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Sample records for mg kg-1 pb

  1. Reversal of rocuronium-induced (1.2 mg kg-1) profound neuromuscular block by accidental high dose of sugammadex (40 mg kg-1).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, A.L.; Boer, H.D. de; Klimek, M.; Heeringa, M.; Klein, J.

    2007-01-01

    Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent and reverses rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block. A case is reported in which a patient accidentally received a high dose of sugammadex (40 mg kg-1) to reverse a rocuronium-induced (1.2 mg kg-1) profound neuromuscular block. A fast and

  2. Sugammadex 4.0 mg kg-1 reversal of deep rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Buwei; Wang, Xiangrui; Hansen, Søren Helbo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Maintenance of deep Neuro Muscular Blockade (NMB) until the end of surgery may be beneficial in some surgical procedures. The selective relaxant binding agent sugammadex rapidly reverses deep levels of rocuronium-induced NMB. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy...... and safety of sugammadex 4.0 mg kg-1 for reversal of deep rocuronium-induced NMB in Chinese and Caucasian patients. Methods: This was an open-label, multicenter, prospective Phase III efficacy study in adult American Society of Anesthesiologists Class 1-3 patients scheduled for surgery under general...... anesthesia and requiring deep NMB. All patients received intravenous propofol and opioids for induction and maintenance of anesthesia, and a single intubation dose of rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg, with maintenance doses of 0.1-0.2 mg/kg as required. Sugammadex 4.0 mg/kg was administered after the last dose...

  3. Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of sugammadex 4 mg kg-1 for reversal of deep neuromuscular blockade in patients with severe renal impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panhuizen, I. F.; Gold, S. J. A.; Buerkle, C.; Snoeck, M. M. J.; Harper, N. J. N.; Kaspers, M. J. G. H.; van den Heuvel, M. W.; Hollmann, M. W.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated efficacy and safety of sugammadex 4 mg kg(-1) for deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) reversal in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance [CLCR] <30 ml min(-1)) vs those with normal renal function (CLCR ≥80 ml min(-1)). Sugammadex 4 mg kg(-1) was administered

  4. Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of sugammadex 4 mg kg-1 for reversal of deep neuromuscular blockade in patients with severe renal impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhuizen, I F; Gold, S J A; Buerkle, C; Snoeck, M M J; Harper, N J N; Kaspers, M J G H; van den Heuvel, M W; Hollmann, M W

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated efficacy and safety of sugammadex 4 mg kg(-1) for deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) reversal in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance [CLCR] Sugammadex 4 mg kg(-1) was administered at 1-2 post-tetanic counts for reversal of rocuronium NMB. Primary efficacy variable was time from sugammadex to recovery to train-of-four (T4/T1) ratio 0.9. Equivalence between groups was demonstrated if two-sided 95% CI for difference in recovery times was within -1 to +1 min interval. Pharmacokinetics of rocuronium and overall safety were assessed. The intent-to-treat group comprised 67 patients (renal n=35; control n=32). Median (95% CI) time from sugammadex to recovery to T4/T1 ratio 0.9 was 3.1 (2.4-4.6) and 1.9 (1.6-2.8) min for renal patients vs controls. Estimated median (95% CI) difference between groups was 1.3 (0.6-2.4) min; thus equivalence bounds were not met. One control patient experienced acceleromyography-determined NMB recurrence, possibly as a result of premature sugammadex (4 mg kg(-1)) administration, with no clinical evidence of NMB recurrence observed. Rocuronium, encapsulated by Sugammadex, was detectable in plasma at day 7 in 6 patients. Bioanalytical data for sugammadex were collected but could not be used for pharmacokinetics. Sugammadex 4 mg kg(-1) provided rapid reversal of deep rocuronium-induced NMB in renal and control patients. However, considering the prolonged sugammadex-rocuronium complex exposure in patients with severe renal impairment, current safety experience is insufficient to support recommended use of sugammadex in this population. NCT00702715. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Postoperative impairment of motor function at train-of-four ratio ≥0.9 cannot be improved by sugammadex (1 mg kg-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumüller, E; Schaller, S J; Chiquito Lama, Y; Frick, C G; Bauhofer, T; Eikermann, M; Fink, H; Blobner, M

    2015-05-01

    A train-of-four ratio (TOFR) ≥0.9 measured by quantitative neuromuscular monitoring is accepted as an indication of sufficient neuromuscular recovery for extubation, even though many postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors may still be inhibited. We investigated whether antagonism with sugammadex after spontaneous recovery to TOFR≥0.9 further improves muscle function or subjective well-being. Following recovery to TOFR≥0.9 and emergence from anaesthesia, 300 patients randomly received either sugammadex 1.0 mg kg(-1) or placebo. Fine motor function (Purdue Pegboard Test) and maximal voluntary grip strength were measured before and after surgery (before and after test drug administration). At discharge from the postanaesthesia care unit, well-being was assessed with numerical analogue scales and the Quality-of-Recovery Score 40 (QoR-40). Patients' fine motor function [6 (sd 4) vs 15 (3) pegs (30 s)(-1), Psugammadex or placebo, motor function was significantly improved in both groups but did not reach the preoperative level. There was no difference between groups at any time. Global well-being was unaffected (QoR-40: placebo, 174 vs 185; sugammadex, 175 vs 186, P>0.05). Antagonizing rocuronium at TOF≥0.9 with sugammadex 1.0 mg kg(-) (1) did not improve patients' motor function or well-being when compared with placebo. Our data support the view that TOFR≥0.9 measured by electromyography signifies sufficient recovery of neuromuscular function. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01101139). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Discharge behaviour of Mg-Al-Pb and Mg-Al-Pb-In alloys as anodes for Mg-air battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Naiguang; Wang, Richu; Peng, Chaoqun; Peng, Bing; Feng, Yan; Hu, Chengwang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the effect of indium on the discharge behaviour of Mg-Al-Pb alloy. • We evaluate the performance of Mg-air batteries with Mg-Al-Pb and Mg-Al-Pb-In anodes. • We analyze the activation mechanism of Mg-Al-Pb-In alloy in the discharge process. - Abstract: The discharge behaviour of Mg-Al-Pb and Mg-Al-Pb-In alloys in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution is investigated by electrochemical techniques, and compared with that of pure magnesium. The results show that Mg-Al-Pb-In alloy provides a more negative potential and exhibits a higher utilization efficiency in contrast with Mg-Al-Pb alloy and pure magnesium during the half-cell test at a large current density, and gives desirable discharge performance when used as anode for Mg- air battery. The peak power density of the Mg-air battery with Mg-Al-Pb-In anode is 94.5 mW cm −2 , which is comparable with those of Mg-H 2 O 2 semi-fuel batteries. Moreover, the activation mechanism of Mg-Al-Pb-In alloy during the discharge process is also analyzed

  7. Survival, Pb-uptake and behaviour of three species of earthworm in Pb treated soils determined using an OECD-style toxicity test and a soil avoidance test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langdon, Caroline J.; Hodson, Mark E.; Arnold, Rebecca E.; Black, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Mature (clitellate) Eisenia andrei Bouche (ultra epigeic), Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister (epigeic), and Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny) (endogeic) earthworms were placed in soils treated with Pb(NO 3 ) 2 to have concentrations in the range 1000 to 10 000 mg Pb kg -1 . After 28 days LC50 -95%confidencelimit +95%confidencelimit values were E. andrei5824 -361 +898 mg Pb kg -1 , L. rubellus2867 -193 +145 mg Pb kg -1 and A. caliginosa2747 -304 +239 mg Pb kg -1 and EC50s for weight change were E. andrei2841 -68 +150 mg Pb kg -1 , L. rubellus1303 -201 +240 mg Pb kg -1 and A. caliginosa1208 -206 +212 mg Pb kg -1 . At any given soil Pb concentration, Pb tissue concentrations after 28 days were the same for all three earthworm species. In a soil avoidance test there was no difference between the behaviour of the different species. The lower sensitivity to Pb exhibited by E. andrei is most likely due to physiological adaptations associated with the modes of life of the earthworms, and could have serious implications for the use of this earthworm as the species of choice in standard toxicological testing.

  8. Exploring As-Cast PbCaSn-Mg Anodes for Improved Performance in Copper Electrowinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwono, Jodie A.; Clancy, Marie; Chen, Xiaobo; Birbilis, Nick

    2018-06-01

    Lead calcium tin (PbCaSn) alloys are the common anodes used in copper electrowinning (Cu EW). Given a large amount of energy consumed in Cu EW process, anodes with controlled oxygen evolution reaction (OER) kinetics and a lower OER overpotential are advantageous for reducing the energy consumption. To date, magnesium (Mg) has never been studied as an alloying element for EW anodes. As-cast PbCaSn anodes with the addition of Mg were examined herein, revealing an improved performance compared to that of the industrial standard PbCaSn anode. The alloy performances in the early stages of anode life and passivation were established from electrochemical studies which were designed to simulate industrial Cu EW process. The 24-hour polarization testing revealed that the Mg alloying depolarizes the anode potential up to 80 mV; thus, resulting in a higher Cu EW efficiency. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the alteration of the alloy microstructure and the corresponding interfacial reactions contribute to the changes of the anode electrochemical performances. The present study reveals for the first time the potency of Mg alloying in reducing the overpotential of PbCaSn anode.

  9. Bioremediation of Zn, Cu, Mg and Pb in Fresh Domestic Sewage by Brevibacterium sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojoawo, S. O.; Rao, C. V.; Goveas, L. C.

    2016-01-01

    The study applied an isolated Brevibacterium sp. (MTCC 10313) for bioremediation of Zn, Cu, Mg and Pb in domestic sewage. Batch culture experiments were performed on both the fresh and stale sewage samples with glucose supplementation of 1-8g/l. Nutrient broth medium was prepared, sterilized and p H adjusted to 6.5-6.8. 1% of the Brevibacteria sp. stock was inoculated into the broth and maintained at 370C for 24 hours in shaker incubator at 120 rpm. Another 1% of fresh grown sub-culture of broth was inoculated into supplemented and sterilized samples. Optical Density was taken at 600nm, growth monitored over 12 days, cultured samples denatured with TCA and centrifuged, supernatants filtered and analyzed with AAS, Settled pellets oven dried, subjected to SEM analysis for morphology and constituents determination. Fresh sewage samples permitted bacterial growth and facilitated bioremediation of Zn, Cu and Mg through metal uptake and bioabsoption by Brevibacteria sp. This effectively reduced concentration of heavy metals, with treatment efficiency order Cu>Zn>Mg, and respective removal percentages of 77, 63 and 55. The optimum glucose concentration for effective bioremediation found as 2g/l for Zn and Cu, and 8g/l for Mg. Pb was resistant to bioremediation with Brevibacteria sp. Stale sewage produced inhibitory substances preventing adequate growth of bacterium with no bioremediation. Bioremediation with Brevibacteria sp. is found effective in removal of micro-units of Zn, Cu and Mg from domestic sewage. As a readily available low-cost agent, it is recommended for large- scale application on those metals while Pb should be further subjected to advanced treatments.

  10. Effect of excess Mg and Excess Nb incorporation into the B-site of pyrochlore in the Pb-Mg-Nb-O system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergen, A.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Pb-Mg-Nb-O system, excess Mg and excess Nb incorporation into the B-site of PMN pyrochlore were investigated along the compositons of Pb1.83Mg0.29+xNb1.71-xO6.39-1.5x where x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.522 and Pb1.83Mg0.29-xNb1.71+xO6.39+1.5x where x=0.1, 0.2, 0.29 respectively. Excess Mg incorporation led to the formation of perovskite and excess Nb resulted in formation of Pb2Nb2O7 monoclinic pyrochlore. The densities of the PMN pyrochlore-PMN perovskite mixtures decreased with an increase in Mg concentration. The relative permittivity of the mixtures increased with decreasing pyrochlore content. The effect of pyrochlore on the permittivity follows the Weiner’s mixture rule up to a pyrochlore content of 50 vol%.

    Se investigó la incorporación en lugares B de pirocloro PMN de un exceso de Mg y un exceso de Nb. En el sistema Pb-Mg-Nb-O2 las composiciones analizadas fueron Pb1.83Mg0.29+xNb1.71-xO6.39-1.5x donde x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.522 y en Pb1.83Mg0.29-xNb1.71+xO6.39+1.5x donde x= 0.1, 0.2,0.29. El exceso de Mg condujo a la formación de perovskita y el exceso de Nb resultó en la formación del pirocloro monolínico, Pb2Nb2O7. La densidad de la mezcla de PMN pirocloro-perovskita dismunuye con el aumento de la concentración de Mg. La permitividad dieléctrica de las mezclas aumenta con la disminución del contenido de pirocloro. El efecto del pirocloro sobre la permitividad sigue la regla de mezclas de Weiner hasta conenidos de pirocloro del 50%.

  11. Soil solution interactions may limit Pb remediation using P amendments in an urban soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead (Pb) contaminated soils are a potential exposure hazard to the public. Amending soils with phosphorus (P) may reduce Pb soil hazards. Soil from Cleveland, OH containing 726 ± 14 mg Pb kg-1 was amended in a laboratory study with bone meal and triple super phospha...

  12. Preparation of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 by simultaneous precipitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juiz, S.A.; Varela, J.A.; Santilli, C.V.; Pulcinelli, S.H.; Longo, E.

    1990-01-01

    Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 was obtained by simultaneous precipitation of Pb(NO 3 ) 2' Mg(NO 3 ) 2 . 6H 2 O and NH 4 H 2 /NbO(C 2 O 4 ) 3 ./3H 2 O in alkaline medium. DTA of the precipitates show the PMN formation between 700 and 750 0 C. XRD on powder calcined at 750 0 C indicates on other phases basiders PMN. Measurements of dielectric constants shows a Curie temperature shifted to -80 0 C. (author) [pt

  13. The accumulation of elements in plants growing spontaneously on small heaps left by the historical Zn-Pb ore mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanowicz, Anna M; Stanek, Małgorzata; Woch, Marcin W; Kapusta, Paweł

    2016-04-01

    The study evaluated the levels of nine metals, namely Ca, Cd, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Pb, Tl, and Zn, in soils and tissues of ten plant species growing spontaneously on heaps left by historical mining for Zn-Pb ores. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Tl, and Zn in heap soils were much higher than in control soils. Plants growing on heaps accumulated excessive amounts of these elements in tissues, on average 1.3-52 mg Cd kg(-1), 9.4-254 mg Pb kg(-1), 0.06-23 mg Tl kg(-1) and 134-1479 mg Zn kg(-1) in comparison to 0.5-1.1 mg Cd kg(-1), 2.1-11 mg Pb kg(-1), 0.02-0.06 mg Tl kg(-1), and 23-124 mg Zn kg(-1) in control plants. The highest concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn were found in the roots of Euphorbia cyparissias, Fragaria vesca, and Potentilla arenaria, and Tl in Plantago lanceolata. Many species growing on heaps were enriched in K and Mg, and depleted in Ca, Fe, and Mn. The concentrations of all elements in plant tissues were dependent on species, organ (root vs. shoot), and species-organ interactions. Average concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg were generally higher in shoots than in roots or similar in the two organs, whereas Cd, Fe, Pb, Tl, and Zn were accumulated predominantly in the roots. Our results imply that heaps left by historical mining for Zn-Pb ores may pose a potential threat to the environment and human health.

  14. Damped soft phonons and diffuse scattering in 40%Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-60%PbTiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, C.; Ellis, D.; Swainson, I. P.; Xu, Guangyong; Hiraka, H.; Shirane, G.; Zhong, Z.; Luo, H.; Zhao, X.; Viehland, D.; Birgeneau, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    Using neutron elastic and inelastic scattering and high-energy x-ray diffraction, we present a comparison of 40% Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -60% PbTiO 3 (PMN-60PT) with pure Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 (PMN) and PbTiO 3 (PT). We measure the structural properties of PMN-60PT to be identical to pure PT, however, the lattice dynamics are exactly that previously found in relaxors PMN and Pb(Zn 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 (PZN). PMN-60PT displays a well-defined macroscopic structural transition from a cubic to tetragonal unit cell at 550 K. The diffuse scattering is shown to be weak indicating that the structural distortion is long-range in PMN-60PT and short-range polar correlations (polar nanoregions) are not present. Even though polar nanoregions are absent, the soft optic mode is short-lived for wave vectors near the zone center. Therefore PMN-60PT displays the same waterfall effect as prototypical relaxors PMN and PZN. We conclude that it is random fields resulting from the intrinsic chemical disorder which is the reason for the broad transverse optic mode observed in PMN and PMN-60PT near the zone center and not due to the formation of short-ranged polar correlations. Through our comparison of PMN, PMN-60PT, and pure PT, we interpret the dynamic and static properties of the PMN-xPT system in terms of a random field model in which the cubic anisotropy term dominates with increasing doping of PbTiO 3

  15. Investigation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg Concentrations in Groundwater Resources of Razan Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sobhan Ardakani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Iran is located in the dry and semi dry regions, thus almost 90% of the required fresh water is exploited from groundwater resources. Due to the increasing pol-lution of water resources, the purpose of this study was evaluation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg concentrations in groundwater resources of Razan Plain and preparing the zoning map using GIS. Materials & Methods: Groundwater samples were collected from 20 selected stations during two seasons in 2012. The samples were filtered (0.45 ?m and maintained cool in polyethyl-ene bottles. The samples were taken for the analysis of cations, the former was acidified with HNO3 to pH lower than 2. Minor elements were determined using ICP-OES. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. Also, Kriging Method was used to prepare spatial distribution maps of elements in groundwater samples. Results: The results showed that the mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg in the groundwater samples during the spring were 5.60±0.66, 0.21±0.04, 32.10±2.21 and 6990.0±302.10 ppb, respectively, and the mean concentrations of these elements in the groundwater samples in the summer were 4.86±0.46, 0.30±0.08, 25.55±3.63 and 3654.05±215.65 ppb, respectively. Comparing the mean concentrations of the evaluated metals with WHO permissible limits showed a significant difference (p<0.05. Thus, the mean concentrations of the metals were significantly lower than the permissible limits. Conclusion: Although the groundwater resources of Razan Plain are not currently polluted with heavy metals, long-term excessive use of agricultural inputs and establishment of pollut-ing industries, can pose a threat to groundwater resources of this area. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21(4:319-329

  16. First Pb-Pb dating results from carbonado diamonds from Chapada Diamantina (BA) and Jequitinhonha River (MG), Espinhaco Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Mario Luiz de Sa Carneiro; Sano, Yuji; Chambel, Luis

    2005-01-01

    Most carbonados found in Brazil occur along the Espinhaco Range, associated to conglomeratic rocks of the Espinhaco Supergroup. This paper presents Pb-Pb radiometric ages on mineral inclusions (quartz, rutile and clay) and matrix of carbonados from the Andarai and Jequitinhonha River areas. Even with a large experimental error, the results obtained of 3,8±1,8Ga and 3,3±0,7 Ga respectively, are of regional geologic interest. The minimum carbonado formation age (ca.2,5 Ga) is older than the Espinhaco Supergroup deposition age (≅ 1,7 Ga). Other evidences suggest that this minimum age corresponds to the seed aggregation phase; the crustal inclusions being aggregated in an environment rich in high-energy radioactive particles. (author)

  17. Heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) partitioning and bioaccessibility in uncontaminated and long-term contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, Dane T.; Ming Hui; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the pore-water content and speciation of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in a range of uncontaminated and long-term contaminated soils in order to establish their potential bioaccessibility to soil biota, plants and humans. Among the samples, soil pH (0.01 M CaCl 2 ) ranged from 4.9 to 8.2. The total metal content of the uncontaminated soils ranged from 3.8 to 93.8 mg Cu kg -1 , 10.3 to 95 mg kg -1 Zn, 0.1 to 1.8 mg Cd kg -1 and 5.2 to 183 mg kg -1 Pb, while metal content in the contaminated soils ranged from 104 to 6841 mg Cu kg -1 , 312 to 39,000 mg kg -1 Zn, 6 to 302 mg Cd kg -1 and 609 to 12,000 mg kg -1 Pb. Our analysis of pore-water found the Cu concentrations to be much higher in contaminated soils than in uncontaminated soils, with the distribution coefficients (K d ) correlating significantly with the log of dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Despite the high total metal content of the contaminated soil, Zn, Cd and Pb were not generally found at elevated levels in the pore-water with the exception of a single contaminated soil. A long period of ageing and soil weathering may have led to a substantial reduction in heavy metal concentrations in the pore-water of contaminated soils. On the other hand, Pb bioaccessibility was found to be comparatively high in Pb contaminated soils, where it tended to exceed the total Pb values by more than 80%. We conclude that, despite the extensive ageing of some contaminated soils, the bioaccessibility of Pb remains relatively high.

  18. Local hysteresis and grain size effect in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- PbTiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvartsman, V. V.; Emelyanov, A. Yu.; Kholkin, A. L.; Safari, A.

    2002-07-01

    The local piezoelectric properties of relaxor ferroelectric films of solid solutions 0.9Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- 0.1PbTiO3 were investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM) in a piezoelectric contact mode. The piezoelectric hysteresis loops were acquired in the interior of grains of different sizes. A clear correlation between the values of the effective piezoelectric coefficients, deff, and the size of the respective grains is observed. Small grains exhibit slim piezoelectric hysteresis loops with low remanent deff, whereas relatively strong piezoelectric activity is characteristic of larger grains. Part of the grains (approx20-25%) is strongly polarized without application of a dc field. The nature of both phenomena is discussed in terms of the internal bias field and grain size effects on the dynamics of nanopolar clusters.

  19. Electromechanical behavior of [001]-textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yongke; Wang, Yu. U.; Priya, Shashank

    2012-05-01

    [001]-textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) ceramics were synthesized by using templated grain growth method. Significantly high [001] texture degree corresponding to 0.98 Lotgering factor was achieved at 1 vol. % BaTiO3 template. Electromechanical properties for [001]-textured PMN-PT ceramics with 1 vol. % BaTiO3 were found to be d33 = 1000 pC/N, d31 = 371 pC/N, ɛr = 2591, and tanδ = ˜0.6%. Elastoelectric composite based modeling results showed that higher volume fraction of template reduces the overall dielectric constant and thus has adverse effect on the piezoelectric response. Clamping effect was modeled by deriving the changes in free energy as a function of applied electric field and microstructural boundary condition.

  20. Local and average structures of 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 - 0.3PbZrO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, P.S.R.; Shinde, A.B.; Narasimhan, S.L.; Tiwari, V.S.; Singh, G.

    2005-01-01

    The local and average structure of 0.7Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 - 0.3PbZrO 3 (PMN-PZ) was studied by neutron diffraction. The Rietveld refinement was carried out to determine the average, long-range crystallographic structure, while the pair density function (PDF) analysis was used in studying the local atomic structure. The local atomic structure determined by the PDF analysis, was found to be significantly different from the average crystallographic structure determined by the Rietveld analysis. These results show that the conflict between the local structural preference and the average structure is not limited to relax or ferroelectric oxides, but may be widely prevalent in mixed-ion ferroelectrics. (author)

  1. Fatigue properties of piezoelectric-electrostrictive Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 monolithic bilayer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A.; Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.

    2006-11-01

    The fatigue response of monolithic piezoelectric 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3-electrostrictive 0.90Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.10PbTiO3 bilayer composites was investigated experimentally. The monomorph bilayers were cosintered at 1150°C, and the polarization hysteresis, relative permittivity, displacement, and cyclic fatigue (107cycles) were measured as a function of piezoelectric-electrostrictive volume fraction (PEVF) ratio. The highest tip displacement of bilayers was found in the 3:1 PEVF monolith, reaching 40μm at 5kV/cm applied field strength. By minimizing the electrostrictive layer thickness, tip displacement substantially increased, while maintaining a lower hysteresis than the purely piezoelectric counterpart. Fatigue measurements indicated a 31% decrease in displacement after 107cycles in 3:1 monoliths, whereas the 1:3 PEVF only showed a 12% decrease under the same conditions. There is a 30% increase in polarization after 107cycles for 1:1 PEVF bilayers, which is attributed to self-poling due to a diffuse transition layer in the vicinity of the interface. It was found that partial 90° domain switching occurred prior to poling because of the residual stresses in the composite, imposed by the electrostrictive layer and the spontaneous strain associated with the cubic-tetragonal transition in the ferroelectric layer. The results indicate that the electrostrictive layer, which is electrically in series with the piezoelectric one, enhances the fatigue resistance of the monolithic bilayer composites in addition to the increase in tip displacement.

  2. Processing and properties of Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3--PbTiO3 thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantigate, C.; Lee, J.; Safari, A.

    1995-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to prepare in situ Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3 (PMN) and PMN-PT thin films by pulsed laser deposition and to investigate the electrical features of thin films for possible dynamic random access memory (DRAM) and microactuator applications. The impact of processing parameters such compositions, substrate temperature, and oxygen pressure on perovskite phase formation and dielectric characteristics were reported. It was found that the highest dielectric constant, measured at room temperature and 10 kHz, was attained from the PMN with 99% perovskite.

  3. Accumulation Characteristics of Pb by Zea Mays of Different Genotyoes

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    QIN Rong-lin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine the characteristics of lead(Pb accumulation by different maize genotypes, two low accumulation genotypes(Quchen 11, Quchen 3 and two high accumulation maize genotypes(Jingfeng 8, Xuyu 1446 were used in a field experiment under Pb stress(2 000 mg·kg-1. The following parameters were measured including the change of plant biomass , Pb contents in different plant parts, total Pb uptake,Pb accumulation and translocation of different maize varieties,soil pH value and available Pb contents in soils. The results showed that: (1Compared with the control, the Pb stress caused a decrease at differnet levels on the biomass of roots, stems, leaves and grains of the four maize genotypes. The plant biomass decreased by 9.65%~20.46%. And the decrease level on the plant biomass of the low accumulation maize genotypes was less than the high accumulation maize genotypes. (2The Pb contents were found highest in the roots(95.39~121.02 mg·kg-1, followed by the leaves(25.56~43.21 mg·kg-1 and stems(14.06~25.41 mg·kg-1, and lest in the grains(2.52~5.38 mg·kg-1. Moreover, the Pb contents in roots were higher of low accumulation maize genotypes than high accumulation maize genotypes. In contrast, the Pb contents in the stems, leaves and grains were less of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes. The total Pb accumulation of maize was 4.46~7.94 mg per plant, and which was significant less of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes. (3For the four maize genotypes, both the accumulation factor and translocation factor of Pb were less than 1, and were smaller of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes. (4The pH values in soils were 6.60~6.82, which were significant higher of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes, the available Pb contents in soils were 969.86~1 116.15 mg·kg-1

  4. Effects on proliferation and cell cycle of irradiated KG-1 cells stimulated by CM-CSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dehuang; Dong Bo; Wen Gengyun; Luo Qingliang; Mao Bingzhi

    2000-01-01

    In order to explore the variety of cell proliferation and cell cycle after exposure to ionizing radiation, the responses of irradiated KG-1 cells of the human myeloid leukemia stimulated by GM-CSF, the most common used cytokine in clinic, were investigated. The results showed that GM-CSF enhance KG-1 cells proliferation, reduce G0/G1 block, increase S phase and G2/M phase. The stimulation effects of the GM-CSF are more effective in irradiated group than in control group

  5. Piezoelectric properties and temperature stability of Mn-doped Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 textured ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Yongke; Cho, Kyung-Hoon; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    In this letter, we report the electromechanical properties of textured 0.4Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O-3-0.25PbZrO(3)-0.35PbTiO(3) (PMN-PZT) composition which has relatively high rhombohedral to tetragonal (R-T) transition temperature (TR-T of 160 degrees C) and Curie temperature (T-C of 234 degrees C) and explore the effect of Mn-doping on this composition. It was found that MnO2-doped textured PMN-PZT ceramics with 5 vol.% BaTiO3 template (T-5BT) exhibited inferior temperature stability. The coupling f...

  6. Glomus mosseae enhances root growth and Cu and Pb acquisition of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aijun; Zhang, Xuhong; Yang, Xiaojin

    2014-12-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to investigate the roles of Glomus mosseae in Cu and Pb acquisition by upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) and the interactions between Cu and Pb. The soil was treated with three Cu levels (0, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1)) and three Pb levels (0, 300, and 600 mg kg(-1)). All treatments were designed with (+M) or without (-M) G. mosseae inoculation in a randomized block design. The addition of Cu and Pb significantly decreased root mycorrhizal colonization. Compared with -M, +M significantly increased root biomass in almost all treatments, and also significantly increased shoot biomass in the Pb(0)Cu(200), Pb(300)Cu(0), and all Pb(600) treatments. AM fungi enhanced plant Cu acquisition, but decreased plant Cu concentrations with all Cu plus Pb treatments, except for shoot in the Cu(200)Pb(600) treatment. Irrespective of Cu and Pb levels, +M plants had higher Pb uptakes than -M plants, but had lower root Pb and higher shoot Pb concentrations than those of -M plants. Another interpretation for the higher shoot Pb concentration in +M plants relied on Cu-Pb interactions. The study provided further evidences for the protective effects of AM fungi on upland rice against Cu and Pb contamination, and uncovered the phenomenon that Cu addition could promote Pb uptake and Pb partitioning to shoot. The possible mechanisms by which AM fungi can alleviate the toxicity induced by Cu and Pb are also discussed.

  7. Modeling interactive effects of Pb contamination, Ca"2"+ and Mg"2"+ on passivity of alloy 800 in simulated crevice chemistries at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Baotong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The capability of Pb impurity degrading the passivity of alloy 800 in high temperature water is much stronger than those of dissolved Ca/Mg salts. • The interactive effects of Pb-impurities and Ca/Mg salts on the passivity are likely a result competitive adsorption. • A phenomenological model to interpret the interactive effect of Pb-impurities and Ca/Mg salts on the passivity. - Abstract: A phenomenological model is postulated to interpret the interactive impacts of dissolved Pb contamination, Ca"2"+ and Mg"2"+ on passivity of Alloy 800 in simulated crevice chemistries at 300 °C. Passivity degradation is characterized by the retarded dehydration during passivation and increased donor density in passive film. Ca"2"+ and Mg"2"+ can cause the passivity degradation in the Pb-free chemistries but, if the Pb-contamination concentration exceeds a critical value, would reduce the detrimental effect of Pb-contamination. This behavior may be related to the extremely strong adsorption capacity of Pb contamination. Finally, the applications in the water management strategy of nuclear power plants are discussed.

  8. Enhanced Pb Absorption by Hordeum vulgare L. and Helianthus annuus L. Plants Inoculated with an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Milton Senen Barcos; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José; Alarcón, Alejandro; Maldonado Vega, María

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) consortium conformed by (Glomus intraradices, Glomus albidum, Glomus diaphanum, and Glomus claroideum) on plant growth and absorption of Pb, Fe, Na, Ca, and (32)P in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants was evaluated. AMF-plants and controls were grown in a substrate amended with powdered Pb slag at proportions of 0, 10, 20, and 30% v/v equivalent to total Pb contents of 117; 5,337; 13,659, and 19,913 mg Pb kg(-1) substrate, respectively. Mycorrhizal root colonization values were 70, 94, 98, and 90%, for barley and 91, 97, 95, and 97%, for sunflower. AMF inoculum had positive repercussions on plant development of both crops. Mycorrhizal barley absorbed more Pb (40.4 mg Pb kg(-1)) shoot dry weight than non-colonized controls (26.5 mg Pb kg(-1)) when treated with a high Pb slag dosage. This increase was higher in roots than shoots (650.0 and 511.5 mg Pb kg(-1) root dry weight, respectively). A similar pattern was found in sunflower. Plants with AMF absorbed equal or lower amounts of Fe, Na and Ca than controls. H. vulgare absorbed more total P (1.0%) than H. annuus (0.9%). The arbuscular mycorrizal consortium enhanced Pb extraction by plants.

  9. Micro-Raman study of the microheterogeneity in the MA-MC phase transition in 0.67PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33PbTiO3 single crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.; Zhang, L. Y.; Zhu, K.; Liu, Y. L.

    2011-01-01

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy has been employed to investigate the evolution of the microstructure of 0.67PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33PbTiO3 (PMN-33%PT) single crystal in the temperature range from −195 to 300 °C. The M A-M C-cubic transition sequence

  10. SOFT MODE ANOMALIES IN THE PEROVSKITE RELAXOR Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GEHRING, P.M.; VAKRUSHEV, S.B.; SHIRANE, G.

    2000-01-01

    Neutron inelastic scattering measurements of the polar TO phonon mode in the cubic relaxor Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 , at room temperature, reveal anomalous behavior similar to that recently observed in Pb(Zn 1/3 Nb 2/3 ) 0.92 Ti 0.08 O 3 in which the optic branch appears to drop precipitously into the acoustic branch at a finite value of the momentum transfer q = 0.2 angstrom -1 , measured from the zone center. By contrast, a recent neutron study indicates that PMN exhibits a normal TO phonon dispersion at 800 K. The authors speculate this behavior is common to all relaxor materials, and is the result of the presence of nanometer-scale polarized domains in the crystal that form below a temperature T d , which effectively prevent the propagation of long wavelength (q = 0) phonons

  11. Studies on different concentration of lead (Pb and sewage water on Pb uptake and growth of Radish (Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qudratullah Khan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the accumulation of lead (Pb by radish (Raphanus sativus cultivars a study was carried out at Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan (Pakistan, during 2012. Two radish varieties i.e., exotic and local, were used. The treatments included sewage water and different concentrations of Pb @ 25, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1. The results showed that the total biomass of both the radish varieties were nonsignificantly influenced by the applied Pb concentrations and sewage water, except for root diameter which were significantly greater in the local cultivar (3.261 cm.Pb treatments significantly reduced the growth and yield of both the cultivars. While the Pb uptake by the root and leaf of radish plants was increased by the increasing the applied Pb levels, with the highest value for root (19.008 mg kg-1 and leaf (16.134 mg kg-1 in the treatment receiving the highest applied Pb concentrations. The total biomass, fresh weight of root and root diameter was found significantly higher except for Pb @ 400 mg L-1, in the plants receiving sewage water as compared to the control and different levels of Pb. The interaction amongst the varieties and treatments were found significantly different for various parameters. Thus, it can be concluded, that the use of sewage water and Pb contaminated wastewater results in higher metal concentration in the radish root and may lead to different types of health problems to consumers.

  12. Formation of long-period stacking ordered structures in Mg88M5Y7 (M = Ti, Ni and Pb) casting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Qian-Qian; Fang, Can-Feng; Mi, Shao-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Apart from 18R-LPSO, 14H-LPSO structure was determined in the Mg-Ni-Y alloys. •The appearance of twin-related structure in 18R-LPSO structure results from the stacking faults in the stacking sequence of the closely packed planes. •A new (Pb, Mg) 2 Y phase with a body-centered orthorhombic structure was determined in the Mg-Pb-Y alloy. •No LPSO structures were found in the Mg-Pb-Y and Mg-Ti-Y casting alloys. -- Abstract: Formation of long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) structures is investigated in Mg 88 M 5 Y 7 (M = Ti, Ni and Pb) casting alloys by means of electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. In the Mg 88 Ni 5 Y 7 casting alloy, 14H-LPSO structure is observed in a small amount, which coexists with 18R-LPSO structure. The appearance of stacking faults in 18R-LPSO structure results in twin-related structure in the stacking sequence of the closely packed planes. A new (Pb, Mg) 2 Y phase with a body-centered orthorhombic structure is determined in the Mg 88 Pb 5 Y 7 alloy. No LPSO structures are found in the Mg 88 Pb 5 Y 7 and Mg 88 Ti 5 Y 7 casting alloys. In terms of the atomic radius and heat of mixing, the formation ability of LPSO structure in the present alloys is discussed

  13. Geochemical and Pb isotopic evidence for sources and dispersal of metal contamination in stream sediments from the mining and smelting district of Pribram, Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettler, Vojtech; Mihaljevic, Martin; Sebek, Ondrej; Molek, Michael; Grygar, Tomas; Zeman, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Stream sediments from the mining and smelting district of Pribram, Czech Republic, were studied to determine the degree, sources and dispersal of metal contamination using a combination of bulk metal and mineralogical determinations, sequential extractions and Pb isotopic analyses. The highest metal concentrations were found 3-4 km downstream from the main polymetallic mining site (9800 mg Pb kg -1 , 26 039 mg Zn kg -1 , 316.4 mg Cd kg -1 , 256.9 mg Cu kg -1 ). The calculated enrichment factors (EFs) confirmed the extreme degree of contamination by Pb, Zn and Cd (EF > 40). Lead, Zn and Cd are bound mainly to Fe oxides and hydroxides. In the most contaminated samples Pb is also present as Pb carbonates and litharge (PbO). Lead isotopic analysis indicates that the predominant source of stream sediment contamination is historic Pb-Ag mining and primary Pb smelting ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.16), while the role of secondary smelting (car battery processing) is negligible. - Pb isotopes properly complete traditional investigations of metal sources and dispersal in contaminated stream sediments

  14. Ionizing radiation effects on the KG1A primitive hematopoietic cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clave, Emmanuel; Carosella, Edgardo D.; Gluckman, Eliane; Dubray, Bernard; Socie, Gerard

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Better understanding of radiation-induced effects on the hematopoietic system is important in both the context of therapeutic intervention and accidental exposure. However, direct study of these effects on the hematopoietic stem cell pool is hampered by the small number of accessible cells. We, thus, studied radiation-induced effects on the KG1a stem cell line. Methods and Materials: We confirmed and extended the immunophenotype of KG1a with monoclonal antibodies, established a radiation survival curve, and quantified mRNAs by Northern blotting 30 min after 1, 2, and 3 Gy of ionizing radiation (IR) and followed for up to 48 h after a 3 Gy dose. Cell cycle status and apoptosis were assessed by fluorescent-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, cell morphology, and DNA fragmentation. Results: KG1a was found to be CD34+, CD7+, Thy1 low, CD38 low, lineage negative (neg), C-KITneg and HLA-DRneg, a phenotype consistent with a primitive hematopoietic origin. This immunophenotype was not altered by x-ray irradiation. The D 0 value was 1.75 Gy. We showed a time-dependent variation of c-jun mRNA expression with an early and transient dose-dependent induction followed by a second increase at 24 and 48 h: a biphasic dose-dependent variation of bcl-2 expression 30 min after irradiation with a reduction of mRNA level at 1 Gy, and a normalization at higher doses and stable levels of mRNA for c-fos, c-myc, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-6, TNF-α, TGF-β, and MIP-1α genes. Cell cycle analysis showed the absence of G1/S phase arrest, a point consistent with the absence of detection of P53 mRNA by Northern blot analysis. The dose-dependent G2/M phase arrest was not followed by significant apoptotic cell death. Conclusion: Taken together, this data indicates that radiation-induced cell death of KG1a, a cell line that has a relatively high D 0 value, does not seem to be the result of the apoptotic pathway but occurs subsequent to a G2/M phase arrest

  15. Production of BiPbSrCaCuO thin films on MgO and Ag/MgO substrates by electron beam deposition techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Varilci, A; Gorur, O; Celebi, S; Karaca, I

    2002-01-01

    Superconducting BiPbSrCaCuO thin films were prepared on MgO(001) and Ag/MgO substrates using an electron beam (e-beam) evaporation technique. The effects of annealing temperature and Ag diffusion on the crystalline structure and some superconducting properties, respectively, were investigated by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and by measurements of the critical temperature and the critical current density. It was shown that an annealing of both types of films at 845 or 860 C resulted in the formation of mixed Bi-2223 and Bi-2212 phases with a high degree of preferential orientation with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrates. The slight increase of the critical temperature from 103 K to 105 K, the enhancement of the critical current density from 2 x 10 sup 3 to 6 x 10 sup 4 A/cm sup 2 , and the improved surface smoothness are due to a possible silver doping from the substrate. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Z-contrast imaging of ordered structures in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 and Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.; Pennycook, S.J.; Xu, Z.; Viehland, D.

    1998-02-01

    Lead-based cubic perovskites such as Pb(B 1/3 2+ B 2/3 5+ )O 3 (B 2+ Mg, Co, Ni, Zn; B 5+ = Nb, Ta) are relaxor ferroelectrics. Localized order and disorder often occur in materials of this type. In the Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 (PMN) family, previous studies have proposed two models, space-charge and charge-balance models. In the first model, the ordered regions carry a net negative charge [Pb(Mg 1/2 Nb 1/2 )O 3 ], while in the second model it does not carry a net charge [Pb((Mg 2/3 Nb 1/3 ) 1/2 Nb 1/2 )O 3 ]. However, no direct evidence for these two models has appeared in the literature yet. In this paper the authors report the first direct observations of local ordering in undoped and La-doped Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 , using high-resolution Z-contrast imaging. Because the ordered structure in Ba(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 is well known, the Z-contrast image from an ordered domain is used as a reference for this study

  17. Electrical properties of Sb and Cr-doped PbZrO3-PbTiO3-PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Whatmore, Roger W.; Molter, O.; Shaw, Christopher P.

    2003-01-01

    The pyroelectric, dielectric and DC resistive properties of Sb and Cr-doped ceramics with a base composition of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.025(Zr0.825Ti0.175)0.975O3 have been studied. Sb doping has been shown to produce a linear reduction in Curie temperature (TC=−22z+294 °C) with concentration (z) and to give an increase in pyroelectric coefficient from 250 to 310 μCm−2 K−1 for z increasing from 0 to 3 at.%. It also produces first a reduction and then an increase in both dielectric constant and loss, ...

  18. Optical evidences for an intermediate phase in relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of low-temperature structural transformation and evolution of polar nano-structures in relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-xPbTiO3 (x = 0.33, 0.35, and 0.42 single crystals have been investigated with the aid of temperature dependent low-wavenumber Raman scattering (LWRS and photoluminescence (PL spectra. The E(TO1 phonon mode reveals the characteristic relaxational polarization fluctuations associated with the reorientation of either polar nano-regions or polar nano-domains. It was found that these mechanisms are not independent and they can be ascribed to the phonon localization. In addition, a short-range monoclinic phase (Mc can be found below 250 K in the tetragonal phase region by LWRS, which is always associated with the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB and excellent electromechanical properties. It is interesting that PL spectra confirm these results. The present work indicates that external field modulation and change of composition can result in the monoclinic phase and co-existence of multi-phase.

  19. Magnetic characteristics of M2FeV3O11 (M = Mg, Zn, Pb, Co, Ni) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groń, T.; Blonska-Tabero, A.; Filipek, E.; Stokłosa, Z.; Duda, H.; Sawicki, B.

    2018-02-01

    The unusual physical characteristics of the multicomponent oxide systems renewed the interest as the potential cathode materials in high-energy cells. Since the earlier magnetic characteristics were not entirely conclusive, we report the results of dc magnetic measurements including higher harmonics of ac magnetic susceptibility of the M2FeV3O11 (M = Mg, Zn, Pb, Co, Ni) compounds. Ferrimagnetic long-range and antiferromagnetic short-range interactions for all compounds under study at low temperatures as well as superparamagnetic-like behavior with the blocking temperature of 29 K and the freezing parameter of 0.013 were observed. These effects are discussed within the framework of superexchange and double exchange magnetic interactions as well as the mixed valence band of iron ions.

  20. Piezoelectric properties and temperature stability of Mn-doped Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 textured ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yongke; Cho, Kyung-Hoon; Priya, Shashank

    2012-03-01

    In this letter, we report the electromechanical properties of textured 0.4Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.25PbZrO3-0.35PbTiO3 (PMN-PZT) composition which has relatively high rhombohedral to tetragonal (R-T) transition temperature (TR-T of 160 °C) and Curie temperature (TC of 234 °C) and explore the effect of Mn-doping on this composition. It was found that MnO2-doped textured PMN-PZT ceramics with 5 vol. % BaTiO3 template (T-5BT) exhibited inferior temperature stability. The coupling factor (k31) of T-5BT ceramic started to degrade from 75 °C while the random counterpart showed a very stable tendency up to 180 °C. This degradation was associated with the "interface region" formed in the vicinity of BT template. MnO2 doped PMN-PZT ceramics textured with 3 vol. % BT and subsequently poled at 140 °C (T-3BT140) exhibited very stable and high k31 (>0.53) in a wide temperature range from room temperature to 130 °C through reduction in the interface region volume. Further, the T-3BT140 ceramic exhibited excellent hard and soft combinatory piezoelectric properties of d33 = 720 pC/N, k31 = 0.53, Qm = 403, tan δ = 0.3% which are very promising for high power and magnetoelectric applications.

  1. Metal pollution (Cd, Pb, Zn, and As) in agricultural soils and soybean, Glycine max, in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunyun; Fang, Xiaolong; Mu, Yinghui; Cheng, Yanbo; Ma, Qibin; Nian, Hai; Yang, Cunyi

    2014-04-01

    Crops produced on metal-polluted agricultural soils may lead to chronic toxicity to humans via the food chain. To assess metal pollution in agricultural soils and soybean in southern China, 30 soybean grain samples and 17 soybean-field soil samples were collected from 17 sites in southern China, and metal concentrations of samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The integrated pollution index was used to evaluate if the samples were contaminated by Cd, Pb, Zn and As. Results showed that Cd concentration of 12 samples, Pb concentration of 2 samples, Zn concentration of 2 samples, and As concentrations of 2 samples were above the maximum permissible levels in soils. The integrated pollution index indicated that 11 of 17 soil samples were polluted by metals. Metal concentrations in soybean grain samples ranged from 0.11 to 0.91 mg kg(-1) for Cd; 0.34 to 2.83 mg kg(-1) for Pb; 42 to 88 mg kg(-1) for Zn; and 0.26 to 5.07 mg kg(-1) for As, which means all 30 soybean grain samples were polluted by Pb, Pb/Cd, Cd/Pb/As or Pb/As. Taken together, our study provides evidence that metal pollution is an important concern in agricultural soils and soybeans in southern China.

  2. Effect of EDTA on Pb(II) Uptake and Translocation by Tumbleweed (Salsola Kali): Agar and Hydroponics Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rosa, Guadalupe; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Aldrich, Mary

    2004-03-31

    Environmental accumulation of Pb represents a worldwide health hazard. While conventional cleanup techniques are generally expensive and soil disturbing, phytoremediation represents an inexpensive friendly option for the removal of contaminants from soil and water. In this research, tumbleweed (Salsola kali) plants exposed for 15 days to Pb(NO3)2 at 80 and 125 ppm in hydroponics and agar media, demonstrated a high capacity to uptake lead. The results showed that the plants cultivated in agar accumulated 25563, 5534 and 2185 mg Pb kg-1 DW in roots, stems and leaves, respectively. Moreover, Pb concentrations found in hydroponically grown tumbleweed plants tissues were 30744, 1511 and 1421 mg kg-1 DW in roots, stems and leaves, respectively. It was observed that EDTA enhanced Pb translocation. No Pb phytotoxic effects were observed during the experimental time period. Cellular structural features were also observed using TEM.

  3. The importance of passive smoking in the accumulation of Pb, Be, Ba, Mg, Ca, Sr in the children adenoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gerycka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The quality of our life is determined by the quality of the air that we breathe. Hence the influence of cigarette smoking and secondary exposure of persons within the smoking environment is significant. Previous studies have confirmed the influence of passive smoking to on the accumulation of given elements in the tonsils. The subject of the study is to determine the importance of ETS exposure for the accumulation of Pb, Be, Ba, Ca, Mg and Sr in the pharyngeal tonsils. Material and methods. The study involved 162 adenoids from boys and girls living in Tychy and Chorzów. exposed and not exposed to passive smoking. All biological samples were subjected to mineralization with nitric acid (V from Merck. The chemical composition of the samples was determined by the ICP – AES method. Results. The statistical analysis of the elements in the tonsils of children exposed and not exposed to ETS is performed taking into account as an additional criterion of distribution the place of residence and gender of the children. Conclusions. There was no significant effect of passive smoking on the increase of the examined metals in the adenoid. However the role of gender and place of residence to the process of accumulation of elements in this organ remains significant.

  4. Giant electrocaloric response in the prototypical Pb(Mg,Nb)O3 relaxor ferroelectric from atomistic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhijun; Nahas, Y.; Prokhorenko, S.; Prosandeev, S.; Wang, D.; Íñiguez, Jorge; Bellaiche, L.

    2018-03-01

    An atomistic effective Hamiltonian is used to investigate electrocaloric (EC) effects of Pb (Mg1 /3Nb2 /3) O3 relaxor ferroelectrics in its ergodic regime, and subject to electric fields applied along the pseudocubic [111] direction. Such a Hamiltonian qualitatively reproduces (i) the electric field-versus-temperature phase diagram, including the existence of a critical point where first-order and second-order transitions meet each other; and (ii) a giant EC response near such a critical point. It also reveals that such giant response around this critical point is microscopically induced by field-induced percolation of polar nanoregions. Moreover, it is also found that, for any temperature above the critical point, the EC coefficient-versus-electric-field curve adopts a maximum (and thus larger electrocaloric response too), that can be well described by the general Landau-like model proposed by Jiang et al., [Phys. Rev. B 96, 014114 (2017)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.96.014114, and that is further correlated with specific microscopic features related to dipoles lying along different rhombohedral directions. Furthermore, for temperatures being at least 40 K higher than the critical temperature, the (electric field, temperature) line associated with this maximal EC coefficient is below both the Widom line and the line representing percolation of polar nanoregions.

  5. Properties of morphotropic phase boundary Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3PbTiO3 films with submicrometre range thickness on Si-based substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Algueró , M; Stewart , M; Cain , M G; Ramos , P; Ricote , J; Calzada , M L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The electrical properties of (1-x)Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3)O 3 -xPbTiO 3 films with composition in the morphotropic phase boundary region around x=0.35, submicron thickness and columnar microstructure, prepared on Si based substrates by chemical solution deposition are presented and discussed in relation to the properties of coarse and fine grained ceramics. The films show relaxor characteristics that are proposed to result from a grain size effect on the kinetics of the relaxor to ferroe...

  6. The influence of thermal stresses on the phase composition of 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 thick films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uršič, Hana; Zarnik, Marina Santo; Tellier, Jenny; Hrovat, Marko; Holc, Janez; Kosec, Marija

    2011-01-01

    The influence of thermal stresses versus the phase composition for 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 (0.65PMN-0.35PT) thick films is being reported. The thermal residual stresses in the films have been calculated using the finite-element method. It has been observed that in 0.65PMN-0.35PT films a compressive stress enhances the thermodynamic stability of the tetragonal phase with the space group P4mm.

  7. Electric Field Tuning Non-volatile Magnetism in Half-Metallic Alloys Co2FeAl/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunzhu, Gesang; Wang, Fenglong; Zhou, Cai; Jiang, Changjun

    2018-03-01

    We reported the non-volatile electric field-mediated magnetic properties in the half-metallic Heusler alloy Co2FeAl/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 heterostructure at room temperature. The remanent magnetization with different applied electric field along [100] and [01-1] directions was achieved, which showed the non-volatile remanent magnetization driven by an electric field. The two giant reversible and stable remanent magnetization states were obtained by applying pulsed electric field. This can be attributed to the piezostrain effect originating from the piezoelectric substrate, which can be used for magnetoelectric-based memory devices.

  8. Multiple matching scheme for broadband 0.72Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3−0.28PbTiO3 single crystal phased-array transducer

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, S. T.; Li, H.; Wong, K. S.; Zhou, Q. F.; Zhou, D.; Li, Y. C.; Luo, H. S.; Shung, K. K.; Dai, J. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate single crystal 0.72Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3−0.28PbTiO3 (abbreviated as PMN-PT) was used to fabricate high performance ultrasonic phased-array transducer as it exhibited excellent piezoelectric properties. In this paper, we focus on the design and fabrication of a low-loss and wide-band transducer for medical imaging applications. A KLM model based simulation software PiezoCAD was used for acoustic design of the transducer including the front-face matching and back...

  9. Optimized orientation of 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 single crystal for applications in medical ultrasonic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Chen, Jing; Luo, Laihui; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu

    2008-08-01

    In order to extend the potential applications of medical ultrasonic array transducers, two optimized directions with the maximal electromechanical coefficient k33' and minimal k31 are determined for [001] and [110] poled 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 single crystals using the experimental method. The maximum values of k33' can reach 92.8% and 93.3%, respectively, corresponding to [001]W/[110]L and [110]W/[1-11]L cuts. Furthermore, we simulate the performances of three 3.5 MHz linear array transducers based on the determined directions by PIEZOCAD. Results indicate that under the [001]W/[110]L direction, 25% broader bandwidth, 40% shorter pulse length, and 3 dB higher sensitivity can be obtained compared to the traditional Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 transducers.

  10. Effects of lead contamination on soil microbial activity and rice physiological indices in soil-Pb-rice (Oryza sativa L.) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lu-Sheng; Liao, Min; Chen, Cheng-Li; Huang, Chang-Yong

    2006-10-01

    The effect of lead (Pb) treatment on the soil microbial activities (soil microbial biomass and soil basal respiration) and rice physiological indices were studied by greenhouse pot experiment. Pb was applied as lead acetate at six different levels in two different paddy soils, namely 0 (control), 100, 300, 500, 700, 900 mg kg-1 soil. The results showed that the application of Pb at lower level (500 mg Pb kg-1 soil), which might be the critical concentration of Pb causing a significant decline in the soil microbial activities. However, the degree of influence on soil microbial activities by Pb was related to the clay and organic matter contents of the soils. On the other hand, when the level of Pb treatments increased to 500 mg kg-1, there was ecological risk for both soil microbial activities and plants. The results also revealed that there was a consistent trend that the chlorophyll contents increased initially, and then decreased gradually with increase in Pb concentration. Pb was effective in inducing proline accumulation and its toxicity causes oxidative stress in rice plants. In a word, soil microbial activities and rice physiological indices, therefore, may be sensitive indicators reflecting environmental stress in soil-Pb-rice system.

  11. Effects of Bi(Zn2/3Nb1/3)O3 Modification on the Relaxor Behavior and Piezoelectricity of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zenghui; Wu, Hua; Paterson, Alisa; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2017-10-01

    Relaxor lead magnesium niobate (PMN)-based materials exhibit complex structures and unusual properties that have been puzzling researchers for decades. In this paper, a new ternary solid solution of Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -PbTiO 3 -Bi(Zn 2/3 Nb 1/3 )O 3 (PMN-PT-BZN) is prepared in the form of ceramics, and the effects of the incorporation of BZN into the PMN-PT binary system are investigated. The crystal structure favors a pseudocubic symmetry and the relaxor properties are enhanced as the concentration of BZN increases. The relaxor behavior and the related phase transformations are studied by dielectric spectroscopy. A phase diagram mapping out the characteristic temperatures and various states is established. Interestingly, the piezoelectricity of the PMN-PT ceramics is significantly enhanced by the BZN substitution, with an optimal value of d 33 reaching 826 pC/N for 0.96[0.7Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -0.3PbTiO 3 ]-0.04Bi(Zn 2/3 Nb 1/3 )O 3 . This paper provides a better understanding of the relaxor ferroelectric behavior, and unveils a new relaxor-based ternary system as piezoelectric materials potentially useful for electromechanical transducer applications.

  12. Pyroelectric Study on Dipolar Alignment in 0.69Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.31PbTiO3 Single Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liang; SHEN Ming-Rong; CAO Wen-Wu

    2012-01-01

    Pyroelectric measurements are conducted during zero-Geld heating in [001], [110] and [111] poled 0.69Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/3)O3-0.31PbTiO3 single crystals. Compared to the room-temperature-poled samples, the crystals poled by using the Rield cooling method show broad but well recognizable pyroelectric current peaks near 190℃, which is much higher than the Curie point (126℃) of the crystal. We propose that this peak of the crystals poled by field-cooling above the Curie point is ascribed to the order-disorder transition of the dipoles in polar nano-regions formed at the Burns temperature.%Pyroelectric measurements are conducted during zero-field heating in [001],[110] and [111] poled 0.69Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.31PbTiO3 single crystals.Compared to the room-temperature-poled samples,the crystals poled by using the field cooling method show broad but well recognizable pyroelectric current peaks near 190℃,which is much higher than the Curie point (126℃) of the crystal.We propose that this peak of the crystals poled by field-cooling above the Curie point is ascribed to the order-disorder transition of the dipoles in polar nano-regions formed at the Burns temperature.

  13. Use of Sr and Pb isotopes in gneissic-migmatic rocks in Itacambira-Barrocao, MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siga Junior, O.; Cordani, U.G.; Basei, M.A.S.; Kawashita, K.

    1987-01-01

    This work tries to show the potential of the Rb-Sr, Pb-Pb and K-Ar methods applied to basic geological mapping. The different interpretative values of these methodologies contribute to the understanding of the tectonic processes developed in the southeastern border of the Sao Francisco Craton. The Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb isotopic data for the gneissic-migmatitic unit of this sector indicates their generation during the Archean (-2.7 Ga) and Early Proterozoic (-2.1 Ga.). The high (Sr 87 /Sr 86 ) and μ 1 values also suggest an origin through reworking of older crustal rocks. The K-Ar data (and one fission track age) allow the thermal history of this domain to be delineated and suggest a vertical tectonic in the Late Brazilian Cycle, putting side by side blocks formed in different depths. (M.V.M.)

  14. Tuning structure in epitaxial Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3} thin films by using miscut substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietschke, M., E-mail: m.mietschke@ifw-dresden.de [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Dresden University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Science and Engineering, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Oswald, S.; Fähler, S. [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Schultz, L. [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Dresden University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Science and Engineering, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Hühne, R. [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-08-31

    Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3} (PMN–PT) is one of the most promising ferroelectric material for actuator, dielectric and electrocaloric applications. However, oriented and phase pure thin films are essential to use the outstanding properties of these compounds. In this work it is demonstrated that the use of miscut substrates influences the growth mechanism leading to a significantly broader deposition window to achieve the required film quality. Therefore, epitaxial 0.68Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–0.32PbTiO{sub 3} films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on (001)-oriented single crystalline SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) substrates with a miscut angle between 0 and 15° towards the [100] direction using a conducting La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}CoO{sub 3} buffer layer. The influence of the vicinal angle on the PMN–PT structure was studied by high resolution X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A nearly pure perovskite phase growth with a cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship was obtained on all miscut STO substrates, whereas a significant volume fraction of the pyrochlore phase was present on the standard substrate. Reciprocal space measurements revealed a peak split of the perovskite reflections indicating structural variants of PMN–PT with different c/a ratios. An additional tilting of the PMN–PT planes with respect to the buffer layer was observed on some samples, which might be explained with the incorporation of dislocations according to the Nagai model. Polarization loops were measured in a temperature range between room temperature and 150 °C showing a sharp drop of the remanent polarization above 65 °C on vicinal substrates. - Highlights: • Epitaxial growth of pure perovskite Pb (Mg{sub 1}/{sub 3}Nb{sub 2}/{sub 3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3} on miscut SrTiO{sub 3}. • Significant broadening of the deposition window for pyrochlore-free films. • Dependence of the structural parameters

  15. Preliminary study of geotectonic evolution of the southern region of Sao Francisco (MG, Brazil) craton: an interpretation based on Rb-Sr, K-Ar, Pb-Pb and fission track data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, W.; Fonseca, A.C.; Poupeau, G.; Padilha, A.V.; Zapparolli, L.H.; Kawashita, K.; Khoury, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The results obtained from isotopic dating techniques (Rb-Sr, K-Ar, Pb-Pb and fission tracks) applied to samples from the southern region of Sao Francisco craton (Mg, Brazil) are discussed. Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb ages, in total rock, allowed the determination of crust enlargement, with eventual modifications of the pre-existing crust, during the Late Archean period (3000 to 2600 million years) and the Inferior Proterozoic period (2400 to 2100 m.y.). Three main cooling periods of time were determined by K-Ar dating of mica, amphiboles and total rock at the craton border: 2200 to 1700 m.y., 1300 to 1100 m.y. and 900 to 400 m.y. related, respectively, to superposition of three cycles: Transamazonico, Uruacuano and Brasiliano. Cooling below 110 0 C, detected by the fission track method applied to apatites, pointed out an age of 850 m.y. at the internal parts and 550 m.y. at the craton periphery, thus showing a progressive action of Brazilian marginal movable zones in the studied region. The application of these two techniques together enabled the evaluation of the rocks cooling shape. Cooling of these samples was complex between 2700 and 2200 m.y. and slow from 2000 m.y. onwards. The integrated treatment of data from the various dating techniques is of great importance to know the geotectonic evolution of ancient polycyclic sites. (C.L.B.) [pt

  16. Determination of As, Cd, and Pb in Tap Water and Bottled Water Samples by Using Optimized GFAAS System with Pd-Mg and Ni as Matrix Modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin Bakırdere

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, lead, and cadmium were determined in tap and bottled water samples consumed in the west part of Turkey at trace levels. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS was used in all detections. All of the system parameters for each element were optimized to increase sensitivity. Pd-Mg mixture was selected as the best matrix modifier for As, while the highest signals were obtained for Pb and Cd in the case of Ni used as matrix modifier. Detection limits for As, Cd, and Pb were found to be 2.0, 0.036, and 0.25 ng/mL, respectively. 78 tap water and 17 different brands of bottled water samples were analyzed for their As, Cd, and Pb contents under the optimized conditions. In all water samples, concentration of cadmium was found to be lower than detection limits. Lead concentration in the samples analyzed varied between N.D. and 12.66 ± 0.68 ng/mL. The highest concentration of arsenic was determined as 11.54 ± 2.79 ng/mL. Accuracy of the methods was verified by using a certified reference material, namely, Trace Element in Water, 1643e. Results found for As, Cd, and Pb in reference materials were in satisfactory agreement with the certified values.

  17. Peculiar temperature aging effects on the piezoelectric constant of Pb(Mg1sol3Nb2sol3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystal near the morphotropic phase boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guisheng; Wang Xiaofeng; Yang Danfeng; Duan Ziqing; Feng Chude; Chen Kai

    2005-01-01

    After temperature aging, peculiar changes of the piezoelectric response of 0.67 Pb(Mg 1sol3 Nb 2sol3 )O 3- 0.33 PbTiO 3 crystals appeared. The piezoelectric constant d 33 of the (001)-cut crystals with T RT ∼35 deg. C abruptly rose more than 1000 pC/N in some regions after heat treatment at 65 deg. C for 12 h. For the (001)-cut crystals with T RT ∼74 deg. C, in spite of a fall of 40-100 pC/N after heat treatment at 65 deg. C for 12 h, the values of d 33 rose 50-100 pC/N unexpectedly after the subsequent heat treatment at 85 deg. C for 4 h. The structure adjustment caused by the internal stress relaxation during heat treatment at T>T RT accounted for the enhancement of d 33

  18. Strong piezoelectric anisotropy d15/d33 in ⟨111⟩ textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yongke; Priya, Shashank

    2015-08-01

    The shear mode piezoelectric properties of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PMN-PZT) ceramic with 72% ⟨111⟩ texture were investigated. The piezoelectric anisotropic factor d15/d33 was as high as 8.5 in ⟨111⟩ textured ceramic as compared to 2.0 in random counterpart. The high d15/d33 indicates the "rotator" ferroelectric characteristics of PMN-PZT system and suggests that the large shear piezoelectric response contributes towards the high longitudinal piezoelectric response (d33) in non-polar direction (d33 = 1100 pC/N in ⟨001⟩ textured ceramic vs. d33 = 112 pC/N in ⟨111⟩ textured ceramic).

  19. Homogenized electromechanical properties of crystalline and ceramic relaxor ferroelectric 0.58Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 0.42PbTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, K. P.; Guedes, J. M.; Rodrigues, H. C.

    2007-10-01

    A modelling framework that incorporates the peculiarities of microstructural features, such as the spatial correlation of crystallographic orientations and morphological texture in piezoelectrics, is established. The mathematical homogenization theory of a piezoelectric medium is implemented using the finite element method by solving the coupled equilibrium electrical and mechanical fields. The dependence of the domain orientation on the macroscopic electromechanical properties of crystalline as well as polycrystalline ceramic relaxor ferroelectric 0.58Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.42PbTiO3 (PMN-42% PT) is studied based on this model. The material shows large anisotropy in the piezoelectric coefficient ejK in its crystalline form. The homogenized electromechanical moduli of polycrystalline ceramic also exhibit significantly anisotropic behaviours. An optimum texture at which the piezoceramic exhibits its maximum longitudinal piezoelectric response is identified.

  20. Guided Wave Propagation in a Gold Electrode Film on a Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3−33%PbTiO3 Ferroelectric Single Crystal Substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Nai-Xing; LÜ Tian-Quan; Zhang Rui; Wang Yu-Ling; Cao Wen-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Dispersion relations of Love mode acoustic guided waves propagation in Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 −33%PbTiO 3 (PMN-0.33 PT) single crystal with a gold electrode film are calculated. There is no cross coupling among Love wave modes, which is conducive to eliminating the cross interference between modes. The general formula is derived to precisely measure the thickness of the electrode. More acoustic energy would be concentrated inside the electrode with the increase of film thickness for a given frequency. Compared with the PZT-5 ceramic, [001] c poled PMN-33%PT single crystal has a slower attenuation of the amplitude of the acoustic guided wave. Therefore, single crystal is extremely suitable for making low loss acoustic wave devices with a high operating frequency

  1. X-ray and electron diffraction studies of the structures of pseudo-perovskite compounds Pb2(Sc,Ta)O6 and Pb2(Mg,W)O6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba-Kishi, K.Z.; Cernik, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Electron diffraction patterns, X-ray precession patterns and synchrotron Rietveld powder diffraction profiles were used to study the crystal structure of the pseudo-perovskite compound Pb 2 (Sc, Ta)O 6 (PST). The results of a Rietveld refinement and single-crystal X-ray precession studies showed that PST has a lower symmetry than the cubic Fm3m in the paraelectric state. The remarkable similarities between the crystal structures of the antiferroelectric Pb 2 (Mg, W)O 6 (PMW) and ferroelectric PST are studied in detail by electron diffraction and it is suggested that PST is a weak or frustrated antiferroelectric oxide. The influence of the degree of structural long-range order on the existence of an antiferroelectric phase transition in PST and PMW is discussed. (orig.)

  2. First-principles studies of the local structure and relaxor behavior of Pb(Mg 1 /3Nb2 /3) O3-PbTiO3 -derived ferroelectric perovskite solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hengxin; Takenaka, Hiroyuki; Xu, Changsong; Duan, Wenhui; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2018-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of transition-metal dopants on the local structure of the prototypical 0.75 Pb (Mg1 /3Nb2 /3) O3-0.25 PbTiO3 relaxor ferroelectric. We find that these dopants give rise to very different local structure and other physical properties. For example, when Mg is partially substituted by Cu or Zn, the displacement of Cu or Zn is much larger than that of Mg and is even comparable to that of Nb. The polarization of these systems is also increased, especially for the Cu-doped solution, due to the large polarizability of Cu and Zn. As a result, the predicted maximum dielectric constant temperatures Tm are increased. On the other hand, the replacement of a Ti atom with a Mo or Tc atom dramatically decreases the displacements of the cations and the polarization, and thus, the Tm values are also substantially decreased. The higher Tm cannot be explained by the conventional argument based on the ionic radii of the cations. Furthermore, we find that Cu, Mo, or Tc doping increases the cation displacement disorder. The effect of the dopants on the temperature dispersion Δ Tm , which is the change in Tm for different frequencies, is also discussed. Our findings lay the foundation for further investigations of unexplored dopants.

  3. Modified granulation of red mud by weak gelling and its application to stabilization of Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hui-li; Huang, Sheng-sheng; Luo, Lin; Wu, Gen-yi; Liu, Yan

    2012-08-15

    This study presents a novel modification of red mud (RM) with cementitious materials by rotary drum granulation under partial hydration. Admixtures and surfactants were applied to improve the microspore structure of red mud-based granules in order to stabilize Pb steadily. Through XRD and SEM-EDS analyses, it was demonstrated that calcite, the main alkali in RM, was partially concreted and coated. Compared to pH 12.47 for RM, the lowest pH of the granules was 10.66 implying that the release of OH(-) from hydrolysis and decomposition was decreased. Based on stabilization of Pb, influence on soil properties and forming qualities, composition of the optimum granule PSP was determined as 5% cement, 5% gypsum, 1% rice straw, and 0.1% emulsifier OP-10. Within a 90 d remediation, immobilization of ionic Pb in a 500 mg kg(-1) Pb-contaminated artificial soil was 9.85 mg kg(-1) at day 30 with 5% PSP2 as substitute. Furthermore, the reverse increase diminished as the final concentration was 11.13 mg kg(-1) while it was 14.25 mg kg(-1) by RM. The increase of residual Pb was 122.61%, which was better than the 83.92% of RM. Particularly, the highest pH in mine soil was 11.09 at day 1 with RM, but the decrease of ionic Pb was 46.26%. Meanwhile, a significant deviation from the control soil zeta-potential lasted longer and the recovery was more difficult, as compared to the granules. Therefore, a granulated modification of RM is shown to be very important when aiming at steady release of OH(-) to improve the later stabilization of Pb. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Experimental study on aging effect of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides combined with cytarabine on human leukemia KG1alpha cell lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chun-Yan; Geng, Shan; Liu, Jun; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Zhang, Xian-Ping; Jiang, Rong; Wang, Ya-Ping

    2014-04-01

    The latest findings of our laboratory showed that Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) showed a definite effect in regulating the aging of hematopoietic stem cells. Leukemia is a type of malignant hematopoietic tumor in hematopoietic stem cells. There have been no relevant reports about ASP's effect in regulating the aging of leukemia cells. In this study, human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) KG1alpha cell lines in logarithmic growth phase were taken as the study object, and were divided into the ASP group, the cytarabine (Ara-C) group, the ASP + Ara-C group and the control group. The groups were respectively treated with different concentration of ASP, Ara-C and ASP + Ara-C for different periods, with the aim to study the effect of ASP combined with Ara-C in regulating the aging of human acute myeloid leukemia KG1alpha cell lines and its relevant mechanism. The results showed that ASP, Ara-C and ASP + Ara-C could obviously inhibit KG1alpha cell proliferation in vitro, block the cells in G0/G1 phase. The cells showed the aging morphological feature. The percentage of positive stained aging cells was dramatically increased, and could significantly up-regulate the expression of aging-related proteins P16 and RB, which were more obvious in the ASP + Ara-C group. In conclusion, the aging mechanism of KG1alpha cell induced by ASP and Ara-C may be related to the regulation of the expression of aging-related proteins, suggesting that the combined administration of ASP and anticancer drugs plays a better role in the treatment of leukemia .

  5. Interference-free determination of sub ng kg-1 levels of long-lived 93Zr in the presence of high concentrations (μg kg-1) of 93Mo and 93Nb using ICP-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Panayot; Russell, Ben; Douglas, David N; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi

    2018-01-01

    Long-lived high abundance radionuclides are of increasing interest with regard to decommissioning of nuclear sites and longer term nuclear waste storage and disposal. In many cases, no routine technique is available for their measurement in nuclear waste and low-level (ng kg -1 ) environmental samples. Recent advances in ICP-MS technology offer attractive features for the selective and sensitive determination of a wide range of long-lived radionuclides. In this work, inductively coupled plasma-tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS)-based methodology, suitable for accurate routine determinations of 93 Zr at very low (ng kg -1 ) levels in the presence of high levels (μg kg -1 ) of the isobaric interferents 93 Nb and 93 Mo (often present in nuclear waste samples), is reported for the first time. Additionally, a novel and systematic strategy for method development based on the use of non-radioactive isotopes is proposed. It relies on gas-phase chemical reactions for different molecular ion formation to achieve isobaric interference removal. Using cell gas mixtures of NH 3 /He/H 2 or H 2 /O 2 , and suitable mass shifts, the signal from the 93 Nb and 93 Mo isobaric interferences on 93 Zr were suppressed by up to 5 orders of magnitude. The achieved limit of detection for 93 Zr was 1.3 × 10 -5  Bq g -1 (equivalent to 0.14 ng kg -1 ). The sample analysis time is 2 min, which represents a significant improvement in terms of sample throughput, compared to liquid scintillation counting methods. The method described here can be used for routine measurements of 93 Zr at environmentally relevant levels. It can also be combined with radiometric techniques for use towards the standardisation of 93 Zr measurements. Graphical abstract Interference-free determination of 93 Zr in the presence of high concentrations of isobaric 93 Mo and 93 Nb by ICP-MS/MS.

  6. Mechanism of formation of perovskite phase and dielectric properties of Pb(Zn,Mg)1/3Nb2/3O3 ceramics prepared by columbite precursor routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, H.M.; Cho, S.R.; Lee, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of formation of the perovskite phase and the dielectric properties of Pb(Zn,Mg) 1/3 Nb 2/3 O 3 (PZMN) ceramics were examined using two different types of columbite precursors, (Mg,Zn)Nb 2 O 6 (MZN) and MgNb 2 O 6 + ZnNb 2 O 6 (MN + ZN). The formation of perovskite phase in the PbO + MN + ZN system is characterized by an initial rapid formation of Mg-rich perovskite phase, followed by a sluggish formation of Zn-rich perovskite phase. On the other hand, due to the formation of pyrochlore phase of mixed divalent cations Pb 2-x (Zn,Mg) y Nb 2-y O 7-x-3y/2 , the pyrochlore/perovskite transformation in the PbO + MZN system proceeded uniformly with a spatial homogeneity. Further analysis suggested that the formation of perovskite phase is a diffusion-controlled process. The degree of diffuseness of the rhombohedral/cubic phase transition (DPT) is higher in the PbO + MN + ZN system than in the PbO + MZN specimen for T > T max (temperature of the dielectric permittivity maximum), indicating a broadened compositional distribution of the B-site cations in the PbO + MN + ZN system

  7. Study of the potential of barnyard grass for the remediation of Cd- and Pb-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianling; Cai, Qiongyao; Wang, Hanxi; Liu, Xuejun; Lv, Jing; Yao, Difu; Lu, Yue; Li, Wei; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the microwave digestion method was used to determine total cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations, the BCR method was used to determine different states of Cd and Pb, and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) were used to determine Cd and Pb concentrations in simulated soil and barnyard grass before and after planting barnyard grass to provide a theoretical basis for the remediation of Cd- and Pb-contaminated soil. The results showed that the bioconcentration factor changes with different Cd concentrations are relatively complex and that the removal rate increases regularly. The 100 mg kg -1 Cd treatment had the highest removal rate, which reached 36.66%. For Pb, the bioconcentration factor decreased and tended to reach equilibrium as the Pb concentration increased. The highest removal rate was 41.72% and occurred in the 500 mg kg -1 Pb treatment; however, this removal rate was generally lower than that of Cd. In addition, the reduction state had the highest change rate, followed by the residual, acid soluble and oxidation states. For Pb, the residual state has the highest change rate, followed by the acid soluble state, reduction state and oxidation state. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between the soil Pb and Cd concentrations and the concentrations of Pb and Cd that accumulated in the belowground biomass of the barnyard grass, but no significant correlation was observed between the soil Pb and Cd concentrations and the amounts of Pb and Cd that accumulated in the aboveground biomass of the barnyard grass. The highest transfer factor of Cd was 0.49, which occurred in the 5 mg kg -1 Cd treatment. The higher transfer factor of Pb was 0.48 in the 100 mg kg -1 Pb treatment. All of these factors indicate that the belowground biomass of barnyard grass plays a more important role in the remediation of Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils than the aboveground

  8. Use of multivariate statistical tool for data processing in the analysis of Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, Mo and Mg in lubricating oil by LIBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Luana F.N.; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Bordon, Isabela C.A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of industrial lubricants is widely used for monitoring and predicting maintenance requirements in a broad range of mechanical systems. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy has been used to evaluate the potentiality of the technique for the determination of metals in lubricating oils. Prior to quantitative analysis, the LIBS system was calibrated using standard samples containing the elements investigated (Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, Mo and Mg). This study presents the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for evaluation and interpretation of large complex data sets in order to get more information about concentration of metals in oils lubricants is related to engine wear. (author)

  9. Solid-state epitaxial effects in structurally diphasic xerogel of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindranathan, P.; Komarneni, S.; Roy, R.

    1990-01-01

    Lead magnesium niobate (PMN), Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 , with perovskite structure has been prepared using structurally diphasic PMN gels. The diphasic gels were made using various concentrations of perovskite PMN seeds. The unseeded gel calcined at 775 degrees C for 2 h gave ∼ 98% of perovskite PMN phase. The use of 1% PMN perovskite seed not only led to a pure perovskite phase but also lowered the crystallization temperature of these gels by about 75 degrees C. These results show that isostructural seeding helps to lower the crystallization temperature of perovskite PMN phase

  10. Removal lead (Pb and mercury (Hg from juaro fish (Pangasius polyuranodon using citric acid from pineapple extract (Ananas comosus as chelating agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pra Dian Mariadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of dietary risk of heavy metals exposure to human is important since it is the main of exposure. The aim of study to measure the contamination of lead and mercury in juaro fish meat and the effort to reduce contaminations using citric acid from pineapple extract as a chelating agent. Samples was soaked and boiled in citric acid extract at concentration 50%, 75 %, 100 % for, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min at 25 0C, 50 0C and 100 0C. The concentration of lead and mercury in Juaro fish lower than the maximum acceptable lever for Pb and Hg respectively (1mg/kg for Pb, 0,5 mg/Kg for Hg. The result indicated that after soaking and boiling in citric acid solution form pineapple extract at concentration 100 % for 45 min at 100 0C reducing heavy metals Pb from 0,02 mg.Kg-1 to 0,003 mg.Kg-1 and Hg from 0,011 mg.Kg-1 to lower than 0,0001 mg.Kg-1. The increasing of soaking time and boiling temperature, the levels of Pb and Hg in Juaro fish Tissue will decreasing.

  11. New Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 Quaternary Ceramics: Morphotropic Phase Boundary Design and Electrical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Nengneng; Zhang, Shujun; Li, Qiang; Xu, Chao; Yang, Zhanlue; Yan, Qingfeng; Zhang, Yiling; Shrout, Thomas R

    2016-06-22

    Four series of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PIN-PZ-PT) quaternary ceramics with compositions located at the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) regions were prepared. The MPBs of the multicomponent system were predicted using a linear combination rule and experimentally confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction and electrical measurement. The positions of MPBs in multicomponent systems were found in linear correlation with the tolerance factor and ionic radii of non-PT end-members. The phase structure, piezoelectric coefficient, electromechanical coupling coefficient, unipolar strains, and dielectric properties of as-prepared ceramics were systematically investigated. The largest d33s were obtained at S36.8, L37.4, M39.6, and N35.8, with the corresponding values of 580, 450, 420, and 530 pC/N, respectively, while the largest kps were found at S34.8, L37.4, M39.6, and N35.8, with the respective values of 0.54, 0.50, 0.47, and 0.53. The largest unipolar strain Smax and high-field piezoelectric strain coefficients d33* were also observed around the respective MPB regions. The rhombohedral-to-tetragonal phase transition temperature Trt increased with increasing PIN and PZ contents. Of particular importance is that high Trt of 140-197 °C was achieved in the M series with PZ and PIN contents being around 0.208 and 0.158, which will broaden the temperature usage range.

  12. Considerations on the age of the Bambui Group (MG, Brazil) based on isotopic analyses of Sr and Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto, J.G.P.; Cordani, U.G.; Kawashita, K.

    1981-01-01

    Based on radiometric ages, the Bambui Group deposition time is related to the end of the Precambrian. However, the ages determined and released through scientific magazines are mot in agreement (600-1350 m.y.) and many doubts about the geochrological picture of this important lithostratigraphic unit remained for a long time. As a result of the work developed by Metamig, CPGeo (IG-USP) and IPEN (SP), Rb/Sr and Pb/Pb isotopic determinations were done on 31 rocks samples and 17 galenas collected from the Bambui Basin distributed in Minas Gerais State. The Rb/Sr ages of 590 m.y. for Pirapora Formation, 620 m.y. for Tres Marias Formation, and 640 m.y. for the Paraopeba Formation situated in the stable area are linked to sedimentation processes. In the Paracatu region the age of 680 m.y. found for the Paraopeba Formation is related to metamorphic events. The lead isotopic ratios from the galenas suggest an isotopic evolution in two stages. The first ended with the lead separation from the mantle and its incorporation to the crust during events of the Transamazonic Cycle. The second ended when the lead were incorporated to the galenas and seems to be related to one or more events of the Brazilian Cycle. (Author) [pt

  13. The part of soluble and insoluble forms of Pb, Be, Ba, Ca, Mg, Sr in particulate matter and in the pharyngeal tonsils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gerycka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Previous studies have confirmed that the pharyngeal tonsil is a good biomarker of exposure due to its position relative to inhaled air so that multiple elements can be accumulated in this organ. The aim of the study is to determine the share of soluble and insoluble compounds of individual elements in suspended particles in the accumulation of Pb, Be, Ba, Sr, Ca,Mg by the pharyngeal tonsils. Material and methods. The content of the analyzed elements is defined in 86 samples of pharyngeal tonsils from children living in Tychy and in 76 samples of pharyngeal tonsils from children living in Chorzów, as well as in the suspended particles in the air occurring in soluble and insoluble form. The specified coefficients k1, k2 present in the equation division allow the indication the greater importance of soluble and insoluble fraction of an element present in the inhaled air. Results. The value of the coefficients in the equation division based on gender confirmed its importance. Conclusions. The values detect area variation in relation to passive smoking in the extent of accumulation of Pb, Be, Ba, Sr, Mg, Ca in pharyngeal tonsils.

  14. The regulation effect of STAT 5 signaling pathway on the cell cycle progression of irradiated KG-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dehuang; Dong Bo; Luo Qingliang; Wen Gengyun; Mao Bingzhi

    2000-01-01

    The author investigated the role of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway regulating cell cycle progression in the irradiated KG-1 cells. By permanent transfecting the cells with DN-STAT 5 cDNA to block the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and then transient transfecting with cyclin D 1 or cyclin B 1 cDNA, the effects of cyclin D 1 protein and cyclin B 1 protein on the cell cycle progression were examined. Results showed that after irradiation with 8Gy 60 Co rays, the irradiated KG-1 cells transfected with only DN-STAT 5 cDNA can not recover form the G 1 arrest, even though GM-CSF was added. Meanwhile, the cells transfected with both the DN-STAT 5 cDNA and cyclin D 1 cDNA or cyclin B 1 cDNA can recover from the G 1 arrest or the G 2 arrest to a great extent. Thus, it was proved indirectly that the JAK/STAT signaling pathway activated by GM-CSF regulated the cell cycle progression through cyclin D 1 and cyclin B 1 protein

  15. Using electrocoagulation for metal and chelant separation from washing solution after EDTA leaching of Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pociecha, Maja; Lestan, Domen

    2010-02-15

    Electrocoagulation with an Al sacrificial anode was tested for the separation of chelant and heavy metals from a washing solution obtained after leaching Pb (3200 mg kg(-1)), Zn (1100 mg kg(-1)), and Cd (21 mg kg(-1)) contaminated soil with EDTA. In the electrochemical process, the sacrificial anode corroded to release Al(3+) which served as coagulant for precipitation of chelant and metals. A constant current density of 16-128 mAc m(-2) applied between the Al anode and the stainless-steel cathode removed up to 95% Pb, 68% Zn and 66% Cd from the soil washing solution. Approximately half of the initial EDTA remained in the washing solution after treatment, up to 16.3% of the EDTA was adsorbed on Al coagulant and precipitated, the rest of the EDTA was degraded by anodic oxidation. In a separate laboratory-scale remediation experiment, we leached a soil with 40 mmol EDTA per kg of soil and reused the washing solution (after electrocoagulation) in a closed loop. It removed 53% of Pb, 26% of Zn and 52% of Cd from the soil. The discharge solution was clear and colourless, with pH 7.52 and 170 mg L(-1) Pb, 50 mg L(-1) Zn, 1.5 mg L(-1) Cd and 11 mM EDTA.

  16. Effect of Sintering Time on Superconducting Wire Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O With Dopant MgO Sheated Ag Using Powder in Tube Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariyati Lubis

    2018-01-01

      DAFTAR PUSTAKA Abbas M.M., Abass L.K and Salman U., (2012, Influences of Sintering Time on the Tc of Bi2-xCuxPb0.3Sr2Ca2Cu3010+ High Temperature Superconductors, Energy Procedia 18, 215-224  Abbas, M.M., Abbas, L.K., Bahedh, H.S. 2015. Superconducting Properties of Bi2-SbxPb0,3Sr1,9Ba0,1Ca2Cu3O10+δ Compounds. Journal of Applied Science Research. 11. 22: 164-172 Darsono, N., Imaduddin, A., Raju, K., Yoon, D.H., (2015, Synthesis and Characterization of Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3O7 Superconducting Oxide by High-Energy Milling, J Supercond Nov Magn. E. Chew,. (2010, Superconducting Transformer Design And Construction, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. March Hamadneh, I., Halim, S. A., dan Lee, C. K., (2006,  Characterization of Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy Ceramic Superconductor Prepared Via Coprecipitation Method at Different Sintering Time, J. Mater. Sci, 41: 5526-5530. Hermiz G.Y., Aljurani B.A., Beayaty M.A., (2014, Effect of Mn Substitution on the Superconducting Properties of Bi1.7Pb0,3Sr2Ca2-xMnxCu3O10+, International Journal Of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT. 3. 4: 213-217 John R Hull, (2003, Applications of high-temperature superconductors in power technology, Reports on Progress in Physics, Volume 66, Number 11 Lu, X.Y., Yi, D., Chen, H., Nagata, A. 2016. Effect of Sn, MgO and Ag2O mix-doping on the formation and superconducting properties of Bi-2223 Ag/tapes. Physics Procedia. 81: 129-132 Meretliev Sh., Sadykov K.B., Berkeliev A., (2000, Doping of High Temperature Superconductors, Turk J Phy.24: 39-48 Mohammed, N. H., Ramadhan A., Ali I. A., Ibrahim, I. H., dan Hassan, M. S, (2012, Optimizing the Preparation Conditions of Bi-2223 Superconducting Phase Using PbO and PbO2, Materials Sciences and Applications, 3: 224-233. Roumie, M., Marhaba, S., Awad R., Kork M., Hassan I., Mawassi R., (2014, Effect of Fe2O3 Nano-Oxide Addition on the Superconducting Properties of the (Bi,Pb-2223 Phase, Journal of Supercond Nov Magn, 27: 143-153 Serkan

  17. Phytostabilization of a Pb-contaminated mine tailing by various tree species in pot and field trial experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeinkuirt, Weeradej; Pokethitiyook, Prayad; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Chaiyarat, Rattanawat

    2012-10-01

    The potential of 6 tree species (Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia mangium, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Pterocarpus macrocarpus, Lagerstroemia floribunda, Eucalyptus camaldulensis) for phytoremediation of Pb in sand tailings (total Pb >9850 mg kg(-1)) from KEMCO Pb mine in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand, were investigated employing a pot experiment (3 months) and field trial experiment (12 months). In pot study E. camaldulensis treated with Osmocote fertilizer attained the highest total biomass (15.3 g plant(-1)) followed by P. pterocarpum (12.6 g plant(-1)) and A. mangium (10.8 g plant(-1)) both treated with cow manure. Cow manure application resulted in the highest root Pb accumulation (>10000 mg kg(-1)) in L. floribunda and P. macrocarpus. These two species also exhibited the highest Pb uptake (85-88 mg plant(-1)). Results from field trial also showed that Osmocote promoted the best growth performance in E. camaldulensis (biomass 385.7 g plant(-1), height 141.7 cm) followed by A. mangium (biomass 215.9 g plant(-1), height 102.7 cm), and they also exhibited the highest Pb uptake (600-800 microg plant(-1)). A. mangium with the addition of organic fertilizer was the best option for phytostabilization of Pb-contaminated mine tailing because it retained higher Pb concentration in the roots.

  18. Phase fragility and mechatronic reliability for Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3–PbTiO3 ferroelectric single crystals — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of (1-xPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3–xPbTiO3(PMN–xPT near their morphotropic phase boundaries (MPBs are under extensive investigations for their extraordinary high dielectric and piezoelectric behavior. Applications of those single crystals facilitated the breakthrough in ultrasonic transducer materials and devices. Ferroelectric materials are known to be fragile which often leads to various reliability failures in applications involving electric loadings. In a mechanical sense, the failure modes concern the fracture under an intensive electric field, and the fatigue crack propagation under an alternating electric field. In an electrical sense, the failure is exhibited by degenerated hysteresis loop by shrinking the remnant polarization and expanding the coercive field. All these modes degrade the performance for ferroelectric devices. As a departure from the tetragonal (T ferroelectric materials, exemplified by BaTiO3 and Pb(ZrTiO3, the domain structures of PMN–PT around the MPB are versatile and intricate, depending sensitively on the composition variation, orientation and previous loading history. In this review, the attention is mainly focused on three aspects. First, the phase fragility and multiphase coexistence are presented for both [100]- and [101]-oriented PMN–PT single crystals. Second, investigations on electric field-induced fatigue crack propagation are described, along with the orientation effect on the crack propagation behavior. Third, the inverse effects of the phase transition and fatigue crack growth on the polarization behavior, or the interaction between the mechanical and electrical degradations will be elucidated. The review aims for better understanding the underlying mechanism for the ultrahigh performance of the PMN–PT single crystals, to bridge the studies of ferroelectric materials from the mechanical and electrical senses, as well as to evaluate the reliability of PMN–PT single crystals under device

  19. Note: High-power piezoelectric transformer fabricated with ternary relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))O3-PbTiO3 single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Ma, Chuanguo; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Bao; Chen, Jianwei; Luo, Haosu; Wang, Tao; Shi, Wangzhou

    2016-03-01

    A plate-shaped piezoelectric transformer was designed and fabricated using ternary relaxor ferroelectric single crystal Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))O3-PbTiO3. Both the input and output sections utilized the transverse-extensional vibration mode. The frequency and load dependences of the electrical properties for the proposed transformer were systematically studied. Results indicated that under a matching load resistance of 14.9 kΩ, a maximum output power of 2.56 W was obtained with the temperature rise less than 5 °C. The corresponding power density reached up to 50 W/cm(3). This ternary single-crystal transformer had potential applications in compact-size converters requiring high power density.

  20. Large non-volatile tuning of magnetism mediated by electric field in Fe–Al/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhendong; Gao, Cunxu; Wei, Yanping; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Yutian; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Zhikun

    2017-01-01

    Electric-field control of magnetism is now an attractive trend to approach a new kind of fast, low-power-cost memory device. In this work, we report a strong non-volatile electric control of magnetism in an Fe–Al/Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 –PbTiO 3 heterostructure. In this system, a 90° rotation of the in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy is exhibited during the increase of the external electric field, which means the easy axis turns into a hard axis and the hard axis turns into an easy one. Additionally, a non-volatile switch of the remanence is observed after a sweeping of the electric field from 0 kV cm −1 to  ±  10 kV cm −1 , then back to 0 kV cm −1 . More interestingly, a 20% non-volatile magnetic state tuning driven by individual pulse electric fields is shown in contrast to large tuning up to 120% caused by pulse electric fields with small assistant pulse magnetic fields, which means a 180° reverse of the magnetization. These remarkable behaviors demonstrated in this heterostructure reveal a promising potential application in magnetic memory devices mediated by electric fields. (paper)

  1. Crystal orientation dependence of the optical bandgap of (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Xinming; Zhao Xiangyong; Chan, H.L.W.; Choy, C.L.; Luo Haosu

    2005-01-01

    The transmission spectra of rhombohedral 0.71Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -0.29PbTiO 3 (PMN-0.29PT) and tetragonal PMN-0.38PT single crystals were obtained in the main crystallographic directions , and . The absorption coefficients were computed and the optical bandgaps were calculated in both direct and indirect transitions. The energy of phonons contributing in the indirect transition was also calculated. For PMN-0.38PT single crystal in all the three directions, the values of direct bandgaps E gd are all slightly lower than those of PMN-0.29PT single crystal, while the indirect bandgaps E gi are all higher. For different crystallographic directions, the values of E gi for -direction are lower compared with and directions, both for PMN-0.29PT and PMN-0.38PT single crystals. Some discussions about the B-site cation d-orbits and the O-anion 2p orbits that determine the basic energy level of the single crystals are presented. The optical transition mechanism was also discussed

  2. Micro-Raman study of the microheterogeneity in the MA-MC phase transition in 0.67PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33PbTiO3 single crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.

    2011-04-20

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy has been employed to investigate the evolution of the microstructure of 0.67PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33PbTiO3 (PMN-33%PT) single crystal in the temperature range from −195 to 300 °C. The M A-M C-cubic transition sequence was observed in the microareas with M A-type (space group Cm) and M C-type (space group Pm) monoclinic structures. Interestingly, the M A-M Cphase transition temperature exhibited remarkable microareal dependence due to the spatial inhomogeneity of polar nanoregions (PNRs). The M C-cubic phase transition took place at 155 °C in both microareas, which consisted well with previous reports. These results reveal that the phase transition in PMN-33%PT single crystal is closely related with the thermal dynamics of PNRs, which will be useful for understanding the microheterogeneity in this compound.

  3. The Effect of Poling on the Properties of 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uršič, Hana; Tellier, Jenny; Hrovat, Marko; Holc, Janez; Drnovšek, Silvo; Bobnar, Vid; Alguero, Miguel; Kosec, Marija

    2011-03-01

    The effects of the poling field on the structural and electrical properties of 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 (0.65PMN-0.35PT) ceramics were investigated. The highest piezoelectric coefficient d33, coupling coefficients kp, kt, and mechanical quality factor Qm were achieved for ceramics poled at electric fields between 2 and 3.5 kV/mm, whereas the d33, kp, kt, and Qm of ceramics poled at higher electric fields, i.e., 4 and 4.5 kV/mm, were lower. The non-poled ceramics contained 86% of the monoclinic phase with the space group Pm and 14% of the tetragonal phase with the space group P4mm. However, the ceramics poled at 2.5 kV/mm contained 99% of the monoclinic phase and the rest is the tetragonal phase. The results show that the ratio of the monoclinic to the tetragonal phases can be changed by the application of a poling electric field and that the extent of this change is dependent on the field strength.

  4. Multiple matching scheme for broadband 0.72Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3−0.28PbTiO3 single crystal phased-array transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S. T.; Li, H.; Wong, K. S.; Zhou, Q. F.; Zhou, D.; Li, Y. C.; Luo, H. S.; Shung, K. K.; Dai, J. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate single crystal 0.72Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3−0.28PbTiO3 (abbreviated as PMN-PT) was used to fabricate high performance ultrasonic phased-array transducer as it exhibited excellent piezoelectric properties. In this paper, we focus on the design and fabrication of a low-loss and wide-band transducer for medical imaging applications. A KLM model based simulation software PiezoCAD was used for acoustic design of the transducer including the front-face matching and backing. The calculated results show that the −6 dB transducer bandwidth can be improved significantly by using double λ∕8 matching layers and hard backing. A 4.0 MHz PMN-PT transducer array (with 16 elements) was fabricated and tested in a pulse-echo arrangement. A −6 dB bandwidth of 110% and two-way insertion loss of −46.5 dB were achieved. PMID:19657405

  5. Multiple matching scheme for broadband 0.72Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.28PbTiO3 single crystal phased-array transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S. T.; Li, H.; Wong, K. S.; Zhou, Q. F.; Zhou, D.; Li, Y. C.; Luo, H. S.; Shung, K. K.; Dai, J. Y.

    2009-05-01

    Lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate single crystal 0.72Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.28PbTiO3 (abbreviated as PMN-PT) was used to fabricate high performance ultrasonic phased-array transducer as it exhibited excellent piezoelectric properties. In this paper, we focus on the design and fabrication of a low-loss and wide-band transducer for medical imaging applications. A KLM model based simulation software PiezoCAD was used for acoustic design of the transducer including the front-face matching and backing. The calculated results show that the -6 dB transducer bandwidth can be improved significantly by using double λ /8 matching layers and hard backing. A 4.0 MHz PMN-PT transducer array (with 16 elements) was fabricated and tested in a pulse-echo arrangement. A -6 dB bandwidth of 110% and two-way insertion loss of -46.5 dB were achieved.

  6. Multiple matching scheme for broadband 0.72Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-0.28PbTiO(3) single crystal phased-array transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S T; Li, H; Wong, K S; Zhou, Q F; Zhou, D; Li, Y C; Luo, H S; Shung, K K; Dai, J Y

    2009-05-01

    Lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate single crystal 0.72Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-0.28PbTiO(3) (abbreviated as PMN-PT) was used to fabricate high performance ultrasonic phased-array transducer as it exhibited excellent piezoelectric properties. In this paper, we focus on the design and fabrication of a low-loss and wide-band transducer for medical imaging applications. A KLM model based simulation software PiezoCAD was used for acoustic design of the transducer including the front-face matching and backing. The calculated results show that the -6 dB transducer bandwidth can be improved significantly by using double lambda8 matching layers and hard backing. A 4.0 MHz PMN-PT transducer array (with 16 elements) was fabricated and tested in a pulse-echo arrangement. A -6 dB bandwidth of 110% and two-way insertion loss of -46.5 dB were achieved.

  7. Theoretical study on guided wave propagation in (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (x = 0.29 and 0.33) single crystal plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chuanwen; Zhang Rui; Cao Wenwu

    2009-01-01

    The propagation of guided waves in free standing (1 - x)Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -xPbTiO 3 [PMN-xPT] (x = 0.29 or 0.33) single crystal plates has been studied theoretically. The polar directions are in the (111) family directions of the cubic reference coordinates but the crystals are being polarized along [0 0 1] c , [0 1 1] c and [1 1 1] c of the cubic reference directions so that the effective microscopic symmetries are 4mm, mm2 and 3m, respectively. Multiple mode couplings appear in the dispersion curves for both the symmetric and the antisymmetric Lamb and shear horizontal modes. The velocities of most guided waves decrease rapidly with frequency. Then, after passing a minimum, they begin to increase with frequency and eventually saturate to the shear wave velocity v sz (or v 1 = 3507 m s -1 for [1 1 1] c polarized sample). For a [1 1 1] c polarized single domain PMN-0.33PT sample, the S 1 mode instead of the S 0 mode approaches the Rayleigh velocity v R at high frequencies.

  8. Coupling of electric charge and magnetic field via electronic phase separation in (La,Pr,Ca)MnO3/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 multiferroic heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming; Wang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    The electric-field-tunable non-volatile resistivity and ferromagnetism switching in the (La0.5Pr0.5)0.67Ca0.33MnO3 films grown on (111)-oriented 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 ferroelectric single-crystal substrates have been investigated. By combining the 180° ferroelectric domain switching and in situ X-ray diffraction and resistivity measurements, we identify that this voltage control of order parameters stems from the domain switching-induced accumulation/depletion of charge carriers at the interface rather than induced lattice strain effect. In particular, the polarization-induced charge effect (i.e., ferroelectric field effect) is strongly dependent on the magnetic field. This, together with the charge-modulated magnetoresistance and magnetization, reveals the strong correlation between the electric charge and the magnetic field. Further, we found that this coupling is essentially driven by the electronic phase separation, the relative strength of which could be determined by recording charge-tunability of resistivity [ (Δρ/ρ)c h arg e ] under various magnetic fields. These findings present a potential strategy for elucidating essential physics of perovskite manganites and delivering prototype electronic devices for non-volatile information storage.

  9. Electric-Field Control of Magnetism in Co40Fe40B20/(1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 Multiferroic Heterostructures with Different Ferroelectric Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zhao, Yonggang; Li, Peisen; Zhang, Sen; Li, Dalai; Wu, Hao; Chen, Aitian; Xu, Yang; Han, X F; Li, Shiyan; Lin, Di; Luo, Haosu

    2016-02-17

    Electric-field control of magnetism in multiferroic heterostructures composed of Co40Fe40B20 (CoFeB) and (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-xPT) with different ferroelectric phases via changing composition and temperature is explored. It is demonstrated that the nonvolatile looplike bipolar-electric-field-controlled magnetization, previously found in the CoFeB/PMN-xPT heterostructures with PMN-xPT in the rhombohedral (R) phase around the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), also occurs for PMN-xPTs with both R phase (far away from MPB) and monoclinic (M) phase, suggesting that the phenomenon is the common feature of CoFeB/PMN-xPT multiferroic heterostructures for PMN-xPT with different phases. The magnitude of the effect changes with increasing temperature and volatile bipolar-electric-field-controlled magnetization with a butterflylike behavior occurs when the ferroelectric phase changes to the tetragonal phase (T). Moreover, for the R-phase sample with x = 0.18, an abrupt and giant increase of magnetization is observed at a characteristic temperature in the temperature dependence of magnetization curve. These results are discussed in terms of coupling between magnetism and ferroelectric domains including macro- and microdomains for different ferroelectric phases. This work is helpful for understanding the phenomena of electric-field control of magnetism in FM/FE multiferroic heterostructures and is also important for applications.

  10. Properties of morphotropic phase boundary Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} films with submicrometre range thickness on Si-based substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alguero, M; Ricote, J; Calzada, M L [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Stewart, M; Cain, M G [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Ramos, P [Departamento de Electronica, Universidad de Alcala. 28871 Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    2010-05-26

    The electrical properties of (1 - x)Pb(Mg{sub 1/3} Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} - xPbTiO{sub 3} films with composition in the morphotropic phase boundary region around x = 0.35, submicrometre thickness and columnar microstructure, prepared on Si-based substrates by chemical solution deposition are presented and discussed in relation to the properties of coarse and fine grained ceramics. The films show relaxor characteristics that are proposed to result from a grain size effect on the kinetics of the relaxor to ferroelectric transition. The transition is slowed down for grain sizes in the submicrometre range, and as a consequence intermediate polar domain configurations with typical length scales in the submicrometre- and nanoscales are stabilized. A high saturation polarization can be attained under field, but fast polarization relaxation occurs after its removal, and negligible remanent values are obtained. At the same time, they also show spontaneous piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity. Self-polarization is thus present, which indicates the existence of an internal electric field that is most probably a substrate effect. Films would then be in a phase instability, at an intermediate state between the relaxor and ferroelectric ones, and under a bias electric field, which would explain the very high spontaneous pyroelectric response found.

  11. Epitaxial Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 thin films synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, G. R.; Streiffer, S. K.; Baumann, P. K.; Auciello, O.; Ghosh, K.; Stemmer, S.; Munkholm, A.; Thompson, Carol; Rao, R. A.; Eom, C. B.

    2000-01-01

    Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition was used to prepare Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 (PMN) thin films on (001) SrTiO 3 and SrRuO 3 /SrTiO 3 substrates, using solid Mg β-diketonate as the Mg precursor. Parameters including the precursor ratio in the vapor phase, growth temperature, growth rate, and reaction pressure in the reactor chamber were varied in order to determine suitable growth conditions for producing phase-pure, epitaxial PMN films. A cube-on-cube orientation relationship between the thin film and the SrTiO 3 substrate was found, with a (001) rocking curve width of 0.1 degree sign , and in-plane rocking-curve width of 0.8 degree sign . The root-mean-square surface roughness of a 200-nm-thick film on SrTiO 3 was 2 to 3 nm as measured by scanning probe microscopy. The zero-bias dielectric constant and loss measured at room temperature and 10 kHz for a 200-nm-thick film on SrRuO 3 /SrTiO 3 were approximately 1100 and 2%, respectively. The remnant polarization for this film was 16 μC/cm 2 . (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  12. Contamination and source differentiation of Pb in park soils along an urban-rural gradient in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongbo; Yu Shen; Li Guilin; Deng Hong; Luo Xiaosan

    2011-01-01

    Urban soil Pb contamination is a great human health risk. Lead distribution and source in topsoils from 14 parks in Shanghai, China were investigated along an urban-rural gradient. Topsoils were contaminated averagely with 65 mg Pb kg -1 , 2.5 times higher than local soil background concentrations. HCl-extracts contained more anthropogenic Pb signatures than total sample digests as revealed by the higher 207/206 Pb and 208/206 Pb ratios in extracts (0.8613 ± 0.0094 and 2.1085 ± 0.0121 versus total digests 0.8575 ± 0.0098 and 2.0959 ± 0.0116). This suggests a higher sensitivity of HCl-extraction than total digestion in identifying anthropogenic Pb sources. Coal combustion emission was identified as the major anthropogenic Pb source (averagely 47%) while leaded gasoline emission contributed 12% overall. Urbanization effects were observed by total Pb content and anthropogenic Pb contribution. This study suggests that to reduce Pb contamination, Shanghai might have to change its energy composition to clean energy. - Highlights: → Coal combustion emission is identified as a main Pb source in Shanghai park soils. → HCl-extraction is sensitive in identifying anthropogenic isotope Pb sources. → Soil Pb contamination and its anthropogenic sources showed urbanization effects. - Coal combustion emission was identified as the main anthropogenic source of soil Pb contamination affecting Shanghai parks.

  13. Direct observation of the near-surface layer in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 using neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlon, K.H.; Whan, T.; Fox, J.H.; Luo, H.; Viehland, D.; Li, J.F.; Stock, C.; Shirane, G.

    2004-01-01

    Spatially resolved neutron diffraction as a function of crystal depth in Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 reveals the presence of a distinct near-surface region where a strong distortion in the lattice exists. A dramatic change in both the lattice constant and the Bragg peak intensity as a function of crystal depth is observed to occur in this region over a length scale ∼100 μm. This confirms a previous assertion, based on a comparison between high-energy x rays and neutrons, that such a near surface region exists in the relaxors. Consequences to both single crystal and powder diffraction measurements and previous bulk neutron diffraction measurements on large single crystals are discussed

  14. DAFS study of local structure of ordered nanodomains in PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, A.I.; Robinson, I.K.; Robinson, I.K.; Adler, D.L.; Cross, J.O.

    1998-01-01

    We have performed a Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure (DAFS) study of a single crystal of the relaxor ferroelectric PbMg 1/3 Nb 2/3 O 3 . DAFS measurements were performed at the Nb K edge on a half-order Bragg reflection originating from the 1:1 ordered nanodomains. DAFS data analysis provided us with the local structure around Nb atoms in the ordered nanodomains. The Nb-O distance in the ordered region was determined to be 0.052(10) Angstrom shorter than half the lattice parameter of the bulk crystal, in good agreement with one model of the ferroelectric phase transition broadening [JETP 84, 994 (1997)]. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  15. The effect of disorder on electronic and magnetic properties of quaternary Heusler alloy CoFeMnSi with LiMgPbSb-type structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yu; Chen, Hong; Yuan, Hongkuan; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Xiaorui

    2015-01-01

    Thin films based on Heusler alloy often lost their theoretical predicted ultra-high spin polarization owing to the appearance of disorder. Using the first-principles calculations within density functional theory (DFT), we investigate the effect of disorder including antisite and swap on electronic and magnetic properties of quaternary Heusler alloy CoFeMnSi with LiMgPbSb-type structure. Twelve kinds of antisites and six kinds of swap disorders are proposed and studied comprehensively. In our calculations, Co(Fe)-, Mn(Fe)-, Si(Mn)-antisite and Co–Fe swap disorders are most favorable due to their lowest formation energies. Moreover, the positive binding energies of Co–Fe, Co–Si, Fe–Si and Mn–Si swap disorders with respect to their corresponding antisite disorders indicate that these complex swap disorders are more stable compared with their corresponding isolated antisite disorders. The investigations on density of states (DOS) show that the spin down energy gap of disordered structures suffers contraction and their DOS entirely move towards lower zone. Besides, the 100% spin polarization is maintained in all structures with antisite and swap disorders except for those with Co(Mn)-, Co(Si)-antisite and Co–Mn, Co–Si swap disorders. Therefore, the half-metallicity of quaternary Heusler alloy CoFeMnSi is quite robust against interfering effects such as Si(Mn), Co(Fe) and Co–Fe disorders most possibly formed in the growth. - Highlights: • CoFeMnSi with LiMgPbSb-type structure is found to be a half-metallic ferromagnet. • Si(Mn), Co(Fe), Mn(Fe) antisites and Co–Fe swap disorders are most likely to form. • The half-metallicity of CoFeMnSi is robust against the most possible disorders. • The magnetic moments of the most possible disorders follow the Pauli-Slater rule

  16. Electrical transport in low-lead (1-x)BaTiO3–xPbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. SUCHANICZ; K. KONIECZNY; K. ŚWIERCZEK; M. LIPIŃSKI; M. KARPIERZ; D. SITKO; H. CZTERNASTEK; K. KLUCZEWSKA

    2017-01-01

    Low-lead (1-x)BaTiO3–xPbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 ceramics (x = 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, and 0.15) were prepared by the conventional oxide mixed sintering process, and their optical band gap, Seebeck coefficient, ac ( σac ) and dc ( σdc ) conductivities as a function of temperature were investigated for the first time. It was found that all samples have p-type conductivity. The low-frequency (20 Hz–2 MHz) ac conductivity obeys a power law σac ~ ωs , which is characteristic for disordered materials. The frequency exponent s is a decreasing function of temperature and tends to zero at high temperature. σac is proportional to ω0.07 – ω0.31 in the low-frequency region and to ω0.51 – ω0.98 in the high-temperature region. The temperature dependence of the dc conductivity showed a change in slope around the temperature at which the phase transition appeared. Both ac and dc conductivities showed a thermally activated character and possessed linear parts with different activation energies and some irregular changes. It was found that the hopping charge carriers dominate at low temperature and small polarons and oxygen vacancies dominate at higher temperature. (1-x)BaTiO3–xPbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 ceramics are expected to be promising new candidate for low-lead electronic materials.

  17. Effects of Cu, Zn and Pb Combined Pollution on Soil Hydrolase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FENG Dan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the relations between soil enzyme activities and heavy metal pollution, the combined effects of Cu, Zn and Pb on the three hydrolase activities, including invertase(IN, urease(Uand alkaline phosphatase(ALPwere investigated via an orthogonal experiment. Results showed as the following: When the concentration of Cu was 400 mg·kg-1, the U and ALP activities were decreased 51% and 44%, separately; When Zn was at 500 mg·kg-1, IN and ALP activities were only decreased 3% and 9%, while U activity was increased; When Pb was at 500 mg·kg-1, IN and U activities were increased, while ALP activity was decreased 13%. As a whole, Cu was considered as the most remarkable influence factor for IN, U and ALP activity regardless of interactions among the heavy metals, Zn came second, and Pb mainly showed activation. Considering interactions, Cu×Zn could significantly influence U activity(P<0.05, effects of Cu×Pb and Cu×Zn on ALP activity were remarkable(95% confidence interval. The response of ALP activity was more sensitive than the other two enzymes. Soil ALP activity might be a sensitive tool for assessing the pollution degree of Cu.

  18. Giant energy density in [001]-textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yongke; Cho, Kyung-Hoon; Maurya, Deepam; Kumar, Amit; Kalinin, Sergei; Khachaturyan, Armen; Priya, Shashank

    2013-01-01

    Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) based compositions have been challenging to texture or grow in a single crystal form due to the incongruent melting point of ZrO2. Here we demonstrate the method for achieving 90% textured PZT-based ceramics and further show that it can provide highest known energy density in piezoelectric materials through enhancement of piezoelectric charge and voltage coefficients (d and g). Our method provides more than ˜5× increase in the ratio d(textured)/d(random). A giant magnitude of d.g coefficient with value of 59 000 × 10-15 m2 N-1 (comparable to that of the single crystal counterpart and 359% higher than that of the best commercial compositions) was obtained.

  19. Spatial and temporal variations in Pb concentrations and isotopic composition in road dust, farmland soil and vegetation in proximity to roads since cessation of use of leaded petrol in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, G.; MacKenzie, A.B.; Cook, G.T.; Pulford, I.D.; Duncan, H.J.; Scott, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of spatial distributions and temporal trends in concentrations of lead (Pb) from different sources in soil and vegetation of an arable farm in central Scotland in the decade since the use of leaded petrol was terminated. Isotopic analyses revealed that in all of the samples analysed, the Pb conformed to a binary mixture of petrol Pb and Pb from industrial or indigenous geological sources and that locally enhanced levels of petrol Pb were restricted to within 10 m of a motorway and 3 m of a minor road. Overall, the dominant source of Pb was historical emissions from nearby industrial areas. There was no discernible change in concentration or isotopic composition of Pb in surface soil or vegetation over the decade since the ban on the sale of leaded petrol. There was an order of magnitude decrease in Pb concentrations in road dust over the study period, but petrol Pb persisted at up to 43% of the total Pb concentration in 2010. Similar concentrations and spatial distributions of petrol Pb and non petrol Pb in vegetation in both 2001 and 2010, with enhanced concentrations near roads, suggested that redistribution of previously deposited material has operated continuously over that period, maintaining a transfer pathway of Pb into the biosphere. The results for vegetation and soil transects near minor roads provided evidence of a non petrol Pb source associated with roads/traffic, but surface soil samples from the vicinity of a motorway failed to show evidence of such a source. - Highlights: → A 10 year study of Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions in farmland. → Soil and vegetation showed no systematic decrease in Pb concentrations over 10 years. → Road dust Pb concentrations fell from 117 mg kg -1 in 2001 to 14.2 mg kg -1 in 2010. → Enhancement of petrol Pb only within 10m of a motorway and 3m of a minor road.

  20. Electrical tuning of magnetization rotation and microwave properties in FeCoZr/[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32(011) multiferroic heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuoc, Nguyen N; Ong, C K

    2015-01-01

    The permeability spectra of a multiferroic heterostructure composed of a FeCoZr thin film grown onto a [Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 ] 0.68 -[PbTiO 3 ] 0.32 (011) (PMN-PT) substrate are characterized as a function of an electrical field applied through the thickness of the substrate. When the sample is in an unpoled state and the applied electrical field is increased from 0 kV cm −1 to 2 kV cm −1 , the resonance frequency remains relatively the same. However, as the electrical field is increased beyond 2 kV cm −1 , the resonance frequency is drastically increased from 2.17 GHz to 3.28 GHz and the peak of the permeability spectra becomes much broader. When the electrical field is further increased from 2 kV cm −1 to 6 kV cm −1 , the resonance frequency is gradually increased and finally reaches 4 GHz. As the electrical field is reduced from 6 kV cm −1 back to 2 kV cm −1 , the resonance frequency is reduced in the same manner, and the peak disappears when the electrical field is reduced to less than 2 kV cm −1 . These behaviors are discussed in terms of the magnetization rotation and magnetic anisotropy dispersion based on the stress distribution of the piezoelectric substrate as a function of the applied electrical field. This argument is consistent with the hysteresis loops measured before and after poling. The result suggests that the electrical tunability of the magnetization rotation in multiferroic heterostructures can be employed to electrically turn on and off the microwave operation of the materials, which is promising for applications. (paper)

  1. X-ray diffraction and dielectric studies across morphotropic phase boundary in (1 - x) [Pb(Mg0.5W0.5)O3]-xPbTiO3 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Structural studies reveal pseudocubic structure of PMW-xPT for the x ≤ 0.42, tetragonal for the x ≥ 0.72 and the coexistences of the two phases for intermediate compositions (0.46 ≤ x 0.68). → Temperature dependent dielectric constant for compositions in the two phase region shows two dielectric anomalies above room temperature and not just one as reported by earlier workers. → Rietveld structural analysis of PMW-xPT ceramics is presented for the first time to determine the fraction of the coexisting phases in MPB region. - Abstract: We present here the results of comprehensive X-ray diffraction and dielectric studies on several compositions of (1 - x)[Pb(Mg 0.5 W 0.5 )O 3 ]-xPbTiO 3 (PMW-xPT) solid solution across the morphotropic phase boundary. Rietveld analysis of the powder X-ray diffraction data reveals cubic (space group Fm3m) structure of PMW-xPT ceramics for the compositions with x ≤ 0.42, tetragonal (space group P4mm) structure for the compositions with x ≥ 0.72 and coexistence of the tetragonal and cubic phases for the intermediate compositions (0.46 ≤ x ≤ 0.68). Temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity above room temperature exhibits diffuse nature of phase transitions for the compositions in the cubic and two phase region while the compositions with tetragonal structure at room temperature exhibit sharp ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition. The PMW-xPT compositions with coexistence of tetragonal and cubic phases at room temperature exhibit two anomalies in the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity above room temperature. Using results of structural and dielectric studies a partial phase diagram of PMW-xPT ceramics is also presented.

  2. Aging characteristics of 0.7Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.3PbTiO{sub 3} single crystals with different crystal orientations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xing [Changzhou University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Inorganic Function Material and Device, Shanghai (China); Wu, Dun; Fang, Bijun [Changzhou University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou (China); Ding, Jianning [Changzhou University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou (China); Jiangsu University, School of Material Science and Engineering, Zhenjiang (China); Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Inorganic Function Material and Device, Shanghai (China); Ko, Jae-Hyeon [Hallym University, Department of Physics, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Chang Won [University of Ulsan, Department of Physics and EHSRC, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this work, the time and temperature dependence of the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of the 0.7Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.3PbTiO{sub 3} (0.7PMN-0.3PT) single crystals were investigated in order to search for an effective method to improve their properties further. The piezoelectric properties of the [001]-, [110]- and [111]-oriented 0.7PMN-0.3PT single crystals exhibit excellent time stability during the 2-month room-temperature aging process. The re-poling process leads to the improvement of piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} for the [001]-, [110]- and [111]-oriented 0.7PMN-0.3PT single crystals, while the values of electromechanical coupling coefficient k{sub t} change little. During the thermal aging, the values of the measured d{sub 33}, calculated converse piezoelectric constant d{sub 33}{sup *}, maximum strain S{sub max}% and longitudinal electrostrictive coefficient Q of the [001]-, [110]- and [111]-oriented crystal plates increase gradually before the ferroelectric phase transition temperatures (T{sub FPT}, T{sub R-M}, T{sub R-O} and T{sub R-T}) and then decline continuously. The increase in these values before the T{sub FPT} is a result of the phase instability. In general, the [001]- and [110]-oriented 0.7PMN-0.3PT single crystals exhibit large piezoelectricity, excellent time stability and relatively high thermal stability between 20 and 80 C, which is favorable to the piezoelectric applications. (orig.)

  3. Beam-Mode Piezoelectric Properties of Ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Single Crystals for Medical Linear Array Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Yaoyao; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu

    2011-11-01

    In this work, the dielectric and beam-mode piezoelectric properties of ternary 0.35Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.35Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.30PbTiO3 (PIMNT35/35/30) piezoelectric single crystals were investigated. The Curie temperature ( T C) and rhombohedral-to-tetragonal phase-transition temperature ( T rt) are 187°C and 127°C, about 30°C higher than those of PMNT crystals. The beam-mode coupling coefficient k {33/ w } was found to be 90.3%. Furthermore, 3.5-MHz linear arrays based on PIMNT35/35/30 crystals and Pb(Zr1- x Ti x )O3 ceramic (PZT-5H) were simulated using PiezoCAD software. The results indicate that the sensitivity and -6 dB bandwidth of a PIMNT35/35/30 transducer would be approximately 4 dB and 20% higher, respectively, compared with a traditional PZT transducer.

  4. Mapping airborne lead contamination near a metals smelter in Derbyshire, UK: spatial variation of Pb concentration and 'enrichment factor' for tree bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, D; Cox, A J; Staton, I; McLeod, C W; Satake, K

    2001-10-01

    Samples of tree bark, collected over an area of 4 km2 near a small non-ferrous metals smelter in Derbyshire, UK, were analysed for Pb and Al by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Analyte concentrations varied from 100 to over 25,000 mg kg-1 and 5 to 1000 mg kg-1, respectively. While an inverse relationship between the Pb content of bark and distance from the smelter was observed, concentrations fluctuated, indicating a variability in sample collection efficiency and problems in standardization. To overcome these effects, the Pb/Al ratio was calculated and subsequently normalized to the average Pb/Al ratio in continental crust (0.00015). On the assumption that the time-averaged concentration of airborne Al in this area is relatively constant and derived principally from wind-blown soil, the measurement represents an anthropogenic 'enrichment factor' (PbEF). PbEF varied from 10,000 to over 1,000,000, and showed a consistent reduction with distance from the smelter. Isolines of equal PbEF were subsequently defined on a map of the sampled area. Pb contamination was greatest in the vicinity of the smelter, and preferential transport along the NW-SE axis of the valley (in which the smelter is situated) was observed. The use of enrichment factors thus proved valuable in defining the relative level of airborne-derived Pb pollution.

  5. Strong Nonvolatile Magnon-Driven Magnetoelectric Coupling in Single-Crystal Co /[PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3] 0.71[PbTiO3]0.29 Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cai; Shen, Lvkang; Liu, Ming; Gao, Cunxu; Jia, Chenglong; Jiang, Changjun

    2018-01-01

    The ability to manipulate the magnetism on interfacing ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials via electric fields to achieve an emergent multiferroic response has enormous potential for nanoscale devices with novel functionalities. Herein, a strong electric-field control of the magnetism modulation is reported for a single-crystal Co (14 nm )/(001 )Pb (Mg1/3Nb2/3) 0.7Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) heterostructure by fabricating an epitaxial Co layer on a PMN-PT substrate. Electric-field-tuned ferromagnetic resonance exhibits a large resonance field shift, with a 120-Oe difference between that under positive and negative remanent polarizations, which demonstrates nonvolatile electric-field control of the magnetism. Further, considering the complexity of the twofold symmetry magnetic anisotropy, the linear change of the fourfold symmetry magnetic anisotropy, relating to the single-crystal cubic magnetocrystal anisotropy of the Co thin film, is resolved and quantified to exert a magnon-driven, strong direct magnetoelectric effect on the Co /PMN -PT interface. These results are promising for future multiferroic devices.

  6. Preparation of Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O high Tc thick films on Ag or MgO substrate with superconductor paste; Bi kei ko Tc chodendo paste ni yoru Ag, MgO kibanjo eno atsumaku sakusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takabatake, N. [Ishikawa Technical High School, Ishikawa (Japan); Tsubota, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Ohashi, K. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan)

    1995-07-15

    The following were reported on making Bi series superconducting thick films by a wet method. A paste was made by adding PSO (or ethanol solution of ethylenegrycol) of Yushiro Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. as a binder to a Bi series 2223 single-phase powder sample (blending composition Bi:Pb:Sr:Ca:Cu=1.8:0.4:2:2:3.2); the sample was then coated on an Ag (or MgO) substrate with a brush; after being dried at 105{degree}C for one hour, it was thermally decomposed at 700{degree}C for one hour; then, the process of prissurized forming (at pressure 2 to 5 ton f/cm{sup 2}) and of sintering at 845{degree}C for 20 hours or more were performed on the sample to form a thick film sample. A critical temperature Tc, critical current density Jc, etc., were measured on such thick film sample. As a result, nearly same values were obtained as Tc (93K) and Jc (84A/cm{sup 2}) which were those of a bulk sample made by using the same powder sample, pressurizing at 2 ton f/cm{sup 2} for pelletizing, and sintering at 845{degree}C for 20 hours. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Strain and Ferroelectric-Field Effects Co-mediated Magnetism in (011)-CoFe2O4/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3Multiferroic Heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Ping; Jin, Chao; Zheng, Dongxing; Li, Dong; Gong, Junlu; Li, Peng; Bai, Haili

    2016-01-01

    Electric-field mediated magnetism was investigated in CoFe2O4 (CFO, deposited by reactive cosputtering under different Oxygen flow rates) films fabricated on (011)-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)(0.7)Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) substrates. Ascribed to the volatile strain

  8. Structure-property relations in sputter deposited epitaxial (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- xPbTiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Joshua C.

    Lead-based ferroelectric materials are of significant technological importance for sensing and actuation due to their high piezoelectric performance (i.e., the ability to convert an electrical signal to mechanical displacement, and vice versa). Traditionally, bulk ceramic or single crystals materials have filled these roles; however, emerging technologies stand to benefit by incorporating thin films to achieve miniaturization while maintaining high efficiency and sensitivity. Currently, chemical systems that have been well characterized in bulk form (e.g. Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- xPbTiO3, or PMN-xPT) require further study to optimize both the chemistry and structure for deployment in thin film devices. Furthermore, the effect of internal electric fields is more significant at the length scales of thin films, resulting in self biases that require compensation to reveal their intrinsic dielectric response. To this end, the structure-property relations of epitaxial PMN-xPT films sputter deposited on a variety of substrates were investigated. Attention was paid to how the structure (i.e., strain state, crystal structure, domain configuration, and defects) gave rise to the ferroelectric, dielectric, and piezoelectric response. Three-dimensional visualization of the dielectric response as a simultaneous function of electric field and temperature revealed the true phase transition of the films, which was found to correspond to the strain state and defect concentration. A lead-buffered anneal process was implemented to enhance the ferroelectric and dielectric response of the films without altering their stoichiometry. It was discovered that PMN- xPT films could be domain-engineered to exhibit a mixed domain state through chemistry and substrate choice. Such films exhibited a monoclinic distortion similar to that of the bulk compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary. Finally, it was revealed that the piezoelectric response could be greatly enhanced by declamping the film

  9. Temperature-dependent Raman spectra and electrical properties of 0.69Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.31PbTiO{sub 3} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Bijun [Changzhou University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou (China); Liu, Xing [Changzhou University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Inorganic Function Material and Device, Shanghai (China); Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Inorganic Function Material and Device, Shanghai (China); Ding, Jianning [Changzhou University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou (China); Jiangsu University, School of Material Science and Engineering, Zhenjiang (China)

    2016-09-15

    The temperature-dependent Raman spectra and electrical properties of the 0.69Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.31PbTiO{sub 3} (0.69PMN-0.31PT) single crystals were investigated. Based on the group theory, the poled 0.69PMN-0.31PT single crystals belong to the monoclinic crystal system, which was confirmed by the room-temperature Raman spectra. The 0.69PMN-0.31PT single crystals experience successive structural phase transitions, i.e., a monoclinic-tetragonal (FE{sub M}-FE{sub T}) phase transition at T{sub M-T} and a tetragonal-cubic (FE{sub T}-P{sub C}) phase transition at T{sub m} determined by the dielectric measurement. Due to the enhancement of long-range order, their FE{sub M}-FE{sub T} phase transition becomes more obvious after the poling process. The wavenumbers and line widths of the 271, 502, 575, 795 cm{sup -1} Raman modes, and the intensity ratios of I{sub 271cm}{sup {sub -}{sub 1}}/I{sub 795cm}{sup {sub -}{sub 1}} and I{sub 502cm}{sup {sub -}{sub 1}}/I{sub 575cm}{sup {sub -}{sub 1}} exhibit obvious anomalies around T{sub M-T} and T{sub m}, which are closely related to the FE{sub M}-FE{sub T} and FE{sub T}-P{sub C} phase transitions. The temperature and electric field (E)-induced phase transitions are observed in the unipolar strain-E (S-E) curves. The converse piezoelectric constant (d{sub 33}), maximum strain value (S{sub max}%) and longitudinal electrostrictive coefficient (Q) increase considerably around the ferroelectric phase transition temperature T{sub M-T}. (orig.)

  10. [Effects of soil properties on the stabilization process of cadmium in Cd alone and Cd-Pb contaminated soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Man; Xu, Ming-Gang; Zhang, Wen-Ju; Wu, Hai-Wen

    2012-07-01

    In order to clarify the effects of soil properties on the stabilization process of the cadmium (Cd) added, 11 different soils were collected and incubated under a moisture content of 65%-70% at 25 degrees C. The changes of available Cd contents with incubation time (in 360 days) in Cd and Cd-Pb contaminated treatments were determined. The stabilization process was simulated using dynamic equations. The results showed that after 1.0 mg x kg(-1) Cd or 500 mg x kg(-1) Pb + 1.0 mg x kg(-1) Cd were added into the soil, the available Cd content decreased rapidly during the first 15 days, and then the decreasing rate slowed down, with an equilibrium content reached after 60 days' incubation. In Cd-Pb contaminated soils, the presence of Pb increased the content of available Cd. The stabilization process of Cd could be well described by the second-order equation and the first order exponential decay; meanwhile, dynamic parameters including equilibrium content and stabilization velocity were used to characterize the stabilization process of Cd. These two key dynamic parameters were significantly affected by soil properties. Correlation analysis and stepwise regression suggested that high pH and high cation exchange capacity (CEC) significantly retarded the availability of Cd. High pH had the paramount effect on the equilibrium content. The stabilization velocity of Cd was influenced by the soil texture. It took shorter time for Cd to get stabilized in sandy soil than in the clay.

  11. Zn, Cd and Pb accumulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of pennycress Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) from the vicinity of a lead mine and smelter in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Drobne, Damjana; Regvar, Marjana

    2005-01-01

    Significant hyperaccumulation of Zn, Cd and Pb in field samples of Thlaspi praecox Wulf. collected from a heavy metal polluted area in Slovenia was found, with maximal shoot concentrations of 14590 mg kg -1 Zn, 5960 mg kg -1 Cd and 3500 mg kg -1 Pb. Shoot/root ratios of 9.6 for Zn and 5.6 for Cd show that the metals were preferentially transported to the shoots. Shoot bioaccumulation factors exceeded total soil Cd levels 75-fold and total soil Zn levels 20-fold, further supporting the hyperaccumulation of Cd and Zn. Eighty percent of Pb was retained in roots, thus indicating exclusion as a tolerance strategy for Pb. Low level colonisation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of a Paris type was observed at the polluted site, whereas at the non-polluted site Arum type colonisation was more common. To our knowledge this is the first report of Cd hyperaccumulation and AMF colonisation in metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox. - Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) is a newly discovered Cd, Zn and Pb hyperaccumulator able to form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

  12. Evaluation of Pb and Fe tenors present in the sediments nearby the activities of taking advantage of lead-acid batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Fernanda; Andrade, Crescencio; Monteiro, Carlos; Oliveira, Daniela; Valentim, Eliane

    2011-01-01

    The region chosen for this study was the Municipality of Belo Jardim, Pernambuco State, Brazil, which is considered an important industrial complex of the production and repairing of lead-acid batteries. Sediment samples were collected near to the illegal smelting industries and analyzed by ionic exchange method using a alpha-beta proportional counter for determining the activity of Pb-210, radionuclide used as geochronological tool. The chemical elements Pb and Fe were determined by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The obtained results indicated an expressive increasing of lead and iron concentrations in the last 20 years. The concentrations in the sampled profile varied from 318 to 15487 mg.kg-1 and from 19 to 1524 mg.kg-1 for Fe and Pb, respectively. (author)

  13. In-situ observation of domain wall motion in Pb(In{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dabin; Cai, Changlong [Laboratory of Thin Film Techniques and Optical Test, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Li, Zhenrong, E-mail: zhrli@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Li, Fei; Xu, Zhuo [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Education Ministry and International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Shujun, E-mail: soz1@psu.edu [Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Cheng, Yaojin [Science and Technology on Low-Light-Level Night Vision Laboratory, Xi' an 710065 (China)

    2014-07-21

    Various domain structures, including wave-like domains, mixed needle-like and laminar domains, typical embedded 90° and 180° domains, have been observed in unpoled rhombohedral, monoclinic, and tetragonal Pb(In{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} (PIN-PMN-PT) crystals by polarizing light microscope; while in poled tetragonal crystals, the parallel 180° domains were reversed and only vertical 90° domain walls were observed. For 0.24PIN-0.42PMN-0.34PT crystals with morphotropic phase boundary composition, the domain wall motion was in-situ observed as a function of applied electric field along crystallographic [100] direction. With increasing the electric field from 0 to 12 kV/cm, the rhombohedral (R) domains were found to change to monoclinic (M) domains and then to tetragonal (T) domains. The electric field-induced phase transition was also confirmed by X-ray diffraction and the temperature-dependent dielectric behavior.

  14. Bioaccumulation of 210Pb in the Kaveri River ecosystem, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, P.S.; Shaheed, K.; Somasundaram, S.S.N.; Iyengar, M.A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Data on the concentrations of 210 Pb in water, sediment and biota (plankton, weed, snail, bivalve, prawn and fish) of the Kaveri River ecosystem at Tiruchirappalli in South India are presented. The highest level of 210 Pb activity was observed in the sediment (15.5 Bq kg -1 dry) and the lowest activity in water (2.7 mBq l -1 ). The root of the aquatic weed, Eichhornia crassipes, showed a higher activity (1.17 Bq kg -1 wet) than its shoot (0.22 Bq kg -1 wet). Among the biotic components, the shells and bones of animals accumulated higher 210 Pb than their tissues and muscle. Among animals, the freshwater mussel, Lamellidens marginalis was identified to accumulate more 210 Pb in its soft tissues (0.79 Bq kg -1 wet) and shell (6.55 Bq kg -1 wet) than prawns (muscle 0.65 Bq kg -1 wet; exoskeleton: 1.06 Bq kg -1 ) wet and fish (muscle: 0.24 Bq kg -1 wet; bone: 1.37 Bq kg -1 wet). The concentration factors (CFs) of 210 Pb in biotic components ranged from ∼ 10 1 to ∼ 10 3 with higher CFs observed for shells and bones. It is shown that 210 Pb undergoes a seasonal variation in surface deposition with minimum values in summer and maximum values in winter. The significance of the results of 210 Pb in the abiotic and biotic environment of Kaveri River is discussed. (Author)

  15. Growth and characterization of Pb(Lu{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} ternary piezo-/ferroelectric crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ying [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); College of Physics and Energy, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350117 (China); He, Chao [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Yang, Xiaoming [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); College of Physics and Energy, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350117 (China); Li, Xiuzhi; Wang, Zujian [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Huang, Zhigao; Lai, Fachun [College of Physics and Energy, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350117 (China); Long, Xifa, E-mail: lxf@fjirsm.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2016-08-05

    Piezo-/ferroelectric crystals of Pb(Lu{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} ternary solid solution system with high Curie temperature, in the vicinity of morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) region, are grown by the top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) method for the first time. The compositions and structures of the crystals are analyzed, all the structures are found to have pure perovskite structure using X-ray diffraction analysis. Di-/piezo-/ferroelectric properties of the crystals are also characterized systematically. The Curie temperature T{sub c} and coercive field E{sub c}, increase gradually with increasing PbTiO{sub 3} content. In particular, the crystal with composition 0.34PLN-0.31PMN-0.35PT possesses excellent electric properties including the Curie temperature, the rhombohedral–tetragonal phase transition temperature, the piezoelectric coefficient, the remnant polarization and the coercive field, which are T{sub c} = 228 °C, T{sub RT} = 156 °C, d{sub 33} = 2092 pC N{sup −1}, Pr = 35.5 μC cm{sup −2} and E{sub c} = 8.1 kV cm{sup −1}, respectively, making it a promising material for transducers or detectors in a wide temperature range. - Highlights: • PLN-PMN-PT Piezo-/ferroelectric crystals are grown by TSSG method. • The Curie temperature and coercive field increase gradually with increasing PT. • The crystal of 0.34PLN-0.31PMN-0.35PT possesses excellent electric properties.

  16. Hyperaccumulator of Pb in native plants growing on Peruvian mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria; Boluda, Rafael; Tume, Pedro; Duran, Paola; Poma, Wilfredo; Sanchez, Isidoro

    2014-05-01

    samples were taken at four locations (CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4) with different levels of Pb. The Pb soil content (mean ± standard deviation) in mg•kg-1 is as follows: CA1 3992 ± 301; CA2 10128 ± 2247, CA3 14197 ± 895, CA4 16060 ± 810. The non-polluted value around the mine was Pb 124 mg•kg-1. Unusual elevated concentrations of Pb (over 1000 mg kg-1) and TF greater than one were detected in shoots of 6 different plants species (Ageratina sp., Achirodine alata, Cortaderia apalothica, Epilobium denticulatum, Taraxacum officinalis and Trifolium repens). The location CA4 has the maximum content of Pb in the shoots of Ageratina sp. (5045±77 mg•kg-1), C. apalothica (3367±188 mg•kg-1), E. denticulatum (13599±848 mg•kg-1), T. officinalis (2533±47 mg•kg-1) and T. repens (2839±231 mg•kg-1). However, the BF (Bioaccumulation Factor) was smaller than one. Despite the low BF index, the great TFs for Pb indicate that these plant species effectively translocate this metal (i.e., 2.4 for Ageratina sp., 2.3 for C. apalothica, 1.6 for T. repens, 1.5 for A. alata, 1.3 for T. officinalis and 1.2 for E. denticulatum). It seems that the BF is not a reliable index when the metal soil concentration is extremely large. Controlled-environment studies must be performed to definitively confirm the Pb hyperaccumulation character of cited plant species.

  17. Evaluation of Pb and Fe tenors present in the sediments nearby the activities of taking advantage of lead-acid batteries; Avaliacao dos teores de Pb e Fe presentes nos sedimentos proximos as atividades de reaproveitamento de baterias chumbo-acidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Fernanda; Andrade, Crescencio; Monteiro, Carlos; Oliveira, Daniela; Valentim, Eliane, E-mail: candrade@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: valentim@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/NE-CNEN/PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The region chosen for this study was the Municipality of Belo Jardim, Pernambuco State, Brazil, which is considered an important industrial complex of the production and repairing of lead-acid batteries. Sediment samples were collected near to the illegal smelting industries and analyzed by ionic exchange method using a alpha-beta proportional counter for determining the activity of Pb-210, radionuclide used as geochronological tool. The chemical elements Pb and Fe were determined by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The obtained results indicated an expressive increasing of lead and iron concentrations in the last 20 years. The concentrations in the sampled profile varied from 318 to 15487 mg.kg-1 and from 19 to 1524 mg.kg-1 for Fe and Pb, respectively. (author)

  18. Bio-remediation of Pb and Cd polluted soils by switchgrass: A case study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Kalpana; Sharma, Satyawati; Monti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In the present study bioremediation potential of a high biomass yielding grass, Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), along with plant associated microbes (AM fungi and Azospirillum), was tested against lead and cadmium in pot trials. A pot trial was set up in order to evaluate bioremediation efficiency of P. virgatum in association with PAMs (Plant Associated Microbes). Growth parameters and bioremediation potential of endomycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Azospirillum against different concentrations of Pb and Cd were compared. AM fungi and Azospirillum increased the root length, branches, surface area, and root and shoot biomass. The soil pH was found towards neutral with AMF and Azospirillum inoculations. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) for Pb (12 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (10 mg kg(-1)) were found to be 0.25 and 0.23 respectively and translocation index (Ti) was 17.8 and 16.7 respectively (approx 45% higher than control). The lower values of BCF and Ti, even at highest concentration of Pb and Cd, revealed the capability of switchgrass of accumulating high concentration of Pb and Cd in the roots, while preventing the translocation of Pb and Cd to aerial biomass.

  19. Salinomycin overcomes ABC transporter-mediated multidrug and apoptosis resistance in human leukemia stem cell-like KG-1a cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Dominik; Daniel, Volker; Sadeghi, Mahmoud; Opelz, Gerhard; Naujokat, Cord

    2010-01-01

    Leukemia stem cells are known to exhibit multidrug resistance by expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters which constitute transmembrane proteins capable of exporting a wide variety of chemotherapeutic drugs from the cytosol. We show here that human promyeloblastic leukemia KG-1a cells exposed to the histone deacetylase inhibitor phenylbutyrate resemble many characteristics of leukemia stem cells, including expression of functional ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein, BCRP and MRP8. Consequently, KG-1a cells display resistance to the induction of apoptosis by various chemotherapeutic drugs. Resistance to apoptosis induction by chemotherapeutic drugs can be reversed by cyclosporine A, which effectively inhibits the activity of P-glycoprotein and BCRP, thus demonstrating ABC transporter-mediated drug resistance in KG-1a cells. However, KG-1a are highly sensitive to apoptosis induction by salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic that has recently been shown to kill human breast cancer stem cell-like cells and to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells displaying multiple mechanisms of drug and apoptosis resistance. Whereas KG-1a cells can be adapted to proliferate in the presence of apoptosis-inducing concentrations of bortezomib and doxorubicin, salinomycin does not permit long-term adaptation of the cells to apoptosis-inducing concentrations. Thus, salinomycin should be regarded as a novel and effective agent for the elimination of leukemia stem cells and other tumor cells exhibiting ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance.

  20. Distribuição e assinatura isotópica de Pb em sedimentos de fundo da Foz do Rio Guamá e da Baía do Guajará (Belém - Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suziane Nascimento Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead analyses in bottom sediments from the hydrographic system of Belem (Para indicated low contents of this metal for the sediments from the Guama river, with no significant anthropogenic contribution. A concentration of 18.1 ± 1.5 mg kg-1 and 206Pb/207Pb isotopic signature of 1.196 ± 0.002 are assigned for Pb from natural sources. On the other hand, the significant increase of Pb contents in the sediments from the Guajará bay, together with the decrease of 206Pb/207Pb ratios (1.172 < 206Pb/207Pb < 1.188 point to an anthropogenic lead contribution, originated by the industrial and urban activities of the city of Belem.

  1. An inter-laboratory study to test the ability of amendments to reduce the availability of Cd, Pb, and Zn in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Sally; Christensen, Barbara; Lombi, Enzo; McLaughlin, Mike; McGrath, Steve; Colpaert, Jan; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2005-01-01

    An international inter-laboratory research program investigated the effectiveness of in situ remediation of soils contaminated by cadmium, lead and zinc, measuring changes in soil and soil solution chemistry, plants and soil microbiota. A common soil, from mine wastes in Jasper County MO, was used. The soil was pH 5.9, had low organic matter (1.2 g kg -1 C) and total Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations of 92, 5022, and 18 532 mg kg -1 , respectively. Amendments included lime, phosphorus (P), red mud (RM), cyclonic ashes (CA), biosolids (BIO), and water treatment residuals (WTR). Both soil solution and NH 4 NO 3 extractable metals were decreased by all treatments. Phytotoxicity of metals was reduced, with plants grown in P treatments having the highest yields and lowest metal concentration (0.5, 7.2 and 406 mg kg -1 Cd, Pb, and Zn). Response of soil micro-organisms was similar to plant responses. Phosphorus addition reduced the physiologically based extraction test Pb from 84% of total Pb extracted in the untreated soil to 34.1%. - Addition of phosphorus to Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated mine waste was able to reduce metal toxicity for a range of biological endpoints

  2. Thallium transformation and partitioning during Pb-Zn smelting and environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Jin; Chen, Yongheng; Xie, Xiaofan; Qi, Jianying; Lippold, Holger; Luo, Dinggui; Wang, Chunlin; Su, Longxiao; He, Lucheng; Wu, Qiwei

    2016-05-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a toxic and non-essential heavy metal. Raw Pb-Zn ores and solid smelting wastes from a large Pb-Zn smelting plant - a typical thallium (Tl) pollution source in South China, were investigated in terms of Tl distribution and fractionation. A modified IRMM (Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement, Europe) sequential extraction scheme was applied on the samples, in order to uncover the geochemical behavior and transformation of Tl during Pb-Zn smelting and to assess the potential environmental risk of Tl arising from this plant. Results showed that the Pb-Zn ore materials were relatively enriched with Tl (15.1-87.7 mg kg(-1)), while even higher accumulation existed in the electrostatic dust (3280-4050 mg kg(-1)) and acidic waste (13,300 mg kg(-1)). A comparison of Tl concentration and fraction distribution in different samples clearly demonstrated the significant role of the ore roasting in Tl transformation and mobilization, probably as a result of alteration/decomposition of related minerals followed by Tl release and subsequent deposition/co-precipitation on fine surface particles of the electrostatic dust and acidic waste. While only 10-30% of total Tl amounts was associated with the exchangeable/acid-extractable fraction of the Pb-Zn ore materials, up to 90% of total Tl was found in this fraction of the electrostatic dust and acidic waste. Taking into account the mobility and bioavailability of this fraction, these waste forms may pose significant environmental risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of natural radionuclides, U, Th-232, Ra-226, Ra-228, Pb-210 and K-40 in sediments from CananÉIa-Iguape System, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Gleyka J.D.; Chiozzini, Vitor G.; Saueia, Cátia H.R.; Nisti, Marcelo B.; Braga, Elisabete S.; Fávaro, Deborah I.T.; Universidade de São Paulo

    2017-01-01

    The Cananéia-Iguape estuarine-lagoon complex, located in the south of São Paulo State, Brazil, is a protected area recognized by UNESCO as part of the Biosphere Reserve, due to its importance as a natural ecosystem. However, along the years, the mining activities in the region affected the river basin, to such an extent that contamination was observed for As, Cu, Pb and Zn. Since the mining activities can also enhance the levels of natural radioactivity in the sediments, this study aimed to determine the activity concentration of the natural radionuclides (K-40, U, Ra-226, Pb-210, Th-232 and Ra-228) in 34 bottom sediments samples collected in the Cananéia-Iguape system. The samples were measured by gamma spectrometry, using a HPGe for the determination of K-40, Ra-226, Pb-210 and Ra-228. The concentration of U and Th-232 was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The activity concentration of K-40 varied from 119 ± 17 to 522 ± 74 Bq kg"-"1; U-238 varied from 0.31 ± 0.05 to 5.8 ± 0.3 mg kg"-"1; Ra-226 varied from 3.7 ± 0.3 to 43.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg"-"1; Pb-210 varied from 5.8 ± 2.6 to 118 ± 12 Bq kg"-"1; Th-232 varied from 0.67 ± 0.02 to 16.6 ± 0.4 mg kg"-"1 and Ra-228 varied from 3.5 ± 0.6 to 64.9 ± 2.4 Bq kg"-"1. These results were compared with literature values for the region, indicating that they are the background of the region and no contamination was observed from NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) industries. (author)

  4. Solubility of uranovanadates of the series A2+(VUO6)2 · nH2O (A2+ = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb) in water or aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernorukov, N.G.; Sulejmanov, E.V.; Nipruk, O.V.; Lizunova, G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Solubility of uranovanadates of the series A 2+ (VUO 6 ) 2 · nH 2 O (A 2+ - Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb) in water and aqueous solutions of inorganic acids at 25 deg C and different pH values was determined experimentally. The data obtained permitted calculation the Gibbs standard functions of formation and consideration of their state under conditions that were not studied experimentally, in the presence of carbon dioxide, in particular [ru

  5. Soil solution interactions may limit Pb remediation using P ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead (Pb) contaminated soils are a potential exposure hazard to the public. Amending soils with phosphorus (P) may reduce Pb soil hazards. Soil from Cleveland, OH containing 726 ± 14 mg Pb kg-1 was amended in a laboratory study with bone meal and triple super phosphate (TSP) at 5:1 P:Pb molar ratios. Soil was acidified, neturalized and re-acidified to encourage Pb phosphate formation. PRSTM-probes were used to evaluate changes in soil solution chemistry. Soil acidification did not decrease in vitro bioaccessible (IVBA) Pb using either a pH 1.5, 0.4 M glycine solution or a pH 2.5 solution with organic acids. PRSTM-probe data found soluble Pb increased 10-fold in acidic conditions compared to circumnetural pH conditions. In acidic conditions (p = 3-4), TSP treated soils increased detected P 10-fold over untreated soils. Bone meal application did not increase PRSTM-probe detected P, indicating there may have been insufficient P to react with Pb. X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggested a 10% increase in pyromorphite formation for the TSP treated soil only. Treatments increased soil electrical conductivity above 16 mS cm-1, potentially causing a new salinity hazard. This study used a novel approach by combining the human ingestion endpoint, PRSTM-probes, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy to evaluate treatment efficacy. PRSTM-probe data indicated potentially excess Ca relative to P across incubation steps that could have competed with Pb for soluble P. Mor

  6. Remediation of a historically Pb contaminated soil using a model natural Mn oxide waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Clare M; Gray, Neil D; Tourney, Janette; Davenport, Russell J; Wade, Matthew; Finlay, Nina; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A; Johnson, Karen L

    2015-11-01

    A natural Mn oxide (NMO) waste was assessed as an in situ remediation amendment for Pb contaminated sites. The viability of this was investigated using a 10 month lysimeter trial, wherein a historically Pb contaminated soil was amended with a 10% by weight model NMO. The model NMO was found to have a large Pb adsorption capacity (qmax 346±14 mg g(-1)). However, due to the heterogeneous nature of the Pb contamination in the soils (3650.54-9299.79 mg kg(-1)), no treatment related difference in Pb via geochemistry could be detected. To overcome difficulties in traditional geochemical techniques due to pollutant heterogeneity we present a new method for unequivocally proving metal sorption to in situ remediation amendments. The method combines two spectroscopic techniques; namely electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Using this we showed Pb immobilisation on NMO, which were Pb free prior to their addition to the soils. Amendment of the soil with exogenous Mn oxide had no effect on microbial functioning, nor did it perturb the composition of the dominant phyla. We conclude that NMOs show excellent potential as remediation amendments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Concentrations of 226Ra and 210Pb in agricultural products surrounding the first brazilian mine and mill in Pocos de Caldas, MG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, L.M.H.; Amaral, E.C.S.; Vianna, E.C.M.

    1989-01-01

    As a complement to the pre-operational environmental monitoring program of the Brazilian first uranium mine and mill, a survey of 226 Ra and 210 Pb in agriculture products, and in the corresponding soils, were carried out in the Pocos de Caldas Plateau. The survey intended to determine site specific transfer factors, in order to better estimate radiation doses on the population. Resulting from the plant operation. In local soils, 226 Ra and 210 Pb have similar concentrations. The average contents are comparable to the values found in areas of normal radioactivity, but the maximum values are higher by one order of magnitude. In the vegetables analyzed (beans, carrot, corn and potato), 226 Ra concentrations are slightly higher than those of 210 Pb, and the maximum values are also one order of magnitude greater than in normal regions. For both radionuclides, the average soil-to-plant transfer factors are of the order of 10 -3 and 10 -2 , when related to total and to exchangeable contents in soils, respectively. These results led to the conclusion that 226 Ra and 210 Pb have similar importance, concerning the population exposure via the foodstuff ingestion pathway. Therefore, it was recommended to carry on routine monitoring program for both radionuclides in the main agriculture crops. However, the naturally elevated radionuclide concentrations, in some local vegetables, will decrease the sensitivity for detecting small increments resulting from the plant operation. (author) [pt

  8. Evaluation of the sedimentation rate in a sediment profile of Bortolan Dam, MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Heleine C. de; Soares, Flávio V.T.S.; Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Mazzilli, Barbara P.

    2017-01-01

    Volcanic extrusion is one of the main causes for the high levels of environmental radioactivity in the region of Poços de Caldas (MG, Brazil). Uranium mining during the 80's further increased the background radiation in the region, especially in the Ribeirao das Antas watershed, where Bortolan Dam is located. Besides the uranium mining facility operating in the region, other activities, such as agriculture, were also responsible for the enhancement of the levels of radioactivity. The dam sediment profile provides an appropriate compartment for the study of the temporal variation of these radionuclides and for the evaluation of anthropogenic contamination. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the sedimentation rate and the dating of a profile collected in Bortolan Dam, by using the geochronology method. The activity concentration of "2"2"6Ra and "2"1"0Pb were measured in the sediment profile by gamma spectrometry. The concentration of "2"2"6Ra and "2"1"0Pb varied from (217 ± 9) Bq kg"-"1 to (286 ± 12) Bq kg"-"1 and from (262 ± 11) Bq kg"-"1 to (322 ± 34) Bq·kg"-"1 respectively; and the sedimentation rates varied from 0.021 to 0.144 g cm"-"2y"-"1. (author)

  9. Soil solution interactions may limit Pb remediation using P amendments in an urban soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrycki, John F; Scheckel, Kirk G; Basta, Nicholas T

    2017-01-01

    Lead (Pb) contaminated soils are a potential exposure hazard to the public. Amending soils with phosphorus (P) may reduce Pb soil hazards. Soil from Cleveland, OH containing 726 ± 14 mg Pb kg -1 was amended in a laboratory study with bone meal and triple super phosphate (TSP) at 5:1 P:Pb molar ratios. Soil was acidified, neturalized and re-acidified to encourage Pb phosphate formation. PRSTM-probes were used to evaluate changes in soil solution chemistry. Soil acidification did not decrease in vitro bioaccessible (IVBA) Pb using either a pH 1.5, 0.4 M glycine solution or a pH 2.5 solution with organic acids. PRSTM-probe data found soluble Pb increased 10-fold in acidic conditions compared to circumnetural pH conditions. In acidic conditions (p = 3-4), TSP treated soils increased detected P 10-fold over untreated soils. Bone meal application did not increase PRSTM-probe detected P, indicating there may have been insufficient P to react with Pb. X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggested a 10% increase in pyromorphite formation for the TSP treated soil only. Treatments increased soil electrical conductivity above 16 mS cm -1 , potentially causing a new salinity hazard. This study used a novel approach by combining the human ingestion endpoint, PRSTM-probes, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy to evaluate treatment efficacy. PRSTM-probe data indicated potentially excess Ca relative to P across incubation steps that could have competed with Pb for soluble P. More research is needed to characterize soil solutions in Pb contaminated urban soils to identify where P treatments might be effective and when competing cations, such as Ca, Fe, and Zn may limit low rate P applications for treating Pb soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Combined Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) and Lead (Pb) Stress on Pb Accumulation, Plant Growth Parameters, Photosynthesis, and Antioxidant Enzymes in Robinia pseudoacacia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Ghosh, Amit; Chen, Jie; Tang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are considered as a potential biotechnological tool for improving phytostabilization efficiency and plant tolerance to heavy metal-contaminated soils. However, the mechanisms through which AMF help to alleviate metal toxicity in plants are still poorly understood. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two AMF species (Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus intraradices) on the growth, Pb accumulation, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities of a leguminous tree (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) at Pb addition levels of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg-1 soil. AMF symbiosis decreased Pb concentrations in the leaves and promoted the accumulation of biomass as well as photosynthetic pigment contents. Mycorrhizal plants had higher gas exchange capacity, non-photochemistry efficiency, and photochemistry efficiency compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. The enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidases (APX) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were enhanced, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were reduced in mycorrhizal plants. These findings suggested that AMF symbiosis could protect plants by alleviating cellular oxidative damage in response to Pb stress. Furthermore, mycorrhizal dependency on plants increased with increasing Pb stress levels, indicating that AMF inoculation likely played a more important role in plant Pb tolerance in heavily contaminated soils. Overall, both F. mosseae and R. intraradices were able to maintain efficient symbiosis with R. pseudoacacia in Pb polluted soils. AMF symbiosis can improve photosynthesis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capabilities and decrease Pb concentrations in leaves to alleviate Pb toxicity in R. pseudoacacia. Our results suggest that the application of the two AMF species associated with R. pseudoacacia could be a promising strategy for enhancing the phytostabilization efficiency of Pb contaminated

  11. Effective atomic number, energy loss and radiation damage studies in some materials commonly used in nuclear applications for heavy charged particles such as H, C, Mg, Fe, Te, Pb and U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurudirek, Murat

    2016-05-01

    Commonly used nuclear physics materials such as water, concrete, Pb-glass, paraffin, freon and P 10 gases, some alloys such as brass, bronze, stainless-steel and some scintillators such as anthracene, stilbene and toluene have been investigated with respect to the heavy charged particle interaction as means of projected range and effective atomic number (Zeff) in the energy region 10 keV to 10 MeV. Calculations were performed for heavy ions such as H, C, Mg, Fe, Te, Pb and U. Also, the energy loss and radiation damage were studied using SRIM Monte Carlo code for anthracene for different heavy ions of 100 keV kinetic energy. It has been observed that the variation in Zeff becomes less when the atomic number of the ions increase. Glass-Pb, bronze, brass, stainless-steel and Freon gas were found to vary less than 10% in the energy region 10 keV to 10 MeV. For total proton interaction, discrepancies up to 10% and 18% between two databases namely PSTAR and SRIM were noted in mass stopping power and Zeff of water, respectively. The range calculations resulted with a conclusion that the metal alloys and glass-Pb have lowest values of ranges confirming best shielding against energetic heavy ions whereas freon and P 10 gases have the highest values of ranges in the entire energy region. The simulation results showed that the energy loss (%) to target electrons decreases as the Z of the incident ion increases. Also, it was observed that the radiation damage first increases with Z of the ion and then keeps almost constant for ions with Z≥52.

  12. The electric field manipulation of magnetization in La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3}/Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q. M.; Li, Q.; Zhou, W. P.; Wang, L. Y.; Yang, Y. T.; Wang, D. H., E-mail: wangdh@nju.edu.cn; Lv, L. Y.; Du, Y. W. [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Nano Technology and National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Gao, R. L. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401331 (China)

    2014-04-07

    La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3} (x = 0.18, 0.33, and 0.5) films were grown epitaxially on piezoelectric Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The magnetization of these films varies with the external electric field, showing the magnetoelectric effect. With different doping content of Sr{sup 2+} ions, the change of magnetization for these films show different behaviors with increasing temperature, which can be attributed to the competition between electric-field-induced changes of spin state and double exchange interaction. This work presents an alternative mechanism to investigate the electric field control of magnetism in magnetoelectric heterostructure by tuning the spin state.

  13. Adverse effects of automobiles related PB/sup 2+/ pollution on photosynthetic attributes and water relations of roadside vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Hussain, M.; Hameed, M.; Ahmad, R.

    2018-01-01

    This research was designed for the phyto-monitoring of Pb2+ pollution emitted from automobiles running along Motorway (M-2) and G.T. road and its effects on photosynthetic attributes and water relations of selected plant species growing along these roads. The data were collected from specified sites at different time intervals during all four seasons of the year. The results revealed significantly (p<0.05) higher Pb2+ content plant leaves growing in the vicinity of roadside (0 m distance) as compared to plant leaves collected from 50 m distance (Control) along both roads (M-2 and G.T. road). The leaves of Nerium oleander (2.45 mg kg-1 dry wt.) collected from M-2 trapped the higher amount of Pb2+ (p<0.001) at Kalar Kahar in Summer and Calotropis procera (2.78 mg kg-1 dry wt.) had the highest (p<0.05) Pb2+ deposition at Bahyria Town during summer. Photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance decreased significantly (p<0.01) in plants along roadsides; whereas, inconsistent results in water use efficiency were perceived in plants at 0 m distance as compared to those collected from 50 m distance. These outcomes are important to identify the existence of roadside vehicular pollutants on plants and to its ecological hazards. (author)

  14. Studies on distribution of 210Pb in the illuviated soil of Virajpet taluk, Coorg district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, M.M.; Kaliprasad, C.S.; Narayana, Y.

    2018-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the distribution of 210 Pb radionuclides and their dependence on various physico-chemical parameters of soil, in Virajpet taluk, Coorg District. The samples were analyzed using standard radioanalytical methods for the determination of 210 Pb activity. The 210 Pb activity varies from 3.59 Bq kg -1 to 44.63 Bq kg -1 in the first layer, 0.79 Bq kg -1 to 22.86 Bq kg -1 in the second layer and 0.88 Bq kg -1 to 16.34 Bq kg -1 in the third layer. A negative correlation was found between 210 Pb activity and clay% and also with organic matter%, in all three layers. (author)

  15. Biological diversity of Salix taxa in Cu, Pb and Zn phytoextraction from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Rutkowski, Paweł; Goliński, Piotr; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Szentner, Kinga; Waliszewska, Bogusława; Stolarski, Mariusz; Szczukowski, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the efficiency of copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) phytoextraction by 145 Salix taxa cultivated in an area affected by industrial activity. Survivability and biomass of plants were also analyzed. The highest Cu, Pb and Zn content in shoots was 33.38 ± 2.91 (S. purpurea × viminalis 8), 24.64 ± 1.97 (S. fragilis 1) and 58.99 ± 4.30 (S. eriocephala 7) mg kg -1 dry weight, respectively. In the case of unwashed leaves, the highest content of these metals was 135.06 ± 8.14 (S. purpurea 26), 67.98 ± 5.27 (S. purpurea 45) and 142.56 ± 12.69 (S. alba × triandra 2) mg kg -1 dw, while in washed leaves it was 106.02 ± 11.12 (S. purpurea 45), 55.06 ± 5.75 (S. purpurea 45) and 122.87 ± 12.33 (S. alba × triandra 2) mg kg -1 dw, respectively. The differences between the highest and lowest values for Cu, Pb and Zn were 545%, 20500% and 535% in shoots; 2692%, 2560% and 7500% in unwashed leaves; and 3286%, 2221% and 6950% in washed leaves, respectively. S. acutifolia was able to effectively accumulate all three metals jointly, producing shoots that were well developed in both length and diameter when compared with the other tested willows-an ability that would suggest its high suitability for practical application.

  16. Roymillerite, Pb24Mg9(Si9AlO28)(SiO4)(BO3)(CO3)10(OH)14O4, a new mineral: mineralogical characterization and crystal chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukanov, Nikita V.; Jonsson, Erik; Aksenov, Sergey M.; Britvin, Sergey N.; Rastsvetaeva, Ramiza K.; Belakovskiy, Dmitriy I.; Van, Konstantin V.

    2017-11-01

    The new mineral roymillerite Pb24Mg9(Si9AlO28)(SiO4)(BO3)(CO3)10(OH)14O4, related to britvinite and molybdophyllite, was discovered in a Pb-rich assemblage from the Kombat Mine, Grootfontein district, Otjozondjupa region, Namibia, which includes also jacobsite, cerussite, hausmannite, sahlinite, rhodochrosite, barite, grootfonteinite, Mn-Fe oxides, and melanotekite. Roymillerite forms platy single-crystal grains up to 1.5 mm across and up to 0.3 mm thick. The new mineral is transparent, colorless to light pink, with a strong vitreous lustre. Cleavage is perfect on (001). Density calculated using the empirical formula is equal to 5.973 g/cm3. Roymillerite is optically biaxial, negative, α = 1.86(1), β ≈ γ = 1.94(1), 2 V (meas.) = 5(5)°. The IR spectrum shows the presence of britvinite-type tetrahedral sheets, {CO}3^{2 - }, {BO}3^{3 - }, and OH- groups. The chemical composition is (wt%; electron microprobe, H2O and CO2 determined by gas chromatography, the content of B2O3 derived from structural data): MgO 4.93, MnO 1.24, FeO 0.95, PbO 75.38, B2O3 0.50, Al2O3 0.74, CO2 5.83, SiO2 7.90, H2O 1.8, total 99.27. The empirical formula based on 83 O atoms pfu (i.e. Z = 1) is Pb24.12Mg8.74Mn1.25Fe0.94B1.03Al1.04C9.46Si9.39H14.27O83. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The new mineral is triclinic, space group P \\bar{1}, with a = 9.315(1), b = 9.316(1), c = 26.463(4) Å, α = 83.295(3)°, β = 83.308(3)°, γ = 60.023(2)°, V = 1971.2(6) Å3. The crystal structure of roymillerite is based built by alternating pyrophyllite-type TOT-modules Mg9(OH)8[(Si,Al)10O28] and I-blocks Pb24(OH)6O4(CO3)10(BO3,SiO4). The strongest lines of the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [ d, Å (I, %) ( hkl)] are: 25.9 (100) (001), 13.1 (11) (002), 3.480 (12) (017, 107, -115, 1-15), 3.378 (14) (126, 216), 3.282 (16) (-2-15, -1-25), 3.185 (12) (-116, 1-16), 2.684 (16) (031, 301, 030, 300, 332, -109, 0-19, 1-18), 2.382 (11) (0.0.-11). Roymillerite is

  17. Inventory of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb in marine sediments cores of Southwest Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Alice M.R.; Oliveira, Joselene de; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Sousa, Silvia H.M.

    2015-01-01

    210 Pb (22.3 y) is a radioactive isotope successfully applied as tracer of sediment dating of the last 100-150 years. The application of 226 Ra and 228 Ra as paleoceanographic tracers (half-lives of 1,600 y and 5.7 y, respectively) also gives some information of ocean's role in past climate change. In this work, it was analyzed 2 sediment cores collect at Southwest Atlantic Ocean. The sediments samples were freeze-dried and acid digested in microwave. It was carried out a radiochemical separation of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb and performed a gross alpha and gross beta measurement of both precipitates Ba(Ra)SO 4 and PbCrO 4 in a low background gas-flow proportional counter. Activity concentrations of 226 Ra ranged from 45 Bq kg -1 to 70 Bq kg -1 in NAP-62 and from 57 Bq kg -1 to 82 Bq kg -1 in NAP-63 samples. The concentration of 228 Ra varied between 37 Bq kg -1 and 150 Bq kg -1 in NAP-62 and between 23 Bq kg -1 and 111 Bq kg -1 in NAP-63 samples. The concentration of total 210 Pb ranged from 126 Bq kg -1 to 256 Bq kg -1 in NAP-62 and from 63 Bq kg -1 to 945 Bq kg -1 in NAP-63 samples. Results of 210 Pb uns varied from 68 Bq kg -1 to 192 Bq kg -1 for NAP-62, while varied from <4.9 Bq kg -1 to 870 Bq kg -1 in NAP-63 profile. Increased values of 210 Pb uns were found on the top of both NAP-62 and NAP- 63 sediment profile. (author)

  18. Protonation thermodynamics of some aminophenol derivatives in NaCl(aq) (0 ≤ I ≤3 mol . kg-1) at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretti, Clemente; De Stefano, Concetta; Foti, Claudia; Sammartano, Silvio; Vianelli, Giuseppina

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Protonation thermodynamics of four aminophenol derivatives were determined. → Dependence on ionic strength was analysed by using different models. → Neutral species activity coefficient was determined by distribution measurements. → Acid-base behaviour of this ligand class was modelled. - Abstract: The acid-base properties of four aminophenol derivatives, namely m-aminophenol (L1), 4-amino-2-hydroxytoluene (L2), 2-amino-5-ethylphenol (L3) and 5-amino-4-chloro-o-cresol (L4), are studied by potentiometric and titration calorimetric measurements in NaCl (aq) (0 ≤ I ≤ 3 mol . kg -1 ) at T = 298.15 K. The dependence of the protonation constants on ionic strength is modelled by the Debye-Hueckel, SIT (Specific ion Interaction Theory) and Pitzer equations. Therefore, the values of protonation constants at infinite dilution and the relative interaction coefficients are calculated. The dependence of protonation enthalpies on ionic strength is also determined. Distribution (2-methyl-1-propanol/aqueous solution) measurements allowed us to determine the Setschenow coefficients and the activity coefficients of neutral species. Experimental results show that these compounds behave in a very similar way, and common class parameters are reported, in particular for the dependence on ionic strength of both protonation constants and protonation enthalpies.

  19. Specific heat and thermodynamic functions of uranovanadates of the M2+(VUO6)2 · nH2O series (M2+ = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karyakin, N.V.; Chernorukov, N.G.; Sulejmanov, E.V.; Trostin, V.L.; Alimzhanov, M.I.; Razuvaeva, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    Isobaric specific heat of crystal uranovanadates Ca(VUO 6 ) 2 · 8H 2 O, Ba(VUO 6 ) 2 · 4H 2 O in the temperature range of 10 - 300 K and of M 1 (VUO 6 ) 2 · 5H 2 O, (M 1 = Mg, Ca, Sr, Pb) at 80 -300 K are measured by the method of adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. The functions H 0 (T) - H 0 (0), S 0 (T), G 0 (T) - H 0 (T) for all the above-mentioned compounds in the range of 0 - 300 K have been calculated, the standard entropies and Gibbs functions of uranovanadates formation at 298.15 K being calculated as well [ru

  20. Investigation of structural and electrical properties of (1 - x) Bi0.5Mg0.5TiO3-(x) PbTiO3 ceramic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Radheshyam; Sinha, Abinhav; Sharmac, Seema; Sinha, N.K.P.

    2009-01-01

    [(BiMg 0.5 Ti 0.5 O 3 ) 1-x ][PbTiO 3 ] x (BMT-PT) ceramic powders of different compositions were prepared by solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction analysis of the compounds suggest the structural change (rhombohedral to tetragonal) in these ceramics. SEM photographs exhibit the uniform distribution of grains with less porosity. Polarization vs. electric field (P-E) studies show maximum remanent polarization (P r ∼ 7.9 μC/cm 2 ) for composition x = 0.34. The dielectric peaks were found to be broadened that indicates the existence of diffuse phase transition. Diffusivity (γ) study of phase transition in these compounds provided values between 1 and 2 indicating the variation of degree of disorderness in the system.

  1. Evidence for anisotropic polar nanoregions in relaxor Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3: A neutron study of the elastic constants and anomalous TA phonon damping in PMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, C.; Gehring, P. M.; Hiraka, H.; Swainson, I.; Xu, Guangyong; Ye, Z.-G.; Luo, H.; Li, J.-F.; Viehland, D.

    2012-09-01

    We use neutron inelastic scattering to characterize the acoustic phonons in the relaxor Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN) and demonstrate the presence of a highly anisotropic damping mechanism that is directly related to short-range polar correlations. For a large range of temperatures above Tc˜210 K, where dynamic, short-range polar correlations are present, acoustic phonons propagating along [11¯0] and polarized along [110] (TA2 phonons) are overdamped and softened across most of the Brillouin zone. By contrast, acoustic phonons propagating along [100] and polarized along [001] (TA1 phonons) are overdamped and softened for a more limited range of wave vectors q. The anisotropy and temperature dependence of the acoustic phonon energy linewidth Γ are directly correlated with neutron diffuse scattering cross section, indicating that polar nanoregions are the cause of the anomalous behavior. The damping and softening vanish for q→0, i.e., for long-wavelength acoustic phonons near the zone center, which supports the notion that the anomalous damping is a result of the coupling between the relaxational component of the diffuse scattering and the harmonic TA phonons. Therefore, these effects are not due to large changes in the elastic constants with temperature because the elastic constants correspond to the long-wavelength limit. We compare the elastic constants we measure to those from Brillouin scattering experiments and to values reported for pure PbTiO3. We show that while the values of C44 are quite similar, those for C11 and C12 are significantly less in PMN and result in a softening of (C11-C12) over PbTiO3. The elastic constants also show an increased elastic anisotropy [2C44/(C11-C12)] in PMN versus that in PbTiO3. These results are suggestive of an instability to TA2 acoustic fluctuations in PMN and other relaxor ferroelectrics. We discuss our results in the context of the current debate over the “waterfall” effect and show that they are inconsistent with

  2. The hydrolysis and precipitation of Pd(II) in 0.6 mol kg-1 NaCl: A potentiometric, spectrophotometric, and EXAFS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boily, Jean-Francois F.; Seward, Terry M.; Charnock, John M.

    2007-01-01

    The hydrolysis of palladium was investigated in 0.6 mol kg -1 NaCl at 298.2 K. Potentiometric titrations of solutions at various total concentrations of palladium(II) revealed that dilute (millimolar) conditions can be used to monitor the proton release due to hydrolysis reactions up to 2 protons per palladium(II) as long as the equilibration time is kept small. Spectrophotometric titrations were used to corroborate the homogeneous changes in speciation for the PdCl 3 OH 2- species and to extract its correlative molar absorption coefficients in the 210-320 nm range. The molar absorption coefficients are similar to those of PdCl42- but exhibit a broader distribution of excitation energies resulting from the blue shift of the dominant charge transfer bands due to the presence of OH-. The longer-term potentiometric titrations systematically yielded, on the other hand, precipitates which matured over a period of 6 weeks and resulted in a more extensive release of protons to the solution. Precipitation experiments at six different total palladium(II) concentrations in the 3-11 pH range showed the dominant precipitating phase as Pd(OH)1.72Cl0.28. The coordination environment of Pd in this solid was investigated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and yielded an average 1.75 O and 0.25 Cl per Pd atoms with a Pd-O distance of 2.0 (angstrom) and Pd-Cl of 2.1 (angstrom). Finally, the precipitation experiments showed the final products to be of larger solubility than a literature Pd(OH)2 solubility study in which the KCl media induced a solid phase transformation to Pd(OH)1.72Cl0.28. Polynuclear complexes Pdq(OH)r2q-r with q=r=[3,9] explain the combined precipitation and hydrolysis data and may represent subsets of [Pd(OH)2]n and/or [Pd(OH)1.72Cl0.28]n chains coiled into nanometer-sized spheroids previously described in the literature

  3. Effect of fabrication conditions on phase formation and properties of epitaxial (PbMg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}O{sub 3}){sub 0.67}-(PbTiO{sub 3}){sub 0.33} thin films on (001) SrTiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boota, Muhammad [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Engineering Department, University of Rome “ROMA TRE”, Via della Vasca Navale 79, 00146 Rome (Italy); Houwman, Evert P., E-mail: e.p.houwman@utwente.nl; Nguyen, Minh D.; Rijnders, Guus [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Lanzara, Giulia [Engineering Department, University of Rome “ROMA TRE”, Via della Vasca Navale 79, 00146 Rome (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    The pulsed laser deposition process of 300 nm thick films of Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}){sub 0.67}-(PbTiO{sub 3}){sub 0.33} on (001)-oriented SrTiO{sub 3} was studied by varying deposition pressure, substrate deposition temperature, laser fluence on the target and target-substrate distance. Perovskite phase pure, (001)-oriented, epitaxial smooth films were obtained in a narrow range of deposition parameters. The ferroelectric and dielectric properties of films fabricated within this parameter range still vary significantly. This shows the sensitivity of the system for growth conditions. The best film has a polarization value close to that expected for a (001) poled, stress free single crystal film. All films show deposition conditions dependent variations in the self-bias field. The self-bias is very stable during long cycling for films made at optimum deposition conditions. The piezoelectric coefficients of the films are strongly reduced with respect to bulk single crystal values due to the film clamping. The properties variations are ascribed to changes in the grain boundary properties in which film defects are expected to accumulate. Notably slight off-stoichiometry may cause localized screening charges, affecting specifically the polarization and dielectric constant.

  4. Electric-Field-Tunable Ferroelastic Control of Nonvolatile Resistivity and Ferromagnetic Switching in Multiferroic La0.67Ca0.33MnO3/[PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3] 0.7[PbTiO3]0.3 Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming; Zheng, Ren-Kui

    2016-04-01

    The electric-field-modulated nonvolatile resistivity and magnetization switching in elastically coupled La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 films grown on (111)-oriented 0.7 Pb (Mg1 /3Nb2 /3)O3-0.3 PbTiO3 substrates is achieved through the ferroelastic effect. By taking advantage of the 180° ferroelectric and non-180° ferroelastic domain switching, we identify that such changes in order parameters stem from domain-switching-induced strain rather than accumulation or depletion of charge carriers at the interface. Specifically, the strong correlation between the ferroelastic strain and the magnetic field is manifested not only by the strain-tunable magnetoresistance effect but also by the magnetically manipulated strain effect, which is essentially driven by the electronic phase separation. These findings present a potential strategy for elucidating the essential physics of the ferroelastic-strain effect and delivering prototype devices for energy-efficient and nonvolatile information storage.

  5. Multilevel Resistance Switching Memory in La2/3Ba1/3MnO3/0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (011) Heterostructure by Combined Straintronics-Spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiping; Xiong, Yuanqiang; Zhang, Zhengming; Wang, Dunhui; Tan, Weishi; Cao, Qingqi; Qian, Zhenghong; Du, Youwei

    2016-03-02

    We demonstrate a memory device with multifield switchable multilevel states at room temperature based on the integration of straintronics and spintronics in a La2/3Ba1/3MnO3/0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) (011) heterostructure. By precisely controlling the electric field applied on the PMN-PT substrate, multiple nonvolatile resistance states can be generated in La2/3Ba1/3MnO3 films, which can be ascribed to the strain-modulated metal-insulator transition and phase separation of Manganite. Furthermore, because of the strong coupling between spin and charge degrees of freedom, the resistance of the La2/3Ba1/3MnO3 film can be readily modulated by magnetic field over a broad temperature range. Therefore, by combining electroresistance and magnetoresistance effects, multilevel resistance states with excellent retention and endurance properties can be achieved at room temperature with the coactions of electric and magnetic fields. The incorporation of ferroelastic strain and magnetic and resistive properties in memory cells suggests a promising approach for multistate, high-density, and low-power consumption electronic memory devices.

  6. Effects of thermal treatment conditions on the phase formation and the morphological changes of sol-gel derived 0.67Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sun A; Han, Jin Kyu; Choi, Yong Chan; Bu, Sang Don

    2011-01-01

    We report the synthesis of Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -PbTiO 3 (PMN-PT) thin films and the effects of thermal conditions on their surface morphologies and phase formation behaviors. The PMN-PT thin films were prepared by spin-coating PMN-PT sol-gel solutions on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates and subsequent thermal treatments including pyrolysis, annealing, and additional pre-annealing. We found that the surface morphologies and the formation of the perovskite phase were strongly affected by the final annealing temperature. The grain size of perovskite phase and the amount of the perovskite phase increased as the annealing temperature was increased from 550 to 800 .deg. C. We also found that the voids started to form on the surface of the film at an annealing temperature of 650 .deg. C and that their areas increased with increasing in annealing temperature. The void formation was found to depend on the time period of pyrolysis and on the pre-annealing process between pyrolysis and final annealing. Dense PMN-PT films with relatively high amounts of the perovskite phase were obtained when additional pre-annealing at 750 .deg. C for 5 min was performed.

  7. Pb and Cd on growth, leaf ultrastructure and essential oil yield mint (Mentha arvensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Nery Jezler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of medicinal plants with heavy metals as Pb and Cd can affect the growth and the essential oil production of the plants and represent a risk to those who consume as medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of absorption and localization of Pb and Cd on growth, ultrastructural aspects of leaves and essential oil yield and composition of Mentha arvensis, applied on the soil with increasing concentrations (8, 16, 32, 64 and 128mg kg-1. There was a differential absorption of Pb and Cd by M. arvensis mainly concentrated in the roots. Pb was found in small amounts in the leaves while Cd largely exceeded the safety limit without symptoms of toxicity. The ultrastructural analysis revealed the metal accumulation on vesicles surrounding the mitochondria and the presence of electron dense deposits surrounding the mitochondria, nucleus and chloroplasts. Little changes caused by Pb and Cd application were not enough to affect the growth and essential oil yield and composition of M. arvensis

  8. Spatial and depth variation of 210Po and 210Pb in monazite sand along HBRA of coastal Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cunha, Primal; Narayana, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The samples collected from high background radiation area were analyzed for 210 Po and 210 Pb activities in order to understand their distribution, enrichment and depth profile in the beach sand. The 210 Po and 210 Pb activities vary from 1.85 to 31.27 Bq kg -1 and 9.77 to 132.30 Bq kg -1 respectively. The 210 Po/ 210 Pb indicate that the radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb are not in equilibrium and the accumulation of 210 Pb in sand is greater than for 210 Po. The spatial variations of 210 Po and 210 Pb activities were studied in detail. (author)

  9. Effects of Exposion to Fine Particles of Pb and Cd on Early Growth of Rice and Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Fan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal-containing particles in the atmosphere have negative impacts on the seedling growth and early stage growth of terrestrial plants. Exposure scenarios were established to simulate the ambient conditions with different pollution levels of airborne heavy metals. Under these scenarios, hazardous impacts of fine particles containing lead(Pb and cadmium(Cd on the emergence, seedling growth, and fresh weight(including both above ground stem leaf of rice and underground stem tuber of potato were evaluated. The results showed that, for exposure treatment groups, the concentrations of Pb and Cd in the artificial soil increased at the end of the test. Compared with the background value in soil, the Cd level elevated about 8.8 times while no significant increase was observed for Pb concentration. The accumulation values of Pb and Cd were 0.002 0, 0.054 mg·kg-1 in the stem leaf of rice and 0.185 0, 0.074 mg·kg-1 in the stem tuber of potato. The exposure had no significant inhibition effect on all the biomass endpoints of rice, but had an inhibition rate of 27% on the fresh weight of potato underground stem tuber. Thus, under the simulation exposure, larger impact was projected to the Cd concentration in the artificial soil, and the Cd accumulative effect was more obvious in the underground stem tuber of potatoes. Compared with the control groups, the combined pollution of Pb and Cd in the exposure treatment groups indicated remarkable inhibition and stress effects. Moreover, aboveground stem leaf of rice showed better adaption and low sensitivity when exposed to pollutants at certain concentrations.

  10. Strain and Ferroelectric-Field Effects Co-mediated Magnetism in (011)-CoFe2O4/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3Multiferroic Heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Ping

    2016-08-19

    Electric-field mediated magnetism was investigated in CoFe2O4 (CFO, deposited by reactive cosputtering under different Oxygen flow rates) films fabricated on (011)-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)(0.7)Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) substrates. Ascribed to the volatile strain effect of PMN-PT, the magnetization of the CFO films decreases along the [01-1] direction whereas it increases along the [100] direction under the electric field, which is attributed to the octahedron distortion in the spinel ferrite. Moreover, a nonvolatile mediation was obtained in the CFO film with low oxygen flow rate (4 sccm), deriving from the ferroelectric-field effect, in which the magnetization is different after removing the positive and negative fields. The cooperation of the two effects produces four different magnetization states in the CFO film with low oxygen flow rate (4 sccm), compared to the only two different states in the CFO film with high oxygen flow rate (10 sccm). It is suggested that the ferroelectric-field effect is related to the oxygen vacancies in CFO films.

  11. Domain wall and interphase boundary motion in (1−x)Bi(Mg{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}–xPbTiO{sub 3} near the morphotropic phase boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutuncu, Goknur [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Chen, Jun; Fan, Longlong [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Fancher, Chris M.; Zhao, Jianwei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Forrester, Jennifer S.; Jones, Jacob L., E-mail: JacobJones@ncsu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2016-07-28

    Electric field-induced changes in the domain wall motion of (1−x)Bi(Mg{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}–xPbTiO{sub 3} (BMT-xPT) near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) where x = 0.37 (BMT-37PT) and x = 0.38 (BMT-38PT), are studied by means of synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Through Rietveld analysis and profile fitting, a mixture of coexisting monoclinic (Cm) and tetragonal (P4mm) phases is identified at room temperature. Extrinsic contributions to the property coefficients are evident from electric-field-induced domain wall motion in both the tetragonal and monoclinic phases, as well as through the interphase boundary motion between the two phases. Domain wall motion in the tetragonal and monoclinic phases for BMT-37PT is larger than that of BMT-38PT, possibly due to this composition's closer proximity to the MPB. Increased interphase boundary motion was also observed in BMT-37PT. Lattice strain, which is a function of both intrinsic piezoelectric strain and elastic interactions of the grains (the latter originating from domain wall and interphase boundary motion), is similar for the respective tetragonal and monoclinic phases.

  12. Structural and electrical properties of (1-x)(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-xPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 solid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.-K.; Yi, J.Y.; Hong, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    Structural, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of (1-x)(Na 1/2 Bi 1/2 )TiO 3 -xPb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 (NBT-xPMN) solid solution have been investigated. An addition of PMN into NBT transformed the structure of sintered samples from rhombohedral to pseudocubic phase where x is larger than 0.1. In calcined powders, however, the intermediate structure were observed between rhombohedral and cubic phases near x=0.1. The formation of solid solution between NBT and PMN modified the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of NBT to be suitable for high temperature dielectric and piezoelectric material. With increasing the content of PMN, the temperature-stability of ε r (T) increased and the high temperature dielectric loss decreased. In addition, the piezoelectric property of NBT-xPMN was enhanced, for the decrease of coercive field and conductivity promoted the domain reversal under the high electric field of the poling process

  13. Grain size dependent phase stabilities and presence of a monoclinic (Pm) phase in the MPB region of (1-x)Bi(Mg_1_/_2Ti_1_/_2)O_3_-_xPbTiO_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, A.; Singh, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    The results of the room temperature structural studies on (1-x)Bi(Mg_1_/_2Ti_1_/_2)O_3_-_xPbTiO_3 ceramics using Rietveld analysis of the powder X-ray diffraction data in the composition range 0.28≤x≤0.45 are presented. The morphotropic phase boundary region exhibits coexistence of monoclinic (space group Pm) and tetragonal (space group P4mm) phases in the composition range 0.33≤x≤0.40. The structure is nearly single phase monoclinic (space group Pm) in the composition range 0.28≤x≤0.32. The structure for the compositions with x≥0.45 is found to be predominantly tetragonal with space group P4mm. Rietveld refinement of the structure rules out the coexistence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases in the morphotropic phase boundary region reported by earlier authors. The Rietveld structure analysis for the sample x=0.35 calcined at various temperatures reveals that phase fraction of the coexisting phases in the morphotropic phase boundary region varies with grain size. The structural parameters of the two coexisting phases also change slightly with changing grain size. (author)

  14. Elastic and inelastic {alpha}-scattering cross-sections obtained with the 44 MeV fixed energy Saclay cyclotron on separated targets of {sup 24}Mg, {sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 46}Ti, {sup 48}Ti, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 62}Ni, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 114}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, {sup 120}Sn, {sup 122}Sn, {sup 124}Sn and {sup 208}Pb using the Saclay fixed-energy cyclotron; Sections efficaces differentielles elastiques et inelastiques obtenues par diffusion de particules {alpha} de 44 MeV sur des cibles de {sup 24}Mg, {sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 46}Ti, {sup 48}Ti, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 62}Ni, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 114}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, {sup 120}Sn, {sup 122}Sn, {sup 124}Sn et {sup 208}Pb au cyclotron a energie fixe de saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruge, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Departement de physique nucleaire, service de physique nucleaire a moyenne energie

    1967-01-01

    This report contains elastic and inelastic {alpha}-scattering cross-sections obtained with the 44 MeV fixed energy Saclay cyclotron on Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, Sn and Pb enriched targets. (author) [French] Ce rapport contient les tableaux des sections efficaces differentielles obtenues par diffusion elastique et inelastique des particules {alpha} de 44 MeV, fournies par le cyclotron a energie fixe de Saclay, sur des cibles d'isotopes separes de Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, Sn et Pb. (auteur)

  15. Investigating the Role of Wind in the Dispersion of Heavy Metals Around Mines in Arid Regions (a Case Study from Kushk Pb-Zn Mine, Bafgh, Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Ahmad Reza; Feiznia, Sadat; Jafari, Mohammad; Tavili, Ali; Ghaneei-Bafghi, Mohammad-Javad; Rahmany, Farah; Kerry, Ruth

    2018-03-16

    The Kushk Pb-Zn mine is located in Central Iran and it has been in operation for the last 75 years. To investigate the role of wind dispersion of heavy metal pollutants from the mine area, dust samples were collected during 1 year and topsoil samples were collected around the mine. Results showed that the topsoil is polluted with Pb and Zn to about 1500 m away from the mine. It was also found that there was not a significant difference between the metal concentrations in topsoil and dust samples. The Pb and Zn concentrations in the dust samples exceeded 200 mg kg -1 and their lateral dispersion via wind was estimated to be about 4 km away from the mine. It has been shown that a combination of mining activities and mechanical dispersion via water and wind have caused lateral movement of heavy metals in this area.

  16. Equivalent magnetic noise reduction at high frequency range due to polarized direction optimization in Terfenol-D/Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} magnetoelectric laminate sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Cong, E-mail: fangcong86@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Material and Device, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Ma, Jiashuai; Yao, Meng [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Material and Device, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Di, Wenning; Lin, Di; Xu, Haiqing; Wang, Wei [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Material and Device, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Luo, Haosu, E-mail: hsluo@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Material and Device, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the responsivities and output voltage noise power spectral densities of magnetoelectric (ME) laminate sensors, consisting of length magnetized Terfenol-D alloys and transverse/width poled Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} (PMNT) crystals (i.e. L-T mode and L-W mode respectively), which are directly integrated with custom-build low noise charge amplifier circuits. Both the theoretical analyses and experimental results prove that the L-W mode sensor with the optimized polarized direction of the PMNT plate possesses lower magnetic detection limit at the interested high frequency range of 10 kHz≤f≤50 kHz. The equivalent magnetic noise (EMN) of the L-W mode sensor is 0.78 pT/Hz{sup 1/2} at 30 kHz, which is about 1.7 times lower than the 1.35 pT/Hz{sup 1/2} for conventional L-T mode sensor. Furthermore, an effective method of using operational amplifiers with low equivalent input noise voltage and employing ME laminate composites with high voltage coefficient to reduce the EMNs of the ME laminate sensors at high frequency range has been established. - Highlights: • We present fabrications and properties of the L-T and L-T mode ME composites. • The equivalent magnetic noise levels at high frequency are measured. • The equivalent magnetic noise of the L-W mode sensor is 0.78 pT/Hz{sup 1/2} at 30 kHz. • The dominated noise source can be confirmed from OPA at high frequency range.

  17. Legendre polynomial modeling for vibrations of guided Lamb waves modes in [001]c, [011]c and [111]c polarized (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (x = 0.29 and 0.33) piezoelectric plates: Physical phenomenon of multiple intertwining of An and Sn modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Cherif; Takali, Farid; Njeh, Anouar

    2017-12-01

    Guided wave devices have recently become one of the most important applications in the industry because such waves are directly related to applications in sensor technology, chemical sensing, agricultural science, fields of bio-sensing and surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that are used in electronic filters and signal processing. On that account, this numerical investigation aims to study the propagation behavior of guided Lamb waves in a (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- x PbTiO3 [PMN- x PT] ( x=0.29 or 0.33) piezoelectric single crystal plate. In fact, the PMN- xPT ( x=0.29 or 0.33) piezoelectric crystals are being polarized along [001]c, [011]c and [111]c of the cubic reference directions so that the macroscopic symmetries are tetragonal 4 mm, orthogonal mm2 and rhombohedral 3 m, respectively. Both open- and short-circuit conditions are considered. Here, the Legendre polynomial method is proposed to solve the guided Lamb waves equations. The validity of the proposed method is illustrated by comparison with the ordinary differential equation (ODE). The convergence of this method is discussed. Consequently, the converged results are obtained with very low truncation order M . This constitutes a major advantage of the present method when compared with the other matrix methods. There is cross-crossings among multiple modes for both symmetric ( Sn) and the anti-symmetric ( An) guided Lamb waves propagation. A displacement field has been illustrated to judge whether Sn and An modes cross with each other. Moreover, electric displacement, stress field and electric potential for the open-circuit case were presented for both S0 and A0 Lamb modes.

  18. Dielectric response of the relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 in the nonergodic state after a DC electric field is turned off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolpakova, N. N.; Czarnecki, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 (PMN) relaxor system is used as an example to analyze the temperature dependences of the low-frequency dielectric permitivity (ε'(T)) measured during zero-field heating (ZFH) from T = 10 K to T = 300 K after using different field cooling (FC) conditions. No changes in the temperature dependences of the permittivity have been detected during the transition from a nonergodic relaxor state (NERS) into an ergodic relaxor state (ERS) (at T f ∼ 216 K). However, the difference Δε'(T) between the curves corresponding to different field cooling conditions in the same electric field has different shapes and different values below and above T → (T f + 9 K) - (for E dc = 1.52 kV/cm). The reduced permittivities ε' r (T, f) recorded under different cooling conditions are shown to change their behavior when passing through T = T f + 9 K. In NERS, these curves diverge: the stronger the field (0 ≤ E dc ≤ 3 kV/cm), the larger the divergence. In ERS, however, the ε' r (T, f) curves coincide under different cooling conditions irrespective of the field. The character of the changes in Δε'(T) and ε' r (T, f) during the NERS-ERS transition is frequency-independent. The difference in the behavior of the dielectric response during ZFH after cooling in different (ZFC, FC) modes (even in a weak field), for both transition through T f and cooling down to T = 10 K, indicates different NERSs forming under these conditions. The contribution to ε'(T) from slowly relaxing regions (ω ∼ 0.1 mHz), whose polarization is reoriented after the field is turned off, is responsible for the fact that, during the NERS-ERS transition, the ε' r (T, f) curves coincide at a temperature that is higher than T = T f

  19. The depolarization performances of 0.97PbZrO3-0.03Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramics under hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Rigu; Nie, Hengchang; Liu, Zhen; Peng, Ping; Cao, Fei; Dong, Xianlin; Wang, Genshui

    2018-02-01

    Several 0.97PbZrO3-0.03Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (0.97PZ-0.03BMN) ceramics were prepared via the columbite precursor method. Their microstructures and pressure-dependent ferroelectric and depolarization performances were then studied. The X-ray diffraction patterns of ground and fresh samples indicate that a main rhombohedral symmetry crystal structure is present in the bulk and that it sits alongside a trace quantity of an orthorhombic antiferroelectric phase that results from the effect of grinding on the surface. The remanent polarization (Pr) of the 0.97PZ-0.03BMN reached 32.4 μC/cm2 at 4.5 kV/mm and ambient pressure. In an in situ pressure-induced current measurement, more than 91% of the retained Pr of the pre-poled sample was released when the pressure was increased from 194 MPa to 238 MPa. That this pressure-driven depolarization should be attributed to the pressure-induced ferroelectric-antiferroelectric phase transition is supported by the emergence of double P-E loops at high hydrostatic pressures. Moreover, the 0.97PZ-0.03BMN ceramics exhibit no temperature-induced phase transitions and little related polarization loss up to 125 °C, which suggests that Pr has excellent thermal stability. The sharp depolarization behavior at low pressures and excellent temperature stability reveal that our 0.97PZ-0.03BMN ceramics exhibit superior performances in mechanical-electrical energy conversion applications.

  20. Pb detoxification in Equisetum diffusum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Pant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research highlights the use of aquatic macrophyte Equisetum diffusum (Himalayan horsetail for lead detoxification. This plant species can grow in waste cathode ray tube (CRT powder and absorbs its Pb. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF analysis of plant ash shows that 68 mg/kg lead concentration in the untreated plant was improved to 7600 mg/kg in CRT powder after 90 days. The role of monosilicic and/or monoplumbic acid as reaction intermediates for Pb detoxification and associated bioaccumulation is proposed. Pb detoxification in E. diffusum is mainly rendering around the iso-electronic nature of Pb and Si and forms similar phytochelatin (PC complexes with available family of peptide ligands. The study focuses on the underlying functions of silicon containing plants in metal detoxification.

  1. High Pb concentration stress on Typha latifolia growth and Pb removal in microcosm wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianqiu; Chen, Fengzhen; Zhou, Yumei; Wang, Chaohua

    2015-01-01

    When constructed wetlands are used to treat high-Pb wastewater, Pb may become a stress to wetland plants, which subsequently reduces treatment performance and the other ecosystem services. To facilitate the design and operation of constructed wetlands for treatment of Pb-rich wastewater, we investigated the irreversible inhibitory level of Pb for Typha latifolia through experiments in microcosm wetlands. Seven horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands were built with rectangular plastic tanks and packed with marble chips and sand. All wetlands were transplanted with nine stems of Typha latifolia each. The wetlands were batch operated in a greenhouse with artificial wastewater (10 L each) for 12 days. Influent to the seven wetlands had different concentrations of Pb: 0 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 25 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L, and 500 mg/L, respectively. The results suggested that leaf chlorophyll relative content, relative growth rate, photosynthetic characteristics, activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and content of malondialdehyde were not affected when initial Pb concentration was at 100 mg/L and below. But when initial Pb concentration was above 100 mg/L, all of them were seriously affected. We conclude that high Pb concentrations wastewater could inhibit the growth of Typha latifolia and decrease the removal rate of wetlands.

  2. EDTA assisted phytorremediation of a Pb contamined soil: metal leaching and uptake by jack beans Lixiviação e absorção de Pb pelo feijão-de-porco assistido pela aplicação de EDTA no solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bassetto Gabos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is one of the main soil contaminants. It is also of difficult phytoremediation due to its low solubility and high retention on soil particles. EDTA application to soil is a strategy to increase heavy metal phytoextraction, but such chelants usually cause phytotoxicity and metal leaching side effects. Therefore, these research work objectives were to evaluate the effects of single (0.5 g kg-1 and split (0.25 + 0.25 g kg-1 EDTA application on Pb uptake by jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis L. as well as on Pb vertical movement in a Pb contaminated soil material. Two sets of experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions: in the first one, plants were grown in 3L-pots filled with a Pb-contaminated soil to evaluate Pb uptake by plants; for the second experiment, PVC-columns (42 cm height were used to evaluate soil Pb leaching: the upper half-column (20 cm was filled up with Pb-contaminated soil (1800 mg kg-1 whereas the lower half-column (20 cm was filled with clean soil. Ten 60 mm-rainfalls with a duration of five hours were simulated by dropping distilled water on the top of columns, and leachates were collected for chemical analysis. Plants did not show any visual Pb toxicity symptoms or reduction in dry matter yield. Nevertheless, Pb uptake by jack beans regarded as total plant Pb accumulation was higher in EDTA-treated plants. Vertical Pb movement was observed mostly for the single EDTA application. EDTA addition to the soil favor Pb-phytoextraction by jack beans and the split EDTA application decrease the metal leaching, indicating less risk of environmental contamination.O chumbo (Pb é um dos principais contaminantes de solo. Os processos de remediação são dificultados devido à alta retenção do elemento às partículas do solo. A utilização do EDTA para aumentar a fitoextração dos metais do solo tem apresentado bons resultados. Contudo, os quelantes podem causar efeitos indesejáveis como a fitotoxidez e a lixivia

  3. Bioaccessibility of U, Th and Pb in particulate matter from an abandoned uranium mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Geoffrey; Foulkes, Michael; Henderson, Sam; Blake, William

    2016-04-01

    Currently, there are approximately 150 uranium mines in Europe at various stages of either operation, development, decommissioning, restoration or abandonment (wise-uranium.com). The particulate matter comprising the mounds of waste rock and mill tailings poses a risk to human health through the inadvertent ingestion of particles contaminated with uranium and thorium, and their decay products, which exposes recipients to the dual toxicity of heavy elements and their radioactive emissions. We investigated the bioaccessibility of 238U, 232Th and 206,214,210Pb in particulate samples taken from a contaminated, abandoned uranium mine in South West England. Sampling included a mine shaft, dressing floor and waste heap, as well as soils from a field used for grazing. The contaminants were extracted using the in-vitro Unified Bioaccessibility Research Group of Europe Method (UBM) in order to mimic the digestion processes in the human stomach (STOM) and the combined stomach and gastrointestinal tract (STOM+INT). Analyses of concentrations of U, Th and Pb in the extracts were by ICP-MS and the activity concentrations of radionuclides were determined on the same particles, before and after extraction, using gamma spectroscopy. 'Total' concentrations of U, Th and Pb for all samples were in the range 57 to 16,200, 0.28 to 3.8 and 69 to 4750 mg kg-1, respectively. For U and Pb the concentrations in the STOM fraction were lower than the total and STOM+INT fractions were even lower. However, for Th the STOM+INT fractions were higher than the STOM due to the presence of Th carbonate species within the gastrointestinal fluid. Activity concentrations for 214Pb and 210Pb, including total, STOM and STOM+INT, were in the range 180 to samples were 39% and 8% in the STOM and STOM+INT, respectively, whereas the respective BAFs for 232Th were 3% and 9%. For stable 206Pb the STOM and STOM+INT BAFs were 16% and 3% for the most contaminated samples, whereas those from the field had 44% in the

  4. Pb II

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    This investigation describes the use of non-living biomass of Aspergillus caespitosus for removal of ... Pb(II) production has exceeded 3.5 million tons per year. It has been used in the ... This biomass was selected after screening a wide range of microbes. .... prolonged, which proved better biopolymer in metal uptake (Gadd ...

  5. Characterization of Cd-, Pb-, Zn-resistant endophytic Lasiodiplodia sp. MXSF31 from metal accumulating Portulaca oleracea and its potential in promoting the growth of rape in metal-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zujun; Zhang, Renduo; Shi, Yang; Hu, Li'ao; Tan, Hongming; Cao, Lixiang

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the features of a Cd-, Pb-, and Zn-resistant endophytic fungus Lasiodiplodia sp. MXSF31 and to investigate the potential of MXSF31 to remove metals from contaminated water and soils. The endophytic fungus was isolated from the stem of Portulaca oleracea growing in metal-contaminated soils. The maximum biosorption capacities of MXSF31 were 3.0 × 10(3), 1.1 × 10(4), and 1.3 × 10(4) mg kg(-1) for Cd, Pb, and Zn, respectively. The biosorption processes of Cd, Pb, and Zn by MXSF31 were well characterized with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The biosorption isotherm processes of Pb and Zn by the fungus were fitted better with the Langmuir model, while the biosorption processes of Cd was better fitted with the Freundlich model. The biosorption process of MXSF31 was attributed to the functional groups of hydroxyl, amino, carbonyl, and benzene ring on the cell wall. The active biomass of the strain removed more Cd, Pb, and Zn (4.6 × 10(4), 5.6 × 10(5), and 7.0 × 10(4) mg kg(-1), respectively) than the dead biomass. The inoculation of MXSF31 increased the biomass of rape (Brassica napus L.), the translocation factor of Cd, and the extraction amount of Cd by rape in the Cd+Pb-contaminated soils. The results indicated that the endophytic fungus strain had the potential to remove heavy metals from water and soils contaminated by multiple heavy metals, and plants accumulating multiple metals might harbor diverse fungi suitable for bioremediation of contaminated media.

  6. 210Pb and 210Po activities in French foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Ph.; Roussel-Debet, S.; Pourcelot, L.; Thebault, H.; Loyen, J.; Gurriaran, R.

    2015-01-01

    The data on 210 Pb and 210 Po activities in French foodstuffs acquired during the last 15 years are numerous enough to derive reference values which will be usable to assess the dose to the French population due to the intake of these two natural radionuclides. The means and ranges are close to those observed in various countries and are most often higher than the reference values proposed by UNSCEAR. Mussels and oysters exhibit the highest 210 Po activities of all kinds of foodstuffs, with a mean value of 27 Bq.kg -1 fresh weight, followed by crustaceans and small fish species (anchovies, mullets, sardines, etc.) with 210 Po activities in the order of 3 to 10 Bq.k -1 fresh weight; cephalopods and other fish species presenting activities around 1 to 3 Bq.kg -1 fresh, close to the UNSCEAR reference value. Below these highest 210 Po activities are those of 210 Po and 210 Pb in terrestrial kinds of foodstuffs, by decreasing order: meats (around 1 Bq.kg -1 fresh), cereals (0.4 Bq.kg -1 ), leafy vegetables (0.3 Bq.kg -1 ), other vegetables and fruits (0.1 Bq.kg -1 ), and milk (from 0.03 to 0.1 Bq.L -1 ). (authors)

  7. Nonlinear dielectric properties and tunability of 0.9Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3-0.1 PbTiO3 and Ba(Ti0.85,Sn0.15)O3 paraelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, E. K.; Hall, A.; Simon, W. K.; Safari, A.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear dielectric properties of 0.9Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3•0.1PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) and Ba[Ti0.85,Sn0.15]O3 (BTS) paraelectrics experimentally and theoretically. We measure the nonlinear dielectric response in the parallel plate capacitor configuration, whereby we obtain the low frequency linear permittivity (ε33), and the higher order permittivities (ε3333,ε333333) at 298K as ε33PMN-PT=2.1×10-7 and ε33BTS=4.1×10-8F /m, ε3333PMN-PT=-4.9×10-20 and ε3333BTS=-7.3×10-21F3m /C2, and ε333333PMN-PT=7.6×10-33 and ε333333BTS=9.85×10-34F5m3/C4. By using a self-consistent thermodynamic theory in conjunction with the experimental data, we compute the E3 dependence of electrostatic free energy ΔG, the field-induced polarization P3, and the thermodynamic tunability ∂2P3/∂E32, and prove that electrostatic free energy has to be expanded at least up to the sixth order in the electric field to define the critical field ∣E3*∣ at which maximum tunability is attained. We also show that ∣E3*∣ is a function on ∣ε3333∣/ε333333 only. Consequently, we find ∣E3*∣PMN-PT=8.0×105V /m and ∣E3*∣BTS=8.6×105V/m. We compute the engineering tunabilities as ΓPMN-PT=65% and ΓBTS=55%, and then define a normalized tunability ξ to take into account the ∣E3*∣ parameter. Thereof, we determine ∣ξ ∣PMT-PT=8.1×10-5%/Vm-1 and ∣ξ∣BTS=6.4×10-5%/Vm-1. Our results reveal that ∣E3*∣BTS>∣E3*∣PMN-PT although ΓBTS<ΓPMN-PT, unequivocally showing the need for defining a critical field parameter in evaluating the nonlinear dielectric response and tunability, in particular, and in nonlinear dielectrics in general. The results also indicate that the nonlinear dielectric properties of PMN-PT are an order of magnitude higher than that of BTS, which we discuss in the context of structure-property relations of relaxors.

  8. Coupling thermoelectricity and electrocatalysis for hydrogen production via PbTesbnd PbS/TiO2 heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongqing; Cao, Xiaohao; Wang, Bin; Xia, Min; Lin, Sidney; Guo, Zhanhu; Zhang, Xiaoming; Gao, Shiyuan

    2017-02-01

    PbTesbnd PbS/TiO2 electrodes are produced via wet chemical routes for splitting water into hydrogen at the ambient temperatures. PbTe nano-crystals are firstly deposited via the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) treatment onto TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) prepared by anodic oxidation of Ti substrates. Subsequently, linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) is employed to convert the outer PbTe into PbS, producing PbTesbnd PbS/TiO2 electrodes with a gradient p-n-n band configuration. With the external electric field, the vector charge transfer effect of the TNAs and the gradient energy band structure of PbTesbnd PbS/TNAs, the two electrode system in which PbTesbnd PbS/TNAs functions as the anode illustrates excellent hydrogen production activities. The whole electrochemical system consisted of anode, cathode, electrolyte serves as a hot side while the endothermic electrochemical reactions in hydrogen production as an in situ cold side. At 70 °C and 1.0 V bath voltage, the system registers 6.1 mL cm-2 h-1 rate of hydrogen generation, consuming electric power of 26.2 kW h kg-1 H2, with an energy efficiency of 88.5% and a heat efficiency of 49.9%. This method demonstrates a novel pathway to produce chemical energy from low quality waste heat, benefitting from thermoelectric and electrocatalytic coupling.

  9. Assessment of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb concentration in mineral waters from Parque das Águas de Lambari and Contendas, MG and evaluation of the committed effective doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakasugi, Denise S.M.; Damatto, Sandra R., E-mail: denise.sanny@usp.br, E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The exploration of several Brazilian hydromineral resorts, that have springs of radioactive mineral water consumed by the population support the relevance of the present work. This study is being developed in the IPEN with the aid of the responsible for Parque das Águas de Lambari and Contendas. Thereby, this work aims to determine the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb to verify the influence of seasonality in these water parks springs. Thereunto, gross alpha and beta measurements were used after radiochemical separation for these radionuclides determination and measurement in a low background proportional detector. The results showed that Parque das Águas de Lambari presented highest concentration values when compared with Contendas. In Parque das Águas de Contendas , the highest concentration values were 77 ± 5 mBq/L and 129 ± 5 mBq/L for {sup 226}Ra for Gasosa II springs and {sup 228}Ra for Gasosa I spring, respectively, which correspond to the spring season; for {sup 210}Pb, 27 ± 2 mBq/L for Magnesiana spring in the same season. In Parque das Águas de Lambari, the highest concentration values for {sup 226}Ra was 177 ± 2 mBq/L and for {sup 210}Pb, 36 ± 2 mBq/L, both in the Magnesiana spring, for the summer season and 135 ± 5 mBq/L for {sup 228}Ra, in Magnesiana spring, for the spring season. The data were analyzed through descriptive and correlational statistical techniques. Therefore, it was possible to evaluate the committed effective doses due to the consumption of these waters and to assess the radiological risk for the radionuclides studied. (author)

  10. Assessment of "2"2"6Ra, "2"2"8Ra and "2"1"0Pb concentration in mineral waters from Parque das Águas de Lambari and Contendas, MG and evaluation of the committed effective doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasugi, Denise S.M.; Damatto, Sandra R.

    2017-01-01

    The exploration of several Brazilian hydromineral resorts, that have springs of radioactive mineral water consumed by the population support the relevance of the present work. This study is being developed in the IPEN with the aid of the responsible for Parque das Águas de Lambari and Contendas. Thereby, this work aims to determine the activity concentrations of "2"2"6Ra, "2"2"8Ra and "2"1"0Pb to verify the influence of seasonality in these water parks springs. Thereunto, gross alpha and beta measurements were used after radiochemical separation for these radionuclides determination and measurement in a low background proportional detector. The results showed that Parque das Águas de Lambari presented highest concentration values when compared with Contendas. In Parque das Águas de Contendas , the highest concentration values were 77 ± 5 mBq/L and 129 ± 5 mBq/L for "2"2"6Ra for Gasosa II springs and "2"2"8Ra for Gasosa I spring, respectively, which correspond to the spring season; for "2"1"0Pb, 27 ± 2 mBq/L for Magnesiana spring in the same season. In Parque das Águas de Lambari, the highest concentration values for "2"2"6Ra was 177 ± 2 mBq/L and for "2"1"0Pb, 36 ± 2 mBq/L, both in the Magnesiana spring, for the summer season and 135 ± 5 mBq/L for "2"2"8Ra, in Magnesiana spring, for the spring season. The data were analyzed through descriptive and correlational statistical techniques. Therefore, it was possible to evaluate the committed effective doses due to the consumption of these waters and to assess the radiological risk for the radionuclides studied. (author)

  11. Distribution of P, K, Ca, Mg, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in wood and bark age classes of willows and poplars used for phytoextraction on soils contaminated by risk elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárubová, Pavla; Hejcman, Michal; Vondráčková, Stanislava; Mrnka, Libor; Száková, Jiřina; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-12-01

    Fast-growing clones of Salix and Populus have been studied for remediation of soils contaminated by risk elements (RE) using short-rotation coppice plantations. Our aim was to assess biomass yield and distributions of elements in wood and bark of highly productive willow (S1--[Salix schwerinii × Salix viminalis] × S. viminalis, S2--Salix × smithiana clone S-218) and poplar (P1--Populus maximowiczii × Populus nigra, P2--P. nigra) clones with respect to aging. The field experiment was established in April 2008 on moderately Cd-, Pb- and Zn- contaminated soil. Shoots were harvested after four seasons (February 2012) and separated into annual classes of wood and bark. All tested clones grew on contaminated soils, with highest biomass production and lowest mortality exhibited by P1 and S2. Concentrations of elements, with exception of Ca and Pb, decreased with age and were higher in bark than in wood. The Salix clones were characterised by higher removal of Cd, Mn and Zn compared to the Populus clones. Despite generally higher RE content in young shoots, partly due to lower wood/bark ratios and higher RE concentrations in bark, the overall removal of RE was higher in older wood classes due to higher biomass yield. Thus, longer rotations seem to be more effective when phytoextraction strategy is considered. Of the four selected clones, S1 exhibited the best removal of Cd and Zn and is a good candidate for phytoextraction.

  12. Disponibilidade e fracionamento de Cd, Pb, Cu e Zn em função do pH e tempo de incubação com o solo Availability and fractionation of Cd, Pb, Cu, AND Zn in soil as a function of incubation time and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Évio Eduardo Chaves de Melo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O pH e o tempo de contato influenciam a distribuição dos metais entre frações do solo e a eficiência da fitoextração. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho estudar a disponibilidade dos metais Cd, Pb, Cu e Zn para a fitoextração, bem como suas redistribuições no solo, em função do tempo de incubação em solo com e sem calagem. O solo recebeu Cd, Pb, Cu e Zn nas doses 20, 150, 100 e 150 mg kg-1, respectivamente, na forma de sal solúvel. As amostras foram incubadas por 210, 180, 150, 120, 90, 60, 30 e 0,5 dia. Terminada a incubação, mucuna preta (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy foi cultivada por 30 dias. EDTA (10 mmol kg-1 foi aplicado sete dias, antes da coleta das plantas. As amostras de solo foram submetidas à extração química e fracionada. A concentração de metais pesados e a calagem afetaram a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e da raiz. Em solos sem calagem, o aumento da solubilidade dos metais aumentou a fitoextração de Cd e Zn, mesmo sem aplicação do EDTA. A aplicação do EDTA ao solo com calagem mostrou-se eficiente para a fitoextração de Pb e Cu. A calagem reduziu os teores disponíveis de Cd, Pb, Cu e Zn. A calagem provocou redução nos teores de Cd, Pb, Cu e Zn trocáveis e aumento nas frações matéria orgânica, óxidos de ferro amorfo e cristalino.It is known that pH and incubation time influence the distribution of metals into soil fractions and therefore affect phytoextraction. Taking this in account, the aim of this work was to study the fractionation and availability of heavy metals for phytoextraction, as a function of incubation period in soils with or without liming. The soil samples were applied to Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn at concentrations of 20, 150, 100, and 150 mg kg-1, respectively, in the form of soluble salt. The samples were kept incubated for high incubation periods: 210, 180, 150, 120, 90, 60, 30, and 0,5 day. After that, velvetbean (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy was cultivated

  13. Determination of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with collision-reaction interface technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mirian C; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Cadore, Solange

    2011-06-15

    A procedure based on the use of a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer equipped with a collision-reaction interface (CRI) for control of spectral overlap interferences was developed for simultaneous determination of Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The injection of H(2) and He (80 and 60 mL min(-1), respectively) into the sampled plasma, colliding and reacting with potentially interfering polyatomic ions, allows interference-free determination of chromium via its isotopes (52)Cr and (53)Cr that are freed from overlap due to the occurrence of (40)Ar(12)C(+), (40)Ar(12)C(1)H(+), (36)S(16)O(+) or (1)H(36)S(16)O(+). Cadmium, Hg and Pb were directly determined via their isotopes (110)Cd, (111)Cd, (112)Cd, (199)Hg, (200)Hg, (201)Hg, (202)Hg, (206)Pb, (207)Pb, and (208)Pb, without using CRI. The CRI can be quickly activated or deactivated before each analyte measurement. Limits of detection for (52)Cr were 0.04 or 0.14 μg L(-1) with He or H(2) injected in CRI. Cadmium and Pb have LODs between 0.02 and 0.08 μg L(-1) and Hg had 0.93-0.98 μg L(-1), without using CRI. Analyte concentrations for samples varied from 16 to 43, 1 to 11, 4 to 12, and 5 to 13 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pb isotopes as tracers of mining-related Pb in lichens, seaweed and mussels near a former Pb-Zn mine in West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondergaard, Jens, E-mail: jens@dmu.d [Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Asmund, Gert; Johansen, Poul [Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Elberling, Bo [Institute of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); University Centre in Svalbard, NO-9171 Longyearbyen (Norway)

    2010-05-15

    Identification of mining-related contaminants is important in order to assess the spreading of contaminants from mining as well as for site remediation purposes. This study focuses on lead (Pb) contamination in biota near the abandoned 'Black Angel Mine' in West Greenland in the period 1988-2008. Stable Pb isotope ratios and total Pb concentrations were determined in lichens, seaweed and mussels as well as in marine sediments. The results show that natural background Pb ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb: 0.704-0.767) and Pb originating from the mine ore ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb: 0.955) have distinct isotopic fingerprints. Total Pb in lichens, seaweed, and mussels was measured at values up to 633, 19 and 1536 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight, respectively, and is shown to be a mixture of natural Pb and ore-Pb. This enables quantification of mining-related Pb and shows that application of Pb isotope data is a valuable tool for monitoring mining pollution. - Lead isotopes can be used to monitor uptake of mining-related lead in lichens, seaweed and mussels.

  15. Behavior of 21Po and 21Pb in high background areas of coastal Kerala on the south west coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Y.; Shetty, P.K.; Siddappa, K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the distribution and behavior of 21 Po and 21 Pb in beach sand and surface soil samples from the Quilon district of Kerala. Beach sand and soil samples were collected and analyzed for 21 Po and 21 Pb radionuclides using standard radiochemical analytical techniques. Mean activities of 21 Po and 21 Pb were found to be maximum in the samples collected at 20 m away from waterline. Among the beach sand samples, the activities of radionuclide were found to be maximum for samples from most of the regions of Chavara and few regions of Neendakara. The activity of 21 Po was found to vary from 2.4 to 20.5 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 8.3 Bq kg -1 at the water line, 2.5-19.9 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 10.2 Bq kg -1 at 20 m away from the waterline, and 2.1-6.7 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 3.5 Bq kg -1 at 40 m away from waterline. The respective values found for 21 Pb were from 1.2 to 48.2 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 14.9, 11.3-34.2 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 19.8 Bq kg -1 and 2.3 to 18.3 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 8.7 Bq kg -1 . The depth profile study indicated the mean activity of 21 Po to decrease with depth for samples collected 20 m away from waterline whereas the activity slightly increases with depth 40 m away from sea. The activity concentration of 21 Po and 21 Pb in surface beach sand shows good correlation, with a correlation coefficient 0.81

  16. Estimation of Pb from metal and electroplating industrial waste by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of lead in sediment and liquid waste samples of selected metal electroplating industries was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data obtained revealed that lead content in liquid wastes varies in the range of 0.582-14.97 mg L-1 and 1.300-757.8 mg Kg-1 in sediments. Removal of ...

  17. An investigation on phase transition behaviors in MgO-doped Pb{sub 0.99}(Zr{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05}){sub 0.98}Nb{sub 0.02}O{sub 3} ferroelectric ceramics by Raman and dielectric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junxia, E-mail: wjunxia2002@163.com [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Wang, Genshui; Chen, Xuefeng [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Hu, Zhigao [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Nie, Hengchang; Cao, Fei [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Dong, Xianlin, E-mail: xldong@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The phase transition behaviors were strongly dependent on MgO concentration. • The F{sub R(LT)}–F{sub R(HT)} phase transition temperature obviously shifted toward a lower temperature with increasing MgO addition. • The F{sub R(HT)}–cubic paraelectric (P{sub C}) phase transition changed to a higher temperature with increasing MgO addition. • The distortion of BO{sub 6} oxygen octahedron caused by B-site replacement of Mg{sup 2+} ions is proposed to explain the observed behaviors. • Superior room-temperature pyroelectric properties were obtained in 0.1 wt% MgO-modified PZTN 95/5 ceramics during F{sub R(LT)}–F{sub R(HT)} phase transition. - Abstract: The phase transition behaviors of Pb{sub 0.99}(Zr{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05}){sub 0.98}Nb{sub 0.02}O{sub 3} ferroelectric ceramics doped with different MgO concentrations (0–0.2 wt%) were systematically investigated by Raman and dielectric measurements. Raman results showed that the phase transitions were strongly dependent on MgO concentration. It was found that the low temperature rhombohedral (F{sub R(LT)})–high temperature rhombohedral (F{sub R(HT)}) ferroelectric phase transition shifted toward a lower temperature with increasing MgO concentration up to 0.1 wt%, while the F{sub R(HT)}–cubic paraelectric (P{sub C}) phase transition changed to a higher temperature. The Raman results were in good agreement with phase transition determined by dielectric measurements. Moreover, it was indicated that the changes of Raman active modes were related to distortion of BO{sub 6} octahedra during the phase transitions. Then, the distortion of BO{sub 6} octahedron caused by B-site replacement of Mg{sup 2+} ions was proposed to explain the observed behaviors. In addition, the effects of MgO doping on the dielectric, ferroelectric and pyroelectric properties were also discussed.

  18. Distribution and enrichment of 210Po and 210Pb in the environment of Mangalore, South West coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, V.; Rajashekara, K.M.; Narayana, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the distribution and enrichment of 210 Po and 210 Pb in soil samples of Mangalore South west coast of India. The soil samples collected from the region were analyzed for 210 Po and 210 Pb activity using radiochemical analytical techniques to understand the distribution and enrichment of those radionuclides. The 210 Po activity in soil in the environment of Mangalore varies from 1.5 Bq kg -1 to 26.9 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 12.6 Bq kg -1 and that of 210 Pb varies in the range 7.6 Bq kg -1 to 67.5 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 38.9 Bq kg -1 . The mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio observed was 0.3 and it shows that the radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb are not in equilibrium and the accumulation of 210 Pb in soil is more compared to 210 Po. A good correlation exists between the activities of 210 Po and 210 Pb with correlation coefficient r = 0.7. The absorbed gamma dose in the environment of the region varies from 39.4 nGy h -1 to 78.8 nGy h -1 with a mean value of 48.2 nGy h -1 . The results of the systematic studies on the distribution and enrichment of 210 Po and 210 Pb and the absorbed gamma dose rate in air are presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  19. Hydrogen diffusion in Pb β''-alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Wang, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The mobile Na + ions in Na β''-alumina can be completely exchanged with Pb 2+ ions by treatment in molten PbCl 2 . When this exchange was carried out in the presence of air, protons in the form of OH - were introduced into the conduction layers along with lead ions. Although the concentration of OH - was low, on the order of 5 x 10 -3 per formula unit of Pb/sub 0.84/Mg/sub 0.67/Al/sub 10.33/O_1_7, the distribution of OH - after ion exchange indicated that the proton mobility in Pb β''-alumina is high. The potential use of Pb β''-alumina as a fast proton conductor that is stable at 400 0 C motivated further studies of hydrogen diffusion. In this report, the results of tracer diffusion measurements by isotope exchange will be presented

  20. Distribution of 210Pb in the riverine environs of coastal Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Y.; Venunathan, N.

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the distribution and behavior of 210 Pb in the river bank soil samples of three major rivers namely Bharathapuzha, Periyar and Kallada rivers of Kerala. The soil samples were collected and analyzed for 210 Pb using standard radiochemical analytical techniques. The dependence of 210 Pb activity of organic matter content in the samples was studied. The mean activity of 210 Pb in the soil samples of Bharathapuzha Periyar and Kallada rivers were found to be 23.93 Bq.kg -1 , 60.67 Bq.kg -1 and 19.13 Bq.kg -1 respectively. The 210 Pb activity concentrations in the present study vary from place to place. This could be due to the nature of the soil and its physicochemical characteristics like pH and organic matter. Among the three rivers highest 210 Pb activity was observed in the river bank soil of the Periyar river. This could be due to high percentage of organic matter percentage in the soil samples of this region. A good correlation was found between 210 Pb activity with organic matter content for Bharathapuzha and Periyar rivers. (author)

  1. Interactions between surface runoff, hydro sediments and radionuclides (210Pb, 226Ra, 228Ra, Th e U) at Alto Ribeirão das Antas, Poços de Caldas, MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Flavio Henrique de Souza

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about hydrological and sedimentological dynamics of a river basin is fundamental to the adequate management of water resources, and it can support the identification of contaminants in the water, the estimation of water erosion, the estimation of reservoir siltation, and even the reduction of water treatment costs. The study carried out in Alto Ribeirão das Antas River Basin assessed, throughout seasons, all interactions between the surface runoff and the transport of suspended and underwater hydro-sediments, through direct monitoring of two sites at the Ribeirão das Antas channel. Concurrently, the potential of the indirect monitoring of suspended solids concentration was evaluated using an optical turbidity sensor. The hydrological results point to a high precipitation in the region, however with a well balanced distribution among the humid months, allowing the basin’s high capacity to transform precipitation into surface runoff. Sediment transport rates characterize the studied area as a low sediment production region. The sedimentological regime was found to be in accordance with the surface runoff regime, reflected by the seasonality of the transported masses. The estimation of transport of sediment in suspension through optical turbidity sensor presented promising results. Most of the results of radionuclides 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, Th and U observed in water and in suspended hydro-sediment were below the detection limit of the methodology, whereas in the riverbed hydro-sediments quantification of radionuclides was possible. The radiometric results indicate absence of radionuclide carriage from the Águas Claras Dam at INB Caldas to Ribeirão das Antas. The low concentration values of radioactive elements observed in the study may be of natural origin, once the Poços de Caldas Plateau region presents a geological constitution endowed with anomalies associated to radionuclides. (author)

  2. Synthesis of Pb(II Imprinted Carboxymethyl Chitosan and the Application as Sorbent for Pb(II Ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Masykur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research is to synthesize Pb(II imprinted polymers with carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC as polymers and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE as cross-linker (Pb-IIP. Chitosan (CTS, non imprinted polymer (NIP and Pb-IIP were characterized using infrared (IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, surface area analyzer (SAA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy. The result showed that the adsorption was optimum at pH 5 and contact time of 250 min. Adsorption of Pb(II ion with all of adsorbents followed pseudo-second order kinetic equation. Adsorption of Pb(II ion on CTS followed Freundlich isotherm while that on NIP and Pb-IIP followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorbent of Pb-IIP give higher capacity than the NIP and CTS. Adsorption capacity of Pb-IIP, NIP and CTS were 167.1, 128.9 and 76.1 mg/g, respectively. NIP gave higher adsorption selectivity for Pb(II/Ni(II and Pb(II/Cu(II, whereas Pb-IIP showed higher adsorption selectivity for Pb(II/Cd(II.The hydrogen bonding dominated interaction between Pb(II ion on NIP and Pb-IIP.

  3. 210Pb targets for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, H.J.; Grossmann, R.

    1987-01-01

    The preparation of metallic 210 Pb targets by vacuum evaporation condensation is described. Lead-210, which is highly radioactive, is available as nitrate in 3M HNO 3 . Solid Pb(NO 3 ) 2 is extracted from this solution and subjected to a reductive evaporation procedure. A special-shaped evaporation crucible yields a collection efficiency of 2.8 mg/cm 2 per milligram of employed material. (orig.)

  4. Monitoring Lead (Pb) Pollution and Identifying Pb Pollution Sources in Japan Using Stable Pb Isotope Analysis with Kidneys of Wild Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hokuto; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Oroszlany, Balazs; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Harunari, Tsunehito; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Yohannes, Yared B; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2017-01-10

    Although Japan has been considered to have little lead (Pb) pollution in modern times, the actual pollution situation is unclear. The present study aims to investigate the extent of Pb pollution and to identify the pollution sources in Japan using stable Pb isotope analysis with kidneys of wild rats. Wild brown ( Rattus norvegicus , n = 43) and black ( R. rattus , n = 98) rats were trapped from various sites in Japan. Mean Pb concentrations in the kidneys of rats from Okinawa (15.58 mg/kg, dry weight), Aichi (10.83), Niigata (10.62), Fukuoka (8.09), Ibaraki (5.06), Kyoto (4.58), Osaka (4.57), Kanagawa (3.42), and Tokyo (3.40) were above the threshold (2.50) for histological kidney changes. Similarly, compared with the previous report, it was regarded that even structural and functional kidney damage as well as neurotoxicity have spread among rats in Japan. Additionally, the possibility of human exposure to a high level of Pb was assumed. In regard to stable Pb isotope analysis, distinctive values of stable Pb isotope ratios (Pb-IRs) were detected in some kidney samples with Pb levels above 5.0 mg/kg. This result indicated that composite factors are involved in Pb pollution. However, the identification of a concrete pollution source has not been accomplished due to limited differences among previously reported values of Pb isotope composition in circulating Pb products. Namely, the current study established the limit of Pb isotope analysis for source identification. Further detailed research about monitoring Pb pollution in Japan and the demonstration of a novel method to identify Pb sources are needed.

  5. Viscosity of aqueous Ni(NO3)2 solutions at temperatures from (297 to 475) K and at pressures up to 30 MPa and concentration between (0.050 and 2.246) mol . kg-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulagatov, I.M.; Zeinalova, A.B.; Azizov, N.D.

    2006-01-01

    Viscosity of nine aqueous Ni(NO 3 ) 2 solutions (0.050, 0.153, 0.218, 0.288, 0.608, 0.951, 1.368, 1.824, and 2.246) mol . kg -1 was measured in the temperature range from (297 to 475) K and at pressures (0.1, 10, 20, and 30) MPa. The measurements were carried out with a capillary flow technique. The total experimental uncertainty of viscosity, pressure, temperature, and composition measurements were estimated to be less than 1.6%, 0.05%, 15 mK, and 0.02%, respectively. All experimental and derived results are compared with experimental and calculated values reported in the literature. Extrapolation of the solution viscosity measurements to zero concentration (pure water values) for the given temperature and pressure are in excellent agreement (average absolute deviation, AAD = 0.13%) with the values of pure water viscosity from IAPWS formulation [J. Kestin, J.V. Sengers, B. Kamgar-Parsi, J.M.H. Levelt Sengers, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 13 (1984) 175-189]. The viscosity data for the solutions as a function of concentration have been interpreted in terms of the extended Jones-Dole equation for strong electrolytes. The values of viscosity A-, B-, and D-coefficients of the extended Jones-Dole equation for the relative viscosity (η/η ) of aqueous Ni(NO 3 ) 2 solutions as a function of temperature are studied. The derived values of the viscosity A- and B-coefficients were compared with the results predicted by Falkenhagen-Dole theory (limiting law) of electrolyte solutions and the values calculated with the ionic B-coefficient data. The measured values of viscosity for the solutions were also used to calculate the effective rigid molar volumes in the extended Einstein relation for the relative viscosity (η/η )

  6. Population health risk via dietary exposure to trace elements (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg, and As) in Qiqihar, Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinming; Meng, Jia; Ye, Yajie; Wang, Yongjie; Bai, Lin

    2018-02-01

    The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of six trace elements (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg, and As) in vegetables (leafy vegetable, i.e., bok choy, fruit vegetables, i.e., cucumber and tomato, and other categories, i.e., mushroom, kidney bean, and potato), cereals (rice and wheat flour), and meats (pork, mutton, and beef) most commonly consumed by adult inhabitants of Qiqihar, Northeastern China, were determined to assess the health status of local people. The average EDIs of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg, and As were with 20.77 μg (kg bw) -1 day -1 of Cu, 288 μg (kg bw) -1 day -1 of Zn, 2.01 μg (kg bw) -1 day -1 of Pb, 0.41 μg (kg bw) -1 day -1 of Cd, 0.01 μg (kg bw) -1 day -1 of Hg, and 0.52 μg (kg bw) -1 day -1 of As, respectively, which are below the daily allowance recommended by FAO/WHO. However, the maximum EDIs of Pb and Cd were 4.56 μg (kg bw) -1 day -1 and 1.68 μg (kg bw) -1 day -1 , respectively, which are above the recommended levels [i.e., 3.58 μg (kg bw) -1 day -1 for Pb and 1.0 μg (kg bw) -1 day -1 for Cd] by FAO/WHO. This finding indicates that the potential health risk induced by daily ingestion of Pb and Cd for the local residents should receive a significant concern. Similarly, we detected elevated Pb and Cd concentrations, i.e., with average of 13.58 and 0.60 mg kg -1 dw, respectively, in the adult scalp hairs. Consumption of rice, potato, bok choy, and wheat flour contributed to 75 and 82% of Pb and Cd daily intake from foodstuffs. Nevertheless, human scalp hair is inappropriate biological material for determination of the nutritional status of trace elements in this region.

  7. Interactions between surface runoff, hydro sediments and radionuclides ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, Th e U) at Alto Ribeirão das Antas, Poços de Caldas, MG, Brazil; Interações entre escoamento superficial, hidrossedimentos e radionuclídeos ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra, 228Ra, Th e U) no Alto Ribeirão das Antas, Poços de Caldas-MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Flavio Henrique de Souza

    2017-07-01

    Knowledge about hydrological and sedimentological dynamics of a river basin is fundamental to the adequate management of water resources, and it can support the identification of contaminants in the water, the estimation of water erosion, the estimation of reservoir siltation, and even the reduction of water treatment costs. The study carried out in Alto Ribeirão das Antas River Basin assessed, throughout seasons, all interactions between the surface runoff and the transport of suspended and underwater hydro-sediments, through direct monitoring of two sites at the Ribeirão das Antas channel. Concurrently, the potential of the indirect monitoring of suspended solids concentration was evaluated using an optical turbidity sensor. The hydrological results point to a high precipitation in the region, however with a well balanced distribution among the humid months, allowing the basin’s high capacity to transform precipitation into surface runoff. Sediment transport rates characterize the studied area as a low sediment production region. The sedimentological regime was found to be in accordance with the surface runoff regime, reflected by the seasonality of the transported masses. The estimation of transport of sediment in suspension through optical turbidity sensor presented promising results. Most of the results of radionuclides {sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, Th and U observed in water and in suspended hydro-sediment were below the detection limit of the methodology, whereas in the riverbed hydro-sediments quantification of radionuclides was possible. The radiometric results indicate absence of radionuclide carriage from the Águas Claras Dam at INB Caldas to Ribeirão das Antas. The low concentration values of radioactive elements observed in the study may be of natural origin, once the Poços de Caldas Plateau region presents a geological constitution endowed with anomalies associated to radionuclides. (author)

  8. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  9. Trend and concentrations of legacy lead (Pb) in highway runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayhanian, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the results of lead (Pb) concentrations from both highway runoff and contaminated soil along 32 and 23 highway sites, respectively. In general, the Pb concentration on topsoil (0–15 cm) along highways was much higher than the Pb concentration in subsurface soil (15–60 cm). The Pb deposited on soil appears to be anthropogenic and a strong correlation was found between the Pb concentration in surface soil and highway runoff in urban areas. The concentration of Pb measured during 1980s from highways runoff throughout the world was up to 11 times higher than the measured values in mid 1990s and 2000s. The current Pb deposited on soil near highways appears to be a mixture of paint, tire weight balance and old leaded gasoline combustion. Overall, the Pb phase-out regulation reduced the Pb deposits in the environment and consequently lowered Pb loading into receiving waters. - Highlights: ► Pb concentrations in highway runoff ranged from 0.5 to 752 mg/L. ► 78% of total lead concentration in highway runoff was in particulate form. ► Pb deposited on highway sites was mostly within 0 to 15 cm of soil column. ► Pb concentration in highway runoff and top soil was strongly correlated. ► Current Pb concentration in highway runoff is up to 11 times lower than late 1980s. - Most Pb deposited on soil near highways is within the top 15 cm. This Pb is the major sources of Pb concentration in highway runoff that has substantially been reduced since lead phase-out era.

  10. Presence, mobility and bioavailability of toxic metal(oids) in soil, vegetation and water around a Pb-Sb recycling factory (Barcelona, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykolenko, S; Liedienov, V; Kharytonov, M; Makieieva, N; Kuliush, T; Queralt, I; Marguí, E; Hidalgo, M; Pardini, G; Gispert, M

    2018-06-01

    The work was conducted to establish contamination from improper disposal of hazardous wastes containing lead (Pb) and antimony (Sb) into nearby soils. Besides other elements in the affected area, the biological role of Sb, its behaviour in the pedosphere and uptake by plants and the food chain was considered. Wastes contained 139532 ± 9601 mg kg -1 (≈14%) Pb and 3645 ± 194 mg kg -1 (≈0.4%) Sb respectively and variability was extremely high at a decimetre scale. Dramatically high concentrations were also found for As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Sn and Zn. In adjacent natural soils metal(oid)s amounts decreased considerably (Pb 5034 ± 678 mg kg -1 , Sb 112 mg kg -1 ) though largely exceeded the directives for a given soil use. Metal(oid)s potential mobility was assessed by using H 2 O→KNO 3 →EDTA sequential extractions, and EDTA extracts showed the highest concentration suggesting stable humus-metal complexes formation. Nevertheless, selected plants showed high absorption potential of the investigated elements. Pb and Sb values for Dittrichia viscosa grown in wastes was 899 ± 627 mg kg -1 and 37 ± 33 mg kg -1 respectively. The same plant showed 154 ± 99 mg kg -1 Pb and 8 ± 4 mg kg -1 Sb in natural soils. Helichrysum stoechas had 323 ± 305 mg kg -1 Pb, and 8 ± 3 mg kg -1 Sb. Vitis vinifera from alongside vineyards contained 129 ± 88 mg kg -1 Pb and 18 ± 9 mg kg -1 Sb, indicating ability for metal uptake and warning on metal diffusion through the food chain. The biological absorption coefficient (BAC) and the translocation factor (TF) assigned phytoextraction potential to Dittrichia viscosa and Foeniculum vulgare and phytostabilization potential to Helichrysum stoechas. Dissolved metal (oid)s in the analysed water strongly exceeded the current directive being a direct threat for livings. Data warned against the high contamination of the affected area in all its

  11. Concentration of Po-210 and Pb-210 in human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lancai; Takizawa, Y.; Yamamoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    The levels of Pb-210 and Po-210 in human tissues of people in Japan were determined. Various tissue samples were obtained at autopsy from the cadavers of 22 oncologic cases, mainly in Niigata Prefecture in northern Japan during the period of 1986 to 1988. Wet ashing, followed by electrochemical deposition and alpha-ray spectrometry were used to separate and determine the Pb-210 and Po-210 presented. Among the tissues analyzed the highest concentrations of Pb-210 and Po-210 were observed in bone, liver and kidneys: 1.29, 1.69 and 1.22 Bq.kg -1 respectively for Po-210, and 1.27, 0.56 and 0.43 Bq/kg for Pb-210 respectively. The Po-210/Pb-210 ratios in liver and kidney are 3.0 and 2.9 respectively. Po-210/Pb-210 ratios in other tissues are close to one. The total body burden of Pb-210 and Po-210 was found to be approximately 15.8 Bq and 19.1 Bq respectively

  12. Distribution and Source Identification of Pb Contamination in industrial soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    INTRODUCTION Lead (Pb) is toxic element that induce neurotoxic effect to human, because competition of Pb and Ca in nerve system. Lead is classified as a chalophile element and galena (PbS) is the major mineral. Although the Pb is not an abundant element in nature, various anthropogenic source has been enhanced Pb enrichment in the environment after the Industrial Revolution. The representative anthropogenic sources are batteries, paint, mining, smelting, and combustion of fossil fuel. Isotope analysis widely used to identify the Pb contamination source. The Pb has four stable isotopes that are 208Pb, 207Pb, 206Pb, and 204Pb in natural. The Pb is stable isotope and the ratios maintain during physical and chemical fractionation. Therefore, variations of Pb isotope abundance and relative ratios could imply the certain Pb contamination source. In this study, distributions and isotope ratios of Pb in industrial soil were used to identify the Pb contamination source and dispersion pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS Soil samples were collected at depth 0­-6 m from an industrial area in Korea. The collected soil samples were dried and sieved under 2 mm. Soil pH, aqua-regia digestion and TCLP carried out using sieved soil sample. The isotope analysis was carried out to determine the abundance of Pb isotope. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The study area was developed land for promotion of industrial facilities. The study area was forest in 1980, and the satellite image show the alterations of land use with time. The variations of land use imply the possibilities of bringing in external contaminated soil. The Pb concentrations in core samples revealed higher in lower soil compare with top soil. Especially, 4 m soil sample show highest Pb concentrations that are approximately 1500 mg/kg. This result indicated that certain Pb source existed at 4 m depth. CONCLUSIONS This study investigated the distribution and source identification of Pb in industrial soil. The land use and Pb

  13. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A.

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of 210 Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of 210 Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of 210 Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg -1 fresh wt. obtained here is according to 210 Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg -1 . (author)

  14. Pengaruh Timbal (Pb Terhadap Kadar MDA Serum Tikus Putih Jantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endrinaldi .

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTimbal (Pb merupakan logam berat bersifat toksik yang konsentrasinya di lingkungan saat ini dipandang sebagai zat berbahaya. Pb dalam bentuk senyawa berasal dari pembakaran bahan bakar kendaraan bermotor, emisi industry dan dari penggunaan cat bangunan yang mengandung Pb. Toksisitas Pb menghambat enzim yang berperan sebagai antioksidan dan merusak sel hati.Tujuan studi ini adalah untuk melihat pengaruh timbal (Pb terhadap kadar malondialdehid (MDA tikus putih jantan. Desain penelitian ini adalah eksperimental menggunakan 25 ekor tikus putih jantan yang dibagi menjadi lima kelompok, yaitu kelompok kontrol, dan kelompok perlakuan dengan pemberian Pb asetat dengan dosis konsentrasi 5, 10, 20 dan 40 mg/kg BB selama 26 hari.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terjadinya peningkatan rerata kadar MDA serum secara bermakna (p < 0,05, setelah pemberian Pb asetat selama 26 hari. Peningkatan kadar MDA secara bermakna terjadi antara kelompok kontrol dibandingkan dengan kelompok tikus yang diberi dosis 5, 10, 20 dan 40 mg/kg BB.Kesimpulan yang dapat diambil dari studi ini adalah bahwa pemberian Pb asetat meningkatkan kadar MDA serum tikus.Kata kunci: Pb asetat, MDAAbstractLead (Pb is atoxi cheavy metal concentrationsin the environment are now seenas a dangerous substance. Pb in the form of compounds derived from burningmotor vehicle fuel. Pb toxicityinhibitsan enzyme that acts as an antioxidant and liver cell damage.The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of lead (Pb on levels of malondialdehyde (MDA male whiterats. Experimental research design was used 25 white male rats were divided into five groups, namely the control group and the group treated with the administration of Pb acetate at a dose concentration of 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg / kg body weight for 26 days.The results showed an average increase in level of MDA, after administration of Pb acetate for 26 days were significantly (p <0.05. Increase in level of MDA of serum were significantly (p

  15. 210Pb and 210Po in Finnish cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka; Kostiainen, Eila; Hallikainen, Anja

    2011-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean 210 Pb/ 210 Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from 210 Pb and 210 Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 μSv per year, respectively.

  16. 210Pb and 210Po in Finnish cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka; Kostiainen, Eila; Hallikainen, Anja

    2011-05-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean (210)Pb/(210)Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 μSv per year, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb levels in beach and dune sands from Havana resorts, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; Buzón González, Fran; Arado López, Juana O

    2015-11-15

    Concentrations of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in beach and dune sands from thirteen Havana (Cuba) resorts were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Determined mean metal contents (in mg·kg(-1)) in beach sand samples were 28±12 for Ni, 35±12 for Cu, 31±11 for Zn and 6.0±1.8 for Pb, while for dune sands were 30±15, 38±22, 37±15 and 6.8±2.9, respectively. Metal-to-iron normalization shows moderately severe and severe enrichment by Cu. The comparison with sediment quality guidelines shows that dune sands from various resorts must be considered as heavily polluted by Cu and Ni. Almost in every resort, the Ni and Cu contents exceed their corresponding TEL values and, in some resorts, the Ni PEL value. The comparison with a Havana topsoil study indicates the possible Ni and Cu natural origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tracking natural and anthropogenic Pb exposure to its geological source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jane; Pashley, Vanessa; Madgwick, Richard; Neil, Samantha; Chenery, Carolyn

    2018-01-31

    Human Pb exposure comes from two sources: (i) natural uptake through ingestion of soils and typified by populations that predate mining activity and (ii) anthropogenic exposure caused by the exposure to Pb derived from ore deposits. Currently, the measured concentration of Pb within a sample is used to discriminate between these two exposure routes, with the upper limit for natural exposure in skeletal studies given as 0.5 or 0.7 mg/kg in enamel and 0.5/0.7 μg/dL in blood. This threshold approach to categorising Pb exposure does not distinguish between the geological origins of the exposure types. However, Pb isotopes potentially provide a more definitive means of discriminating between sources. Whereas Pb from soil displays a crustal average 238 U/ 204 Pb (μ) value of c 9.7, Pb from ore displays a much wider range of evolution pathways. These characteristics are transferred into tooth enamel, making it possible to characterize human Pb exposure in terms of the primary source of ingested Pb and to relate mining activity to geotectonic domains. We surmise that this ability to discriminate between silicate and sulphide Pb exposure will lead to a better understanding of the evolution of early human mining activity and development of exposure models through the Anthropocene.

  19. A Structural Molar Volume Model for Oxide Melts Part I: Li2O-Na2O-K2O-MgO-CaO-MnO-PbO-Al2O3-SiO2 Melts—Binary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Eric; Gheribi, Aimen E.; Jung, In-Ho

    2016-04-01

    A structural molar volume model was developed to accurately reproduce the molar volume of molten oxides. As the non-linearity of molar volume is related to the change in structure of molten oxides, the silicate tetrahedral Q-species, calculated from the modified quasichemical model with an optimized thermodynamic database, were used as basic structural units in the present model. Experimental molar volume data for unary and binary melts in the Li2O-Na2O-K2O-MgO-CaO-MnO-PbO-Al2O3-SiO2 system were critically evaluated. The molar volumes of unary oxide components and binary Q-species, which are model parameters of the present structural model, were determined to accurately reproduce the experimental data across the entire binary composition in a wide range of temperatures. The non-linear behavior of molar volume and thermal expansivity of binary melt depending on SiO2 content are well reproduced by the present model.

  20. Grain size dependent phase stabilities and presence of a monoclinic (Pm) phase in the morphotropic phase boundary region of (1−x)Bi(Mg{sub 1/2}Ti{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} piezoceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Ashutosh; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar, E-mail: akhilesh-bhu@yahoo.com, E-mail: aksingh.mst@itbhu.ac.in [School of Materials Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-04-14

    Results of the room temperature structural studies on (1−x)Bi(Mg{sub 1/2}Ti{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} ceramics using Rietveld analysis of the powder x-ray diffraction data in the composition range 0.28 ≤ x ≤ 0.45 are presented. The morphotropic phase boundary region exhibits coexistence of monoclinic (space group Pm) and tetragonal (space group P4 mm) phases in the composition range 0.33 ≤ x ≤ 0.40. The structure is nearly single phase monoclinic (space group Pm) in the composition range 0.28 ≤ x ≤ 0.32. The structure for the compositions with x ≥ 0.45 is found to be predominantly tetragonal with space group P4 mm. Rietveld refinement of the structure rules out the coexistence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases in the morphotropic phase boundary region reported by earlier authors. The Rietveld structure analysis for the sample x = .35 calcined at various temperatures reveals that phase fraction of the coexisting phases in the morphotropic phase boundary region varies with grain size. The structural parameters of the two coexisting phases also change slightly with changing grain size.

  1. Potential Of Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris As Bioremediation Agents of Heavy Metal Pb (Lead On Culture Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Sulistya Dewi Endah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study to determine the ability of Chlorella vulgaris in absorbing Pb (lead and the effect of the variation of Pb metal concentration on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris.This study using an experimental study with complete random design with 4 treatments, namely control (without the addition of metal, Pb1 (addition of metal 1 mg / l, Pb3 (3 mg / l and Pb5 (5 mg / l, respectively 3 replications. Exposure Pb ion in Chlorella vulgaris for 7 days. Analysis of the metal content of Pb concentration performed on culture media after exposure it at 3 hours after dispersion Chlorella vulgaris and on day 7 of culture using the AAS method. Do also counting the growth of cells each day. The results of the analysis of the average metal content of Pb in the culture medium at the end of the study was the control (0.1980, Pb1 (0.1453, Pb3 (0.4144 and Pb5 (0.5305. While the average growth of Chlorella vulgaris at the end of the study were control (630.1116 x 104, Pb1 (829.0012 x 104, Pb3 (1069.9446 x 104 and Pb 5 (808.94450 x 104. The results of the analysis of the content of Pb in the F test shown that the difference in concentration of water Pb given real influence on the ability of Chlorella vulgaris in absorbing Pb and growth. The conclusion of this study was Chlorella vulgaris has the ability to absorb metals in the waters, and the provision of various concentrations of Pb can affect the growth of Chlorella vulgaris.

  2. Potential Of Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris As Bioremediation Agents of Heavy Metal Pb (Lead) On Culture Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Endah Rita Sulistya; Nuravivah, Riza

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study to determine the ability of Chlorella vulgaris in absorbing Pb (lead) and the effect of the variation of Pb metal concentration on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris.This study using an experimental study with complete random design with 4 treatments, namely control (without the addition of metal), Pb1 (addition of metal 1 mg / l), Pb3 (3 mg / l) and Pb5 (5 mg / l), respectively 3 replications. Exposure Pb ion in Chlorella vulgaris for 7 days. Analysis of the metal content of Pb concentration performed on culture media after exposure it at 3 hours after dispersion Chlorella vulgaris and on day 7 of culture using the AAS method. Do also counting the growth of cells each day. The results of the analysis of the average metal content of Pb in the culture medium at the end of the study was the control (0.1980), Pb1 (0.1453), Pb3 (0.4144) and Pb5 (0.5305). While the average growth of Chlorella vulgaris at the end of the study were control (630.1116 x 104), Pb1 (829.0012 x 104), Pb3 (1069.9446 x 104) and Pb 5 (808.94450 x 104). The results of the analysis of the content of Pb in the F test shown that the difference in concentration of water Pb given real influence on the ability of Chlorella vulgaris in absorbing Pb and growth. The conclusion of this study was Chlorella vulgaris has the ability to absorb metals in the waters, and the provision of various concentrations of Pb can affect the growth of Chlorella vulgaris.

  3. The lead (Pb) isotope signature, behaviour and fate of traffic-related lead pollution in roadside soils in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, N; van Os, B J H; Klaver, G Th; Middelburg, J J; Davies, G R

    2014-02-15

    In this study the origin, behaviour and fate of anthropogenic Pb in sandy roadside soils were assessed by measuring soil characteristics, Pb isotope composition and content. In 1991 and 2003 samples were taken at different depth intervals at approximately 8 and 75 m from two highways in The Netherlands. The Pb isotope composition of the litter layer ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.12-1.14) differs from the deeper soil samples ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.20-1.21). Based on a mixing model it is concluded that the samples contain two Pb sources: natural Pb and anthropogenic Pb, the latter mainly derived from gasoline. (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios demonstrate that the roadside soils were polluted to a depth of ~15 cm. Within this depth interval, anthropogenic Pb content is associated with organic matter. Although Pb pollution only reached a depth of ~15 cm, this does not mean that the topsoils retain all anthropogenic Pb. Due to the low pH and negligible binding capacity of soils at depths >15 cm, anthropogenic Pb migrated towards groundwater after reaching depths of >15 cm. The Pb isotope composition of the groundwater ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.135-1.185) establishes that groundwater is polluted with anthropogenic Pb. The contribution of anthropogenic Pb to the groundwater varies between ~30 and 100%. Based on the difference in soil Pb content and Pb isotope compositions over a period of 12 years, downward Pb migration is calculated to vary from 72 ± 95 to 324 ± 279 mg m(-2)y(-1). Assuming that the downward Pb flux is constant over time, it is calculated that 35-90% of the atmospherically delivered Pb has migrated to the groundwater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Superdeformation in Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, Tabassum; Ahmad, Shakeb

    2017-01-01

    The Relatvistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) theory is used to explore the structure of superdeformed (SD) 190,212 Pb isotopes using the non-linear NL3* and density dependent (DD-ME2, DD-PC1) interactions. We have studied the the excitation energy, the potential depth and the deformation of these Pb isotopes

  5. Toxicity of Pb-contaminated soil to Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and the use of the blood-dietary Pb slope in risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Chen, Yu; Henry, Paula; May, Thomas; Mosby, David; Rattner, Barnett A.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Sprague, Daniel; Weber, John

    2014-01-01

    This study relates tissue concentrations and toxic effects of Pb in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) to the dietary exposure of soil-borne Pb associated with mining and smelting. From 0% to 12% contaminated soil, by weight, was added to 5 experimental diets (0.12 to 382 mg Pb/kg, dry wt) and fed to the quail for 6 weeks. Benchmark doses associated with a 50% reduction in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity were 0.62 mg Pb/kg in the blood, dry wt, and 27 mg Pb/kg in the diet. Benchmark doses associated with a 20% increase in the concentration of erythrocyte protoporphyrin were 2.7 mg Pb/kg in the blood and 152 mg Pb/kg in the diet. The quail showed no other signs of toxicity (histopathological lesions, alterations in plasma–testosterone concentration, and body and organ weights). The relation of the blood Pb concentration to the soil Pb concentration was linear, with a slope of 0.013 mg Pb/kg of blood (dry wt) divided by mg Pb/kg of diet. We suggest that this slope is potentially useful in ecological risk assessments on birds in the same way that the intake slope factor is an important parameter in risk assessments of children exposed to Pb. The slope may also be used in a tissue-residue approach as an additional line of evidence in ecological risk assessment, supplementary to an estimate of hazard based on dietary toxicity reference values.

  6. Study on Pb Content in 3 Week and 6 Week Old Kangkung (Ipomoea reptans Poir Planted in Pb containing Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poppy Hartatie Hardjo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A study on the content of Pb in kangkung has been conducted. Land kangkung (Ipomoea reptans was used as the sample, and was planted in hydrophonic media, and watered with Multigrow Complete Plant Food (2000 mg/L and Pb solution (2 mg/L twice a day. Samples were taken based on the age (3 and 6 week old, and part of the plant (root and all parts without root. Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometer (ICPS Fison 3410+ was used to measure the Pb content. It was shown that in the plant the accumulation was mostly happened in the root. The 6 week-old plant contained Pb not just in the root (3.36 mg/kg sample but also in the other part of the plant (2.09 mg/kg sample and those were exceeded the maximum dietary allowance (2 mg/kg sample regulated by the Indonesian FDA; while in the 3 week-old plant the Pb content in the root was 1.86 mg/kg sample and in the other part of the plan was 1.13 mg/kg, which is not exceeded the dietary allowance. So it is advisable to harvest the kangkung vegetable at the most of 3 week-old.

  7. Evolving from reactive to proactive medicine: community lead (Pb) and clinical disparities in pre- and post-Katrina New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Howard W; Gonzales, Christopher; Powell, Eric; Mielke, Paul W

    2014-07-21

    In 2012 the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) set the blood Pb reference value at ≥5 µg/dL. Clinical analysis of children's blood Pb levels is the common way to diagnose environmental Pb contamination, and intervention ensues with education and household dust cleanup. Recent review indicates that education and household dust cleanup are not effective at reducing children's Pb exposure. Here we review mapping environmental Pb and children's blood Pb response as an alternative approach for proactive Pb dust intervention. New Orleans was divided into a high (≥100 mg/kg) and low (37 times larger than allowed on interior residential floor environments. Environmental Pb dust is decreasing because of the transfer of large quantities of low Pb soil into selected communities. City-scale soil Pb mapping is an alternative diagnostic tool that provides information for planning proactive medicine to prevent clinical Pb exposure in the first place.

  8. High-precision measurements of seawater Pb isotope compositions by double spike thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Maxence; Bridgestock, Luke; Rehkämper, Mark; van DeFlierdt, Tina; Weiss, Dominik

    2015-03-10

    A new method for the determination of seawater Pb isotope compositions and concentrations was developed, which combines and optimizes previously published protocols for the separation and isotopic analysis of this element. For isotopic analysis, the procedure involves initial separation of Pb from 1 to 2L of seawater by co-precipitation with Mg hydroxide and further purification by a two stage anion exchange procedure. The Pb isotope measurements are subsequently carried out by thermal ionization mass spectrometry using a (207)Pb-(204)Pb double spike for correction of instrumental mass fractionation. These methods are associated with a total procedural Pb blank of 28±21 pg (1sd) and typical Pb recoveries of 40-60%. The Pb concentrations are determined by isotope dilution (ID) on 50 mL of seawater, using a simplified version of above methods. Analyses of multiple aliquots of six seawater samples yield a reproducibility of about ±1 to ±10% (1sd) for Pb concentrations of between 7 and 50 pmol/kg, where precision was primarily limited by the uncertainty of the blank correction (12±4 pg; 1sd). For the Pb isotope analyses, typical reproducibilities (±2sd) of 700-1500 ppm and 1000-2000 ppm were achieved for (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (207)Pb/(204)Pb, (208)Pb/(204)Pb, respectively. These results are superior to literature data that were obtained using plasma source mass spectrometry and they are at least a factor of five more precise for ratios involving the minor (204)Pb isotope. Both Pb concentration and isotope data, furthermore, show good agreement with published results for two seawater intercomparison samples of the GEOTRACES program. Finally, the new methods were applied to a seawater depth profile from the eastern South Atlantic. Both Pb contents and isotope compositions display a smooth evolution with depth, and no obvious outliers. Compared to previous Pb isotope data for seawater, the (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratios are well correlated

  9. Transfer analysis of 210Po and 210Pb in the terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B.R.R.

    2013-01-01

    The transfer of 210 Po and 210 Pb between various compartments in the terrestrial environment has been analysed by using published data. The average activity concentration of 210 Po in dry soil is 61 ± 14 Bq.kg -1 (median 44 Bq.kg -1 ). Ground water concentrations of 210 Po in drilled wells might be as high as 6.5 Bq/l. But in regular drinking water it is just about 3-5 mBq/l. The uptake of radionuclides from soil to plant is usually given as the ratio of dry matter radionuclide-activity concentrations of plant (AC plant ) and soil (AC soil ) respectively. This ratio is called the soil transfer factor: STF = AC plant /AC soil . The soil transfer factor varies widely between various types of crops with an average of about 0.056±0.003. The activity concentrations in leafy plants are, however highly affected by the atmospheric deposition of 210 Pb and 210 Po. By comparing the activity concentrations in plants grown on an open field with those grown on a field sheltered by a polyethylene tent, it has been possible to estimate a deposition transfer factor: DTF = Difference of the dry matter activity concentration (Bq.kg -1 ) of plant grown in open field and plants grown in tent shelter, divided by the atmospheric deposition during the vegetation period (Bq.m -2 ). The deposition transfer factor for 210 Pb thus estimated is in the order of 0.5-1.0 (m 2 .kg -1 dry matter) for leafy plants like grass and 0.1-0.5 for less leafy plant and straw. For various grains it is < 0.2 and for root fruits it is < 0.003 (m 2 .kg -1 dry matter). Corresponding values for 210 Po are about a factor 3 times higher. The world average activity concentration of 210 Po in fresh leafy vegetable is estimated to 320±190 mBq.kg -1 , and in cereals and grain products 240±80 mBq.kg -1 . The average activity concentration in milk products is 59 ± 13 mBq.kg -1 and in meat products about 70 ± 39 mBq.kg -1 . The dietary intake of milk and meat products is 170 kg.a - which is the highest of all food

  10. Determination of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in continuous use drugs and excipients by plasma-based techniques in compliance with the United States Pharmacopeia requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Caroline Santos; Pinheiro, Fernanda Costa; do Amaral, Clarice Dias Britto; Nóbrega, Joaquim Araújo

    2017-12-01

    Some inorganic impurities are toxic to human health even when present at low concentrations and therefore must be carefully monitored in products as continuous use drugs. This work aimed the development of a simple microwave-assisted digestion procedure for different types of drugs and excipients and the analytical determination of elemental impurities according to the new regulations of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 232 and 233 using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Eight drugs samples and two excipients of different brands were microwave-assisted digested with inverse aqua regia. Addition and recovery experiments were performed according to J values, once permissible daily exposure value is specific for each element and estimated according to the maximum daily dose of drug indicated by the label. Samples were spiked with values of 1.5J in order to check accuracies for As, Cd, Hg, and Pb. Recoveries obtained by ICP-OES ranged from 75 to 148% and for ICP-MS ranged from 74 to 120%. The limits of detection for ICP-OES ranged from 0.4 to 17 mg kg- 1 and for ICP-MS from 7.4 to 41.6 μg kg- 1. Both analytical methods were adequate in terms of accuracies and sensitivities. Considering the maximum daily dose, all drugs samples and excipients contained As, Cd, Hg and Pb below the maximum limits stipulated by USP since all of them presented contents below respective limits of detection.

  11. Assessment of 210Po and 210Pb in lichen, moss and soil around Can coal-fired power plant, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murat Belivermis; Onder Kilic; Akin Caayir; Munevver Coskun; Mahmut Coskun

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with determination of 210 Po and 210 Pb activity concentrations using epigeic moss (Hypnum cupressiforme), bushy soil (fruticose) lichen (Cladonia rangiformis) and surface soil samples in the area around Can coal-fired power plant, northwest Turkey. Mean activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb were found to be 303.9 and 425.8 Bq kg -1 for moss, 161.6 and 259.1 Bq kg -1 for lichen, and 79.9 and 91.5 Bq kg -1 for soil samples at dry weight, respectively. We propose that distance and altitude of sampling site may be of significant parameters of distribution of both radionuclides. (author)

  12. An assessment of 210Pb and 210Po in terrestrial foodstuffs from regions of England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, P.; Jackson, D.; Leonard, D.R.P.; McKay, K.

    1999-01-01

    Based on data for nationally available foodstuffs, naturally occurring 210 Pb and 210 Po contribute significantly to the UK radiation dose from dietary intake. To provide a more complete overview of radiological implications to the public, samples of offal, cereal, fruit, root and green vegetables were collected from 11 sites, including regions of potential 210 Pb and 210 Po enhancement. Considerable variability was evident in levels of 210 Pb and 210 Po from all sites and in all food types investigated. Higher concentrations were typically found in offal and cereals. Lowest concentrations were generally found in root vegetables. Between sites, the only evidence of elevated concentrations of 210 Po occurred at Helston ( 210 Po 3.0 Bq kg -1 in bovine liver, no other offal sample exceeding 0.8 Bq kg -1 ), and Holyhead 210 Po 0.4 Bq kg -1 in blackberries, no other fruit sample exceeding 0.1 Bq kg -1 ). Other foodstuffs from these sites did not show similar enhanced levels of 210 Po. The maximum dose arising from consumption of 210 Pb and 210 Po in foods surveyed in this study is estimated to be around 120 μSv year -1 to adults. This compares with an estimated UK average consumption dose from all nuclides and foodstuffs of 300 μSv year -1 (broad range 100-1000 μSv year -1 ). (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. Lead (Pb) bioaccumulation; genera Bacillus isolate S1 and SS19 as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifiyanto, Achmad; Apriyanti, Fitria Dwi; Purwaningsih, Puput; Kalqutny, Septian Hary; Agustina, Dyah; Surtiningsih, Tini; Shovitri, Maya; Zulaika, Enny

    2017-06-01

    Lead (Pb) includes a group of large heavy metal in nature was toxic either on animal or human and did not provide an advantage function biologically. Bacillus isolates S1 and SS19 known resistant to lead up to 50 mg / L PbCl2. In this research will be examined whether genera Bacillus isolates S1 and SS19 could accumulate metal lead (Pb), their capability in accumulating and profile protein differences when the bacteria genera Bacillus isolates S1 and SS19 get exposed metal lead (Pb). Inoculum at age ± 9 hours are used, with a Nutrient Broth (NB) containing 50, 75 and 100 mg / L PbCl2. Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP) used to assessed Pb2+ concentrations. Bioaccumulation levels of Pb2+ by Bacillus isolate S1 and SS19 related to the distinction of beginning concentration to the final concentration. Bacillus isolate S1 achieved 53% and 51% bioaccumulation efficiency rate in lead presence concentration (75 and 100 mg/L) and 51% (50 mg/L). Another way Bacillus isolate SS19 was able to accumulate 57% (50 mg/L PbCl2) and kept stable on 36% bioaccumulation efficiency rate (75 and 100 mg/L PbCl2). Regarding SDS-PAGE electrophoresis protein profile result, protein in ± 127 kDa, molecule mass detected in the presence of Lead for Bacillus isolate S1.

  14. The Effect of EDTA and Citric acid on Soil Enzymes Activity, Substrate Induced Respiration and Pb Availability in a Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed sajjad hosseini

    2017-03-01

    determined by standard methods after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of chelates addition. Results and Discussion: The soil texture was loam and the indigenous Pb content was 25.55 mg kg-1. The soil pH was 7.4 and electrical conductivity of saturated extraction measured 2.5 dS m-1. The soil carbonate calcium was 14% and the content of organic carbon and essential nutrients were low. The results showed that EDTA3 and EDTA5 treatments increased Pb availability by 2.17% and 10% compared to control treatment but CA3 and CA5 treatments decreased it by 3.8% and 15.7% respectively. The Pb availability in control and EDTA5 treatments did not change during the incubation time. The available Pb concentration dropped sharply during the incubation time in EDTA3, CA3 and CA5 treatments. The reduction rates in CA3 and CA5 treatments were more than EDTA3 treatment. This may be due to the high stability and low biodegradability of EDTA than biodegradable chelators and low molecular weight organic acids. The results showed that urease and dehydrogenase activities were significantly reduced in EDTA3 and EDTA5 treatments compared to control treatment. Urease and dehydrogenase activities were decreased with the increase of EDTA concentration. Alkaline phosphomonoesterase activity was not affected by the EDTA3 and EDTA5 treatments. In CA3 and CA5 treatments, dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities significantly increased with increasing the concentration of citric acid. CA5 treatment showed a prominent effect on urease activity compare to CA3 treatment. The soil enzyme activities increased with incubation time. It seems that reduction in Pb availability causes an increase of soil enzymes activities. Significant negative relationships were found between soil enzymes activities and available Pb concentration (dehydrogenase activity (r=-0.906, P

  15. Distribution of 210Pb and 210Po concentrations in wild berries and mushrooms in boreal forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaaramaa, Kaisa; Solatie, Dina; Aro, Lasse

    2009-01-01

    The activity concentrations and distribution of 210 Pb and 210 Po in wild berries and edible mushrooms were investigated in Finnish forests. The main study areas were located in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in southern and northern Finland. The activity concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) samples decreased in the order: stems > leaves > berries (i.e. fruits). The activity ratios of 210 Po/ 210 Pb in the wild berry samples were mainly higher than one, indicating elevated activity concentrations of polonium in the samples. In mushrooms the activity concentrations of 210 Pb and especially 210 Po were higher than in fruits of the wild berries. The highest activity concentration of 210 Pb was detected in Cortinarius armillatus L. (16.2 Bq kg -1 d.w.) and the lowest in Leccinum vulpinum L. (1.38 Bq kg -1 d.w.). The 210 Po activity concentrations of the whole fruiting bodies ranged from 7.14 Bq kg -1 d.w. (Russula paludosa L.) to 1174 Bq kg -1 d.w. (L. vulpinum L.). In general, the highest activity concentrations of 210 Po were recorded in boletes. The caps of mushrooms of the Boletaceae family showed higher activity concentrations of 210 Po compared to the stipes. In most of the mushrooms analyzed, the activity concentrations of 210 Po were higher than those of 210 Pb. 210 Po and 210 Pb dominate the radiation doses received via ingestion of wild berries and mushrooms in northern Finland, while in southern Finland the ingested dose is dominated by 137 Cs from the Chernobyl fallout.

  16. Factors affecting 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in mussels and implications for environmental bio-monitoring programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Joao M.; Alberto, G.

    2011-01-01

    The activity of 210 Po and 210 Pb was determined in mussels of the same size (3.5-4.0 cm shell length) sampled monthly over a 17-month period at the Atlantic coast of Portugal. Average radionuclide concentration values in mussels were 759 ± 277 Bq kg -1 for 210 Po (range 460-1470 Bq kg -1 dry weight), and 45 ± 19 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb (range 23-96 Bq kg -1 dry weight). Environmental parameters and mussel biometric parameters were monitored during the same period. Although there was no seasonal variation of radionuclide concentrations in sea water during the study period, the concentration of radionuclide activity in mussels varied seasonally displaying peaks of high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. Analysis of radionuclide data in relation to the physiological Condition Index of mussels revealed that 210 Po and 210 Pb activities in the mussel (average activity per individual) remained nearly constant during the investigation period, while mussel body weight fluctuated due to fat storage/expenditure in the soft tissues. Similar variation of radionuclide concentrations was observed in mussels transplanted from the sea coast into the Tejo Estuary. However, under estuarine environmental conditions and with higher food availability throughout the year, transplanted mussel Condition Index was higher than in coastal mussels and average radionuclide concentrations were 210 ± 75 Bq kg -1 (dry weight) for 210 Po and 10 ± 4 Bq kg -1 (dry weight) for 210 Pb, therefore lower than in coastal mussels with similar shell length. It is concluded that the apparent seasonal fluctuation and inter-site difference of radionuclide concentrations were mostly caused by mussel body weight fluctuation and not by radionuclide body burden fluctuation. This interpretation can be extended to the apparent seasonal fluctuation in concentrations of lipophilic and lipophobic contaminants in mussels, and provides an explanation for occasional high concentrations of 210 Po

  17. Projectile deformation effects in the breakup of 37Mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhchintak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the breakup of 37Mg on Pb at 244MeV/u with the recently developed extended theory of Coulomb breakup within the postform finite range distorted wave Born approximation that includes deformation of the projectile. Comparing our calculated cross section with the available Coulomb breakup data we determine the possible ground state configuration of 37Mg.

  18. Charmonium production in pp, pPb and PbPb collisions with CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ståhl, Andre Govinda

    2017-01-01

    The LHC Run 1 results of the analysis of charmonium production in pp, pPb and PbPb collisions with the CMS experiment are reported. The coherent J/ψ photoproduction cross section is measured as a function of rapidity in ultra-peripheral PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV. The forward-backward ratio of prompt J/ψ yields in pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV is presented as a function of the event activity and p T . The nuclear modification factor of prompt J/ψ in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV is shown as a function of rapidity, centrality and p T . Finally, the ratio of ψ (2 S ) to J/ψ yields in PbPb collisions with respect to pp collisions at 2.76 TeV is analysed in different rapidity and centrality bins. (paper)

  19. Pb low doses induced genotoxicity in Lactuca sativa plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S; Silva, P; Oliveira, H; Gaivão, I; Matos, M; Pinto-Carnide, O; Santos, C

    2017-03-01

    Soil and water contamination by lead (Pb) remains a topic of great concern, particularly regarding crop production. The admissible Pb values in irrigation water in several countries range from ≈0.1 to ≈5 mg L -1 . In order to evaluate putative effects of Pb within legal doses on crops growth, we exposed Lactuca sativa seeds and seedlings to increasing doses of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 up to 20 mg L -1 . The OECD parameter seed germination and seedling/plant growth were not affected by any of the Pb-concentrations used. However, for doses higher than 5 mg L -1 significant DNA damage was detected: Comet assay detected DNA fragmentation at ≥ 5 mg L -1 and presence of micronuclei (MN) were detected for 20 mg L -1 . Also, cell cycle impairment was observed for doses as low as 0.05 mg L -1 and 0.5 mg L -1 (mostly G 2 arrest). Our data show that for the low doses of Pb used, the OECD endpoints were not able to detect toxicity, while more sensitive endpoints (related with DNA damage and mitotic/interphase disorders) identified genotoxic and cytostatic effects. Furthermore, the nature of the genotoxic effect was dependent on the concentration. Finally, we recommend that MN test and the comet assay should be included as sensitive endpoints in (eco)toxicological assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Densities and apparent molar volumes of atmospherically important electrolyte solutions. 2. The systems H(+)-HSO4(-)-SO4(2-)-H2O from 0 to 3 mol kg(-1) as a function of temperature and H(+)-NH4(+)-HSO4(-)-SO4)2-)-H2O from 0 to 6 mol kg(-1) at 25 °C using a Pitzer ion interaction model, and NH4HSO4-H2O and (NH4)3H(SO4)2-H2O over the entire concentration range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, S L; Wexler, A S

    2011-04-21

    A Pitzer ion interaction model has been applied to the systems H(2)SO(4)-H(2)O (0-3 mol kg(-1), 0-55 °C) and H(2)SO(4)-(NH(4))(2)SO(4)-H(2)O (0-6 mol kg(-1), 25 °C) for the calculation of apparent molar volume and density. The dissociation reaction HSO(4)(-)((aq)) ↔ H(+)((aq)) + SO(4)(2-)((aq)) is treated explicitly. Apparent molar volumes of the SO(4)(2-) ion at infinite dilution were obtained from part 1 of this work, (1) and the value for the bisulfate ion was determined in this study from 0 to 55 °C. In dilute solutions of both systems, the change in the degree of dissociation of the HSO(4)(-) ion with concentration results in much larger variations of the apparent molar volumes of the solutes than for conventional strong (fully dissociated) electrolytes. Densities and apparent molar volumes are tabulated. Apparent molar volumes calculated using the model are combined with other data for the solutes NH(4)HSO(4) and (NH(4))(3)H(SO(4))(2) at 25 °C to obtain apparent molar volumes and densities over the entire concentration range (including solutions supersaturated with respect to the salts).

  1. 210Pb and 210Po concentrations in the Venice lagoon ecosystem (Italy) and the potential radiological impact to the local public and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guogang Jia; Belli, M.; Sansone, U.; Rosamilia, S.; Blasi, M.

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate the possible radiological impact to the local public and environment from a phosphogypsum stockpile, 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in river water, lagoon water, suspended matter, superficial sediment, algae and bivalves samples collected in Venice lagoon area have been investigated. The results show that the mean 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in river water are 1.42 ± 0.36 mBq x l -1 and 1.46 ± 0.39 mBq x l -1 with a mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio of 0.98 ± 0.17 and about 60% of them are associated with the particulate; 210 Po and 210 Pb contribution from the phosphogypsum stockpile to the river water is negligible. Higher 210 Po (2.61-5.67 mBq x l -1 ) and 210 Pb (1.31-3.62 mBq x l -1 ) concentrations in the lagoon waters have been observed if compared with the literature values. About 60% of 210 Po and 210 Pb are found in the soluble form with a mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio of 1.79 ± 1.47. 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in 28 out 37 sediment samples ranged from 26 to 45 Bq x kg -1 (dry weight), only 9 sediments with 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations greater than 45 Bq x kg -1 are found and most of them are located 1-4 km near the phosphogypsum stockpile. The elevated 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in the sediments may be due to the contamination from the phosphogypsum stockpile. The mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio (0.986 ± 0.049) in the sediments shows that 210 Po and 210 Pb exist in nearly secular equilibrium. 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in algae vary with different species. The mean 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in Gracilaria compress and Ulva laetevirens which show a similar behavior, are 3.18 ± 1.23 Bq x kg -1 and 2.42 ± 1.26 Bq x kg -1 (fresh weight), respectively, with a mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio of 1.45 ± 0.34. The mean concentration factors with respect to the filtered water are 1096 ± 424 for 210 Po and 1299 ± 680 for 210 Pb. The mean 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in the soft part of Mytilus edulis are 23.2 ± 9.7 Bq

  2. Analysis of 210 Pb and 137 Cs in diets of university students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Roberto T.; Cunha, Ieda I.L.; Maihara, Vera A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, 210 P and 137 Cs were determined in the male students diets (age: 19-25) of Sao Paulo University, by gamma spectrometry. The sampling was made using the duplicate portion methodology, which consists in collecting duplicate portions of all food and beverage consumed during three days of a week. The levels obtained for 210 Pb in these samples varied from the Minimum Detectable Concentration (0.43 Bq.kg -1 ) to 1.68 Bq.kg -1 . For 137 Cs, the values ranged from the Minimum Detectable Concentration (0.17 Bq.kg -1 ) to 0.95 Bq.kg -1 . An estimate of the daily ingestion of those radionuclides was made according to the data obtained. The values varied from 78 to 309 mBq.d -1 for 210 Pb, and 53 to 157 mBq.d -1 , for 137 Cs, among the diets analyzed. The data obtained these diets agreed with the data obtained for other authors. (author)

  3. Determination of Ca, Cu, Fe and Pb in sugarcane raw spirits by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzo, Magdalena; Reyes, Arlyn; Blanco, Idania; Vasallo, Maria C

    2010-01-01

    The determination of Ca, Cu, Fe and Pb in sugarcane raw spirits by atomic absorption spectrophotometry was carried out. For 20 μL injected sample, calibration within the 0,5-25,0 mg. L -1 Ca; 0,25-5,0 mg. L -1 Cu, Pb and Cu intervals were established using the ratios Cu, Ca, Fe and Pb absorbance versus analyte concentration, respectively. Typical linear correlations of r = 0,999 were obtained. The proposed method was applied for the direct determination of Ca, Cu, Fe and Pb in sugar cane spirits, and in samples. The results obtained were in accordance to those obtained at 95% confidence level

  4. Pb migration in the OKLO uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gancarz, A.J.; Curtis, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    U-Pb and Pb isotopic data are presented which indicate that Pb is lost from host uraninite by diffusion, and that not only in situ uranogenic Pb but also the initial Pb is lost by diffusion. The conglomerate underlying the U deposit contains excess Pb and is both a transport zone and the repository for the Pb. 2 figures

  5. Lead and stable Pb-isotope characteristics of tropical soils in north-eastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schucknecht, Anne; Matschullat, Jörg; Reimann, Clemens

    2011-01-01

    Stable Pb-isotope ratios are widely used as tracers for Pb-sources in the environment. Recently, a few publications have challenged the predominating view of environmental applications of Pb-isotopes. Present applications of Pb-isotopic tracers in soils largely represent the northern hemisphere. This study focuses on tropical soils from Paraíba, north-eastern Brazil. Lead concentrations and Pb-isotopic signatures (both 7N HNO 3 ) were determined at 30 sites along a 327 km E–W-transect, from the Atlantic coast at João Pessoa to some kilometers west of Patos, to identify possible processes for the observed (and anticipated) distribution pattern. Thirty samples each of litter (ORG) and top mineral soil (TOP) were taken on pasture land at suitable distance from roads or other potential contamination sources. Lead-content was determined by inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and the ratios of 206 Pb/ 207 Pb, 206 Pb/ 208 Pb, and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb by ICP-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). Both sample materials show similarly low Pb-concentrations with a lower median in the ORG samples (ORG 3.4 mg kg −1 versus TOP 6.9 mg kg −1 ). The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios revealed a large spread along the transect with median 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios of 1.160 (ORG) and 1.175 (TOP). The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios differ noticeably between sample sites located in the Atlantic Forest biome along the coast and sample sites in the inland Caatinga biome. The “forest” sites were characterised by a significant lower median and a lower spread in the 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 206 Pb/ 208 Pb ratios compared to the Caatinga sites. Results indicate a very restricted influence of anthropogenic activities (individual sites only). The main process influencing the spatial variability of Pb-isotope ratios is supposed to be precipitation-dependent bioproductivity and weathering.

  6. Heavy metals pollution and pb isotopic signatures in surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Lu, Jin; Hao, Hong; Yin, Shuhua; Yu, Xiao; Wang, Qiwen; Sun, Ke

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics and potential sources of heavy metals pollution, surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China, were analyzed for the selected metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). The Geoaccumulation Index was used to assess the level of heavy metal pollution. Pb isotopic compositions in sediments were also measured to effectively identify the potential Pb sources. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 0.15, 79.73, 28.70, 36.56, 25.63, and 72.83 mg/kg, respectively. The mean concentrations of the studied metals were slightly higher than the background values. However, the heavy metals concentrations in surface sediments in Bohai Bay were below the other important bays or estuaries in China. The assessment by Geoaccumulation Index indicated that Cr, Zn, and Cd were classified as "the unpolluted" level, while Ni, Cu, and Pb were ranked as "unpolluted to moderately polluted" level. The order of pollution level of heavy metals was: Pb > Ni > Cu > Cr > Zn > Cd. The Pb isotopic ratios in surface sediments varied from 1.159 to 1.185 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb and from 2.456 to 2.482 for (208)Pb/(207)Pb. Compared with Pb isotopic radios in other sources, Pb contaminations in the surface sediments of Bohai Bay may be controlled by the mix process of coal combustion, aerosol particles deposition, and natural sources.

  7. Baseline concentration of ²¹⁰Po and ²¹⁰Pb in Sargassum from the northern Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, S; Aba, A; Bebhehani, M

    2015-01-15

    This baseline study highlights the (210)Po and (210)Pb concentration in two species of the benthic macroalgae Sargassum from northern Gulf, also known as the ROPME Sea Area (RSA). Within the marine environment, (210)Po is initially absorbed from water and concentrated by phytoplankton and macroalgae, and this concentrated (210)Po can then readily be passed along to the higher trophic level of the marine food web. The (210)Po concentration measured in Sargassum boveanum (22.5-25.6 Bq kg(-1)) was higher than that in Sargassum oligocystum (20.2-22.5 Bq kg(-1)), but is not statistically significant (p>0.064), where as the difference between (210)Pb concentrations in Sargassum boveanum (15.3-16.8 Bq kg(-1)) and Sargassum oligocystum (18.4-22.0 Bq kg(-1)) was statistically significant (p>0.019). The measured concentration factor for (210)Po in Sargassum in the northern Gulf varied between 0.55 and 1.2×10(4), values higher to the IAEA recommended value of 1×10(3). The (210)Po enrichment is observed in both the species of Sargassum,(210)Po/(210)Pb ratio was >1 at all the stations for all the samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The lead (Pb) isotope signature, behaviour and fate of traffic-related lead pollution in roadside soils in The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walraven, N., E-mail: n.walraven@geoconnect.nl [GeoConnect, Meester Dekkerstraat 4, 1901 PV Castricum (Netherlands); Os, B.J.H. van, E-mail: b.vanos@rce.nl [Rijksdienst voor Archeologie, Cultuurlandschap en Monumenten, P.O. Box 1600, 3800 BP Amersfoort (Netherlands); Klaver, G.Th., E-mail: g.klaver@brgm.nl [BRGM, 3 avenue Claude-Guillemin, BP 36009, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Middelburg, J.J., E-mail: j.b.m.middelburg@uu.nl [University Utrecht, Faculty of Geosciences, P.O. Box 80021, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Davies, G.R., E-mail: g.r.davies@vu.nl [VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Petrology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-02-01

    In this study the origin, behaviour and fate of anthropogenic Pb in sandy roadside soils were assessed by measuring soil characteristics, Pb isotope composition and content. In 1991 and 2003 samples were taken at different depth intervals at approximately 8 and 75 m from two highways in The Netherlands. The Pb isotope composition of the litter layer ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.12–1.14) differs from the deeper soil samples ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.20–1.21). Based on a mixing model it is concluded that the samples contain two Pb sources: natural Pb and anthropogenic Pb, the latter mainly derived from gasoline. {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios demonstrate that the roadside soils were polluted to a depth of ∼ 15 cm. Within this depth interval, anthropogenic Pb content is associated with organic matter. Although Pb pollution only reached a depth of ∼ 15 cm, this does not mean that the topsoils retain all anthropogenic Pb. Due to the low pH and negligible binding capacity of soils at depths > 15 cm, anthropogenic Pb migrated towards groundwater after reaching depths of > 15 cm. The Pb isotope composition of the groundwater ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.135–1.185) establishes that groundwater is polluted with anthropogenic Pb. The contribution of anthropogenic Pb to the groundwater varies between ∼ 30 and 100%. Based on the difference in soil Pb content and Pb isotope compositions over a period of 12 years, downward Pb migration is calculated to vary from 72 ± 95 to 324 ± 279 mg m{sup −2} y{sup −1}. Assuming that the downward Pb flux is constant over time, it is calculated that 35–90% of the atmospherically delivered Pb has migrated to the groundwater. - Highlights: • Lead isotope composition of litter and topsoil differs from the deeper soil samples. • Litter and topsoil contain anthropogenic Pb, with gasoline Pb as main source. • Anthropogenic Pb is strongly associated with organic matter in litter and topsoil. • Approximately 35–90% of

  9. Spectroscopy of 189Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, A.M.; Byrne, A.P.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Brown, T.; Carpenter, M.P.; Conticchio, L.F.; Davids, C.N.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.; Nisius, D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Recent studies of the very neutron-deficient lead isotopes 188 , 190 Pb have shown evidence for competing structures which may be attributed to the coexistence of spherical, weakly-deformed oblate and moderately-deformed prolate shapes. These studies have relied strongly on the observation of isomers to distinguish the properties of the states concerned. However, prior to the present work, information on the properties of the yrast and near-yrast states in the neighbouring, odd-A isotope 189 Pb was tentative and fragmentary. In an experiment at the Argonne National Laboratory, prompt gamma-gamma coincidence data on 189 Pb were obtained with the 158 Gd( 36 Ar,5n) reaction. In this experiment, mass identification of the gamma-radiation was provided by coincident detection of recoiling evaporation residues in the ANL Fragment Mass Analyser. In a second experiment, at the Australian National University, using the 164 Er( 29 Si,4n) reaction, an isomer with a 32-μs lifetime was identified in 189 Pb and the main features of the level scheme below this isomer were established. The results will be discussed in the light of the structures identified in the heavier odd-mass lead isotopes and in the neighbouring even-mass isotopes

  10. Availability of metals Cd and Pb and metalloid As in the Ribeira do Iguape River hydrographic basin and its tributaries: an environmental contamination assessment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Francisco Jose Viana de

    2012-01-01

    site 5. The concentration values for As were lower than QL (30 μg L -1 ) of the method for all fish blood analyzed. The sediment of site 5 presented values of 72.1 mg kg -1 for As and 474 mg kg -1 for Pb and both were well above the PEL limits, being classified as Bad quality. A strong correlation between metals in sediments and blood fish samples was verified. The results obtained by INAA in the sediment samples were assessed by geochemical tools, Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), to evaluate the extent of metal pollution in sediments. Again site 5 presented the highest EF and IGeo values and it was considered highly polluted for As and polluted for Sb and Zn. Site 7, was considered moderately polluted for As, Br and Sb. Although all mining operations have long ceased the deleterious effects on the environment are still present. (author)

  11. Jet Fragmentation in p+p, p+Pb and Pb+Pb at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Slovak, Radim; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Jets are an important tool to study the hot, dense matter produced in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC. Due to the loss of some of the jet’s energy outside the jet cone, jet rates have been found to be reduced by approximately a factor of two, in the most central events and over a wide kinematic range. In order to understand precisely how the jets are modified, it is important to measure how the jet momentum is carried by its fragmentation products. The longitudinal momentum fraction of charged particles in jets from Pb+Pb, p+Pb, and p+p collisions have been measured using the ATLAS detector. Proton-proton and p+Pb collisions provide necessary baseline measurements for quantifying the modifications in Pb+Pb collisions. In Run 1, ATLAS collected samples of p+p and Pb+Pb collisions at a center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV and a sample of p+Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV. In Run 2, large samples of p+p and Pb+Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV have been collected providing a complete set of collision systems at 5.02 TeV. In this t...

  12. Removal of Pb2+ from the aqueous solution by tartrate intercalated layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yanming; Zhao, Xiaolei; Zhang, Xi; Li, Shifeng; Liu, Dongbin; Fan, Lihui

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption of Pb 2+ ion by a tartrate intercalated MgAl layered double hydroxides (MgAl-TA LDHs) was studied. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated as a function of various experimental parameters using batch adsorption experiments. The results indicated that the adsorption isotherm was well described by Sips model. The kinetic adsorption data were fitted well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation. The adsorption of Pb 2+ was controlled mainly by the chemical process combined with intraparticle diffusion. Parameters of adsorption thermodynamic suggested that the interaction of Pb 2+ adsorbed by MgAl-TA LDHs adsorbents was thermodynamically spontaneous and endothermic.

  13. Majors soil classes of the metropolitan region of Curitiba (PR, Brazil: II - interaction of Pb with mineral and organic constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Duarte Pires

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between heavy metals and soil constituents is one of the most important factors influencing the potential for ground water pollution. To study Pb behavior, samples of soils were incubated with a salt solution containing this metal. The experimental units consisted of plastic bags, partially opened with 0.1 dm³ of soil with three replications. After incubation, samples were subjected to sequential and selective extractions. Lead retention, measured by the maximum adsorption capacity of the soil, was relatively high with values ranging from 6,439 to 22,148 mg kg-1. The sequential and selective extractions showed that Pb adsorption was stable where the metal was found mainly in organic matter, Fe and Al oxides, and residual forms (specific adsorption. The capacity of the soils to retain Pb, thereby increasing the leaching potential of the metal, was in the sequence of: Histosol - Oxisol - Inceptisol.A interação entre os metais pesados e os constituintes orgânicos e minerais do solo é um dos fatores mais importantes para definir o potencial de contaminação das águas subterrâneas. Para estudar o comportamento do Pb em solos da região metropolitana de Curitiba, estado do Paraná, amostras das classes Organossolo, Latossolo e Cambissolo foram submetidas a análises físicas e químicas, e incubadas com soluções de sais desse metal. A dosagem utilizada correspondeu a 40% da Capacidade Máxima de Adsorção de Pb do solo (CMA. O ensaio foi conduzido na Universidade Federal do Paraná, em condições de casa de vegetação, no período de 29 de outubro a 29 de dezembro de 2003. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições e as unidades experimentais corresponderam a sacos plásticos parcialmente abertos com 0,1 dm³ de solo. Após o período de incubação (60 dias, as amostras foram submetidas a extrações seqüenciais e seletivas, na seguinte ordem: 1 KCl 0,005 mol L-1; 2 BaCl2 0,1 mol L-1; 3 Na

  14. Adaptation of soil microbial community structure and function to chronic metal contamination at an abandoned Pb-Zn mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelde, Lur; Lanzén, Anders; Blanco, Fernando; Urich, Tim; Garbisu, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity of metals released from mine tailings may cause severe damage to ecosystems. A diversity of microorganisms, however, have successfully adapted to such sites. In this study, our objective was to advance the understanding of the indigenous microbial communities of mining-impacted soils. To this end, a metatranscriptomic approach was used to study a heavily metal-contaminated site along a metal concentration gradient (up to 3220 000 and 97 000 mg kg(-1) of Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively) resulting from previous mining. Metal concentration, soil pH and amount of clay were the most important factors determining the structure of soil microbial communities. Interestingly, evenness of the microbial communities, but not its richness, increased with contamination level. Taxa with high metabolic plasticity like Ktedonobacteria and Chloroflexi were found with higher relative abundance in more contaminated samples. However, several taxa belonging to the phyla Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria followed opposite trends in relation to metal pollution. Besides, functional transcripts related to transposition or transfer of genetic material and membrane transport, potentially involved in metal resistance mechanisms, had a higher expression in more contaminated samples. Our results provide an insight into microbial communities in long-term metal-contaminated environments and how they contrast to nearby sites with lower contamination. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Flux flow and proximity effects in aligned Pb--Cd eutectic lamellar structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, C. R.

    1977-09-01

    A high speed directional solidification technique was used to fabricate lamellar Pb-Cd and (Pb-Mg)--(Cd-Mg) superconductor-normal metal composites in which all the lamellae are oriented perpendicular to the broad surface of the sample. These lamellar composites are found to behave like a large number (approximately 1000) of superconducting-normal-superconducting junctions. For the Pb-Cd eutectic system, the critical current densities and critical fields have shown no dependence upon the lamellar periods between 1.0 and 3.1 microns. The critical current density of the aligned lamellar Pb-Cd structures was enhanced approximately 50% when compared to quenched eutectic alloy and to pure Pb. The superconducting transition temperature, T/sub c/, varies inversely with the square of the thickness of the superconducting material as expected from Ginzburg-Landau theory. Upon annealing, the Pb lamellae change from type II to type I superconductivity.

  16. Flux flow and proximity effects in aligned Pb--Cd eutectic lamellar structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, C.R.

    1977-09-01

    A high speed directional solidification technique was used to fabricate lamellar Pb-Cd and (Pb-Mg)--(Cd-Mg) superconductor-normal metal composites in which all the lamellae are oriented perpendicular to the broad surface of the sample. These lamellar composites are found to behave like a large number (approximately 1000) of superconducting-normal-superconducting junctions. For the Pb-Cd eutectic system, the critical current densities and critical fields have shown no dependence upon the lamellar periods between 1.0 and 3.1 microns. The critical current density of the aligned lamellar Pb-Cd structures was enhanced approximately 50% when compared to quenched eutectic alloy and to pure Pb. The superconducting transition temperature, T/sub c/, varies inversely with the square of the thickness of the superconducting material as expected from Ginzburg-Landau theory. Upon annealing, the Pb lamellae change from type II to type I superconductivity

  17. Primordial Pb, radiogenic Pb and lunar soil maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, G.W. Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1978-01-01

    The soil maturity index I/sub s//FeO does not apply to either 204 Pb/sub r/ or C/sub hyd/; both are directly correlated with the submicron Fe 0 (I/sub s/) content. They act as an index of soil maturity which is independent of soil composition. In contrast to primordial Pb, radiogenic Pb is lost during soil maturation. Radiogenic Pb is present in mineral grains and may be lost by solar wind sputtering (or volatilization) and not resupplied. 204 Pb coating grain surfaces acts as a reservoir to provide the 204 Pb being extracted in the Fe 0 formation process. Venting or some other volatile source may replenish the surface 204 Pb. 1 figure

  18. CH3NH3Pb1-xMgxI3 perovskites as environmentally friendly photovoltaic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. D.; Feng, J.

    2018-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the toxicity of Pb in perovskite solar cells, the band structures, electron and hole effective masses, and electronic and optical properties of the novel perovskites CH3NH3Pb1-xMgxI3 were predicted using density functional theory with the scalar relativistic generalized gradient approximation. The calculation results indicated that the introduction of the Mg component caused the band gaps of the CH3NH3Pb1-xMgxI3 compounds to exceed that of CH3NH3PbI3. The calculated absorption coefficients of the CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3Pb1-xMgxI3 perovskites revealed that substituting 12.5 mol % of the Pb in CH3NH3PbI3 with Mg had little effect on the absorption ability. Surprisingly, it was also found that CH3NH3Pb0.75Mg0.25I3 retained up to 83% of the absorption performance relative to CH3NH3PbI3. This indicates that the amount of toxic Pb used in perovskite solar cells could be reduced by a quarter while retaining over 80% of the light-absorbing ability. In general, these novel CH3NH3Pb1-xMgxI3 (x ≤ 0.25) perovskites represent promising candidates for environmentally friendly light-harvesting materials for use in solar cells.

  19. Determination of 210Pb and 210Po in soil or rock samples containing refractory matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Torri, Giancarlo

    2007-01-01

    A new method has been developed for determination of 21 Pb and 21 Po in soil or rock samples containing refractory matrices. The samples were first fused with Na 2 CO 3 and Na 2 O 2 at 600 o C for pre-treatment and then 210 Pb and 210 Po were sequentially leached out at 200-250 o C with HNO 3 +HF, HClO 4 and HCl. About 10% of the leaching solution was used for 21 Po determination, carried out by spontaneous deposition of polonium on a silver disc from a weakly acidic solution that contained hydroxylamine hydrochloride, sodium citrate and 209 Po tracer, measurement being made by α-spectrometry. The remains of the leaching solution were used for determination of 21 Pb, conducted by precipitation as sulphate, purification with Na 2 S as PbS in 6 M ammonium acetate, separation from α-emitters by an anion-exchange resin column, source preparation as PbSO 4 , and measurement with a β-counter. The procedure has been checked with two certified IAEA reference materials, showing good agreement with the recommended values. The lower limits of detection for 1 g of analysed soil or rock samples were found to be 0.75 Bq kg -1 for 210 Po and 2.2 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb. A variety of solid sample species analysed through use of the procedure gave average yields of 90.0±9.8% for 210 Po and 88.4±7.1% for 210 Pb

  20. Loess clay based copolymer for removing Pb(II) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Rong-Min; Li, Hui-Ru; Wang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The loess clay based copolymer was prepared using functional monomers. ► Characterization of the polymer adsorbent and the raw material were carried out. ► The adsorption behavior of the complex for Pb(II) ions was evaluated. ► The removal rate of Pb(II) got to 99% and the adsorption capacity got to 356.9 mg/g. - Abstract: Functional monomers, such as acrylic acid and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate were supported into loess clay in situ polymerization, which afforded loess clay based copolymer (LC/PAAHM), a new kind of polymer adsorbent for removing Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution. Characterization of the polymer adsorbent was carried out by different sophisticated methods, such as Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Zetasizer. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the factors affecting the removal efficiency, in which the pH, the adsorbent dosage, temperature and initial Pb(II) concentration all found in positive relevance to the increase of Pb(II) removal efficiency. The removal rate of Pb(II) got to 99% at room temperature and the adsorption capacity got to 356.9 mg/g. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were applied to test the experimental data, and Langmuir and Freundlich models have been applied to study the adsorption equilibrium, respectively.

  1. The quantification and distribution of pollution Pb at a woodland in rural south central Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watmough, Shaun A.; Hutchinson, Thomas C.

    2004-01-01

    Lead concentrations and Pb isotope ratios were measured in the forest floor, mineral soil and vegetation at a white pine and a sugar maple stand in a woodland in south central Ontario. Lead concentrations decreased and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios increased with mineral soil depth reflecting the mixing of pollution and natural Pb sources. Lead concentrations and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios at 20-30 cm depth were ∼6-7 mg/kg and 1.31-1.32, respectively. Assuming an integrated 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio in deposition over time of 1.18, estimated from lichen measurements and published data for the region, approximately 65% of Pb in the surface (0-1 cm) mineral soil is from anthropogenic sources. Approximately 90% of pollution Pb is found in the 0-10 cm soil layer (Ah) and less than 3% of the pollution Pb is present in the forest biomass and mull-type forest floor combined. Despite low Pb concentrations in vegetation ( 2 , respectively. - The distribution of pollution lead was determined at a woodland through the use of stable leads isotopes

  2. The first report of Pb and Zn accumulation in some native plants from the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Duran, Paola; Poma, Wilfredo; Sánchez, Isidoro; Barceló, Juan; Roca, Núria; Boluda, Rafael; Roca-Pérez, Luís.; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2010-05-01

    Until recent decades little has been known about the remediation of mining sites using metalophytes in Latin America. Metal mining has helped to create severe and diverse environmental problems. The present study proposed to identify and characterize spontaneously growing heavy metal tolerant plant species in the area around the polimetalic mine in Hualgayoc (Cajamarca, Peru). These species are potentially useful for phytorremediation. Plant and soils from their rhizosphere were sampled and analized for concentration of As, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn. Translocation Factor (TF) defined the metals concentrations ratio between shoots and root biomass and Shoot Accumulation Factor (SAF) the metal concentration ratio between shoot and soil concentration were determined and used to measure the effectiveness of a plant in concentrating metals into its biomass. The soils were neutral pH (7,4±0,5) with variable content of organic carbon (2,4±1,1) and loam texture: sand (42,9±10,8) and clay (16,7±4,6). According to the total metals, all samples exceeded toxicity thresholds, high Pb (20016 ± 32559 mg•kg-1) and Zn (22512 ± 13056 mg•kg-1) concentrations were detected. High shoot Pb and Zn concentrations were found in Plantaginaceae Plantago orbignyana (6998 and 9617 μg/g); Brassicaceae Lepidium bipinnatifidum (6886 and 5034 mg•kg-1) and Asteraceae Senecio sp (4253 and 3870 mg•kg-1) and Baccharis latifolia (2554 and 1284 mg•kg-1 respectively). The high values of TFs indicates that the plants effectively traslocated metales. Lepidium bipinnatifidum shows the highest TFs values (143 in Pb and 21,5 in Zn). The SAF values were much lower than those reported for other species such as Paspalum sp in the Peruvian copper mine, which may be due to a high top soil Pb and Zn concentrations. These species can surely be considered as interesting for phytoextraction, due not only to its accumulative capacity but also since they showed an elevated transfer factor and grew in the

  3. Radicaesium 210Po and 210Pb in wolves (Canis lupus), Lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolverine (Gulo gulo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Gjeisvik, R.; Kålås, J.A.; Persson, B.; Henricsson, F.; Samuelsson, C.; Åsbrink, J.

    2013-01-01

    Wolves, lynx and wolverines are on the top of the food-chain in northern Scandinavia and Finland and also several other countries. Concentrations of 210 Po, 210 Pb and 137 Cs have been analysed in muscle, liver and kidney samples of 28 wolves from Sweden and liver from 16 lynx and 16 wolverines from Norway collected during the years 2010 and 2011. For example the activity concentrations of 210 Po in liver from wolf, lynx, wolverine and wolf varied from 20-500, 22-211 Bq kg -1 , and 17-160 Bq kg - respectively. Using a wet weight ratio of 3.8 the maximal dose to liver of wolves is estimated to 3.5 mGy per year. Polonium-210 is accumulated to a large extent than it precursor 210 Pb. Activity ratios, 210 Po/ 210 Pb, in liver for example ranged from 9 to 56. Radiocaesium in liver shows for example a very larger variation ranging from 40-13000 Bq kg -1 in lynx. This is mainly due to the large variability in deposition from the Chernobyl accident. For wolves the 137 Cs concentration in muscle varied from 70 to 8000 Bq kg -1 d.w. The maximal dose to muscle for wolves from 137 Cs is estimated to 3.6 mGy per year. Wolves, lynx and wolverines are on the top of the food-chain in northern Scandinavia and Finland and also several other countries. Concentrations of 210 Po, 210 Pb and 137 Cs have been analysed in liver samples of 28 wolves from Sweden and 16 lynx and 16 wolverines from Norway collected during the years 2010 and 2011. The activity concentrations of 210 Po in liver from lynx, wolverine and wolf varied from 22- 211 Bq kg -1 , 17-160 Bq kg -1 d.w. and 20-523 Bq kg -1 d.w., respectively and did not differ between species. Using a wet weight ratio of 3.8 the maximal dose to liver is estimated to 3.5 mGy per year. Polonium-210 is accumulated to a larger extent than it precursor 210 Pb. Activity ratios, 210 Po/ 210 Pb, in liver for example ranged from 9 to 56. Radiocaesium in liver show a very larger variation ranging from 20-13000 Bq kg in lynx. This is mainly due to

  4. Determination of 210Pb e 226Ra in tobacco leaves cultivated in the states of Rio de Grande do Sul e Alagoas - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, Y.B.; Antonio Filho, J.; Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

    2005-01-01

    The literature has shown that tobacco use causes damage to the health of cigarette users, manifesting itself in diseases with high mortality. Among these diseases include respiratory failure, pulmonary emphysema and lung cancer, among others. On the other hand, smoking contributes significantly to increasing the dose of natural radiation received by man, due to the presence of uranium series radionuclides, such as 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po, in relatively high concentrations in fresh tobacco leaves. The determination of these radionuclides in this matrix is of great interest, once they can be incorporated not only by the active smoker, but also by the passive smoker. The results of this study confirmed the significant presence of 226 Ra and 210 Pb in tobacco samples collected and analyzed. The average values of activity concentration found in samples from the State of Alagoas were of Bq.kg -1 0.8 to 210 Pb and 183.5 Bq.kg -1 to 226 Ra. For samples coming from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, these values were 4,0 Bq.kg -1 to 210 Pb and 161.3 Bq.kg -1 to 226 Ra

  5. Bio-remediation of acephate-Pb(II) compound contaminants by Bacillus subtilis FZUL-33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenting; Huang, Zhen; Li, Xuezhen; Liu, Minghua; Cheng, Yangjian

    2016-07-01

    Removal of Pb(2+) and biodegradation of organophosphorus have been both widely investigated respectively. However, bio-remediation of both Pb(2+) and organophosphorus still remains largely unexplored. Bacillus subtilis FZUL-33, which was isolated from the sediment of a lake, possesses the capability for both biomineralization of Pb(2+) and biodegradation of acephate. In the present study, both Pb(2+) and acephate were simultaneously removed via biodegradation and biomineralization in aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were conducted to study the influence of pH, interaction time and Pb(2+) concentration on the process of removal of Pb(2+). At the temperature of 25°C, the maximum removal of Pb(2+) by B.subtilis FZUL-33 was 381.31±11.46mg/g under the conditions of pH5.5, initial Pb(2+) concentration of 1300mg/L, and contact time of 10min. Batch experiments were conducted to study the influence of acephate on removal of Pb(2+) and the influence of Pb(2+) on biodegradation of acephate by B.subtilis FZUL-33. In the mixed system of acephate-Pb(2+), the results show that biodegradation of acephate by B.subtilis FZUL-33 released PO4(3+), which promotes mineralization of Pb(2+). The process of biodegradation of acephate was affected slightly when the concentration of Pb(2+) was below 100mg/L. Based on the results, it can be inferred that the B.subtilis FZUL-33 plays a significant role in bio-remediation of organophosphorus-heavy metal compound contamination. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Strange hadron production in pp, pPb and PbPb collisions at LHC energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraswat, Kapil; Singh, Venktesh [Banaras Hindu University, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Varanasi (India); Shukla, Prashant [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Nuclear Physics Division, Mumbai (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai (India); Kumar, Vineet [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Nuclear Physics Division, Mumbai (India)

    2017-05-15

    We present a systematic analysis of transverse momentum (p{sub T}) spectra of the strange hadrons in different multiplicity events produced in pp collision at √(s) = 7 TeV, pPb collision at √(s{sub NN}) = 5.02 TeV and PbPb collision at √(s{sub NN}) = 2.76 TeV. Both the single and differential freeze-out scenarios of strange hadrons K{sup 0}{sub s}, Λ and Ξ{sup -} are considered while fitting using a Tsallis distribution which is modified to include transverse flow. The p{sub T} distributions of these hadrons in different systems are characterized in terms of the parameters, namely Tsallis temperature (T), power (n) and average transverse flow velocity (β). It is found that for all the systems, transverse flow increases as we move from lower to higher multiplicity events. In the case of the differential freeze-out scenario, the degree of thermalization remains similar for events of different multiplicity classes in all the three systems. The Tsallis temperature increases with the mass of the hadrons and also increases with the event multiplicity in pp and pPb system but shows little variation with the multiplicity in PbPb system. In the case of the single freeze-out scenario, the difference between small systems (pp, pPb) and PbPb system becomes more evident. The high-multiplicity PbPb events show higher degree of thermalization as compared to the events of pp and pPb systems. The trend of variation of the temperature in PbPb system with event multiplicity is opposite to what is found in the pp and pPb systems. (orig.)

  7. Lead (Pb heavy metal impacts in the green Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyceae marine algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Saleh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity of different lead (Pb (0, 2, 4 and 8 mg/L concentrations in the green Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta marine algae at physiological level has been investigated 48 h after Pb treatment under laboratory conditions. Thalus algae damages followed Pb treatment as revealed by microscopy test showed that the 4 and 8 mg/L Pb caused morphological changes in cells viability; whereas, no effect observed at the lowest Pb applied concentration (2 mg/L. Data revealed that Pb stress caused reduction in most investigated physiological parameters i.e. Pigments content, osmotic potential and membrane stability index values. This decline in osmotic potential was significantly (p ≤ 0.001 different. Whereas, estimated electric conductivity (EC values increased significantly (p ≤ 0.001 as applied Pb concentration increased. The current study allowed somewhat to highlight and better understanding Pb impacts in U. lactuca algae. Thereby, the studied algae could be used as a useful bioindicator in Pb polluted ecosystems.

  8. Disposition of Lead (Pb) in Saliva and Blood of Sprague-Dawley Rats Following a Single or Repeated Oral Exposure to Pb-Acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe; Weitz, Karl K.; Wu, Hong; Gies, Richard A.; Moore, Dean A.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2006-05-01

    Biological monitoring for lead (Pb) is usually based upon a determination of blood Pb concentration; however, saliva has been suggested as a non-invasive biological matrix for assessing exposure. To further evaluate the potential utility of saliva for biomonitoring, the disposition of Pb was evaluated in whole blood (WB), red blood cells (RBC), plasma, parotid gland, bone, and saliva following either a single oral dose of 100 mg Pb-acetate/kg body weight in rats or {approx}1-week after 5 sequential daily oral gavage doses of 1, 10, or 100 mg Pb-acetate/kg/day. Saliva volume, pH, total saliva protein, and ?-amylase activity were also determined. At specified times post-dosing groups of animals were anethetized and administered pilocarpine to induce salivation. Saliva was collected, the animals were humanely sacrificed, and tissue samples were likewise collected, weighed, and processed for Pb analysis. Following a single dose exposure to PB-acetate, Pb was detectable in all samples by 30 min post-dosing. For both the single and repeated dose treatments the concentration of Pb was highest in WB and RBC relative to plasma and saliva. However, the Pb rapidly redistributed (within 5-days post-treatment) from the blood into the bone compartment based on the substantial decrease in WB and RBC Pb concentration, and the concurrent increase in bone Pb following repeated exposure at all dose levels. Although there is clear variability in the observed Pb concentrations in plasma and saliva, there was a reasonable correlation (r2=0.922) between the average Pb concentrations in these biological matrices which was consistent with previous observations. The single oral dose of Pb-acetate resulted in a decrease in salivary pH which recovered by 24 hr post-dosing and a decrease in ?-amylase enzyme activity which did recover within 5-days of ceasing exposure. It is currently unclear what impact these slight functional changes may or may not have on Pb salivary clearance rates. These

  9. Tolerance of Portulaca grandiflora to individual and combined application of Ni, Pb and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovic, N; Andrejić, G; Dželetović, Ž

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, metal accumulation capacity and tolerance of Portulaca grandiflora were investigated. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots on soil amended with Ni, Pb and Zn to the final concentration of 2 mmol kg(-1) for each metal. Results show considerable accumulating capacity and translocation of Ni and Zn, as well as significant accumulation of Pb in roots. A slight decrease of biomass with Zn and of chlorophyll content with Zn and Ni were observed, as well as an increase of proline content with each of the metals. Combinations of metals revealed mutual interference affecting both the uptake and translocation of the metals and their impact on physiological parameters. Results suggest that Portulaca grandiflora, although not a hyperaccumulator, shows a good tolerance and accumulation capacity for Ni, Pb and Zn, but, for the purposes of remediation, interference of the metals must be taken into account.

  10. What causes Psi suppression in Pb+Pb Collisions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, R.

    1998-01-01

    A reexamination of hadronic comover scattering indicates that this mechanism cannot explain the observed ψ suppression in Pb+Pb interactions. The possibility of quark-gluon plasma formation is therefore considered. Implications for RHIC and LHC are also discussed. The agreement of the NA50 Pb+Pb data with naive comover models is reassessed. Previous work is reanalyzed and expanded to include feeding of the ψ' and χ c states to the ψ. The effect of color screening is also investigated. Only the ψ/Drell-Yan (DY) ratios are discussed here

  11. Studies of 212Pb storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunoki, E.; Kataoka, T.; Michihiro, K.; Sugiyama, H.; Shimizu, M.; Mori, T.

    1996-01-01

    212 Pb which reached its equilibrium state with its daughters in the air was measured around small uranium mines in Japan. Environmental. 212 Pb concentrations rose suddenly and reached a value ten times as high as usual values. These Phenomena were observed many times during the past six Years. We called these Phenomena 212 Pb storms. Meteorological conditions lead to the variations of 220 Rn progeny concentrations. These phenomena have been studied in the point of meteorology. (author)

  12. Determination of 210Pb e 210Po in marine samples and aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Roberto Tatsuya

    1996-01-01

    In this work the methodologies for 210 Pb e 210 Po analyses in marine samples, such as fish, seaweed, sediment, and aerosol samples are presented. The 210 Pb levels in the samples were obtained by both 210 Bi and 210 Po ingrowth. The 210 Pb analysis via 210 Bi presents the following steps: 210 Pb leaching from samples with 8 M nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide; lead sulphate precipitation; conversion to carbonate; dissolution; lead sulphate precipitation; gravimetric analysis of lead; waiting of time to reach radioactive equilibrium and 210 Bi beta counting by employing a Geiger-Mueller detector with a low background radiation. The 210 Pb analysis via 210 Po presents the following steps: 210 Pb and 210 Po leaching from samples with 8 M nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide; nitric acid elimination by heating and hydrochloric acid addition; spontaneous deposition onto silver disc and alpha counting of polonium in silicon surface-barrier detector. In order to determine 210 Pb activity, the solution was percolated in the Dowex AG 1-X 8 anion exchange resin; preconditioned with 8 M nitric acid; the lead was eluted by 8 M hydrochloric acid; the solution was gently evaporated to dryness and diluted with 0.5 N hydrochloric acid. After 3-6 months a second 210 Po spontaneous deposition onto silver disc was carried out. The methodology for 210 Pb analysis via 210 Bi showed lead recoveries from 63 to 100%. In the method via 210 Po the polonium recoveries were varied from 39 to 63% under manual agitation, and from 60 to 100% under mechanical agitation. The radiochemical methods for 210 Po and 210 Pb analyses were applied in reference samples from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the results obtained showed the good precision and accuracy of the established methods. The analysis of marine sediment samples of Antarctica presented 210 Pb and Po levels from 8 to 60 Bq.kg -1 , and fish samples from Sao Paulo Coast presented 210 Po levels from 0.5 to 5.3 Bq.kg -1 . These

  13. Allometric relationships of 210Po and 210Pb in mussels and their application to environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Joao M.; Alberto, Georgeta; Vives i Batlle, J.

    2010-01-01

    Mussels from the Portuguese coast collected during several seasons of the year have shown 210 Po and 210 Pb body burdens (Bq mussel -1 ) that increased with mussels' body size but displayed significant decrease in radionuclide concentrations (Bq kg -1 ). For example, the increase of mussel size from 2.5 cm to 5.0 cm maximum shell length corresponded in average to a 50% decrease of 210 Po activity concentration in soft tissues from 1065 Bq kg -1 (dw) to 540 Bq kg -1 (dw). A similar reduction in concentration was observed for 210 Pb. The physiological condition of mussels, relating to fat and glycogen storage, had an effect on radionuclide concentrations, although the total body burden of radionuclide in mussels remained nearly constant throughout the year. These factors may play an important role in data interpretation for environmental monitoring programmes. Besides the mussel size and condition index, due to the inter-individual variation even inside narrow mussel size classes, the sample size, i.e., the number of specimens in one mussel sample is another key factor to be considered when obtaining environmentally representative radionuclide concentrations.

  14. Correlations and fluctuations in Pb+Pb collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyboth, Peter; Baechler, J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R.A.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Billmeier, A.; Blume, C.; Blyth, C.O.; Boimska, B.; Bracinik, J.; Brady, F.P.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Carr, L.; Cebra, D.; Cooper, G.E.; Cramer, J.G.; Csato, P.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Ferenc, D.; Fischer, H.G.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Ftacnik, J.; Gal, J.; Ganz, R.; Gazdzicki, M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hegyi, S.; Hlinka, V.; Hoehne, C.; Igo, G.; Ivanov, M.; Jacobs, P.; Janik, R.; Jones, P.G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Lednicky, R.; Levai, P.; Malakhov, A.I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Mayes, B.W.; Melkumov, G.L.; Molnar, J.; Nelson, J.M.; Odyniec, G.; Oldenburg, M.D.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Pikna, M.; Pinsky, L.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Prindle, D.J.; Puehlhofer, F.; Reid, J.G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H.G.; Roehrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rybicki, A.; Sammer, T.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Schaefer, E.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.; Sikler, F.; Sitar, B.; Skrzypczak, E.; Snellings, R.; Squier, G.T.A.; Stock, R.; Strmen, P.; Stroebele, H.; Susa, T.; Szarka, I.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T.A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Voloshin, S.; Vranic, D.; Wang, F.; Weerasundara, D.D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Xu, N.; Yates, T.A.; Yoo, I.K.; Zimanyi, J.

    2001-01-01

    Results on two-particle correlations, deuteron production, event anisotropy and event-by-event fluctuations of T > and K/π were obtained by the NA49 experiment in Pb+Pb collisions at 158 A·GeV beam energy. The interpretation of the measurements is discussed in light of the search for deconfinement

  15. PbTe mechanosynthesis from PbO and Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Chavez, Hugo; Diaz-de la Torre, Sebastian; Jaramillo-Vigueras, David; Plascencia, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    Experimental results concerning the mechanosynthesis (MSY), of PbTe from the PbO-Te powder system, at room temperature an atmospheric conditions are reported. XRD results for samples milled for and after 5.4 ks only show PbTe diffraction peaks; neither Te nor PbO or any other solid phase were detected. Particle size and morphology, was followed by SEM observations. Phase evolution and quantification was monitored by Rietveld refinements of the X-ray diffraction data. It was found that the use of lead oxide as a component of the mechanosynthesis system reduces milling time with respect to the Pb-Te metallic system with mechanical alloying.

  16. Application of atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn,...in vegetable samples in Dalat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giang, Nguyen; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Ngoc Trinh, Le Thi; Mai, Truong Phuong; Minh, Nguyen Van [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2004-08-01

    Nowadays atomic absorption spectrometry has become valuable method for trace element analysis because high specificity; low detection litmus, easy to use; easy sample preparation, low investment and running costs... atomic absorption spectrometry is generally accepted as one the most suitable method for single - element analysis of trace elements in various kinds of materiel. In 2003, we applied flame - atomic absorption spectrometry for analyzing Ca, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn...in vegetables and their extracted juices were collected form 11 locations of Dalat, including two kinds of vegetables (goods and safety) in both the summer and winter. Average concentration of Ca = 240 mg/kg wet, Cd = 0.035 mg/kg wet, Cu = 0.67 mg/kg wet, Mg = 131 mg/kg wet, Fe = 8.1/kg wet, Mn = 3.1/kg wet, Na = 3266 mg/kg wet, Pb = 0.345 mg/kg wet and Zn = 3.3 mg wet. In their extracted juices: Ca = 89 mg/kg wet, Cd = 0.008 mg/kg wet, Cu = 0.19 mg/kg wet, Mg = 43 mg/kg wet, Fe = 2.3 mg/kg wet, Mn = 0.61 mg/kg wet, Na = 971 mg/kg wet, Pb = 0.107 mg/kg wet and Zn = 0.65 mg/kg wet. (author)

  17. Application of atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn,...in vegetable samples in Dalat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Giang; Nguyen Thanh Tam; Le Thi Ngoc Trinh; Truong Phuong Mai; Nguyen Van Minh

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays atomic absorption spectrometry has become valuable method for trace element analysis because high specificity; low detection litmus, easy to use; easy sample preparation, low investment and running costs... atomic absorption spectrometry is generally accepted as one the most suitable method for single - element analysis of trace elements in various kinds of materiel. In 2003, we applied flame - atomic absorption spectrometry for analyzing Ca, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn...in vegetables and their extracted juices were collected form 11 locations of Dalat, including two kinds of vegetables (goods and safety) in both the summer and winter. Average concentration of Ca = 240 mg/kg wet, Cd = 0.035 mg/kg wet, Cu = 0.67 mg/kg wet, Mg = 131 mg/kg wet, Fe = 8.1/kg wet, Mn = 3.1/kg wet, Na = 3266 mg/kg wet, Pb = 0.345 mg/kg wet and Zn = 3.3 mg wet. In their extracted juices: Ca = 89 mg/kg wet, Cd = 0.008 mg/kg wet, Cu = 0.19 mg/kg wet, Mg = 43 mg/kg wet, Fe = 2.3 mg/kg wet, Mn = 0.61 mg/kg wet, Na = 971 mg/kg wet, Pb = 0.107 mg/kg wet and Zn = 0.65 mg/kg wet. (author)

  18. Removal of Pb(2+) from water environment using a novel magnetic chitosan/graphene oxide imprinted Pb(2+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhui; Li, LeiLei; Luo, Chuannan; Wang, Xiaojiao; Duan, Huimin

    2016-05-01

    A novel, magnetic chitosan coating on the surface of graphene oxide was (Pb-MCGO) successfully synthesized using Pb(2+) as imprinted ions for adsorption and removal of Pb(2+) from aqueous solutions. The magnetic composite bioadsorbent was characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD measurements. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to evaluate the adsorption conditions, selectivity and reusability. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity was 79 mg/g, observed at pH 5 and 303K. Equilibrium adsorption was achieved within 40 min. The kinetic data could be fitted with a pseudo-second order equation. Adsorption process could be well described by Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The selectivity coefficient of Pb(2+) and other metal cations onto Pb-MCGO indicated an overall preference for Pb(2+), which was much higher than non-imprinted MCGO beads. Moreover, the sorbent was stable and easily recovered, the adsorption capacity was about 90% of the initial saturation adsorption capacity after being used five times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Tracing subduction zone fluid-rock interactions using trace element and Mg-Sr-Nd isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shui-Jiong; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Li, Shu-Guang; Zhang, Li-Fei; Du, Jin-Xue; He, Yong-Sheng; Niu, Yaoling

    2017-10-01

    Slab-derived fluids play a key role in mass transfer and elemental/isotopic exchanges in subduction zones. The exhumation of deeply subducted crust is achieved via a subduction channel where fluids from various sources are abundant, and thus the chemical/isotopic compositions of these rocks could have been modified by subduction-zone fluid-rock interactions. Here, we investigate the Mg isotopic systematics of eclogites from southwestern Tianshan, in conjunction with major/trace element and Sr-Nd isotopes, to characterize the source and nature of fluids and to decipher how fluid-rock interactions in subduction channel might influence the Mg isotopic systematics of exhumed eclogites. The eclogites have high LILEs (especially Ba) and Pb, high initial 87Sr/86Sr (up to 0.7117; higher than that of coeval seawater), and varying Ni and Co (mostly lower than those of oceanic basalts), suggesting that these eclogites have interacted with metamorphic fluids mainly released from subducted sediments, with minor contributions from altered oceanic crust or altered abyssal peridotites. The positive correlation between 87Sr/86Sr and Pb* (an index of Pb enrichment; Pb* = 2*PbN/[CeN + PrN]), and the decoupling relationships and bidirectional patterns in 87Sr/86Sr-Rb/Sr, Pb*-Rb/Sr and Pb*-Ba/Pb spaces imply the presence of two compositionally different components for the fluids: one enriched in LILEs, and the other enriched in Pb and 87Sr/86Sr. The systematically heavier Mg isotopic compositions (δ26Mg = - 0.37 to + 0.26) relative to oceanic basalts (- 0.25 ± 0.07) and the roughly negative correlation of δ26Mg with MgO for the southwestern Tianshan eclogites, cannot be explained by inheritance of Mg isotopic signatures from ancient seafloor alteration or prograde metamorphism. Instead, the signatures are most likely produced by fluid-rock interactions during the exhumation of eclogites. The high Rb/Sr and Ba/Pb but low Pb* eclogites generally have high bulk-rock δ26Mg values

  20. A Strangelet and Particle Search in Pb-Pb Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Lohmann, K-D; Linden, T

    2002-01-01

    %NA52 %title\\\\ \\\\The NA52 experiment aims to detect strangelets, \\textit{i.e.} small drops of strange quark matter, which might result from the extreme energy and baryon densities attained in Pb+Pb collisions at a beam momentum of 158~A GeV/c. The experiment uses the H6 beam line as a spectrometer equipped with wire chambers, time of flight measurements over a path of 524~m and a hadronic calorimeter which is placed at the end of the setup.\\\\ \\\\During the 17 day run in fall of 1994 we accumulated data of 1.8~\\cdot~10$^{12}$~Pb ions on our Pb targets. The average beam intensity was 2~\\cdot~10$^{7}$~ions per spill for the NA52 experiment. We were running mainly with a 40~mm target at spectrometer rigidities of $\\pm$100 and $-$200~GeV/c and with a 16~mm target at $+$200~GeV/c. Per setting 10$^{11}$ Pb+Pb collisions were recorded. During the Pb-ion run in 1995 the statistics for the strangelet search at a rigidity of $-$200~GeV/c has been improved by about one order of magnitude. This was mainly due to a factor o...

  1. Mg2BIV: Narrow Bandgap Thermoelectric Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Ho

    2018-05-01

    Thermoelectric materials can convert thermal energy directly into electric energy and vice versa. The electricity generation from waste heat via thermoelectric devices can be considered as a new energy source. For instance, automotive exhaust gas and all industrial processes generate an enormous amount of waste heat that can be converted to electricity by using thermoelectric devices. Magnesium compound Mg2BIV (BIV = Si, Ge or Sn) has a favorable combination of physical and chemical properties and can be a good base for the development of new efficient thermoelectrics. Because they possess similar properties to those of group BIV elemental semiconductors, they have been recognized as good candidates for thermoelectric applications. Mg2Si, Mg2Ge and Mg2Sn with an antifluorite structure are narrow bandgap semiconductors with indirect band gaps of 0.77 eV, 0.74 eV, and 0.35 eV, respectively. Mg2BIV has been recognized as a promising material for thermoelectric energy conversion at temperatures ranging from 500 K to 800 K. Compared to other thermoelectric materials operating in the similar temperature range, such as PbTe and filled skutterudites, the important aspects of Mg2BIV are non-toxic and earth-abundant elements. Based on classical thermoelectric theory, the material factor β ( m* / m e)3/2μκ L -1 can be utilized as the criterion for thermoelectric material selection, where m* is the density-of-states effective mass, me is the mass of an electron, μ is the carrier mobility, and κL is the lattice thermal conductivity. The β for magnesium silicides is 14, which is very high compared to 0.8 for iron silicides, 1.4 for manganese silicides, and 2.6 for silicon-germanium alloys. In this paper, basic phenomena of thermoelectricity and transport parameters for thermoelectric materials were briefly introduced, and thermoelectric properties of Mg2BIV synthesized by using a solid-state reaction were reviewed. In addition, various Mg2BIV compounds were discussed

  2. Levels and transfer of 210Po and 210Pb in Nordic terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.E.; Gjelsvik, R.; Roos, P.; Kalas, J.A.; Outola, I.; Holm, E.

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments regarding environmental impact assessment methodologies for radioactivity have precipitated the need for information on levels of naturally occurring radionuclides within and transfer to wild flora and fauna. The objectives of this study were therefore to determine activity concentrations of the main dose forming radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb in biota from terrestrial ecosystems thus providing insight into the behaviour of these radioisotopes. Samples of soil, plants and animals were collected at Dovrefjell, Central Norway and Olkiluoto, Finland. Soil profiles from Dovrefjell exhibited an approximately exponential fall in 210 Pb activity concentrations from elevated levels in humus/surface soils to 'supported' levels at depth. Activity concentrations of 210 Po in fauna (invertebrates, mammals, birds) ranged between 2 and 123 Bq kg -1 d.w. and in plants and lichens between 20 and 138 Bq kg -1 d.w. The results showed that soil humus is an important reservoir for 210 Po and 210 Pb and that fauna in close contact with this media may also exhibit elevated levels of 210 Po. Concentration ratios appear to have limited applicability with regards to prediction of activity concentrations of 210 Po in invertebrates and vertebrates. Biokinetic models may provide a tool to explore in a more mechanistic way the behaviour of 210 Po in this system.

  3. Reliability of stable Pb isotopes to identify Pb sources and verifying biological fractionation of Pb isotopes in goats and chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hokuto; Nakayama, Shouta M.M.; Yabe, John; Liazambi, Allan; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    Stable Pb isotope ratios (Pb-IRs) have been recognized as an efficient tool for identifying sources. This study carried out at Kabwe mining area, Zambia, to elucidate the presence or absence of Pb isotope fractionation in goat and chicken, to evaluate the reliability of identifying Pb pollution sources via analysis of Pb-IRs, and to assess whether a threshold for blood Pb levels (Pb-B) for biological fractionation was present. The variation of Pb-IRs in goat decreased with an increase in Pb-B and were fixed at certain values close to those of the dominant source of Pb exposure at Pb-B > 5 μg/dL. However, chickens did not show a clear relationship for Pb-IRs against Pb-B, or a fractionation threshold. Given these, the biological fractionation of Pb isotopes should not occur in chickens but in goats, and the threshold for triggering biological fractionation is at around 5 μg/dL of Pb-B in goats. - Highlights: • Presence of Pb isotope fractionation in goat and chicken was studied. • The variation of Pb-IRs in goat decreased with an increase in Pb-B. • Chickens did not show a clear relationship for Pb-IRs against Pb-B. • The biological fractionation of Pb isotopes should not occur in chickens but in goats. • Threshold for triggering biological fractionation is at 5 μg/dL of Pb-B in goats. - Biological fractionation and its threshold for stable Pb isotope ratio in goats and chickens were examined.

  4. Electroweak bosons in Pb+Pb and $p$+Pb collisions

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00356981; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Electroweak boson ( W , Z , γ ) measurements in Pb+Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV and in p +Pb collisions at sNN=5.02 TeV are presented with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. In Pb+Pb, electroweak boson yields are shown to be independent of centrality. Differential measurements in absolute pseudorapidity are used to investigate nuclear effects to the free-proton parton distribution function (PDF). The distributions lack the experimental precision to unambiguously identify the presence of nuclear modifications. In p +Pb, the Z boson cross section is measured as a function of center-of-mass rapidity yZ⁎ and the momentum fraction of the lead-going parton (Bjorken xPb ). The distributions are asymmetric and model predictions underestimate the data at large xPb . The overall shape is best described by including nuclear effects. The differential cross section is also measured in different centrality classes and shows evidence of spatially-dependent nuclear PDFs. The Z boson production yields are measured as a functi...

  5. Electroweak bosons in Pb+Pb and p+Pb collisions from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00356981

    2015-01-01

    Electroweak boson ($W$, $Z$, $\\gamma$) measurements in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV and in $p$+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02$ TeV are presented with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. In Pb+Pb, electroweak boson yields are shown to be independent of centrality. Differential measurements in absolute pseudorapidity are used to investigate nuclear effects to the free-proton parton distribution function (PDF). The distributions lack the experimental precision to unambiguously identify the presence of nuclear modifications. In $p$+Pb, the $Z$ boson cross section is measured as a function of center-of-mass rapidity $y_{Z}^{*}$ and the momentum fraction of the lead-going parton (Bjorken $x_{Pb}$). The distributions are asymmetric and model predictions underestimate the data at large $x_{Pb}$. The overall shape is best described by including nuclear effects. The differential cross section is also measured in different centrality classes and shows evidence of spatially-dependent nuclear PDFs. The $Z...

  6. Content Heavy Metal Pb, Cd In Perna viridis And Sediments In Semarang Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprapto, D.; Suryanti, S.; Latifah, N.

    2018-02-01

    Waste disposal from human activities, generally contain heavy metals such as Pb and Cd which derived from industrial activities. The aims of the study were to know the concentration of Pb and Cd heavy metals contained in Perna viridis tissue, sediment and water at Semarang Bay. This study was conducted in May 2017 at Semarang Bay. - Samples were collected using purposive sampling method. The heavy metal content in the water and clam was observed using- APHA method and was analyzed using AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer). The results showed that concentration of heavy metal of Pb in the water was 0.00-50.5mg/L and the Cd content was of 26.9-51.7 mg/L, whereas the concentration of Pb in the sediment is 445.5-2.053.0mg/L and Cd 963.3-2,150.0 mg/L. Pb content in soft tissue of Perna viridis - is 67.1-1.933.9 mg/L and the concentration of Cd was 203.5-5.787.3 mg/L. The analysis of Pb and Cd in seawater, sediment and soft tissue of Perna viridis according to Enviroment Ministerial decree (KepMenLH ) number 51 of 2004 and applied by NOAA 1999 does not exceed the quality standard, that meant that the Perna viridis has been contaminated by metal Pb it is controversial with the above sentence and Cd. It concluded that the metal content of Pb and Cd in Perna viridis tissue exceeds the quality standard, so it is not suitable to be consumed, especially in high quantity

  7. 210Po/210Pb dynamics in relation to zooplankton biomass and trophic conditions during an annual cycle in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färber Lorda, Jaime; Fowler, Scott W; Miquel, Juan-Carlos; Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia; Jeffree, Ross A

    2013-01-01

    Monthly sampling in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters was undertaken to better understand the relationship between zooplankton biomass and the cycling of the natural radionuclide (210)Po/(210)Pb pair during a one-year period (October 1995-November 1996). In conjunction with mesozooplankton collections and (210)Po/(210)Pb measurements in seawater, zooplankton and their fecal pellets, the biochemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM) was also examined at three depths (0, 20 and 50 m) as an indicator of trophic conditions. During May 1996, a strong zooplankton "bloom" was observed which was preceded by a prolonged increase in POM (protein + carbohydrates + lipids) starting at the end of March, and further demonstrated by a concomitant increase in the concentration of smaller particles, two features that are typical of mesotrophic waters. Simultaneous measurements of (210)Po in sea water and zooplankton showed an inverse trend between these two parameters during the sampling period, with the two lowest (210)Po concentrations in the dissolved phase of seawater coincident with the highest radionuclide concentrations in the zooplankton; however, this apparent relationship was not statistically significant over the entire year. Freshly excreted mesozooplankton and salp fecal pellets, which have been strongly implicated in the removal and downward transport of these radionuclides from the upper water column, contained (210)Po and (210)Pb levels ranging from 175 to 878 and 7.5-486 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Salp pellets contained 5 and 10 times more (210)Po and (210)Pb than in fecal pellets produced by mixed zooplankton, a finding most likely related to their different feeding strategies. During the zooplankton biomass peak observed in May, the (210)Po concentration in zooplankton was at a minimum; however, in contrast to what has been reported to occur in some open sea oligotrophic waters, over the year no statistically significant inverse

  8. NMR study of LaPb2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, K.; Kohara, T.; Yamada, Y.

    1995-01-01

    La and Pb NMR signals were observed in LaPb 2 with a superconducting transition temperature of about 7 K. The width of the Pb NMR spectrum with an asymmetric line shape was rather narrower than those of Er-, Gd- and Ho-Pb 2 . The spin-lattice relaxation time of Pb nuclei was twice longer than that of Pb metal. La NMR spectrum had satellites due to the electric quadrupole interaction. These results show that each local environment at La or Pb site in LaPb 2 compound is uniquely determined, compared with those in randomly substituted alloys. ((orig.))

  9. Study of distribution of 210Po and 210Pb in the environmental matrices of Chikmagalur, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasheelan, A.; Sannappa, J.; Umeshareddy, K.; Ningappa, C.; Manjunatha, S.

    2013-01-01

    Polonium-210 and lead-210 are amongst the more radiotoxic nuclides and their concentration in soil and drinking water is very important from a radiological point of view. 210 Po is produced from the decay of 222 Rn gas in the atmosphere from which it is deposited on the earth's surface. 210 Po and 210 Pb in natural environment provide considerable radiation exposure to humans. In the present study, the concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in the environment of Tumkur were studied. Soil and water samples were collected from ten Taluks of Tumkur and 210 Po and 210 Pb were determined by wet ashing method. Samples containing polonium was digested using conc. nitric acid and later converted into chloride medium with HCL. Polonium is deposited on the surface of the silver planchet and the activity on both sides were counted in a low background alpha counting system. The sample solution after estimation of 210 Po was preserved for 6-8 months for sufficient growth of 210 Po from 210 Pb. Then the 210 Po was re-estimated to determine the 210 Pb concentration by knowing its growth factor. The concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in soils of different Taluks varied from 13.6 BqKg -1 and 26.8 to 113.4 BqKg -1 respectively. The concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in water was low compared to soil, they varied 0.12 Bql -1 to 0.54 Bql -1 and 0.42 Bql -1 to 1.12 Bql -1 . (author)

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhiza contribution to the growth performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... heavy metals (Cd and Pb) uptake of Helianthus annuus L. from polluted soils. Cadmium sulfate (CdSO4.8H2O) and lead acetate ((CH3COO)2Pb.3H2O) were ... 0.05 mg Cd kg-1 and 0.23 mg Pb kg-1 were remediated with GM application.

  11. Yrast excitations in 191Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotiades, N.; Andreyev, A.

    1997-01-01

    Prompt, in-beam γ rays in coincidence with evaporation residues were measured in the 164,166 Er + 164 MeV 32 S reactions. A level scheme built on the 13/2 + isomer has been deduced from four transitions assigned to 191 Pb. The states in 191 Pb are interpreted in terms of a weak coupling of the odd i 13/2 neutron-hole to the spherical states in the even-mass 192 Pb core. (orig.). With 4 figs

  12. Study of natural radionuclides - "2"2"6Ra, "2"2"8Ra and "2"1"0PB - in marine sediment cores from Southwest Atlantic during the Holocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Alice Miranda Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Natural radionuclides from "2"3"8U and "2"3"2Th series have been successfully applied as tracers of environmental process and climate changes. The "2"1"0Pb (half-life of 22.2 years) is used in the geochronological dating technique of sediment cores of the last 100-150 years, and its respective sedimentation rate determination. The study of "2"2"6Ra and "2"2"8Ra concentrations (half-lives of 1,600 years and 5.75 years, respectively) helps calculate the activity of "2"1"0Pb in excess in the environment, besides being important tracers of marine processes, as ground water discharge. In this work it was determined the activity concentrations of "2"2"6Ra, "2"2"8Ra and "2"1"0Pb in four short marine cores collected since the continental platform to upper slope of Southwest Atlantic Ocean. Taking into account the results obtained, sedimentation rates and the ages of each sediment layer were determined using the geochronological dating method with "2"1"0Pb. All sediment samples were total acid digested in microwave. The sequential radiochemical separation of "2"2"6Ra, "2"2"8Ra, "2"1"0Pb were performed, obtaining in the end the precipitation of Ba(Ra)SO_4 and PbCrO_4. The gross α measurements of "2"2"6Ra and gross β measurements of "2"2"8Ra and "2"1"0Pb from the precipitates were carried out in a gas-flow low background proportional counter. Concerning all cores analyzed, the activities concentrations of "2"2"6Ra ranged from 14 Bq.kg"-"1 to 154 Bq.kg"-"1; the concentrations of "2"2"8Ra ranged from 17 Bq.kg"-"1 to 45 Bq.kg"-"1; and the concentrations of "2"1"0Pb ranged from 20 Bq.kg"-"1 to 2,073 Bq.kg"-"1. High values of "2"1"0Pb were observed on the top of all the cores studied, mainly related to atmospheric deposition. The results obtained in this work were of the same order of magnitude of those reported in the literature available on non contaminated areas of Southeast Brazilian Coast. Sedimentation rates fall with the increase of water column depth and ranged from 0

  13. HBT correlation in 158 AGeV Pb + Pb collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ganz, R.; Bachler, J.; Bailey, S.J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R.A.; Bialkowska, H.; Billmeier, A.; Blyth, C.O.; Bock, R.; Bormann, C.; Brady, F.P.; Brockmann, R.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Caines, H.L.; Cebra, D.A.; Cooper, G.E.; Cramer, J.G.; Cristinziani, M.; Csato, P.; Dunn, J.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Ferguson, M.I.; Fischer, H.G.; Flierl, D.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Fuchs, M.; Gabler, F.; Gal, J.; Gazdzicki, M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Gunther, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hegyi, S.; Henkel, T.; Hill, L.A.; Huang, I.; Hummler, H.; Igo, G.; Irmscher, D.; Jacobs, P.; Jones, P.G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Levai, P.; Malakhov, A.I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mock, A.; Molnar, J.; Nelson, John M.; Oldenburg, M.; Odyniec, G.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Piper, A.; Porter, R.J.; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Poziombka, S.; Prindle, D.J.; Puhlhofer, F.; Rauch, W.; Reid, J.G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H.G.; Rohrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, H.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Semenov, A.Yu.; Schafer, E.; Schmischke, D.; Schmitz, N.; Schonfelder, S.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Sikler, F.; Skrzypczak, E.; Squier, G.T.A.; Stock, R.; Strobele, H.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T.A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wang, F.; Weerasundara, D.D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Wienold, T.; Wood, L.; Yates, T.A.; Zimanyi, J.; Zhu, X.Z.; Zybert, R.

    1998-01-01

    The large acceptance TPCs of the NA49 spectrometer allow for a systematic multidimensional study of two-particle correlations in different part of phase space. Results from Bertsch-Pratt and Yano-Koonin-Podgoretskii parametrizations are presented differentially in transverse pair momentum and pair rapidity. These studies give an insight into the dynamical space-time evolution of relativistic Pb+Pb collisions, which is dominated by longitudinal expansion.

  14. Incorporation of 210Pb and 210Po to Poultry through the Addition of Dicalcium Phosphate (DCP) to the Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casacuberta, N.; Masque, P.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Gasa, J.; Anguita, M.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the replacement of calcium by uranium in the phosphorite, sedimentary phosphate rock contains high concentrations of 238 U (i.e. from 1500 Bq·kg -1 in Morocco to 4000 Bq·kg -1 in Tanzania ores). Dicalcium Phosphate (DCP) is produced by the wet acid digestion of the phosphorite, and is used as a source of calcium and phosphorus for livestock feed supplement. If the phosphorite acid digestion is made with hydrochloric acid, DCP may present specific activities of about 10 3 Bq·kg -1 of 238 U and some of its decay chain daughters. In particular, due to its radiological implications, the presence of 210 Pb and 210 Po in DCP is of special relevance. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential incorporation of these radionuclides to poultry through its diet. Three different diets were therefore prepared with different contents of both DCP and 210 Pb and 210 Po. Diet A was used as a blank, and had a 2.5% in weight of monocalcium phosphate (MCP); diet B, with a 5% in weight of DCP; and diet C, with a 2.5% of DCP. Concentrations of 210 Pb were 0.93, 101.4 and 51.2 Bq·kg -1 ; whereas concentrations of 210 Po were 0.92, 74 and 36 Bq·kg -1 of food for diets A, B and C, respectively. Accumulation of 210 Pb and 210 Po was analysed at several times during poultry growth in samples of bone, liver, kidney, muscle, excrements as well as entire animals, with a total of 30 broilers fed with the 3 different diets. Results showed clear enhancements in the accumulation of both 210 Pb and 210 Po in chicken for diets B and C, and in particular in liver and bone. However, total accumulation of radionuclides in chicken, and especially in edible parts, is low compared to its expulsion through excrements. These results are interpreted in terms of the potential dose through consumption of chicken

  15. Determination of sedimentation rates in Izmir Bay by 210Pb dating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichedef, M.; Yener, G.; Ugur, A.; Oezden, B.; Goenuelalan, F.; Akoezcan, S.; Bueyuekisik, B.; Koeksal, E. Y.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental 2 10Pb (natural) dating technique was applied to determine sedimentation rates in Izmir Bay, near the heavily industrialized Turkish Coastal zone of the Aegean Sea. Core samples from different 20 stations in the inner bay were collected with core sampler and sedimentation rates were estimated from the vertical distribution of excess 2 10Pb. Core samples were stored for a period of 2-3 half-lives (9-14 months) of 2 10Po (t 1 /2=138 d) before analysis to allow build-up of 2 10Po from 2 10Pb. Po was collected on cupper disks by electrochemical deposition. Then, 2 10Pb activities were determined undirectly from 2 10Po activities. Measurement of 2 10Po were made through its 5.30 MeV alpha particle emission, using 2 09Po as the internal tracer. Measurements were made by PIPS (Passivated Implanted Planar Silicon) detector. The sedimentation rates for core samples analysed so far were calculated to vary from 0.198 cm y - 1 to 0.489 cm y - 1. The highest unsupported 2 10Pb concentrations (104 Bq kg - 1) were measured in the 8.station where the Ilica, Bayrakli and Bornova streams empty, and nearest to the harbour

  16. Lattice thermal transport in group II-alloyed PbTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yi; Hodges, James M.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Chan, Maria K. Y.

    2018-04-01

    PbTe, one of the most promising thermoelectric materials, has recently demonstrated a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of above 2.0 when alloyed with group II elements. The improvements are due mainly to significant reduction of lattice thermal conductivity (κl), which was in turn attributed to nanoparticle precipitates. However, a fundamental understanding of various phonon scattering mechanisms within the bulk alloy is still lacking. In this work, we apply the newly-developed density-functional-theory-based compressive sensing lattice dynamics approach to model lattice heat transport in PbTe, MTe, and Pb0.94M0.06Te (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) and compare our results with experimental measurements, with focus on the strain effect and mass disorder scattering. We find that (1) CaTe, SrTe, and BaTe in the rock-salt structure exhibit much higher κl than PbTe, while MgTe in the same structure shows anomalously low κl; (2) lattice heat transport of PbTe is extremely sensitive to static strain induced by alloying atoms in solid solution form; (3) mass disorder scattering plays a major role in reducing κl for Mg/Ca/Sr-alloyed PbTe through strongly suppressing the lifetimes of intermediate- and high-frequency phonons, while for Ba-alloyed PbTe, precipitated nanoparticles are also important.

  17. Pb Distribution in Groundwater and Its Impact to the Health of Indonesia’s Capital Citizen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfaris, D. Y.; Prayogi, T. E.; Alam, B. Y. C. S.; Fadly, M.; Memed, M. W.; Daryanto, A.; Abdillah, F.; Nasution, E. M.; Sudianto, J. R.; Giarto, B.; Maliki, F.; Nuraeni, N.

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to measure the Pb distribution in Jakarta Capital Region’s groundwater and its recommendation based on the standards of The Health Minister Decree No. 492 / MENKES / PES / IV / 2010 about The Drinking Water Monitoring. The study also aims to analyze the impact of Pb intoxication in the human body. The study activity uses the field data that carried out by Geological Agency, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Indonesia from March to April 2015. The methods used in this study are direct observation and hydrogeological measurement to measure physics and chemistry parameters. The result showed that the Levels of heavy metals Pb (Lead) in the west - southwest of Jakarta Groundwater basin (Ciputat, Pamulang, Ciledug, Kebayoran, Pondok Cina, Pondok Jagung, and Serpong) are beyond the quality standards that has been suggested by the ministry of health. The government set the standard in 0.1 mg/L while these areas have the Pb content of up to 0.654 mg/L. In addition, Pb anomalies also occur in Muara Angke, Kamal Muara, and Kapuk Region of North Jakarta which has a very High level of Pb which is about 1.09 mg / Liter. Pb intoxication in humans can affect the reproductive system, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and have bad effects to the nervous system of infants and children.

  18. Multiparticle azimuthal correlations in p -Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agostinelli, A.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belmont, R.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Berger, M. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Böhmer, F. V.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A R; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; De Caro, A.; De Cataldo, G.; De Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; De Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Di Bari, D.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dørheim, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Hilden, T. E.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Esposito, M.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A S; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J. Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gumbo, M.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, O.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hippolyte, B.; Hladky, J.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Innocenti, G. M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Jachołkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H S Y; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kadyshevskiy, V.; Kalcher, S.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L D; Keil Svn, M.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kučera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladron De Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; Leoncino, M.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lu, X. G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Ma, R.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Mis̈kowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Okatan, A.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Sahoo, P.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Palmeri, A.; Pant, D.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L M; Poghosyan, M. G.; Pohjoisaho, E. H O; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Rauf, A. W.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J. P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohni, S.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Sánchez Rodríguez, F. J.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J M; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A P; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J M; Szabo, A.; Szanto De Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; Van Leeuwen, M.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; Von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wagner, V.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C S; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yang, S.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I. K.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, F.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zyzak, M.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of multiparticle azimuthal correlations (cumulants) for charged particles in p-Pb at sNN=5.02 TeV and Pb-Pb at sNN=2.76 TeV collisions are presented. They help address the question of whether there is evidence for global, flowlike, azimuthal correlations in the p-Pb system. Comparisons

  19. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna Mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coast of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiki; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G.; Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de

    2013-01-01

    In this study the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V was evaluated in samples of Perna perna mussels collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos) subjected to anthropogenic contamination, to compare these values with those of mussels from reference site of Cocanha Beach (in Caraguatatuba). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009. They were cleaned, ground, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 8 and 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 2876 Mussel Tissue were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The ranges of concentrations (dry basis) of the elements obtained in mussels collected for the four seasons of the year were: 173.80 to 358.99 mg kg -1 for Br; 45658 ± 1811 to 109166 ± 824 mg kg -1 for Cl; 7043 ± 856 to 12506 ± 675 mg kg -1 for K; 2774 ± 211 to 5691 ± 717 mg kg -1 for Mg; 7.01 ± 0.30 to 29.74 ± 3.32 mg kg -1 for Mn and 0.77 ± 0.02 to 3.43 ± 0.28 mg kg -1 for V. The seasonal and spatial variations of these element concentrations were in this study. (author)

  20. Polonium (210Po) and lead (210Pb) in marine organisms and their transfer in marine food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P

    2011-05-01

    The determination of (210)Po and (210)Pb was performed in marine organisms from the seashore to abyssal depths, encompassing a plethora of species from the microscopic plankton to the sperm whale. Concentrations of those radionuclides ranged from low values of about 5 × 10(-1) Bq kg(-1) (wet wt.) in jellyfish, to very high values of about of 3 × 10(4) Bq kg(-1) (wet wt.) in the gut walls of sardines, with a common pattern of (210)Po > (210)Pb.These radionuclides are primarily absorbed from water and concentrated by phyto- and microzooplankton, and then are transferred to the next trophic level along marine food chains. Investigation in epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic and abyssobenthic organisms revealed that (210)Po is transferred in the marine food webs with transfer factors ranging from 0.1 to 0.7, and numerically similar to those of the energy transfer in the marine food chains. As (210)Po preferentially binds to amino acids and proteins, its transfer in food chains likely traces protein transfer and, thus, (210)Po transfer factors are similar to ecotrophic coefficients. (210)Pb is transferred less efficiently in marine food chains and this contributes to increased (210)Po:(210)Pb activity ratios in some trophic levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Polonium (210Po) and lead (210Pb) in marine organisms and their transfer in marine food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of 210 Po and 210 Pb was performed in marine organisms from the seashore to abyssal depths, encompassing a plethora of species from the microscopic plankton to the sperm whale. Concentrations of those radionuclides ranged from low values of about 5 x 10 -1 Bq kg -1 (wet wt.) in jellyfish, to very high values of about of 3 x 10 4 Bq kg -1 (wet wt.) in the gut walls of sardines, with a common pattern of 210 Po > 210 Pb.These radionuclides are primarily absorbed from water and concentrated by phyto- and microzooplankton, and then are transferred to the next trophic level along marine food chains. Investigation in epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic and abyssobenthic organisms revealed that 210 Po is transferred in the marine food webs with transfer factors ranging from 0.1 to 0.7, and numerically similar to those of the energy transfer in the marine food chains. As 210 Po preferentially binds to amino acids and proteins, its transfer in food chains likely traces protein transfer and, thus, 210 Po transfer factors are similar to ecotrophic coefficients. 210 Pb is transferred less efficiently in marine food chains and this contributes to increased 210 Po: 210 Pb activity ratios in some trophic levels.

  2. Stabilization of arsenic and lead by magnesium oxide (MgO) in different seawater concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Kentaro; Hashimoto, Yohey; Ok, Yong Sik

    2018-02-01

    Ongoing sea level rise will have a major impact on mobility and migration of contaminants by changing a number of natural phenomena that alter geochemistry and hydrology of subsurface environment. In-situ immobilization techniques may be a promising remediation strategy for mitigating contaminant mobility induced by sea level rise. This study investigated the reaction mechanisms of magnesium oxide (MgO) with aqueous Pb and As under freshwater and seawater using XAFS spectroscopy. Initial concentrations of Pb and As in freshwater strongly controlled the characteristics of the reaction product of MgO. Our study revealed that i) the removal of aqueous Pb and As by MgO was increased by the elevation of seawater concentration, and ii) the removal of As was attributed primarily to (inner-sphere) surface adsorption on MgO, independent on seawater concentrations, and iii) the retention mechanism of Pb was dependent on seawater concentrations where formations of Pb oxides and adsorption on the MgO surface were predominant in solutions with low and high salinity, respectively. The release of As fixed with MgO significantly increased in seawater compared to freshwater, although the amount of As desorbed accounted for <0.2% of total As. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pollution and Oral Bioaccessibility of Pb in Soils of Villages and Cities with a Long Habitation History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, N.; Bakker, Martine; van Os, Bertil; Klaver, Gerard; Middelburg, J.J.; Davies, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch cities Utrecht and Wijk bij Duurstede were founded by the Romans around 50 B.C. and the village Fijnaart and Graft-De Rijp around 1600 A.D. The soils of these villages are polluted with Pb (up to ~5000 mg/kg). Lead isotope ratios were used to trace the sources of Pb pollution in the urban

  4. The influence of pyrolysis and matrix modifiers on determination of Cr and Pb in sediment samples by GFAAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risfidian Mohadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Influence of pyrolysis and matrix modifiers on determination of Cr and Pb in sediment samples using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry has been investigated. The sediment samples including three certified reference materials (CRMs are reported. Analyses were performed using microwave assisted dissolution. The matrix modifiers Mg(NO32, Pd+Mg(NO32 and NH4H2PO4were shown to be optimazed. The recovery for Cr and Pb in CRMs in the case of sample dissolution was found to be between 81 to 91% for Cr and 94 to 98% for Pb of the certified values, respectively. Keywords: Sediment, Pyrolysis, Matrix modifiers, Cr, Pb Abstrak (Indonesia: Pengaruh pirolisis dan matriks pengubah pada penentuan Cr dan Pb dalam sampel sedimen menggunakan tungku grafit spektroskopi serapan atom telah diteliti. Sampel sedimen termasuk tiga bahan referensi bersertifikat (CRMs dilaporkan dianalisis dengan menggunakan bantuan microwave ekstraktor. Matriks pengubah Mg(NO32, Pd+Mg(NO32 dan NH4H2PO4 telah digunakan dan menghasilkan nilai temu balik untuk Cr dan Pb dalam CRMs ditemukan antara 81-91% untuk Cr dan 94-98 % untuk Pb dari nilai sertifikat masing-masing. Katakunci: Sedimen, Pirolisis, Matrix modifiers, Cr, Pb

  5. Effects of Dissolved Organic Matter on Uptake and Translocation of Lead in Brassica chinensis and Potential Health Risk of Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renying Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic matter (DOM can affect the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil, especially in soils used for vegetable production, where intensive organic fertilization is applied. The present study examined the effects of DOM derived from commercial organic fertilizers (COF, cow manure (COM and chicken manure (CHM, on uptake and translocation of lead (Pb in Brassica chinensis in a pot experiment. The results indicate that DOM derived from CHM (DOMCHM significantly increased Pb concentrations in roots of B. chinensis (p < 0.05. By contrast, there was no significant increase in shoot Pb concentration for all the DOM treatments except the high DOMCHM treatment in the soil with 800 mg·kg−1 Pb. Consistent with the Pb concentrations in shoots, translocation factor of Pb from soil to shoot and specific lead uptake (SLU by B. chinensis were significantly increased for the high DOMCHM treatment in the high Pb soil, but not for other DOM treatments. Based on the results of this study, the application of DOM to the soil with 800 mg·kg−1 Pb could result in an increase in total Pb annually ingested by the inhabitants of Nanjing City in the range of 2018–9640 kg, with the highest estimates resulting from the high DOMCHM treatment. This study suggests the risk may rise under some conditions as indicated in the high DOMCHM treatment and high Pb pollution level.

  6. PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN SENGON (PARASERIANTHES FALCATARIA L. TERINFEKSI MIKORIZA PADA LAHAN TERCEMAR Pb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triono Bagus Saputro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Paraserianthes falcataria plant is well known to be capable to make an excellent association and symbiosis with mycorrhizae. Mycorrhizae can improve the plant's ability to survive in heavy metal contaminated land, one of which is Pb (lead. Pb is the main heavy metal pollutants in all environments. This aims of this research were to determine the accumulation of Pb on sengon plant roots and its growth in Pb contaminated media. This research uses a completely randomized design. Pb(NO32 were given at a dose of 833 mg/kg and the concentration of mycorrhizal inoculation of Glomus sp. used were 25, 50 and 75 grams of mycorrhizae. The measured parameters were plant height, root length, plant dry weight, accumulation of Pb in roots, chlorophyll and protein profile test. The results showed that 75 grams of mycorrhizal Glomus sp. were the highest on several parameters including plant height, dry weight, root length. The chlorophyll content were grown on media containing Pb with each value of 77.5 cm; 17.86 grams; 31.5 cm; 8.99 g/ml. A dose of 75 grams of Glomus sp. also increased the absorption and accumulation of Pb in the roots with 3.60 ppm. while the protein electrophoresis show the specific band in P. falcataria that exposed to Pb with molecular weight 53.67 kDa.

  7. Kandungan Tembaga (Cu dan Timbal (Pb pada Lamun Enhalus accoroides dari Perairan Batam, Kepulauan Riau, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismarti Ismarti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the metal content of copper and lead in Enhalus accoroides seagrass in Batam Island waters. Samples of seagrass (E. accoroides were collected from six locations along the western region of Batam Island then dried and performed with acid destruction. The measurements of Cu and Pb in the samples were conducted by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The result showed that there was an increasing of copper and lead contaminant level on sample E accoroides during two periods in a year.  The Cu level ranged from 0.63 to 46.1 mg/kg, meanwhile, lead level ranged from  2.14 to 10.52mg/kg respectively. The highest accumulation of copper and lead were recorded on leaves, it was reached 10.81 mg/kg and 5.98mg/kg, respectively. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis kandungan logam tembaga (Cu dan timbal (Pb pada lamun Enhalus accoroides di sepanjang perairan barat Pulau Batam. Sampel lamun dikumpulkan dari enam lokasi  kemudian dikeringkan dan dilakukan destruksi dengan asam. Penentuan kadar logam tembaga dan timbal dalam sampel dilakukan dengan spektrometri serapan atom. Hasil penelitian menunjukan adanya peningkatan kadar logam Cu dan Pb pada sampel lamun E. accoroides selama 2 periode sampling dalam 1 tahun. Kadar logam Cu dan Pb pada lamun secara berturut berada pada rentang 0.63-46.1 mg/kg dan 2.14-10.52mg/kg. Akumulasi logam Cu dan Pb dalam lamun E. accoroides tertinggi pada bagian daun sebanyak 10.81 mg/kg Cu dan 5.98 mg/kg Pb.

  8. Sources, lability and solubility of Pb in alluvial soils of the River Trent catchment, U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, M.; Tye, A.M.; Chenery, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    Alluvial soils are reservoirs of metal contaminants such as Pb that originate from many different sources and are integrated temporally and spatially through erosional and depositional processes. In this study the source, lability and solubility of Pb were examined in a range of alluvial soils from the middle and lower River Trent and its tributary the River Dove using Pb isotope apportionment and isotopic dilution. All samples were collected within 10 m of the river bank to represent the soil that is most likely to be remobilised during bank erosion. Paired samples were taken from the topsoil (0–15 cm) and subsoil (35–50 cm) to assess differences with depth. Lead concentrations in soil ranged from 43 to 1282 mg/kg. The lability of soil Pb varied between 9 and 56% of total metal concentration whilst Pb concentrations in pore water varied between 0.2 and 6.5 μg/L. There was little difference in the % Pb lability between paired top and sub soils, possibly because soil characteristics such as pH, iron oxides and clay content were generally similar; a result of the recycling of eroded and deposited soils within the river system. Soil pH was found to be negatively correlated with % Pb lability. Source apportionment using 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios showed that the isotopic ratios of Pb in the total, labile and solution pools fitted along a mixing line between Broken Hill Type (‘BHT’) Pb, used as an additive in UK petrol, and the local coal/Southern Pennine ore Pb. Various anomalies were found in the Pb isotopes of the bankside alluvial soils which were explained by point source pollution. Statistically significant differences were found between (i) the isotopic composition of Pb in the total soil pool and the labile/solution pools and (ii) the isotopic composition of Pb in the labile and solution pools, suggesting an enrichment of recent non-Pennine sources of Pb entering the soils in the labile and solution pools. -- Highlights: ► The labile

  9. Radionuclides (210Pb, 226Ra, 210Po e 137Cs) in the Cananeia-Iguape coastal system: environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Roberto Tatsuya

    2002-01-01

    This work was developed in the Cananeia-lguape Coastal System, coast south of the State of Sao Paulo, with the aim of monitoring the levels of some natural radionuclides ( 210 Pb, 210 Po, 226 Ra ) and artificial ( 137 Cs) and to study the sedimentary dynamics of the area. For this, some studies and determinations were carried out, such as: sedimentation rates, concentration factors, bio-indicators and ingestion for the human population of some of these radionuclides. For the obtaining of the levels of these radionuclides, radiochemical and instrumental methodologies were developed and applied in reference samples of the International Agency of Atomic Energy (IAEA). After this, the methodologies were applied in samples of sediments, aquatic organisms and water of the channels collected in several points. In the sediments, the levels of ( 210 Pb, 226 Ra and 137 Cs varied from 6.1 to 167.5 Bq.kg -1 from 4.1 to 28.5 Bq.kg -1 and from MDC (0.28) to 6.1 Bq.kg -1 respectively. More significant correlations were observed among the percentage of mud (silt-clay) in the sediments and the levels of these radionuclides. These data were used for sedimentation rate studies in the points of sampling in the System. The sedimentation rates obtained with the values of unsupported ( 210 Pb and 137 Cs for the Ponta do Arrozal (T1), Ponta do Frade (T2), Valo Grande (T3) and Carapara-BOCA River (T4) were of 5.02 and 5.00 mm.a -1 , 2.30 and 3.82 mm.a -1 , 14.59 and 15.74 mm.a -1 , 3.41 and 5.00 mm.a -1 respectively. The sedimentation rates obtained with unsupported 210 Pb and the 137 Cs in the cores(T1, T2, T3 and T4) showed a good agreement. The sedimentation rates obtained along the System reflect the dynamics intern of the channels, that presents general tendency the one accentuated deposition process, with pronounced contribution of sediments of continental origin, for the drainages Mandira and Ribeira of Iguape Rivers, by the high biological production of the System as well as the

  10. 137Cs and 210Pb distribution in Manila Bay sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sta. Maria, Efren J.; Madrid, Jordan F.; Olivares, Ryan U.; Bulos, Adelina DM; Dayaon, Jennyvi P.; Asa, Anie Day DC; Sombrito, Elvira Z.

    2011-01-01

    Two radionuclides were measured in surface sediment samples taken from geographically distributed sections of Manila Bay, namely cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and lead-210 ( 210 Pb). Results indicated a noticeable change in the radioactivity concentration levels in sediments collected in 2005 and 2010, with a median concentration of 1.0 and 2.64 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Higher levels of 137 Cs radioactivity were measured in the northern and inner portion of the bay adjacent to major river systems, agricultural and highly industrialized urban areas. 137 Cs isotope increased in activity in most of the samples especially in the northwestern areas of Bataan and Pampanga with five times more than the activity from the first sampling measurements. Nevertheless, radioactivity concentrations observed in surface sediments along the bay are within the range of radioactivity in several areas monitored in the Northern Hemisphere. The country has been frequented by tropical cyclones and storms that have caused erosion, which may have introduced elevated material input in the bay. In addition, wind-driven circulation especially in the shallower areas of the bay is a possibility for the substantial sediment movement and accumulation along this coast. Conversely, areas with higher 137 Cs have lower values of 210 Pb. In an undisturbed environment, 210 Pb deposition values are assumed nearly constant. Hence, changes in the radioactivity concentration levels of these radionuclides can be an indicator of pollution input from land-based sources, sediment movement and reworking in the coastal areas. At present, there is very limited information on the radioactivity level of various radioisotopes in Manila Bay.The data obtained are benchmark values against which changes that will be occurring in the bay can be assessed. (author)

  11. 210Pb content in natural gas pipeline residues ('black-powder') and its correlation with the chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, Jose Marcus; Carvalho, Franciane; Cordilha, Aloisio; Matta, Luiz Ernesto; Godoy, Maria Luiza

    2005-01-01

    The present work was carried out to assess the 210 Pb content in 'black-powder' found in pigging operations on gas pipelines in Brazil, in particular, on the Campos Basin gas pipeline. Additionally, the chemical composition of such deposits was determined and an eventual correlation with 210 Pb concentration evaluated. Typical 'black-powder' generated in the natural gas pipeline from Campos Basin oilfield contains mainly iron oxide (∼81%) and residual organic matter (∼9%). The 210 Pb content ranges from 4.9 to 0.04 kBq kg -1 and seems to be inversely correlated with the distance to the platforms. On the other hand, 226 Ra concentration is higher on the pipeline branch between the platform and the onshore installations. 228 Ra was only observed in few samples, in particular, in the samples with the highest 226 Ra content

  12. Femtoscopy with Identified Hadrons in pp, pPb, and PbPb Collisions in CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Siklér

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Short-range correlations of identified charged hadrons in pp ( s = 0.9, 2.76, and 7 TeV, pPb ( s NN = 5.02 TeV, and peripheral PbPb collisions ( s NN = 2.76 TeV are studied with the CMS detector at the LHC. Charged pions, kaons, and protons at low momentum and in laboratory pseudorapidity | η | < 1 are identified via their energy loss in the silicon tracker. The two-particle correlation functions show effects of quantum statistics, Coulomb interaction, and also indicate the role of multi-body resonance decays and mini-jets. The characteristics of the one-, two-, and three-dimensional correlation functions are studied as a function of transverse pair momentum, k T , and the charged-particle multiplicity of the event. The extracted radii are in the range 1–5 fm, reaching highest values for very high multiplicity pPb, also for similar multiplicity PbPb collisions, and decrease with increasing k T . The dependence of radii on multiplicity and k T largely factorizes and appears to be insensitive to the type of the colliding system and center-of-mass energy.

  13. Biosorption of Pb2+ and Cu2+ in aqueous solutions using agricultural wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieva Aileen D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine and compare the adsorptive capacity of Pb2+ and Cu2+ in simulated wastewater onto three agricultural wastes The adsorption capacities of Pb2+ onto the agricultural wastes can be arranged as Litchi chinensis (4.30 mg of sorbate per g of sorbent (mg g-1, 85.68% adsorption > Bambusa vulgaris (3.83 mg g-1, 76.19% adsorption > Annona squamosa (2.70 mg g-1, 53.66% adsorption while the adsorption capacities of Cu2+ onto the same agricultural wastes can be arranged in the order: Bambusa vulgaris (3.86 mg g-1, 77.17% adsorption > Annona squamosal (3.58 mg g-1, 71.58% adsorption > Litchi chinensis (3.42 mg g-1, 68.32% adsorption. The biosorbents had relatively higher adsorptive capacities with Cu2+ as compared to that of Pb2+ except for Litchi chinensis. Although the results show lower adsorptive capacity as compared to a number of treated agricultural wastes showing 80% up to almost 100% adsorption of Pb2+ and Cu2+, the results show that Annona squamosa, Bamubusa vulgaris, and Litchi chinensis are potential biosorbents and promote sustainable treatment process.

  14. Biosorption of Cu2+ and Pb2+ using sophora alopecuroides residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, N.; Fan, W.; Zhu, M.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Sophora alopecuroides residue (SAP), a kind of traditional Chinese herbal medicine residue, was developed in an alternative biosorbent for the removal Cu2+ and Pb2+ in simulated wastewater. The morphology and surface texture of SAP were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, which showed a loose and porous structure. The biosorption experiments of Cu2+ and Pb2+ onto SAP were investigated by using batch techniques. High biosorption percentage appeared at pH values of 4.5-6.0. The experimental data followed the second-order kinetic model well. Equilibrium fit with the Langmuir isotherm model well. The maximum biosorption capacity of an adsorbent at 25 °C was respectively 60.6 mg/g Cu2+ and 128.1 mg/g Pb2+. The findings of the present study show that SAP is an attractive and effective biosorbent for Cu2+ and Pb2+.

  15. Biosorpsi Tanaman Puring (Codiaeum variegatum Terhadap Emisi Timbal (Pb Pada Kendaraan Bermotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Amalia P

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement the motorized vehicle number will be potential for air pollution in the big cities. One of the pollutant which is resulted from burning process fuel is timbale (Pb metal. Alternative effort that is used to decrease the higher timbale (Pb metal pollutantmaterial is with manner biosorption use puring plant (codiaeumvariegatum.The aim of this research is to know the puring plantability in absorbs Pb metal. The treatment methodis used to sprinkling plant and without sprinkling and than directly exposure to plant with period 3,6 and 9 days. The result of research  that puring leaves ability can absorb Pb concentration metal between (1 until 1,5 ppm or 0,304 mg/Kg at nine days of period exposure, it order can be considered as biosorption agent Pb metal pollution.

  16. Thermodynamics of proton dissociations from aqueous glycine at temperatures from 278.15 to 393.15 K, molalities from 0 to 1.0 mol . kg-1, and at the pressure 0.35 MPa: Apparent molar heat capacities and apparent molar volumes of glycine, glycinium chloride, and sodium glycinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemer, S.P.; Niederhauser, T.L.; Merkley, E.D.; Price, J.L.; Sorenson, E.C.; McRae, B.R.; Patterson, B.A.; Origlia-Luster, M.L.; Woolley, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    We have measured the densities of aqueous solutions of glycine, glycine plus equimolal HCl, and glycine plus equimolal NaOH at temperatures 278.15 ≤ T/K ≤ 368.15, molalities 0.01 ≤ m/mol . kg -1 ≤ 1.0, and at p = 0.35 MPa, using a vibrating tube densimeter. We have also measured the heat capacities of these solutions at 278.15 ≤ T/K ≤ 393.15 and at the same m and p using a fixed-cell differential scanning calorimeter. We used the densities to calculate apparent molar volumes V φ and the heat capacities to calculate apparent molar heat capacities C p,φ for these solutions. We used our results and values of V φ (T, m) and C p,φ (T, m) for HCl(aq), NaOH(aq), NaCl(aq) from the literature to calculate parameters for Δ r C p,m (T, m) for the first and second proton dissociations from protonated aqueous cationic glycine. We then integrated this value of Δ r C p,m (T, m) in an iterative algorithm, using Young's Rule to account for the effects of speciation and chemical relaxation on the observed V φ and C p,φ of the solutions. This procedure yielded parameters for V φ (T, m) and C p,φ (T, m) for glycinium chloride {H 2 Gly + Cl - (aq)} and sodium glycinate {Na + Gly - (aq)} which successfully modeled our observed results. We have then calculated values of Δ r C p,m , Δ r H m , Δ r V m , and pQ a for the first and second proton dissociations from protonated aqueous glycine as functions of T and m

  17. CH3NH3Pb1−xMgxI3 perovskites as environmentally friendly photovoltaic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce the toxicity of Pb in perovskite solar cells, the band structures, electron and hole effective masses, and electronic and optical properties of the novel perovskites CH3NH3Pb1−xMgxI3 were predicted using density functional theory with the scalar relativistic generalized gradient approximation. The calculation results indicated that the introduction of the Mg component caused the band gaps of the CH3NH3Pb1−xMgxI3 compounds to exceed that of CH3NH3PbI3. The calculated absorption coefficients of the CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3Pb1−xMgxI3 perovskites revealed that substituting 12.5 mol % of the Pb in CH3NH3PbI3 with Mg had little effect on the absorption ability. Surprisingly, it was also found that CH3NH3Pb0.75Mg0.25I3 retained up to 83% of the absorption performance relative to CH3NH3PbI3. This indicates that the amount of toxic Pb used in perovskite solar cells could be reduced by a quarter while retaining over 80% of the light-absorbing ability. In general, these novel CH3NH3Pb1−xMgxI3 (x ≤ 0.25 perovskites represent promising candidates for environmentally friendly light-harvesting materials for use in solar cells.

  18. Heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) partitioning and bioaccessibility in uncontaminated and long-term contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, Dane T.; Ming Hui; Megharaj, Mallavarapu [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@crccare.com [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    We investigated the pore-water content and speciation of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in a range of uncontaminated and long-term contaminated soils in order to establish their potential bioaccessibility to soil biota, plants and humans. Among the samples, soil pH (0.01 M CaCl{sub 2}) ranged from 4.9 to 8.2. The total metal content of the uncontaminated soils ranged from 3.8 to 93.8 mg Cu kg{sup -1}, 10.3 to 95 mg kg{sup -1} Zn, 0.1 to 1.8 mg Cd kg{sup -1} and 5.2 to 183 mg kg{sup -1} Pb, while metal content in the contaminated soils ranged from 104 to 6841 mg Cu kg{sup -1}, 312 to 39,000 mg kg{sup -1} Zn, 6 to 302 mg Cd kg{sup -1} and 609 to 12,000 mg kg{sup -1} Pb. Our analysis of pore-water found the Cu concentrations to be much higher in contaminated soils than in uncontaminated soils, with the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) correlating significantly with the log of dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Despite the high total metal content of the contaminated soil, Zn, Cd and Pb were not generally found at elevated levels in the pore-water with the exception of a single contaminated soil. A long period of ageing and soil weathering may have led to a substantial reduction in heavy metal concentrations in the pore-water of contaminated soils. On the other hand, Pb bioaccessibility was found to be comparatively high in Pb contaminated soils, where it tended to exceed the total Pb values by more than 80%. We conclude that, despite the extensive ageing of some contaminated soils, the bioaccessibility of Pb remains relatively high.

  19. Removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by natural and synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The point of zero charge values of 9.57 and 8.20 were obtained by mass titration method for synthetic and natural calcite, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities of 200 mg/g and 150 mg/g Pb(II) of synthetic calcite and natural calcite were obtained at initial lead loading of 1200 mg/L at 25±2 °C, respectively.

  20. Reducing Pb poisoning in birds and Pb exposure in game meat consumers: the dual benefit of effective Pb shot regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Rafael; Vallverdú-Coll, Núria; López-Antia, Ana; Taggart, Mark A; Martínez-Haro, Monica; Guitart, Raimon; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

    2014-02-01

    The use of lead (Pb) ammunition in the form of shot pellets has been identified as a Pb exposure risk in wildlife and their human consumers. We explore the hypothesis that Pb shot ban enforcement reduces the risk of avian Pb poisoning as well as Pb exposure in game meat consumers. We assessed compliance with a partial ban on Pb shot commencing in 2003 by examination of 937 waterbirds harvested by hunters between 2007 and 2012 in the Ebro delta (Spain). Prevalence of Pb shot ingestion was determined, as were Pb concentrations in liver and muscle tissue to evaluate the potential for Pb exposure in game meat consumers. Hunted birds with only embedded Pb shot (no steel) declined from 26.9% in 2007-08 to meat (0.1μg/g wet weight) in the 2008-09 season, when Pb shot ingestion prevalence was also at a minimum (5.1%). Effective restrictions in Pb ammunition use have a dual benefit since this reduces Pb exposure for game meat consumers due to embedded ammunition as well as reducing Pb poisoning in waterbirds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biomonitoring of 210Po and 210Pb using lichens and mosses around coal-fired power plants in Western Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sert, Emel; Ugur, Aysun; Ozden, Banu; Sac, Mueslim Murat; Camgoez, Berkay

    2011-01-01

    Mosses and lichens are useful biological indicators of environmental contamination for a variety of metals and radionuclides of both natural and artificial origin. These plants lack a well-developed root system and rely largely on atmospheric deposition for nourishment. Therefore in the study, different lichens (Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia foliacea) and mosses (Homalothecium sericeum, Hypnum lacunosum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa, Didymodon acutus, Syntrichia ruralis, Syntrichia intermedia, Pterogonium graciale, Isothecium alopecuroides, Pleurochatae squarrosa) were collected around the Yatagan (Mugla), Soma (Manisa), Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) coal-fired power plants and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for 210 Po and 210 Pb deposition. While the activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in lichens are in the ranges of 151 ± 7-593 ± 21 and 97 ± 5-364 ± 13 Bq kg -1 , for mosses the ranges for 210 Po and 210 Pb are 124 ± 5-1125 ± 38 and 113 ± 4-490 ± 17 Bq kg -1 , respectively. In the study, the moss samples were observed to accumulate more 210 Po and 210 Pb compared to lichens. While the most suitable biomonitor was a moss species (H. lacunosum) for Yatagan (Mugla), it was another moss species (S. intermedia) for Soma (Manisa) and Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) sites. 210 Po concentrations were found higher than 210 Pb concentrations at the all sampling stations. - Highlights: → Lichens and mosses have been used as biomonitors of 210Po and 210Pb deposition. → The morphology of lichens and mosses does not vary with seasons. → Lichens and mosses retain and accumulate pollutants deposited from the atmosphere. → Canopy is an important factor causing differences in the concentrations of radionuclides.

  2. Age determination of paintings by 210Pb method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilot, E.; Apers, D.

    1977-01-01

    Often the 210 Pb method for age determination of paintings is inoperative because the initial 210 Pb activity of undated lead oxide cannot be determined. This difficulty could be removed if the ores could be identified from which the lead white was prepared. It would be possible to measure the initial 210 Pb activity directly in Pb ores or in identical Pb oxides from properly dated pictures. Some results show that Pb ores can be identified by the isotope ratios 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb, 208 Pb/ 204 Pb. A systematic study of Pb ores and pigment isotopic composition is necessary. (author)

  3. Application of 137Cs and 210Pb radionuclides to determine sedimentation rates of recent sediments from Admiralty Bay, Antarctica Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Mylene Giseli do; Martins, Cesar de Castro; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Montone, Rosalinda C.; Mahiques, Michel M. de; Tessler, Moyses G.

    2009-01-01

    Studies about natural and artificial radionuclides in areas such as the Antarctic are key to understand natural and dynamic processes in marine environments. These studies are important to determine levels of radioactive elements and local sedimentation rates. Five marine sediment cores were collected in different points of Admiralty Bay, in the Antarctic Peninsula. The purpose of this study was to determine 137 Cs, 226 Ra and 210 Pb and sedimentation rates at each site. 137 Cs, 210 Pb and 226 Ra were assayed by gamma-counting through direct measurement of the peak at 661 keV, 47 keV and 609 keV, respectively. Sedimentation rates were obtained by 137 Cs and 210 Pb (CIC and CRS). The activities for 137 Cs ranged from 0.84 to 7.09 Bq kg -1 ; to 226 Ra from 6.77 to 31.07 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb ranged from 1.10 to 36.90 Bq kg -1 . The sedimentation rates obtained by the three models ranged from 0.11±0.01 cm y -1 to 0.46±0.05 cm y -1 . The levels of 137 Cs registered in this study, as well as in other studies in the Antarctic region indicate that global fallout is the main cause of artificial radionuclides present in this environment, since the Antarctic has not suffered a direct action of human activities that released radioactive elements. The possible grain size variations that occur in the studied points of Admiralty Bay may explain the differences found in the vertical distribution of radionuclides, because of the different values of sedimentation rates and respective dating determined in their profiles. (author)

  4. Adsorption of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu and Hg ions on Formaldehyde and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) ions on formaldehyde and Pyridine modified bean husks were determined. The adsorption capacity of formaldehyde modified bean husks (mg/g) was: Pb2+, 5.01; Cd2+, 3.63; Zn2+, 2.18; Hg2+, 1.82; Cu2+, 1.58 and that of pyridine modified bean husk was: Hg2+, 6.92; Cd2+ ...

  5. Pb(II) removal from aqueous solution by a low-cost adsorbent dry desulfurization slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiong; You, Ruirong [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, New Campus, Minhou, Fujian Province 350108 (China); Clark, Malcolm [Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, P.O. Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2480 (Australia); Yu, Yan, E-mail: yuyan_1972@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, New Campus, Minhou, Fujian Province 350108 (China)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Dry desulfurization slag, solid waste, was an efficient adsorbent for lead removal. • The adsorption of Pb{sup 2+} onto dry desulfurization slag was generally monolayer. • The rate limiting step in the adsorption process of Pb{sup 2+} was chemisorption. • Pb{sup 2+} was absorbed onto the surface of the sample adsorbent only. • The adsorbent was low-cost and could be recycled. - Abstract: A collectable and non-sintered material prepared as hollow cylindrical shaped pellet from dry desulfurization slag (FGD ash) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) for wastewater treatments is tested. The characteristic results of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR) show that –OH, CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}, SO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} are the possible functional groups responsible for Pb uptake. Adsorption data indicate that Pb removal is pH dependent and optimal at pH 6, with a very rapid initial removal that reaches equilibrium in about 90 min. A maximum removal of 99.2% is seen for 5 mg/L (pH of 6); higher initial Pb concentrations reduce overall removal efficiencies, but generate higher surface loadings. Adsorption process correlates well with both Langmuir and Freundlich models, although the Langmuir isotherm is more favored, providing a maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) of 130.2 mg/g (13 wt%). Pseudo-second order rate kinetic model best describes the Pb removal, and calculated R{sub L} values between 0 and 1, indicate a favored adsorption process that is chemisorption limited. SEM and EDAX analysis of the surface and fracture surface show that Pb occurs as surface precipitates and that Pb is not distributed to the inner core of the pellet. This study demonstrates that dry FGD ash could be successfully used for wastewater Pb removal.

  6. Search for critical phenomena in Pb - Pb collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kopytine, Mikhail L.; Boggild, H.; Boissevain, J.; Conin, L.; Dodd, J.; Erazmus, B.; Esumi, S.; Fabjan, C.W.; Ferenc, D.; Fields, D.E.; Franz, A.; Gaardhoje, J.J.; Hansen, A.G.; Hansen, O.; Hardtke, D.; Van Hecke, H.; Holzer, E.B.; Humanic, T.J.; Hummel, P.; Jacak, B.V.; Jayanti, R.; Kaimi, K.; Kaneta, M.; Kohama, T.; Leltchouk, M.; Ljubicic, A., Jr.; Lorstad, B.; Maeda, N.; Martin, L.; Medvedev, A.; Murray, M.; Ohnishi, H.; Paic, G.; Pandey, S.U.; Piuz, F.; Pluta, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Potekhin, M.; Poulard, G.; Reichhold, D.; Sakaguchi, A.; Schmidt-Sorensen, J.; Simon-Gillo, J.; Sondheim, W.; Sugitate, T.; Sullivan, J.P.; Sumi, Y.; Willis, W.J.; Wolf, K.L.; Xu, N.; Zachary, D.S.; Kopytine, Mikhail

    2001-01-01

    NA44 uses a 512 channel Si pad array covering $1.5 <\\eta < 3.3$ to study charged hadron production in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. We apply a multiresolution analysis, based on a Discrete Wavelet Transformation, to probe the texture of particle distributions event-by-event, by simultaneous localization of features in space and scale. Scanning a broad range of multiplicities, we look for a possible critical behaviour in the power spectra of local density fluctuations. The data are compared with detailed simulations of detector response, using heavy ion event generators, and with a reference sample created via event mixing.

  7. Heavy metal and Pb isotopic compositions of aquatic organisms in the Pearl River Estuary, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, C.C.M.; Li, X.D.; Zhang, G.; Wong, C.S.C.; Zhang, W.L.

    2005-01-01

    The accumulation of trace metals in aquatic organisms may lead to serious health problems through the food chain. The present research project aims to study the accumulation and potential sources of trace metals in aquatic organisms of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE). Four groups of aquatic organisms, including fish, crab, shrimp, and shellfish, were collected in the PRE for trace metal and Pb isotopic analyses. The trace metal concentrations in the aquatic organism samples ranged from 0.01 to 2.10 mg/kg Cd, 0.02 to 4.33 mg/kg Co, 0.08 to 4.27 mg/kg Cr, 0.15 to 77.8 mg/kg Cu, 0.17 to 31.0 mg/kg Ni, 0.04 to 30.7 mg/kg Pb, and 8.78 to 86.3 mg/kg Zn (wet weight). High concentrations of Cd were found in crab, shrimp and shellfish samples, while high concentration of Pb was found in fish. In comparison with the baseline reference values in other parts of the world, fish in the PRE had the highest elevated trace metals. The results of Pb isotopic compositions indicated that the bioaccumulation of Pb in fish come from a wide variety of food sources and/or exposure pathways, particularly the anthropogenic inputs. - Relative high concentrations of Cd were found in crab, shrimp and shellfish samples while high concentration of Pb was found in fish, particularly from the anthropogenic inputs

  8. Does Biochar Alter the Speciation of Cd and Pb in Aqueous Solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Cui

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium and lead contamination in bodies of water has been a serious concern because of risk to the environment. A laboratory experiment was initiated to investigate the efficacy of biochar (BC in removing cadmium and lead (Cd and Pb, respectively from solution. After absorption by BC, the fractions of Cd and Pb at different solution temperatures were measured. The adsorption data were described by Langmuir isotherm with maximum adsorption capacities of 6.36, 6.47, and 6.74 mg Cd g-1 and 50.05, 55.86, and 63.09 mg Pb g-1 at 25, 35, and 45 °C, respectively. The adsorption capacities were affected by Cd/Pb initial concentration, pH, BC particle size, BC dosage, and reaction time. Biochar adsorbed the Cd and Pb mainly as species bound with carbonate (> 50% and organic compounds (~40%. Exchangeable and residual fractions of Cd and Pb were less than 10%. Results from this study indicate that BC is highly effective in the adsorption of the heavy metals Cd and Pb through binding with carbonates.

  9. Assessment of the potential impact of the phosphate industry along the Syrian Coast by evaluating 210Po and 210Pb levels in sediment, seawater and selected marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, S.; Mamish, S.

    2000-12-01

    Phosphate industry is considered to be one of the potential sources of natural radionuclides in Syrian environment. Most of the phosphate ore is exported in large quantities via one of the main Syrian ports (Tartous) situated on the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea (34 54 North , 35 52 East). The impact of the loading cargoes on the marine environment has been evaluated. 210 Po and 210 Pb in seawater, sediment and marine organisms have been determined. Results have shown a significant enhancement of these two radionuclides in sediment and surface water inside the port area. The highest 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations observed in sediment were found to be 170 Bq.kg -1 and 64 Bq.kg -1 respectively. While, 210 Pb and 210 Po concentrations in surface water ranged from 5 to 20 m Bq.l -1 and 0.93 to 3.23 m Bq.l -1 . In addition, other naturally occurring radionuclides were also determined in the collected sediment samples and relatively higher values ( 226 Ra = 33.2 Bq.kg -1 and 234 Th = 88 Bq.kg -1 ) were observed for those samples collected from inside the port. However, the effect of loading cargoes on the near marine environment was found to be mainly related to wind direction where air particulate carrying radioactivity either being blown to lands or sea. Moreover, comparable values of 210 Po and 210 Pb for all marine organisms (algae, crab and fish) have been observed and it is not recommended to use these organisms for evaluating the effect of phosphate industry on marine environment. This is due to the fact that marine organisms accumulate 210 Po and 210 Pb in their body. Two core samples were also collected in order to investigate the history of pollution in the port. Results have shown a complex relation for unsupported 210 Pb with depth, where the constant supply dating method can not be applied. This is due to the fact that two sources for unsupported 210 Pb being observed in the port area; viz. radon gas and phosphate dust carrying radioactivity

  10. Toxicity assessment of Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella protothecoides following exposure to Pb(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xiong, Bang; Chen, Lin; Lin, Kuangfei; Cui, Xinhong; Bi, Huasong; Guo, Meijin; Wang, Weiliang

    2013-07-01

    The short- and long-term toxic effects of Pb(II) exposure on Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) and Chlorella protothecoides (C. protothecoides) were not well understood. The lab study was performed to observe the Pb(II) exposure induced changes. Results of the observations show: (1) higher level of Pb(II) (50 or 80mgL(-1)) could significantly inhibit the growth and chlorophyll a synthesis of both algae in almost all the treatments and dose-response relationships could be clearly observed, (2) the range of EC50 values (24-120h, 67.73-172.45mgL(-1)) indicated that Pb(II) had a relatively limited short-term toxicity to the two algae, while long-term tests (7-28d, 50.41-63.91mgL(-1)) displayed higher toxicity and (3) SOD and CAT activities of both algae after exposed to medium level of Pb(II) were significantly promoted, and their response might be more susceptible in short-term exposure. This research provides a basic understanding of Pb(II) toxicity to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 210Pb and 210Po in sediments and suspended matter in the Tagus estuary, Portugal: Local enhancement of natural levels by wastes from phosphate ore processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.

    1994-01-01

    Results of analyses of uranium series radionuclides in phosphate ore and in wastes released by the phosphate fertilizer industry confirm their potential for the enhancement of environmental radioactivity levels. Therefore, concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po were measured in bottom sediments and suspended matter in the Tagus estuary, Portugal, to assess the enhancement of radioactivity due to wastes from the phosphate industry. The concentration of 210 Pb in surface sediments in the estuary increased inversely with sediment grain-size; conversely, increased percentage of sand has a dilution effect on the concentration of 210 Pb measured in bulk sediment samples. By normalizing the data to the 210 Pb in sediments was found to be 68 ± 19 Bq kg -1 (dry wt.) in background sediments. Higher 210 Pb levels, up to 1580 Bq kg -1 (dry wt.), were measured in some bulk sediment samples. It was verified that this radionuclide has been introduced by the discharge of wastes from a phosphate fertilizer plant but enhanced concentrations are localized near the point of discharge. In other zones of the estuary, the concentrations of 210 Pb in sediments and suspended matter were generally below those measured in the zone of phosphatic releases at the Barreiro Peninsula. Concentrations higher than the predicted average concentration of unsupported 210 Pb from natural sources (atmospheric deposition, river input) were also measured in the upper estuary, both in bottom sediments and in suspended matter. It is suggested that these relatively elevated concentrations are due to the highly efficient scavenging of soluble naturally-occurring unsupported 210 Pb onto suspended matter and to co-precipitation with iron-manganese hydroxides in the fresh water-salt water mixing zone

  12. Simultaneous and continuous stabilization of As and Pb in contaminated solution and soil by a ferrihydrite-gypsum sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Kentaro; Hashimoto, Yohey; Wang, Shan-Li; Hirai, Yasumasa; Miyahara, Hidetaka

    2017-04-05

    For the increasing need of stabilization both cationic and anionic metal(loid)s simultaneously, we newly developed a metal sorbent (FIXALL), consisting mainly of ferrihydrite and gypsum. The objectives of this study were to determine the molecular mechanisms of Pb and As stabilization in an aqueous system and to examine a simultaneous and long-term (up to 754days) effect on Pb and As stabilization in an anthropogenically contaminated soil using the FIXALL sorbent. When the solution contained a low concentration of Pb (5mgL -1 ), the mechanisms of Pb removal by FIXALL were based chiefly on the formation of inner-sphere surface complex with ferrihydrite. In the highly concentrated Pb solution (1200mgL -1 ), contrarily, the removal of Pb by FIXALL was the direct consequence of the dissolution of gypsum and subsequent precipitation of PbSO 4 , which strengthens the drawback of low capability of ferrihydrite for Pb removal. Regardless of initial concentrations, the primary mechanism of FIXALL for As stabilization is attributed to the formation of inner-sphere surface complex with ferrihydrite. A contaminated soil study demonstrated that FIXALL could decrease the concentration of water soluble As and Pb simultaneously and continuously for 754days without notable changes in their chemical species and soil pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sorption of Lead (Pb from Aqueous Solutions by Sepiolite and Bentonite Modified with Chitosan Biopolymers: Isotherms and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Rafiei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sepiolite and bentonite clay minerals were modified with a natural chitosan biopolymer and the modified-clays were characterized using XRF, XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TOC analyses. The isothermal and kinetic parameters of lead (Pb sorption by both the minerals and the modified-minerals were determined in a batch mode under various conditions such as different contact times and initial concentrations of Pb. It was found that the Freundlich model described well the isotherm experimental data of Pb sorption by the sorbents. Modification with chitosan, however, decreased the Pb adsorption capacity of sepiolite from 83 to 27 mg g-1 and that of bentonite from 56 to 29 mg g-1. Kinetic results showed that more than 24 hours was required for Pb sorption by the natural clays to reach equilibrium, while the equilibrium time reduced to 16 and 4 hours for Pb sorption on chitosan-sepiolite and chitosan–bentonite, respectively. The pseudo-second-order model well described the time-dependent Pb sorption data by sepiolite, chitosan-sepiolite, and chitosan-bentonite, suggesting that chemical sorption is the rate-limiting step of Pb adsorption mechanism. The Pb sorption data by bentonite showed the best fit with Elovich model.

  14. Contents of /sup 210/Pb in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X; Song, H

    1982-02-01

    The contents of /sup 210/Pb in 30 kinds of commonly used foods are given in the paper. After the radioactive equilibrium between /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Pb was nearly established in samples, the concentration of /sup 210/Pb was determined by the method of spontaneous deposition on silver disc. The contents of /sup 210/Pb then were calculated from that of /sup 210/Po. The average contents of /sup 210/Pb in corn, vegetable and meat were 0.14, 15.08 and 1.26 x 10/sup -14/ Ci/g respectively.

  15. Effect of different seawater Mg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mewes, A.; Langer, G.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Bijma, J.; Reichart, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium, incorporated in foraminiferal calcite (Mg/CaCC), is used intensively to reconstruct past seawater temperatures but, in addition to temperature, the Mg/CaCC of foraminiferal tests also depends on the ratio of Mg and Ca in seawater (Mg/CaSW). The physiological mechanisms responsible for

  16. Pb-210 concentrations in cigarettes tobaccos and radiation doses to the smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, S.N.A.; Alaamer, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a source of radiation exposure due to the concentrations of natural radionuclides in the tobacco leaves. From the health point of view, measurement of 210 Pb and 210 Po contents in cigarette tobacco is important to assess the radiological effects associated with the tobacco smoking for the smokers. In the present study, activity concentrations of 210 Pb, which is a 210 Po precursor in the 238 U-decay series, were measured in cigarette tobaccos. Samples of nine different commonly sold brands of cigarette tobaccos were analysed by employing a planar high purity germanium (HPGe) low background detector. Activity concentrations of 210 Pb were measured from its gamma peak at 47 keV. Mean activity concentration of 210 Pb was measured to be 13 ± 4 Bq kg -1 from all samples analysed. The annual committed effective dose for a smoker and the collective committed effective dose corresponding to annual cigarettes production were estimated to be 64 ± 20 μSv and 0.6 x 10 2 man-Sv, respectively. (authors)

  17. Shear induced phase transition in PbO under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giefers, Hubertus; Porsch, Felix

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the structural behavior of lead monoxide (PbO) as a function of pressure via angular dispersive X-ray diffraction employing two different pressure transmitting media that were quasi-hydrostatic (N 2 ) and non-hydrostatic (MgO), respectively. Besides litharge (α-PbO) and massicot (β-PbO), which are both stable at ambient pressure, there is an orthorhombic γ-PbO phase which appears upon application of pressure to α-PbO. We have found that the orthorhombic γ-PbO phase is favored by shear stress under non-hydrostatic conditions. α-PbO shows strong anisotropy in compressibility. The a-axis is rather incompressible with a linear stiffness coefficient of K a0 =540(30) GPa whereas the c-axis stiffness is K c0 =25(1) GPa. The bulk modulus of α-PbO is K 0 =23.1(3) GPa and its derivative K 0 ' =7.0(3)

  18. SPESIASI DAN BIOAVAILABILITAS LOGAM Pb DALAM SEDIMEN DI KAWASAN PESISIR SANUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Dian Meita Sari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Total content of Pb metal in sediments has been reported or published frequently, but it could not provide information about various forms of metals contained in sediments and did not show the true metal concentrations involved in the process of bioaccumulation by organisms. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the bioavailability of Pb metal and speciation the metal in various forms or compounds existing in the sediments. A quantitative analysis of total metal content, Pb in the sediments was initiated performing the digestion method using the mixture of HNO3 and HCl (3:1 in ultrasonic bath at 60 0C for 45 minutes, and continued heating on a hotplate for another 45 minutes at 140 0C. Moreover, analysis of Pb metals as bioavailability fraction was perfomed by single extraction method of EDTA and HCl, while for metal speciation fractions on each phase using Sequential Extraction Technique. Consequently, the metal concentrations of digestion and extraction solutions were measured by using an atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS technique with the aplication of calibration method. The total concentrations of Pb in sediments collected from Sanur Beach ranged from 139,9945 to 260,1521 mg/kg. The highest bioavailability of Pb obtained in sediments at site II (Sindhu Beach, in which the Pb extracted from sediments was 21.44%. Generally, the Pb metal associated in the sediments at Sanur Beach was bounded in oxidisable organic fraction (2.08 – 3.50%.

  19. Pollution and Oral Bioaccessibility of Pb in Soils of Villages and Cities with a Long Habitation History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, Nikolaj; Bakker, Martine; van Os, Bertil; Klaver, Gerard; Middelburg, Jack Jacobus; Davies, Gareth

    2016-02-17

    The Dutch cities Utrecht and Wijk bij Duurstede were founded by the Romans around 50 B.C. and the village Fijnaart and Graft-De Rijp around 1600 A.D. The soils of these villages are polluted with Pb (up to ~5000 mg/kg). Lead isotope ratios were used to trace the sources of Pb pollution in the urban soils. In ~75% of the urban soils the source of the Pb pollution was a mixture of glazed potsherd, sherds of glazed roof tiles, building remnants (Pb sheets), metal slag, Pb-based paint flakes and coal ashes. These anthropogenic Pb sources most likely entered the urban soils due to historical smelting activities, renovation and demolition of houses, disposal of coal ashes and raising and fertilization of land with city waste. Since many houses still contain Pb-based building materials, careless renovation or demolition can cause new or more extensive Pb pollution in urban soils. In ~25% of the studied urban topsoils, Pb isotope compositions suggest Pb pollution was caused by incinerator ash and/or gasoline Pb suggesting atmospheric deposition as the major source. The bioaccessible Pb fraction of 14 selected urban soils was determined with an in vitro test and varied from 16% to 82% of total Pb. The bioaccessibility appears related to the chemical composition and grain size of the primary Pb phases and pollution age. Risk assessment based on the in vitro test results imply that risk to children may be underestimated in ~90% of the studied sample sites (13 out of 14).

  20. Pollution and Oral Bioaccessibility of Pb in Soils of Villages and Cities with a Long Habitation History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaj Walraven

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch cities Utrecht and Wijk bij Duurstede were founded by the Romans around 50 B.C. and the village Fijnaart and Graft-De Rijp around 1600 A.D. The soils of these villages are polluted with Pb (up to ~5000 mg/kg. Lead isotope ratios were used to trace the sources of Pb pollution in the urban soils. In ~75% of the urban soils the source of the Pb pollution was a mixture of glazed potsherd, sherds of glazed roof tiles, building remnants (Pb sheets, metal slag, Pb-based paint flakes and coal ashes. These anthropogenic Pb sources most likely entered the urban soils due to historical smelting activities, renovation and demolition of houses, disposal of coal ashes and raising and fertilization of land with city waste. Since many houses still contain Pb-based building materials, careless renovation or demolition can cause new or more extensive Pb pollution in urban soils. In ~25% of the studied urban topsoils, Pb isotope compositions suggest Pb pollution was caused by incinerator ash and/or gasoline Pb suggesting atmospheric deposition as the major source. The bioaccessible Pb fraction of 14 selected urban soils was determined with an in vitro test and varied from 16% to 82% of total Pb. The bioaccessibility appears related to the chemical composition and grain size of the primary Pb phases and pollution age. Risk assessment based on the in vitro test results imply that risk to children may be underestimated in ~90% of the studied sample sites (13 out of 14.

  1. Determination of Cd, Pb and As in sediments of the Sava River by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA MURKO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of nitric acid, palladium nitrate and a mixture of palladium and magnesium nitrate as matrix modifiers were estimated for the accurate and reproducible determination of cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and arsenic (As in sediments of the Sava River by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, ETAAS. Decomposition of the samples was done in a closed vessel microwave-assisted digestion system using nitric, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids, followed by the addition of boric acid to convert the fluorides into soluble complexes. The parameters for the determination of Cd, Pb and As in sediments were optimised for each individual element and for each matrix modifier. In addition, two sediment reference materials were also analysed. In determination of Cd and Pb, nitric acid was found to be the most appropriate matrix modifier. The accurate and reliable determination of Cd and Pb in sediments was possible also in the presence of boric acid. The use of a mixture of palladium and magnesium nitrate efficiently compensated for matrix effects and enabled the accurate and reliable determination of As in the sediments. Quantification of Cd and As was performed by calibration using acid matched standard solutions, while the standard addition method was applied for the quantification of Pb. The repeatability of the analytical procedure for the determination of Cd, Pb and As in sediments was ±5 % for Cd, ±4 % for Pb and ±2 % for As. The LOD values of the analytical procedure were found to be 0.05 mg/kg for Cd and 0.25 mg/kg for Pb and As, while the LOQ values were 0.16 mg/kg for Cd and 0.83 mg/kg for Pb and As. Finally, Cd, Pb and As were successfully determined in sediments of the Sava River in Slovenia.

  2. PETROCHEMISTRY, Pb ISOTOPE SYSTEMATICS, AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The petrology, geochemistry, geotectonic setting and common Pb isotope model ages for the granite gneisses in Ilesha schist belt have been studied and presented in this paper. These gneisses, apart from the normal rock-forming silicates, contain apatite, monazite, ilmenite and zircon in trace amounts. The occurrence of ...

  3. Transfer of lead (Pb) in the soil-plant-mealybug-ladybird beetle food chain, a comparison between two host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Wang, Xingmin; Ashraf, Umair; Qiu, Baoli; Ali, Shaukat

    2017-09-01

    Contamination of soil with heavy metals has become an issue of concern on global scale. This study investigates the translocation of lead (Pb) along the soil - plant (eggplant and tomato) - mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes) - ladybird beetle (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri) food chain. Soil amendments used for this study were adjusted to 0, 25, 50 and 100mg/kg of Pb (w/w). The results revealed significantly higher transfer of Pb in tomato when compared to eggplant. Bio-magnification of Pb (2-4 times) was observed for soil - root transfer whereas Pb was bio-minimized in later part of food chain (shoot - mealybug - ladybird transfer). A dose dependent increase in transfer of Pb across the multi-trophic food chain was observed for both host plants. A decrease in coefficients of Pb transfer (from root - shoot and shoot - mealybug) was observed with increase in Pb concentrations. Our results also showed removal of Pb from the bodies of ladybird beetle during metamorphosis. Further studies are required to explain the mechanisms or physiological pathways involved in the bio-minimization of Pb across the food chain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pb speciation results in amended soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset shows the distribution of Pb phases resulting from various amendments to change Pb speciation. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  5. Genesis of Cenozoic intraplate high Mg# andesites in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. Q.; Chen, L. H.; Zhong, Y.; Wang, X. J.

    2017-12-01

    High-Mg# andesites (HMAs) are usually generated in the converged plate boundary and have genetic relationships with slab subduction. However, it still remained controversial about the origin of those HMAs erupted in the intra-plate setting. Here we present major, trace element, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions for the Cenozoic intra-plate HMAs from Northeast China to constrain their origin and formation process. Cenozoic Xunke volcanic rocks are located in the northern Lesser Khingan Range, covering an area of about 3, 000 km2. These volcanic rocks are mainly basaltic andesite and basaltic trachyandesite, with only several classified as trachyandesite and andesites. They have high SiO2 contents (54.3-57.4 wt%) and Mg# (49.6-57.8), falling into the scope of high Mg# andesites. The Xunke HMAs are enriched in large ion lithophile elements but depleted in high field strength elements, with positive Ba, K, Sr and negative Zr-Hf, and Ti anomalies. Their trace element absolute concentrations are between those of potassic basalts and Wuchagou HMAs. The Xunke HMAs have relatively enriched Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes (87Sr/86Sr = 0.705398-0.705764, ɛNd=-8.8-3.8, ɛHf=0.5-11.7), and low radiogenic Pb isotopes (206Pb/204Pb = 16.701-17.198), towards to the EM1 end-member, which indicates that they are ultimately derived from ancient, recycled crustal components. Primitive silica-rich melts were generated from higher degrees of partial melting of recycled crustal materials (relative to potassic basalts) and then interacted with the peridotite to produce the Xunke HMAs.

  6. Electrochemical study and recovery of Pb using 1:2 choline chloride/urea deep eutectic solvent: A variety of Pb species PbSO4, PbO2, and PbO exhibits the analogous thermodynamic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Yu-Shun; Chen, Po-Yu; Sun, I-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Water-insoluble PbSO 4 , PbO 2 , and PbO are fairly soluble in choline chloride/urea deep eutectic solvent (ChCl/urea DES) in 1:2 molar ratio. Very interestingly, solution prepared from PbO 2 exhibits the almost identical electrochemical behavior as those from PbSO 4 and PbO, indicating that Pb(II) is formed in the DES regardless of what Pb compound is introduced. The electrochemical reduction of the Pb(II) species is determined as an irreversible process, and involves the three-dimensional (3D) instantaneous nucleation with diffusion-controlled growth. From the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on temperature, the activation energy for diffusion of PbSO 4 and PbO 2 is determined to be 33.7 and 34.1 kJ mol −1 , respectively. Electrodeposition of Pb was achieved potentiostatically and galvanostatically. The surface morphology of Pb deposits significantly depends on the applied potential and current. The coulombic efficiency of Pb electrodeposition is higher than 90%. Electrodeposition of Pb from a wet DES containing a mixture of three different Pb sources is also investigated. The XRD analysis confirmed that the electrodeposits consisted of metallic Pb.

  7. Industrial contamination of soil related to some active and closed mine facilities in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasev Goran K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several industrial pollution sources at the territory of the Republic of Macedonia, were studied, one Pb-Zn mine with mill, one copper mine with mill and copper leaching facility, as well as one former Pb-Zn smelting facility near the city of Veles and one Fe-Ni smelting facility near the city of Kavadarci. The concentrations of heavy metals at Veles hot-spot were in the range: 20÷1823 mg kg- 1Pb, 29÷2395 mg kg-1Zn, 28÷65 mgkg-1Cd, 27÷82 mg kg-1 Cu, 39÷164 mg kg-1Ni, 508÷938 mgkg-1Mn and 1.6÷3.8% Fe, all of them being above Dutch standard optimal values. The vicinity of the Feni plant displayed concentrations of heavy metals as follows: 16÷31 mg kg-1 Pb, 117÷286 mgkg-1 Zn, 13÷24 mg kg-1Co, 42÷119 mg kg-1 Cu, 158÷292 mg kg-1Ni, 119÷236 mg kg-1 Cr and 2.24÷3.79% Fe. Airborne dust measurements around the Zletovo mine displayed multiplexed above standard values, with an exception of nickel, there enrichment factors ranged from mediate ones such were those for copper of 20.8, cadmium of 28.7, arsenic of 32.5 up to high ones for zinc with 341.7 and lead 925. Soil samples around the Zletovo mine displayed: 19.3-76.9 g kg-1 Fe, 643-28000 mg kg-1 Mn, 42.3-529.66 mg kg-1 Pb and 138-3240 mg kg-1 Zn. Finally around the Bucim copper mine the results displayed the following findings: 13.1÷225 mg kg-1 As, 0.67÷17.9 mg kg-1 Cd, 30.1÷171 mg kg-1 Cr, 17.8÷1734 mg kg-1 Cu, 9.8÷69.4 mg kg-1 Ni, 46÷3456 mg kg-1 Pb, 88÷3438 mg kg-1 Zn, 169÷998 mg kg-1 Mn, 0.73÷5.02% Fe.

  8. Qualitative analysis of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Zn, Fe, Mn, K, Hg, Pb y Cu, as constituents of Amatitlan Lake sediment by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, P.A.E.; Morales, E.A.

    1987-10-01

    Samples of fifteen sampling points were analyzed. Molybdenum X-ray tube with secondary excitation assembly, SiLi detector and deconvolution software AXIL were employed; self-standardization method based upon incoherent ratio was used for quantitative analysis of some elements. Ca, P, S, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cr, Zn, Cu, Ni, Ga, As, Pb, Ge, Sr and Pb, were found. As, Pb and Cu concentrations lower than 109 mg/lt, 119 mg/lt, and 500mg/lt, respectively, were measured. Hg was not detected. (author)

  9. Speciation of Pb in industrially polluted soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    This study was aimed at elucidating the importance of original Pb-speciation versus soil-characteristics to mobility and distribution of Pb in industrially polluted soils. Ten industrially polluted Danish surface soils were characterized and Pb speciation was evaluated through SEM-EDX studies...

  10. Determination of distribution coefficients of some natural radionuclides (U, Ra, Pb, Po) between different types of Syrian soils and their solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Al-Hamwi, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.

    2009-11-01

    In this study, distribution coefficients of some natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra, U, 210 Pb and 210 Po) between different types of soils in Syria and their solutions were determined. The distribution coefficients values ranged from (164-1933, 280-1722, 350-4749 and 101-117) l kg - 1 for 226 Ra, U, 210 Pb and 210 Po, respectively at pH = 4.0. While, the distribution coefficients values ranged from (207-6706, 673-2397, 149-2147 and 103- 292) l kg - 1 for 226 Ra, U, 210 Pb and 210 Po, respectively at pH = 5.5. In addition, the distribution coefficients values ranged from (167-1707, 126- 1239, 44-1122 and 125-1475) l kg - 1 for 226 Ra, U, 210 Pb and 210 Po, respectively at pH = 7.0. Moreover, the results showed that 210 Po distribution coefficients had the maximum values at pH 7. While 210 Pb distribution coefficients had the minimum values at same pH. In addition to, U distribution coefficients had the maximum values at pH 5.5. On the other hand, the effect of soil mineral content, CEC, ECE, pH and soluble ions on the distribution coefficients were investigated. In general, the results showed that there are logarithmic relationships between studied radionuclide activity in the soil and their distribution coefficients in all soil types (R 2 ranged from 0.59 to 1.00 at pH 4.0). On the other hand, there were no relationships between the distribution coefficients and soil pH. (authors)

  11. Quarkonia production at forward rapidity in Pb + Pb collisions at s ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muons from the decay of charmonium resonances are detected in ALICE experiment in + and Pb + Pb collisions with a muon spectrometer, covering the forward rapidity region (2.5 < < 4). The analysis of the inclusive / production in the first Pb + Pb data collected in the fall of 2010 at a centre of mass energy of s N ...

  12. Recent ALICE results on Pb-Pb and p-Pb Ultra Peripheral Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The strong electromagnetic fields surrounding the Pb-ions acceleratedat the LHC allow two-photon, photon-proton and photon-lead interactions to be studied in a new kinematic regime. These interactions can be studied in ultra-peripheral collisions,where the impact parameters are larger than the sum of the nuclear radii and hadronic interactions are suppressed. During the lead-lead runs at the LHC in 2010 and 2011, and during the proton-lead run in 2013, the ALICE experiment implemented dedicated triggers to select ultra-peripheral collisions. Based on signals from the Muon spectrometer, the Time-of-Flight detector, the Silicon Pixel detector, and the VZERO scintillator array. The cross section for photoproduction of J/Psi mesons at mid- and forward-rapidities in Pb-Pb collisions will be presented. The results will be compared to model calculations and their implications for the study of nuclear gluon shadowing will be discussed. First results on J/Psi photoproduction in p-Pb collisions will also be discussed ...

  13. Event texture search for critical fluctuations in Pb + Pb collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kopytine, M L; Bearden, I G; Bøggild, H; Boissevain, J G; Conin, L; Dodd, J; Erazmus, B; Esumi, S C; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Ferenc, D; Fields, D E; Franz, A; Gaardhøje, J J; Hansen, A G; Hansen, O; Hardtke, D; van Hecke, H; Holzer, E B; Humanic, T J; Hummel, P; Jacak, B V; Jayanti, R; Kaimi, K; Kaneta, M; Kohama, T; Kopytine, M L; Leltchouk, M; Ljubicic, A; Lörstad, B; Maeda, N; Martin, L; Medvedev, A; Murray, M; Ohnishi, H; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Piuz, François; Pluta, J; Polychronakos, V; Potekhin, M V; Poulard, G; Reichhold, D M; Sakaguchi, A; Schmidt-Sørensen, J; Simon-Gillo, J; Sondheim, W E; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Sumi, Y; Willis, W J; Wolf, K L; Xu, N; Zachary, D S

    2002-01-01

    NA44 uses a 512 channel Si pad array covering $1.5 <\\eta < 3.3$ to study charged hadron production in 158 A GeV Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. We apply a multiresolution analysis, based on a Discrete Wavelet Transformation, to probe the texture of particle distributions event-by-event, by simultaneous localization of features in space and scale. Scanning a broad range of multiplicities, we look for a possible critical behaviour in the power spectra of local density fluctuations. The data are compared with detailed simulations of detector response, using heavy ion event generators, and with a reference sample created via event mixing. An upper limit is set on the probability and magnitude of dynamical fluctuations.

  14. Elemental composition of commercial sea cucumbers (holothurians).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, J; Hu, C

    2010-01-01

    Toxic and essential elements in 11 different sea cucumber species were determined and compared with daily intake recommendations and maximum allowed levels. The contents of macro-elements contents in dried sea cucumber samples were found to be 25,000-152,000 mg kg(-1) for Na, 4000-8600 mg kg(-1) for Mg, 1100-5200 mg kg(-1) for K, 15,000-68,000 mg kg(-1) and 36,300-251,000 mg kg(-1) for Cl. Trace element concentrations in dried sea cucumber samples were found to be 11-100 mg kg(-1) for Zn, 41-660 mg kg(-1) for Fe, 3-74 mg kg(-1) for Cu, 1.1-16 mg kg(-1) for Mn, 1.4-3.7 mg kg(-1) for Se, 1.1-9.6 mg kg(-1) for Cr, and 0.3-5.1 mg kg(-1) for Ni. All sea cucumber species were rich sources of Na, Cl, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Se and Cr for human consumption. Regarding contaminants, As, Cd and Pb concentrations in dried sea cucumbers were in the ranges of 1.1-6.1, 0.03-0.06 and 0.11-0.69 mg kg(-1), respectively. Moreover, Hg values of 11 sea cucumbers were below the detection limit (0.01 mg kg(-1)).

  15. Charged particle production in Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions measured by the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00287239; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider measures charged hadron spectra in Pb+Pb and p+Pb collisions. The results are compared to the p+p spectra of charged hadrons at the same centre-of-mass energy. Charged hadron distributions from Pb+Pb are compared to charged particle cross-sections in p+p collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=2.76$ TeV, reference cross-section for p+Pb at $\\sqrt{s_{_\\text{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV is reconstructed using $\\sqrt{s}=2.76$ TeV and 7 TeV p+p results. These allow for a detailed comparison of the collision systems in a wide transverse momentum and rapidity ranges in different centrality intervals. The nuclear modification factors \\rPbPb\\ and \\rpA\\ are presented as a function of centrality, $p_{_\\text{T}}$, $\\eta$. The charged particle \\rPbPb\\ are found to vary significantly as a function of transverse momentum, shows a pronounced minimum at about 7 GeV. Above 60 GeV, $R_{_\\text{AA}}$ is consistent with a flat, centrality-dependent, value within the uncertainties. $R_{_\\text{pPb}}$ results sh...

  16. First measurement of jet mass in Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Albuquerque, D. S. D.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; An, M.; Andrei, C.; Andrews, H. A.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anson, C.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Anwar, R.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barioglio, L.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Beltran, L. G. E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biro, G.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boca, G.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Bonomi, G.; Bonora, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Botta, E.; Bourjau, C.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buhler, P.; Buitron, S. A. I.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Cabala, J.; Caffarri, D.; Caines, H.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Capon, A. A.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chauvin, A.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Cho, S.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Concas, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Costanza, S.; Crkovská, J.; Crochet, P.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danisch, M. C.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; de, S.; de Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Conti, C.; de Cuveland, J.; de Falco, A.; de Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; de Pasquale, S.; de Souza, R. D.; Degenhardt, H. F.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Deplano, C.; Dhankher, P.; di Bari, D.; di Mauro, A.; di Nezza, P.; di Ruzza, B.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Duggal, A. K.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Endress, E.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Esumi, S.; Eulisse, G.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabbietti, L.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Francisco, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fronze, G. G.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gajdosova, K.; Gallio, M.; Galvan, C. D.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Garg, K.; Garg, P.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Gauger, E. F.; Gay Ducati, M. B.; Germain, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, A. S.; Gonzalez, V.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Greiner, L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grion, N.; Gronefeld, J. M.; Grosa, F.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grosso, R.; Gruber, L.; Grull, F. R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Guzman, I. B.; Haake, R.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hamon, J. C.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Hellbär, E.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Hladky, J.; Hohlweger, B.; Horak, D.; Hornung, S.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Hughes, C.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Inaba, M.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Isakov, V.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacak, B.; Jacazio, N.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadhav, M. B.; Jadlovska, S.; Jadlovsky, J.; Jaelani, S.; Jahnke, C.; Jakubowska, M. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jercic, M.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Ketzer, B.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Khatun, A.; Khuntia, A.; Kielbowicz, M. M.; Kileng, B.; Kim, D.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Klewin, S.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kumar, S.; Kundu, S.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lavicka, R.; Lazaridis, L.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, S.; Lehas, F.; Lehner, S.; Lehrbach, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Litichevskyi, V.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Llope, W. J.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Loncar, P.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Lupi, M.; Lutz, T. H.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martinez, J. A. L.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mastroserio, A.; Mathis, A. M.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzilli, M.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Mhlanga, S.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mihaylov, D. L.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Mohisin Khan, M.; Montes, E.; Moreira de Godoy, D. A.; Moreno, L. A. P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Münning, K.; Munzer, R. H.; Murakami, H.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Myers, C. J.; Naik, B.; Nair, R.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Natal da Luz, H.; Nattrass, C.; Navarro, S. R.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, R.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Negrao de Oliveira, R. A.; Nellen, L.; Nesbo, S. V.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Ohlson, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Oravec, M.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pacik, V.; Pagano, D.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Palni, P.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Panebianco, S.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, J.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Pathak, S. P.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Pei, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Peng, X.; Pereira, L. G.; Pereira da Costa, H.; Peresunko, D.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Pezzi, R. P.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pimentel, L. O. D. L.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Poppenborg, H.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Pozdniakov, V.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Rana, D. B.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Ratza, V.; Ravasenga, I.; Read, K. F.; Redlich, K.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Rokita, P. S.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Rotondi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rueda, O. V.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Rustamov, A.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Saarinen, S.; Sadhu, S.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Saha, S. K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sandoval, A.; Sarkar, D.; Sarkar, N.; Sarma, P.; Sas, M. H. P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Scheid, H. S.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, M. O.; Schmidt, M.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Šefčík, M.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Senyukov, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sett, P.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Sheikh, A. I.; Shigaki, K.; Shou, Q.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Sozzi, F.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stankus, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Suljic, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S.; Szabo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thakur, D.; Thakur, S.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Tikhonov, A.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Tripathy, S.; Trogolo, S.; Trombetta, G.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Umaka, E. N.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vala, M.; van der Maarel, J.; van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vázquez Doce, O.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Velure, A.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Vértesi, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Vigolo, S.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Villatoro Tello, A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Voscek, D.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Weiser, D. F.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Whitehead, A. M.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Willems, G. A.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Witt, W. E.; Yalcin, S.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J. H.; Yurchenko, V.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinovjev, G.; Zmeskal, J.; Alice Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This letter presents the first measurement of jet mass in Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions at √{sNN } = 2.76 TeV and √{sNN } = 5.02 TeV, respectively. Both the jet energy and the jet mass are expected to be sensitive to jet quenching in the hot Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) matter created in nuclear collisions at collider energies. Jets are reconstructed from charged particles using the anti-kT jet algorithm and resolution parameter R = 0.4. The jets are measured in the pseudorapidity range |ηjet | < 0.5 and in three intervals of transverse momentum between 60 GeV/c and 120 GeV/c. The measurement of the jet mass in central Pb-Pb collisions is compared to the jet mass as measured in p-Pb reference collisions, to vacuum event generators, and to models including jet quenching. It is observed that the jet mass in central Pb-Pb collisions is consistent within uncertainties with p-Pb reference measurements. Furthermore, the measured jet mass in Pb-Pb collisions is not reproduced by the quenching models considered in this letter and is found to be consistent with PYTHIA expectations within systematic uncertainties.

  17. Doping of (Bi,Pb)-2223 with metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehring, D.; Vogt, M.; Wischert, W.; Kemmler-Sack, S.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of doping on formation, superconductivity and pinning forces of (Bi,Pb)-2223 was studied for several dopants. They can be subdivided into promoters (Cu, Mn at low doping level of x=0.1 and Rh) and inhibitors (Mg, Al, Sn, Co, Y, Pd and high substitution levels of Mn and Ni) of the transformation of the precursor material into (Bi,Pb)-2223. According to X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies the incorporation of the dopant into the 2223 lattice is restricted to a very low doping level. Higher dopant concentrations are accompanied by a segregation of secondary phases. These segregations are not effective in the process of creating flux pinning centres. A depression of T c is observed for 2223 materials with the dopants Co, Ni and Pd. (orig.)

  18. The EDTA effect on phytoextraction of single and combined metals-contaminated soils using rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2005-08-01

    Rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis), a potential phytoextraction plant, can accumulate high concentrations of Cd from metal-contaminated soils. The soils used in this study were artificially added with different metals including (1) CK: original soil, (2) Cd-treated soil: 10 mg Cd kg(-1), (3) Zn-treated soil: 100 mg Zn kg(-1), (4) Pb-treated soil: 1000 mg Pb kg(-1), (5) Cd-Zn-treated soil: 10 mg Cd kg(-1) and 100 mg Zn kg(-1), (6) Cd-Pb-treated soil: 10 mg Cd kg(-1) and 1000 mg Pb kg(-1), (7) Zn-Pb-treated soil: 100 mg Zn kg(-1) and 1000 mg Pb kg(-1), and (8) Cd-Zn-Pb-treated soil: 10 mg Cd kg(-1), 100 mg Zn kg(-1), and 1000 mg Pb kg(-1). Three concentrations of 2Na-EDTA solutions (0 (control), 2, and 5 mmol kg(-1) soil) were added to the different metals-treated soils to study the influence of applied EDTA on single and combined metals-contaminated soils phytoextraction using rainbow pink. The results showed that the Cd, Zn, Pb, Fe, or Mn concentrations in different metals-treated soil solutions significantly increased after applying 5 mmol EDTA kg(-1) (p<0.05). The metal concentrations in different metals-treated soils extracted by deionized water also significantly increased after applying 5 mmol EDTA kg(-1) (p<0.05). Because of the high extraction capacity of both 0.005 M DTPA (pH 5.3) and 0.05 M EDTA (pH 7.0), applying EDTA did not significantly increase the Cd, Zn, or Pb concentration in both extracts for most of the treatments. Applying EDTA solutions can significantly increase the Cd and Pb concentrations in the shoots of rainbow pink (p<0.05). However, this was not statistically significant for Zn because of the low Zn concentration added into the contaminated soils. The results from this study indicate that applying 5 mmol EDTA kg(-1) can significantly increase the Cd, Zn, or Pb concentrations both in the soil solution or extracted using deionized water in single or combined metals-contaminated soils, thus increasing the accumulated metals concentrations in

  19. Dose of rocuronium for rapid tracheal intubation following remifentanil 2 μg kg-1 and propofol 2 mg kg-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ah-Young; Cho, Suk-Ju; Seo, Kwang-Suk; Ryu, Jung-Hee; Han, Sung-Hee; Hwang, Jung-Won

    2013-09-01

    Full relaxation is not mandatory for successful tracheal intubation. We tried to find the dose of rocuronium that gave acceptable intubation conditions in a rapid sequence intubation with remifentanil and propofol. A dose-finding study of rocuronium using a modified Dixon's up-and-down method. A single tertiary care teaching hospital. Patients undergoing elective surgery under general anaesthesia. After premedication with midazolam and glycopyrrolate, anaesthesia was induced using remifentanil 2 μg kg and propofol 2 mg kg, and a predetermined dose of rocuronium was administered. The dose of rocuronium was determined by a modified Dixon's up-and-down method starting from 0.8 mg kg with an interval of 0.1 or 0.05 mg kg. Intubation was performed 60 s after the start of the rocuronium injection. Intubation conditions were graded as excellent, good or poor. Excellent or good were regarded as clinically acceptable. A dose of rocuronium needed for acceptable intubation condition in 50% of patients (ED50) during rapid tracheal intubation after induction of anaesthesia with remifentanil and propofol. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled to obtain six crossovers. The ED50 of rocuronium was 0.20 mg kg (95% confidence interval, CI 0.17 to 0.23 mg kg) by a modified Dixon's up-and-down method. After induction of anaesthesia with remifentanil 2 μg kg and propofol 2 mg kg, the ED50 of rocuronium for acceptable intubation condition was 0.20 mg kg (95% CI, 0.17 to 0.23 mg kg) for rapid sequence intubation. Thus, we recommend that the intubation dose should be 0.8 mg kg. Clinical trial registration KCT0000094.

  20. Tracing source and migration of Pb during waste incineration using stable Pb isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang, Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing [Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Research and Training Center on Rural Waste Management, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of P.R. China, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • The migration of Pb during waste incineration was investigated using Pb isotopes. • Source tracing of Pb during incineration by isotopic technology was feasible. • Contributions of MSW components were measured to trace Pb sources quantitatively. • Isotopic technology helps understand the migration of Pb during thermal treatment. - Abstract: Emission of Pb is a significant environmental concern during solid waste incineration. To target Pb emission control strategies effectively, the major sources of Pb in the waste incineration byproducts must be traced and quantified. However, identifying the migration of Pb in each waste component is difficult because of the heterogeneity of the waste. This study used a laboratory-scale incinerator to simulate the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW). The Pb isotope ratios of the major waste components ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 0.8550–0.8627 and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 2.0957–2.1131) and their incineration byproducts were measured to trace sources and quantify the Pb contribution of each component to incineration byproducts. As the proportions of food waste (FW), newspaper (NP), and polyethylene bag (PE) in the artificial MSW changed, the contribution ratios of FW and PE to Pb in fly ash changed accordingly, ranging from 31.2% to 50.6% and from 35.0% to 41.8%, respectively. The replacement of PE by PVC significantly increased the partitioning and migration ratio of Pb. The use of Pb isotope ratios as a quantitative tool for tracing Pb from raw waste to incineration byproducts is a feasible means for improving Pb pollution control.

  1. Metal contamination in wildlife living near two zinc smelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Pattee, O.H.; Sileo, L.; Hoffman, D.J.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Wildlife in an oak forest on Blue Mountain was studied 10 km upwind (Bake Oven Knob site) and 2 km downwind (Palmerton site) of two zinc smelters in eastern Pennsylvania, USA. Previous studies at sites near these smelters had shown changes in populations of soil microflora, lichens, green plants and litter-inhabiting arthropods. The 02 soil litter horizon at Palmerton was heavily contaminated with Pb (2700 mg kg-1), Zn (24000 mg kg-1), and Cd (710 mg kg-1), and to a lesser extent with Cu (440 mg kg-1). Various kinds of invertebrates (earthworms, slugs and millipedes) that feed on soil litter or soil organic matter were rare at, or absent from, the Palmerton site. Those collected at Bake Oven Knob tended to have much higher concentrations of metals than did other invertebrates. Frogs, toads and salamanders were very rare at, or absent from, the Palmerton site, but were present at Bake Oven Knob and at other sites on Blue Mountain farther from the smelters. Metal concentrations (dry wt) in different organisms from Palmerton were compared. Concentrations of Pb were highest in shrews (110 mg kg-1), followed by songbirds (56 mg kg-1), leaves (21 mg kg-1), mice (17 mg kg-1), carrion insects (14 mg kg-1), berries (4.0 mg kg-1), moths (4,3 mg kg-1) and fungi (3.7 mg kg-1). Concentrations of Cd, in contrast, were highest in carrion insects (25 mg kg-1 ),followed by fungi (9.8 mg kg-1), leaves (8.1 mg kg-1), shrews (7.3 mg kg-I), moths (4.9 mg kg-1), mice (2.6 mg kg -1), songbirds (2.5 mg kg -1) and berries (1.2 mg kg-1). Concentrations of Zn and Cu tended to be highest in the same organisms that had the highest concentrations of Cd. Only a small proportion of the metals in the soil became incorporated into plant foliage, and much of the metal contamination detected in the biota probably came from aerial deposition. The mice from both sites seemed to be healthy. Shrews had higher concentrations of metals than did mice, and one shrew showed evidence of Pb poisoning; its red

  2. Radiochemical determination of 210 Pb and 226Ra in petroleum sludges and scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Andressa Arruda de

    2005-01-01

    The oil extraction and production, both onshore and offshore, can generate different types of residues, such as sludge, that is deposited in the water/oil separators, valves and storage tanks and scales, which form i the inner surface of ducts and equipment. Analyses already carried out through gamma spectrometry indicated the existence of high radioisotope concentration. However, radionuclides emitting low-energy gamma-rays, such as 210 Pb, are hardly detected by that technique. Consequently, there is a need to test alternative techniques to determine this and other radionuclides from the 238 U series. This work, therefore, focuses on the radiochemical determination of the concentration of 210 Pb, and 226 Ra in samples of sludge and scale from the oil processing stations of the UN-SEAL, a PETROBRAS unit responsible for the exploration and production of petroleum in Sergipe and Alagoas. The sludge and scale samples went through a preliminary process of extraction of oil, in order to separate the solid phase, where the largest fraction of the radioactivity is concentrated. After oil removal, the samples were digested using alkaline fusion as an option for dissolution. Finally, their activity concentration was determined for the samples of sludge and scales, using and alternative radiochemical method, which is based on ionic exchange. The activity concentration found for 210 Pb varied from 1,14 to 507,3 kBq kg -1 . The values for 226 Ra were higher, varying from 4,36 to 3.445 kBq kg -1 . The results for 226 Ra were then compared with the ones found for the same samples of sludge and scales using gamma spectrometry. The results of the comparison confirm the efficiency of the methodology used int hi work, that is, radiochemical determination by means of ionic exchange. (author)

  3. A study on the ultrastructure of the mouse kidney tissues affected by lead (Pb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Chang Kyu; Choe, Rim Soon

    1986-01-01

    This study was made to investigate the ultrastructural changes of the male mouse(ICR strain) kidney tissue affected by lead(Pb). Pb, as a form of Pb(CH 3 COO) 2 was injected within the peritoneal cavity at the time interval of 24 hrs, 48 hrs and 72 hrs from injection time. In the meantime, electron microscopy was used to investigate the histologic changes occured in control animals, experimental animals. In kidney cells of experimental animals, changes of the nuclear chromatin were little, but cristae of mitochondria presented in cytoplasm was impaired, vacuolation was risen, thoseby many vacuole was formed. Especially, in the case of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg Pb concentration, mitochondrial presented in cytoplasm was considerably deformed. While, with 20 mg/kg of Pb(CH 3 C00) 2 , it was observed that normal structure was presented in the nucleus electrodensity in cytoplasm was decreased mostly, but mitochondrial deform was slightly decreased. (Author)

  4. Adsorption kinetics of ion of Pb2+ using Tricalcium Phosphate particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadli, A.; Yenti, S. R.; Akbar, F.; Maihendra; Mawarni, F.

    2018-04-01

    One of the heavy metals that can pollute water is Pb2+. The concentration of ion Pb2+ can be removed using the adsorption method. The purpose of this research is to determine the adsorption kinetics model of ions Pb2+ using tricalcium phosphate (TCP) particles with variation of the temperature and adsorbent dosage. Five hundred mililiter Pb2+ solution with of 3 mg/L were added 0,5 gr, 1 gr and 1,5 gr of TCP in a glass beaker and stirred with rate of 300 rpm at a temperature of 30 °C, 40 °C and 50 °C. Pb2+ concentration in solution was analyzed by AAS (Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy). The results showed that the rate of adsorption increased with the increasing of the temperature and adsorbent dosage. Minimum constant value of adsorption kinetic was 1,720 g/mg.min obtained at temperature of 30 °C and adsorbent dosageof 0,5 gr. The maximum value of adsorption kinetic constant was 9,755 g/mg.min obtained at temperature of 50 °C and adsorbent dosage of 1,5 gr. The appropriate model for adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo second order.

  5. Superconductivity in Pb inverse opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, Ali E.; Lee, Sergey B.; Zakhidov, Anvar A.; Baughman, Ray H.

    2007-01-01

    Type-II superconducting behavior was observed in highly periodic three-dimensional lead inverse opal prepared by infiltration of melted Pb in blue (D = 160 nm), green (D = 220 nm) and red (D = 300 nm) opals and followed by the extraction of the SiO 2 spheres by chemical etching. The onset of a broad phase transition (ΔT = 0.3 K) was shifted from T c = 7.196 K for bulk Pb to T c = 7.325 K. The upper critical field H c2 (3150 Oe) measured from high-field hysteresis loops exceeds the critical field for bulk lead (803 Oe) fourfold. Two well resolved peaks observed in the hysteresis loops were ascribed to flux penetration into the cylindrical void space that can be found in inverse opal structure and into the periodic structure of Pb nanoparticles. The red inverse opal shows pronounced oscillations of magnetic moment in the mixed state at low temperatures, T 0.9T c has been observed for all of the samples studied. The magnetic field periodicity of resistivity modulation is in good agreement with the lattice parameter of the inverse opal structure. We attribute the failure to observe pronounced modulation in magneto-resistive measurement to difficulties in the precision orientation of the sample along the magnetic field

  6. Resistance strategies of Phragmites australis (common reed to Pb pollution in flood and drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance strategies of clonal organs, and parent and offspring shoots of Phragmites australis (common reed to heavy metal pollution in soils are not well known. To clarify the tolerance or resistance strategies in reeds, we conducted a pot experiment with five levels of Pb concentration (0∼4,500 mg kg−1 in flood and drought conditions. Lead toxicity had no inhibitory effect on the number of offspring shoots in flood environment; however, biomass accumulation, and photosynthetic and clonal growth parameters were inhibited in both water environment. At each treatment of Pb concentration, offspring shoots had greater biomass and higher photosynthesis indicators than parent shoots. The lowest Pb allocation was found in rhizomes. More of the Pb transported to above-ground parts tended to accumulate in parent shoots rather than in offspring shoots. Biomass and photosynthesis of offspring shoots, rhizome length, and the number of buds, rhizomes and offspring shoots in the flooded treatment were significantly greater than those in the drought treatment. Our results indicated that the tolerance strategies used by reeds, including higher biomass accumulation and photosynthesis in offspring shoots, low allocation of Pb in rhizomes and offspring shoots, and stable clonal growth, maintained the stability of population propagation and productivity, improving the resistance of reeds to Pb pollution in flood environment. However, the resistance or tolerance was significantly reduced by the synergistic effect of Pb and drought, which significantly inhibited biomass accumulation, photosynthesis, and clonal growth of reeds.

  7. Sources, lability and solubility of Pb in alluvial soils of the River Trent catchment, U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, M; Tye, A M; Chenery, S R

    2012-09-01

    Alluvial soils are reservoirs of metal contaminants such as Pb that originate from many different sources and are integrated temporally and spatially through erosional and depositional processes. In this study the source, lability and solubility of Pb were examined in a range of alluvial soils from the middle and lower River Trent and its tributary the River Dove using Pb isotope apportionment and isotopic dilution. All samples were collected within 10 m of the river bank to represent the soil that is most likely to be remobilised during bank erosion. Paired samples were taken from the topsoil (0-15 cm) and subsoil (35-50 cm) to assess differences with depth. Lead concentrations in soil ranged from 43 to 1282 mg/kg. The lability of soil Pb varied between 9 and 56% of total metal concentration whilst Pb concentrations in pore water varied between 0.2 and 6.5 μg/L. There was little difference in the % Pb lability between paired top and sub soils, possibly because soil characteristics such as pH, iron oxides and clay content were generally similar; a result of the recycling of eroded and deposited soils within the river system. Soil pH was found to be negatively correlated with % Pb lability. Source apportionment using (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios showed that the isotopic ratios of Pb in the total, labile and solution pools fitted along a mixing line between Broken Hill Type ('BHT') Pb, used as an additive in UK petrol, and the local coal/Southern Pennine ore Pb. Various anomalies were found in the Pb isotopes of the bankside alluvial soils which were explained by point source pollution. Statistically significant differences were found between (i) the isotopic composition of Pb in the total soil pool and the labile/solution pools and (ii) the isotopic composition of Pb in the labile and solution pools, suggesting an enrichment of recent non-Pennine sources of Pb entering the soils in the labile and solution pools. Copyright © 2012 Natural Environment

  8. Human skeletal uptake of natural alpha radioactivity from 210Pb-supported 210Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyedepo, A.C.

    1998-06-01

    This thesis contributes to increasing knowledge on the dosimetry of natural alpha-particle radiation in skeletal tissues, particularly in utero, and associated risks of malignancy. Alpha-particle radiation is an established aetiological factor of cancer. In the human body, polonium-210 decayed from skeletal lead-210 ( 210 Pb/ 210 Po) is the predominant natural alpha-emitter. 210 Pb displaces calcium (Ca) in mineral hydroxyapatite, especially during periods of rapid bone growth and remodelling when Ca is laid down. It was therefore necessary to study alpha activity uptake and calcification concurrently within bone. Human studies were undertaken on: fetal vertebrae, 17 - 42 weeks of gestation, 74 samples; adult vertebrae, 40 - 95 years, 40 samples; and adult ribs, 20 - 95 years, 51 samples. Specimens were unconcentrated and weighed 210 Pb/ 210 Po. Alpha track data were resolved by specially written software named SPATS (Selection Program for Analysing Track Structures). Ca and phosphorus (P) were biochemically determined. Results were examined for trends in bone type, gender and chronological ageing in humans. The main research findings were: 1) The Ca content of fetal vertebrae increased linearly at a weekly rate of 0.2g Ca 100 g -1 wet bone (typical values of 2, 4, 6 g 100 g -1 at 16, 26 and 36 weeks). 2) The P concentration also increased with advancing fetal age. 3) The Ca:P bone weight ratio rose from 1.7 to 2.2 by 32 gestational weeks. 4) The overall range in bone 210 Pb/ 210 Po alpha activity was 0.25 - 1.1 Bq kg -1 with correlation between activity concentration and fetal age (0.47 ± 0.05 Bq kg -1 for 17 - 26 weeks, 0.67 ± 0.04 Bq kg -1 for 32 - 42 weeks). 5) The correlation between increased alpha radioactivity and increased Ca concentration approximating to 0.0046 Bq g -1 of Ca. 6) A decreasing Ca content of adult vertebrae with increasing age from 40 - 95 years, from ∼ 14 to 5 g 100 g-1, but no correlation with age for adult rib Ca content of 10 - 30 g

  9. Measurement of groomed jet mass in PbPb and pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 5.02~\\mathrm{TeV}$

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the groomed jet mass ($M_g$) normalized by the jet transverse momentum ($p_\\text{T}^\\text{jet}$) for anti-$k_\\text{T}$ jets with the radius parameter $0.4$ in PbPb and pp collisions at a center of mass energy of $5.02\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$ per nucleon pair is presented. The jet grooming algorithm is a recursive procedure which sequentially removes soft constituents of a jet until a pair of hard subjets is found. The results of this grooming can be used to study modifications to partons and their evolution while traversing the hot and dense medium created in heavy ion collisions, via small angle splitting of quarks and gluons insie the jet cores. The CMS detector at the LHC is used to perform this analysis for $p_\\text{T}^\\text{jet}$ between 140 and $300\\,\\mathrm{GeV}$ and pseudo-rapidity less than 1.3 in both PbPb and pp collisions, and for a range of PbPb collision centralities. The measurements in pp collisions are compared to predictions from the PYTHIA and HERWIG++ event generators and agreement...

  10. Quasicrystal-reinforced Mg alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyun Kim, Young; Tae Kim, Won; Hyang Kim, Do

    2014-04-01

    The formation of the icosahedral phase (I-phase) as a secondary solidification phase in Mg-Zn-Y and Mg-Zn-Al base systems provides useful advantages in designing high performance wrought magnesium alloys. The strengthening in two-phase composites (I-phase + α -Mg) can be explained by dispersion hardening due to the presence of I-phase particles and by the strong bonding property at the I-phase/matrix interface. The presence of an additional secondary solidification phase can further enhance formability and mechanical properties. In Mg-Zn-Y alloys, the co-presence of I and Ca 2 Mg 6 Zn 3 phases by addition of Ca can significantly enhance formability, while in Mg-Zn-Al alloys, the co-presence of the I-phase and Mg 2 Sn phase leads to the enhancement of mechanical properties. Dynamic and static recrystallization are significantly accelerated by addition of Ca in Mg-Zn-Y alloy, resulting in much smaller grain size and more random texture. The high strength of Mg-Zn-Al-Sn alloys is attributed to the presence of finely distributed Mg 2 Sn and I-phase particles embedded in the α -Mg matrix.

  11. Multiparticle azimuthal correlations in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny; Adamova, Dagmar; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agostinelli, Andrea; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ahn, Sang Un; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Berger, Martin Emanuel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Fernando; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubskiy, Mikhail; Boehmer, Felix Valentin; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile Ioan; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Dang, Ruina; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Kushal; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; De Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Dorheim, Sverre; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutt Mazumder, Abhee Kanti; Hilden, Timo Eero; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Esposito, Marco; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigory; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floratos, Emmanouil; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gumbo, Mervyn; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Khan, Kamal; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harris, John William; Hartmann, Helvi; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hippolyte, Boris; Hladky, Jan; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Ionita, Costin; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Jacholkowski, Adam Wlodzimierz; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kadyshevskiy, Vladimir; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kohler, Markus Konrad; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskikh, Artem; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucera, Vit; Kucheryaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Legrand, Iosif; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leoncino, Marco; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera Renee; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Ma, Rongrong; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martashvili, Irakli; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Okatan, Ali; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Sahoo, Pragati; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palmeri, Armando; Pant, Divyash; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Patalakha, Dmitry; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Paul, Biswarup; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Pesci, Alessandro; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petran, Michal; Petris, Mariana; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Pohjoisaho, Esko Heikki Oskari; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Potukuchi, Baba; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Rauf, Aamer Wali; Razazi, Vahedeh; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reicher, Martijn; Reidt, Felix; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rivetti, Angelo; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Sharma, Rohni; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sanchez Rodriguez, Fernando Javier; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Santagati, Gianluca; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Segato, Gianfranco; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Seo, Jeewon; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shabratova, Galina; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Natasha; Sharma, Satish; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew Donald; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Stolpovskiy, Mikhail; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Susa, Tatjana; Symons, Timothy; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Takahashi, Jun; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tarazona Martinez, Alfonso; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terrevoli, Cristina; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wagner, Vladimir; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Daisuke; Weber, Michael; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yang, Shiming; Yano, Satoshi; Yasnopolskiy, Stanislav; Yi, Jungyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zach, Cenek; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zyzak, Maksym

    2014-11-03

    Measurements of multi-particle azimuthal correlations (cumulants) for charged particles in p-Pb at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV and Pb-Pb at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV collisions are presented. They help address a question if there is evidence for global, flow-like, azimuthal correlations in the p-Pb system. Comparisons are made to measurements from the larger Pb-Pb system, where such evidence is established. In particular, the second harmonic two-particle cumulants are found to decrease with multiplicity, characteristic of a dominance of few-particle correlations in p-Pb collisions. However, when a $|\\Delta \\eta|$ gap is placed to suppress such correlations, the two-particle cumulants begin to rise at high-multiplicity, indicating the presence of global azimuthal correlations. The Pb-Pb values are higher than the p-Pb values at similar multiplicities. In both systems, the second harmonic four-particle cumulants exhibit a transition from positive to negative values when the multiplicity increases. The n...

  12. Pollution and oral bioaccessibility of Pb in soils of villages and cities with a long habitation history. Special Issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, N.; Van Os, B.J.H.; Klaver, G.Th; Middelburg, J.J; Davies, G.R.

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch cities Utrecht and Wijk bij Duurstede were founded by the Romans around 50 B.C. and the village Fijnaart and Graft-De Rijp around 1600 A.D. The soils of these villages are polluted with Pb (up to ~5000 mg/kg). Lead isotope ratios were used to trace the sources of Pb pollution in the urban

  13. Optimizing production of hydroxyapatite from alkaline residue for removal of Pb{sup 2+} from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yubo; Wang, YanPeng; Sun, Xiuyun, E-mail: sunxyun@njust.edu.cn; Li, Jiansheng; Shen, Jinyou; Han, Weiqing; Liu, Xiaodong; Wang, Lianjun, E-mail: wanglj@njust.edu.cn

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • The solid waste from Soda Ash Plants was firstly converted into the high-efficiency adsorbent (O-HAP). • The response surface methodology was used to optimize the preparation conditions of O-HAP. • The O-HAP showed excellent immobilization ability for Pb{sup 2+} in both aqueous and soil medium. • The maximum adsorption capacity for Pb{sup 2+} (1429 mg/g) was considerably greater than other familiar adsorbents. - Abstract: Alkaline residue, a common solid waste generated from the ammonia-soda process for the production of soda ash, has been converted into hydroxyapatite for Pb{sup 2+} removal from wastewater. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the preparation conditions which were Ca/P (molar ratio), reaction temperature and reaction time, with the Pb{sup 2+} removal percentage as targeted response. The optimum conditions were identified to be Ca/P of 1.29, reaction temperature of 165.87 °C and reaction time of 14.5 h. Batch tests were conducted to evaluate the adsorption performance of optimum adsorbent (O-HAP), and the adsorption data were analyzed with different kinetic and isotherm models. The results showed that the pseudo-second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model could best describe the adsorption of Pb{sup 2+} on O-HAP. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated from Langmuir equation was 1429 mg/g, which was greater than other familiar adsorbents. The MINTEQ results predicted that the formation of different Pb precipitates was the main mechanism in Pb{sup 2+} removal process, which was in good agreement with the kinetic and thermodynamic studies and were confirmed by the SEM-EDS and XRD analysis. In addition to aqueous medium, the O-HAP also could efficiently immobilize Pb{sup 2+} from contaminated soil.

  14. U, Th, and Pb isotopes in hot springs on the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The concentrations and isotopic compositions of U, Th, and Pb in three hydrothermal fluids from the Juan de Fuca Ridge were determined. The samples consisted of 10.2--57.6% of the pure hydrothermal end-members based on Mg contents. The Pb contents of the samples ranged from 34 to 87 ng/g, U from 1.3 to 3.0 ng/g, and Th from 0.2 to 7.7 pg/g. These samples showed large enrichments of Pb and Th relative to deep-sea water and some depletion of U. They did not show coherent relationships with Mg, however, indicating nonideal mixings between the hot hydrothermal fluids and cold ambient seawater. Particles filtered from these hydrothermal fluids contained significant amounts of Th and Pb which may effectively increase the concentration of these elements in the fluids when acidified. The /sup 234/U//sup 238/U values in all samples show a /sup 234/U enrichment relative to the equilibrium value and have a seawater signature. The Pb isotopic composition of the Juan de Fuca hydrothermal fluids resembles that of 21 0 N East Pacific Rise and has a uniform mid-ocean ridge basalt signature. The hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading ridges have circulated through a large volume of basalts. Therefore Pb in these fluids may represent the best average value of the local oceanic crust. From the effects of U deposition from seawater to the crust and Pb extraction from rock to the ocean, the U/Pb ratio in the hydrothermally altered oceanic crust may be increased significantly. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  15. Content of Pb, Cd and Cl in forest trees caused by the traffic of motor vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankovska, B

    1977-01-01

    The contents of Pb, Cd in spruce trees and soil polluted by the traffic of motor vehicles was determined by the method of atomic absorption, that of Cl by the mercurometric method. In general the raised level of Pb, Cd and Cl was found in the soils and assimilation organs close to the roadway. The most important factors influencing this raise are mentioned: the age of needles, season of year, character of surface of plant organs, tree species, both horizontal and vertical distance from the road. There is a statistically very high significant relation (at 95% level of significance) between the amount of Pb and Cd in mg in mg.kg/sup -1/ and horizontal distance from the road; that of Cl is lower.

  16. Liquidus surface of the triple reciprocal system PbTe+CdS↔PbS+CdTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomashik, Z.F.; Tomashik, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    Using differential-thermal and microstructural analyses and mathematical design interaction in PbTe-CdS system is studied. Liquidus surface of the triple reciprocal system PbTe+CdS↔PbS+CdTe is plotted. It is shown that PbTe-CdS system phase diagram is of eutectic type. Maximal solubility of CdS in PbTe attains 13 mol%, and of PbTe in CdS is not over 1 mol%. Projection of liquidus surface of the PbTe+CdS↔PbS+CdTe triple reciprocal system consists of two primary crystallization fields: CdTe x S 1-x and PbTe x S 1-x solid solutions separated by eutectic line

  17. 208Pb(16O,15O)209Pb reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becchetti, F.D.; Harvey, B.G.; Kovar, D.; Mahoney, J.; Maguire, C.; Scott, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The neutron levels in 209 Pb have been studied with the 208 Pb( 16 O, 15 O) reaction at a bomdarding energy of 139 MeV. Spectroscopic factors (S) have been deduced using a finite-range distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) with recoil. The 2g 9 / 2 , 1i 11 / 2 , 2g 7 / 2 , and 3d 3 / 2 levels are found to have S approximately-greater-than 0.9 while S approx. = 0.7 for the 1j 15 / 2 level at 1.4 MeV excitation. Evidence is found for other 1j 15 / 2 fragments being at 3.05 MeV and approx. 3.8 MeV with S approx. = 0.08 and 0.26, respectively, which would place the centroid of the 1j 15 / 2 level at E/subx/ approx. = 2.2 MeV. DWBA predicts a shift in the maxima of the angular distributions as a function of Q value which is not observed experimentally. A comparison with the proton transfer reaction 208 Pb( 16 O, 15 N) 209 Bi has been used to deduce the geometrical parameters of a neutron shell model potential appropriate for nuclei with A approximately-greater-than 200. The parameters of this Wood-Saxon potential are: V/subR/=-50.5 MeV,r/subR/=1.19 fm, a/subR/=0.75 fm, V)=-5.5 MeV, r)=1.01 fm, and a)=0.75 fm

  18. A Novel Pb-Resistant Bacillus subtilis Bacterium Isolate for Co-Biosorption of Hazardous Sb(III and Pb(II: Thermodynamics and Application Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Cai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work is the first to study co-biosorption of Pb(II and Sb(III by a novel bacterium and its application strategy. The biosorption characteristics of Pb(II and Sb(III ions from aqueous solution using B. subtilis were investigated. Optimum pH, biomass dosage, contact time and temperature were determined to be 5.00, 6.00 mg/L, 45 min and 35 °C, respectively. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by B. subtilis. Results showed that Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data of Pb(II better than others, while biosorption of Sb(III obeyed the Freundlich model well. The biosorption capacity of B. subtilis biomass for Pb(II and Sb(III ions was found to be 17.34 ± 0.14 and 2.32 ± 0.30 mg/g, respectively. Kinetic data showed the biosorption process of Pb(II and Sb(III ions both followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with R2 ranging from 0.974 to 0.999 for Pb(II and from 0.967 to 0.979 for Sb(III. The calculated thermodynamic parameters, negative ∆G and positive ∆H and ∆S values, indicated the biosorption of Pb(II and Sb(III ions onto B. subtilis biomass in water was feasible, endothermic, and spontaneous. Bacterial bioleaching experiment revealed B. subtilis can increase the mobility of Pb(II and Sb(III in polluted soil when pH was close to 6 at low temperature. Consequently, B. subtilis, as a cheap and original bacterial material, could be a promising biomass to remove Pb or isolate Sb from industrial wastewater and to assist phytoremediation of Pb and Sb from weak acid or near neutral pH polluted soils at low temperature.

  19. W and Z bosons with CMS in pp, pPb and PbPb collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapon, Émilien, E-mail: emilien.chapon@cern.ch

    2016-12-15

    Electroweak boson production is an important benchmark process in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. W and Z bosons do not participate in the strong interaction and their leptonic decays provide medium-blind probes of the initial state of the collisions. The final results on the W and Z production in pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV, combining both the muon and electron channels, will be presented. When compared to theory calculations that include nuclear modifications to the parton distributions, data show a clear sensitivity to this type of effects. The final results in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV, compared to pp collisions at the same centre of mass energy, will also be presented. The centrality dependence confirms the binary scaling of hard probes in heavy-ion collisions, while the differential cross sections points to initial state effects small compared to the statistical precision of the available data.

  20. ALICE results on quarkonium production in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    The study of quarkonia, bound states of heavy (charm or bottom) quark-antiquark pairs such as the J/psi or the Upsilon?, provides insight into the earliest and hottest stages of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions where the formation of a Quark-Gluon Plasma is expected. High-precision data from proton-proton collisions represent an essential baseline for the measurement of nuclear modi?cations in nucleus-nucleus collisions and serve also as a crucial test for models of quarkonium hadroproduction. Another fundamental tool to understand the quarkonium production in nucleus-nucleus collisions is the the study of proton-nucleus interactions, which allows one to investigate cold nuclear matter e?ects, such as parton shadowing or gluon saturation. The ALICE detector provides excellent capabilities to study quarkonium production at the Large Hadron Collider at both central and forward rapidity. An overview on ALICE results on quarkonium production in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions is presented. Results are compare...

  1. W and Z bosons in pp, pPb and PbPb with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079475

    2016-01-01

    Electroweak boson production is an important benchmark process in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. W and Z bosons do not participate in the strong interaction and their leptonic decays provide medium-blind probes of the initial state of the collisions. The final results on the W and Z production in pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV, combining both the muon and electron channels, will be presented. When compared to theory calculations that include nuclear modifications to the parton distributions, data show a clear sensitivity to this type of effects. The final results in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV, compared to pp collisions at the same center of mass energy, will also be presented. The centrality dependence confirms the binary scaling of hard probes in heavy-ion collisions, while the differential cross sections points to initial state effects small compared to the statistical precision of the available data.

  2. Strangeness production in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions with ALICE at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Colella, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of the ALICE experiment is to study the properties of the hot and dense medium created in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The measurement of the (multi-)strange particles is an important tool to understand particle production mechanisms and the dynamics of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). We report on the production of K$^{0}_{S}$, $\\Lambda$($\\overline{\\Lambda}$), $\\Xi^{-}$($\\overline{\\Xi}^{+}$) and $\\Omega^{-}$($\\overline{\\Omega}^{+}$) in proton-lead (p-Pb) collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV and lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV measured by ALICE at the LHC. The comparison of the hyperon-to-pion ratios in the two colliding systems may provide insight into strangeness production mechanisms, while the comparison of the nuclear modification factors helps to determine the contribution of initial state effects and the suppression from strange quark energy loss in nuclear matter.

  3. J/ψ photoproduction in ultra-peripheral Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions with the ALICE detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jaroslav

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-relativistic heavy ions generate strong electromagnetic fields which offer the possibility to study gamma-gamma, gamma-nucleus and gamma-proton processes at the LHC in ultra-peripheral Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions. Exclusive photoproduction of J/ψ vector mesons is sensitive to the gluon distribution of the target. Here we report on the ALICE measurement of J/ψ coherent photoproduction in Pb-Pb ultra-peripheral collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV for the rapidity ranges -3.6 < y < -2.6 and |y| < 0.9, and on preliminary results on the J/ψ photoproduction in p-Pb at √sNN = 5.02 TeV. The J/ψ mesons have been identified through their leptonic decays.

  4. Multi-strange baryon production in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at LHC measured with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Colella, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Transverse momentum spectra and yields of charged $\\Xi$ and $\\Omega$ at mid-rapidity in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC have been measured by the ALICE Collaboration. These baryons are identified by reconstruction of their weak decay topology, in modes with only charged decay products, using the excellent tracking and particle identification capabilities of the detector. The recent measurements of the multi-strange baryon production relative to non-strange particles in p-Pb collisions are presented: this would help to understand the change in relative strangeness production from pp collisions to Pb-Pb collisions. Results on the nuclear modification factors for the charged $\\Xi$ and $\\Omega$ particles, compared with those for other light particles, are also reported.

  5. Multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ahn, Sang Un; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Aimo, Ilaria; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki Eskeli; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bergognon, Anais Annick Erica; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Fernando; Blanco, Francesco; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubskiy, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bornschein, Joerg; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braidot, Ermes; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile Ioan; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Dang, Ruina; Danu, Andrea; Das, Kushal; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; Deppman, Airton; Oliveira Valeriano De Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; De Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Divia, Roberto; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Doenigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutt Mazumder, Abhee Kanti; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David Philip; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigory; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floratos, Emmanouil; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gomez Jimenez, Ramon; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gotovac, Sven; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grajcarek, Robert; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Khan, Kamal; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Hayrapetyan, Arsen; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hicks, Bernard Richard; Hippolyte, Boris; Hori, Yasuto; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hrivnacova, Ivana; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ichou, Raphaelle; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Ionita, Costin; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivan, Cristian George; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivanytskyi, Oleksii; Jacholkowski, Adam Wlodzimierz; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalliokoski, Tuomo Esa Aukusti; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kazantsev, Andrey; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Ketzer, Bernhard Franz; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khan, Palash; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Taesoo; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Beomkyu; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kohler, Markus Konrad; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratyev, Valery; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskikh, Artem; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krus, Miroslav; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucera, Vit; Kucheryaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasilij; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lea, Ramona; Lechman, Mateusz Arkadiusz; Lee, Sung Chul; Lee, Graham Richard; Legrand, Iosif; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenhardt, Matthieu Laurent; Lenti, Vito; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera Renee; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Loo, Kai Krister; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luo, Jiebin; Luparello, Grazia; Luzzi, Cinzia; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Ma, Rongrong; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Maire, Antonin; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martashvili, Irakli; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazumder, Rakesh; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Monteno, Marco; Montes Prado, Esther; Moon, Taebong; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Nilsson, Mads Stormo; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Nyanin, Alexander; Nyatha, Anitha; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Sun Kun; Oh, Saehanseul; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palaha, Arvinder Singh; Palmeri, Armando; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Park, Woojin; Passfeld, Annika; Patalakha, Dmitry; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Paul, Biswarup; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perrino, Davide; Peryt, Wiktor Stanislaw; Pesci, Alessandro; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petran, Michal; Petris, Mariana; Petrov, Plamen Rumenov; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pitz, Nora; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Planinic, Mirko; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Pohjoisaho, Esko Heikki Oskari; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Pospisil, Vladimir; Potukuchi, Baba; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puddu, Giovanna; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Rademakers, Alphonse; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Raniwala, Sudhir; Raniwala, Rashmi; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Rauch, Wolfgang Hans; Rauf, Aamer Wali; Razazi, Vahedeh; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reicher, Martijn; Reidt, Felix; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riccati, Lodovico; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rivetti, Angelo; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Sharma, Rohni; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossegger, Stefan; Rossi, Andrea; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakaguchi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shingo; Sakata, Dosatsu; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Santagati, Gianluca; Santoro, Romualdo; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Scott, Patrick Aaron; Segato, Gianfranco; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Seo, Jeewon; Serci, Sergio; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shabratova, Galina; Shahoyan, Ruben; Sharma, Satish; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Smakal, Radek; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Jihye; Soos, Csaba; Soramel, Francesca; Spacek, Michal; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew Donald; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Stolpovskiy, Mikhail; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Subieta Vasquez, Martin Alfonso; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Susa, Tatjana; Symons, Timothy; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Takahashi, Jun; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tarazona Martinez, Alfonso; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terrevoli, Cristina; Ter-Minasyan, Astkhik; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Torii, Hisayuki; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ulery, Jason Glyndwr; Ullaland, Kjetil; Ulrich, Jochen; Uras, Antonio; Urciuoli, Guido Maria; Usai, Gianluca; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Vannucci, Luigi; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veldhoen, Misha; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Sergey; Voloshin, Kirill; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Vladimir; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Yifei; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Kengo; Weber, Michael; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Xiang, Changzhou; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yang, Shiming; Yano, Satoshi; Yasnopolskiy, Stanislav; Yi, Jungyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yuan, Xianbao; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zach, Cenek; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zelnicek, Pierre; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zhu, Jianlin; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zimmermann, Alice; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo; Zyzak, Maksym

    2013-01-01

    The average transverse momentum versus the charged-particle multiplicity $N_{ch}$ was measured in p-Pb collisions at a collision energy per nucleon-nucleon pair $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV and in pp collisions at collision energies of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9, 2.76, and 7 Tev in the kinematic range 0.15 with $N_{ch}$ is observed, which is much stronger than that measured in Pb-Pb collisions. For pp collisions, this could be attributed, within a model of hadronizing strings, to multiple-parton interactions and to a final-state color reconnection mechanism. The data in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions cannot be described by an incoherent superposition of nucleon-nucleon collisions and pose a challenge to most of the event generators.

  6. Biosorption of Zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) by metal resistant bacterial isolate from mining tail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautista Hernandez, D. A.; Carranza Alvarado, M.; Fernandez Linares, L.; Ramirez Landy, I.

    2009-07-01

    The use of microbial biomass in the removal of metals in solution, mainly of low concentrations (100 mg L{sup -}1), present advantages in relation to the physicochemical methods. The resistant microorganisms are potential bio sorbents. The objective of the present study was the isolation, starting from mining tail, of strains with capacity of metal bio sorption (Zn and Pb). (Author)

  7. Biosorption of Zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) by metal resistant bacterial isolate from mining tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautista Hernandez, D. A.; Carranza Alvarado, M.; Fernandez Linares, L.; Ramirez Landy, I.

    2009-01-01

    The use of microbial biomass in the removal of metals in solution, mainly of low concentrations (100 mg L - 1), present advantages in relation to the physicochemical methods. The resistant microorganisms are potential bio sorbents. The objective of the present study was the isolation, starting from mining tail, of strains with capacity of metal bio sorption (Zn and Pb). (Author)

  8. Study of fragmentation potential for doubly magic 208Pb daughter cluster radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhmanpreet Kaur; Kaur, Mandeep; Singh, BirBikram

    2017-01-01

    In present work, the selected CR decays of different trans-lead parent nuclei are investigated within the collective clusterisation approach of quantum mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT), specifically, which lead to 208 Pb daughter nucleus, always, through emission of clusters 14 C, 18,20 O, 22 Ne, 23 F, 24,26 Ne, 28,30 Mg and 34 Si

  9. ANALISIS KONSENTRASI LOGAM BERAT TIMBAL (Pb DI MUARA SUNGAI PORONG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Parawita

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Laut merupakan tempat bermuaranya semua sungai, baik sungai kecil maupun sungai besar. Pembuangan lumpur lapindo ke laut yang di alirkan melalui muara sungai Porong mengandung logam berat, salah satunya yaitu timbal. Konsentrasi timbal yang melebihi baku mutu akan berpengaruh pada efek negatif biota. Tujuan dari penelitian adalah mengetahui konsentrasi timbal di muara sungai Porong. Metode yang digunakan adalah observasi, pengambila sampel dilakukan tiga kali tiap minggu pada waktu pagi hari. Hasil dari penelitian ini diketahui bahwa kondisi fisika kimia perairan antara lain : konsentrasi timbal di muara sungai Porong berada jauh di ambang batas dengan nilai konsentrasi timbal yaitu berkisar antara 0-0,490 mg/l, pH berkisar antara 7,6-7,7, suhu berkisar antara 30-32 0C, salinitas berkisar antara 11,3-12,3 ‰, DO berkisar antara 4,7-5,3 mg/l, dan TSS berkisar antara 482,6-926,6 mg/l. Kata Kunci : Konsentrasi, Timbal (Pb, Muara.  HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION ANALYSIS OF LEAD (Pb IN PORONG RIVER DELTALapindo mud disposed into the sea which is piped through Porong river estuary contain heavy metals, one of which is lead. Lead concentrations that exceeded the quality standard will have the negative effects to biota. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of lead in the Porong river estuary. The method used is observation, the samples was taken three times per week in the morning. Results of this research showed that the physical condition of the water chemistry, among others: the concentration of lead in the Porong river estuary was above the threshold value of lead concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.490 mg / l, pH ranging from 7.6 to 7.7, the temperature ranging from 30-32 oC, salinity ranged from 11.3 to 12.3 ‰, DO ranged from 4.7 to 5.3 mg / l and TSS ranged from 482.6 to 926.6 mg / l.Keywords: Heavy metals, Concentration, Lead (Pb, Delta

  10. The effect of motor vehicle emission towards lead (Pb content of rice field soil with different clay content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C.Wati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle gas emission contains lead (Pb which is a hazardous and toxic substance. Agricultural land, especially rice field, which is located nearby roads passed by many motor vehicle, are susceptible to the accumulation of Pb. If Pb is permeated by plants cultivated in the rice field, it will be very hazardous for humans as they are the final consumers. Hence, it is essential to identify Pb content of rice-field soil initiated by motor vehicle gas emission. This study was aimed to identify the effects of motor vehicle density, the distance between rice-field and road, and the clay content of soil towards Pb content of soils in Blitar and Ngawi Regencies of East Java. The method used for the study was survey method managed by using three-factor nested design with three replicates. The results of this study showed that motor vehicle density and the distance of rice field to road provide significant affected the total of Pb content of soil. However, the dissemination pattern of Pb in the soil was irregular due to the factors of climate and environment. Before Pb reached soil surface, Pb was spread out in the air due to the effect of temperature, wind velocity, vehicle velocity, size of vehicle, and road density. Consequently, the location with low motor vehicle density and positioned faraway to the road had higher total rate of Pb than the location with high motor vehicle density and positioned nearby the road. Clay content affected the total rate of Pb content as much as 37%, every 1% increase of clay content increased the total rate of Pb as much as 0.08 mg/kg.

  11. QCD with jets and heavy flavour in pp and PbPb collisions in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, Robert

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS has studied different aspects of QCD in pp and PbPb collisions. A summary of interesting recent results at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV, 8 TeV and 13 TeV (pp), and 2.76 TeV (PbPb) per nucleon pair is presented. Using pp collisions, measurements of Z, W, photon, quarkonia and open charm production differential cross sections in a variety of variables are presented. Jet and heavy flavour muon measurements in PbPb collisions, aimed to test the properties of the Quark Gluon Plasma, with the view of better understanding of jet quenching, are also presented.

  12. QCD with Jets and Heavy Flavour in pp and PbPb Collisions in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00377077; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS has studied different aspects of QCD in pp and PbPb collisions. A summary of interesting recent results at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV, 8 TeV and 13 TeV (pp), and 2.76 TeV (PbPb) per nucleon pair is presented. Measurements using pp collisions of Z, W, photon, quarkonia and open charm production differential cross sections in a variety of variables are presented. Jet and heavy flavour muon measurements in PbPb collisions, aimed to test the properties of the Quark Gluon Plasma with the view of better understanding of jet quenching, are also presented.

  13. Results on ultra-peripheral interactions in Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Scapparone, E

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-relativistic heavy ions generate strong electromagnetic fields which offer the possibility to study $\\gamma$-nucleus and $\\gamma$-proton interactions at the LHC in the so called ultra-peripheral collisions (UPC). Here we report ALICE results on J/psi photoproduction measured in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV and in p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV.

  14. Searches for transverse momentum dependent flow vector fluctuations in Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions at the LHC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acharya, S.; Adamová, D.; Adolfsson, J.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Alba, J. L. B.; Albuquerque, D. S. D.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altenkamper, L.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andreou, D.; Andrews, H. A.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anson, C. D.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Anwar, R.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.C.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barioglio, L.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Beltran, L. G. E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biro, G.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boca, G.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Bonomi, G.; Bonora, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Botta, E.; Bourjau, C.; Bratrud, L.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Broker, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buhler, P.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Cabala, J.; Caffarri, D.; Caines, H.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Capon, A. A.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A R; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cerello, P.; Chandra, S.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chauvin, A.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Cho, Sukhee; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Chowdhury, T.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Concas, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Costanza, S.; Crkovská, J.; Crochet, P.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danisch, M. C.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; De Caro, A.; De Cataldo, G.; De Conti, C.; De Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; De Souza, R. Derradi; Degenhardt, H. F.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Deplano, C.; Dhankher, P.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Di Ruzza, B.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Doremalen, L. V. V.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Duggal, A. K.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Endress, E.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Esumi, S.; Eulisse, G.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabbietti, L.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A S; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; De Francisco, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fronze, G. G.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gajdosova, K.; Gallio, M.; Galvan, C. D.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Garg, K.; Garg, P.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Gauger, E. F.; Gay Ducati, M. B.; Germain, M.; Ghosh, J.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, A. S.; Gonzalez, V; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Greiner, L. C.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grion, N.; Gronefeld, J. M.; Grosa, F.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grosso, R.; Gruber, L.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Guzman, I. B.; Haake, R.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hamon, J. C.; Haque, M. R.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hassan, H.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Hellbär, E.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hillemanns, H.; Hills, C.; Hippolyte, B.; Hladky, J.; Hohlweger, B.; Horak, D.; Sorkine-Hornung, Olga; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Hughes, C.W.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Iga Buitron, S. A.; Ilkaev, R.; Inaba, M.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Isakov, V.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacak, B.; Jacazio, N.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadhav, M. B.; Jadlovska, S.; Jadlovsky, J.; Jaelani, S.; Jahnke, C.; Jakubowska, M. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H S Y; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jercic, M.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karczmarczyk, P.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L.D.; Keil, M.; Ketzer, B.; Khabanova, Z.; Khan, P.M.; Khan, Shfaqat A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Khatun, A.; Khuntia, A.; Kielbowicz, M. M.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D.-S.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Klewin, S.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.L.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kumar, S.; Kundu, Seema; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lai, Y. S.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lavicka, R.; Lazaridis, L.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, S.; Lehas, F.; Strunz-Lehner, Christine; Lehrbach, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lim, B.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lindsay, S. W.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Litichevskyi, V.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Llope, W. J.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Loncar, P.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Lupi, M.; Lutz, T. H.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Malinina, L.; Mal’Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, Alicia; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martinez, J. A. L.; Martínez, Isabel M.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Masson, E.; Mastroserio, A.; Mathis, A. M.; Matyja, A.; mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzilli, M.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Mhlanga, S.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mihaylov, D. L.; Mihaylov, D. L.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Khan, M. Mohisin; Montes, E.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moreno, L. A. P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Münning, K.; Munzer, R. H.; Murakami, H.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Myers, C. J.; Myrcha, J. W.; Naik, B.; Nair, Rajiv; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Narayan, A.; Naru, M. U.; Natal Da Luz, H.; Nattrass, C.; Navarro, S. R.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, R.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Negrao De Oliveira, R. A.; Nellen, L.; Nesbo, S. V.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nobuhiro, A.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Ohlson, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Oravec, M.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pacik, V.; Pagano, D.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Palni, P.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Panebianco, S.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Pathak, S. P.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Pei, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Peng, X.; Pereira, L. G.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Peresunko, D.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Pezzi, R. P.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pimentel, L. O. D. L.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Ploskon, M.; Planinic, M.; Pliquett, F.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L M; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Poppenborg, H.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pozdniakov, V.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Rana, D. B.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Ratza, V.; Ravasenga, I.; Read, K. F.; Redlich, K.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Rokita, P. S.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosas, E. D.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Rotondi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rueda, O. V.; Rui, R.; Rumyantsev, B.; Rustamov, A.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Saarinen, S.; Sadhu, S.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Saha, S. K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sandoval, A.; Sarkar, D.; Sarkar, N.; Sarma, P.; Sas, M. H.P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Scheid, H. S.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, M. O.; Schmidt, M.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Šefčík, M.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Senyukov, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sett, P.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shahoyan, R.; Shaikh, W.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Sheikh, A. I.; Shigaki, K.; Shou, Q. Y.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J.M.; Snellman, T. W.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Sozzi, F.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stankus, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A P; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Suljic, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S.; Szabo, A.; Szarka, I.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thakur, D.; Thakur, J. S.; Thomas, D.; Thoresen, F.; Tieulent, R.; Tikhonov, A.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; tripathy, S.; Trogolo, S.; Trombetta, G.; Tropp, Linda; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Umaka, E. N.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vala, M.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vázquez Doce, O.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Velure, A.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Vértesi, R.; Vickovic, L.; Vigolo, S.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Villatoro Tello, A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Voscek, D.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Wagner, B.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Weiser, D. F.; Wenzel, S. C.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Whitehead, A. M.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Willems, G. A.; Williams, M. C S; Willsher, E.; Windelband, B.; Witt, W. E.; Yalcin, S.; Yamakawa, K.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I. K.; Yoon, J. H.; Yurchenko, V.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zmeskal, J.; Zou, Shui

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of azimuthal correlations of charged particles is presented for Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN=2.76 TeV and p-Pb collisions at √sNN=5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. These correlations are measured for the second, third and fourth order flow vector in the

  15. Phytoremediation of lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) by Melastoma malabathricum L. from contaminated soil in separate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, S Norleela; Abdullah, S Rozaimah Sheikh; Idris, M

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the uptake of lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) from contaminated soil using Melastoma malabathricum L. species. The cultivated plants were exposed to As and Pb in separate soils for an observation period of 70 days. From the results of the analysis, M. malabathricum accumulated relatively high range of As concentration in its roots, up to a maximum of 2800 mg/kg. The highest accumulation of As in stems and leaves was 570 mg/kg of plant. For Pb treatment, the highest concentration (13,800 mg/kg) was accumulated in the roots of plants. The maximum accumulation in stems was 880 mg/kg while maximum accumulation in leaves was 2,200 mg/kg. Only small amounts of Pb were translocated from roots to above ground plant parts (TF 1) is indicative this plants is a good bioaccumulator for these metals. Therefore, phytostabilisation is the mechanism at work in M. malabathricum's uptake of Pb, while phytoextraction is the dominant mechanism with As.

  16. EDTA-functionalized clinoptilolite nanoparticles as an effective adsorbent for Pb(II) removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi, Farahnaz; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza

    2018-03-08

    An efficient Pb(II) adsorbent was prepared by the modification of clinoptilolite nanoparticles (CpN) with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Samples were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, BET, TG-DTG, CHNS analyzer, and energy dispersive analysis X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The experiments were designed by response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) that suggested a quadratic model to predict the conditions and the interactions between the variables including adsorbent dosage, removal time, C Pb , and its solution pH. Adequacy of the suggested quadratic model was judged by ANOVA. The maximum Pb(II) removal of 0.27 mmol Pb(II) /g ads was achieved in optimal run including adsorbent dosage 2 g L -1 , removal time 271 min, C Pb 22.51 mmol L -1 , and Pb(II) solution pH 5.88. In binary metal cation systems including 1000 mg L -1 with respect to both Pb(II) and interfering cations, good selectivity of CpN-EDTA adsorbent was observed towards Pb(II) among the tested cations except Fe(III). Adsorption isotherm of lead removal by the adsorbent was well modeled by Langmuir equation, indicating a monolayer sorption of Pb(II) onto the adsorbent. The pseudo-second-order rate equation, indicating chemical reaction rate limiting step for the process, well modeled the kinetic of the process. An exothermic and spontaneous process was confirmed by the negative ∆H and ∆G.

  17. EDTA-assisted Pb phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah; Meers, E; Qadir, M; de Caritat, P; Tack, F M G; Du Laing, G; Zia, M H

    2009-03-01

    Pb is one of the most widespread and metal pollutants in soil. It is generally concentrated in surface layers with only a minor portion of the total metal found in soil solution. Phytoextraction has been proposed as an inexpensive, sustainable, in situ plant-based technology that makes use of natural hyperaccumulators as well as high biomass producing crops to help rehabilitate soils contaminated with heavy metals without destructive effects on soil properties. The success of phytoextraction is determined by the amount of biomass, concentration of heavy metals in plant, and bioavailable fraction of heavy metals in the rooting medium. In general, metal hyperaccumulators are low biomass, slow growing plant species that are highly metal specific. For some metals such as Pb, there are no hyperaccumulator plant species known to date. Although high biomass-yielding non-hyperaccumulator plants lack an inherent ability to accumulate unusual concentrations of Pb, soil application of chelating agents such as EDTA has been proposed to enhance the metal concentration in above-ground harvestable plant parts through enhancing the metal solubility and translocation from roots to shoots. Leaching of metals due to enhanced mobility during EDTA-assisted phytoextraction has been demonstrated as one of the potential hazards associated with this technology. Due to environmental persistence of EDTA in combination with its strong chelating abilities, the scientific community is moving away from the use of EDTA in phytoextraction and is turning to less aggressive alternative strategies such as the use of organic acids or more degradable APCAs (aminopolycarboxylic acids). We have therefore arrived at a point in phytoremediation research history in which we need to distance ourselves from EDTA as a proposed soil amendment within the context of phytoextraction. However, valuable lessons are to be learned from over a decade of EDTA-assisted phytoremediation research when considering the

  18. Compton scattering on 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberico, W.M.; Molinari, A.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review the formalism of the nuclear Compton scattering in the frame of the low-energy theorems (LET). We treat the resonant terms of the amplitude, having collective intermediate nuclear states, as a superposition of Lorentz lines with energy, width and strength fixed by the photo-absorption experiments. The gauge terms are evaluated starting from a simple, but realistic, nuclear Hamiltonian. Dynamical nucleon-nucleon correlations are consistently taken into account, beyond those imposed by the Pauli principle. The comparison of the theoretical predictions with the data of elastic diffusion of photons from 208 Pb shows that LET are insufficient to account for the experiment. (orig.)

  19. Reconstruction of historical atmospheric Pb using Dutch urban lake sediments: A Pb isotope study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walraven, N., E-mail: n.walraven@geoconnect.nl [GeoConnect, Meester Dekkerstraat 4, 1901 PV Castricum (Netherlands); Os, B.J.H. van, E-mail: b.vanos@rce.nl [Rijksdienst voor Archeologie, Cultuurlandschap en Monumenten, P.O. Box 1600, 3800 BP Amersfoort (Netherlands); Klaver, G.Th., E-mail: g.klaver@brgm.nl [BRGM, 3 avenue Claude-Guillemin, BP 36009, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Middelburg, J.J., E-mail: j.b.m.middelburg@uu.nl [University Utrecht, Faculty of Geosciences, P.O. Box 80021, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Davies, G.R., E-mail: g.r.davies@vu.nl [VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Petrology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-06-01

    Lake sediments provide a record of atmospheric Pb deposition and changes in Pb isotope composition. To our knowledge, such an approach has not previously been performed in The Netherlands or linked to national air monitoring data. Results are presented for Pb content and isotope composition of {sup 137}Cs dated lake sediments from 2 Dutch urban lakes. Between 1942 and 2002 A.D. anthropogenic atmospheric Pb deposition rates in the two lakes varied from 12 ± 2 to 69 ± 16 μg cm{sup −2} year{sup −1}. The rise and fall of leaded gasoline is clearly reflected in the reconstructed atmospheric Pb deposition rates. After the ban on leaded gasoline, late 1970s/early 1980s, atmospheric Pb deposition rates decreased rapidly in the two urban lakes and the relative contributions of other anthropogenic Pb sources — incinerator ash (industrial Pb) and coal/galena — increased sharply. Atmospheric Pb deposition rates inferred from the lake record a clear relationship with nearby measured annual mean air Pb concentrations. Based on this relationship it was estimated that air Pb concentrations between 1942 and 2002 A.D. varied between 5 and 293 ng/m{sup 3}. - Highlights: • Sixty years of atmospheric Pb was reconstructed using urban lake sediments. • Stable Pb isotopes were applied to determine Pb sources in urban lakes. • The rise and fall of leaded gasoline is clearly reflected in the lake sediments. • Other dominant anthropogenic Pb sources are incinerator ash and coal/galena. • The lake Pb record shows a clear relationship with measured air Pb concentrations.

  20. Facile synthesis of CsPbBr3/PbSe composite clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thang Phan; Ozturk, Abdullah; Park, Jongee; Sohn, Woonbae; Lee, Tae Hyung; Jang, Ho Won; Kim, Soo Young

    2018-01-01

    In this work, CsPbBr 3 and PbSe nanocomposites were synthesized to protect perovskite material from self-enlargement during reaction. UV absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that the addition of Se into CsPbBr 3 quantum dots modified the electronic structure of CsPbBr 3 , increasing the band gap from 2.38 to 2.48 eV as the Cs:Se ratio increased to 1:3. Thus, the emission color of CsPbBr 3 perovskite quantum dots was modified from green to blue by increasing the Se ratio in composites. According to X-ray diffraction patterns, the structure of CsPbBr 3 quantum dots changed from cubic to orthorhombic due to the introduction of PbSe at the surface. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy confirmed that the atomic distribution in CsPbBr 3 /PbSe composite clusters is uniform and the composite materials were well formed. The PL intensity of a CsPbBr 3 /PbSe sample with a 1:1 Cs:Se ratio maintained 50% of its initial intensity after keeping the sample for 81 h in air, while the PL intensity of CsPbBr 3 reduced to 20% of its initial intensity. Therefore, it is considered that low amounts of Se could improve the stability of CsPbBr 3 quantum dots.

  1. Phase analysis and dielectric properties of ceramics in PbO–MgO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sintering these phases at 1000°C the perovskite phase content decreased. The dielectric constant of the compo- site materials formed by the ceramic route was in the region of 14 to 20 and varied little with frequency. The composites obtained by the molten salt method, however, showed much larger dielectric constants in ...

  2. Collective oblate bands in Pb nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebel, H; Baldsefen, G; Mehta, D [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik; and others

    1992-08-01

    The coexistence of different nuclear shapes is a well established phenomenon in the Hg-Pb region, where spherical, oblate, prolate and superdeformed prolate shapes have been observed. In this work, the authors report on several new rotational bands in the normally spherical nuclei {sup 199-201}Pb. Similar structures were found previously in the lighter isotopes {sup 197,198}Pb. 11 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  3. Radiometric evaluation of the 210Pb in the estuary of the SUAPE Pole in the State of Pernambuco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Paula Frassinetti P.; Antonio Filho, Joao; Mendonca, Keyla Mary C.; Carvalho, Wellington S.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is a growing interest in the study of natural radioactivity levels, mainly of radionuclide 210 Pb present in the environment. The environmental radioactivity control is of extreme importance for attainment of information on the exposition of humans and vegetables the potential sources in natural radioactive occurrences. Industrial processes involving mining and extraction and production of oil foster concentration of radionuclides, contributing to the occurrence of what is known as TENORM Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material. This work aims to assess the environmental radiological impact on the Estuarine Region of the SUAPE Industrial Pole, due to the installation of an oil refinery and the consequent introduction on the environment of natural radioactive materials from other regions. For this, were determined the concentrations of 210 Pb in samples de soil, sediments, roots and levels of fen and fishes in the region above reported, these data will serve of parameters of reference for a radiometric evaluation on future radioecology impacts caused by the functioning of the refinery of SUAPE oil. To determine the concentration of 210 Pb was used the Ionic Resin Exchange method, for in such a way, the detector was used alpha-beta. Concentrations of 210 Pb in the soils, sediments, roots and levels of fen samples vary respectively from 27 ± 2 to 60 ± 5, from 18 ± 5 to 60 ± 6, from 65 ± 2 to 117 ± 3, from 217 ± 6 to 239 ± 7 Bq.kg-1. Concentrations of the 210 Pb in samples of some species of fish found in the studied region, such as Mullet, Salema, Catfish and Carapitinga, was also determined varying from 26 ± 11 to 62 ± 6 Bq.kg-1. The results obtained in the samples of soils, sediments, roots of fen e fishes showed that the concentrations of 210 Pb in the environment are normal for the patterns of the area and are in accordance with data the found ones in literature for regions not impacted. As can be observed the

  4. The Role of Sedimentation on Waters Edge and Analysis Pb and Zn Concentration in Water from Sentani Lake, Jayapura-Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Deminggus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted research on the role of sediment on the waters edge and content analysis of metal concentrations of lead (Pb, zinc (Zn in the water of Sentani Lake in Jayapura, Papua Province. The experiment was conducted in April 2013. The study was conducted to determine the role of lake sediments on water quality, sediment characteristics and metal analysis has been analyzed in the laboratory to determine the concentration of Pb and Zn in the sediment. Metal analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS instrumentation. Sediment characteristics that have analysis, namely physical and chemical parameters are bulk density, density, porosity, water content, texture, pH, DO, colors and others. Sediment sampling locations are Ifale, estuary, Yahim beach and Yoboy with each location in depth of 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm vertically. The results showed that at each sampling site and every sediment depths showed highly significant influence on the metal content of Pb and Zn. In general, the deeper the sediment content of Pb and Zn showed different results. Average content of heavy metals (Pb and Zn in sediments at each location that are Ifale at 27.37 mg/Kg and 35.04 mg/Kg, estuary of 15.37 mg/Kg and Pb is 28.01 mg/Kg, Yahim beach of 3.83 mg/Kg and 33.50 mg/Kg, while the location of Yoboy of 6.69 mg/Kg and 34.60 mg/Kg. Concentration of Pb (3.83 to 27.37 mg/Kg and Zn (6.69 to 35.04 mg/Kg in sediments is lower than the standard quality of heavy metals in sediments (EPA Region Va is 40 mg/Kg for Pb and 90 mg/Kg for Zn metals, therefore concentrations of Pb and Zn in sediments at four locations of Sentani lake is still below the quality standard so that the levels of Pb and Zn in the sediment is not contaminated. The existence of Sentani lake sediments act as a reservoir heavy metal and not as a source of pollutants to the water quality in the Sentani lake.

  5. 210Pb ingestion in Akita City, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, Shunichi; Takizawa, Yukio; Komura, Kazuhisa; Tada, Tetsuo.

    1992-01-01

    Ingestion of 210 Pb in Akita City, northern Japan was studied with food category samples and total diet samples by means of a low energy photon spectrometry. Results for food category samples revealed that the contribution of marine products to total 210 Pb ingestion was the largest. Mean 210 Pb ingestion of the two total diet samples was found to be 0.19 Bq d -1 , and approximately 1/3 of a previous reported value which was cited in an UNSCEAR report as an example of high 210 Pb ingestion by marine foods consumption. (author)

  6. The use of statistical methods for censored data to evaluate the activity concentration of Pb-210 in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingote, Raquel M; Nogueira, Regina A

    2016-10-01

    A survey of 210 Pb activity concentration, one of the major internal natural radiation sources to man, has been carried in the most common species of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown and consumed in Brazil. The representative bean types chosen, Carioca beans and black type sown in the Brazilian Midwestern and Southern regions, have been collected in this study and 210 Pb determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry after separation with chromatographic extraction using Sr-resin. Available values in data set of radioactivity in Brazil (GEORAD) on the 210 Pb activity concentration in black beans grown in Southeastern region have been added to the results of this study with the purpose of to amplify the population considered. Concerning the multiple detection limits and due to the high level of censored observations, a robust semi-parametric statistical method called regression on order statistics (ROS) has been employed to provide a reference value of the 210 Pb in Brazilian beans, which amounted to 41 mBq kg -1 fresh wt. The results suggest that the 210 Pb activity concentration in carioca beans is lower than in black beans. Also evaluated was the 210 Pb activity concentration in vegetable component of a typical diet, which displays lower values than those shown in the literature for food consumed in Europe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transverse momentum dependence of charmonium suppression in Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, Bruno; Arnaldi, R; Atayan, M; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borges, G; Castanier, C; Castor, J; Chaurand, B; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Comets, M P; Constantinescu, S; Cormick, M M; Cortese, P; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Riccati, L; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, E; Villatte, L; Willis, N; Wu, T

    2005-01-01

    Charmonium suppression in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon is investigated in detail with the study of the transverse momentum distributions of J/ psi as a function of the centrality of the collision. It is shown that the observed J/ psi suppression in Pb-Pb interactions is particularly significant mainly at low transverse momentum where it strongly depends on centrality. For peripheral Pb- Pb collisions, the transverse momentum dependence of the J/ psi cross section is, as a function of centrality, qualitatively similar to the dependence observed in p-A and S-U collisions. Comparing peripheral and central Pb-Pb collisions, the data show a relative suppression in the whole p/sub T/ range although its amplitude significantly decreases with increasing p/sub T/ and becomes almost p/sub T/ independent for the highest p/sub T/ values.

  8. Electrodialytic Remediation of Pb Contaminated Soil - Effects of Soil Properties and Pb Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of soil properties and Pb distribution on the electrodialytic remediation of Pb contaminated soil. Two naturally Pb contaminated soils were compared with respect to total Pb content, Pb distribution, pH, carbonate content, clay content and organic...... matter, and an electrodialytic remediation experiment was made on each soil.It was concluded that soil pH was the most important factor limiting the mobilisation of Pb. In one of the remediation experiments it was possible to mobilise and reduce the amount of Pb significantly, whereas in the other only...... a small amount of the initial Pb was mobilised at similar experimental conditions. A high buffering capacity of one of the soils, which was partly due to a high carbonate content, led to a bad remediation result....

  9. Bioaccumulation and physiological effects of excess lead in a roadside pioneer species Sonchus oleraceus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Z T

    1997-01-01

    Seedlings of Sonchus oleraceus L. were transplanted to soil supplied with lead acetate at dosages of 0, 800, 1600 and 3200 mg kg(-1) DW. Measures of chlorophyll content, peroxidase (POD) activity, shoot length, biomass and Pb content in the plant tissues were obtained from the experimental plants. With increasing amounts of Pb in the soil, the chlorophyll content, shoot length and biomass decreased, while POD activity and Pb content in the plant tissues increased. At 3200 mg kg(-1) Pb treatment, Pb content in the plant leaf, stem and root were 65.67, 149.82 and 1113.24 mg kg(-1), respectively. Only at 3200 mg kg(-1) Pb treatment did chlorophyll content, shoot length and biomass significantly increase by 18, 15 and 44%, respectively, while POD decreased by 39% over the control. The potential of applying this species in phytoremediation of Pb contaminated roadside soils and thus restoration of the roadside vegetation are discussed.

  10. NA49 Results on Single Particle and Correlation Measurements in Central PB+PB Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fuqiang; Bachler, J.; Bailey, S.J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R.A.; Bialkowska, H.; Billmeier, A.; Blyth, C.O.; Bock, R.; Boimska, B.; Bormann, C.; Brady, F.P.; Brockmann, R.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Caines, H.L.; Carr, L.D.; Cebra, D.A.; Cooper, G.E.; Cramer, J.G.; Cristinziani, M.; Csato, P.; Dunn, J.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Ferguson, M.I.; Fischer, H.G.; Flierl, D.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Fuchs, M.; Gabler, F.; Gal, J.; Ganz, R.; Gazdzicki, M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Gunther, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hegyi, S.; Henkel, T.; Hill, L.A.; Hummler, H.; Igo, G.; Irmscher, D.; Jacobs, P.; Jones, P.G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Levai, P.; Malakhov, A.I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mock, A.; Molnar, J.; Nelson, John M.; Oldenburg, M.; Odyniec, G.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Piper, A.; Porter, R.J.; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Prindle, D.J.; Puhlhofer, F.; Rauch, W.; Reid, J.G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H.G.; Rohrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, H.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Semenov, A.Yu.; Schafer, E.; Schmischke, D.; Schmitz, N.; Schonfelder, S.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Sikler, F.; Skrzypczak, E.; Snellings, R.; Squier, G.T.A.; Stock, R.; Strobele, H.; Struck, C.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T.A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.; Vesztergombi, G.; Voloshin, S.; Vranic, D.; Weerasundara, D.D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Wienold, T.; Wood, L.; Xu, N.; Yates, T.A.; Zimanyi, J.; Zhu, X.Z.; Zybert, R.; Wang, Fuqiang

    2000-01-01

    Single-particle spectra and two-particle correlation functions measured by the NA49 collaboration in central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon are presented. These measurements are used to study the kinetic and chemical freeze-out conditions in heavy ion collisions. We conclude that large baryon stopping, high baryon density and strong transverse radial flow are achieved in central Pb+Pb collisions at the SPS.

  11. Metabolic balances of 210Pb and 210Po at natural levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, H.; Holtzman, R.B.; Kramer, L.; Ilcewicz, F.H.

    1977-01-01

    Metabolic balances of 210 Po and 210 Pb were determined under strictly controlled dietary conditions in adult males. The intakes of the two nuclides were due to the dietary contents of these radioisotopes, inhalation from the atmosphere, and smoking of cigarettes. No additional radioisotope was given. The mean dietary intake of 210 Pb was 1.25 pCi/day and of 210 Po, 1.63 pCi/day. The major pathway of excretion of both nuclides is via the gastrointestinal tract and the urinary excretion is much lower. The total excretions of 210 Pb and 210 Po were greater than the dietary intake and the overall balances were -0.28 and -0.16 pCi/day for the two nuclides, respectively, during a low calcium intake. The 210 Pb balances did not change significantly when the calcium intake was increased 7- to 10-fold except for one patient in whom the balance became more negative. The 210 Po balance was more negative during calcium intakes of 800 and 2200 mg than during a low calcium intake of 200 mg/day. The urinary and fecal excretions of the two radionuclides were not affected by the intake of sodium fluoride, while the diuretic compound Hydrodiuril appeared to decrease the fecal 210 Pb excretion

  12. Metabolic balances of 210Pb and 210Po at natural levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, H.; Holtzman, R.B.; Kramer, L.; Ilcewicz, F.H.

    1977-01-01

    Metabolic balances of 210 Po and 210 Pb were determined under strictly controlled dietary conditions in adult males. The intakes of the two nuclides were due to the dietary contents of these radioisotopes, inhalation from the atmosphere, and smoking of cigarettes. No additional radioisotope was given. The mean dietary intake of 210 Pb was 1.25 pCi/day and of 210 Po, 1.63 pCi/day. The major pathway of excretion of both nuclides is via the gastrointestinal tract; the urinary excretion is much lower. The total excretions of 210 Pb and 210 Po were greater than the dietary intake and the overall balances were -0.28 and -0.16 pCi/day for the two nuclides, respectively, during a low calcium intake. The 210 Pb balances did not change significantly when the calcium intake was increased 7- to 10-fold except for one patient in whom the balance became more negative. The 210 Po balance was more negative during calcium intakes of 800 and 2200 mg than during a low calcium intake of 200 mg/day. The urinary and fecal excretions of the two radionuclides were not affected by the intake of sodium fluoride, while the diuretic compound, Hydrodiuril, appeared to decrease the fecal 210 Pb excretion

  13. Adsorption of Pb(II from Aqueous Solutions on Wheat Straw: Effects of Humification and Sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Safari Sinegani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption is one of the methods used for the separation of heavy metals from aquatic environments. The objective of this study was to investigate wheat straw humification and the capability of its microorganisms for the biosorption of Pb from aqueous solutions. Wheat straw (3 solution (0.001 N with different Pb concentrations at pH 6. Among the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkine models, only the latter failed to fit Pb adsorption data. The highest sorption capacities (qmax were obtained by the Langmuir model for the humified and unsterile sample (108.41 mg g‒1 and the lowest was obtained for the fresh and sterile sample (63.36 mg g‒1. Lead adsorption increased significantly with incubation time and its highest values were recorded with unsterile straw samples taken on days 1, 20, and 60 which were equal to 32.21, 43, and 60.96%, respectively, for the highest Pb concentration. The Langmuir constant (Kl and Freundlich constants (Kf and n were significantly higher for the more humified wheat straw samples compared to those for raw straw. All the adsorption parameters recorded higher values with the unsterile wheat straw compared to the sterile one, indicating the ability of the microorganisms to adsorb Pb from aqueous solutions.

  14. Stable and metastable phases in reciprocal systems PbSe + Ag2I2 Ag2Se + PbI2 and PbSe + CdI2 = CdSe + PbI2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odin, I.N.; Grin'ko, V.V.; Kozlovskij, V.F.; Safronov, E.V.

    2005-01-01

    Mutual system PbSe + Ag 2 I 2 = Ag 2 Se + PbI 2 is investigated. It is shown that diagonal Ag 2 Se-PbI 2 is stable. Liquidus surface and isothermal section at 633 K of phase diagram of PbSe-Ag 2 Se-PbI 2 system are built. Transformations directing to crystallization metastable ternary compound forming in PbSe-PbI 2 system and metastable polytype modifications of lead iodide in PbSe-Ag 2 Se-PbI 2 system at 620-685 K are studied. By hardening from molten state (1150-1220 K) new interstitial metastable phases crystallizing in CdCl 2 structural type are obtained in PbSe-Ag 2 Se-PbI 2 and PbSe + CdI 2 = CdSe + PbI 2 systems [ru

  15. Eccentric Protons? Sensitivity of Flow to System Size and Shape in p +p, p +Pb, and Pb +Pb Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenke, Björn; Venugopalan, Raju

    2014-09-01

    We determine the transverse system size of the initial nonequilibrium Glasma state and of the hydrodynamically evolving fireball as a function of produced charged particles in p +p, p +Pb, and Pb+Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Our results show features similar to those of recent measurements of Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) radii by the ALICE Collaboration. Azimuthal anisotropy coefficients vn generated by combining the early time Glasma dynamics with viscous fluid dynamics in Pb +Pb collisions are in excellent agreement with experimental data for a wide range of centralities. In particular, event-by-event distributions of the vn values agree with the experimental data out to fairly peripheral centrality bins. In striking contrast, our results for p +Pb collisions significantly underestimate the magnitude and do not reproduce the centrality dependence of data for v2 and v3 coefficients. We argue that the measured vn data and HBT radii strongly constrain the shapes of initial parton distributions across system sizes that would be compatible with a flow interpretation in p +Pb collisions. Alternately, additional sources of correlations may be required to describe the systematics of long-range rapidity correlations in p +p and p +Pb collisions.

  16. Multi-strange baryon production in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions measured with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Colella, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    The production of {\\Xi}$^{-}$ and {\\Omega}$^{-}$ baryons and their anti-particles in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions has been measured by the ALICE Collaboration. These hyperons are reconstructed via the detection of their charged weak-decay products, which are identified through their measured ionisation losses and momenta in the ALICE Time Projection Chamber. Comparing the production yields in Pb-Pb and pp collisions, a strangeness enhancement has been measured and found to increase with the centrality of the collision and with the strangeness content of the baryon; moreover, in the comparison with similar measurements at lower energies, it decreases as the centre-of-mass energy increases, following the trend already observed moving from SPS to RHIC. Recent measurement of cascade and {\\Omega} in p-Pb interactions are compared with results in Pb-Pb and pp collisions and with predictions from thermal models, based on a grand canonical approach. The nuclear modification factors for the charged {\\Xi} and {\\Omega}...

  17. Reconstruction of historical atmospheric Pb using Dutch urban lake sediments: A Pb isotope study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, N.; van Os, B.J.H.; Klaver, G.Th.; Middelburg, J.J.; Davies, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    Lake sediments provide a record of atmospheric Pb deposition and changes in Pb isotope composition. To our knowledge, such an approach has not previously been performed in The Netherlands or linked to national air monitoring data. Results are presented for Pb content and isotope composition of 137Cs

  18. Tracing diffuse anthropogenic Pb sources in rural soils by means of Pb isotope analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, N.; Gaans, P.F.M. van; Veer, G. van der; Os, B.J.H. van; Klaver, G.T.; Vriend, S.P.; Middelburg, J.J.; Davies, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the cause and source of Pb pollution is important to abate environmental Pb pollution by taking source-related actions. Lead isotope analysis is a potentially powerful tool to identify anthropogenic Pb and its sources in the environment. Spatial information on the variation of

  19. Electrochemical EDTA recycling with sacrificial Al anode for remediation of Pb contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pociecha, Maja; Lestan, Domen

    2010-01-01

    Recycling chelant is a precondition for cost-effective EDTA-based soil remediation. Extraction with EDTA removed 67.5% of Pb from the contaminated soil and yielded washing solution with 1535 mg L -1 Pb and 33.4 mM EDTA. Electrochemical treatment of the washing solution using Al anode, current density 96 mA cm -2 and pH 10 removed 90% of Pb from the solution (by electrodeposition on the stainless steel cathode) while the concentration of EDTA in the treated solution remained the same. The obtained data indicate that the Pb in the EDTA complex was replaced by electro-corroded Al after electro-reduction of the EDTA and subsequently removed from the solution. Additional soil extraction with the treated washing solution resulted in total removal of 87% of Pb from the contaminated soil. The recycled EDTA retained the Pb extraction potential through several steps of soil extraction and washing solution treatment, although part of the EDTA was lost by soil absorption. - Aluminium anode at alkaline pH in conventional electrolytic cell enables efficient recycling of EDTA as a part of soil washing remediation technology.

  20. Electrochemical degradation of linuron in aqueous solution using Pb/PbO2 and C/PbO2 electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Abu Ghalwa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two modified electrodes (Pb/PbO2 and C/PbO2 were prepared by electrodeposition and used as anodes for electrochemical degradation of linuron (phenylurea pesticide in aqueous solution. Different operating conditions and factors affecting the treatment process including current density, temperature, initial concentration of linuron, pH, conductive electrolyte and time of electrolysis were studied and optimized. The best degradation occurred in the presence of NaCl (1 gL−1 as conductive electrolyte. After 30 min, nearly complete degradation of linuron was achieved (92% and 84% using C/PbO2 and Pb/PO2 electrodes at pH 7 and 1.5, respectively. Higher degradation efficiency was obtained at low temperature (5–10 °C. The optimum current density for the degradation of linuron on both electrodes was (150 mAcm−2.

  1. The Investigation of Heavy Metal Content (Cu, Cd, Pb in Sapu-Sapu Fish (Hypostomus plecostomus in Bengawan Solo River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristiyana Eko Setyarini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A study had been carried out to investigate heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Pb content in sapu-sapu fish (hypostomus plecostomus in Bengawan Solo river. The type of this research was observational research, with sapu-sapu fish inhabit Bengawan Solo River as the population. The samples were taken with purposive random sampling. Nine sapu-sapu fishes taken from 3 places, i.e.: Nguter Sukoharjo area, Premulung river outlet and Anyar river, 3 fishes from each palce, and then take examined the content of heavy metal. The result of study showed that the average content of Cu: 0.027 mg/100gr, Cd: 0.005 mg/100gr and Pb: 0.042 mg/100gr. Hence, sapu-sapu fish in Be3ngawan Solo had been contaminated with heavy metal (Cu, Cd, and Pb and should not be consumed.

  2. Comparative adsorption of Pb2+ and Cd2+ by cow manure and its vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weiqin; Du, Wenhui; Shen, Xuyang; Zhang, Hangjun; Ding, Ying

    2017-08-01

    Organic waste has great potential for use as an amendment to immobilize heavy metals in the environment. Therefore, this study investigates various properties of cow manure (CM) and its derived vermicompost (CV), including the pH, cationic exchangeable capacity (CEC), elemental composition and surface structure, to determine the potential of these waste products to remove Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ from solution. The results demonstrate that CV has a much higher pH, CEC and more irregular pores than CM and is enriched with minerals and ash content but has a lower C, H, O and N content. Adsorption isotherms studies shows that the adsorption of Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ onto either CM or CV follows a Langmuir model and presents maximum Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ adsorption capacities of 102.77 mg g -1 and 38.11 mg g -1 onto CM and 170.65 and 43.01 mg g -1 onto CV, respectively. Kinetic studies show that the adsorption of Pb 2+ onto CM and CV fits an Elovich model, whereas the adsorption of Cd 2+ onto CM and CV fits a pseudo-second-order model. Desorption studies indicate that CV is more effective than CM in removing Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ . FTIR analysis demonstrates that the adsorption of Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ onto CM mainly depends on existed aliphatic alcohol, aromatic acid as well as new produced carbonates, whereas that onto CV may be contributed by the existed aliphatic alcohol, aromatic acids as well as some carbonates and phosphates. Thus, vermicomposting disposal of cow manure with destination mineral addition may broaden the way of its recycle and environmental usage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A comprehensive study on photocatalytic activity of supported Ni/Pb sulfide and oxide systems onto natural zeolite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaahamdi-Milani, Majid [Department of Chemistry, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 311-86145, Shahreza, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza, E-mail: arnezamzadeh@iaush.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 311-86145, Shahreza, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razi Chemistry Research Center (RCRC), Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Increase in photocatalytic activity of hybridized/supported PbO/NiO and PbS/NiS systems with respect to semiconductors alone. • Higher efficiency of PbO/NiO than PbS/NiS. • Positive role of p-n junction for enhancement of photocatalytic activity of the used semiconductors. - Abstract: The Ni(II)-Pb(II) exchanged clinoptilolite nanoparticles (NCP) were transformed to corresponding oxides and sulfides via calcination and sulfiding processes, respectively. The obtained catalysts were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TEM and DRS and used in photodegradation of p-nitrophenol (4-NP) aqueous solution under Hg-lamp irradiation. Results showed considerable increase in activity of the coupled semiconductors with respect to monocomponent one. In NiO-PbO-NCP system, conduction band (CB) of NiO is enough negative for easily migration of photogenerated electrons to CB-PbO level, while such phenomena take place from more negative CB-PbS level to CB-NiS level in NiS-PbS-NCP. These phenomena significantly prevented from electron-hole recombination which increased photocatalytic activity of the coupled semiconductors. Best photodegradation activities obtained by NiO{sub 1.3%}–PbO{sub 14.7%}-NCP and NiS{sub 2.1%}–PbS{sub 10.0%}-NCP, confirming semiconductors' mass-ratio dependence of the photocatalytic process. The supported coupled semiconductors showed blue shifts in band gap energies with respect to the bulk semiconductors which confirm formation of semiconductors nanoparticles inside the zeolite framework. The highest degradation percentage of 4-NP was obtained at: 0.5 g L{sup −1} photocatalysts, 15 mg L{sup −1} 4-NP at pH 7.5.

  4. Biological effects of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) and Pb on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) in a soil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lin; Liang, Jun; Lin, Kuangfei

    2015-01-01

    BDE209 and Pb are ubiquitous contaminants at e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs). This study aimed to determine acute and sub-acute toxicity to earthworm Eisenia fetida induced by BDE209 and Pb in natural soil. Results demonstrated that the inhibition of Pb on growth and reproduction of earthworms followed a dose-dependent pattern. Earthworms exposed to 100 mg kg −1 of BDE209 displayed avoidance responses, while the soil indicated a more obvious decline of habitat function with the increase of Pb level. Comet assay suggested that increasing concentrations of Pb exposure resulted in a gradual increase in the tail length and olive tail moment, which meant that the degree of DNA damage was promoted. BDE209 addition could reduce the damage; therefore the joint effects of both chemicals showed antagonistic. These results revealed that joint exposure (BDE209-Pb) could elicit pronounced biochemical and physiological responses in earthworms, and the DNA damage might be potential molecular biomarker of the two pollutants. - Highlights: • 48 h and 14 d LC 50 values of BDE209 were lower than that of Pb, suggesting Pb was more toxic to earthworms. • Inhibition of Pb on the growth and reproduction of earthworms followed certain dose–response relationships. • Joint effects of BDE209 and Pb on earthworms might be antagonistic in comet assay. - This study demonstrated the biological effects of BDE209-Pb joint exposure on earthworm Eisenia fetida in a soil system for the first time.

  5. [Preparation of Pb2+ imprinted acrylic acid-co-styrene and analysis of its adsorption properties by FAAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawket, Abliz; Abdiryim, Supahun; Wang, Ji-De; Ismayil, Nurulla

    2011-06-01

    With lead ion template, acrylic acid as functional monomer, potassium persulfate as initiator, strytrene as framework monomer, lead ion imprinted polymers (Pb(II)-IIPs) were prepared using free emulsion polymerization method. The structure and morphology of the polymers were analyzed by UV-spectra, FTIR and scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption/ desorption and selectivity for Pb2+ were investigated by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) as the detection means. The results show that compared with non-imprinted polymers(NIPs), the Pb(II)-IIPs had higher specific adsorption properties and selective recognition ability for Pb(II). The relative selectivity coefficient of Pb(II)-IIPs for Pb(II) was 6.25, 6.18, 6.25 and 6.38 in the presence of Cd(II), Cu(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II) interferences, respectively. The absorption rate was the best at the pH of adsorbent solution of 6, Adsorption rate reached 96% during the 2.5 h static adsorption time. Using 3.0 mol x L(-1) HCI as the best desorption solvent to desorb the adsorbents, the desorbtion rate reached 98%. Under the best adsorption conditions, the adsorption capacity of Pb(II)-IIPs for Pb(II) was found to be 40. mg x g(-1).

  6. Comparative adsorption of Pb2+ and Cd2+ by cow manure and its vermicompost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Weiqin; Du, Wenhui; Shen, Xuyang; Zhang, Hangjun; Ding, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Organic waste has great potential for use as an amendment to immobilize heavy metals in the environment. Therefore, this study investigates various properties of cow manure (CM) and its derived vermicompost (CV), including the pH, cationic exchangeable capacity (CEC), elemental composition and surface structure, to determine the potential of these waste products to remove Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ from solution. The results demonstrate that CV has a much higher pH, CEC and more irregular pores than CM and is enriched with minerals and ash content but has a lower C, H, O and N content. Adsorption isotherms studies shows that the adsorption of Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ onto either CM or CV follows a Langmuir model and presents maximum Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ adsorption capacities of 102.77 mg g −1 and 38.11 mg g −1 onto CM and 170.65 and 43.01 mg g −1 onto CV, respectively. Kinetic studies show that the adsorption of Pb 2+ onto CM and CV fits an Elovich model, whereas the adsorption of Cd 2+ onto CM and CV fits a pseudo-second-order model. Desorption studies indicate that CV is more effective than CM in removing Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ . FTIR analysis demonstrates that the adsorption of Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ onto CM mainly depends on existed aliphatic alcohol, aromatic acid as well as new produced carbonates, whereas that onto CV may be contributed by the existed aliphatic alcohol, aromatic acids as well as some carbonates and phosphates. Thus, vermicomposting disposal of cow manure with destination mineral addition may broaden the way of its recycle and environmental usage. - Graphical abstract: The existed aliphatic alcohol, aromatic acids and its only carbonates and phosphates may underlie much higher efficiency of vermicompost (CV) on Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ removal than cow manure (CM). - Highlights: • Less irregular pores in cow manure (CM) than its vermicompost (CV). • More Pb 2+ or Cd 2+ could be removed from solution by vermicompost (CV) than by cow manure (CM). • The existed aliphatic

  7. MODEL ADSORPSI TIMBAL (PB DAN SENG (ZN DALAM SISTEM AIR-SEDIMEN DI WADUK RIAM KANAN KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatimatun Nisa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are often considered as main contaminant in water pollution and its highly dangerous for living organisms in the contaminated area. The aim of this research is to predict the movement pattern of Pb and Zn metal ions from water onto sediment in the Riam Kanan Reservoir, Aranio Sub-district, Banjar District. In addition, this study is expected to give information on the initial condition of Riam Kanan reservoir; dynamics; and the fate of Pb and Zn ions from upstream to downstream. The samples were analysed using AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer based on the Indonesian National Standard (SNI. Result of laboratory analysis showed that in the water, contents of metal Pb were 0.0494 ppm – 0.2582 ppm, Zn 0.0002 ppm – 0.0370 ppm. In the sediment, contents of Pb were 0.8311 mg/kg – 21.1756 mg/kg and Zn 3.3778 mg/kg – 28.3522 mg/kg. Based on the experimental data, it was found that the displacement of Pb and Zn onto sediment complies with Langmuir adsorption model where the determination coefficient (R2 were 0.8167 and 0.8801 respectively.

  8. Electrode processes during the electrorefiniment of lead in the KCl-PbCl2-PbO melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Pershin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of PbO addition on current efficiency during the electrorefinement of lead in the KCl-PbCl2-PbO melt was investigated. It was shown that with PbO concentration in the KCl-PbCl2 eqiumolar mixture increasing, the current efficiency of lead decreases. Electrode processes mechanism is proposed.

  9. Facile synthesis of CsPbBr3/PbSe composite clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thang Phan; Ozturk, Abdullah; Park, Jongee; Sohn, Woonbae; Lee, Tae Hyung; Jang, Ho Won; Kim, Soo Young

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this work, CsPbBr3 and PbSe nanocomposites were synthesized to protect perovskite material from self-enlargement during reaction. UV absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that the addition of Se into CsPbBr3 quantum dots modified the electronic structure of CsPbBr3, increasing the band gap from 2.38 to 2.48 eV as the Cs:Se ratio increased to 1:3. Thus, the emission color of CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots was modified from green to blue by increasing the Se ratio ...

  10. Myasthenia Gravis (MG): Medical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... take effect, prior to surgery or for myasthenic crisis. However, some people receive regular plasmapheresis or IVIg as a supplement to immunosuppressant drugs. Pregnancy In rare cases, pregnancy appears to trigger the onset of MG. ...

  11. A new insight to adsorption and accumulation of high lead concentration by exopolymer and whole cells of lead-resistant bacterium Acinetobacter junii L. Pb1 isolated from coal mine dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Anamika; Rani, Radha; Kumar, Sanjay; Thomas, Tarence; David, Arun Alfred; Ahmed, Meraz

    2017-04-01

    A lead-resistant bacterial strain was isolated from coal mine dump and identified as Acinetobacter junii Pb1 on basis of 16S rRNA (ribosomal ribonucleic acid) gene sequencing. The minimum inhibitory concentration of lead for the strain was 16,000 mg l -1 and it showed antibiotic and multi metal resistance. In aqueous culture, at an initial lead (Pb(II)) concentration of 100 and 500 mg l -1 , lead adsorption and accumulation by the isolate was 100 and 60%, at pH 7 at 30 °C after 48 and 120 h, respectively. The two fractions of exopolysaccharide (EPS), loosely associated EPS (laEPS) and bound EPS (bEPS), and whole cells (devoid of EPS) showed high binding affinity towards Pb(II). The binding affinity of laEPS towards Pb(II) (1071 mg Pb g -1 ) was three times higher than that of bEPS (321.5 mg Pb g -1 ) and 6.5 times higher than that of whole cells (165 mg Pb g -1 ). The binding affinity of EPS and whole cells with Pb(II), reported in the current study, is considerably higher as compared to that reported in the literature, till date. SEM analysis, showed an increase in thickness of cells on exposure to Pb(II) and TEM analysis, revealed its accumulation (interior of cell) and its adsorption (with the external cell surface). The isolate was also found to be positive for indole acetic acid (IAA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase production which helps in promoting plant growth. Thus, this study provides a new understanding towards Pb(II) uptake by A. junii Pb1, highlighting its potential on the restoration of Pb(II) contaminated repositories.

  12. PENGARUH SUPLEMENTASI MADU KELENGKENG TERHADAP KADAR TSA DAN MDA TIKUS PUTIH YANG DIINDUKSI TIMBAL (Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilatussaniah Kamilatussaniah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Timbal (Pb merupakan salah satu logam berat yang berasal dari emisi pembakaran bahan bakar. Peningkatan penggunaan bahan bakar pada mesin industri dan kendaraan bermotor menyebabkan peningkatan kadar Pb di udara. Masuknya Pb ke dalam tubuh akan mengganggu keseimbangan molekul lain sehingga menjadi radikal bebas. Ketidakseimbangan antara radikal bebas dengan antioksidan menyebabkan stres oksidatif yang ditandai dengan menurunnya total satus antioksidan (TSA dan meningkatnya malondialdehid (MDA. Madu kelengkeng adalah suplemen kesehatan yang mengandung flavonoid, vitamin C, vitamin E dan beta karoten yang berperan sebagai antioksidan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh madu kelengkeng terhadap kadar TSA dan MDA darah tikus putih yang diinduksi Pb. Desain penelitian ini adalah eksperimental dengan 25 ekor tikus putih jantan galur Wistar yang dibagi dalam 5 kelompok, yaitu kelompok A (tikus normal, B (tikus dengan induksi Pb 10 mg/kgBB dan C, D, E merupakan kelompok perlakuan suplementasi madu secara berturut-turut 0,45, 0,9, 1,8 ml/200 gramBB dan induksi Pb 10 mg/kgBB selama 14 hari. Data TSA dan MDA dianalisis menggunakan one way anova dan uji LSD untuk mengetahui perbedaan setiap kelompok. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan madu dengan dosis 1,8 ml/200 gramBB dapat meningkatkan kadar TSA dan menurunkan kadar MDA secara signifikan. Simpulan dari penelitian ini adalah madu dapat meningkatkan kadar TSA dan menurunkan kadar MDA pada tikus putih yang diinduksi Pb. Lead (Pb is heavy metal which comes from waste fuel emissions. Increased use of fuel in industrial machinery and vehicles causes increased levels of lead in the air. The entry of Pb into the body will disturb the ballance other molecules and became a free radicals. The imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants cause oxidative stress which characterized by decreased total antioxidant statue (TAS and increased malondialdehid (MDA. Longan honey is health suplement which

  13. Rb-Sr, Pb-Pb, U-Pb dating in the Bandja plutonic series of Western Cameroon. Donnees geochronologiques (Rb-Sr, Pb-Pb, U-Pb) sur le complexe plutonique de Bandja (Centre-Ouest Cameroun)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchankam, C N [Nancy-1 Univ., 54 (France); Vialette, Y [Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France)

    1994-08-01

    The results of U-Pb zircon and Pb-Pb on minerals and whole rocks are reported on a charnockite syn-D1 from the Bandja series in the western Cameroon. Data are interpreted as representing a plutonic emplacement at 640 Ma. A syn- to post-tectonic pluton is dated at 557 [+-] 8 Ma (Rb-Sr whole rocks isochron). These results confirm the Pan-African age of the charnockitic intrusive body. Initial isotopic [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios of charnockite (0.709) and granite (0.7089) show the importance of crustal imprint in the magma genesis. (authors).

  14. Variations of Pb in a mine-impacted tropical river, Taxco, Mexico: Use of geochemical, isotopic and statistical tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcega-Cabrera, F. [Unidad de Quimica en Sisal, Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Sisal 97355 (Mexico)], E-mail: arcega@icmyl.unam.mx; Armienta, M.A. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Mexico 04510 (Mexico); Daessle, L.W. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, UABC, Ensenada 22870 (Mexico); Castillo-Blum, S.E. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Mexico 04510 (Mexico); Talavera, O. [Escuela de Ciencias de la Tierra, UAG, Taxco Viejo 40201 (Mexico); Dotor, A. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Mexico 04510 (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    The potential environmental threat from Pb in Mexican rivers impacted by historic mining activities was studied using geochemical, isotopic and statistical methods. Lead geochemical fractionation and factor analysis of fractionated and total Pb indicate that anthropogenic sources have contributed significantly to Pb concentrations, while natural sources have contributed only small amounts. The analyses also indicate that two main processes are controlling the total Pb variation throughout the year in both rivers: erosion with discharge processes, and proportional dilution related to differences in grain-size distribution processes. Bio-available Pb in riverbed sediments was greater than 50% in 80% of the sampling stations indicating a high potential environmental risk, according to the risk assessment criteria (RAC). Nevertheless, based on the environmental chemistry of Pb and on multivariate statistical analysis, these criteria did not apply in this particular case. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in total Pb concentrations (from 50 to 5820 mg kg{sup -1}) and in the geochemical fractionation were observed as a function of seasonality and location along the river flow path. In the Cacalotenango and Taxco rivers, the highest concentrations of total Pb were found at stations close to tailings during the rainy and post-rainy seasons. The geochemistry of Pb was mainly controlled, during the dry and post-rainy seasons by the organic matter and carbonate content, and in the rainy season by hydrological conditions (e.g., the increase in river flux), hydrological basin erosion, and the suspended solids concentration. Isotopic analyses of the {sup 210}Pb/{sup 214}Pb ratio showed three processes in the Cacalotenango and Taxco rivers. First, the accumulation of atmospheric excess {sup 210}Pb, favoured during calmer hydrodynamic conditions in the river basin commonly during dry periods, is recorded by a {sup 210}Pb/{sup 214}Pb ratio of >1. In the case of the Cacalotenango

  15. Measurement of $Z$ boson production in Pb+Pb and $pp$ collisions by the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Dumancic, Mirta; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    A measurement of $Z$ boson production is performed via the muon decay channel using data samples from the 2015 LHC run obtained at the center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm{NN}}}}=5.02$ TeV with a total integrated luminosity of 0.49 nb$^{-1}$ and 25.3 pb$^{-1}$ in Pb+Pb and $pp$, respectively. Integrated and rapidity differential cross sections are measured in a fiducial detector acceptance defined by the $Z$ boson selection of 66<$m_{ll}$<116 GeV and $|y^{ll}|<2.5$ with correction for FSR effects. Nuclear modification factor $R_{AA}$ is obtained from the comparison of the Pb+Pb to the $pp$ data and is found to be consistent with unity. The large statistical sample of Pb+Pb collisions also allows a high-precision test of the Glauber model.

  16. Return of naturally sourced Pb to Atlantic surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bridgestock, L.; van de Flierdt, T.; Rehkämper, M.; Paul, P.; Middag, R.; Milne, A.; Lohan, M.C.; Baker, A.; Chance, R.; Khondoker, R.; Strekopytov, S.; Humphreys-Williams, E.; Achterberg, E.P.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; De Baar, H.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic emissions completely overwhelmed natural marine lead (Pb) sources duringthe past century, predominantly due to leaded petrol usage. Here, based on Pb isotopemeasurements, we reassess the importance of natural and anthropogenic Pb sources to thetropical North Atlantic following the

  17. Identification of differentially expressed proteins in response to Pb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Lead (Pb) is a widespread nonessential heavy metal in cells and causes molecular damage to plants through the .... proteome patterns of C. roseus leaves under Pb stress. On the 3rd day of Pb ..... germinated Oryza sativa pollen. Mol. Cell.

  18. Pb/Pb isochron ages and Pb isotope geochemistry of Bambui Group carbonate rocks from the southern portion of the Sao Francisco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinski, M.

    1993-01-01

    This study involves the establishment of chemical and analytical procedure for Pb/Pb dating of Neo proterozoic carbonate rocks and their application to obtaining isochron ages of Bambui Group rocks from the southern portion of the Sao Francisco Basin, Minas Gerais State. The Pb isotopic compositions and U and Pb concentrations determined on more than 90 samples (≅ 600 analyses) from Sete Lagoas do Jacare formations, Bambui Group, from different parts of the basin, showed four distinct types of Pb, here called types I, II, III and IV. Type I Pb was found in samples with low Pb concentrations and relatively high U concentrations. Type II Pb is present in samples with relatively high Pb concentrations and low U concentrations it is non-radiogenic crustal Pb. Type III Pb is also found in samples with high Pb concentrations and low U concentrations but it is radiogenic crustal Pb. Type IV Pb occurs in samples with U/Pb ratios lower than 1 and is intermediate in composition between Type III and Type I Pb. According to the data presented in this paper it is suggested that carbonate rocks from Sete Lagoas Formations were deposited before 686±69 Ma. Rocks from the Lagoa do Jacare Formation, contained only Type II Pb, which does not permit determination of a Pb/Pb age. During the interval from 690 to 500 Ma, the Pb isotope system of the carbonate rocks from the Sao Francisco Basin was disturbed, and in some areas it was totally reset. The imprecise U/Pb ages of 550-600 Ma obtained from some of the carbonate rocks reflect this disturbance. The ages determined in this study are in agreement with most of the published ages of the tectonism from the Brasiliano fold belts marginal to Sao Francisco Craton, showing that the isotopic systems of Sao Francisco Basin rocks were largely affected by brasiliano tectonism. (author)

  19. Charmonium production in pPb and PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda

    2017-01-01

    Charmonium states, such as $J/\\psi$ and $\\psi\\left(2S\\right)$ mesons, are excellent probes of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). The understanding of charmonium production in PbPb collisions requires the inclusion of many phenomena, such as dissociation in the QGP and statistical recombination, on top of cold nuclear matter effects (modifications of nPDFs, initial-state energy loss, nuclear break-up). Measurements of charmonium production in pPb collisions are crucial in order to disentangle the QGP-related effects from cold nuclear matter effects. In this proceeding, final results on the ratio of $\\psi\\left(2S\\right)$ meson to $J/\\psi$ meson yields in PbPb collisions normalized to pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02$~TeV, are reported. In addition, final prompt and nonprompt $J/\\psi$ meson results in pPb collisions at 5.02~TeV are also shown, using the 2015 pp data taken at the same energy. At last, final results are reported regarding prompt $\\psi\\left(2S\\right)$ meson production in pPb collisions at 5.02~TeV, ...

  20. Study of Bose-Einstein correlations in pp, pPb, and PbPb collisions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.

    2017-12-19

    Quantum statistical (Bose-Einstein) two-particle correlations are measured in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 0.9, 2.76, and 7 TeV, as well as in pPb and peripheral PbPb collisions at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies of 5.02 and 2.76 TeV, respectively, using the CMS detector at the LHC. Separate analyses are performed for same-sign unidentified charged particles as well as for same-sign pions and kaons identified via their energy loss in the silicon tracker. The characteristics of the one-, two-, and three-dimensional correlation functions are studied as functions of the pair average transverse momentum ($k_\\mathrm{T}$) and the charged-particle multiplicity in the event. For all systems, the extracted correlation radii steadily increase with the event multiplicity, and decrease with increasing $k_\\mathrm{T}$. The radii are in the range 1-5 fm, the largest values corresponding to very high multiplicity pPb interactions and to peripheral PbPb collisions with multiplicities similar to those seen in pPb data. It is also observed that the dependencies of the radii on multiplicity and $k_\\mathrm{T}$ largely factorize. At the same multiplicity, the radii are relatively independent of the colliding system and center-of-mass energy.

  1. Study of Bose-Einstein correlations in pp, pPb, and PbPb collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Ambrogi, Federico; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Grossmann, Johannes; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krammer, Natascha; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Madlener, Thomas; Mikulec, Ivan; Pree, Elias; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Spanring, Markus; Spitzbart, Daniel; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Zarucki, Mateusz; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; De Wolf, Eddi A; Di Croce, Davide; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Clercq, Jarne; Deroover, Kevin; Flouris, Giannis; Lontkovskyi, Denys; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cimmino, Anna; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Roskas, Christos; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Tytgat, Michael; Verbeke, Willem; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Melo De Almeida, Miqueias; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Misheva, Milena; Rodozov, Mircho; Shopova, Mariana; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Courbon, Benoit; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Starodumov, Andrei; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Assran, Yasser; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Mahrous, Ayman; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Negro, Giulia; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Charlot, Claude; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Lobanov, Artur; Martin Blanco, Javier; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Jansová, Markéta; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Tonon, Nicolas; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Albert, Andreas; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bermúdez Martínez, Armando; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Botta, Valeria; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Savitskyi, Mykola; Saxena, Pooja; Shevchenko, Rostyslav; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wen, Yiwen; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Bein, Samuel; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Malte; Karavdina, Anastasia; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Lapsien, Tobias; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Triantis, Frixos A; Csanad, Mate; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Hunyadi, Ádám; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Chawla, Ridhi; Dhingra, Nitish; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Shah, Aashaq; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Chauhan, Sushil; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhardwaj, Rishika; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhattacharya, Soham; Chatterjee, Suman; Das, Pallabi; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Errico, Filippo; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lezki, Samet; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pauwels, Kristof; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Khan, Wajid Ali; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Gulmini, Michele; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lujan, Paul; Margoni, Martino; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Fallavollita, Francesco; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Cecchi, Claudia; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Manoni, Elisa; Mantovani, Gian