken if doses are above the reference level. Results: Average entrance surface doses for two rooms were as follows AP Abdomen (6.3mGy and 3.4mGy); AP Lumbar Spine (6.4mGy and 4.1mGy) for AP Pelvis (4.8mGy and 2.6mGy) and PA chest (0.19mGy and 0.20mGy). Comparison with the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) recommended techniques identified large differences in the applied potential. The kVp values in this study were significantly lower (by up to lOkVp) than the CEC recommendations. The results of this study have indicated that there is a need to monitor radiation doses received by patients undergoing diagnostic radiography examinations. Not only has the assessment allowed valuable comparison with International Diagnostic Reference Levels and Radiography Good Practice but has demonstrated large variations in mean doses being delivered from different rooms of the same radiology department. Following the simple 3-step approach advocated in this paper should either provide evidence that department are practising the ALARA principle or assist in making suitable changes to current practice. Copyright (2004) Australian Institute of Radiography

  15. Atrazine is primarily responsible for the toxicity of long-term exposure to a combination of atrazine and inorganic arsenic in the nigrostriatal system of the albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardullas, Ulises; Giordano, Magda; Rodríguez, Verónica Mireya

    2013-01-01

    Chronic and simultaneous exposure to a variety of chemicals present in the environment is an unavoidable fact. However, given the complexity of studying chemical mixtures, most toxicological studies have focused on the effects of short-term exposure to single substances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on the nigrostriatal system of the chronic, simultaneous exposure to two widely distributed substances that have been identified as potential dopaminergic system toxicants, inorganic arsenic (iAs) and atrazine (ATR). Six groups of rats were treated daily for one year with atrazine (10mg ATR/kg), inorganic arsenic (0.5 or 50mgiAs/L of drinking water), or a combination of ATR+0.5mgiAs/L or ATR+50mgiAs/L. The 50mgiAs/L group showed locomotor hypoactivity, while all treatments decreased motor coordination in contrast no effects of treatment were found on the place and response learning tasks. Regarding markers for liver and muscle damage, there were no differences between groups in creatine kinase (CK) or aspartate transaminase (AST) activities, while decreases in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were found in some exposed groups. The striatal DA content was significantly reduced in ATR, 0.5mgiAs/L, ATR+0.5mgiAs/L, and ATR+50mgiAs/L groups, in comparison to the control group. The number of mesencephalic tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells decreased in the ATR and ATR+0.5mgiAs/L groups compared to the control. In contrast, immunoreactivity to cytochrome oxidase was reduced compared to the control in all treated groups, except for the group treated with 0.5iAsmg alone. Our results indicate that ATR has deleterious effects on dopaminergic neurons and that the combination of ATR and iAs does not exacerbate these effects. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel dendrimer based on poly (L-glutamic acid) derivatives as an efficient and biocompatible gene delivery vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Xin; Pan Shirong; Wang Chi; Wen Yuting; Wu Hongmei; Wang Cuifeng; Wu Chuanbin; Feng Min; Li Jie

    2011-01-01

    Non-viral gene delivery systems based on cationic polymers have faced limitations related to their relative low gene transfer efficiency, cytotoxicity and system instability in vivo. In this paper, a flexible and pompon-like dendrimer composed of poly (amidoamine) (PAMAM) G4.0 as the inner core and poly (L-glutamic acid) grafted low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine (PLGE) as the surrounding multiple arms was synthesized (MGI dendrimer). The novel MGI dendrimer was designed to combine the merits of size-controlled PAMAM G4.0 and the low toxicity and flexible chains of PLGE. In phosphate-buffered saline dispersions the well-defined DNA/MGI complex above a N/P ratio of 30 showed good stability with particle sizes of approximately 200 nm and a comparatively low polydispersity index. However, the particle size of the DNA/25 kDa polyethylenimine (DNA/PEI 25K) complex was larger than 700 nm under the same salt conditions. The shielding of the compact amino groups at the periphery of flexible PAMAM and biocompatible PLGE chains in MGI resulted in a dramatic decrease of the cytotoxicity compared to native PAMAM G4.0 dendrimer. The in vitro transfection efficiency of DNA/MGI dendrimer complex was higher than that of PAMAM G4.0 dendrimer. Importantly, in serum-containing medium, DNA/MGI complexes at their optimal N/P ratio maintained the same high levels of transfection efficiency as in serum-free medium, while the transfection efficiency of native PAMAM G4.0, PEI 25K and Lipofectamine 2000 were sharply decreased. In vivo gene delivery of pVEGF165/MGI complex into balloon-injured rabbit carotid arteries resulted in significant inhibition of restenosis by increasing VEGF165 expression in local vessels. Therefore, the pompon-like MGI dendrimer may be a promising vector candidate for efficient gene delivery in vivo.

  17. Breast dose reduction for chest CT by modifying the scanning parameters based on the pre-scan size-specific dose estimate (SSDE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidoh, Masafumi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Oda, Seitaro; Nakaura, Takeshi; Yuki, Hideaki; Hirata, Kenichiro; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Sakabe, Daisuke; Hatemura, Masahiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Funama, Yoshinori [Kumamoto University, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Life Sciences, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    To investigate the usefulness of modifying scanning parameters based on the size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) for a breast-dose reduction for chest CT. We scanned 26 women with a fixed volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) (15 mGy) and another 26 with a fixed SSDE (15 mGy) protocol (protocol 1 and 2, respectively). In protocol 2, tube current was calculated based on the patient habitus obtained on scout images. We compared the mean breast dose and the inter-patient breast dose variability and performed linear regression analysis of the breast dose and the body mass index (BMI) of the two protocols. The mean breast dose was about 35 % lower under protocol 2 than protocol 1 (10.9 mGy vs. 16.8 mGy, p < 0.01). The inter-patient breast dose variability was significantly lower under protocol 2 than 1 (1.2 mGy vs. 2.5 mGy, p < 0.01). We observed a moderate negative correlation between the breast dose and the BMI under protocol 1 (r = 0.43, p < 0.01); there was no significant correlation (r = 0.06, p = 0.35) under protocol 2. The SSDE-based protocol achieved a reduction in breast dose and in inter-patient breast dose variability. (orig.)

  18. Histological variations in liver of freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus exposed to 60Co gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq Bukhari, A.; Syed Mohamed, H.E.; Broos, K.V.; Stalin, A.; Singhal, R.K.; Venubabu, P.

    2012-01-01

    The irradiation effect of 60 Co at the three dose level of 3 mGy, 30 mGy and 300 mGy on the histology of liver of the freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus was investigated. The liver of O. mossambicus was dissected out and processed for light microscopy studies. 60 Co exposed O. mossambicus were found to result in several alterations in the histoarchitecture of liver. The alterations included mild congestion of blood vessels, structural alteration, cellular swelling, vacuolation and necrotic liver cells, indicating a definite response to 60 Co irradiation. The results suggest that the liver of O. mossambicus exposed to 60 Co were structurally altered with increasing dose levels. It is to record that alteration in the liver does not affect the physiology, behaviour or lethality of the individuals. Self regulating mechanisms would have influenced the liver to remain sustained. To confirm the same further studies in the direction by increasing dose level is required. - Highlights: ► Fish Oreochromis mossambicus irradiated to the dose of 3 mGy, 30 mGy and 300 mGy. ► Histoarchitecture of liver altered with increasing dose levels of 60 Co. ► Alteration in the liver does not affect the physiology, behaviour or lethality. ► Self regulating mechanisms might have prevented from Lethality. ► HSI index value for exposed group reported ( 60 Co.

  19. Entrance radiation doses during paediatric cardiac catheterizations performed for diagnosis or the treatment of congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulou, D.; Yakoumakis, Em; Sandilos, P.; Thanopoulos, V.; Makri, Tr; Gialousis, G.; Houndas, D.; Yakoumakis, N.; Georgiou, Ev

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the radiation exposure of children, during cardiac catheterizations for the diagnosis or treatment of congenital heart disease. Radiation doses were estimated for 45 children aged from 1 d to 13 y old. Thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) were used to estimate the posterior entrance dose (D P ), the lateral entrance dose (D LAT ), the thyroid dose and the gonads dose. A dose-area product (DAP) meter was also attached externally to the tube of the angiographic system and gave a direct value in mGy cm 2 for each procedure. Posterior and lateral entrance dose values during cardiac catheterizations ranged from 1 to 197 mGy and from 1.1 to 250.3 mGy, respectively. Radiation exposure to the thyroid and the gonads ranged from 0.3 to 8.4 mGy to 0.1 and 0.7 mGy, respectively. Finally, the DAP meter values ranged between 360 and 33,200 mGy cm 2 . Radiation doses measured in this study are comparable with those reported to previous studies. Moreover, strong correlation was found between the DAP values and the entrance radiation dose measured with TLDs. (authors)

  20. Radiation exposure of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography compared with full-field digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukens, Cécile R L P N; Lalji, Ulrich C; Meijer, Eduard; Bakija, Betina; Theunissen, Robin; Wildberger, Joachim E; Lobbes, Marc B I

    2014-10-01

    Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) shows promising initial results but comes at the cost of increased dose as compared with full-field digital mammography (FFDM). We aimed to quantitatively assess the dose increase of CESM in comparison with FFDM. Radiation exposure-related data (such as kilovoltage, compressed breast thickness, glandularity, entrance skin air kerma (ESAK), and average glandular dose (AGD) were retrieved for 47 CESM and 715 FFDM patients. All examinations were performed on 1 mammography unit. Radiation dose values reported by the unit were validated by phantom measurements. Descriptive statistics of the patient data were generated using a statistical software package. Dose values reported by the mammography unit were in good qualitative agreement with those of phantom measurements. Mean ESAK was 10.5 mGy for a CESM exposure and 7.46 mGy for an FFDM exposure. Mean AGD for a CESM exposure was 2.80 mGy and 1.55 mGy for an FFDM exposure. Compared with our institutional FFDM, the AGD of a single CESM exposure is increased by 1.25 mGy (+81%), whereas ESAK is increased by 3.07 mGy (+41%). Dose values of both techniques meet the recommendations for maximum dose in mammography.

  1. Results of tooth enamel EPR dosimetry for population living in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumadilov, K. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 734-8553 (Japan)], E-mail: kassym@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Ivannikov, A. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 734-8553 (Japan); Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, 249036 (Russian Federation); Apsalikov, K. [Scientific-Research Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology, Semipalatinsk 490050 (Kazakhstan); Zhumadilov, Zh. [Semipalatinsk State Medical Academy, Semipalatinsk 490050 (Kazakhstan); Zharlyganova, D. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 734-8553 (Japan); Stepanenko, V.; Skvortsov, V. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, 249036 (Russian Federation); Berekenova, G. [Scientific-Research Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology, Semipalatinsk 490050 (Kazakhstan); Toyoda, S. [Department of Applied Physics Faculty of Science Okayama University of Science, 700-0005 (Japan); Endo, S.; Tanaka, K. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 734-8553 (Japan); Miyazawa, C. [School of Dentistry, Ohu University, Koriyama-shi, Fukushima Pref. 963-8611 (Japan); Hoshi, M. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 734-8553 (Japan)

    2007-07-15

    The method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry was used on human tooth enamel to obtain individual absorbed doses of residents of settlements in the vicinity of the Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Semipalatinsk region, Kazakhstan. Measured teeth were extracted according to medical indications. In total, 105 tooth enamel samples were analyzed, including eight tooth samples from control settlement Kokpekty, which is located 400 km to the Southeast from SNTS and was not subjected to any radioactive contamination. It was found that the excess doses obtained after subtraction of the contribution of natural background radiation ranged up to about 440 mGy for residents of Dolon, whose tooth enamel was formed before 1949, and do not exceed 100 mGy for younger residents. For residents of Mostik, excess doses do not exceed 100 mGy for all ages except in one resident, for whom an extremely high dose of 1250 mGy was registered. For Bodene settlement, excess doses higher than 100 mGy were obtained for two samples from the residents having enamel formed before 1949. An extremely high dose (2800{+-}400 mGy) was obtained for one resident of Semipalatinsk City. The average excess dose for Semipalatinsk samples with enamel formation before 1949 was determined close to the average excess dose for tooth enamel samples from Dolon village.

  2. Investigating the embryo/larval toxic and genotoxic effects of {gamma} irradiation on zebrafish eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, O., E-mail: olivier.simon@irsn.fr [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Massarin, S. [Laboratoire de Modelisation Environnementale, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 159, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Coppin, F. [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Hinton, T.G. [Service d' Etude du Comportement des Radionucleides dans les Ecosystemes, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 159, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Gilbin, R. [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    Eggs/larval of freshwater fish (Danio rerio) were exposed to low dose rates of external gamma radiation (from 1 to 1000 mGy d{sup -1}) over a 20-day period, with the objective of testing the appropriateness of the 10 mGy d{sup -1} guideline suggested by the IAEA. The present study examines different endpoints, mortality and hatching time and success of embryos as well as the genotoxicity of {gamma}-irradiations (after 48 h). The 20-day embryo-larval bioassay showed an enhanced larval resistance to starvation after chronic exposure to {gamma} irradiation (from low 1 mGy d{sup -1} to high dose rate 1000 mGy d{sup -1}) and an acceleration in hatching time. Gamma irradiation led to increased genotoxic damage Ito zebrafish egg (40-50% DNA in tail in Comet assay) from the lowest dose rate (1 mGy d{sup -1}). Possible mechanisms of {gamma} radiotoxicity and implications for radioprotection are discussed. - Highlights: > Relevant information on the {gamma} radiation impact on early life stage biota is scarce. > The eggs of zebrafish Danio rerio were selected as biological model. > We test the appropriateness of the 10 mGy d{sup -1} guideline (IAEA). > We observed effects measured at individual levels (starvation, hatching time). > Chronic gamma irradiation led to increased genotoxic damage to zebrafish egg. > {gamma} radiotoxicity mechanisms and implications for radioprotection are discussed.

  3. Adaptive response of apoptosis in EL-4 lymphoma cells induced by low dose radiation and its mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuchun; Gong Pingsheng; Wang Zhicheng; Sun Liguang; Gong Shouliang

    2008-01-01

    EL-4 lymphoma cells were irradiated with the inductive doses (D1: 25-200 mGy, dose rate: 12.5mGy/min) and the challenging dose (D2:0.5-3.0 Gy, dose rate: 287 mGy/min), and the time interval between D1 and D2 was 6 h. The percentage of cell apoptosis and the expressive levels of cell apoptosis-associated gene pro- reins were measured with flow cytometry. The percentages of cell apoptosis in the D1 + D2 group with 25-100 mGy (D1) and 1.5 Gy (D2) or 75 mGy (D1) and 25-200 mGy (D2) were significantly lower than those in the D2 group. As compared with the D2 group, the positive percentage of cell Bcl-2 protein expression increased somewhat, and Bax decreased significantly, meanwhile the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax increased significantly and p53 decreased somewhat in D1 + D2 group with 25-100 mGy (D1) and 1.5 Gy (D2). The adaptive response of EL-4 lymphoma cell apoptosis could be induced by pre-irradiation with 25-100 mGy. Meantime, the expressive levels of cell apoptosis-associated gene Bcl-2, Bax and p53 proteins could change accordingly with cell apoptosis. These gene protein changes may play an important role in the mechanism of the adaptive response. (authors)

  4. Diagnostic Reference Levels for Patient Radiation Doses in Pelvis and Lumbar spine Radiography in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Yong; Lee, Byung Young; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Hyun Koo; Jung, Seunbg Hwan; Kim, Byung Woo; Kim, Hyeog Ju; Kim, Dong Sup [Radiation Safety Division National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    entrance surface dose that patients receive during the pelvis and lumbar spine radiography show the following results: in the posteroanterior view of pelvis radiography, the minimum value is 0.59 mGy, the maximum value is 12.69 mGy and the average value is 2.88 mGy with the 1st quartile value being 1.91 mGy, the median being 0.59 mGy, and the 3rd quartile value being 3.43 mGy. Also, in the posteroanterior view of lumbar spine radiography, the minimum value is 0.64 mGy, the maximum value is 23.84 mGy, and the average value is 3.68 mGy with the 1st quartile value being 2.41 mGy, the median being 3.40 mGy, and the 3rd quartile value being 4.08 mGy. In the lateral view of lumbar spine radiography, the minimum value is 1.90 mGy, the maximum value is 45.42 mGy, and the average value is 10.08 mGy with the 1st quartile value being 6.03 mGy, the median being 9.09 mGy and the 3rd quartile value being 12.65 mGy. The diagnostic reference levels for patient radiation dose to be recommended to the medical institutes in Korea is 3.42 mGy for the posteroanterior view of pelvis radiography, 4.08 mGy for the posteroanterior view of lumbar spine radiography, and 12.65 mGy for the lateral view of lumbar spine radiography. Such values are all lower than the values recommended by 6 international organizations including World Health Organization, where the recommended values are 10 mGy for the posteroanterior view of pelvis radiography, 10 mGy for the posteroanterior view of lumbar spine radiography and 30 mGy for the lateral view of lumbar spine radiography.

  5. Diagnostic Reference Levels for Patient Radiation Doses in Pelvis and Lumbar spine Radiography in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang Yong; Lee, Byung Young; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Hyun Koo; Jung, Seunbg Hwan; Kim, Byung Woo; Kim, Hyeog Ju; Kim, Dong Sup

    2009-01-01

    entrance surface dose that patients receive during the pelvis and lumbar spine radiography show the following results: in the posteroanterior view of pelvis radiography, the minimum value is 0.59 mGy, the maximum value is 12.69 mGy and the average value is 2.88 mGy with the 1st quartile value being 1.91 mGy, the median being 0.59 mGy, and the 3rd quartile value being 3.43 mGy. Also, in the posteroanterior view of lumbar spine radiography, the minimum value is 0.64 mGy, the maximum value is 23.84 mGy, and the average value is 3.68 mGy with the 1st quartile value being 2.41 mGy, the median being 3.40 mGy, and the 3rd quartile value being 4.08 mGy. In the lateral view of lumbar spine radiography, the minimum value is 1.90 mGy, the maximum value is 45.42 mGy, and the average value is 10.08 mGy with the 1st quartile value being 6.03 mGy, the median being 9.09 mGy and the 3rd quartile value being 12.65 mGy. The diagnostic reference levels for patient radiation dose to be recommended to the medical institutes in Korea is 3.42 mGy for the posteroanterior view of pelvis radiography, 4.08 mGy for the posteroanterior view of lumbar spine radiography, and 12.65 mGy for the lateral view of lumbar spine radiography. Such values are all lower than the values recommended by 6 international organizations including World Health Organization, where the recommended values are 10 mGy for the posteroanterior view of pelvis radiography, 10 mGy for the posteroanterior view of lumbar spine radiography and 30 mGy for the lateral view of lumbar spine radiography.

  6. Evaluation of an exposed-radiation dose on a dual-source cardiac computed tomography examination with a prospective electrocardiogram-gated fast dual spiral scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Kosuke; Koshida, Kichiro; Koshida, Haruka; Sakuta, Keita; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Takata, Tadanori; Horii, Junsei; Kawai, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated exposed-radiation doses on dual-source cardiac computed tomography (CT) examinations with prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated fast dual spiral scans. After placing dosimeters at locations corresponding to each of the thoracic organs, prospective ECG-gated fast dual spirals and retrospective ECG-gated dual spiral scans were performed to measure the absorbed dose of each organ. In the prospective ECG-gated fast dual spiral scans, the average absorbed doses were 5.03 mGy for the breast, 9.96 mGy for the heart, 6.60 mGy for the lung, 6.48 mGy for the bone marrow, 9.73 mGy for the thymus, and 4.58 mGy for the skin. These values were about 5% of the absorbed doses for the retrospective ECG-gated dual spiral scan. However, the absorbed dose differed greatly at each scan, especially in the external organs such as the breast. For effective and safe use of the prospective ECG-gated fast dual spiral scan, it is necessary to understand these characteristics sufficiently. (author)

  7. Correlation of patient maximum skin doses in cardiac procedures with various dose indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domienik, J.; Papierz, S.; Jankowski, J.; Peruga, J.Z.; Werduch, A.; Religa, W.

    2008-01-01

    In most countries of European Union, legislation requires the determination of the total skin dose received by patients during interventional procedures in order to prevent deterministic damages. Various dose indicators like dose-area product (DAP), cumulative dose (CD) and entrance dose at the patient plane (EFD) are used for patient dosimetry purposes in clinical practice. This study aimed at relating those dose indicators with doses ascribed to the most irradiated areas of the patient skin usually expressed in terms of local maximal skin dose (MSD). The study was performed in two different facilities for two most common cardiac procedures coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). For CA procedures, the registered values of fluoroscopy time, total DAP and MSD were in the range (0.7-27.3) min, (16-317) Gy cm 2 and (43-1507) mGy, respectively, and for interventions, accordingly (2.1-43.6) min, (17-425) Gy cm 2 , (71-1555) mGy. Moreover, for CA procedures, CD and EFD were in the ranges (295-4689) mGy and (121-1768) mGy and for PCI (267-6524) mGy and (68-2279) mGy, respectively. No general and satisfactory correlation was found for safe estimation of MSD. However, results show that the best dose indicator which might serve for rough, preliminary estimation is DAP value. In the study, the appropriate trigger levels were proposed for both facilities. (authors)

  8. Radiation pretreatments of cellulose materials for the enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Si Mamar, S.; Hadjadj, A.

    1990-01-01

    The conversion of wheat straw agricultural cellulosic wastes to reducing sugars and glucose has been studied by pretreatments by acid hydrolysis and gamma radiolysis over the dose 0-2 MGy. The pretreatment of cellulosic wastes by gamma radiolysis in the presence of sulfuric acid solution shows that the reducing sugars yield increases with the irradiation dose. The effect of radiation degradation on cellulosic wastes between 0.1 MGy and 2 MGy shows the glucose and reducing sugars yields after enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase vary with the dose. In the relatively low dose range, up to about 0.5 MGy, the reducing sugars yields vary slightly. For an acid hydrolysis followed by radiation at dose range below 0.5 MGy the reducing sugars yields are practically insensitive to radiation. On the other hand, the pretreatment by radiation in higher dose range from 0.5 to 2 MGy followed by enzymatic hydrolysis is effective for the conversion of cellulosic wastes into glucose. The radiation induced degradation of cellulose into glucose depends on the type of acid hydrolysis and on the enzymatic hydrolysis time by cellulase. Pre-irradiation in air is more effective than in acid solution. (author)

  9. Radiation pretreatments of cellulose materials for the enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamar, S. Ait Si; Hadjadj, A.

    The conversion of wheat straw agricultural cellulosic wastes to reduning sugars and glucose has been studied by pretreatments by acid hydrolysis and gamma radiolysis over the dose 0-2 MGy. The pretreatment of cellulosic wastes by gamma radiolysis in the presence of sulfuric acid solution shows that the reducing sugars yield increases with the irradiation dose. The effect of radiation degradation on cellulosic wastes between 0.1 MGy and 2 MGy shows the glucose and reducing sugars yields after enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase vary with the dose. In the relatively low dose range, up to about 0.5 MGy, the reducing sugars yields vary slightly. For an acid hydrolysis followed by radiation at dose range below 0.5 MGy the reducing sugars yields are practically insensitive to radiation. On the other hand, the pretreatment by radiation in higher dose range from 0.5 to 2 MGy followed by enzymatic hydrolysis is effective for the conversion of cellulosic wastes into glucose. The radiation induced degradation of cellulose into glucose depends on the type of acid hydrolysis and on the enzymatic hydrolysis time by cellulase. Pre-irradiation in air is more effective than in acid solution.

  10. Radiation and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    The editorial comments on a report published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima updating information on the induction of mental changes in the light of the revised and more detailed estimate of doses of radiation during pregnancies received by those exposed at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The estimated risks are little changed. The likelihood of a threshold for exposure during the 16th to 25th week is confirmed-at 700 mGy (with a lower 95% confidence interval of 200 mGy). For the more sensitive time between the eighth to 15th weeks a linear model with no threshold still gives a statistically adequate fit to the data. Now, however, if linear models are tested without the constraint of postulating a threshold of zero, fits are obtained indicating substantial thresholds below which mental retardation would not result. When data on all children are included the maximum likelihood threshold value averages about 250 mGy on the different criteria tested (with mean 95% confidence intervals of 0 and 550 mGy). Or if the analyses exclude five children with conditions that themselves sometimes cause mental retardation a threshold of about 400 mGy is indicated (with mean 95% confidence intervals of 150 and 600 mGy). (author)

  11. Impact of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) on radiation dose and image quality in aortic dissection studies: a qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornfeld, Daniel; Israel, Gary; Detroy, Ezra; Bokhari, Jamal; Mojibian, Hamid

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to quantify the radiation dose reduction achieved when imaging the aorta using Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) and to determine if this has an effect on image quality. We retrospectively reviewed 31 CT angiography examinations of the thoracic and abdominal aorta performed with ASIR and 32 consecutive similar examinations performed without ASIR. Volume CT dose index (CTDI(vol)), dose-length product (DLP), aortic enhancement at multiple levels, aorta-to-muscle contrast-to-noise ratio at multiple levels, and subjective image quality were compared between the two groups. The mean CTDI(vol) and DLP were significantly lower for the studies performed with ASIR versus studies without ASIR (15.6 vs 21.5 mGy, with an average difference of 5.8 mGy [95% CI 2.3-9.4 mGy] and 818 vs 1075 mGy × cm with an average difference of -257 mGy × cm [54-460 mGy × cm], respectively). Aortic enhancement, aortic signal-to-noise ratio, and aortic to muscle contrast-to-noise ratio were not different between the two groups. Subjectively, one reviewer preferred the non-ASIR images and one found the images equivalent. Both reviewers believed the images were of diagnostic quality. A 29% decrease in CTDI(vol) and a 20% decrease in DLP were obtained in scans with ASIR compared with scans without ASIR, without a quantitative loss of image quality.

  12. National reference doses for dental cephalometric radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, J R

    2011-12-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are an important tool in the optimisation of clinical radiography. Although national DRLs are provided for many diagnostic procedures including dental intra-oral radiography, there are currently no national DRLs set for cephalometric radiography. In the absence of formal national DRLs, the Health Protection Agency (HPA) has previously published National Reference Doses (NRDs) covering a wide range of diagnostic X-ray examinations. The aim of this study was to determine provisional NRDs for cephalometric radiography. Measurements made by the Dental X-ray Protection Service (DXPS) of the HPA, as part of the cephalometric X-ray equipment testing service provided to dentists and dental trade companies throughout the UK, were used to derive provisional NRDs. Dose-area product measurements were made on 42 X-ray sets. Third quartile dose-area product values for adult and child lateral cephalometric radiography were found to be 41 mGy cm² and 25 mGy cm², respectively, with individual measurements ranging from 3 mGy cm² to 108 mGy cm². This report proposes provisional NRDs of 40 mGy cm² and 25 mGy cm² for adult and child lateral cephalometric radiographs, respectively; these doses could be considered by employers when establishing their local DRLs.

  13. Evaluation of pediatrics entrance surface air kerma during chest X-ray examinations in some Khartoum hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Hassan Ishag Yahya

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the amount of entrance surface air kerma dose in air that can reflect the amount of the risk that the children, are subjected to. The parameters that are involved in this project are x-ray tube current (mA), exposure time (sec.), and focal skin distance (FSD) in cm. ESAK is calculated using the equation: ESAK=(Output (mGy/mAs) x (100/FSD) 2 X mAs) for different examination of different patients. 65 cases were involved in this study, the results show that the ESAK mean value (0.18±0.07) mGy, (0.06±0.07) mGy, (0.045±0.017) mGy and (0.049±0.013) mGy at the hospitals (IBNIOF Omdurman, police, clinic doctor) respectively. IBNIOF presented the highest ESAK (0.18±0.07) mGy, while it was lowest in police (0.045±0.017) mGy. The estimated ESAK value were within the established international reference dose values and also the values obtained in pervious studies however, variations were observed in ESAK values among hospitals under study which could be due to the differences in exposure parameters used. Also tube output has some effect on obtained ESAK. (author)

  14. Effects of Chronic Low-Dose Radiation on Human Neural Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Mari; Cyou-Nakamine, Hiromasa; Zen, Qin; Zen, Yang; Nansai, Hiroko; Amagasa, Shota; Kanki, Yasuharu; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Kaneki, Kiyomi; Taguchi, Akashi; Kobayashi, Mika; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Wada, Youichiro; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Sone, Hideko

    2016-01-01

    The effects of chronic low-dose radiation on human health have not been well established. Recent studies have revealed that neural progenitor cells are present not only in the fetal brain but also in the adult brain. Since immature cells are generally more radiosensitive, here we investigated the effects of chronic low-dose radiation on cultured human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from embryonic stem cells. Radiation at low doses of 31, 124 and 496 mGy per 72 h was administered to hNPCs. The effects were estimated by gene expression profiling with microarray analysis as well as morphological analysis. Gene expression was dose-dependently changed by radiation. By thirty-one mGy of radiation, inflammatory pathways involving interferon signaling and cell junctions were altered. DNA repair and cell adhesion molecules were affected by 124 mGy of radiation while DNA synthesis, apoptosis, metabolism, and neural differentiation were all affected by 496 mGy of radiation. These in vitro results suggest that 496 mGy radiation affects the development of neuronal progenitor cells while altered gene expression was observed at a radiation dose lower than 100 mGy. This study would contribute to the elucidation of the clinical and subclinical phenotypes of impaired neuronal development induced by chronic low-dose radiation.

  15. Profil Pasien HIV di Klinik VCT Sehati RSUD Dr. T.C. Hillers Maumere Tahun 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidwina Anissa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Infeksi HIV merupakan masalah kesehatan dunia. Terdapat peningkatan jumlah infeksi baru di Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui profil  pasien HIV di area rural. Studi ini merupakan studi potong lintang dengan data register pasien dalam periode Januari – Desember 2014. HIV di Klinik VCT Sehati RSUD Dr.TC Hillers Maumere, Kabupaten Sikka. Terdapat 104 pasien  yang terdiagnosis HIV positif, 64,4% di antaranya adalah laki-laki. Tingkat pendidikan terbanyak adalah tingkat pendidikan menengah (46,2% dan rendah (44,2%. Rute transmisi terbanyak adalah hubungan seksual heteroseksual (74%. Gejala terbanyak yang dikeluhkan pasien adalah batuk lama, penurunan berat badan dan demam naik turun. Infeksi oportunistik terbanyak adalah TB paru dan kandidosis oral. Infeksi HIV membutuhkan penangan secara holistik yang menjamin kualitas hidup pasien baik dari aspek fisik dan psikis. Edukasi kesehatan reproduksi terutama HIV dan infeksi menular seksual lainnya memegang peranan penting dalam rangka upaya meningkatkan wawasan mengenai HIV sekaligus sebagai upaya pencegahan infeksi baru dan pemutusan rantai penularan. Dukungan peer group memiliki peranan penting dalam peningkatan kualitas hidup pasien. Kata kunci: HIV, heteroseksual, homoseksual, infeksi oportunistik, rute transmisi.   HIV Patients’ Profile in Sehati VCT Clinic Dr.T.C. Hillers Maumere in 2014 Abstract HIV infection is one of global health problems. The number of new infection is increasing in Indonesia. This research aims to study the profile of HIV patients in rural area. This reasearch is a cross-sectional study on patients registers in Sehati Voluntary Counseling Testing / HIV care unit in Dr.TC Hillers District General Hospital, Sikka Regency during January untill December 2014 period. There were 104 subjects diagnosed as HIV positive and 64.4% of them were male. The most common education level was middle school (46.2% and elementary school (44.2%. The most frequent

  16. Resolving the Timing of Events Around the Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprain, Courtney Jean

    Despite decades of study, the exact cause of the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (KPB) mass extinction remains contentious. Hypothesized scenarios center around two main environmental perturbations: voluminous (>10 6 km3) volcanic eruptions from the Deccan Traps in modern-day India, and the large impact recorded by the Chicxulub crater. The impact hypothesis has gained broad support, bolstered by the discoveries of iridium anomalies, shocked quartz, and spherules at the KPB worldwide, which are contemporaneous with the Chicxulub impact structure. However, evidence for protracted extinctions, particularly in non-marine settings, and paleoenvironmental change associated with climatic swings before the KPB, challenge the notion that the impact was the sole cause of the KPB mass extinction. Despite forty years of study, the relative importance of each of these events is unclear, and one key inhibitor is insufficient resolution of existing geochronology. In this dissertation, I present work developing a high-precision global chronologic framework for the KPB that outlines the temporal sequence of biotic changes (both within the terrestrial and marine realms), climatic changes, and proposed perturbations (i.e. impact, volcanic eruptions) using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and paleomagnetism. This work is focused on two major areas of study: 1) refining the timing and tempo of terrestrial ecosystem change around the KPB, and 2) calibrating the geomagnetic polarity timescale, and particularly the timing and duration of magnetic polarity chron C29r (the KPB falls about halfway into C29r). First I develop a high-precision chronostratigraphic framework for fluvial sediments within the Hell Creek region, in NE Montana, which is one of the best-studied terrestrial KPB sections worldwide. For this work I dated 15 tephra deposits with +/- 30 ka precision using 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology, ranging in time from 300 ka before the KPB to 1 Ma after. By tying these results to paleontological

  17. HARMONIC SPACE ANALYSIS OF PULSAR TIMING ARRAY REDSHIFT MAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roebber, Elinore; Holder, Gilbert, E-mail: roebbere@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics and McGill Space Institute, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montréal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2017-01-20

    In this paper, we propose a new framework for treating the angular information in the pulsar timing array (PTA) response to a gravitational wave (GW) background based on standard cosmic microwave background techniques. We calculate the angular power spectrum of the all-sky gravitational redshift pattern induced at the Earth for both a single bright source of gravitational radiation and a statistically isotropic, unpolarized Gaussian random GW background. The angular power spectrum is the harmonic transform of the Hellings and Downs curve. We use the power spectrum to examine the expected variance in the Hellings and Downs curve in both cases. Finally, we discuss the extent to which PTAs are sensitive to the angular power spectrum and find that the power spectrum sensitivity is dominated by the quadrupole anisotropy of the gravitational redshift map.

  18. Generation and analyses of human synthetic antibody libraries and their application for protein microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Säll, Anna; Walle, Maria; Wingren, Christer

    2016-01-01

    in a high-throughput manner. To address this we designed and constructed two human synthetic antibody fragment (scFv) libraries denoted HelL-11 and HelL-13. By the use of phage display technology, in total 466 unique scFv antibodies specific for 114 different antigens were generated. The specificities......Antibody-based proteomics offers distinct advantages in the analysis of complex samples for discovery and validation of biomarkers associated with disease. However, its large-scale implementation requires tools and technologies that allow development of suitable antibody or antibody fragments...... for diagnostics and therapeutics. In addition, this work provides a great example on how a synthetic approach can be used to optimize library designs. By having precise control of the diversity introduced into the antigen-binding sites, synthetic libraries offer increased understanding of how different diversity...

  19. Hiina kiire majanduskasv kergitab nafta hinda / Lauri Matsulevitsh, Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matsulevitsh, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    Toornafta hind on praegu rekordiliselt kõrgel tasemel, tõustes 12. augustil Londoni naftabörsil 66,45 dollarini barrelist. Hinnatõusu peamisteks põhjusteks peetakse Pärsia lahe ebastabiilset olukorda ja Aasia kiirest majanduskasvust tingitud tarbimise kasvu. Diagrammid: Nafta hind on aastaga kallinenud poole võrra; Nafta tarbimise järsku kasvu on oodata Aasias. Vt. samas lühiintervjuud Statoil Eesti juht Helle Kirsiga: Bensiini hind jõuab 14 kroonini

  20. Noninvasive Spatially Offset and Transmission Raman Mapping of Breast Tissue: A Multimodal Approach Towards the In Vivo Assessment of Tissue Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    16. Hell, S.; Reiner, G.; Cremer , C.; Stelzer, E.H.K. Aberrations in confocal fluorescence microscopy induced by mismatches in refractive index. J...jp402392y Paper 6: Mayerich, David ; Walsh, Michael; Schulmerich, Matthew; Bhargava, Rohit; Real-time interactive data mining for chemical imaging...RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Real-time interactive data mining for chemical imaging information: application to automated histopathology David

  1. Pärnu on Eesti funktsionalismi lipulaev / Anu Villmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Villmann, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Pärnu uusehitistest - Seedri tänava elamud (arhitekt Kalle Vellevoog), kortermaja Tammsaare ja Lehe tänava nurgal (arhitekt Tanel Tuhal arhitektuuribüroost Luhse ja Tuhal) ja kesklinna koolide võimla (arhitektid Katrin Koov, Siiri Vallner, Kaire Nõmm ja Heidi Urb arhitektuuribüroost KAVA KAVA). Pärnu arhitektuurist võtavad sõna Pärnu Linnavalitsuse arhitekt Karri Tiigisoon, Helle-Ann Urgard, Tanel Tuhal, Hardi Lehemaa ja Toomas Unt

  2. Helicopters in Irregular Warfare: Algeria, Vietnam, and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    with guns, missiles, and rockets. It is unlikely that aerial artillery won South Vietnamese hearts and minds, but 179Ibid. 180Interview with Stanley...American Struggle for Vietnam’s Hearts and Minds (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995), 33. 217Bruscino, Occasional Paper #17, 37. 218Bruce Palmer... malformed or otherwise ‘reorganized’ is still one hell of a poor instrument with which to engage insurgents.358 — Anonymous U.S. General The

  3. A Review of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) Detector Technologies and Commercial-Off-The-Shelf Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Environmental Health Perspectives 1994, 102, 18-38. 21. La Franchi , P., Chemical and Biological Weapons: The War from Hell. ADM September, 1995, pp 9-10...One-to-Five Gas Monitor with VOC Detection. In ENVCO Global . DSTO-GD-0570 98 152. MultiRAE Plus. In RAE Systems: San Jose, CA. 153. ToxiRAE Plus PID...158. Rippen, M., Chemical and Biological Agent Sensor/Detector Systems Technology Development for Applications in the Global War on Terrorism. In

  4. Infabric - "Dive into the fabric of opinion"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    "Why should I trust this article and not that one? Why the hell do you think something sooo stupid!?" I want to build an interactive online publishing platform promoting fact-based structured argumentation designed to act as an antidote for problems of the post-truth society. I'm looking for people who would like to help me to create a prototype right now.

  5. Three L-subshells atomic model to compute counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides; Modelo con tres subcapas L para calcular la eficiencia de recuento de nucleidos que se desintegran por captura electronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau, A.; Arcos, J. M. los

    1986-07-01

    The present paper develops a three L-subshell a and K, M-a hells atomic model in order to obtain the counting efficiency in liquid scintillation counting. Mathematical expressions are given to calculate the probabilities of 264 different atomic rearrangement way so as the corresponding effective energies. This new model will permit to test the influence of the different atomic and nuclear parameters upon the counting efficiency nuclides of low and medium atomic number decaying by electron capture. (Author) 8 refs.

  6. Figuur teeb võidukäiku / Krista Piirimäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piirimäe, Krista, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Tartu kunstnike aastalõpunäitus Tartu Kunstimajas kuni 22. I. Näituse on kujundanud Maris Palgi ja Rauno Moss. Jaan Punga, Sven Saagi, Albert Gulki, Markus Kasemaa, Saskia Kasemaa, Rauno Mossi, Meiu Mündi, Külli Kalde, Anne Vasara, Piret Mihkelseni, Priit Pajose, Harri Puderselli, Imat Suumanni, Eda Lõhmuse, Sütevaka Andrese, Tiit Tamme, Helle Vahersalu, Malev Toome, Jass Kaselaane, Jaan Luige, Tõnis Paberiti ja Ahti Seppeti töödest

  7. THE AMERINDIANS IN THE THREADS OF CHRISTIAN AFTERLIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória Kok

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the work of Jesuits on the reorganization of the dead´s world of the Tupi-Guarani Indians, in order to fit it in the christian model of afterlife. In consequence, images and visions related to Heaven, Hell and Purgatory were disseminated and translated in multiple forms by the Indians of Portuguese America during the cathechization´s process.

  8. Hvem underviser i massekommunikation? - hvordan? - og hvad mangler?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Alrø

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Disse spørgsmål har Helle Arø og Birgitte Tufte forsøgt at få besvaret ved hjælp af et spørgeskema, der blev udsendt via de faglige foreningers blade. Svarprocenten har indtil nu ikke været stor, men alligevel kan de indkomne svar nok belyse tendenserne inden for medieundervisningen på forskellige uddannelsestrin: i folkeskolen, i gymnasiet og på HF.

  9. Täna austatakse kunstnik Edgar Valteri ja helilooja Raimo Kangro mälestust

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Edgar Valteri 80. sünniaastapäeva tähistav konverents, tema raamatu "Karid ja kõrgused. I" (Tartu : Elmatar, 2009) esitlus ning Helle Laanpere ja Külli Leppiku koostatud näituse "Edgar Valter 80. Vaikse vaatlemise keeles" avamine 21. septembril Eesti Rahvusraamatukogus. Eesti Lastekirjanduse Keskuse Edgar Valteri galeriis näitus "Ilusad pildid". Estonia kontserdisaalis Raimo Kangro 60. sünniaastapäevale pühendatud kontsert

  10. Música medieval al més enllà

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toldrà i Vilardell, Albert

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the Middle Ages anthropomorphic and anachronical conception, in the other world -in heaven and in hell- they play, listen and dance different musics, vochal and instrumental, mystical hymns or torture shapes. There is too a defined and giving legitimation liturgycal and musical collaboration between heaven and earth’s church, which devils try to sabotage. And different heavenly and hellish attitudes, from pleasure to absolut condemnation, towards human musicians and musics.

    No disponible

  11. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-11

    dawn will at last come and rehabilitate us. One wonders when the hell road travelled from the last Election Cell to our present hopelessness will ever...anxiously watch the unfolding political drama as our ruling elite vie for power at the expense of national JPRS-NEA-93-087 11 August 1993 ECONOMIC 47... therapy " and insists on the need for a substantial number of clinical psychologists at the hospitals. According to doctors, acid causes instant damage to

  12. Gateway. Volume 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Hart, Sandra G ; Drury , Colin G ; Hancock, Peter A ; Szalma, James...interventions, thereby improving threat inspection and, ultimately, homeland security. n For more information please contact: Colin G. Drury , Ph.D. University...at Buffalo, SUNY Department of Industrial Engineering 342 Bell Hell Hall Buffalo, NY 14260 A Unified Model of Security Inspection Colin G. Drury

  13. Defeating the Modern Asymmetric Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The warrior caste, for instance, played a role in keeping royalty in check. The highest caste to which Sinhalese could belong was the cultivator...1500s the Tamil kingdom defended the island from Indian encroachment. However, the Tamils would not stop two invasions by a Malaysian 14 Buddhist...king hell bent on capturing the Buddha’s tooth from the Sinhalese. The Malaysians did not succeed, but the Tamil indifference angered the Chinese Ming

  14. Building Partnership Capacity at the Ministerial Level to Improve Gender Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    suggested I read some of the research of Dr. Aili Tripp and Peace Medie which were of considerable help to my literature review. Most importantly, I am...59 The Consequences of Culture–Policy vs . Implementation ....................................... 62 Section Three: The Whole of Government...2013, 387). The 2008 documentary , Pray the Devil Back to Hell tells the story of a group of Liberian women who would not succumb to fear. The film

  15. Kümme aastat R-klubi / Maria-Maren Sepper

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepper, Maria-Maren

    2014-01-01

    R-klubi (aeg-ajalt Tallinnas kogunev klubi, mis pakub tagasisidet eesti keele alases uurimistöös, ennekõike väitekirjauurimuste tegemisel ja artiklite publitseerimisel) 10. aastapäeva puhul peetud seminarist Tallinna Ülikoolis 21.3.2014. R-klubi sai alguse Helle Metslangi juhendatavate TLÜ kraadiõppurite tööde ühisaruteludest

  16. Koos kodus ja tööl / Milla Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Milla, 1949-

    2005-01-01

    Külaskäigust sisearhitektidest abielupaari Helle ja Taevo Gansi koju Nõmmel. Arhitekt August Volbergi projekti järgi 1937. a. valminud funktsionalistlik üherpereelamu on ümber ehitatud kahe pere elamuks. 1988. a. H. ja T. Gansi loodud perefirmast AS Stuudio Gadis, kus töötab ka üks lastest sisearhitekt Riia Oja. H. ja T. Gans oma perekonnast, tööst perefirmas, vana maja kujundamisest jm. 6 värv. ill

  17. Ühised juured: Kesk-Euroopa disain Iisraelis / Kai Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Kai, 1975-

    2012-01-01

    Näitus "Common Roots. Design Map on Central Europe" Holoni disainimuuseumis kuni 23.02.2013. Eestist esindavad nüüdisaegset disaini Sixten Heidmets / Fellin Furniture, Monika Järg, Jüri Kermik, Kerttu Laane, Jaanus Orgusaar, Kristi Paap, Villu Pruulmann, Ruumilabor, Pavel Sidorenko ja Igor Volkov. Ajaloolise disaini osas on väljas Helle Gansi, Maile Grünbergi ning Tarbeklaasi ja Estoplasti tööd

  18. Farestrategier og trampolinleg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    Vild og farlig leg på havetrampoliner udfordrer børns sikkerhed og tryghed og er samtidig både udviklende og udfordrende. Børn kan lære at håndtere risici, når de leger på trampolinen. Helle Skovbjerg Karoff er adjunkt ved Aalborg Universitet/København og knyttet til forskningslaboratoriet for IT...

  19. Luistelulaite : jatkokehittely

    OpenAIRE

    Sorsa, Anssi

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aihe on Heikki Kajastien / Gloway Invent Oy:n kehittelemän luistelulaitteen prototyypin jatkokehittely. Luistelulaitteella voidaan harjoittaa luistelijalle tärkeitä jalan lihaksia, joiden harjoittaminen muilla olemassa olevilla kuntosalilaitteilla ei onnistu. Koska laitteen liikeratoja ja kuntoiluvastuksia vastaavia tai lähellä olevia kuntosalilaitteita ei ole olemassa, vaan liikeradat muistuttavat enemmänkin jalkojen suoristaja ja loitontaja -laitteiden välimuotoa, niin laittee...

  20. Reincarnation belief and the Christian churches

    OpenAIRE

    Waterhouse, Helen; Walter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Reincarnation has never been part of mainstream Christian theology. This is true in spite of periodic speculations by Christian theologians, and in spite of the fact that reincarnation believers sometimes wrongly impute belief in reincarnation to prominent Christian thinkers. Even so, in 1984 Paul Badham was able to point to statistics which indicated that as many Anglicans believed in reincarnation as believed in heaven and hell. This paper is based on the responses of the many Christians wh...

  1. The furculae of the dromaeosaurid dinosaur Dakotaraptor steini are trionychid turtle entoplastra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M. Arbour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dakotaraptor steini is a recently described dromaeosaurid dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian Hell Creek Formation of South Dakota. Included within the D. steini hypodigm are three elements originally identified as furculae, one of which was made part of the holotype specimen. We show that the elements described as D. steini ‘furculae’ are not theropod dinosaur furculae, but are rather trionychid turtle entoplastra referable to cf. Axestemys splendida. The hypodigm of D. steini should be adjusted accordingly.

  2. Musical Emotions: Functions, Origins, Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    modulated Pavlovian conditioning : Blocking, interstimulus interval, and secondary reinforcement. Applied Optics 1987;26:5015–30. [40] Guttfreund DG. Effects... condition of a hell of unending misery.” [98]. The same appeal to reason as a positive content of music we find 800 years later in Boethius (5 c...this review would be a very boring exercise, if you do not believe that your life has a purpose. It would be more fun to get drunk or high on drugs

  3. SU-F-I-46: Optimizing Dose Reduction in Adult Head CT Protocols While Maintaining Image Quality in Postmortem Head Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipnharski, I; Carranza, C; Quails, N; Correa, N; Rajderkar, D; Bennett, J; Rill, L; Arreola, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To optimize adult head CT protocol by reducing dose to an appropriate level while providing CT images of diagnostic quality. Methods: Five cadavers were scanned from the skull base to the vertex using a routine adult head CT protocol (120 kVp, 270 mA, 0.75 s rotation, 0.5 mm × 32 detectors, 70.8 mGy CTDIvol) followed by seven reduced-dose protocols with varying combinations of reduced tube current, reduced rotation time, and increased detectors with CTDIvol ranging from 38.2 to 65.6 mGy. Organ doses were directly measured with 21 OSL dosimeters placed on the surface and implanted in the head by a neurosurgeon. Two neuroradiologists assessed grey-white matter differentiation, fluid space, ventricular size, midline shift, brain mass, edema, ischemia, and skull fractures on a three point scale: (1) Unacceptable, (2) Borderline Acceptable, and (3) Acceptable. Results: For the standard scan, doses to the skin, lens of the eye, salivary glands, thyroid, and brain were 37.55 mGy, 49.65 mGy, 40.67 mGy, 4.63 mGy, and 27.33 mGy, respectively. Two cadavers had cerebral edema due to changing dynamics of postmortem effects, causing the grey-white matter differentiation to appear less distinct. Two cadavers with preserved grey-white matter received acceptable scores for all image quality features for the protocol with a CTDIvol of 57.3 mGy, allowing organ dose savings ranging from 34% to 45%. One cadaver allowed for greater dose reduction for the protocol with a CTDIvol of 42 mGy. Conclusion: Efforts to optimize scan protocol should consider both dose and clinical image quality. This is made possible with postmortem subjects, whose brains are similar to patients, allowing for an investigation of ideal scan parameters. Radiologists at our institution accepted scan protocols acquired with lower scan parameters, with CTDIvol values closer to the American College of Radiology’s (ACR) Achievable Dose level of 57 mGy.

  4. SU-F-I-46: Optimizing Dose Reduction in Adult Head CT Protocols While Maintaining Image Quality in Postmortem Head Scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipnharski, I; Carranza, C; Quails, N; Correa, N; Rajderkar, D; Bennett, J; Rill, L; Arreola, M [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To optimize adult head CT protocol by reducing dose to an appropriate level while providing CT images of diagnostic quality. Methods: Five cadavers were scanned from the skull base to the vertex using a routine adult head CT protocol (120 kVp, 270 mA, 0.75 s rotation, 0.5 mm × 32 detectors, 70.8 mGy CTDIvol) followed by seven reduced-dose protocols with varying combinations of reduced tube current, reduced rotation time, and increased detectors with CTDIvol ranging from 38.2 to 65.6 mGy. Organ doses were directly measured with 21 OSL dosimeters placed on the surface and implanted in the head by a neurosurgeon. Two neuroradiologists assessed grey-white matter differentiation, fluid space, ventricular size, midline shift, brain mass, edema, ischemia, and skull fractures on a three point scale: (1) Unacceptable, (2) Borderline Acceptable, and (3) Acceptable. Results: For the standard scan, doses to the skin, lens of the eye, salivary glands, thyroid, and brain were 37.55 mGy, 49.65 mGy, 40.67 mGy, 4.63 mGy, and 27.33 mGy, respectively. Two cadavers had cerebral edema due to changing dynamics of postmortem effects, causing the grey-white matter differentiation to appear less distinct. Two cadavers with preserved grey-white matter received acceptable scores for all image quality features for the protocol with a CTDIvol of 57.3 mGy, allowing organ dose savings ranging from 34% to 45%. One cadaver allowed for greater dose reduction for the protocol with a CTDIvol of 42 mGy. Conclusion: Efforts to optimize scan protocol should consider both dose and clinical image quality. This is made possible with postmortem subjects, whose brains are similar to patients, allowing for an investigation of ideal scan parameters. Radiologists at our institution accepted scan protocols acquired with lower scan parameters, with CTDIvol values closer to the American College of Radiology’s (ACR) Achievable Dose level of 57 mGy.

  5. Long-Distance Free Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Joseph

    1999-04-01

    One of the goals of physics education is to instill a sense of wonder in our students. We hope our natural curiosity will rub off on them and that they will apply the critical thinking skills we teach them to other aspects of their lives outside the classroom. As an example of this, consider the situation described in Milton's epic poem ``Paradise Lost''. Milton wrote that when the devil was cast out of heaven, he fell for nine days before landing in hell. In Milton's universe, hell is a separate place from Earth, but many people place hell at the center of the Earth. Based on these ideas, we can apply Newton's laws of motion to calculate the distance from heaven to Earth. This exercise is an example of the kind of intellectual exercise a physicist (or a physics student) might carry out when confronted with such information. We apply the basic principles of physics to a situation described in work of literature while making no attempt to validate or refute any philosophy, theology or ideology.

  6. Evaluation of radiation dose during the percutaneous angioplasty for arteriovenous shunt assembling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, Chien-Yi; Wu, Wen-Shiann; Tang, Kuo-Ting; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Lin, Chun-Chih

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) for dysfunctional hemodialysis is usually performed by radiologists, but not cardiologists, in Taiwan, so that the radiation dose in patients and physicians are usually unknown and related studies are rare. In this study, we are pioneering an investigation into the radiation dose in percutaneous angioplasty for arteriovenous shunt assembling and the effect of RADPAD device, a lead-free surgical drape containing Bi and Ba, on the decrease of a radiation dose in the non-targeted organs of the patient and also the operator. The radiation dose in a typical digital subtraction angiography (DSA) by the PTA protocol under a fixed field of view (FOV), was measured with optically simulated luminescent dosimeters arranged in a PIXY RS-102 anthropomorphic phantom. The results indicate that there is a significant dose reduction at the hands (0.022±0.002 mGy before treatment vs. 0.014±0.001 mGy after treatment; P=0.021), but not at the lens (0.027±0.003 mGy before treatment vs. 0.018±0.001 mGy after treatment; P=0.058), and the gonads (0.026±0.003 mGy before treatment vs. 0.020±0.001 mGy after treatment; P=0.058), of the cardiologist/operator after treatment with the RADPAD drape. At the patient's abdomen, the dose significantly decreased from 1.597±0.104 mGy to 0.031±0.002 mGy (P<0.001) after treated with the RADPAD shield. For the chest, lens and thyroid in the patient, the doses were respectively 0.154±0.100 mGy (compared to 0.049±0.001 mGy after treated with the RADPAD drape; P=0.0002), 0.066±0.001 mGy (compared to 0.021±0.001 mGy after the RADPAD treatment; P=0.009), and 0.208±0.002 mGy (compared to 0.042±0.003 mGy after shielded with the RADPAD drape; P<0.0001), which represents an apparent reduction in dose. However, no significant difference was found in the dose-area product between before (179.9±0.1mGy.cm 2 ) and after (177.4±0.1mGy.cm 2 ) the treatment (P=0.38). In conclusion, the RADPAD drape significantly reduced

  7. Determining and managing fetal radiation dose from diagnostic radiology procedures in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Cavdar, Iffet; Seven, Mehmet; Uslu, Lebriz; Yeyin, Nami; Tanyildizi, Handan; Abuqbeitah, Mohammad; Acikgoz, A. Serdar; Tuten, Abdullah; Demir, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    We intended to calculate approximate fetal doses in pregnant women who underwent diagnostic radiology procedures and to evaluate the safety of their pregnancies. We contacted hospitals in different cities in Turkey where requests for fetal dose calculation are usually sent. Fetal radiation exposure was calculated for 304 cases in 218 pregnant women with gestational ages ranging from 5 days to 19 weeks, 2 days. FetDose software (ver. 4.0) was used in fetal dose calculations for radiographic and computed tomography (CT) procedures. The body was divided into three zones according to distance from the fetus. The first zone consisted of the head area, the lower extremities below the knee, and the upper extremities; the second consisted of the cervicothoracic region and upper thighs; and the third consisted of the abdominopelvic area. Fetal doses from radiologic procedures between zones were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test and a Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U-test. The average fetal doses from radiography and CT in the first zone were 0.05 ± 0.01 mGy and 0.81 ± 0.04 mGy, respectively; 0.21 ± 0.05 mGy and 1.77 ± 0.22 mGy, respectively, in the second zone; and 6.42 ± 0.82 mGy and 22.94 ± 1.28 mGy, respectively, in the third zone (p < 0.001). Our results showed that fetal radiation exposures in our group of pregnant women did not reach the level (50 mGy) that is known to increase risk for congenital anomalies. Fetal radiation exposure in the diagnostic radiology procedures in our study did not reach risk levels that might have indicated abortion

  8. Cultural differences in postnatal quality of life among German-speaking women - a prospective survey in two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grylka-Baeschlin, Susanne; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Gross, Mechthild M

    2014-08-15

    Assessment of quality of life after childbirth is an important health-outcome measurement for new mothers and is of special interest in midwifery. The Mother-Generated Index (MGI) is a validated instrument to assess postnatal quality of life. The tool has not been applied for making a cross-cultural comparison before. This study investigated (a) responses to the MGI in German-speaking women in Germany and Switzerland; and (b) associations between MGI scores on the one hand and maternity and midwifery care on the other. A two-stage survey was conducted in two rural hospitals 10 km apart, on opposite sides of the German-Swiss border. The questionnaires included the MGI and questions on socio-demographics, physical and mental health and maternity care, and were distributed during the first days after birth and six weeks postpartum. Parametric and non-parametric tests were computed with the statistical programme SPSS. A total of 129 questionnaires were returned an average of three days after birth and 83 in the follow-up after seven weeks. There were no statistically significant differences in the MGI scores between the German and the Swiss women (p = 0.22). Significantly more favourable MGI scores were found associated with more adequate information during pregnancy (p = 0.02), a more satisfactory birth experience (p German-speaking women were higher than those in other studies reported previously. Thus the tool may be able to detect differences in postnatal quality of life among women with substantially divergent cultural backgrounds. Shortcomings in maternity and midwifery care were detected, as for example the inadequate provision of information during pregnancy, a lack of individualised postpartum care during the hospital stay and insufficient support for exclusively breastfeeding mothers. The MGI is an appropriate instrument for maternity care outcome measurement in cross-cultural comparison research.

  9. Assessment of Patients’ Entrance Skin Dose from Diagnostic X-ray Examinations at Public Hospitals of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esen Nsikan U

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High doses of ionizing radiation can lead to adverse health outcomes such as cancer induction in humans. Although the consequences are less evident at very low radiation doses, the associated risks are of societal importance. This study aimed at assessing entrance skin doses (ESDs in patients undergoing selected diagnostic X-ray examinations at public hospitals of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods In total, six examinations were performed on 720 patients in this study.   CALDose_X5 software program was used in estimating ESDs based on patients’ information and technical exposure parameters. Results The estimated ESDs ranged from 0.59 to 0.61 mGy for PA and RLAT projections of the thorax, respectively. ESDs for the AP and RLAT projections of the cranium were 1.65 and 1.48 mGy, respectively. Also, ESD values for the AP view of the abdomen and pelvis were 1.89 and 1.88 mGy, respectively. The mean effective dose was within the range of 0.021-0.075 mGy for the thorax (mean= 0.037, 0.008-0.045 mGy for the cranium (mean= 0.016, 0.215-0.225 mGy for the abdomen (mean= 0.219 and 0.101-0.119 mGy for the pelvis (mean= 0.112. Conclusion The obtained results were comparable to the international reference dose levels, except for the PA projection of the thorax. Therefore, quality assurance programs are required in diagnostic X-ray units of Nigeria hospitals. The obtained findings add to the available data and can help authorities establish reference dose levels for diagnostic radiography in Nigeria.

  10. The long-term effects of acute exposure to ionising radiation on survival and fertility in Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarapultseva, Elena I.; Dubrova, Yuri E.

    2016-01-01

    The results of recent studies have provided strong evidence for the transgenerational effects of parental exposure to ionising radiation and chemical mutagens. However, the transgenerational effects of parental exposure on survival and fertility remain poorly understood. To establish whether parental irradiation can affect the survival and fertility of directly exposed organisms and their offspring, crustacean Daphnia magna were given 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000 mGy of acute γ-rays. Exposure to 1000 and 10,000 mGy significantly compromised the viability of irradiated Daphnia and their first-generation progeny, but did not affect the second-generation progeny. The fertility of F 0 and F 1 Daphnia gradually declined with the dose of parental exposure and significantly decreased at dose of 100 mGy and at higher doses. The effects of parental irradiation on the number of broods were only observed among the F 0 Daphnia exposed to 1000 and 10,000 mGy, whereas the brood size was equally affected in the two consecutive generations. In contrast, the F 2 total fertility was compromised only among progeny of parents that received the highest dose of 10,000 mGy. We propose that the decreased fertility observed among the F 2 progeny of parents exposed to 10,000 mGy is attributed to transgenerational effects of parental irradiation. Our results also indicate a substantial recovery of the F 2 progeny of irradiated F 0 Daphnia exposed to the lower doses of acute γ-rays. - Highlights: • Viability of irradiated daphnids and their F 1 progeny is compromised. • Viability of the F 2 progeny of irradiated parents is not affected. • Total fertility of irradiated daphnids and their F 1 progeny declines with the dose. • Total fertility of the F 2 progeny of parents exposed to 10,000 mGy is compromised. • The decreased fertility among the F 2 progeny is transgenerational phenomenon.

  11. Determining and managing fetal radiation dose from diagnostic radiology procedures in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Cavdar, Iffet; Seven, Mehmet; Uslu, Lebriz; Yeyin, Nami; Tanyildizi, Handan; Abuqbeitah, Mohammad; Acikgoz, A. Serdar; Tuten, Abdullah; Demir, Mustafa [Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkmenistan)

    2015-12-15

    We intended to calculate approximate fetal doses in pregnant women who underwent diagnostic radiology procedures and to evaluate the safety of their pregnancies. We contacted hospitals in different cities in Turkey where requests for fetal dose calculation are usually sent. Fetal radiation exposure was calculated for 304 cases in 218 pregnant women with gestational ages ranging from 5 days to 19 weeks, 2 days. FetDose software (ver. 4.0) was used in fetal dose calculations for radiographic and computed tomography (CT) procedures. The body was divided into three zones according to distance from the fetus. The first zone consisted of the head area, the lower extremities below the knee, and the upper extremities; the second consisted of the cervicothoracic region and upper thighs; and the third consisted of the abdominopelvic area. Fetal doses from radiologic procedures between zones were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test and a Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U-test. The average fetal doses from radiography and CT in the first zone were 0.05 ± 0.01 mGy and 0.81 ± 0.04 mGy, respectively; 0.21 ± 0.05 mGy and 1.77 ± 0.22 mGy, respectively, in the second zone; and 6.42 ± 0.82 mGy and 22.94 ± 1.28 mGy, respectively, in the third zone (p < 0.001). Our results showed that fetal radiation exposures in our group of pregnant women did not reach the level (50 mGy) that is known to increase risk for congenital anomalies. Fetal radiation exposure in the diagnostic radiology procedures in our study did not reach risk levels that might have indicated abortion.

  12. Electron beam irradiation effects on carbon fiber reinforced PEEK composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasuga, Tsuneo; Hagiwara, Miyuki; Odajima, Tosikazu; Sakai, Hideo; Nakakura, Toshiyuki; Masutani, Masahiro.

    1987-03-01

    Carbon fiber(CF) reinforced composites, using polyarylether-sulfone (PES) or polyarylether-ether-ketone (PEEK) as matrix material, were prepared and their electron beam irradiation effects were studied on the basis of changes in mechanical and dynamic viscoelastic properties and observation of fracture surfaces. The flexural strength of PES-CF composite decreased to 70 % of the initial strength after the irradiation of 3 MGy and 40 % after 15 MGy. The change in the profile of stress-strain (S-S) curves and fractographic observation by electron microscopy indicated that this composite irradiated with over 3 MGy was fractured by delamination caused by to the degradation of matrix polymer. The mechanical properties of PEEK-CF composite were scarcely decreased even after irradiated up to 180 MGy and this composite showed very high radiation resistance. The change in the profile of S-S curves and fractographic observation showed that this composite fractured due to destruction of fiber in the dose range less than 180 MGy, indicating that PEEK was excellent matrix material used in high radiation field. PEEK-PES-CF composite which was composed of the carbon fibers coated with PES solution showed less radiation resistance compared with PEEK-CF composite; the flexural strength decreased to 85 % of the initial value after the irradiation with 90 MGy. It was revealed from the changes in the profile of S-S curve that the specimen irradiated over 120 MGy was fractured due to not only fiber destruction but delamination. Deterioration mechanism of PEEK-PES-CF composite was studied by dynamic viscoelastic measurements in connection with the damage on matrix-fiber interface. It was suggested that the deterioration in mechanical properties of this composite was caused by the degradation of PES that coated on the surface of the carbon fibers. (author)

  13. ANALISA TINGKAT BAHAYA DAN KERENTANAN BENCANA GEMPA BUMI DI WILAYAH NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR (NTT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Rysnawati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available East Nusa Tenggara is a region in Indonesia which included in the category of hazard prone to earthquakes, because it is flanked by two earthquakes zones, (subduction zone at the south and back arc trust in the north. It is also vulnerable to earthquake disasters because of high population density. These conditions would threaten the safety of lives and property of the population, so it needs to be research to analyze the level of earthquake hazard and vulnerability in East Nusa Tenggara. For identification of the level of hazard and the vulnerability of the earthquake in this study using two factors: the danger factor with indicator Peak Ground Acceleration, vulnerability factors with indicators of population density districts in East Nusa Tenggara. The calculation of the value of PGA use attenuation function of Fukushima and Tanaka. From the calculation of the data obtained that has a very high earthquake hazard is in Ende and Alor district, while the district has a very high risk of vulnerability is in Sikka, Sumba Barat Daya and Sabu Raijua.

  14. Public preception on education partnership programs between Indonesia and australia in East Nusa Tenggara Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, M.; Guntur, R. D.; Nalley, H. M.

    2018-05-01

    A research about partnership program in education between the government of Indonesia and Australia in East Nusa Tenggara Province (ENTP) has been conducted. The aim is to list the programs between the countries on the region in the last twenty years, together with their implementations to the community based on all the stakeholders’ perspectives. The samples taken by purposive sampling which targeted those who had direct involvement to the programs in the Districts of Sikka, Ende and Ngada. A literature review, questioners and a depth interview were employed in the data collection. The results show that the main partnership projects were NTT-PEP (Nusa Tenggara Timur-Primary Education Partnership), AIBEP (Australia Indonesia Building Education Project) and ProDEP (Professional Development for Education Personal). While the first and the third programs were targeting on human resources development, the second project was more focusing on the infrastructures. The analysis shows that in general, the majority of people think that the program implementation was good. Similar results were also reflected in the group of superintendent and the community. However, totally different feature was found in the group of government officials where all of them perceived that the program was good and need to be continued and sustained.

  15. Dose response relationship for unstable-type chromosome aberration rate of spleen cells from mice continuously exposed to low-dose-rate gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Khoda, Atsushi; Ichinohe, Kazuaki; Oghiso, Yoichi

    2007-01-01

    It has been reported that people who are chronically exposed to radiation such as nuclear facility workers and medical radiologists have slightly higher incidences of chromosome aberrations than non-exposed people. However, chronological changes of chromosome aberration rates related to accumulated doses and dose-rates for low dose-rate radiation exposures have not been well studied. Precise analyses of human populations are quite limited because confounding factors influence the results. For this reason, animal experiments are important for analyses. Mice were continuously exposed to gamma-rays at 400 mGy/22 hr/day for 10 days, 20 mGy/22 hr/day for about 400 days, and 1 mGy/22 hr/day for about 615 days under SPF conditions. Chronological changes of unstable-type chromosome aberration rates of spleen cells were observed along with accumulated doses at the middle dose rate and the two low-dose rates by conventional Giemsa-staining method. Aberrations such as dicentric chromosome, ring chromosome and fragment increased in a two-phase manner within 0-1.2 Gy and 2-8 Gy at 20 mGy/22 hr/day. They slightly increased up to 0.5 Gy at 1 mGy/22 hr/day. Aberration rates for 1, 2, 8 Gy at the 20 mGy/22 hr/day and for 0.5 Gy at 1 mGy/22 hr/day were 5.1, 9.6, 13.9 and 2.2 times higher than those of age-matched, non-irradiated control mice, respectively. Chromosome aberration rates at 400 mGy/22 hr/day were 2.7 times higher than that of 20 mGy/22 hr/day for the same total dose of 1.2 Gy. The results that unstable-type chromosome aberrations increased with accumulated dose of the low-dose rate radiation will be important to establish biological dosimetry for people who are chronically exposed to radiation. (author)

  16. Photon hormesis deactivates alpha-particle induced bystander effects between zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.Y.P.; Cheng, S.H.; Yu, K.N.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we studied the effects of low-dose X-ray photons on the alpha-particle induced bystander effects between embryos of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. The effects on the naive whole embryos were studied through quantification of apoptotic signals (amounts of cells undergoing apoptosis) at 24 h post fertilization (hpf) using vital dye acridine orange staining, followed by counting the stained cells under a fluorescent microscope. We report data showing that embryos at 5 hpf subjected to a 4.4 mGy alpha-particle irradiation could release a stress signal into the medium, which could induce bystander effect in partnered naive embryos sharing the same medium. We also report that the bystander effect was deactivated when the irradiated embryos were subjected to a concomitant irradiation of 10 or 14 mGy of X-rays, but no such deactivation was achieved if the concomitant X-ray dose dropped to 2.5 or 5 mGy. In the present study, the significant drop in the amount of apoptotic signals on the embryos having received 4.4 mGy alpha particles together X-rays irradiation from 2.5 or 5 mGy to 10 or 14 mGy, together with the deactivation of RIBE with concomitant irradiation of 10 or 14 mGy of X-rays supported the participation of photon hormesis with an onset dose between 5 and 10 mGy, which might lead to removal of aberrant cells through early apoptosis or induction of high-fidelity DNA repair. As we found that photons and alpha particles could have opposite biological effects when these were simultaneously irradiated onto living organisms, these ionizing radiations could be viewed as two different environmental stressors, and the resultant effects could be regarded as multiple stressor effects. The present work presented the first study on a multiple stressor effect which occurred on bystander organisms. In other words, this was a non-targeted multiple stressor effect. The photon hormesis could also explain some failed attempts to observe neutron-induced bystander

  17. Radiation induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.K.; Johnston, D.A.; Felleman, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    A brain weight deficit of about 70 mg was induced at doses of approximately 75-mGy and a deficit of 60 mg was induced at 100 mGy. This confirms the effects projected and observed by Wanner and Edwards. Although the data do not demonstrate a clear dose-response relationship between the 75-mGy and 100-mGy groups, the data are statistically consistent with a dose-response effect because of the overlapping confidence intervals. The lack of a statistically significant observation is most likely related to the small difference in doses and the limited numbers of animals examined. There are several factors that can influence the brain weight of guinea pig pups, such as caging and housing conditions, the sex of the animal, and litter size. These should be taken into account for accurate analysis. Dam weight did not appear to have a significant effect. The confirmation of a micrencephalic effect induced x rays at doses of 75-mGy during this late embryonic stage of development is consistent with the findings of small head size induced in those exposed prior to the eight week of conception at Hiroshima. This implies a mechanism for micrencephaly different from those previously suggested and lends credence to a causal relation between radiation and small head size in humans at low doses as reported by Miller and Mulvihill. 16 refs., 13 tabs

  18. The 3rd international intercomparison on EPR tooth dosimetry: Part 1, general analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; Debuyst, R.; Fattibene, P.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the 3rd International Intercomparison on Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Tooth Dosimetry was the evaluation of laboratories performing tooth enamel dosimetry below 300 mGy. Participants had to reconstruct the absorbed dose in tooth enamel from 11 molars, which were cut into two halves. One half of each tooth was irradiated in a 60 Co beam to doses in the ranges of 30-100 mGy (5 samples), 100-300 mGy (5 samples), and 300-900 mGy (1 sample). Fourteen international laboratories participated in this intercomparison programme. A first analysis of the results and an overview of the essential features of methods applied in different laboratories are presented. The relative standard deviation of results of all methods was better than 27% for applied doses in the range of 79-704 mGy. In the analysis of the unirradiated tooth halves 8% of the samples were identified as outliers with additional absorbed dose above background dose

  19. Clinical indications and radiation doses to the conceptus associated with CT imaging in pregnancy: a retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woussen, S.; Vanbeckevoort, D.; Bosmans, H.; Oyen, R. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Lopez-Rendon, X.; Zanca, F. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    To perform an internal audit at a university hospital with the aim of evaluating the number, clinical indication and operating procedure of computed tomography (CT) performed on pregnant patients and of estimating the radiation doses to the conceptus. A retrospective review was conducted of all CT examinations performed in a single centre on pregnant patients between January 2008 and July 2013. The radiation doses to the conceptus were estimated. The results were compared with published data. The number of CT examinations during pregnancy increased from 3-4 per year in 2008-2011 to 11 per year in 2012. The mean estimated conceptus radiation dose was considered negligible for CT of the head and cervical spine, being less than 0.01 mGy, and for CT of the chest, less than 0.1 mGy. The estimated conceptus radiation dose from abdominopelvic CT was on average 28.7 mGy (range 6.7-60.5 mGy). The number of CT scans of pregnant patients increased threefold during the last few years. Most clinical indications and doses were in line with good clinical practice and literature; only in two cases the dose to the conceptus was higher than 50 mGy. (orig.)

  20. Patient dosimetry study of a paediatric CT examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hranitzky, C.; Stadtmann, H.

    2011-01-01

    Dosimetry studies are of increasing interest in diagnostic high-dose applications such as computed tomography especially for examinations of children. A routine CT scan protocol for paediatric head and neck imaging was investigated at a new multi-detector CT scanner using LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) and a 0.125 cm 3 thimble ionization chamber. Calibrations of the detectors in terms of absorbed dose to water were carried out at the Dosimetry Laboratory Seibersdorf in standard radiation fields. The dosimetry method was validated in the spiral CT X-ray field by comparing TLD and ionization chamber measurement results in cylindrical PMMA phantoms. Absorbed dose results were within stated uncertainties. An anthropomorphic phantom representing a child of about 5 years was loaded with TLD chips at various organ and tissue positions in the head and neck region as well as at some critical organ locations. Organ dose values were calculated from TLD based average absorbed dose with about 5% total uncertainty, e.g. 22 mGy (eyes), 21 mGy (thyroid), 19 mGy (brain), 3.4 mGy (thymus), and 0.03 mGy (testes). For comparison purposes an effective dose of 1.9 mSv was estimated for the investigated paediatric CT examination based on ICRP-103 age-independent tissue-weighting factors.

  1. Reference dose levels for dental panoramic radiography in Anyang City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Mi Ra; Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja; Lee, Jae Seo; Kim, Young Hee

    2009-01-01

    To measure dose-width product (DWP) values used for dental panoramic radiography in Anyang city, Korea. Thirty-six panoramic dental radiographic sets (17 analogue panoramic sets and 19 digital panoramic sets) in 36 dental clinics in Anyang city were included in the study. Each patient's panoramic exposure parameters were simulated and the panoramic radiation doses were measured at the secondary collimator using a Mult-O-Meter (Unfors Instruments, Billdal, Sweden) at each dental clinic during 2006. The third quartile DWP was determined from 310 surface dose measurements on adult. The third quartile DWP for adult panoramic radiograph was 106.7 mGy mm. For analogue and digital panoramic radiograph, 3/4 DWP were 116.8 mGy mm and 72 mGy mm respectively. The overall third quartile DWP of panoramic radiography was 106.7 mGy mm. The measured 3/4 DWPs were higher than the 3/4 DWP of 65 mGy mm recommended by NRPB. Dentists who are operating above the reference dose should lower their panoramic exposure doses below the recommended reference value by changing the exposure parameters and/or their panoramic equipment.

  2. Environmental effects of radionuclides--observations on natural ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copplestone, D; Toal, M E; Johnson, M S; Jackson, D; Jones, S R

    2000-03-01

    To better quantify risk to non-human species from exposure to environmental radioactivity, understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere needs to be increased. This study outlines current thinking on ecological risk assessment (ERA) methodology and applies the indicator species or critical groups approach to biota inhabiting a semi-natural coniferous woodland contaminated with the radionuclides 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am. The majority of these radionuclides originate from routine aerial emissions from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL, Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. Radionuclide activity concentrations have been determined in biota from the woodland and estimates of absorbed dose rates (mGy d(-1)) have been calculated using the dosimetric models outlined. Dose rates to the key indicator species, Oniscus asellus, Carabus violaceous and Apodemus sylvaticus (detritivorous invertebrate, predatory invertebrate and the granivorous wood mouse) have been determined at 3.0 x 10(-3) mGy d(-1), 2.2 x 10(-3) mGy d(-1) and 1.0 x 10(-3) mGy d(-1) respectively. The values are at least three orders of magnitude lower than the 1 mGy d(-1) level below which no observable effects on populations in a terrestrial ecosystem are thought to occur. Limitations of this approach are discussed.

  3. Diagnostic reference levels in intraoral radiology: From the laboratory to clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, M.; Velasco, E.; Martinez-Beneyto, Y.; Velasco, F.; Parra, C.; Canteras, M.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for obtaining a diagnostic image in the normal conditions of clinical practice and to explain the differences between the levels found and the DRLs obtained in other experimental conditions, suggesting that there has been a reduction in the European Union (EU) recommended levels. A total of 2296 official reports on dental surgeries from 16 Spanish autonomous regions compiled during 2008 were studied. A mean DRL of 3.3 mGy was determined: 2.6 mGy for installations using direct digital systems, 3.4 mGy for those using indirect systems, 4.4 mGy for those using Ultra-speed film and 3.7 mGy for those using Insight. The DRLs found in this survey are below the EU recommended values but far above previously described values, possibly because all the different systems were considered and because values refer to those of the normal work conditions of clinical practice. (authors)

  4. Environmental effects of radionuclides - observations on natural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copplestone, D.; Toal, M.E.; Johnson, M.S.; Jackson, D.; Jones, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    To better quantify risk to non-human species from exposure to environmental radioactivity, understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere needs to be increased. This study outlines current thinking on ecological risk assessment (ERA) methodology and applies the indicator species or critical groups approach to biota inhabiting a semi-natural coniferous woodland contaminated with the radionuclides 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am. The majority of these radionuclides originate from routine aerial emissions from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL, Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. Radionuclide activity concentrations have been determined in biota from the woodland and estimates of absorbed dose rates (mGy d -1 ) have been calculated using the dosimetric models outlined. Dose rates to the key indicator species, Oniscus asellus, Carabus violaceous and Apodemus sylvaticus (detritivorous invertebrate, predatory invertebrate and the granivorous wood mouse) have been determined at 3.0x10 -3 mGy d -1 , 2.2x10 -3 mGy d -1 and 1.0x10 -3 mGy d -1 respectively. The values are at least three orders of magnitude lower than the 1 mGy d -1 level below which no observable effects on populations in a terrestrial ecosystem are thought to occur. Limitations of this approach are discussed. (author)

  5. Imaging lobular breast carcinoma: comparison of synchrotron radiation DEI-CT technique with clinical CT, mammography and histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, S.; Bravin, A.; Keyriläinen, J.; Fernández, M.; Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W.; Tenhunen, M.; Virkkunen, P.; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, M.-L.

    2004-01-01

    Different modalities for imaging cancer-bearing breast tissue samples are described and compared. The images include clinical mammograms and computed tomography (CT) images, CT images with partly coherent synchrotron radiation (SR), and CT and radiography images taken with SR using the diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) method. The images are evaluated by a radiologist and compared with histopathological examination of the samples. Two cases of lobular carcinoma are studied in detail. The indications of cancer are very weak or invisible in the conventional images, but the morphological changes due to invasion of cancer become pronounced in the images taken by the DEI method. The strands penetrating adipose tissue are seen clearly in the DEI-CT images, and the histopathology confirms that some strands contain the so-called 'Indian file' formations of cancer cells. The radiation dose is carefully measured for each of the imaging modalities. The mean glandular dose (MGD) for 50% glandular breast tissue is about 1 mGy in conventional mammography and less than 0.25 mGy in projection DEI, while in the clinical CT imaging the MGD is very high, about 45 mGy. The entrance dose of 95 mGy in DEI-CT imaging gives rise to an MGD of 40 mGy, but the dose may be reduced by an order of magnitude, because the contrast is very large in most images.

  6. Increased apoptosis and DNA double-strand breaks in the embryonic mouse brain in response to very low-dose X-rays but not 50 Hz magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shreya; Woodbine, Lisa; Haines, Jackie; Coster, Margaret; Ricket, Nicole; Barazzuol, Lara; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Sienkiewicz, Zenon; Jeggo, Penny

    2014-01-01

    The use of X-rays for medical diagnosis is enhancing exposure to low radiation doses. Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic or magnetic fields is also increasing. Epidemiological studies show consistent associations of childhood leukaemia with exposure to magnetic fields but any causal relationship is unclear. A limitation in assessing the consequence of such exposure is the availability of sensitive assays. The embryonic neuronal stem and progenitor cell compartments are radiosensitive tissues. Using sensitive assays, we report a statistically significant increase in DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation and apoptosis in the embryonic neuronal stem cell compartment following in utero exposure to 10–200 mGy X-rays. Both endpoints show a linear response. We also show that DSB repair is delayed following exposure to doses below 50 mGy compared with 100 mGy. Thus, we demonstrate in vivo consequences of low-dose radiation. In contrast to these impacts, we did not observe any significant induction of DSBs or apoptosis following exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields (100 or 300 µT). We conclude that any DSB induction by treatment with magnetic fields is lower than following exposure to 10 mGy X-rays. For comparison, certain procedures involving computed tomography scanning are equivalent to 1–5 mGy X-rays. PMID:25209403

  7. Effects of Low Versus Moderate Glycemic Index Diets on Aerobic Capacity in Endurance Runners: Three-Week Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Durkalec-Michalski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The glycemic index (GI of ingested carbohydrates may influence substrate oxidation during exercise and athletic performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of low- and moderate-GI three-week diets on aerobic capacity and endurance performance in runners. We conducted a randomized crossover feeding study of matched diets differing only in GI (low vs. moderate in 21 endurance-trained runners. Each participant consumed both, low- (LGI and moderate-GI (MGI high-carbohydrate (~60% and nutrient-balanced diets for three weeks each. At the beginning and end of each diet, participants had their aerobic capacity and body composition measured and performed a 12-min running test. After LGI, time to exhaustion during incremental cycling test (ICT and distance covered in the 12-min run were significantly increased. The MGI diet led to an increase in maximal oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O2max, but no performance benefits were found after the MGI diet. The LGI and MGI diets improved time and workload at gas exchange threshold (GET during ICT. The results indicate that a three-week high-carbohydrate LGI diet resulted in a small but significant improvement in athletic performance in endurance runners. Observed increase in V ˙ O2max on MGI diet did not affect performance.

  8. Environmental effects of radionuclides - observations on natural ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copplestone, D. [Industrial Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom). E-mail: copplest at liv.ac.uk; Toal, M.E.; Johnson, M.S. [Industrial Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Jackson, D.; Jones, S.R. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting, Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3LN (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-01

    To better quantify risk to non-human species from exposure to environmental radioactivity, understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere needs to be increased. This study outlines current thinking on ecological risk assessment (ERA) methodology and applies the indicator species or critical groups approach to biota inhabiting a semi-natural coniferous woodland contaminated with the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. The majority of these radionuclides originate from routine aerial emissions from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL, Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. Radionuclide activity concentrations have been determined in biota from the woodland and estimates of absorbed dose rates (mGy d{sup -1}) have been calculated using the dosimetric models outlined. Dose rates to the key indicator species, Oniscus asellus, Carabus violaceous and Apodemus sylvaticus (detritivorous invertebrate, predatory invertebrate and the granivorous wood mouse) have been determined at 3.0x10{sup -3} mGy d{sup -1}, 2.2x10{sup -3} mGy d{sup -1} and 1.0x10{sup -3} mGy d{sup -1} respectively. The values are at least three orders of magnitude lower than the 1 mGy d{sup -1} level below which no observable effects on populations in a terrestrial ecosystem are thought to occur. Limitations of this approach are discussed. (author)

  9. ESR dosimetry study for the residents of Kazakhstan exposed to radioactive fallout on 24, August 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumadilov, K., E-mail: kassym@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Ivannikov, A. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk 249036 (Russian Federation); Zharlyganova, D. [Astana Medical University, 51a, Beibitshilik str., Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan); Zhumadilov, Zh. [Nazarbayev University, Life Sciences Center, D. Kunayev str., Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan); Stepanenko, V. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk 249036 (Russian Federation); Abralina, Sh.; Sadvokasova, L. [Semey State Medical Academy, Semey 071400, Abay str. 103 (Kazakhstan); Zhumadilova, A. [Astana Medical University, 51a, Beibitshilik str., Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan); Toyoda, S. [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, Okayama University of Science, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Endo, S. [Department of Quantum Energy Applications, Graduated School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Okamoto, T. [Department of Molecular Oral Medicine and Maxillofacial Surgery, Division of Frontier Medical Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Hoshi, M. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    The method of electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry has been applied to human tooth enamel in order to obtain individual absorbed doses from the population of settlements within the vicinity of the central axis of the radioactive fallout trace from the contaminating nuclear surface test of 24, August 1956. Most of the settlements (Glubokoe, Tavriya, and Gagarino) are located near Ust-Kamenogorsk city, in Kazakhstan (about 400 km to the east from the epicenter of the explosion at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS)). It was found that the excess doses obtained after the subtraction of natural background radiation ranged up to about 120 mGy for the residents of Ust-Kamenogorsk city, whose tooth enamel was formed before 1956. For the residents of Gagarino, excess doses do not exceed 47 mGy for all ages. For the residents of Tavriya, the maximum of excess dose was determined as 54 mGy and for the residents of Glubokoe, the maximum excess dose was about 83 mGy. For the population of the Shemonaikha settlements (about 70 km from the centerline of the radioactive fallout trace) the highest excess dose is 110 mGy. Also for this study, Znamenka village (about 130 km from the epicenter) was included. The Kokpekty settlement was chosen as a control and not subjected to any radioactive contamination and is located 400 km to the Southeast from SNTS.

  10. Increased apoptosis and DNA double-strand breaks in the embryonic mouse brain in response to very low-dose X-rays but not 50 Hz magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shreya; Woodbine, Lisa; Haines, Jackie; Coster, Margaret; Ricket, Nicole; Barazzuol, Lara; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Sienkiewicz, Zenon; Jeggo, Penny

    2014-11-06

    The use of X-rays for medical diagnosis is enhancing exposure to low radiation doses. Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic or magnetic fields is also increasing. Epidemiological studies show consistent associations of childhood leukaemia with exposure to magnetic fields but any causal relationship is unclear. A limitation in assessing the consequence of such exposure is the availability of sensitive assays. The embryonic neuronal stem and progenitor cell compartments are radiosensitive tissues. Using sensitive assays, we report a statistically significant increase in DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation and apoptosis in the embryonic neuronal stem cell compartment following in utero exposure to 10-200 mGy X-rays. Both endpoints show a linear response. We also show that DSB repair is delayed following exposure to doses below 50 mGy compared with 100 mGy. Thus, we demonstrate in vivo consequences of low-dose radiation. In contrast to these impacts, we did not observe any significant induction of DSBs or apoptosis following exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields (100 or 300 µT). We conclude that any DSB induction by treatment with magnetic fields is lower than following exposure to 10 mGy X-rays. For comparison, certain procedures involving computed tomography scanning are equivalent to 1-5 mGy X-rays.

  11. 18FDG PET in a pregnant patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterton, Barry

    2006-01-01

    A 26-year-old pregnant female presented with cervical adenopathy which was shown on biopsy to be Hodgkin's disease. As she had some systemic symptoms, It was decided to further stage her disease, with the options being allowing the pregnancy to continue, or terminating the pregnancy and treating immediately. To keep the radiation dose as low as possible, the administered dose of l8 FDG was reduced giving a total estimated dose to the fetus as 3.2 mGy and l37 Cs used as the source for attenuation correction rather than CT (dose estimated as 0.15mGy instead of 1.5 mGy) Total dose to the fetus was estimated as 3.4mGy. ICRP indicates that termination of pregnancy is not justified for radiation doses less than 100mGy. The findings confirm that an indicated PET scan may be performed in pregnancy at acceptable radiation dose. Relatively straightforward modification of the standard scanning protocol will reduce the estimated fetal dose. Copyright (2006) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine

  12. Dose distribution over the radiation field and organs of the body during radiotherapy procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.; Begum, M.; Ambia, A.S.M.; Akhter, S.; Banu, H.

    2001-01-01

    Beam profile of the 60 Co teletherapy unit for 10 cm x 10 cm along central axis was measured to study the symmetry of the gamma beam and found that the average dose was 98.44±1.40 mGy. Output dose versus field size was also measured and values were found reasonable. Dose prescription to delivery was measured by placing TLD onto the treatment field for lung and cervix cancer patient which was found to be 39.16±2.98 Gy and 50.48±3.68 Gy respectively which are within 2 % and 0.17 % of the prescribed dose as 40.00 and 50.40 Gy respectively, reveals good agreement with the treatment planning. Six typical types of patients (both male and female) with cancers in lung, larynx, breast, cervix, oesophagus and brain treated with 60 Co teletherapy were particularly considered for dose assessment at different critical organs of interest. It was observed that the doses to the lens of eye with a maximum value of 460.35+78.87 mGy for a larynx cancer patient to a minimum value of 30.80+4.00 mGy of a cervix cancer patient. Doses to the gonad vary with a maximum value of 3810.80+389.76 mGy for a cervix cancer patient to a minimum value of 8.20+1.00 mGy for a brain cancer patient. (author)

  13. Image quality and dose in mammographic images obtained in Mexico City hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Brandan, M.-E.; Verdejo, M.; Flores, A.; Guevara, M.; Martin, J.; Madero-Preciado, L.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of three mammographic systems in large Mexican hospitals has been evaluated, as well as the image quality and associated dose. Quality control tests include examination of X-ray equipment, darkroom conditions, film processor, and viewboxes. Systems referred to as '1', '2', and '3' passed 50%, 75% and 75% of these tests, respectively. Quality image is assessed using five images obtained under similar nominal conditions in each X-ray equipment. System 1 generates no image of acceptable quality, while equipment 2 and 3 produce one and two, respectively. The mean glandular dose for the best images obtained in each service with an accreditation phantom has been measured, and the values are 1.4 mGy, 1.6 mGy, and 1.0 mGy, respectively. (author)

  14. Guidelines for the physician's behaviour after exposure of embryos or fetuses to ionizing radiation or after incorporation of radioactive substances for medical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppin, W.

    1980-01-01

    These guidelines intend to give the physician information on his further actions if radiation has been used in pregnant women for diagnostic purposes, and especially on the medical advice to be given to the woman. The guidelines deal mainly with radiation exposures up to a dose of 20 mGy (2 rd). The guidelines are to show that there is no indication in this dose range for the necessity of an abortion. If doses have been higher than 20 mGy (2 rd), which may be the fact in only a few cases, careful and complex diagnostic efforts are required for the decision on an abortion. The guidelines give some information also on the dose range above 20 mGy (2 rd). (orig.) [de

  15. Radiation risk to the patient: a case study involving multiple diagnostic X ray exposures given over a period of 25 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbow, A.J.; McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON; Roginski, P.; McGeen, W.

    1992-01-01

    The cumulative somatic dose index (SDI) for a number of diagnostic X ray examinations was made for a 60 year old male. The history of diagnostic X ray exposure for this patient from 1957 to 1983 showed 29 diagnostic X ray examinations including more than 100 films and 15 minutes of fluoroscopy. The total cumulative SDI to this patient was 214 mGy (about 21 rad). More than half this dose, 142 mGy, was contributed from upper GI and barium enema examinations which used fluoroscopy, with 88 mGy from the fluoroscopy alone. Using the recently revised risk coefficient for fatal cancer following whole-body irradiation of adult workers recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in 1990, the authors estimate a 0.9% cancer morality risk to this patient resulting from the 29 diagnostic X ray examinations. (author)

  16. Reference dose levels for dental periapical radiography in Chonnam Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Mi Ra; Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja; Lee, Jae Seo; Kim, Young Hee

    2009-01-01

    To establish reference doses of periapical radiography in Chonnam Province, Korea. The target-skin distances were measured for dental patient's 1235 exposures including 345 mandibular molar areas. Each periapical radiation exposure was simulated with exactly the same patients exposure parameters and the simulated radiation doses were measured utilizing Mult-O-Meter (Unfors Instruments, Billadal, Sweden). The measurements were done in 44 dental clinics with 49 dental x-ray sets in Chonnam Province for one or two weeks at each dental clinic during year 2006. The third quartile patient surface doses were 2.8 mGy for overall periapical exposures and 3.2 mGy for periapical mandibular molar exposures. The third quartile patient surface doses in Chonnam Province can be used as a guide to accepted clinical practice to reduce patient radiation exposure for the surveyed reference doses were below the recommended dental periapical radiography dose of 7 mGy by IAEA.

  17. Organ or tissue doses, effective dose and collective effective dose from X-ray diagnosis, in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Takashi; Nishizawa, Kanae; Noda, Yutaka; Kumamoto, Yoshikazu; Iwai, Kazuo.

    1996-01-01

    Effective doses and collective effective doses from X-ray diagnostic examinations were calculated on the basis of the frequency of examinations estimated by a nationwide survey and the organ or tissue doses experimentally determined. The average organ or tissue doses were determined with thermoluminescence dosimeters put at various sites of organs or tissues in an adult and a child phantom. Effective doses (effective dose equivalents) were calculated as the sum of the weighted equivalent doses in all the organs or tissues of the body. As the examples of results, the effective doses per radiographic examination were approximately 7 mGy for male, and 9 mGy for female angiocardiography, and about 3 mGy for barium meal. Annual collective effective dose from X-ray diagnostic examinations in 1986 were about 104 x 10 3 person Sv from radiography and 118 x 10 3 person Sv from fluoroscopy, with the total of 222 x 10 3 person Sv. (author)

  18. Study of the radiated energy loss during massive gas injection mitigated disruptions on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Y. M.; Hao, Z. K.; Hu, L. Q.; Wang, L.; Xu, P.; Xu, L. Q.; Zhuang, H. D.; EAST Team

    2015-08-01

    The MGI mitigated disruption experiments were carried out on EAST with a new fast gas controlling valve in 2012. Different amounts of noble gas He or mixed gas of 99% He + 1% Ar are injected into plasma in current flat-top phase and current ramp-down phase separately. The initial results of MGI experiments are described. The MGI system and the radiation measurement system are briefly introduced. The characteristics of radiation distribution and radiation energy loss are analyzed. About 50% of the stored thermal energy Wdia is dissipated by radiation during the entire disruption process and the impurities of C and Li from the PFC play important roles to radiative energy loss. The amount of the gas can affect the pre-TQ phase. Strong poloidal asymmetry of radiation begins to appear in the CQ phase, which is possibly caused by the plasma configuration changes as a result of VDE. No toroidal radiation asymmetry is observed presently.

  19. Reference dose levels for dental periapical radiography in Chonnam Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Mi Ra; Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Seo [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Chonnan National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hee [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To establish reference doses of periapical radiography in Chonnam Province, Korea. The target-skin distances were measured for dental patient's 1235 exposures including 345 mandibular molar areas. Each periapical radiation exposure was simulated with exactly the same patients exposure parameters and the simulated radiation doses were measured utilizing Mult-O-Meter (Unfors Instruments, Billadal, Sweden). The measurements were done in 44 dental clinics with 49 dental x-ray sets in Chonnam Province for one or two weeks at each dental clinic during year 2006. The third quartile patient surface doses were 2.8 mGy for overall periapical exposures and 3.2 mGy for periapical mandibular molar exposures. The third quartile patient surface doses in Chonnam Province can be used as a guide to accepted clinical practice to reduce patient radiation exposure for the surveyed reference doses were below the recommended dental periapical radiography dose of 7 mGy by IAEA.

  20. Dosimetry of beta particles using Li:Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera, L.; Azorin, J.; Rivera, T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of determining the thermoluminescence (Tl) response of LiF: Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe pellets excited with 90 Sr/ 90 Y beta radiation. The glow curve exhibited three peaks which appear at 121 C, 178 C and 217 C . Its relative sensitivity is 49 with respect to that of the TLD-100 dosemeter taken as a reference. The minimal dose that could be measured was 750 mGy. The Tl response as a function of dose was linear in the range of 0.7 mGy to 22.5 mGy. The study of the repeatability of the information contained in the pellets showed a standard deviation of 2 %. (Author)

  1. Materials Genome Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) project element is a cross-Center effort that is focused on the integration of computational tools to simulate manufacturing processes and materials behavior. These computational simulations will be utilized to gain understanding of processes and materials behavior to accelerate process development and certification to more efficiently integrate new materials in existing NASA projects and to lead to the design of new materials for improved performance. This NASA effort looks to collaborate with efforts at other government agencies and universities working under the national MGI. MGI plans to develop integrated computational/experimental/ processing methodologies for accelerating discovery and insertion of materials to satisfy NASA's unique mission demands. The challenges include validated design tools that incorporate materials properties, processes, and design requirements; and materials process control to rapidly mature emerging manufacturing methods and develop certified manufacturing processes

  2. Neuroimmune response and sleep studies after whole body irradiation with high-LET particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquette, C.; Mathieu, J.; Bertho, J.-M.; Galonnier, M.; Wysoki, J.; Maubert, C.; Balanzat, E.; Gerbin, R.; Aigueperse, J.; Clarençon, D.

    2009-10-01

    In order to investigate the biological effects of galactic rays on astronaut cerebral functions after space flight, mice were exposed to different heavy ions (HZE) in whole-body conditions at doses comparable to the galactic flux: 12C, 16O and 20Ne (95 MeV/u, at 42-76 mGy). Animals were also exposed to 42 mGy of 60Co radiation for comparison with HZE. The neuroimmune response, evaluated by interleukin-1 (IL-1) measurement, showed that this cytokine was produced 3 h after irradiation by 16O or 60Co. In contrast, neither 12C (56.7 mGy) nor 20Ne (76 mGy) induced IL-1 production. However, immunohistochemical staining of 12C-irradiated mouse brain tissue showed 2 months later a marked inflammatory reaction in the hippocampus and a diffuse response in parenchyma. Sleep studies were realized before and after exposure to 42 mGy of 16O and 76 mGy of 20Ne: only the 20Ne radiation displayed a small effect. A slight decrease in paradoxical sleep, corresponding to a reduction in the number of episodes of paradoxical sleep, was manifested between 8 and 22 days after exposure. Exposure to 12C and 16O induced no changes either in cellularity of spleen or thymus, or in caspase 3 activity (as much as four months after irradiation). Taken together, these data indicate that the CNS could be sensitive to heavy ions and that responses to HZE impact depend on the nature of the particle, the dose threshold and the time delay to develop biological processes. Differences in responses to different HZE highlight the complex biological phenomena to which astronauts are submitted during space flight.

  3. Neuro-immune response and sleep studies after whole body irradiation with high-LET particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquette, C.; Bertho, J.M.; Wysoki, J.; Maubert, C.; Gerbin, R.; Aigueperse, J.; Mathieu, J.; Galonnier, M.; Clarencon, D.; Balanzat, E.

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the biological effects of galactic rays on astronaut cerebral functions after space flight, mice were exposed to different heavy ions (HZE) in whole-body conditions at doses comparable to the galactic flux: 12 C, 16 O and 20 Ne (95 MeV/u, at 42-76 mGy). Animals were also exposed to 42 mGy of 60 Co radiation for comparison with HZE. The neuro-immune response, evaluated by interleukin-I (IL-1) measurement, showed that this cytokine was produced 3 h after irradiation by 16 O or 60 Co. In contrast, neither 12 C (56.7 mGy) nor 20 Ne (76 mGy) induced IL-1 production. However, immunohistochemical staining of 12 C-irradiated mouse brain tissue showed 2 months later a marked inflammatory reaction in the hippocampus and a diffuse response in parenchyma. Sleep studies were realized before and after exposure to 42 mGy of 16 O and 76 mGy of 20 Ne: only the 20 Ne radiation displayed a small effect. A slight decrease in paradoxical sleep, corresponding to a reduction in the number of episodes of paradoxical sleep, was manifested between 8 and 22 days after exposure. Exposure to 12 C and 16 O induced no changes either in cellularity of spleen or thymus, or in caspase 3 activity (as much as four months after irradiation). Taken together, these data indicate that the CNS could be sensitive to heavy ions and that responses to HZE impact depend on the nature of the particle, the dose threshold and the time delay to develop biological processes. Differences in responses to different HZE highlight the complex biological phenomena to which astronauts are submitted during space flight. (authors)

  4. Use of the EC quality criteria as a common method of inspecting CT laboratories - A pilot project by the Nordic radiation protection authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torp, C.G.; Olerud, H.M.; Einarsson, G.; Groen, P.; Leitz, W.; Servomaa, A.

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of Nordic radiation protection co-operation, quality criteria for computed tomography (CT) as published by the European Commission were used for the evaluation of selected CT laboratories in each of the Nordic countries. The mean values for all five countries of the weighted CT dose index (CTDI w ) and dose length product (DLP) were 60 mGy and 740 mGy · cm for CT of the brain, 11 mGy and 420 mGy · cm for CT of the chest, and 40 mGy and 420 mGy · cm for CT of the lumbar spine, respectively. A comparison with the reference levels set in the above mentioned publication gives a diversified result: compliance for the DLP-values is generally achieved with good margins whereas the CTDI w -values were frequently larger for brain and lumbar spine examinations. The radiographic technique was generally also within the recommendations from the EC. Generally most of the image quality criteria were fulfilled, but it must be borne in mind that the study was biased in the way that two local radiologists in consensus evaluated their own images. Image material from only three patients was selected for each of the clinical indications, that means the project was not designed for ranking laboratories, but it is a way of making the departments aware of the need for optimisation regarding image quality and patient dose, and also of the problems associated with this task. During the study suggestions were brought forward concerning amendments of the quality criteria: some need a better definition, some are not relevant for the diagnostic task in question, some could be added. Instead of 'yes' and 'no', a range of maybe 5 levels of visualisation should be introduced in order to better characterize the level of diagnostic performance. (author)

  5. Pediatric CT dose reduction for suspected appendicitis: a practice quality improvement project using artificial Gaussian noise--part 1, computer simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael J; Kleinman, Patricia L; Strauss, Keith J; Bandos, Andriy; Taylor, George A; Tsai, Andy; Kleinman, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a departmental practice quality improvement project to systematically reduce CT doses for the evaluation of suspected pediatric appendicitis by introducing computer-generated gaussian noise. Two hundred MDCT abdominopelvic examinations of patients younger than 20 years performed with girth-based scanning parameters for suspected appendicitis were reviewed. Two judges selected 45 examinations in which the diagnosis of appendicitis was excluded (14, appendix not visualized; 31, normal appendix visualized). Gaussian noise was introduced into axial image series, creating five additional series acquired at 25-76% of the original dose. Two readers reviewed 270 image series for appendix visualization (4-point Likert scale and arrow localization). Volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) were calculated by use of patient girth. Confidence ratings and localization accuracy were analyzed with mixed models and nonparametric bootstrap analysis at a 0.05 significance level. The mean baseline SSDE for the 45 patients was 16 mGy (95% CI, 12-20 mGy), and the corresponding CTDIvol was 10 mGy (95% CI, 4-16 mGy). Changes in correct appendix localization frequencies were minor. There was no substantial trend with decreasing simulated dose level (p = 0.46). Confidence ratings decreased with increasing dose reduction (p = 0.007). The average decreases were -0.27 for the 25% simulated dose (p = 0.01), -0.17 for 33% (p = 0.03), and -0.03 for 43% (p = 0.65). Pediatric abdominal MDCT can be performed with 43% of the original dose (SSDE, 7 mGy; CTDIvol, 4.3 mGy) without substantially affecting visualization of a normal appendix.

  6. Assessment of mean glandular dose to patients from digital mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pwamang, Caroline K.

    2016-07-01

    Mean glandular dose assessment of patients undergoing digital mammography examination has been done. A total of 297 patient data was used for the study. Basic Quality Control tests were done to ascertain the performance of the equipment used. The results of Quality Control tests indicated that the three Mammography units used for this study were functioning within the internationally acceptable performance criteria. Patients with a breast thickness of 30 mm within the two age groups of 40-49 yrs and 50-64 yrs received doses slightly higher than the acceptable dose levels. A patient in the category 40-49 yrs with breast thickness of 30 mm received 1.83 mGy as calculated Mean Glandular Dose, 2.10 mGy was the recorded dose and 1.58 mGy was recorded under the age group 50-64 yrs. These values have deviated by -22%, -40%, and -5.33% respectively from 1.5 mGy which is the recommended dose for a breast thickness of 30 mm. Also patients with breast thickness of 70 mm under the age group 40–49 yrs had a recorded dose of 6.58 mGy, which deviated by -1.21% from the recommended value of 6.5 mGy for that breast thickness. Aside these values, all the other values were within the recommended dose values. The percentage deviation between the recommended values and the calculated values was within ±25% which was a working limit that was set for this work. Doses delivered by the Full-field Digital mammography equipment were higher than doses delivered by the Computered Radiography equipment. The calculated Mean Glandular Doses for the three facilities were within recommended dose values. (author)

  7. Investigation of the Entrance Surface Dose and Dose to Different Organs in Lumbar Spine Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dose assessment using proper dosimeters is especially important in radiation protection optimization and imaging justification in diagnostic radiology. Objective: The aim of this study is to obtain the Entrance Skin Dose (ESD of patients undergoing lumbar spine imaging using two thermoluminescence dosimeters TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti and GR-200 (LiF: Mg, Cu, P and also to obtain the absorbed dose to different organs in lumbar spine imaging with several views. Methods: To measure the ESD values of the patients undergoing lumbar spine imaging, the two TLD types were put on their skin surface. The ESD values for different views of lumbar spine imaging were also measured by putting the TLDs at the surface of the Rando phantom. Several TLD chips were inserted inside different organs of Rando phantom to measure the absorbed dose to different organs in lumbar spine imaging. Results: The results indicate that there is a close agreement between the results of the two dosimeters. Based on the results of this experiment, the ESD dose of the 16 patients included in this study varied between 2.71 mGy and 26.29 mGy with the average of 11.89 mGy for TLD-100, and between 2.55 mGy and 27.41 mGy with the average of 12.32 mGy for GR-200 measurements. The ESDs obtained by putting the two types of TLDs at the surface of Rando phantom are in close agreement. Conclusion: According to the results, the GR200 has greater sensitivity than the TLD-100.

  8. SU-E-I-09: Application of LiF:Mg,Cu (TLD-100H) Dosimeters for in Diagnostic Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sina, S; Zeinali, B; Karimipourfard, M; Lotfalizadeh, F; Sadeghi, M; Faghihi, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate dosimetery is very essential in diagnostic radiology. The goal of this study is to verify the application of LiF:Mg,Cu,P (TLD100H) in obtaining the Entrance skin dose (ESD) of patients undergoing diagnostic radiology. The results of dosimetry performed by TLD-100H, were compared with those obtained by TLD100, which is a common dosimeter in diagnostic radiology. Methods: In this study the ESD values were measured using two types of Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD-100, and TLD-100H) for 16 patients undergoing diagnostic radiology (lumbar spine imaging). The ESD values were also obtained by putting the two types of TLDs at the surface of Rando phantom for different imaging techniques and different views (AP, and lateral). The TLD chips were annealed with a standard procedure, and the ECC values for each TLD was obtained by exposing the chips to equal amount of radiation. Each time three TLD chips were covered by thin dark plastic covers, and were put at the surface of the phantom or the patient. The average reading of the three chips was used for obtaining the dose. Results: The results show a close agreement between the dose measuered by the two dosimeters.According to the results of this study, the TLD-100H dosimeters have higher sensitivities (i.e.signal(nc)/dose) than TLD-100.The ESD values varied between 2.71 mGy and 26.29 mGy with the average of 11.89 mGy for TLD-100, and between 2.55 mGy and 27.41 mGy with the average of 12.32 mGy for measurements. Conclusion: The TLD-100H dosimeters are suggested as effective dosimeters for dosimetry in low dose fields because of their higher sensitivities

  9. SU-E-I-09: Application of LiF:Mg,Cu (TLD-100H) Dosimeters for in Diagnostic Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sina, S [Radiation Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zeinali, B; Karimipourfard, M; Lotfalizadeh, F; Sadeghi, M [Nuclear Engineering Department, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faghihi, R [Radiation Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nuclear Engineering Department, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Accurate dosimetery is very essential in diagnostic radiology. The goal of this study is to verify the application of LiF:Mg,Cu,P (TLD100H) in obtaining the Entrance skin dose (ESD) of patients undergoing diagnostic radiology. The results of dosimetry performed by TLD-100H, were compared with those obtained by TLD100, which is a common dosimeter in diagnostic radiology. Methods: In this study the ESD values were measured using two types of Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD-100, and TLD-100H) for 16 patients undergoing diagnostic radiology (lumbar spine imaging). The ESD values were also obtained by putting the two types of TLDs at the surface of Rando phantom for different imaging techniques and different views (AP, and lateral). The TLD chips were annealed with a standard procedure, and the ECC values for each TLD was obtained by exposing the chips to equal amount of radiation. Each time three TLD chips were covered by thin dark plastic covers, and were put at the surface of the phantom or the patient. The average reading of the three chips was used for obtaining the dose. Results: The results show a close agreement between the dose measuered by the two dosimeters.According to the results of this study, the TLD-100H dosimeters have higher sensitivities (i.e.signal(nc)/dose) than TLD-100.The ESD values varied between 2.71 mGy and 26.29 mGy with the average of 11.89 mGy for TLD-100, and between 2.55 mGy and 27.41 mGy with the average of 12.32 mGy for measurements. Conclusion: The TLD-100H dosimeters are suggested as effective dosimeters for dosimetry in low dose fields because of their higher sensitivities.

  10. Investigation of the Entrance Surface Dose and Dose to Different Organs in Lumbar Spine Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sina, S; Zeinali, B; Karimipoorfard, M; Lotfalizadeh, F; Sadeghi, M; Zamani, E; Faghihi, R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dose assessment using proper dosimeters is especially important in radiation protection optimization and imaging justification in diagnostic radiology. Objective: The aim of this study is to obtain the Entrance Skin Dose (ESD) of patients undergoing lumbar spine imaging using two thermoluminescence dosimeters TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti) and GR-200 (LiF: Mg, Cu, P) and also to obtain the absorbed dose to different organs in lumbar spine imaging with several views. Methods: To measure the ESD values of the patients undergoing lumbar spine imaging, the two TLD types were put on their skin surface. The ESD values for different views of lumbar spine imaging were also measured by putting the TLDs at the surface of the Rando phantom. Several TLD chips were inserted inside different organs of Rando phantom to measure the absorbed dose to different organs in lumbar spine imaging. Results: The results indicate that there is a close agreement between the results of the two dosimeters. Based on the results of this experiment, the ESD dose of the 16 patients included in this study varied between 2.71 mGy and 26.29 mGy with the average of 11.89 mGy for TLD-100, and between 2.55 mGy and 27.41 mGy with the average of 12.32 mGy for GR-200 measurements. The ESDs obtained by putting the two types of TLDs at the surface of Rando phantom are in close agreement. Conclusion: According to the results, the GR200 has greater sensitivity than the TLD-100. PMID:25599058

  11. SU-F-I-36: In-Utero Dose Measurements Within Postmortem Subjects for Estimating Fetal Doses in Pregnant Patients Examined with Pulmonary Embolism, Trauma, and Appendicitis CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipnharski, I; Quails, N; Carranza, C; Correa, N; Bidari, S; Bickelhaup, M; Rill, L; Arreola, M [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The imaging of pregnant patients is medically necessary in certain clinical situations. The purpose of this work was to directly measure uterine doses in a cadaver scanned with CT protocols commonly performed on pregnant patients in order to estimate fetal dose and assess potential risk. Method: One postmortem subject was scanned on a 320-slice CT scanner with standard pulmonary embolism, trauma, and appendicitis protocols. All protocols were performed with the scan parameters and ranges currently used in clinical practice. Exams were performed both with and without iterative reconstruction to highlight the dose savings potential. Optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) were inserted into the uterus in order to approximate fetal doses. Results: In the pulmonary embolism CT protocol, the uterus is outside of the primary beam, and the dose to the uterus was under 1 mGy. In the trauma and appendicitis protocols, the uterus is in the primary beam, the fetal dose estimates were 30.5 mGy for the trauma protocol, and 20.6 mGy for the appendicitis protocol. Iterative reconstruction reduced fetal doses by 30%, with uterine doses at 21.3 for the trauma and 14.3 mGy for the appendicitis protocol. Conclusion: Fetal doses were under 1 mGy when exposed to scatter radiation, and under 50 mGy when exposed to primary radiation with the trauma and appendicitis protocols. Consistent with the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), these doses exhibit a negligible risk to the fetus, with only a small increased risk of cancer. Still, CT scans are not recommended during pregnancy unless the benefits of the exam clearly outweigh the potential risk. Furthermore, when possible, pregnant patients should be examined on CT scanners equipped with iterative reconstruction in order to keep patient doses as low as reasonable achievable.

  12. Assessment of Regional Pediatric Computed Tomography Dose Indices in Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, A; Vaideki, K; Govindarajan, K N; Jayakumar, S; Devanand, B

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to assess Tamil Nadu pediatric computed tomography (CT) diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) by collecting radiation dose data for the most commonly performed CT examinations. This work was performed for thirty CT scanners installed in various parts of the Tamil Nadu region. The patient cohort was divided into two age groups: <1 year, and 1-5 years. CT dose indices were measured using a 10 cm 3 pencil ion chamber with pediatric head and body polymethyl methacrylate phantoms. Dose data such as volumetric CT dose index (CTDI v ) and dose length product (DLP) on a minimum of twenty average-sized pediatric patients in each category were recorded to calculate a mean site CTDI v and DLP value. The rounded 75 th percentile was used to calculate a pediatric DRL for each hospital, and then region by compiling all results. Data were collected for 3600 pediatric patients. Pediatric CT DRL for two age groups: <1 year (CTDI v and DLP of head [20 mGy, 352 mGy.cm], chest [7 mGy, 120 mGy.cm] and abdomen [12 mGy, 252 mGy.cm]), and 1-5 years (CTDI v and DLP of head [38 mGy, 505 mGy.cm], chest [8 mGy, 132 mGy.cm] and abdomen [14 mGy, 270 mGy.cm]) for select procedures have been calculated. Proposed pediatric DRLs of CTDI v and DLP for head procedure were lower, and for chest and abdomen procedures were higher than European pediatric DRLs for both age groups.

  13. Assessment of DNA double-strand breaks induced by intravascular iodinated contrast media following in vitro irradiation and in vivo, during paediatric cardiac catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Richard; McFadden, Sonyia L; Horn, Simon; Prise, Kevin M; Doyle, Philip; Hughes, Ciara M

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric cardiac catheterizations may result in the administration of substantial amounts of iodinated contrast media and ionizing radiation. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of iodinated contrast media in combination with in vitro and in vivo X-ray radiation on lymphocyte DNA. Six concentrations of iodine (15, 17.5, 30, 35, 45, and 52.5 mg of iodine per mL blood) represented volumes of iodinated contrast media used in the clinical setting. Blood obtained from healthy volunteers was mixed with iodinated contrast media and exposed to radiation doses commonly used in paediatric cardiac catheterizations (0 mGy, 70 mGy, 140 mGy, 250 mGy and 450 mGy). Control samples contained no iodine. For in vivo experimentation, pre and post blood samples were collected from children undergoing cardiac catheterization, receiving iodine concentrations of up to 51 mg of iodine per mL blood and radiation doses of up to 400 mGy. Fluorescence microscopy was performed to assess γH2AX-foci induction, which corresponded to the number of DNA double-strand breaks. The presence of iodine in vitro resulted in significant increases of DNA double-strand breaks beyond that induced by radiation for ≥ 17.5 mg/mL iodine to blood. The in vivo effects of contrast media on children undergoing cardiac catheterization resulted in a 19% increase in DNA double-strand breaks in children receiving an average concentration of 19 mg/mL iodine to blood. A larger investigation is required to provide further information of the potential benefit of lowering the amount of iodinated contrast media received during X-ray radiation investigations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The effects of γ-ray on charging behaviour using polyimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Sichen; Tu, Youping; Tan, Tian; Wang, Shaohe; Yuan, Zhikang; Wang, Cong; Li, Laifeng; Wu, Zhixiong

    2018-06-01

    Insulation material is a key component of electrical equipment in satellites; its electrical properties determine the reliability and lifetime of the whole satellite. High-energy radioactive rays in space affect the molecular structure of the polymeric insulating materials. Under the action of plasma, high energy particles, along with the magnetic fields experienced in orbits, electric charges get injected into and trapped by the insulating material creating distortions in the electric field and even electrostatic discharges. Polyimides have been widely used for insulation in spacecraft. Choosing Co-60 gamma ray with irradiation doses of 1 MGy and 5 MGy to simulate the radiation environment of space, we investigated the effect of radiation on charging behaviour. The thermal stimulated current (TSC) from a high electric field over a wide range of temperatures was measured from which the activation energy was calculated. These results for the two sources show that the percentage increase in total charge was 133.3% and 119.4%. The γ, β 3, and α charge peaks of specimens after an irradiation dose of 1 MGy rose. In comparison, the β 2 peak of the 5 MGy-dosed specimens was enhanced. Also, there is almost no change in the γ, β 3, and α peaks. To understand the mechanism behind the TSC changes, the resulting physicochemical characteristics of an irradiated specimen were observed employing various analyses of chemical characteristics (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffraction). Compared with the non-dosed specimen, the relative content of C–N and the glass transition temperature of the 1 MGy sample decreased, and the crystallinity increased, thus increasing the γ and α peak intensities. Compared with the 1 MGy sample, only the glass transition temperature had risen, thereby enhancing the β peak intensity. With the foregoing, a theoretical base for the selection and modification of insulation materials for

  15. Measurement of photo-neutron cross sections and isomeric yield ratios in the {sup 89}Y(γ,xn){sup 89-x}Y reactions at the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 65, 70 and 75 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatari, Mansoureh [Yazd Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Physics Dept.; Naik, Haladhara [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Kwangsoo [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics; Shin, Sung-Gyun; Cho, Moo-Hyun [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Advanced Nuclear Engineering

    2017-07-01

    The flux-weighted average cross sections of the {sup 89}Y(γ,xn; x=1-4){sup 89-x}Y reactions and the isomeric yield ratios of the {sup 87m,g}Y, {sup 86m,g}Y, and {sup 85m,g}Y radionuclides produced in these reactions with the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 65, 70 and 75 MeV have been determined by an activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique using the 100 MeV electron linac in Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Korea. The theoretical {sup 89}Y(γ,xn; x=1-4){sup 89-x}Y reaction cross sections for mono-energetic photons have been calculated using the computer code TALYS 1.6. Then the flux-weighted theoretical values were obtained to compare with the present data. The flux-weighted experimental and theoretical {sup 89}Y(γ,xn; x=1-4){sup 89-x}Y reaction cross sections increase very fast from the threshold values to a certain bremsstrahlung energy, where the other reaction channels open up. Thereafter it remains constant a while and then slowly decreases with the increase of cross sections for other reactions. Similarly, the isomeric yield ratios of {sup 87m,g}Y, {sup 86m,g}Y and {sup 85m,g}Y in the {sup 89}Y(γ,xn; x=2-4){sup 89-x}Y reactions from the present work and literature data show an increasing trend from their respective threshold values to a certain bremsstrahlung energy. After a certain point of energy, the isomeric yield ratios increase slowly with the bremsstrahlung energy. These observations indicate the role of excitation energy and its partitioning in different reaction channels.

  16. The biological effects of exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    Scenarios for exposure to ionising radiation range from natural background radiation (chronic) to the explosions of atomic bombs (acute), with some medical, industrial and research exposures lying between these extremes. Biological responses to radiation that predominate at high doses incurred at high dose rates are different from those that predominate at low doses and low dose rates. Single doses from bomb explosions ranged up to many thousand mGy. Acute doses greater than about 1000 mGy cause acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Below this threshold, radiation has a variety of potential latent health effects: Change to the incidence of cancer is the most usual subject of attention but change to longevity may be the best overall measure because decreased incidences of non-cancer mortality have been observed to coincide with increased incidence of cancer mortality. Acute doses greater than 500 mGy cause increased risks of cancer and decreased life expectancy. For doses less than 100 mGy, beneficial overall health effects ('radiation hormesis') have been observed. At the other end of the spectrum, chronic exposure to natural radiation has occurred throughout evolution and is necessary for the normal life and health of current species. Dose rates greater than the present global average of about 2 mGy per year have either no discernible health effect or beneficial health effects up to several hundred mGy per year. It is clearly not credible that a single health effects model -- such as the linear no-threshold (LNT) model of risk estimation -- could fit all latent health effects. A more realistic model is suggested.

  17. Performance degradation of ferrofluidic feedthroughs in a mixed irradiation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, Nikolaos; Fernandes, S.; Mittig, Wolfgang; Pellemoine, Frederique; Avilov, M.; Kostin, M.; Mausner, L.; Ronningen, R.; Schein, M.; Bollen, G.

    2017-01-01

    Ferrofluidic feedthrough (FF) rotary seals containing either NdFeB or SmCo-type permanent magnets have been considered for use in the target and beam dump systems of the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). To evaluate their performance under irradiation three FF seals were irradiated in a mixed field consisting of fast neutrons, protons and γ-rays to an average absorbed dose of 0.2, 2.0, and 20.0 MGy at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer facility (BLIP). The radiation types and energy profiles mimic those expected at the FRIB facility. Degradation of the operational performance of these devices due to irradiation is expected to be the result of the de-magnetization of the permanent magnets contained within the seal and the changes in the ferrofluid properties. Post-irradiation performance was evaluated by determining the ferrofluidic seal vacuum tightness and torque under static and dynamic conditions. The study revealed that the ferrofluidic feedthrough seal irradiated to a dose of 0.2 MGy maintained its vacuum tightness under both static and rotational condition while the one irradiated to a dose of 2.0 MGy exhibited signs of ferrofluid damage but no overall performance loss. At 20 MGy dose the effects of irradiation on the ferrofluid properties (viscosity and particle agglomeration) were shown to be severe. Furthermore, limited de-magnetization of the annular shaped Nd2Fe14B and Sm2Co17 magnets located within the irradiated FFs was observed for doses of 0.2 MGy and 20 MGy respectively.

  18. Effect of low dose radiation on expression of hematopoietic growth factors secreted by human mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yan; Wang Guanjun; Zhu Jingyan; Wang Juan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of hematopoietic growth factors secreted by human mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow (BM-MSC) pretreated with low dose radiation (LDR). Methods: The cultured P4 and P5 BM-MSCs were exposed to X rays at the doses of 50, 75 and 100 mGy (dose rate 12.5 mGy·min -1 ). The changes of levels of stem cell factor (SCF), IL-6, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) secreted by BM- MSCs pretreated with LDR were determined by ELISA method. Results: As compared with control group at the same time, the levels of SCF in experimental group had a tendency of increasing after 24 h and 48 h radiation, but only in 75 mGy group the SCF level was obviously increased (P<0.05). The levels of IL-6 in 50 and 75 mGy groups at 24 h and 48 h, in 100 mGy group at 24 h were obviously increased compared with control group (P< 0.05). The levels of M-CSF in all the groups at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h except for the 50 mGy dose at 72 h were also increased (P<0.05), it increased markedly in 75 mGy dose group at 72 h. Conclusion: LDR has hormesis effect on BM-MSCs. After LDR, the BM-MSCs grow faster and in a certain phase the expression levels of hematopoietic growth factors are increased. (authors)

  19. Primary beam ionizing radiation for patients during coronary cineangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Alfredo; Leyton, Fernando; Gamarra, Jorge; Oyarzun C, Carlos; Silva, Ana Maria; Ugalde, Hector; Dussaillant, Gaston

    2001-01-01

    Current cardiology practice incorporates hemodynamic and angiographic studies as normal procedures. Clinical actions have to be taken in interventionist cardiology that demand prolonged exposure times to radiation, which implies submitting patients to quantitatively significant doses. This work is a preliminary phase for clinical studies involving long procedures in hemodynamic and electrophysiological interventionist cardiology to show the magnitude of the radiation doses received by the patients after a proper diagnosis. The aim is to improve the patient's radiological protection as well as that of the staff involved. The study group consisted of 18 patients who underwent coronary angiography procedures with Siemens Angioskop D equipment and a Siemens Polidoros 80 generator. Four TLD Crystal detectors were used for the patient's dosimetry, which were located in the dorsal region along the left para scapular line, on the mid line of the thyroid region and a detector on the mid point between the umbilical zone and the pubis symphysis. For procedure times of 14±4.3 min., with fluoroscope times of 3.6±2.5 min., connection techniques of 87±15 kV. and 126±24 mA, the radiations recorded in the left inter scapular and right inter scapular regions were 215±199 mGy (1-710 mGy range) and 255±212 mGy ( 22 - 791mGy range ). The radiations in the pubic and thyroid regions were 0.23±0.07 mGy and 3.62±2.44 mGy, respectively (CO)

  20. Survey of pediatric MDCT radiation dose from university hospitals in Thailand. A preliminary for national dose survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritsaneepaiboon, Supika [Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla Univ., Hat Yai (Thailand)], e-mail: supikak@yahoo.com; Trinavarat, Panruethai [Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand); Visrutaratna, Pannee [Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai Univ., Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2012-09-15

    Background: Increasing pediatric CT usage worldwide needs the optimization of CT protocol examination. Although there are previous published dose reference level (DRL) values, the local DRLs should be established to guide for clinical practice and monitor the CT radiation. Purpose: To determine the multidetector CT (MDCT) radiation dose in children in three university hospitals in Thailand in four age groups using the CT dose index (CTDI) and dose length product (DLP). Material and Methods: A retrospective review of CT dosimetry in pediatric patients (<15 years of age) who had undergone head, chest, and abdominal MDCT in three major university hospitals in Thailand was performed. Volume CTDI (CTDIvol) and DLP were recorded, categorized into four age groups: <1 year, 1- < 5 years, 5- <10 years, and 10- <15 years in each scanner. Range, mean, and third quartile values were compared with the national reference dose levels for CT in pediatric patients from the UK and Switzerland according to International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendation. Results: Per age group, the third quartile values for brain, chest, and abdominal CTs were, respectively, in terms of CTDIvol: 25, 30, 40, and 45 mGy; 4.5, 5.7, 10, and 15.6 mGy; 8.5, 9, 14, and 17 mGy; and in terms of DLP: 400, 570, 610, and 800 mGy cm; 80, 140, 305, and 470 mGy cm; and 190, 275, 560,765 mGy cm. Conclusion: This preliminary national dose survey for pediatric CT in Thailand found that the majority of CTDIvol and DLP values in brain, chest, and abdominal CTs were still below the diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) from the UK and Switzerland regarding to ICRP recommendation.