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Sample records for mg kg-1 fresh

  1. Reversal of rocuronium-induced (1.2 mg kg-1) profound neuromuscular block by accidental high dose of sugammadex (40 mg kg-1).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, A.L.; Boer, H.D. de; Klimek, M.; Heeringa, M.; Klein, J.

    2007-01-01

    Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent and reverses rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block. A case is reported in which a patient accidentally received a high dose of sugammadex (40 mg kg-1) to reverse a rocuronium-induced (1.2 mg kg-1) profound neuromuscular block. A fast and

  2. Sugammadex 4.0 mg kg-1 reversal of deep rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Buwei; Wang, Xiangrui; Hansen, Søren Helbo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Maintenance of deep Neuro Muscular Blockade (NMB) until the end of surgery may be beneficial in some surgical procedures. The selective relaxant binding agent sugammadex rapidly reverses deep levels of rocuronium-induced NMB. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy...... and safety of sugammadex 4.0 mg kg-1 for reversal of deep rocuronium-induced NMB in Chinese and Caucasian patients. Methods: This was an open-label, multicenter, prospective Phase III efficacy study in adult American Society of Anesthesiologists Class 1-3 patients scheduled for surgery under general...... anesthesia and requiring deep NMB. All patients received intravenous propofol and opioids for induction and maintenance of anesthesia, and a single intubation dose of rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg, with maintenance doses of 0.1-0.2 mg/kg as required. Sugammadex 4.0 mg/kg was administered after the last dose...

  3. Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of sugammadex 4 mg kg-1 for reversal of deep neuromuscular blockade in patients with severe renal impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panhuizen, I. F.; Gold, S. J. A.; Buerkle, C.; Snoeck, M. M. J.; Harper, N. J. N.; Kaspers, M. J. G. H.; van den Heuvel, M. W.; Hollmann, M. W.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated efficacy and safety of sugammadex 4 mg kg(-1) for deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) reversal in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance [CLCR] <30 ml min(-1)) vs those with normal renal function (CLCR ≥80 ml min(-1)). Sugammadex 4 mg kg(-1) was administered

  4. Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of sugammadex 4 mg kg-1 for reversal of deep neuromuscular blockade in patients with severe renal impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhuizen, I F; Gold, S J A; Buerkle, C; Snoeck, M M J; Harper, N J N; Kaspers, M J G H; van den Heuvel, M W; Hollmann, M W

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated efficacy and safety of sugammadex 4 mg kg(-1) for deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) reversal in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance [CLCR] Sugammadex 4 mg kg(-1) was administered at 1-2 post-tetanic counts for reversal of rocuronium NMB. Primary efficacy variable was time from sugammadex to recovery to train-of-four (T4/T1) ratio 0.9. Equivalence between groups was demonstrated if two-sided 95% CI for difference in recovery times was within -1 to +1 min interval. Pharmacokinetics of rocuronium and overall safety were assessed. The intent-to-treat group comprised 67 patients (renal n=35; control n=32). Median (95% CI) time from sugammadex to recovery to T4/T1 ratio 0.9 was 3.1 (2.4-4.6) and 1.9 (1.6-2.8) min for renal patients vs controls. Estimated median (95% CI) difference between groups was 1.3 (0.6-2.4) min; thus equivalence bounds were not met. One control patient experienced acceleromyography-determined NMB recurrence, possibly as a result of premature sugammadex (4 mg kg(-1)) administration, with no clinical evidence of NMB recurrence observed. Rocuronium, encapsulated by Sugammadex, was detectable in plasma at day 7 in 6 patients. Bioanalytical data for sugammadex were collected but could not be used for pharmacokinetics. Sugammadex 4 mg kg(-1) provided rapid reversal of deep rocuronium-induced NMB in renal and control patients. However, considering the prolonged sugammadex-rocuronium complex exposure in patients with severe renal impairment, current safety experience is insufficient to support recommended use of sugammadex in this population. NCT00702715. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Postoperative impairment of motor function at train-of-four ratio ≥0.9 cannot be improved by sugammadex (1 mg kg-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumüller, E; Schaller, S J; Chiquito Lama, Y; Frick, C G; Bauhofer, T; Eikermann, M; Fink, H; Blobner, M

    2015-05-01

    A train-of-four ratio (TOFR) ≥0.9 measured by quantitative neuromuscular monitoring is accepted as an indication of sufficient neuromuscular recovery for extubation, even though many postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors may still be inhibited. We investigated whether antagonism with sugammadex after spontaneous recovery to TOFR≥0.9 further improves muscle function or subjective well-being. Following recovery to TOFR≥0.9 and emergence from anaesthesia, 300 patients randomly received either sugammadex 1.0 mg kg(-1) or placebo. Fine motor function (Purdue Pegboard Test) and maximal voluntary grip strength were measured before and after surgery (before and after test drug administration). At discharge from the postanaesthesia care unit, well-being was assessed with numerical analogue scales and the Quality-of-Recovery Score 40 (QoR-40). Patients' fine motor function [6 (sd 4) vs 15 (3) pegs (30 s)(-1), Psugammadex or placebo, motor function was significantly improved in both groups but did not reach the preoperative level. There was no difference between groups at any time. Global well-being was unaffected (QoR-40: placebo, 174 vs 185; sugammadex, 175 vs 186, P>0.05). Antagonizing rocuronium at TOF≥0.9 with sugammadex 1.0 mg kg(-) (1) did not improve patients' motor function or well-being when compared with placebo. Our data support the view that TOFR≥0.9 measured by electromyography signifies sufficient recovery of neuromuscular function. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01101139). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Bioremediation of Zn, Cu, Mg and Pb in Fresh Domestic Sewage by Brevibacterium sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojoawo, S. O.; Rao, C. V.; Goveas, L. C.

    2016-01-01

    The study applied an isolated Brevibacterium sp. (MTCC 10313) for bioremediation of Zn, Cu, Mg and Pb in domestic sewage. Batch culture experiments were performed on both the fresh and stale sewage samples with glucose supplementation of 1-8g/l. Nutrient broth medium was prepared, sterilized and p H adjusted to 6.5-6.8. 1% of the Brevibacteria sp. stock was inoculated into the broth and maintained at 370C for 24 hours in shaker incubator at 120 rpm. Another 1% of fresh grown sub-culture of broth was inoculated into supplemented and sterilized samples. Optical Density was taken at 600nm, growth monitored over 12 days, cultured samples denatured with TCA and centrifuged, supernatants filtered and analyzed with AAS, Settled pellets oven dried, subjected to SEM analysis for morphology and constituents determination. Fresh sewage samples permitted bacterial growth and facilitated bioremediation of Zn, Cu and Mg through metal uptake and bioabsoption by Brevibacteria sp. This effectively reduced concentration of heavy metals, with treatment efficiency order Cu>Zn>Mg, and respective removal percentages of 77, 63 and 55. The optimum glucose concentration for effective bioremediation found as 2g/l for Zn and Cu, and 8g/l for Mg. Pb was resistant to bioremediation with Brevibacteria sp. Stale sewage produced inhibitory substances preventing adequate growth of bacterium with no bioremediation. Bioremediation with Brevibacteria sp. is found effective in removal of micro-units of Zn, Cu and Mg from domestic sewage. As a readily available low-cost agent, it is recommended for large- scale application on those metals while Pb should be further subjected to advanced treatments.

  7. Lattice location of Mg in GaN: a fresh look at doping limitations

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069243; Augustyns, Valerie; Granadeiro Costa, Angelo Rafael; David Bosne, Eric; De Lemos Lima, Tiago Abel; Lippertz, Gertjan; Martins Correia, Joao; Castro Ribeiro Da Silva, Manuel; Kappers, Menno; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André; Da Costa Pereira, Lino Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive 27Mg (t1/2=9.5 min) was implanted into GaN of different doping types at CERN’s ISOLDE facility and its lattice site determined via beta− emission channeling. Following implantations between room temperature and 800°C, the majority of 27Mg occupies the substitutional Ga sites, however, below 350°C significant fractions were also found on interstitial positions ~0.6 Å from ideal octahedral sites. The interstitial fraction of Mg was correlated with the GaN doping character, being highest (up to 31%) in samples doped p-type with 2E19 cm−3 stable Mg during epilayer growth, and lowest in Si-doped n-GaN, thus giving direct evidence for the amphoteric character of Mg. Implanting above 350°C converts interstitial 27Mg to substitutional Ga sites, which allows estimating the activation energy for migration of interstitial Mg as between 1.3 and 2.0 eV.

  8. Effects on proliferation and cell cycle of irradiated KG-1 cells stimulated by CM-CSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dehuang; Dong Bo; Wen Gengyun; Luo Qingliang; Mao Bingzhi

    2000-01-01

    In order to explore the variety of cell proliferation and cell cycle after exposure to ionizing radiation, the responses of irradiated KG-1 cells of the human myeloid leukemia stimulated by GM-CSF, the most common used cytokine in clinic, were investigated. The results showed that GM-CSF enhance KG-1 cells proliferation, reduce G0/G1 block, increase S phase and G2/M phase. The stimulation effects of the GM-CSF are more effective in irradiated group than in control group

  9. Ionizing radiation effects on the KG1A primitive hematopoietic cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clave, Emmanuel; Carosella, Edgardo D.; Gluckman, Eliane; Dubray, Bernard; Socie, Gerard

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Better understanding of radiation-induced effects on the hematopoietic system is important in both the context of therapeutic intervention and accidental exposure. However, direct study of these effects on the hematopoietic stem cell pool is hampered by the small number of accessible cells. We, thus, studied radiation-induced effects on the KG1a stem cell line. Methods and Materials: We confirmed and extended the immunophenotype of KG1a with monoclonal antibodies, established a radiation survival curve, and quantified mRNAs by Northern blotting 30 min after 1, 2, and 3 Gy of ionizing radiation (IR) and followed for up to 48 h after a 3 Gy dose. Cell cycle status and apoptosis were assessed by fluorescent-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, cell morphology, and DNA fragmentation. Results: KG1a was found to be CD34+, CD7+, Thy1 low, CD38 low, lineage negative (neg), C-KITneg and HLA-DRneg, a phenotype consistent with a primitive hematopoietic origin. This immunophenotype was not altered by x-ray irradiation. The D 0 value was 1.75 Gy. We showed a time-dependent variation of c-jun mRNA expression with an early and transient dose-dependent induction followed by a second increase at 24 and 48 h: a biphasic dose-dependent variation of bcl-2 expression 30 min after irradiation with a reduction of mRNA level at 1 Gy, and a normalization at higher doses and stable levels of mRNA for c-fos, c-myc, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-6, TNF-α, TGF-β, and MIP-1α genes. Cell cycle analysis showed the absence of G1/S phase arrest, a point consistent with the absence of detection of P53 mRNA by Northern blot analysis. The dose-dependent G2/M phase arrest was not followed by significant apoptotic cell death. Conclusion: Taken together, this data indicates that radiation-induced cell death of KG1a, a cell line that has a relatively high D 0 value, does not seem to be the result of the apoptotic pathway but occurs subsequent to a G2/M phase arrest

  10. [Experimental study on aging effect of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides combined with cytarabine on human leukemia KG1alpha cell lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chun-Yan; Geng, Shan; Liu, Jun; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Zhang, Xian-Ping; Jiang, Rong; Wang, Ya-Ping

    2014-04-01

    The latest findings of our laboratory showed that Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) showed a definite effect in regulating the aging of hematopoietic stem cells. Leukemia is a type of malignant hematopoietic tumor in hematopoietic stem cells. There have been no relevant reports about ASP's effect in regulating the aging of leukemia cells. In this study, human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) KG1alpha cell lines in logarithmic growth phase were taken as the study object, and were divided into the ASP group, the cytarabine (Ara-C) group, the ASP + Ara-C group and the control group. The groups were respectively treated with different concentration of ASP, Ara-C and ASP + Ara-C for different periods, with the aim to study the effect of ASP combined with Ara-C in regulating the aging of human acute myeloid leukemia KG1alpha cell lines and its relevant mechanism. The results showed that ASP, Ara-C and ASP + Ara-C could obviously inhibit KG1alpha cell proliferation in vitro, block the cells in G0/G1 phase. The cells showed the aging morphological feature. The percentage of positive stained aging cells was dramatically increased, and could significantly up-regulate the expression of aging-related proteins P16 and RB, which were more obvious in the ASP + Ara-C group. In conclusion, the aging mechanism of KG1alpha cell induced by ASP and Ara-C may be related to the regulation of the expression of aging-related proteins, suggesting that the combined administration of ASP and anticancer drugs plays a better role in the treatment of leukemia .

  11. Interference-free determination of sub ng kg-1 levels of long-lived 93Zr in the presence of high concentrations (μg kg-1) of 93Mo and 93Nb using ICP-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Panayot; Russell, Ben; Douglas, David N; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi

    2018-01-01

    Long-lived high abundance radionuclides are of increasing interest with regard to decommissioning of nuclear sites and longer term nuclear waste storage and disposal. In many cases, no routine technique is available for their measurement in nuclear waste and low-level (ng kg -1 ) environmental samples. Recent advances in ICP-MS technology offer attractive features for the selective and sensitive determination of a wide range of long-lived radionuclides. In this work, inductively coupled plasma-tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS)-based methodology, suitable for accurate routine determinations of 93 Zr at very low (ng kg -1 ) levels in the presence of high levels (μg kg -1 ) of the isobaric interferents 93 Nb and 93 Mo (often present in nuclear waste samples), is reported for the first time. Additionally, a novel and systematic strategy for method development based on the use of non-radioactive isotopes is proposed. It relies on gas-phase chemical reactions for different molecular ion formation to achieve isobaric interference removal. Using cell gas mixtures of NH 3 /He/H 2 or H 2 /O 2 , and suitable mass shifts, the signal from the 93 Nb and 93 Mo isobaric interferences on 93 Zr were suppressed by up to 5 orders of magnitude. The achieved limit of detection for 93 Zr was 1.3 × 10 -5  Bq g -1 (equivalent to 0.14 ng kg -1 ). The sample analysis time is 2 min, which represents a significant improvement in terms of sample throughput, compared to liquid scintillation counting methods. The method described here can be used for routine measurements of 93 Zr at environmentally relevant levels. It can also be combined with radiometric techniques for use towards the standardisation of 93 Zr measurements. Graphical abstract Interference-free determination of 93 Zr in the presence of high concentrations of isobaric 93 Mo and 93 Nb by ICP-MS/MS.

  12. The regulation effect of STAT 5 signaling pathway on the cell cycle progression of irradiated KG-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dehuang; Dong Bo; Luo Qingliang; Wen Gengyun; Mao Bingzhi

    2000-01-01

    The author investigated the role of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway regulating cell cycle progression in the irradiated KG-1 cells. By permanent transfecting the cells with DN-STAT 5 cDNA to block the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and then transient transfecting with cyclin D 1 or cyclin B 1 cDNA, the effects of cyclin D 1 protein and cyclin B 1 protein on the cell cycle progression were examined. Results showed that after irradiation with 8Gy 60 Co rays, the irradiated KG-1 cells transfected with only DN-STAT 5 cDNA can not recover form the G 1 arrest, even though GM-CSF was added. Meanwhile, the cells transfected with both the DN-STAT 5 cDNA and cyclin D 1 cDNA or cyclin B 1 cDNA can recover from the G 1 arrest or the G 2 arrest to a great extent. Thus, it was proved indirectly that the JAK/STAT signaling pathway activated by GM-CSF regulated the cell cycle progression through cyclin D 1 and cyclin B 1 protein

  13. Bioactive compounds from flesh and by-product of fresh-cut watermelon cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona-Díaz, Martha Patricia; Viegas, Joana; Moldao-Martins, Margarida; Aguayo, Encarna

    2011-03-30

    The fresh-cut industry produces thousands of tons of waste in non-edible portions that present an environmental and management problem. These by-products could be reused, in particular, to obtain bioactive compounds. In this study, five different fresh-cut watermelon cultivars were assessed for their flesh and by-product bioactive contents. The amount of by-product varied between 31.27 and 40.61% of initial fresh weight (f.w.) depending on the cultivar. Watermelon cultivars were poor sources of total antioxidant, and the content was similar between rind and flesh samples (46.96 vs 43.46 mg ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity kg(-1) f.w.). However, the rind had a moderate total phenolic content higher than that of the flesh (458 vs 389 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent kg(-1) f.w.) and a much higher content of the amino acid citrulline (3.34 vs 2.33 g kg(-1) f.w.), which has potential bioactive properties. Watermelon rind offers quantitative interest as a natural source of citrulline, particularly Fashion, a dark-skinned, seedless cultivar. More research is required on the efficient extraction of citrulline from watermelon rind and its suitability as an additive to drinks, juices or others products to produce new functional food products with valid health claims. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. [Use of Leersia hexandra (Poaceae) for soil phytoremediation in soils contaminated with fresh and weathered oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Trinidad, Alfredo; Rivera-Cruz, María del Carmen; Roldán-Garrigós, Antonio; Aceves-Navarro, Lorenzo Armando; Quintero-Lizaola, Roberto; Hernández-Guzmán, Javier

    2017-03-01

    The oil industry has generated chronic oil spills and their accumulation in wetlands of the state of Tabasco, in Southeastern Mexico. Waterlogging is a factor that limits the use of remediation technologies because of its high cost and low levels of oil degradation. However, Leersia hexandra is a grass that grows in these contaminated areas with weathered oil. The aim of the study was to evaluate the bacteria density, plant biomass production and phytoremediation of L. hexandra in contaminated soil. For this, two experiments in plastic tunnel were performed with fresh (E1) and weathered petroleum (E2) under waterlogging experimental conditions. The E1 was based on eight doses: 6 000, 10 000, 30 000, 60 000, 90 000, 120 000, 150 000 and 180 000 mg.kg-1 dry basis (d. b.) of total petroleum hydrocarbons fresh (TPH-F), and the E2, that evaluated five doses: 14 173, 28 400, 50 598, 75 492 and 112 142 mg. kg-1 d. b. of total petroleum hydrocarbons weathered (TPH-W); a control treatment with 2 607 mg.kg-1 d. b. was used. Each experiment, with eight replicates per treatment, evaluated after three and six months: a) microbial density of total free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB) of Azospirillum (AZP) and Azotobacter group (AZT), for viable count in serial plate; b) dry matter production (DMP), quantified gravimetrically as dry weight of L. hexandra; and c) the decontamination percentage of hydrocarbons (PDH) by Soxhlet extraction. In soil with TPH-F, the NFB, AZP y AZT populations were stimulated five times more than the control both at the three and six months; however, concentrations of 150 000 and 180 000 mg.kg-1 d. b. inhibited the bacterial density between 70 and 89 %. Likewise, in soil with TPH-W, the FNB, AZP and AZT inhibitions were 90 %, with the exception of the 14 173 mg.kg-1 d. b. treatment, which stimulated the NFB and AZT in 2 and 0.10 times more than the control, respectively. The DMP was continued at the six months in the experiments, with values of 63

  15. Functional and structural rearrangements of salivary gland polytene chromosomes of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera,Chironomidae) in response to freshly neutralized aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michailova, P.; Ilkova, J.; White, K.N

    2003-05-01

    Aluminium impacts on aquatic biota can be detected using polytene chromosomes as bio-markers - Although recent work has shown that environmentally relevant concentrations of freshly neutralized aluminium (AI) are bioavailable and toxic to freshwater invertebrates, the genotoxicity of Al has not been examined. Here we show that freshly neutralized Al affects structure and function of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes of the ubiquitous chironomid larva Chironomus riparius over three generations. Exposure to 500 {mu}g l{sup -1} added Al for 24-25 days resulted in a significantly higher frequency of numerous somatic aberrations, while no structural aberrations were found in F1 controls and few in the second and third generation. Aberrations also included deletions of sections of chromosome G of C. riparius larvae as well as deletions of one or more Balbiani rings. Changes in functional activity included decreased activity of the Balbiani rings (BR), and an increase in the number of decondensed centromeres. The activity of the nucleolar organizer (NOR) significantly decreased in F1 chironomids exposed to Al, while in the F2 and F3 generations the NOR showed normal (high) activity. First generation chironomids were generally more susceptible to Al although no clear evidence of tolerance was apparent over three generations. The possible use of alterations in chironomid polytene chromosomes as biomarkers of trace metal pollution is discussed.

  16. Functional and structural rearrangements of salivary gland polytene chromosomes of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera,Chironomidae) in response to freshly neutralized aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michailova, P.; Ilkova, J.; White, K.N.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminium impacts on aquatic biota can be detected using polytene chromosomes as bio-markers - Although recent work has shown that environmentally relevant concentrations of freshly neutralized aluminium (AI) are bioavailable and toxic to freshwater invertebrates, the genotoxicity of Al has not been examined. Here we show that freshly neutralized Al affects structure and function of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes of the ubiquitous chironomid larva Chironomus riparius over three generations. Exposure to 500 μg l -1 added Al for 24-25 days resulted in a significantly higher frequency of numerous somatic aberrations, while no structural aberrations were found in F1 controls and few in the second and third generation. Aberrations also included deletions of sections of chromosome G of C. riparius larvae as well as deletions of one or more Balbiani rings. Changes in functional activity included decreased activity of the Balbiani rings (BR), and an increase in the number of decondensed centromeres. The activity of the nucleolar organizer (NOR) significantly decreased in F1 chironomids exposed to Al, while in the F2 and F3 generations the NOR showed normal (high) activity. First generation chironomids were generally more susceptible to Al although no clear evidence of tolerance was apparent over three generations. The possible use of alterations in chironomid polytene chromosomes as biomarkers of trace metal pollution is discussed

  17. Introducing directly induced microglia-like (iMG cells from fresh human monocytes: A novel translational research tool for psychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro eOhgidani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microglia, glial cells with immunological functions, have been implicated in various neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders in rodent studies, and human postmortem and PET studies. However, the deeper molecular implications of living human microglia have not been clarified.Here, we introduce a novel translational research approach focusing on human microglia. We have recently developed a new technique for creating induced microglia-like (iMG cells from human peripheral blood. Two cytokines, GM-CSF and IL-34, converted human monocytes into the iMG cells within 14 days, which show various microglial characterizations; expressing markers, forming a ramified morphology, and phagocytic activity with various cytokine releases. We have already confirmed the applicability of this technique by analyzing iMG cells from a patient of Nasu-Hakola disease (Ohgidani et al., Sci Rep 2014. We herein show possible applications of the iMG cells in translational research.We believe that this iMG technique will open the door to explore various unknown dynamic aspects of human microglia in psychiatric disorders. This also opens new routes for psychopharmacological approach such as drug efficacy screening and personalized medicine.

  18. Feeling Fresh

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Feeling Fresh KidsHealth / For Teens / Feeling Fresh Print en español La higiene femenina As ... the other products that claim to make women feel cleaner and fresher. But do these work? And ...

  19. Effects of rind removal on physicochemical quality characteristics of fresh-cut watermelon [Citrus lanatus (Thunb) Matsum & Nakai] during cold storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrou, P.; Soteriou, G.; Schouten, R.E.; Kyriacou, C.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of removing the rind from fresh-cut watermelon slices was assessed on the quality of the product during storage at 4 °C for 9 days. Flesh lycopene declined from 55.4 to 47.9 mg kg-1 f.w. and colour lightness (L*) increased from 43.2 to 45.8 after 2 days of storage. Initial heart and

  20. Salinomycin overcomes ABC transporter-mediated multidrug and apoptosis resistance in human leukemia stem cell-like KG-1a cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Dominik; Daniel, Volker; Sadeghi, Mahmoud; Opelz, Gerhard; Naujokat, Cord

    2010-01-01

    Leukemia stem cells are known to exhibit multidrug resistance by expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters which constitute transmembrane proteins capable of exporting a wide variety of chemotherapeutic drugs from the cytosol. We show here that human promyeloblastic leukemia KG-1a cells exposed to the histone deacetylase inhibitor phenylbutyrate resemble many characteristics of leukemia stem cells, including expression of functional ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein, BCRP and MRP8. Consequently, KG-1a cells display resistance to the induction of apoptosis by various chemotherapeutic drugs. Resistance to apoptosis induction by chemotherapeutic drugs can be reversed by cyclosporine A, which effectively inhibits the activity of P-glycoprotein and BCRP, thus demonstrating ABC transporter-mediated drug resistance in KG-1a cells. However, KG-1a are highly sensitive to apoptosis induction by salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic that has recently been shown to kill human breast cancer stem cell-like cells and to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells displaying multiple mechanisms of drug and apoptosis resistance. Whereas KG-1a cells can be adapted to proliferate in the presence of apoptosis-inducing concentrations of bortezomib and doxorubicin, salinomycin does not permit long-term adaptation of the cells to apoptosis-inducing concentrations. Thus, salinomycin should be regarded as a novel and effective agent for the elimination of leukemia stem cells and other tumor cells exhibiting ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance.

  1. Protonation thermodynamics of some aminophenol derivatives in NaCl(aq) (0 ≤ I ≤3 mol . kg-1) at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretti, Clemente; De Stefano, Concetta; Foti, Claudia; Sammartano, Silvio; Vianelli, Giuseppina

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Protonation thermodynamics of four aminophenol derivatives were determined. → Dependence on ionic strength was analysed by using different models. → Neutral species activity coefficient was determined by distribution measurements. → Acid-base behaviour of this ligand class was modelled. - Abstract: The acid-base properties of four aminophenol derivatives, namely m-aminophenol (L1), 4-amino-2-hydroxytoluene (L2), 2-amino-5-ethylphenol (L3) and 5-amino-4-chloro-o-cresol (L4), are studied by potentiometric and titration calorimetric measurements in NaCl (aq) (0 ≤ I ≤ 3 mol . kg -1 ) at T = 298.15 K. The dependence of the protonation constants on ionic strength is modelled by the Debye-Hueckel, SIT (Specific ion Interaction Theory) and Pitzer equations. Therefore, the values of protonation constants at infinite dilution and the relative interaction coefficients are calculated. The dependence of protonation enthalpies on ionic strength is also determined. Distribution (2-methyl-1-propanol/aqueous solution) measurements allowed us to determine the Setschenow coefficients and the activity coefficients of neutral species. Experimental results show that these compounds behave in a very similar way, and common class parameters are reported, in particular for the dependence on ionic strength of both protonation constants and protonation enthalpies.

  2. The hydrolysis and precipitation of Pd(II) in 0.6 mol kg-1 NaCl: A potentiometric, spectrophotometric, and EXAFS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boily, Jean-Francois F.; Seward, Terry M.; Charnock, John M.

    2007-01-01

    The hydrolysis of palladium was investigated in 0.6 mol kg -1 NaCl at 298.2 K. Potentiometric titrations of solutions at various total concentrations of palladium(II) revealed that dilute (millimolar) conditions can be used to monitor the proton release due to hydrolysis reactions up to 2 protons per palladium(II) as long as the equilibration time is kept small. Spectrophotometric titrations were used to corroborate the homogeneous changes in speciation for the PdCl 3 OH 2- species and to extract its correlative molar absorption coefficients in the 210-320 nm range. The molar absorption coefficients are similar to those of PdCl42- but exhibit a broader distribution of excitation energies resulting from the blue shift of the dominant charge transfer bands due to the presence of OH-. The longer-term potentiometric titrations systematically yielded, on the other hand, precipitates which matured over a period of 6 weeks and resulted in a more extensive release of protons to the solution. Precipitation experiments at six different total palladium(II) concentrations in the 3-11 pH range showed the dominant precipitating phase as Pd(OH)1.72Cl0.28. The coordination environment of Pd in this solid was investigated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and yielded an average 1.75 O and 0.25 Cl per Pd atoms with a Pd-O distance of 2.0 (angstrom) and Pd-Cl of 2.1 (angstrom). Finally, the precipitation experiments showed the final products to be of larger solubility than a literature Pd(OH)2 solubility study in which the KCl media induced a solid phase transformation to Pd(OH)1.72Cl0.28. Polynuclear complexes Pdq(OH)r2q-r with q=r=[3,9] explain the combined precipitation and hydrolysis data and may represent subsets of [Pd(OH)2]n and/or [Pd(OH)1.72Cl0.28]n chains coiled into nanometer-sized spheroids previously described in the literature

  3. Qualidade de produtos minimamente processados e comercializados em gôndolas de supermercados nas cidades de Lavras - MG, Brasília - DF e São Paulo - SP Quality of fresh-cut produce commercialized on supermarket shelves in the cities of Lavras-MG, Brasília-DF, and São Paulo-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Ranieli Ferreira de Paula

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A produção de frutos e hortaliças minimamente processados mostrou crescimento relevante nos últimos anos, em razão de acentuadas mudanças no estilo de vida do consumidor, como redução das famílias, busca de conveniência e conscientização da necessidade de uma dieta alimentar saudável e que atenda às exigências de segurança alimentar. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, caracterizar a qualidade química, físico-química e microbiológica dos produtos minimamente processados, coletados em gôndolas de supermercados em Lavras - MG, Brasília - DF e São Paulo - SP para orientar seus fornecedores e consumidores quanto à necessidade de maior controle de qualidade, devido aos riscos de contaminação de matérias-primas por microrganismos patogênicos e deteriorantes. 144 amostras foram coletadas e submetidas às determinações de pH, acidez titulável e sólidos solúveis e avaliações microbiológicas (coliformes a 45ºC, Escherichia coli e Salmonella sp.. Os resultados mostraram variações significativas nos valores de pH e foi observada diminuição de acidez e sólidos solúveis, durante o armazenamento. Foi detectada contaminação por coliformes a 45ºC sendo que, em 50% dessa presença, houve isolamentos de Escherichia coli, evidenciando contaminação oriunda de matéria-prima inadequadamente higienizada ou por sua presença nos manipuladores. Contudo, não foi detectada contaminação por Salmonella sp.. Os resultados obtidos indicaram a necessidade de implementação de Boas Práticas de Fabricação (BPF, no controle de qualidade desses produtos.The production of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables has shown an outstanding growth in the latest years, due to the remarkable changes in the consumers' life style, such as family reduction, search for convenience and increased awareness of a wholesome food diet which meets the requirements of food safety. The aim of this work was to characterize the physicochemical and microbiological

  4. Effect of substituting fresh-cut perennial ryegrass with fresh-cut white clover on bovine milk fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiadis, Sokratis; Hynes, Deborah N; Thomson, Anna L; Kliem, Kirsty E; Berlitz, Carolina Gb; Günal, Mevlüt; Yan, Tianhai

    2018-03-06

    Including forage legumes in dairy systems can help address increasing environmental/economic concerns about perennial ryegrass monoculture pastures. This work investigated the effect of substituting fresh-cut grass with increasing quantities of fresh-cut white clover (WC) on milk fatty acid (FA) profile and transfer efficiency of dietary linoleic (LA) and α-linolenic (ALNA) acids to milk fat. Three groups of three crossbred dairy cows were used in a 3 × 3 crossover design. Dietary treatments were 0 g kg -1 WC + 600 g kg -1 grass, 200 g kg -1 WC + 400 g kg -1 grass, and 400 g kg -1 WC + 200 g kg -1 grass. All treatments were supplemented with 400 g kg -1 concentrates on a dry matter basis. Cows had a 19-day adaptation period to the experimental diet before a 6-day measurement period in individual tie stalls. Increasing dietary WC did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield or milk concentrations of fat, protein or lactose. Milk polyunsaturated FA concentrations (total n-3, total n-6, LA and ALNA) and transfer efficiency of LA and ALNA were increased with increasing dietary WC supply. Inclusion of WC in pastures may increase concentrations of nutritionally beneficial FA, without influencing milk yield and basic composition, but any implications on human health cannot be drawn. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Monitoring, exposure and risk assessment of sulfur dioxide residues in fresh or dried fruits and vegetables in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Tiantian; Huang, Weisu; Wu, Xiaodan; Wang, Mengmeng; Zhou, Liying; Lu, Baiyi; Zheng, Lufei; Hu, Yinzhou

    2017-06-01

    Sulfur dioxide residues in 20 kinds of products collected from 23 provinces of China (Jilin, Beijing, Shanxi, Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing, Sichuan, Gansu, Neimenggu, Xinjiang and Hainan) were analysed, and a health risk assessment was performed. The detection rates of sulfur dioxide residues in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, dried vegetables and dried fruits were 11.1-95.9%, 12.6-92.3%, 70.3-80.0% and 26.0-100.0%, respectively; the mean concentrations of residues were 2.7-120.8, 3.8-35.7, 26.9-99.1 and 12.0-1120.4 mg kg -1 , respectively. The results indicated that fresh vegetables and dried products are critical products; the daily intakes (EDIs) for children were higher than others; the hazard indexes (HI) for four groups were 0.019-0.033, 0.001-0.005, 0.007-0.016 and 0.002-0.005 at P50, respectively. But the HI was more than 1 at P99 by intake dried fruits and vegetables. Although the risk for consumers was acceptable on the whole, children were the most vulnerable group. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicated that the level of sulfur dioxide residues was the most influential variable in this model. Thus, continuous monitoring and stricter regulation of sulfites using are recommended in China.

  6. Fresh Water Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Yang Mun; Kim, O Sik; Kim, Jin Nam; Kim, Cheol Su

    1985-02-01

    This book tells US summary of fresh water with evaporation system like basic principle and outline, multistage flash evaporation, multiple-effect evaporation, other evaporation, evaporation plant by development merger, design of evaporation plant, reverse osmosis on summary, type and production of membrane, reverse osmosis device, reverse osmosis process, electrodialysis with outline of electrodialysis and polarization and energy, freezing preservation and corrosion and scale.

  7. Intelligent Fish Freshness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholam Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.

  8. Fatores socioeconômicos da produção de queijo minas frescal em agroindústrias familiares de Viçosa, MG Socioeconomic factors in the production of fresh cheese in family agribusiness of Viçosa, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Barboza Vinha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção de queijo minas frescal em agroindústrias familiares é amplamente difundida no Estado de Minas Gerais (MG associada à tradição cultural, à demanda do consumidor e ao rendimento do produto. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar aspectos socioeconômicos da produção de queijos minas frescal fabricados em agroindústrias familiares no município de Viçosa-MG e caracterizar as principais dificuldades do setor. Os dados foram levantados pelo método de entrevista in loco em 12 agroindústrias, seis inspecionadas e seis não inspecionadas A renda do produtor familiar proveniente da produção do queijo minas frescal variou de 10 a 85% do total da renda familiar, com maiores percentuais para as agroindústrias inspecionadas. Em 83% das agroindústrias inspecionadas, a renda total era vinculada principalmente à produção do queijo. Os entraves na produção formal incluíram a competição com produtos informais, o baixo preço e a dificuldade de acesso a linhas de crédito e, para os produtores informais, incluíram escassez de matéria-prima e de mão de obra, variação sazonal da produção e ausência de infraestrutura adequada para produção. A produção de queijo minas frescal é uma atividade relevante na composição da renda familiar das agroindústrias, entretanto há necessidade de implementação de políticas públicas locais para melhor estruturação do setor, o que contribuirá para a sustentabilidade da produção familiar.The production of minas frescal cheese in familiar agribusiness is widely diffused in Minas Gerais State, associated to cultural tradition, consumer demand and product yield. The objectives of this study were to evaluate socioeconomic aspects on the production of minas frescal cheese produced in familiar agroindustries in the city of Viçosa-MG, Brazil and to characterize the main difficulties in this sector. Data were collected by the in loco interview method in 12 agribussiness, six of

  9. Differences on nitrogen availability in a soil amended with fresh, composted and thermally-dried sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrasón, D; Ojeda, G; Ortiz, O; Alcañiz, J M

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobically-digested sludge called fresh sludge (F), composted sludge (C) and thermally-drying sludge (T), all from the same batch, were applied to the surface of a calcareous Udic Calciustept with loamy texture. Dosage equivalent was 10 t ha(-1) of dry matter. The concentration of mineral nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) in the soil was measured in order to estimate the effects of the post-treatments to which the different kinds of sewage sludge are subjected in relation to the availability of N in the surface layer of the soil. The most significant differences in NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N concentrations due to the transformation of the organic matter were observed during the first three weeks following soil amendment. Thermally-dried and composted sludge initially displayed higher concentrations of ammonium and nitrate in soil. Five months after the amendment, soil applied with fresh sludge showed the highest concentrations of NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N (6.1 and 36.6 mg kg(-1), respectively). It is clear that the processes of composting and thermal-drying influence the bioavailability of nitrogen from the different types of sewage sludge.

  10. Viscosity of aqueous Ni(NO3)2 solutions at temperatures from (297 to 475) K and at pressures up to 30 MPa and concentration between (0.050 and 2.246) mol . kg-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulagatov, I.M.; Zeinalova, A.B.; Azizov, N.D.

    2006-01-01

    Viscosity of nine aqueous Ni(NO 3 ) 2 solutions (0.050, 0.153, 0.218, 0.288, 0.608, 0.951, 1.368, 1.824, and 2.246) mol . kg -1 was measured in the temperature range from (297 to 475) K and at pressures (0.1, 10, 20, and 30) MPa. The measurements were carried out with a capillary flow technique. The total experimental uncertainty of viscosity, pressure, temperature, and composition measurements were estimated to be less than 1.6%, 0.05%, 15 mK, and 0.02%, respectively. All experimental and derived results are compared with experimental and calculated values reported in the literature. Extrapolation of the solution viscosity measurements to zero concentration (pure water values) for the given temperature and pressure are in excellent agreement (average absolute deviation, AAD = 0.13%) with the values of pure water viscosity from IAPWS formulation [J. Kestin, J.V. Sengers, B. Kamgar-Parsi, J.M.H. Levelt Sengers, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 13 (1984) 175-189]. The viscosity data for the solutions as a function of concentration have been interpreted in terms of the extended Jones-Dole equation for strong electrolytes. The values of viscosity A-, B-, and D-coefficients of the extended Jones-Dole equation for the relative viscosity (η/η ) of aqueous Ni(NO 3 ) 2 solutions as a function of temperature are studied. The derived values of the viscosity A- and B-coefficients were compared with the results predicted by Falkenhagen-Dole theory (limiting law) of electrolyte solutions and the values calculated with the ionic B-coefficient data. The measured values of viscosity for the solutions were also used to calculate the effective rigid molar volumes in the extended Einstein relation for the relative viscosity (η/η )

  11. Irradiation of fresh fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueh-jen, Y.; Jin-lai, Z.; Shao-chun, L.

    1983-01-01

    Occasionally, in China, marine products can not be provided for the markets in good quality, for during the time when they are being transported from the sea port to inland towns or even at the time when they are unloaded from the ship, they are beginning to spoil. Obviously, it is very important that appropriate measures should be taken to prevent them from decay. Our study has proved that the shelf life of fresh Flatfish (Cynoglossue robustus) and Silvery pomfret (stromateoides argenteus), which, packed in sealed containers, are irradiated by 1.5 kGy, 2.2 kGy and 3.0 kGy, can be stored for about 13 to 26 days at 3 deg to 5 deg C. (author)

  12. Decomposition of fresh and anaerobically digested plant biomass in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, K.K.; Graetz, D.A.; Reddy, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Using water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] for waste water renovation produces biomass that must be disposed of. This biomass may be anaerobically digested to produce CH 4 or added to soil directly as an amendment. In this study, fresh and anaerobically digested water hyacinth biomass, with either low or high N tissue content, were added to soil to evaluate C and N mineralization characteristics. The plant biomass was labeled with 15 N before digestion. The fresh plant biomass and digested biomass sludge were freeze-dried and ground to pass a 0.84-mm sieve. The materials were thoroughly mixed with a Kindrick fine sand at a rate of 5 g kg -1 soil and incubated for 90 d at 27 0 C at a moisture content adjusted to 0.01 MPa. Decomposition was evaluated by CO 2 evolution and 15 N mineralization. After 90 d, approximately 20% of the added C of the digested sludges had evolved as CO 2 compared to 39 and 50% of the added C of the fresh plant biomass with a low and high N content, respectively. First-order kinetics were used to describe decomposition stages. Mineralization of organic 15 N to 15 NO 3 - -N accounted for 8% of applied N for both digested sludges at 90 d. Nitrogen mineralization accounted for 3 and 33% of the applied organic N for fresh plant biomass with a low and high N content, respectively

  13. The bioconcentration of 131I in fresh water fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Cheung, T.; Young, E.C.M.; Luo, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of the radionuclide concentration process in fresh water fish have been studied. The experimental data for the tilapias were fitted using a simple compartment model to get characteristics parameters such as concentration factors, elimination rate constants, and initial concentration rates, which are 3.08 Bq kg -1 /Bq L -1 , 0.00573 h -1 , and 12.42 Bq kg -1 h -1 , respectively. The relative concentrations of 131 I in different parts, i.e., head, gills, flesh, bone and internal organs, of the tilapias are also determined, which are found to be 10.8, 15.4, 26.1, 11.0, and 37.0%, respectively. The effects of different factors on the transfer of radionuclides in fresh water fishes are also discussed. Experiments on the tilapias and the common carp show that the variation of concentration factors for different species may be significant even for the same radionuclide and the same ecological system. On the other hand, the variation in the concentration factors for the flesh of the tilapias is not significant for a certain range of 131 I concentrations in the water. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Revascularisation of fresh compared with demineralised bone grafts in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M; Talsnes, O

    2001-01-01

    Revascularisation of bone grafts is influenced by both the anatomical origin and the pre-implantation processing of the graft. We investigated the revascularisation by entrapment of 141Ce (cerium)-labelled microspheres in large, fresh and demineralised syngeneic grafts of predominantly cancellous...... (iliac bone) or cortical (tibial diaphysis) bone three weeks after heterotopic implantation in rats. The mean (SD) 141Ce deposition index (counts per minute (cpm) of mg recovered implant/cpm of mg host iliac bone) was higher in fresh iliac bone grafts, 0.98 (0.46) compared to that of demineralised iliac...... bone, 0.32 (0.20), p bone grafts, 0.51 (0.27), p = 0.007. We found no significant difference in the mean 141Ce deposition index between fresh tibial bone grafts and demineralised tibial bone grafts, 0.35 (0.42), p = 0.4, or between demineralised tibial grafts and demineralised...

  15. Physical and Chemical Changes in Fresh Chilled Muscle Tissue of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. Packed in a Modified Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ježek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to monitor the course of physical and chemical changes taking place in stored fresh chilled muscle tissue of carp packed in modified atmosphere (MAP, and to determine its shelf life. Samples of muscle tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L. were packed in MAP (80% O2, 20% CO2 and stored for 15 days at +2 ± 2 °C max. During the storage period, O2 level in packs decreased from 78.7 ± 0.39% (day 1 to 63.8 ± 1.30% (day 15. Decrease in O2 in packs between storage days 7 and 9 was highly significant (p -1 (day 15. Hydrolytic lipid decomposition (FFA was more intensive in carp muscle tissue (2.09 ± 1.07% total lipid as oleic acid than in carp skin (1.01 ± 0.31% total lipid as oleic acid (day 15. Lipid oxidation (PV in skin showed differences from lipid oxidation in muscle tissue. Oxidation processes in muscle correlated positively with the length of storage (r = 0.90. Over the storage period, peroxide levels increased from 2.58 ± 1.19 mekv O2 kg-1 (day 1 to 6.76 ± 1.78 mekv O2 kg-1 (day 15. Because of low TVBN levels in muscle tissue, shelf life was limited mainly by sensory changes (green discoloration, odour deviations, slime production, which were observed from storage day 9 onwards. It was found that the maximum shelf life of carp packed in MAP (80% O2, 20% CO2 was 7 days. The optimum parameter to determine the remaining shelf life of common carp muscle tissue stored at +2 ± 2 °C max is the TVBN level. As concerns shelf life, TVBN levels in carp muscle should not exceed 15 mg 100 g-1. This level of TVBN (max. 15 mg 100 g-1 for carp (MAP 80% O2, 20% CO2 is much more lower in comparison with levels TVBN (max 25 - 35 mg 100 g-1 which have been determined by Commission Regulation (EC No. 2074/2005 for sea fish. For that reason we suggest to amplify the study by other monitoring (higher number of samples, various breeds of carp in different weight categories for all the year. On the basis of these analyses the level

  16. Cadmium content in fresh and canned squid (Loligo opalescens) from the Pacific coastal waters of California (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitsopoulou, A; Georgantelis, D; Kontominas, M G

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) levels were determined in 70 samples of mantle tissue and 70 whole individual squid (Loligo opalescens; commercially known as California squid). Samples were collected from the coastal zones of California (USA) during the period 2007/2008. To further investigate consumer exposure to processed fishery products, cadmium concentration was also determined in 200 canned samples of squid. Cd concentrations in raw mantle were low, between 0.01 and 0.29 mg kg(-1) and below the tolerance limit of current regulations (1 mg kg(-1)). Respective concentrations in whole individuals were significantly higher, ranging from 0.51 to 1.18 mg kg(-1), attributed to the presence of the visceral portion in whole squid samples. Cd concentrations varied in relation to age and sex of squid, indicating that several physiological factors may influence accumulation. Furthermore, canning of squid substantially enhanced Cd levels. Cd concentration ranged 0.17-0.67 mg kg(-1) in canned mantle tissue and 0.86-2.07 mg kg(-1) in canned whole squid samples, due to both concentration after canning and movement of the metal between different tissues. Several biological compounds, including metallothioneins, nucleic acids and enzymes, may affect Cd concentrations in commercial fishery products.

  17. A Limited Survey of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Fresh and Frozen Cuttlefish Ink and Mantle Used As Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conficoni, Daniele; Alberghini, Leonardo; Bissacco, Elisa; Contiero, Barbara; Giaccone, Valerio

    2018-02-01

    Cuttlefish ink is consumed as a delicacy worldwide. The current study is the first assessment of heavy metal concentrations in cuttlefish ink versus mantle under different storage methods. A total of 212 samples (64 of fresh mantle, 42 of frozen mantle, 64 of fresh ink, and 42 of frozen ink) were analyzed for the detection of the following heavy metals: arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd). The median As concentrations were 12.9 mg/kg for fresh mantle, 8.63 mg/kg for frozen mantle, 10.8 mg/kg for frozen ink, and 0.41 mg/kg for fresh ink. The median Cr concentrations were 0.06 mg/kg for fresh mantle and frozen ink, 0.03 mg/kg for frozen mantle, and below the limit of quantification (LOQ) for fresh ink. The median Fe concentrations were 4.08 mg/kg for frozen ink, 1.51 mg/kg for fresh mantle, 0.73 mg/kg for frozen mantle, and below the LOQ for fresh ink. The median Pb concentrations of almost all samples were below the LOQ; only two frozen ink, one fresh ink, one frozen mantle, and one fresh mantle sample exceeded the limit stipulated by the European Union. The Hg concentrations were statistically similar among the four categories of samples; the median Hg concentrations were below the LOQ, and the maximum concentrations were found in frozen ink, at 1.62 mg/kg. The median Cd concentrations were 0.69 mg/kg for frozen ink and 0.11 mg/kg for frozen mantle, fresh mantle and fresh ink concentrations were below the LOQ, and in 11.3% of the tested samples, Cd concentrations were higher than the European Union limit. The probability of samples having a Cd concentration above the legal limit was 35.75 times higher in frozen than in fresh products. Fresh ink had significantly lower concentrations of As, Cr, Fe, and Cd, but the concentrations of Hg and Pb were not significantly different from those of other products. Frozen ink had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Fe, but concentrations of As were lower than those in

  18. Residual pyrethroids in fresh horticultural products in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana-Madrid, Maria L; Valenzuela-Quintanar, Ana I; Silveira-Gramont, Maria I; Rodríguez-Olibarría, Guillermo; Grajeda-Cota, Patricia; Zuno-Floriano, Fabiola G; Miller, Marion G

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of cyhialothrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and deltamethrin in vegetables produced and consumed in Sonora, Mexico. A total of 345 samples were collected from cluster sampling of markets and fields. Approximately 9% of the samples tested positive for pyrethroids (residue range 0.004-0.573 mg kg(-1)). Based on the results, the potential toxicological risk of human exposure to the pyrethroid insecticides measured in vegetables appears to be minimal, with the estimated exposure being 1,000 times lower than admissible levels. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  19. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... freezing will not preclude use of the term “fresh frozen” to describe the food. “Quickly frozen” means... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen fresh.â 101.95 Section 101.95 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  20. Use of lyophilised and powdered Gentiana lutea root in fresh beef patties stored under different atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Nurul A M; Gordon, Michael H; Skowyra, Monika; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano, María Pilar

    2015-07-01

    Gentiana lutea root is a medicinal herb that contains many active compounds which contribute to physiological effects, and it has recently attracted much attention as a natural source of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on the colour, pH, microbial activities, sensory quality and resistance to lipid oxidation (through the thiobarbituric acid method) during storage of beef patties containing different concentrations of G. lutea. Fresh beef patties were formulated with 0-5 g kg(-1) of G. lutea and 0 or 0.5 g kg(-1) of ascorbic acid and packed in two different atmospheres, Modified Atmosphere 1 (MAP1) and Modified Atmosphere 2 (MAP2), and stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 10 days. MAP1 contained 20:80 (v/v) O2:CO2 and MAP2 contained 80:20 (v/v) O2:CO2. G. lutea extracts possessed antioxidant activity measured by the ferric reducing antioxidant power and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays. Beef patties containing 2 g kg(-1) of lyophilised G. lutea were stable towards lipid oxidation in both atmospheres (P lutea and 0.5 g kg(-1) ascorbic acid showed significantly reduced changes in colour and in lipid oxidation (P lutea as a food ingredient in the design of healthier meat commodities. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Fresh vegetables from the desert

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    In the Middle East, food security and food safety are high on the agenda since
    the food crisis of 2007-2008. Food is mainly imported from nearby countries.
    Especially during the summer the prices of fresh produce are high, because
    there is not much production in the region itself.

  2. Detection of Mg spinel lithologies on central peak of crater ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    identified Fe bearing Mg-spinel-rich rock types are defined by their strong 2-μm ... The Modified Gaussian Modeling (MGM) analysis ... study the deep crustal and/or upper mantle composition and may lead to a fresh ... Lunar surface; Mg-spinel; central peak; Theophilus; remote sensing. .... The explanation of these spec-.

  3. Validation of the method spectrophotometer in the histamine determination in fresh tuna (Thunnus Tunna)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon Silva, F.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the spectrophotometer method described by Bateman et al. (1994) for the histamine determination in fresh tuna (Thunnus Tunna) and to evaluate the histamine concentration in samples of fresh tuna. To fulfill the recently exposed objectives, the figures of merit were determined like they are it: recovery limits of detection, sensibility and repetitive of the method spectrophotometry and applied the analysis at twenty samples of fresh tuna for copy of the Metropolitan area and three sample like reference of fresh tuna stored 4 degree centigrade by 15 days. The histamine recovery you determines enriching seven ours of fresh tuna with histamine to two levels different 0.613 mg/L and 2.21 mg/L. three samples were left without enriching and you subtract the average to the native histamine. You determines the one it limits of detection using the standard deviation to three levels of concentration of histamine 1.37 mg/L, 2.22 mg/L and 3.22 mg/L, the minimum quantity of hi stamina that you can determine for the method spectrophotometry settling down. The repetitive you determines using the standard deviation for 100 among the average of the histamine values, in seven you replies independent of the same sample. You determines the histamine content, in the fresh tuna Thunnus Tunna of the expends of the Metropolitan Area and in samples of reference stored 4 degrees centigrade by 15 days [es

  4. Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

    2009-07-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water) at orchard gate was 2298 l kg-1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg-1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

  5. Chemical composition and ruminal nutrient degradability of fresh and ensiled amaranth forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Philippe; Mustafa, Arif F; Donnelly, Danielle J; Gélinas, Bruce

    2013-12-01

    Amaranth is a crop with potential as a source of forage for ruminants that has not been well characterized. A study was conducted to determine the impact of ensiling on the nutritional quality and ruminal degradability of forage from two amaranth cultivars adapted to North America (i.e. Plainsman and D136). In particular, quantification and some microscopic characterization of oxalate found in amaranth were performed as it is an antiquality compound of concern. There were limited interactions between cultivars and ensiling for most variables. Differences in chemical composition between amaranth cultivars were also limited. Ensiling reduced non-structural carbohydrate and true protein contents. The proportion of acid detergent protein was high in fresh and ensiled forages of both cultivars (average of 177 g kg(-1) crude protein). Total oxalate content averaged 30 and 25 g kg(-1) in fresh and ensiled forages respectively. Ensiling reduced soluble oxalate content. Crystals observed in amaranth were calcium oxalate druses found mostly in idioblast cells in leaf mesophyll and parenchyma of primary and secondary veins. In situ ruminal degradability data indicated that both fresh and ensiled amaranth are highly degradable in the rumen. This study confirms that amaranth is a suitable forage for ruminant animals. Its chemical composition is comparable, for most variables, to that of other commonly used forage species. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Determination and identification of hydrophilic and hydrophobic arsenic species in methanol extract of fresh cod liver by RP-HPLC with simultaneous ICP-MS and ESI-Q-TOF-MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Abad, Uriel; Lischka, Susanne; Piechotta, Christian; Mattusch, Jürgen; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2013-12-01

    The present study was focused on the determination and identification of arsenic species in methanolic extracts of cod liver. Arsenic species were fractionated and the fractions analysed by RP-HPLC-ICP-MS coupled with ESI-Q-TOF-MS. The total concentration of arsenic in the fresh cod liver was analysed by ICP-MS to be 1.53±0.02 mg As kg(-1)w.w. and the extraction recovery was ca. 100% and the column recovery >93%. Besides polar inorganic and methylated arsenic species (>70%) more hydrophobic arsenic-containing fatty acids and hydrocarbons occurred. Based on the mass spectrometric data proposals for molecular structures were elaborated for 20 of the organic As species included 10 arsenic-containing fatty acids (AsFA) and an arsenic-containing hydrocarbon (AsHC) mentioned for the first time in fresh cod liver. Arsenobetaine was found as main water-soluble arsenic compound in cod liver followed by higher molecular mass arsenic-containing fatty acids and hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Densities and apparent molar volumes of atmospherically important electrolyte solutions. 2. The systems H(+)-HSO4(-)-SO4(2-)-H2O from 0 to 3 mol kg(-1) as a function of temperature and H(+)-NH4(+)-HSO4(-)-SO4)2-)-H2O from 0 to 6 mol kg(-1) at 25 °C using a Pitzer ion interaction model, and NH4HSO4-H2O and (NH4)3H(SO4)2-H2O over the entire concentration range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, S L; Wexler, A S

    2011-04-21

    A Pitzer ion interaction model has been applied to the systems H(2)SO(4)-H(2)O (0-3 mol kg(-1), 0-55 °C) and H(2)SO(4)-(NH(4))(2)SO(4)-H(2)O (0-6 mol kg(-1), 25 °C) for the calculation of apparent molar volume and density. The dissociation reaction HSO(4)(-)((aq)) ↔ H(+)((aq)) + SO(4)(2-)((aq)) is treated explicitly. Apparent molar volumes of the SO(4)(2-) ion at infinite dilution were obtained from part 1 of this work, (1) and the value for the bisulfate ion was determined in this study from 0 to 55 °C. In dilute solutions of both systems, the change in the degree of dissociation of the HSO(4)(-) ion with concentration results in much larger variations of the apparent molar volumes of the solutes than for conventional strong (fully dissociated) electrolytes. Densities and apparent molar volumes are tabulated. Apparent molar volumes calculated using the model are combined with other data for the solutes NH(4)HSO(4) and (NH(4))(3)H(SO(4))(2) at 25 °C to obtain apparent molar volumes and densities over the entire concentration range (including solutions supersaturated with respect to the salts).

  8. Antimicrobial packaging for fresh-cut fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-cut fruits are minimally processed produce which are consumed directly at their fresh stage without any further kill step. Microbiological quality and safety are major challenges to fresh-cut fruits. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the innovative food packaging systems that is able to kill o...

  9. Sugar cane fresh or ensiled with or without bacterial additive in diets for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeruzia Vitória Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of using fresh sugar cane, sugar cane silage with or without Lactobacillus buchneri, and burnt sugar cane silage with or without L. buchneri on ingestive behavior, nitrogen balance and synthesis of microbial nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Five ¾ Holstein x Gir crossbred cows, assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square design, were given diets with a 60:40 forage: concentrate ratio on a dry matter basis, to meet an average body weight of 550 kg and production of 15 kg of milk per day. The treatment with fresh sugar cane showed higher values (p 0.05 the nitrogen intake and balance, but led to a greater (p 0.05, and showed an average value of 204.32 g microbial crude protein kg-1 total digestible nutrients.

  10. Fresh and matured lamb meat quality fed with sunflower seeds and vitamin E

    OpenAIRE

    Sales,Ronaldo Oliveira; Silva Sobrinho,Américo Garcia da; Zeola,Nivea Maria Brancacci Lopes; Lima,Natália Ludmila Lins; Manzi,Gabriela Milani; Almeida,Fabiana Alves de; Endo,Viviane

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate meat quality from Ile de France lamb fed diets supplemented with sunflower seeds and vitamin E. Thirty-two lamb weighing initially 15kg were housed in individual stalls and slaughtered when body weight reached 32kg. The treatments consisted of four experimental diets: D1) sugarcane + concentrate without sunflower seeds; D2) sugarcane + concentrate with sunflower seeds; D3) sugarcane + concentrate without sunflower seeds plus 1000mg vitamin E kg-1 diet...

  11. Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosta, Abdulhakim; Slevin, Mark; Rahman, Khalid; Ahmed, Nessar

    2017-01-01

    Protein glycation involves formation of early (Amadori) and late advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) together with free radicals via autoxidation of glucose and Amadori products. Glycation and increased free radical activity underlie the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. This study investigated whether aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro in a cell-free system. Proteins were glycated by incubation with sugars (glucose, methylglyoxal or ribose) ±5–15 mg/mL of aged and fresh garlic extracts. Advanced glycation endproducts were measured using SDS-PAGE gels and by ELISA whereas Amadori products were assessed by the fructosamine method. Colorimetric methods were used to assess antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging capacity, protein-bound carbonyl groups, thiol groups and metal chelation activities in addition to phenolic, total flavonoid and flavonol content of aged and fresh garlic extracts. Aged garlic inhibited AGEs by 56.4% compared to 33.5% for an equivalent concentration of fresh garlic extract. Similarly, aged garlic had a higher total phenolic content (129 ± 1.8 mg/g) compared to fresh garlic extract (56 ± 1.2 mg/g). Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract and is more suitable for use in future in vivo studies. PMID:28051097

  12. Respiration rate and ethylene production of fresh cut lettuce as affected by cutting grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. MARTÍNEZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available For designing optimal polymeric films for modified atmosphere packaging of whole heads as well as for minimally fresh processed (fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce ‘Coolguard’, the effect of several cutting grades on respiration rate (RR and ethylene production at 5ºC was studied. According to common industrial practices cutting grades less than 0.5 cm, between 0.5 and 1 cm, and 2 cm length were selected. Results from four experiments were compared to those obtained for whole heads in which a homogenous range of 6 to 8 ml CO2 kg-1 h-1 in RR was found. Compared to whole heads, in fresh-cut lettuce the RR was 2-fold higher. The lowest cutting grade showed the highest respiration rate, and no significant differences in RR among lettuce pieces of intermediate and the highest grades were found. No ethylene production was detected in whole heads, while in minimally processed lettuce pieces only traces were found. For avoiding risks of anaerobic respiration and excessive CO2 levels within packages containing fresh-cut lettuce pieces lower than 0.5 cm length, films with relatively high O2 permeability like standard polypropylene or low-density polyethylene must be selected.;

  13. Systematic Study of the Content of Phytochemicals in Fresh and Fresh-Cut Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Alarcón-Flores

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables and fruits have beneficial properties for human health, because of the presence of phytochemicals, but their concentration can fluctuate throughout the year. A systematic study of the phytochemical content in tomato, eggplant, carrot, broccoli and grape (fresh and fresh-cut has been performed at different seasons, using liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. It was observed that phenolic acids (the predominant group in carrot, eggplant and tomato were found at higher concentrations in fresh carrot than in fresh-cut carrot. However, in the case of eggplant, they were detected at a higher content in fresh-cut than in fresh samples. Regarding tomato, the differences in the content of phenolic acids between fresh and fresh-cut were lower than in other matrices, except in winter sampling, where this family was detected at the highest concentration in fresh tomato. In grape, the flavonols content (predominant group was higher in fresh grape than in fresh-cut during all samplings. The content of glucosinolates was lower in fresh-cut broccoli than in fresh samples in winter and spring sampling, although this trend changes in summer and autumn. In summary, phytochemical concentration did show significant differences during one-year monitoring, and the families of phytochemicals presented different behaviors depending on the matrix studied.

  14. Fresh-keeping of mushroom by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chao; Xu Hongqing; Wang Hong; Cai Jian

    2003-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co γ irradiation on the preservation of Agaricus bisporus were studied. The results showed that after irradiation the mushroom had lower rates of membrane split, opening of pilei, browning, decomposition and lose of fresh weight. The fresh keeping period of mushroom irradiated with 1.2 kGy and stored at 4 degree C was prolonged to 30 days

  15. Fresh fruit: microstructure, texture and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-cut produce has a huge following in today’s supermarkets. The trend follows the need to decrease preparation time as well as the desire to follow the current health guidelines for consumption of more whole “heart-healthy” foods. Additionally, consumers are able to enjoy a variety of fresh prod...

  16. What determines fresh fish consumption in Croatia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Marina; Matulić, Daniel; Jelić, Margareta

    2016-11-01

    Although fresh fish is widely available, consumption still remains below the recommended intake levels among the majority of European consumers. The economic crisis affects consumer food behaviour, therefore fresh fish is perceived as healthy but expensive food product. The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing fresh fish consumption using an expanded Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) as a theoretical framework. The survey was conducted on a heterogeneous sample of 1151 Croatian fresh fish consumers. The study investigated the relationship between attitudes, perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, moral obligation, involvement in health, availability, intention and consumption of fresh fish. Structural Equation Modeling by Partial Least Squares was used to analyse the collected data. The results indicated that attitudes are the strongest positive predictor of the intention to consume fresh fish. Other significant predictors of the intention to consume fresh fish were perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, health involvement and moral obligation. The intention to consume fresh fish showed a strong positive correlation with behaviour. This survey provides valuable information for food marketing professionals and for the food industry in general. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Consumers' store choice behavior for fresh food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Consumers' preference for fresh food stores is analyzed. In particular the choice between supermarkets and specialized shops for purchasing fresh food is analyzed. Attention is given to the factors influencing this choice. For this purpose a number of research questions with respect to store choice

  18. Citrus fruits freshness assessment using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekvapil, Fran; Brezestean, Ioana; Barchewitz, Daniel; Glamuzina, Branko; Chiş, Vasile; Cintă Pinzaru, Simona

    2018-03-01

    The freshness of citrus fruits commonly available in the market was non-destructively assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Intact clementine, mandarin and tangerine species were characterised concerning their carotenoids skin Raman signalling in a time course from the moment they were acquired as fresh stock, supplying the market, to the physical degradation, when they were no longer attractive to consumers. The freshness was found to strongly correlate to the peel Raman signal collected from the same area of the intact fruits in a time course of a maximum of 20days. We have shown that the intensity of the carotenoid Raman signal is indeed a good indicator of fruit freshness and introduced a Raman coefficient of freshness (C Fresh ), whose time course is linearly decreasing, with different slope for different citrus groups. Additionally, we demonstrated that the freshness assessment could be achieved using a portable Raman instrument. The results could have a strong impact for consumer satisfaction and the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of Phytoestrogen Content in Fresh-Cut Legume Forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Hloucalová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine phytoestrogen content in fresh-cut legume forage. This issue has been much discussed in recent years in connection with the health and safety of feedstuffs and thus livestock health. The experiments were carried out on two experimental plots at Troubsko and Vatín, Czech Republic during June and July in 2015. Samples were collected of the four forage legume species perennial red clover (variety “Amos”, alfalfa (variety “Holyně”, and annuals Persian clover and Alexandrian clover. Forage was sampled twice at regular three to four day intervals leading up to harvest and a third time on the day of harvest. Fresh and wilted material was analyzed using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS. Higher levels ( p < 0.05 of isoflavones biochanin A (3.697 mg·g −1 of dry weight and formononetin (4.315 mg·g −1 of dry weight were found in red clover than in other species. The highest isoflavone content was detected in red clover, reaching 1.001% of dry matter ( p < 0.05, representing a risk for occurrence of reproduction problems and inhibited secretion of animal estrogen. The phytoestrogen content was particularly increased in wilted forage. Significant isoflavone reduction was observed over three to four day intervals leading up to harvest.

  20. Determination of amino acids and protein content in fresh and commercial royal jelly from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balkanska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly (RJ is popular among consumers around the world due to its perceived health benefits. The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of free and total amino acid profile as well as protein content in order to characterize Bulgarian RJ samples. A total of 17 fresh and commercial RJ samples from different regions of Bulgaria were analyzed. The results obtained show that proline (Pro, lysine (Lys, methionine (Met, aspartic acid (Asp, cysteine (Cys, histidine (His were major free amino acids (FAAs in RJ. The average content of Pro was 2.3 mg/g. The FAA content ranged from 5.5 to 6.2 mg/g of RJ. The most abundant total amino acids (TAAs were aspartic acid (Asp, glutamic acid (Glu, lysine (Lys, leucine (Leu, serine (Ser and proline (Pro. The average TAA content in fresh and commercial RJ were 129±10 and 114±8 mg/g, respectively. The results obtained for TAA content were used to establish a range for amino acid composition of Bulgarian RJ. The content of proteins was higher in fresh RJ than in commercial samples and this difference was significant (p<0.05. The following ranges were observed for fresh and commercial samples 14.7–17.3 and 12.5–14.9 mg/g, respectively. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i3.16

  1. Composition of flavonoids in fresh herbs and calculation of flavonoid intake by use of herbs in traditional Danish dishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, U.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2001-01-01

    , coriander, cress, dill, lemon balm, lovage, oregano, parsley, rosemary, sage, spearmint, tarragon, thyme, and watercress) were analysed by HPLC and mass spectrometry. Five major flavonoid aglycones were detected and quantified by HPLC after acid hydrolysis: apigenin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, luteolin......Many herbs are known as excellent sources of natural antioxidants, and consumption of fresh herbs in the diet may therefore contribute to the daily antioxidant intake. The present study was performed in order to quantify flavonoids in commonly eaten fresh herbs. Fifteen fresh herbs (basil, chives......, and quercetin. The highest levels of flavonoids were found in parsley (510-630 mg apigenin /100 g), lovage (170 mg quercetin/100g), mint (18-100 mg apigenin/ 100 g), and dill (48-110 mg quercetin/100 g). Mass spectrometric detection, using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI), was used to verify...

  2. Waste Reduction in Fresh Food Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Loikkanen, Lauri; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies a well-known phenomenon, information sharing in supply chains, in a new context, fresh foods, with a specific goal, supporting sustainable performance in the supply chain. Fresh foods are important for retail stores, representing around half of retail sales, but form a challengi...... and heterogeneous group of products to manage. The value of the paper lies in its pointing out detailed solutions to how in real-life supply chains data can be used efficiently to improve the performance of the supply chain.......The paper studies a well-known phenomenon, information sharing in supply chains, in a new context, fresh foods, with a specific goal, supporting sustainable performance in the supply chain. Fresh foods are important for retail stores, representing around half of retail sales, but form a challenging...

  3. Modelling global fresh surface water temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, L.P.H. van; Eikelboom, T.; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Temperature directly determines a range of water physical properties including vapour pressure, surface tension, density and viscosity, and the solubility of oxygen and other gases. Indirectly water temperature acts as a strong control on fresh water biogeochemistry, influencing sediment

  4. Biochemical Basis of Fresh Ham Color Development

    OpenAIRE

    Stufft, Kristen Marie

    2015-01-01

    Commercial hams display variation in color uniformity across the cut surface, especially the semimembranosus (SM) muscle. This variation in fresh ham color, or two-toning, persists through further processing and contributes to production of a less desirable end product. In an attempt to understand the underlying source of this color variation, we evaluated the differences in muscle fiber-type composition and glycolytic metabolism in the SM muscle of fresh hams differing in color uniformity. F...

  5. Potentials for export of fresh raspberries from Serbia to EU fresh markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present potentials of the most significant EU national markets for imports of fresh raspberries from Serbia. We carried out analysis of three markets with highest trade deficit of fresh raspberries expressed in quantities: Germany, Netherlands and Austria. The paper further analyses production and foreign trade trends in selected countries. According to results of this analysis, we identified monthly periods with highest potential for exports of fresh raspberries from Serbia to target markets. The paper also analyses wholesale prices of fresh raspberries and EU policy of direct support to raspberry producers.

  6. A Comparison between the Antioxidant Strength of the Fresh and Stale Allium sativum (Garlic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Taji

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruits and vegetables are considered as the source of antioxidant and the factor of destroying reactive oxygen species. The effect of this antioxidant might decrease in time. This study was aimed at examining and comparing the antioxidant effect and the level of phenolic and flavonoid compounds as well as allicin level, between fresh and three-month stale Allium sativum (garlic.Materials and Methods: In an experimental study, the ethanolic extract of bushes of fresh and three-month-old Allium sativum was prepared and their antioxidant activities were assessed in linoleic acid and β-carotene linoleate system. The amount of phenolic compounds was measured by Folin-Ciocalteumethod, based on gallic acid; the amount of flavonol and flavonoid compounds by aluminum chloride base on rutin base; and the amount of allicinby spectrophotometry method. SPSS-15 Software and t-statistic tests were used to analyze the mean difference between the results of two groups and p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The efficiency of fresh garlic (35.36 in inhibiting the oxidation was higher (p<0.05 comparing to three-month dated Allium sativum (10.2. Phenolic compounds of the fresh garlic (12.61mg/g were more than the three-month dated Allium sativum (2.89mg/g. The amount of allicin was respectively 15 µg/ml and 8 µg/ml in the fresh and three-month dated Allium sativum (p<0.05.Conclusion: The fresh garlic contains more useful substances and it is recommended to be used in its fresh estate.

  7. Development of a selective agar plate for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Jung-Su; Lee, Sun-Young

    2014-10-17

    This study was conducted to develop a selective medium for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Campylobacter spp. (n=4), non-Campylobacter (showing positive results on Campylobacter selective agar) strains (n=49) isolated from fresh produce, indicator bacteria (n=13), and spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce (n=15) were plated on four Campylobacter selective media. Bolton agar and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) exhibited higher sensitivity for Campylobacter spp. than did Preston agar and Hunt agar, although certain non-Campylobacter strains isolated from fresh produce by using a selective agar isolation method, were still able to grow on Bolton agar and mCCDA. To inhibit the growth of non-Campylobacter strains, Bolton agar and mCCDA were supplemented with 5 antibiotics (rifampicin, polymyxin B, sodium metabisulfite, sodium pyruvate, ferrous sulfate) and the growth of Campylobacter spp. (n=7) and non-Campylobacter strains (n=44) was evaluated. Although Bolton agar supplemented with rifampicin (BR agar) exhibited a higher selectivity for Campylobacter spp. than did mCCDA supplemented with antibiotics, certain non-Campylobacter strains were still able to grow on BR agar (18.8%). When BR agar with various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were tested with Campylobacter spp. (n=8) and non-Campylobacter (n=7), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was inhibitory against 3 of 7 non-Campylobacter strains. Finally, we validated the use of BR agar containing 50mg/L sulfamethoxazole (BRS agar) or 0.5mg/L ciprofloxacin (BRCS agar) and other selective agars for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and fresh produce. All chicken samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. when tested on mCCDA, BR agar, and BRS agar. In fresh produce samples, BRS agar exhibited the highest selectivity for Campylobacter spp., demonstrating its suitability for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Copyright

  8. Establishing the Global Fresh Water Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to measuring the major components of the water cycle from space using the concept of a sensor-web of satellites that are linked to a data assimilation system. This topic is of increasing importance, due to the need for fresh water to support the growing human population, coupled with climate variability and change. The net effect is that water is an increasingly valuable commodity. The distribution of fresh water is highly uneven over the Earth, with both strong latitudinal distributions due to the atmospheric general circulation, and even larger variability due to landforms and the interaction of land with global weather systems. The annual global fresh water budget is largely a balance between evaporation, atmospheric transport, precipitation and runoff. Although the available volume of fresh water on land is small, the short residence time of water in these fresh water reservoirs causes the flux of fresh water - through evaporation, atmospheric transport, precipitation and runoff - to be large. With a total atmospheric water store of approx. 13 x 10(exp 12)cu m, and an annual flux of approx. 460 x 10(exp 12)cu m/y, the mean atmospheric residence time of water is approx. 10 days. River residence times are similar, biological are approx. 1 week, soil moisture is approx. 2 months, and lakes and aquifers are highly variable, extending from weeks to years. The hypothesized potential for redistribution and acceleration of the global hydrological cycle is therefore of concern. This hypothesized speed-up - thought to be associated with global warming - adds to the pressure placed upon water resources by the burgeoning human population, the variability of weather and climate, and concerns about anthropogenic impacts on global fresh water availability.

  9. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of sun dried tomatoes in comparison with fresh tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the quality of sun dried tomatoes in comparison with fresh tomatoes. Fresh fully ripen tomatoes were washed and cut in thin slices with sterilized stainless steel knife and divided into two lots, one was taken as control and other was dipped in 3% potassium meta bisulfite solution for 5 minutes. The samples were spread over stainless steel trays covered with muslin cloth and kept in solar dehydrator for 5 days at 55 +- 2 deg. C. The physicochemical analyses were carried out in both dried and fresh (control) tomatoes. They were also analyzed microbiologically for bacterial and fugal count. Results showed that sun dried tomatoes are microbiologically safe. The values of moisture content and vitamin C of fresh and sun dried tomatoes statistically differ from each others at probability level of 5 %. The nutrient which is highly affected by sun drying is vitamin C. In fresh tomatoes it was 32.5 mg/100 g which is reduced to 24.6 mg/100 g after sun drying and further reduced to 15.86 mg/100 g during three months storage. The moisture content of the fresh tomatoes was 94.4% which decreased to 8.15% after drying, and then slowly increased to 9.95% in the three months storage. Statistically no major difference was found in the other nutrients during storage, which indicates that sun drying is nutritionally and microbiologically safe and can be used to preserve tomatoes and other fruits and vegetables for off season use. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna Mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coast of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiki; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G.; Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de

    2013-01-01

    In this study the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V was evaluated in samples of Perna perna mussels collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos) subjected to anthropogenic contamination, to compare these values with those of mussels from reference site of Cocanha Beach (in Caraguatatuba). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009. They were cleaned, ground, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 8 and 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 2876 Mussel Tissue were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The ranges of concentrations (dry basis) of the elements obtained in mussels collected for the four seasons of the year were: 173.80 to 358.99 mg kg -1 for Br; 45658 ± 1811 to 109166 ± 824 mg kg -1 for Cl; 7043 ± 856 to 12506 ± 675 mg kg -1 for K; 2774 ± 211 to 5691 ± 717 mg kg -1 for Mg; 7.01 ± 0.30 to 29.74 ± 3.32 mg kg -1 for Mn and 0.77 ± 0.02 to 3.43 ± 0.28 mg kg -1 for V. The seasonal and spatial variations of these element concentrations were in this study. (author)

  11. Preservation technologies for fresh meat - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G H; Xu, X L; Liu, Y

    2010-09-01

    Fresh meat is a highly perishable product due to its biological composition. Many interrelated factors influence the shelf life and freshness of meat such as holding temperature, atmospheric oxygen (O(2)), endogenous enzymes, moisture, light and most importantly, micro-organisms. With the increased demand for high quality, convenience, safety, fresh appearance and an extended shelf life in fresh meat products, alternative non-thermal preservation technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure, superchilling, natural biopreservatives and active packaging have been proposed and investigated. Whilst some of these technologies are efficient at inactivating the micro-organisms most commonly related to food-borne diseases, they are not effective against spores. To increase their efficacy against vegetative cells, a combination of several preservation technologies under the so-called hurdle concept has also been investigated. The objective of this review is to describe current methods and developing technologies for preserving fresh meat. The benefits of some new technologies and their industrial limitations is presented and discussed.

  12. Consumer's Fresh Produce Food Safety Practices: Outcomes of a Fresh Produce Safety Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Amanda R.; Pope, Paul E.; Thompson, Britta M.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that there are 76 million cases of foodborne disease annually. Foodborne disease is usually associated with beef, poultry, and seafood. However, there is an increasing number of foodborne disease cases related to fresh produce. Consumers may not associate fresh produce with foodborne disease…

  13. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices ( n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli . Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower ( p nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  14. Fresh water generators onboard a floating platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, P.K.; Verma, R.K.; Misra, B.M.; Sadhulkan, H.K.

    1997-01-01

    A dependable supply of fresh water is essential for any ocean going vessel. The operating and maintenance personnel on offshore platforms and marine structures also require a constant and regular supply of fresh water to meet their essential daily needs. A seawater thermal desalination unit onboard delivers good quality fresh water from seawater. The desalination units developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) suitable for ocean going vessels and offshore platforms have been discussed. Design considerations of such units with reference to floating platforms and corrosive environments have been presented. The feasibility of coupling a low temperature vacuum evaporation (LTVE) desalination plant suitable for an onboard floating platform to a PHWR nuclear power plant has also been discussed. (author). 1 ref., 3 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Inheritance of fresh-cut fruit quality attributes in Capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fresh-cut fruit and vegetable industry has expanded rapidly during the past decade, due to freshness, convenience and the high nutrition that fresh-cut produce offers to consumers. The current report evaluates the inheritance of postharvest attributes that contribute to pepper fresh-cut product...

  16. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1990-01-01

    In the ''hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO 2 ) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO 2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ''Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally

  17. Ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    The main purposes of the ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit are: the extension of shelf life of the commodity due to a direct physiological effect on the particular product; the extension of shelf life of the commodity due to a reduction in the development of moulds and rots which would normally render the product worthless; and the killing of insect pests of quarantine significance, to allow for normal marketing of fresh fruit without the risk of introducing insect pests to previously pest-free areas

  18. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1990-11-01

    In the ``hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ``Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally.

  19. Gamma ray-irradiation in fresh allo-joint transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    In the first of a series of experiments in rat designed to assess the efficacy of gamma ray irradiation in fresh allo-joint transplantation, it was found that the optimal gamma ray dosage was 4 Gy. At this dosage level, the irradiation rays suppressed the viability of marrow cells which had the highest antigenicity, with no injury to the bone or articular cartilage. In a second experiment, a fresh homologous knee joint was irradiated at 4 Gy and then transplanted while administering the donor's splenic cell suspension (for specific immunosuppression) and the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine (5 mg/kg) to the recipient rat. All the rats that received a pre-irradiated knee joint graft survived until sacrificed for evaluation without showing any sign of host rejection. In these rats, bone fusion had occurred between the host bone and the graft by the 8th postoperative week. Degeneration of the articular cartilage was similar between the rats that had received a pre-irradiated graft and those that had not. These findings indicated that 4 Gy gamma ray irradiation to a graft before transplantation provided an effective means of immunosuppression. (author)

  20. Thermodynamics of proton dissociations from aqueous glycine at temperatures from 278.15 to 393.15 K, molalities from 0 to 1.0 mol . kg-1, and at the pressure 0.35 MPa: Apparent molar heat capacities and apparent molar volumes of glycine, glycinium chloride, and sodium glycinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemer, S.P.; Niederhauser, T.L.; Merkley, E.D.; Price, J.L.; Sorenson, E.C.; McRae, B.R.; Patterson, B.A.; Origlia-Luster, M.L.; Woolley, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    We have measured the densities of aqueous solutions of glycine, glycine plus equimolal HCl, and glycine plus equimolal NaOH at temperatures 278.15 ≤ T/K ≤ 368.15, molalities 0.01 ≤ m/mol . kg -1 ≤ 1.0, and at p = 0.35 MPa, using a vibrating tube densimeter. We have also measured the heat capacities of these solutions at 278.15 ≤ T/K ≤ 393.15 and at the same m and p using a fixed-cell differential scanning calorimeter. We used the densities to calculate apparent molar volumes V φ and the heat capacities to calculate apparent molar heat capacities C p,φ for these solutions. We used our results and values of V φ (T, m) and C p,φ (T, m) for HCl(aq), NaOH(aq), NaCl(aq) from the literature to calculate parameters for Δ r C p,m (T, m) for the first and second proton dissociations from protonated aqueous cationic glycine. We then integrated this value of Δ r C p,m (T, m) in an iterative algorithm, using Young's Rule to account for the effects of speciation and chemical relaxation on the observed V φ and C p,φ of the solutions. This procedure yielded parameters for V φ (T, m) and C p,φ (T, m) for glycinium chloride {H 2 Gly + Cl - (aq)} and sodium glycinate {Na + Gly - (aq)} which successfully modeled our observed results. We have then calculated values of Δ r C p,m , Δ r H m , Δ r V m , and pQ a for the first and second proton dissociations from protonated aqueous glycine as functions of T and m

  1. On-site detection of packaged squid freshness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Noor Azizah; Heng, Lee Yook; Salam, Faridah; Hanifah, Sharina Abu

    2018-04-01

    The development of indicator label for detection of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) is described. Dye extract from edible plants containing anthocyanins was immobilized onto iota-carrageenan as polymer matrix. TVB-N detection worked based on pH increase as the basic deterioration volatile amines generated in the package headspace. Results showed that the indicator label has changed color from blue to green after 12 hours of storage at ambient conditions. The TVB-N value was 38.9648 mg /100 g which is exceeded of acceptability level for seafood products. The pH value of squid flesh has also increased during storage. The colour values of L * and a * negative increases while b* negative decrease with increasing storage time. The indicator label is potentially used as freshness indicator for squid at ambient conditions.

  2. The iron content and ferritin contribution in fresh, dried, and toasted nori, Pyropia yezoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Taro; Yamamoto, Ami; Toyohara, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    Iron is one of the essential trace elements for humans. In this study, the iron contents in fresh, dried, and toasted nori (Pyropia yezoensis) were analyzed. The mean iron content of fresh, dried, and toasted nori were 19.0, 22.6, and 26.2 mg/100 g (dry weight), respectively. These values were superior to other food of plant origin. Furthermore, most of the iron in nori was maintained during processing, such as washing, drying, and toasting. Then, the form of iron in fresh, dried, and toasted nori was analyzed. As a result, an iron storage protein ferritin contributed to iron storage in raw and dried nori, although the precise rate of its contribution is yet to be determined, while ferritin protein cage was degraded in the toasted nori. It is the first report that verified the ferritin contribution to iron storage in such edible macroalgae with commercial importance.

  3. α-tocopherol content and lipic oxidtation in fresh, cooked and scrambled eggs enriched with co-3 fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Cortinas Hernández, Lucía

    2001-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect ofdietary supplementation with α-tocopheryl acetate (a-TA) on α-tocopherol (α-Toc) content and lipid oxidation (TBA values)in fresh, cooked and scrambled eggs enriched with co-3 fatty acids. Four treatments were formulated from a basal diet containing4% linseed oil (L) or fish oil(F)with0 or 100 mg of a-TA/kg of feed. Dietary supplementation with 100 mg/kg a-TA significantly increased α-Toc content ofeggs. Fresh, cooked and scrambled eg...

  4. Comparison of the effects of fresh leaf and peel extracts of walnut (Juglans regia L. on blood glucose and β-cells of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Javidanpour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is some report about the hypoglycemic effect of Juglans rejia L. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats and hypoglycemic effect of its fruit peel administered intra peritoneally. Thirty male Wistar rats divided into five groups, to evaluate the hypoglycemic and pancreas β-cells regenerative effects of oral methanolic extracts of leaf and fruit peel of walnut. Rats were made diabetic by intravenous (IV injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin (STZ. Negative control group did not get STZ and any treatment. Positive control, leaf extract, peel extract and insulin groups were treated orally by extract solvent, 200 mg kg-1 leaf extract, 200 mg kg-1 peel extract and 5 IU kg-1 of subcutaneous neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH insulin, respectively. Four weeks later, blood was collected for biochemical analysis and pancreases were removed for β-cells counts in histological sections. Diabetes leads to increase of fast blood sugar (FBS and HbA1c, and decrease of β-cell number and insulin. FBS decreased only in leaf extract group. HbA1c decreased in leaf extract and insulin groups. The β-cells number increased in leaf and peel extract groups. Insulin increased moderately in all treatment groups. We showed the proliferative properties of leaves and peel of Juglans regia L. methanolic extract in STZ- induced diabetic rats, which was accompanied by hypoglycemic effect of leaf extract.

  5. Process control system for fresh concrete preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachvarov, N.; Pavlov, P.; Shukov, H.

    1983-01-01

    The paper discusses the principles, structure and organization of a modular microprocessor based control system, designed to be used in fresh concrete fabrication plants. The system is based on the measurement of the aggregate moisture by means of a neutron moisture meter. (author)

  6. Improving fresh groundwater supply - problems and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2001-01-01

    Many coastal regions in the world experience an intensive salt water intrusion in aquifers due to natural and anthropogenic causes. The salinisation of these groundwater systems can lead to a severe deterioration of the quality of existing fresh groundwater resources. In this paper, the

  7. Inhalational anaesthesia with low fresh gas flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hönemann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the inhalation of anaesthesia use of low fresh gas flow (0.35-1 L/min has some important advantages. There are three areas of benefit: pulmonary - anaesthesia with low fresh gas flow improves the dynamics of inhaled anaesthesia gas, increases mucociliary clearance, maintains body temperature and reduces water loss. Economic - reduction of anaesthesia gas consumption resulting in significant savings of > 75% and Ecological - reduction in nitrous oxide consumption, which is an important ozone-depleting and heat-trapping greenhouse gas that is emitted. Nevertheless, anaesthesia with high fresh gas flows of 2-6 L/min is still performed, a technique in which rebreathing is practically negligible. This special article describes the clinical use of conventional plenum vaporizers, connected to the fresh gas supply to easily perform low (1 L/min, minimal (0.5 L/min or metabolic flow anaesthesia (0.35 L/min with conventional Primus Draeger® anaesthesia machines in routine clinical practice.

  8. Simple air collectors for preheating fresh air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.; Wit, de M.H.; Ouden, den C.

    1984-01-01

    In dwellings with mechanical ventilation systems the fresh air can easily be preheated by means of simple solar air systems. These can be an integral part of the building facade or roof and the costs are expected to be low. By means of computer experiments a large number of systems were evaluated.

  9. The 'Fresh-Bunch' technique in FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Yang, K.M.; Yu, L.H.

    1991-01-01

    The 'Fresh Bunch' technique is being proposed as a method of increasing the gain and power of FEL amplifiers in which the length of the optical radiation pulse is shorter than the length of the electron bunch. In multi-stage FEL, electron beam energy spread is increased by the FEL interaction in the early stages. In the 'Fresh Bunch' technique, the low energy spread of the electron beam is recovered by shifting the radiation pulse to an undisturbed part of the electron bunch, thus improving the gain and trapping fraction in later stages. A test case for the application of the Fresh Bunch method is demonstrated by numerical simulation. In this particular example we examine a subharmonically seeded VUV Free-Electron Laser. We begin with the generation of harmonic radiation, which takes place over one part of the electron bunch. Then the radiation is shifted by means of a strong dispersive section to a fresh part of the bunch for exponential amplification and tapered wiggler amplification. By starting over with a new ensemble of electrons, the energy spread introduced by the bunching in the fundamental is removed, leading to an increased gain. Furthermore, it is possible to use a much stronger seed in the fundamental without incurring the penalty of a large energy spread later on. We note that more than a single application of the 'Fresh Bunch' method may be done in a single FEL multiplier-amplifier. Thus x-ray wavelengths may be reached by successive multiplication in a chain of FEL amplifiers starting from a tunable seed laser. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Effect of different seawater Mg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mewes, A.; Langer, G.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Bijma, J.; Reichart, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium, incorporated in foraminiferal calcite (Mg/CaCC), is used intensively to reconstruct past seawater temperatures but, in addition to temperature, the Mg/CaCC of foraminiferal tests also depends on the ratio of Mg and Ca in seawater (Mg/CaSW). The physiological mechanisms responsible for

  11. Lipid oxidation in fresh and stored eggs enriched with dietary w 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were planned to study the influence of dietary fat sources (fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil (SO)) and dietary doses of -tocopheryl acetate (-TA) (0, 60 and 120 mg/kg of feed) and vitamin A (0 IU, 10000 IU and 20000 IU) on lipid oxidation of stored eggs in three stages of 0 or fresh, 1 and 2 months of storage time.

  12. Biotechnological Approach To Preserve Fresh Pasta Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolillo, L; Conte, A; Del Nobile, M A

    2017-12-01

    Fresh pasta is highly susceptible to microbial contamination because of its high water activity and nutrient content. In this study, a new biopreservation system was examined that consists of an active sodium alginate solution containing Lactobacillus reuteri and glycerol, which was added during the production process of pasta. Our aim was to extend the fresh pasta shelf life by the in situ production of reuterin, thereby avoiding the use of thermal treatments that generally compromise food sensory characteristics. Two experimental studies were carried out with the product packaged under either ordinary or modified atmospheric conditions. Microbiological and sensory quality indices were monitored to determine the effectiveness of biopreservation on product quality during storage. The use of the active solution with L. reuteri and glycerol during the production process of pasta improved both microbial and sensory quality, particularly when combined with modified atmosphere.

  13. New ways of keeping fish fresh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    Take a fillet of cod and expose it to a controlled quantity of nuclear radiation. What happens? Its appearance is unchanged, but the fish - kept in a cool store - will still be edible and practically indistinguishable from fresh fish days, sometimes weeks, after ordinarily treated fish has had to be thrown away. Advantages seem from this addition to preservation methods are reported following experimental trials on cod, lobsters and shrimps. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the sedimentation rate in a sediment profile of Bortolan Dam, MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Heleine C. de; Soares, Flávio V.T.S.; Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Mazzilli, Barbara P.

    2017-01-01

    Volcanic extrusion is one of the main causes for the high levels of environmental radioactivity in the region of Poços de Caldas (MG, Brazil). Uranium mining during the 80's further increased the background radiation in the region, especially in the Ribeirao das Antas watershed, where Bortolan Dam is located. Besides the uranium mining facility operating in the region, other activities, such as agriculture, were also responsible for the enhancement of the levels of radioactivity. The dam sediment profile provides an appropriate compartment for the study of the temporal variation of these radionuclides and for the evaluation of anthropogenic contamination. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the sedimentation rate and the dating of a profile collected in Bortolan Dam, by using the geochronology method. The activity concentration of "2"2"6Ra and "2"1"0Pb were measured in the sediment profile by gamma spectrometry. The concentration of "2"2"6Ra and "2"1"0Pb varied from (217 ± 9) Bq kg"-"1 to (286 ± 12) Bq kg"-"1 and from (262 ± 11) Bq kg"-"1 to (322 ± 34) Bq·kg"-"1 respectively; and the sedimentation rates varied from 0.021 to 0.144 g cm"-"2y"-"1. (author)

  15. Preservation of fresh noodles by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jianming

    1998-01-01

    At the present paper, it is studied to preserve fresh noodles by irradiation. The noodles which were irradiated by 10 kGy of 60 Co-γ rays and stored at room temperature (18-24 deg. C). The appearance of the noodles was observed, the bacteria in the noodles were examined, and the acidity of the noodles was measured during 10 days after irradiation. The results showed that the number of bacteria and the extent of acidification of the noodles were in inverse proportion to radiation dose. When the absorbed dose was less than 8 kGy, the residual bacteria in the noodles could proliferate massively in several days and acidified the noodles. The pH of these noodles decreased from 6.2 to 5.0 or less and the noodles turned into sticky during storage. When the absorbed dose reached 8-10 kGy, most of bacteria were killed and the acidity of the noodles kept about pH 6.0. The appearance of the noodles looks fresh within 10 days after irradiation. They smelled as good as fresh ones

  16. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Hernández-Anguiano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162 made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  17. Pasteurization and radiation of fresh milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjarief, Sri Hariani

    1976-01-01

    In this investigation, treatments with pasteurization and irradiation with gamma rays on fresh milk were used. Pasteurization was done at temperatures of 62 deg C and 70 deg C. The irradiation doses used were 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 krad. The results of the investigation showed that the number of bacteria decreased after either pasteurization or irradiation. The higher the dose of irradiation the lower the total bacterial counts in milk became, but the latter increased during storage at 10 deg C. The number of bacteria in pasteurized milk did not show any significant difference from milk irradiated with the dose of 300-600 krad after 15 days of storage in the refrigerator. No enzymatic activity was detected in pasteurized milk, but after storage the coli bacteria acivity tested to become positive in the MPN test. On the countrary irradiation of fresh milk could stimulate the enzymatic activity, although the protein content was constant. Finally, heating as a pretreatment is better to be used before pasteurizing or sterilizing milk with ionizing radiation in order to preserve fresh milk for a longer period without any changes in the nutritional quality and taste. (author)

  18. Preservation of fresh avocados by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmelic, J.

    1985-01-01

    Avocado is the fifth most important fruit in Chile, which exports fruits to Europe. The production of avocado has increased from 14,000 metric tons in 1978 to a projected 70,000 metric tons in 1985. The main problem of shipping fresh Chilean avocado to Europe has been its short shelf life, being around 24 days with a maximum of 30 days. To market fresh Chilean avocados in Europe, adequate keeping quality must be assured for 40 or more days. A project on the preservation of fresh Chilean avocados supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) takes the approach of combining mild heat and low-dose gamma-radiation. Two varieties of avocados were studied (Hass and Fuerte) and two batches of each were treated: one at the beginning and the other at the end of the picking season. In each case a combination of heat treatment (46 0 C for 10 minutes) and irradiation was applied. Fruits were individually wrapped with flexible PVC and placed in cardboard boxes containing 20 each. Fruits treated with 25,50, and 100 Gy were compared with two controls: one with and another without individual wrapping

  19. Factors influencing Consumer Preference for Fresh Beef in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    selected and interviewed to identify factors that affect preference for fresh beef and to determine the nature of the ... preference are appreciated by the food ... composition and household income .... habit and flavor, made them to prefer fresh.

  20. Fresh Kills leachate treatment and minimization study. Volume 1, Characteristics and treatment alternatives: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillos, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    1993-09-01

    The New York City Department of Sanitation is developing a comprehensive landfill leachate management plan for the Fresh Kills Landfill. The leachate was first analyzed for conventional and priority pollutants. The leachate was well buffered at pH 7 to 8 with an alkalinity of 5,000 to 6,000 mg/L. The BOD was low, usually less than 100 mg/L, but the COD was as high as 1,800 mg/L. Ammonia concentrations were around 700 mg/L and the color resembled strong tea at 3,000 colorimetric units. Only few of the priority pollutants were present, and at extremely low concentrations. Based on the chemical characteristics of the leachate, the primary environmental impact would be on the oxygen balance of the receiving surface waters.

  1. Bundle Pricing Decisions for Fresh Products with Quality Deterioration

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Yan; Jiang, Yiping; Han, Xingxing

    2018-01-01

    How to sell fresh products quickly to decrease the storage cost and to meet customer quality requirement is of vital importance in the food supply chain. Bundling fresh products is an efficient strategy to promote sales and reduce storage pressure of retailers. In this paper, we consider the bundle pricing decisions for homogeneous fresh products with quality deterioration. The value of fresh products with quality deterioration is approximated as an exponential function based on which custome...

  2. 77 FR 26579 - Fresh Garlic From China; Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-683 (Third Review)] Fresh Garlic From... Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic... contained in USITC Publication 4316 (April 2012), entitled Fresh Garlic from China: Investigation No. 731-TA...

  3. Microbial and preservative safety of fresh and processed fruit salads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The producers and traders of fresh fruit and the processers should implement quality management practices and safety standards in farming, fresh fruit, processing and storage. This is to ensure safety, enhance consumption of fruits and fruit products for health of consumers and eliminate wastage. Key words: Fresh fruit, ...

  4. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will allow interested persons... importation of fruits and vegetables to allow the importation of fresh apricots from continental Spain into...

  5. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of fresh leaf castor beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rukevwe S. Abraka

    2016-12-07

    Dec 7, 2016 ... In this study, the allelopathic effect of aqueous extract from fresh leaves of castor .... triturated with electric blender and sieved for the extract preparation. .... (A), Leaf fresh mass; (B), root fresh mass; (C), stem diameter; (D), aerial part length. .... Naphthoquinones as allelochemical triggers of programmed cell.

  6. Dose of rocuronium for rapid tracheal intubation following remifentanil 2 μg kg-1 and propofol 2 mg kg-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ah-Young; Cho, Suk-Ju; Seo, Kwang-Suk; Ryu, Jung-Hee; Han, Sung-Hee; Hwang, Jung-Won

    2013-09-01

    Full relaxation is not mandatory for successful tracheal intubation. We tried to find the dose of rocuronium that gave acceptable intubation conditions in a rapid sequence intubation with remifentanil and propofol. A dose-finding study of rocuronium using a modified Dixon's up-and-down method. A single tertiary care teaching hospital. Patients undergoing elective surgery under general anaesthesia. After premedication with midazolam and glycopyrrolate, anaesthesia was induced using remifentanil 2 μg kg and propofol 2 mg kg, and a predetermined dose of rocuronium was administered. The dose of rocuronium was determined by a modified Dixon's up-and-down method starting from 0.8 mg kg with an interval of 0.1 or 0.05 mg kg. Intubation was performed 60 s after the start of the rocuronium injection. Intubation conditions were graded as excellent, good or poor. Excellent or good were regarded as clinically acceptable. A dose of rocuronium needed for acceptable intubation condition in 50% of patients (ED50) during rapid tracheal intubation after induction of anaesthesia with remifentanil and propofol. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled to obtain six crossovers. The ED50 of rocuronium was 0.20 mg kg (95% confidence interval, CI 0.17 to 0.23 mg kg) by a modified Dixon's up-and-down method. After induction of anaesthesia with remifentanil 2 μg kg and propofol 2 mg kg, the ED50 of rocuronium for acceptable intubation condition was 0.20 mg kg (95% CI, 0.17 to 0.23 mg kg) for rapid sequence intubation. Thus, we recommend that the intubation dose should be 0.8 mg kg. Clinical trial registration KCT0000094.

  7. What is a Fresh Scent in Perfumery? Perceptual Freshness is Correlated with Substantivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Zarzo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Perfumes are manufactured by mixing odorous materials with different volatilities. The parameter that measures the lasting property of a material when applied on the skin is called substantivity or tenacity. It is well known by perfumers that citrus and green notes are perceived as fresh and they tend to evaporate quickly, while odors most dissimilar to ‘fresh’ (e.g., oriental, powdery, erogenic and animalic scents are tenacious. However, studies aimed at quantifying the relationship between fresh odor quality and substantivity have not received much attention. In this work, perceptual olfactory ratings on a fresh scale, estimated in a previous study, were compared with substantivity parameters and antierogenic ratings from the literature. It was found that the correlation between fresh odor character and odorant substantivity is quite strong (r = −0.85. ‘Fresh’ is sometimes interpreted in perfumery as ‘cool’ and the opposite of ‘warm’. This association suggests that odor freshness might be somehow related to temperature. Assuming that odor perception space was shaped throughout evolution in temperate climates, results reported here are consistent with the hypothesis that ‘fresh’ evokes scents typically encountered in the cool season, while ‘warm’ would be evoked by odors found in nature during summer. This hypothesis is rather simplistic but it may provide a new insight to better understand the perceptual space of scents.

  8. Freeze-all policy: fresh vs. frozen-thawed embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Matheus; Valle, Marcello; Guimarães, Fernando; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2015-05-01

    To compare in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes between fresh embryo transfer (ET) and frozen-thawed ET (the "freeze-all" policy), with fresh ET performed only in cases without progesterone (P) elevation. Prospective, observational, cohort study. Private IVF center. A total of 530 patients submitted to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-antagonist protocol, and cleavage-stage, day-3 ET. None. Ongoing pregnancy rates. A total of 530 cycles were included in the analysis: 351 in the fresh ET group (when P levels were ≤1.5 ng/mL on the trigger day); and 179 cycles in the freeze-all group (ET performed after endometrial priming with estradiol valerate, at 6 mg/d, taken orally). For the fresh ET group vs. the freeze-all group, respectively, the implantation rate was 19.9% and 26.5%; clinical pregnancy rate was 35.9% and 46.4%; and ongoing pregnancy rate was 31.1% and 39.7%. The IVF outcomes were significantly better in the group using the freeze-all policy, compared with the group using fresh ET. These results suggest that even in a select group of patients that underwent fresh ET (P levels ≤1.5 ng/mL), endometrial receptivity may have been impaired by COS, and outcomes may be improved by using the freeze-all policy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fresh Slice Self-Seeding and Fresh Slice Harmonic Lasing at LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, J.W. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2018-04-01

    We present results from the successful demonstration of fresh slice self-seeding at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS).* The performance is compared with SASE and regular self-seeding at photon energy of 5.5 keV, resulting in a relative average brightness increase of a factor of 12 and a factor of 2 respectively. Following this proof-of-principle we discuss the forthcoming plans to use the same technique** for fresh slice harmonic lasing in an upcoming experiment. The demonstration of fresh slice harmonic lasing provides an attractive solution for future XFELs aiming to achieve high efficiency, high brightness X-ray pulses at high photon energies (>12 keV).***

  10. Controlling Vibrio vulnificus and spoilage bacteria in fresh shucked oysters using natural antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, B S M

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of grape seed extract (GE), citric acid (CA) and lactic acid (LA) on the inactivation of Vibrio vulnificus and inherent microflora in fresh shucked oysters. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of GE, CA or LA against V. vulnificus was determined. Furthermore, the shucked oysters were artificially inoculated with V. vulnificus. The inoculated shucked oysters (25 g) were then dipped in 250 ml GE, CA or LA solutions for 10 min. The population of V. vulnificus in shucked oysters was determined. The effects of the treatments with GE, CA or LA solutions on the inherent microbiota in fresh shucked oysters during storage at 5°C for 20 days were also studied. The MICs of GE, CA or LA against V. vulnificus were 10.0, 5.0 or 1.0 mg ml(-1), respectively. The concentrations of 500, 300 or 150 mg ml(-1) GE, CA or LA solutions were needed to reduce the population of V. vulnificus to below the detection level (1.0 log g(-1)). Treatment with 500, 300, 150 mg ml(-1) GE, CA or LA significantly reduced the initial inherent microbiota in fresh shucked oysters, and inherent levels were significantly (P Oysters filter large volume of seawater during their feeding activities that concentrate bacteria such as Vibrio vulnificus in their body. The presence of V. vulnificus in oysters has a serious impact on public health and international trade. There is increasing concern over the use of chemical preservatives. Furthermore, the food industry is looking for new natural preservation methods. This study indicated that lactic acid and citric acid wash solutions could offer an inexpensive, natural and strong approach to control V. vulnificus and spoilage bacteria in fresh shucked for the oyster industry. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Quasicrystal-reinforced Mg alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyun Kim, Young; Tae Kim, Won; Hyang Kim, Do

    2014-04-01

    The formation of the icosahedral phase (I-phase) as a secondary solidification phase in Mg-Zn-Y and Mg-Zn-Al base systems provides useful advantages in designing high performance wrought magnesium alloys. The strengthening in two-phase composites (I-phase + α -Mg) can be explained by dispersion hardening due to the presence of I-phase particles and by the strong bonding property at the I-phase/matrix interface. The presence of an additional secondary solidification phase can further enhance formability and mechanical properties. In Mg-Zn-Y alloys, the co-presence of I and Ca 2 Mg 6 Zn 3 phases by addition of Ca can significantly enhance formability, while in Mg-Zn-Al alloys, the co-presence of the I-phase and Mg 2 Sn phase leads to the enhancement of mechanical properties. Dynamic and static recrystallization are significantly accelerated by addition of Ca in Mg-Zn-Y alloy, resulting in much smaller grain size and more random texture. The high strength of Mg-Zn-Al-Sn alloys is attributed to the presence of finely distributed Mg 2 Sn and I-phase particles embedded in the α -Mg matrix.

  12. To transfer fresh or thawed embryos?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide freezing and thawing of embryos has been increasingly used since the first infant was born as a result of this technique in 1984. The use of frozen embryo replacement (FER) currently even exceeds the number of fresh cycles performed in some countries. This article discusses the pros...... and multiple pregnancies, thereby increasing the safety for mother and child. Finally the article describes the accumulating literature on perinatal and long-term child outcome after transfer of frozen/thawed embryos, including a discussion on the concerns regarding cryo techniques and their possible roles...

  13. Disposal of radioactive wastes into fresh water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-03-01

    The fate of radionuclides introduced into fresh water will be influenced not only by the volume of the water available for dilution, but also by a number of other physical, chemical and biological factors like replacement of the water mass, turbulence and location of the currents, chemical composition of effluent and receiving water, suspended materials, thermal characteristics and density differences, precipitation and sedimentation, ion-exchange and adsorption, incorporation by living organisms, and special features characteristics of the type of water body involved, i.e. whether stream, lake, estuary or sub-surface. 50 refs, 8 figs, 24 tabs.

  14. This is “Fresh Cream”

    OpenAIRE

    Troncy, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Fresh Cream, which is conceived as “an exhibition in a book”, and presented as playing “the role of a contemporary art Biennale”, is a sequel to Cream, which was also published by Phaidon in 1998. Based on the same principle, the book brings together 100 artists chosen by nobody in particular, but more exactly by 10 curators in general. The whole, per force, produces an impersonal result, and makes it possible, once again, to confirm the old adage that “a dromedary is a horse designed by a te...

  15. Quality of fresh-cut strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Franciscleudo B; Duarte,Priscila S; Puschmann,Rolf; Finger,Fernando L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the physical, chemical, physiological and microbiological changes during the flow chart of fresh-cut strawberry. Strawberry cvs. Camarosa, Dover and Tudla, derived from experimental area of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, were selected by color (red ¾) and absence of wound. Afterwards, the minimal processing was evaluated, as follows: fast cooling, water and ice, removal of the calyx followed by conservation at 5±0.5°C and 90-95% RH for 13 days, sanitatio...

  16. Methods to evaluate fish freshness in research and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, G.; Martinsdóttir, E.; Oehlenschläger, J.

    1997-01-01

    Current work in a European concerted action project 'Evaluation of Fish Freshness' (AIR3 CT94-2283) focuses on harmonizing research activities in the area of fish freshness evaluation in leading fish laboratories in Europe (see Box 1). The overall aim of the concerted action project is to validat...... measurements with respect to fish freshness evaluation. In this article, the different subgroups have summarized changes that occur in fish and methods to evaluate fish freshness as a first step towards the definition of criteria for fish freshness...

  17. A Comparative Study of Natural Antimicrobial Delivery Systems for Microbial Safety and Quality of Fresh-Cut Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Laura E; Oliveira, Daniela A; Hills, Katherine; Giacobassi, Cassie; Johnson, Jecori; Summerlin, Harvey; Taylor, T Matthew; Gomes, Carmen L

    2017-05-01

    Nanoencapsulation can provide a means to effectively deliver antimicrobial compounds and enhance the safety of fresh produce. However, to date there are no studies which directly compares how different nanoencapsulation systems affect fresh produce safety and quality. This study compared the effects on quality and safety of fresh-cut lettuce treated with free and nanoencapsulated natural antimicrobial, cinnamon bark extract (CBE). A challenge study compared antimicrobial efficacy of 3 different nanoencapsulated CBE systems. The most effective antimicrobial treatment against Listeria monocytogenes was chitosan-co-poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (chitosan-PNIPAAM) encapsulated CBE, with a reduction on bacterial load up to 2 log 10 CFU/g (P lettuce was stored at 5 °C and 10 °C for 15 d. Subsequently, chitosan-PNIPAAM-CBE nanoparticles (20, 40, and 80 mg/mL) were compared to a control and free CBE (400, 800, and 1600 μg/mL) for its effects on fresh-cut lettuce quality over 15 d at 5 °C. By the 10th day, the most effective antimicrobial concentration was 80 mg/mL for chitosan-PNIPAAM-CBE, up to 2 log 10 CFU/g reduction (P lettuce shelf-life. Overall, nanoencapsulation provided a method to effectively deliver essential oil and enhanced produce safety, while creating little to no detrimental quality changes on the fresh-cut lettuce. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Antimicrobial activity, phyto chemical profile and trace minerals of black mulberry (morus nigra l.) fresh juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.; Fawad, S.A.; Ahmed, I.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the fresh juice of black mulberry (Morus nigra) was tested for antimicrobial activity against various pathogenic microorganisms. Total antioxidant contents, total phenolic contents, total anthocyanins, trace minerals, total acid contents, total solids and ascorbic acid content were also evaluated. The results showed good antimicrobial activity both for Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with highest zones of inhibition for Bacillus spizizenii (19.68 mm, Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.87 mm, Gram-negative). The black mulberry juice was rich in ascorbic acid (23.45 mg/100 g), had low overall acid content (1.60 %) and had 19% total soluble solids. The average total anthocyanins and total phenolic contents of black mulberry juice were 769 mu g/g of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent (Cy 3-gly) per gram and 2050 mu g of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per gram of fresh juice. The average antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalent, TE) of fresh juice was 14.00 mu mol/g according to a FRAP assay and 20.10 mu mol/g according to a DPPH assay. The fresh juice was also rich in a variety of trace minerals. (author)

  19. A fresh look at space solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankins, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of systems to provide solar power from space for terrestrial use defined very large, geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellite concepts that--given massive initial government investments and extremely low cost space launch--might have led to power production at costs only somewhat higher than expected commercial prices. These studies of space solar power (SSP) succeeded in establishing technical feasibility. Shortly after the completion of the 1970s study, however, US funding came to an abrupt and seemingly permanent halt--in part because projected costs for the reference system were staggering: well in excess of $100B to achieve the first commercial kilowatt-hour of power. SSP has seen sporadic study and limited experimentation during the past decade (e.g., in Japan). Still, no existing SSP concept has engendered private development. New technologies now make possible concepts and approaches that suggest that SSP economic feasibility may be achievable early in the next century. In 1995, NASA's Advanced Concepts Office initiated a study taking a fresh look at innovative concepts for SSP that differ markedly from previously examined concepts, addressing innovative system architectures, markets and technologies that could radically reduce initial and operational costs. This paper will explore the issues associated with SSP and will summarize the results to date of NASA's recent fresh look at this important and increasingly timely field of space applications

  20. Comparative biomechanical study between fresh frozen bone and fresh frozen pasteurized bone process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdiansyah Abdurrahman

    1999-01-01

    To observe the biomechanical properties difference between fresh frozen bone and fresh frozen pasteurized bone process Thirty eight femurs bones taken from 6 years old primate.(macaca fascicularis) from Primate Nursery Center LIPI Bogor, 20 bones were 6 cm cut for bending test and 18 remains were 3 cm cut for compression test. All bones were frozen and then divided into two groups for each biomechanical study. First group (I 0 bones for bending test and 9 bones for compression test) were undergone fresh frozen procession only. The second group with the same amount was undergone fresh frozen and pasteurized on 60 degree C for three hours. Bending test was done until the bones were broken on control group and pasteurized group and the result was compared, the same procedure was done for compression test. The study was done in room temperature. The biomechanical test result was analyzed by two independent T tests. The bending test control group has ( mean 0.097 N / mm sup 2 (SD = 0.007) and the pasteurized group ( mean 0. I 0 1 N / mm sup 2 (SD = 0.0 1 3), there was no significant difference (p 0.399). The compression test control group has ( = mean 0.71 N / mm sup 2 (SD=0.128)where as the pasteurized group has(mean 0.50N/mm sup 2 (SD=0.111),there was significant difference (p =0.004) From the result biomechanical study on bending test, there was no significant difference of bone strength, whereas on compression test the fresh frozen with pasteurized bone group is 125% stronger than control group. The result of this study will be very useful for reconstruction bone allograft

  1. Effect-directed analysis of fresh and dried elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) via hyphenated planar chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, S; Mirgos, M; Morlock, G E

    2015-12-24

    A healthy diet is an important factor in a healthy lifestyle that is becoming increasingly important in today's society. The fruits of European elder (Sambucus nigra L.) are a rich source of bioactive compounds like anthocyanins. In this study, dried and fresh fruits of four cultivated and six wild growing plants were investigated for their anthocyanin pattern and content as well as their bioactive compounds. After separation on HPTLC plates silica gel 60 F254 with a mixture of ethyl acetate, 2-butanone, formic acid and water, the plates were quantitatively evaluated by densitometry and also subjected to various (bio)assays to investigate the samples for compounds acting as radical-scavengers, antimicrobials, estrogens, and acetylcholinesterase or tyrosinase inhibitors. The mean contents for the two most abundant anthocyanins in European elderberries, confirmed by HPTLC-ESI-MS, ranged from 159 to 647mg/100g in fresh and from 166 to 2764mg/100g in dried fruits for cyanidin-3-sambubioside, and from 112 to 521mg/100g in fresh and 95 to 226mg/100g in dried fruits for cyanidin-3-glucoside. Additionally, the anthocyanin content was higher in berries of cultivars than of wild growing plants. The anthocyanins' radical scavenging activity and antimicrobial effect against Aliivibrio fischeri were confirmed. Further, a radical scavenging compound affecting A. fischeri and acting as acetylcholinesterase inhibitor was tentatively assigned by its protonated molecule at m/z 456 as either ursolic or oleanolic acid by HPTLC-ESI-MS. HPTLC hyphenated with bioassays and mass spectrometry was selected as method of choice for fingerprinting, pattern recognition, and bioprofiling of elderberry samples as well as quantitation and confirmation of bioactive compounds therein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High-efficient extraction of principal medicinal components from fresh Phellodendron bark (cortex phellodendri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keqin Xu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There are three key medicinal components (phellodendrine, berberine and palmatine in the extracts of Phellodendron bark, as one of the fundamental herbs of traditional Chinese medicine. Different extraction methods and solvent combinations were investigated to obtain the optimal technologies for high-efficient extraction of these medicinal components. Results: The results showed that combined solvents have higher extracting effect of phellodendrine, berberine and palmatine than single solvent, and the effect of ultrasonic extraction is distinctly better than those of distillation and soxhlet extraction. Conclusion: The hydrochloric acid/methanol-ultrasonic extraction has the best effect for three medicinal components of fresh Phellodendron bark, providing an extraction yield of 103.12 mg/g berberine, 24.41 mg/g phellodendrine, 1.25 mg/g palmatine. Keywords: Phellodendron, Cortex phellodendri, Extraction methods, Medicinal components

  3. High-efficient extraction of principal medicinal components from fresh Phellodendron bark (cortex phellodendri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Keqin; He, Gongxiu; Qin, Jieming; Cheng, Xuexiang; He, Hanjie; Zhang, Dangquan; Peng, Wanxi

    2018-05-01

    There are three key medicinal components (phellodendrine, berberine and palmatine) in the extracts of Phellodendron bark, as one of the fundamental herbs of traditional Chinese medicine. Different extraction methods and solvent combinations were investigated to obtain the optimal technologies for high-efficient extraction of these medicinal components. The results showed that combined solvents have higher extracting effect of phellodendrine, berberine and palmatine than single solvent, and the effect of ultrasonic extraction is distinctly better than those of distillation and soxhlet extraction. The hydrochloric acid/methanol-ultrasonic extraction has the best effect for three medicinal components of fresh Phellodendron bark, providing an extraction yield of 103.12 mg/g berberine, 24.41 mg/g phellodendrine, 1.25 mg/g palmatine.

  4. Distribution of water in fresh cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Rinnan, A.

    2002-01-01

    Low-field (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation was used to measure water mobility and distribution of water in fresh cod fillets. The NMR relaxations were analysed with the so-called SLICING method giving uni-exponential profiles from which the transverse relaxation time (T(2......)-values) and the relative sizes of the water populations were calculated. Two water populations with the T(2)-values of 50 and 94 ms were obtained. The shortest relaxation time was primarily found near the head, and water with the longest relaxation time was primarily found near the tail. This variation...... can he explained by the smaller muscle cells and muscle fibers in the tail, which may influence the distributions of water into the different pools. The amount of one of the water populations was correlated to the overall water content with a correlation coefficient of -0.94. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science...

  5. Fresh perspectives for a better world

    CERN Multimedia

    Danielle Amy Venton

    While it’s no surprise that technology has the ability to change the world, it sometimes changes it in surprising ways. The Citizen Cyberscience Centre project is promoting change for humanitarian causes through distributed volunteer initiatives, such as volunteer computing and ‘volunteer thinking’. The inaugural lecture of a planned series was held at CERN in late October. The United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), the University of Geneva (UNIGE), and CERN have recently set up a new partnership and launched a lecture series, which will invite experts in the humanities and technologies to share fresh perspectives on ways to work for a better world. The inaugural lecture at CERN was given by two speakers, Mo Ibrahim and Alpheus Bingham, each of them behind initiatives using technology to address difficult problems. Mo Ibrahim founded Celtel International, one of Africa’s most successful mobile network operators. Ibrahim’s company has ...

  6. Archaeal community dynamics and abiotic characteristics in a mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion process treating fruit and vegetable processing waste sludge with chopped fresh artichoke waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, M; Franke-Whittle, I H; Morales, A B; Insam, H; Ayuso, M; Pascual, J A

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of obtaining methane in anaerobic digestion (AD) from the waste products generated by the processing of fruit and vegetables. During the first phase (0-55 d) of the AD using sludge from fruit and vegetable processing, an average value of 244±88 L kg(-1) dry matter d(-1)of biogas production was obtained, and methane content reached 65% of the biogas. Co-digestion with chopped fresh artichoke wastes in a second phase (55-71 d) enhanced biogas production, and resulted in an average value of 354±68 L kg(-1) dry matter d(-1), with higher methane content (more than 70%). The archaeal community involved in methane production was studied using the ANAEROCHIP microarray and real-time PCR. Results indicated that species of Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina were important during the AD process. Methanosarcina numbers increased after the addition of chopped fresh artichoke, while Methanosaeta numbers decreased. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electron beam processing of fresh produce - A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Suresh D.; Shayanfar, Shima

    2018-02-01

    To meet the increasing global demand for fresh produce, robust processing methods that ensures both the safety and quality of fresh produce are needed. Since fresh produce cannot withstand thermal processing conditions, most of common safety interventions used in other foods are ineffective. Electron beam (eBeam) is a non-thermal technology that can be used to extend the shelf life and ensure the microbiological safety of fresh produce. There have been studies documenting the application of eBeam to ensure both safety and quality in fresh produce, however, there are still unexplored areas that still need further research. This is a critical review on the current literature on the application of eBeam technology for fresh produce.

  8. Evaluation of Fresh Food Internet Shopping in Korean Beef

    OpenAIRE

    金, 鍾和; 森高, 正博; 福田, 晋; Kim, Jong-hwa; Moritaka, Masahiro; Fukuda, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on consumer reactions to the fresh food internet shopping on Korea beef. In the paper, we have analyzed an effective relation in consumer's perceived qualities, the evaluation of commodities and the evaluation of fresh food internet shopping. As a result, two effective relations were found. Firstly, consumer's perceived qualities affect the evaluation of commodities. Secondly, the evaluation of commodities affects t-he evaluation of fresh food internet shopping. This result...

  9. The comparative osmoregulatory ability of two water beetle genera whose species span the fresh-hypersaline gradient in inland waters (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Pallarés

    Full Text Available A better knowledge of the physiological basis of salinity tolerance is essential to understanding the ecology and evolutionary history of organisms that have colonized inland saline waters. Coleoptera are amongst the most diverse macroinvertebrates in inland waters, including saline habitats; however, the osmoregulatory strategies they employ to deal with osmotic stress remain unexplored. Survival and haemolymph osmotic concentration at different salinities were examined in adults of eight aquatic beetle species which inhabit different parts of the fresh-hypersaline gradient. Studied species belong to two unrelated genera which have invaded saline waters independently from freshwater ancestors; Nebrioporus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus (Hydrophilidae. Their osmoregulatory strategy (osmoconformity or osmoregulation was identified and osmotic capacity (the osmotic gradient between the animal's haemolymph and the external medium was compared between species pairs co-habiting similar salinities in nature. We show that osmoregulatory capacity, rather than osmoconformity, has evolved independently in these different lineages. All species hyperegulated their haemolymph osmotic concentration in diluted waters; those living in fresh or low-salinity waters were unable to hyporegulate and survive in hyperosmotic media (> 340 mosmol kg(-1. In contrast, the species which inhabit the hypo-hypersaline habitats were effective hyporegulators, maintaining their haemolymph osmolality within narrow limits (ca. 300 mosmol kg(-1 across a wide range of external concentrations. The hypersaline species N. ceresyi and E. jesusarribasi tolerated conductivities up to 140 and 180 mS cm(-1, respectively, and maintained osmotic gradients over 3500 mosmol kg(-1, comparable to those of the most effective insect osmoregulators known to date. Syntopic species of both genera showed similar osmotic capacities and in general, osmotic responses correlated well with upper salinity levels

  10. Method validation for control determination of mercury in fresh fish and shrimp samples by solid sampling thermal decomposition/amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Daiane Placido; Martins-Teixeira, Maristela Braga; Cadore, Solange; Queiroz, Helena Müller

    2015-01-01

    A method for the determination of total mercury in fresh fish and shrimp samples by solid sampling thermal decomposition/amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry (TDA AAS) has been validated following international foodstuff protocols in order to fulfill the Brazilian National Residue Control Plan. The experimental parameters have been previously studied and optimized according to specific legislation on validation and inorganic contaminants in foodstuff. Linearity, sensitivity, specificity, detection and quantification limits, precision (repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility), robustness as well as accuracy of the method have been evaluated. Linearity of response was satisfactory for the two range concentrations available on the TDA AAS equipment, between approximately 25.0 and 200.0 μg kg(-1) (square regression) and 250.0 and 2000.0 μg kg(-1) (linear regression) of mercury. The residues for both ranges were homoscedastic and independent, with normal distribution. Correlation coefficients obtained for these ranges were higher than 0.995. Limits of quantification (LOQ) and of detection of the method (LDM), based on signal standard deviation (SD) for a low-in-mercury sample, were 3.0 and 1.0 μg kg(-1), respectively. Repeatability of the method was better than 4%. Within-laboratory reproducibility achieved a relative SD better than 6%. Robustness of the current method was evaluated and pointed sample mass as a significant factor. Accuracy (assessed as the analyte recovery) was calculated on basis of the repeatability, and ranged from 89% to 99%. The obtained results showed the suitability of the present method for direct mercury measurement in fresh fish and shrimp samples and the importance of monitoring the analysis conditions for food control purposes. Additionally, the competence of this method was recognized by accreditation under the standard ISO/IEC 17025.

  11. An evaluation of fresh gas flow rates for spontaneously breathing cats and small dogs on the Humphrey ADE semi-closed breathing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Elizabeth; Ticehurst, Kim E; Zaki, Sanaa

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the fresh gas flow (FGF) rate requirements for the Humphrey ADE semi-closed breathing system in the Mapleson A mode; to determine the FGF at which rebreathing occurs, and compare the efficiency of this system to the Bain (Mapleson D) system in spontaneously breathing cats and small dogs. Prospective clinical study. Twenty-five healthy (ASA score I or II) client-owned cats and dogs (mean ± SD age 4.7 ± 5.0 years, and body weight 5.64 ± 3.26 kg) undergoing elective surgery or minor procedures. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane delivered via the Humphrey ADE system in the A mode using an oxygen FGF of 100 mL kg(-1) minute(-1). The FGF was then reduced incrementally by 5-10 mL kg(-1) minute(-1) at approximately five-minute intervals, until rebreathing (inspired CO(2) >5 mmHg (0.7 kPa)) was observed, after which flow rates were increased. In six animals, once the minimum FGF at which rebreathing occurred was found, the breathing system was changed to the Bain, and the effects of this FGF delivery examined, before FGF was increased. Rebreathing did not occur at the FGF recommended by the manufacturer for the ADE. The mean ± SD FGF that resulted in rebreathing was 60 ± 20 mL kg(-1) minute(-1). The mean minimum FGF at which rebreathing did not occur with the ADE was 87 ± 39 mL kg(-1) minute(-1). This FGF resulted in significant rebreathing (inspired CO(2) 8.8 ± 2.6 mmHg (1.2 ± 0.3 kPa)) on the Bain system. The FGF rates recommended for the Humphrey ADE are adequate to prevent rebreathing in spontaneously breathing cats and dogs cats and small dogs. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  12. The onshore influence of offshore fresh groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew C.; Werner, Adrian D.; Morgan, Leanne K.

    2018-06-01

    Freshwater contained within the submarine extensions of coastal aquifers is increasingly proposed as a freshwater source for coastal communities. However, the extent to which offshore freshwater supports onshore pumping is currently unknown on a global scale. This study provides the first attempt to examine the likely prevalence of situations where offshore freshwater influences onshore salinities, considering various sites from around the world. The groundwater conditions in twenty-seven confined and semi-confined coastal aquifers with plausible connections to inferred or observed offshore freshwater are explored. The investigation uses available onshore salinities and groundwater levels, and offshore salinity knowledge, in combination with analytical modelling, to develop simplified conceptual models of the study sites. Seven different conceptual models are proposed based on the freshwater-saltwater extent and insights gained from analytical modelling. We consider both present-day and pre-development conditions in assessing potential modern contributions to offshore fresh groundwater. Conceptual models also include interpretations of whether offshore freshwater is a significant factor influencing onshore salinities and well pumping sustainability. The results indicate that onshore water levels have declined between pre-development and present-day conditions in fourteen of the fifteen regions for which pre-development data are available. Estimates of the associated steady-state freshwater extents show the potential for considerable offshore fresh groundwater losses accompanying these declines. Both present-day and pre-development heads are insufficient to account for the observed offshore freshwater in all cases where adequate data exist. This suggests that paleo-freshwater and/or aquifer heterogeneities contribute significantly to offshore freshwater extent. Present-day heads indicate that active seawater intrusion (SWI) will eventually impact onshore pumping

  13. Fresh weight and doses of IAA on rooting of goldenrod cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Alves Muniz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of indole acetic acid (IAA on fresh weight of cuttings and in the rooting of goldenrod. The first experiment was arranged in randomized blocks in factorial scheme 5 x 3, and 5 doses of IAA at 0, 500, 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/L and three evaluation periods (7, 14 and 21 days after staking-DAS with six replications. The second experiment was also established in randomized blocks in factorial scheme 4 x 2, with 4 class of fresh weight (0.5-0.7, 0.71-0.9, 0.91-1.10 and greater than 1.10 g in the presence or absence of indol butyric acid (IBA and two evaluation periods (14, 21 days after staking, with six replications. In both experiments, the stakes were standardized to 5 cm. In the first experiment the stakes were 1 cm from its base immersed for 30 seconds in different water-alcohol solutions of IAA, while the second base of the cuttings were immersed in water, and then the powder containing 2000 mg/kg of IBA, and subsequently placed for rooting in trays with 256 cells (45 mL. Number of roots/cutting, rooting and survival of seedlings were determined. The presence or absence of IAA or IBA does not affect the rooting of cuttings and even the survival of seedlings. There was no effect on rooting cycle suggesting that the dosage is 2000 mg/L of IAA, because it provided higher number of roots/cutting, while the increase in fresh weight of cuttings provided to increase the number of roots/cuttings.

  14. Pork loin quality is not indicative of fresh belly or fresh and cured ham quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkfeld, E K; Wilson, K B; Overholt, M F; Harsh, B N; Lowell, J E; Hogan, E K; Klehm, B J; Bohrer, B M; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to characterize the relationship between fresh loin quality with fresh belly or fresh and cured ham quality. Pigs raised in 8 barns representing 2 seasons [cold ( = 4,290) and hot ( = 3,394)] and 2 production focuses [lean ( = 3,627) and quality ( = 4,057)] were used. Carcass characteristics and other meat quality data were collected on 7,684 carcasses. All of the carcasses were evaluated for HCW, LM depth, tenth rib fat depth, leg (ham primal) weight, instrumental color on the gluteus medius and gluteus profundus of the ham face, and subjective loin quality. Instrumental loin color and ultimate pH (≥ 22 h postmortem) were collected on the ventral side of loins along with dimensions and firmness scores of fresh bellies from 50% of the carcasses. Ten percent of the boneless loins and fresh hams were evaluated for slice shear force (SSF) or cured ham characteristics. Correlation coefficients between traits were computed using the CORR procedure of SAS and considered significantly different from 0 at ≤ 0.05. Temperature decline, beginning at 31 min postmortem and concluding at 22 h postmortem, for the longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus muscles were evaluated on 10% of the carcasses. Ultimate loin pH was correlated with dimensional belly characteristics ( ≥ |0.07|; ham instrumental color ( ≥ |0.03|; ≤ 0.05), and semimembranosus ultimate pH ( = 0.33; hams. Instrumental L*on the ventral surface of the loin was related to L* on both muscles of the ham face ( ≤ 0.0001). Even though significant relationships between the loin, belly, and ham were detected, the variability in belly and ham quality explained by variability in loin quality was poor (≤ 22.09%). Compositional differences between the loin and belly may have contributed to those poor relationships. Additionally, differences in temperature declines during chilling between the loin and ham likely contributed to the weak nature of relationships. Equilibration of longissimus dorsi

  15. Myasthenia Gravis (MG): Medical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... take effect, prior to surgery or for myasthenic crisis. However, some people receive regular plasmapheresis or IVIg as a supplement to immunosuppressant drugs. Pregnancy In rare cases, pregnancy appears to trigger the onset of MG. ...

  16. Np Analysis of Freshly Separated Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    Np analysis has historically relied upon the Pa/Np secular equilibrium for quantitative results. The Savannah River Site has recently undertaken a mission concerning Np. In this application, Np is separated from Pa, packaged, possibly mixed with other batches, and assayed. The fresh separation and mixing of batches prevents the use of the Pa133 prodigy peaks for assay. This effort was a developmental project novel in the DOE complex. This paper discusses the challenges encountered in the design of instrumentation to assay Np directly. The most abundant Np peak that is unfettered by Pa prodigy, Am, or other SNM materials is the 29.6keV. Quantitative measurement of such a low energy peak presents significant problems with attenuation, Compton effects, and other such issues that arise while trying to maximize the effects of low energy peaks. The solutions rely on exploiting the ''tried and true'' methods with regard to shielding, detector technology, and calibration techniques, but wit h a very low energy perspective. The results are intriguing and, with some assumptions regarding sample homogeneity, quantitative within normal MC and A statistics

  17. Evaluation of Combined Disinfection Methods for Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Population on Fresh-Cut Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Eva; Rodríguez, Mariola; García, Silvia

    2015-07-23

    Most current disinfection strategies for fresh-cut industry are focused on the use of different chemical agents; however, very little has been reported on the effectiveness of the hurdle technology. The effect of combined decontamination methods based on the use of different sanitizers (peroxyacetic acid and chlorine dioxide) and the application of pressure (vacuum/positive pressure) on the inactivation of the foodborne pathogen E. coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and carrots (Daucus carota) was studied. Fresh produce, inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, was immersed (4 °C, 2 min) in tap water (W), chlorine water (CW), chlorine dioxide (ClO2: 2 mg/L) and peroxyacetic acid (PAA: 100 mg/L) in combination with: (a) vacuum (V: 10 mbar) or (b) positive pressure application (P: 3 bar). The product quality and antimicrobial effects of the treatment on bacterial counts were determined both in process washing water and on fresh-cut produce. Evidence obtained in this study, suggests that the use of combined methods (P/V + sanitizers) results in a reduction on the microorganism population on produce similar to that found at atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the application of physical methods led to a significant detrimental effect on the visual quality of lettuce regardless of the solution used. Concerning the process water, PAA proved to be an effective alternative to chlorine for the avoidance of cross-contamination.

  18. Evaluation of Combined Disinfection Methods for Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Population on Fresh-Cut Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Petri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Most current disinfection strategies for fresh-cut industry are focused on the use of different chemical agents; however, very little has been reported on the effectiveness of the hurdle technology. The effect of combined decontamination methods based on the use of different sanitizers (peroxyacetic acid and chlorine dioxide and the application of pressure (vacuum/positive pressure on the inactivation of the foodborne pathogen E. coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut lettuce (Lactuca sativa and carrots (Daucus carota was studied. Fresh produce, inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, was immersed (4 °C, 2 min in tap water (W, chlorine water (CW, chlorine dioxide (ClO2: 2 mg/L and peroxyacetic acid (PAA: 100 mg/L in combination with: (a vacuum (V: 10 mbar or (b positive pressure application (P: 3 bar. The product quality and antimicrobial effects of the treatment on bacterial counts were determined both in process washing water and on fresh-cut produce. Evidence obtained in this study, suggests that the use of combined methods (P/V + sanitizers results in a reduction on the microorganism population on produce similar to that found at atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the application of physical methods led to a significant detrimental effect on the visual quality of lettuce regardless of the solution used. Concerning the process water, PAA proved to be an effective alternative to chlorine for the avoidance of cross-contamination.

  19. Influence of modified atmosphere packaging on volatile compounds and physicochemical and antioxidant attributes of fresh-cut pineapple (Ananas comosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Calderón, Marta; Rojas-Graü, María Alejandra; Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2010-04-28

    The effects of modified atmosphere packaging on volatile compound content and physicochemical and antioxidant attributes of Gold cultivar fresh-cut pineapples were assessed throughout storage at 5 degrees C. Fresh-cut pineapple pieces were packed under LO (low oxygen, 12% O(2), 1% CO(2)), AIR (20.9% O(2)) and HO (high oxygen, 38% O(2)) headspace atmospheres. Methyl butanoate, methyl 2-methylbutanoate, and methyl hexanoate were the most abundant volatiles regardless of the packaging atmosphere and days of storage; whereas most odor active volatiles were methyl and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone and ethyl hexanoate. Physicochemical attributes of pineapple did not significantly vary, whereas vitamin C content and total antioxidant capacity were lower for fresh-cut pineapple in HO (488 +/- 38 mg/100 mg(fw) and 54.4 +/- 5.7%, respectively) than for LO and AIR packages. Storage life of fresh-cut pineapple was limited to 14 days by volatile compounds losses and fermentation processes.

  20. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Fresh and Dried Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The preliminary phytochemical screening of the crude aqueous extract of fresh and dried Moringa oleifera leaves, of the organic solvent and residual fractions of the extract was carried out according to the standard methods. Chemical constituents of the crude aqueous extract of the fresh leaves were found to be tannins, ...

  1. Phytosanitary irradiation and fresh fruit quality: Cultivar and maturity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irradiation is an effective quarantine treatment for global trade of fresh produce. Variation in cultivars and maturity stages can impact the tolerance of fresh fruits to irradiation for the purposes of quarantine security. Tolerance thresholds for irradiated fruit are lacking for a large number of ...

  2. Rumen dry matter degradability of fresh and ensiled sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and in situ ruminal degradability of fresh (FSC) and ensiled (ESC) sugarcane. In situ dry matter degradability (DMD) was determined using the nylon bag technique with four cows equipped ruminal fistulas. Cows were fed with fresh or ensiled sugarcane and ...

  3. Robust model of fresh jujube soluble solids content with near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A robust partial least square (PLS) calibration model with high accuracy and stability was established for the measurement of soluble solids content (SSC) of fresh jujube using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique. Fresh jujube samples were collected in different areas of Taigu and Taiyuan cities, central China in ...

  4. 9 CFR 319.141 - Fresh pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh pork sausage. 319.141 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh...

  5. Cultivation, isolation and characterization of bacteriocin from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focus on cultivation, isolation and characterization of Bacteriocin from fresh cow milk (FCM) and fresh cow meat (FMS) samples obtained from Lapai Market in Niger State, Nigeria. Potential bacteriocinogenic bacteria were screened with agar diffusion method on culture plates seeded with Staphylococcus and ...

  6. Improving the safety of fresh fruit and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, W.M.F.

    2005-01-01

    Fresh fruit and vegetables have been identified as a significant source of pathogens and chemical contaminants. As a result, there has been a wealth of research on identifying and controlling hazards at all stages in the supply chain. Improving the safety of fresh fruit and vegetables reviews this

  7. 78 FR 6227 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... continental Spain. As a condition of entry, fresh apricots from continental Spain would have to be produced in... organization of Spain certifying that the fruit is free from all quarantine pests and has been produced in...

  8. Incidence of staphylococcus aureus in locally produced fresh milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the incidence of the bacterial organism Staphylococcus, aureus in locally produced fresh milk (nono). The fresh milk was obtained from the Damaturu main market, Yobe state of Nigeria. Petri dishes were washed and allowed to dry. They were then sterilized in hot air oven at 130°C for two hours and ...

  9. Creating Sustainable Fresh Food Supply Chains through Waste Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Loikkanen, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    . Design/methodology/approach – This work has been designed as an exploratory case study in three fresh food supply chains, milk, fresh fish, and fresh poultry, in the Nordic countries. The cases are based on interviews and data from the databases of the companies involved. Each case focuses on analyzing...... uses of shared information to create a sustainable fresh food supply chain. Findings –The performance of the perishable food chain can be improved by more efficient information sharing. The key to improved operations is how and for which purposes the shared data should be used. In addition, changes......Purpose – The aim of this empirical paper is to study information sharing in fresh food supply chains, with a specific goal of reducing waste and facilitating sustainable performance. The study focuses on material and information flow issues, specifically on sharing demand and shelf-life data...

  10. Smart storage technologies applied to fresh foods: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyu; Zhang, Min; Gao, Zhongxue; Adhikari, Benu

    2017-06-30

    Fresh foods are perishable, seasonal and regional in nature and their storage, transportation, and preservation of freshness are quite challenging. Smart storage technologies can online detection and monitor the changes of quality parameters and storage environment of fresh foods during storage, so that operators can make timely adjustments to reduce the loss. This article reviews the smart storage technologies from two aspects: online detection technologies and smartly monitoring technologies for fresh foods. Online detection technologies include electronic nose, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), hyperspectral imaging and computer vision. Smartly monitoring technologies mainly include some intelligent indicators for monitoring the change of storage environment. Smart storage technologies applied to fresh foods need to be highly efficient and nondestructive and need to be competitively priced. In this work, we have critically reviewed the principles, applications, and development trends of smart storage technologies.

  11. Repeated administration of fresh garlic increases memory retention in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Saida; Naz, Nosheen; Khaliq, Saima; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2008-12-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is regarded as both a food and a medicinal herb. Increasing attention has focused on the biological functions and health benefits of garlic as a potentially major dietary component. Chronic garlic administration has been shown to enhance memory function. Evidence also shows that garlic administration in rats affects brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) levels. 5-HT, a neurotransmitter involved in a number of physiological functions, is also known to enhance cognitive performance. The present study was designed to investigate the probable neurochemical mechanism responsible for the enhancement of memory following garlic administration. Sixteen adult locally bred male albino Wistar rats were divided into control (n = 8) and test (n = 8) groups. The test group was orally administered 250 mg/kg fresh garlic homogenate (FGH), while control animals received an equal amount of water daily for 21 days. Estimation of plasma free and total tryptophan (TRP) and whole brain TRP, 5-HT, and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. For assessment of memory, a step-through passive avoidance paradigm (electric shock avoidance) was used. The results showed that the levels of plasma free TRP significantly increased (P < .01) and plasma total TRP significantly decreased (P < .01) in garlic-treated rats. Brain TRP, 5-HT, and 5-HIAA levels were also significantly increased following garlic administration. A significant improvement in memory function was exhibited by garlic-treated rats in the passive avoidance test. Increased brain 5-HT levels were associated with improved cognitive performance. The present results, therefore, demonstrate that the memory-enhancing effect of garlic may be associated with increased brain 5-HT metabolism in rats. The results further support the use of garlic as a food supplement for the enhancement of memory.

  12. Development of a Chlorine Dosing Strategy for Fresh Produce Washing Process to Maintain Microbial Food Safety and Minimize Residual Chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Hung, Yen-Con

    2018-05-22

    The residual free chlorine level in fresh produce wash solution is closely correlated to the chemical and microbial safety of produce. Excess amount of free chlorine can quickly react with organic matters to form hazardous disinfection by-products (DBPs) above EPA-permitted levels, whereas deficiency of residual chlorine in produce wash solution may result in incompletely removing pathogens on produce. The purpose of this study was to develop a chlorine dosing strategy to optimize the chlorine dosage during produce washing process without impacting the microbial safety of fresh produce. Prediction equations were developed to estimate free chlorine needed to reach targeted residual chlorine at various sanitizer pH and organic loads, and then validated using fresh-cut iceberg lettuce and whole strawberries in an automated produce washer. Validation results showed that equations successfully predicted the initial chlorine concentration needed to achieve residual chlorine at 10, 30, 60, and 90 mg/L for both lettuce and strawberry washing processes, with the root mean squared error at 4.45 mg/L. The Escherichia coli O157:H7 reductions only slightly increased on iceberg lettuce and strawberries with residual chlorine increasing from 10 to 90 mg/L, indicating that lowering residual chlorine to 10 mg/L would not compromise the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine-based sanitizer. Based on the prediction equations and E. coli O157:H7 reduction results, a chlorine dosing strategy was developed to help the produce industry to maintain microbial inactivation efficacy without adding excess amount of free chlorine. The chlorine dosing strategy can be used for fresh produce washing process to enhance the microbial food safety and minimize the DBPs formation potential. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil from Agathis dammara (Lamb.) Rich fresh leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhifen; He, Daohang; Deng, Jingdan; Zhu, Jiaying; Mao, Qiuping

    2015-01-01

    The essential oil of fresh leaves from Agathis dammara (Lamb.) Rich was extracted using hydro-distillation, and GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyse the essential oil. Nineteen compounds were identified, among which the major components were limonene (36.81%), β-bisabolene (33.43%) and β-myrcene (25.48%). In the antibacterial test, disc diffusion method and micro-well dilution assay proved that the essential oil had significant antibacterial activities. The inhibition zones against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 23.7 and 23 mm, respectively, which demonstrated that the inhibition effects were greater than positive control (10 μg/disc streptomycin). And the lowest MIC value of the essential oil was found against S. aureus (1.25 mg/mL) and Bacillus subtilis (1.25 mg/mL). This is the first report on the antibacterial activities of A. dammara essential oil.

  14. Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Produce: Outbreaks, Prevalence and Contamination Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes, a member of the genus Listeria, is widely distributed in agricultural environments, such as soil, manure and water. This organism is a recognized foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes many diseases, from mild gastroenteritis to severe blood and/or central nervous system infections, as well as abortion in pregnant women. Generally, processed ready-to-eat and cold-stored meat and dairy products are considered high-risk foods for L. monocytogenes infections that cause human illness (listeriosis. However, recently, several listeriosis outbreaks have been linked to fresh produce contamination around the world. Additionally, many studies have detected L. monocytogenes in fresh produce samples and even in some minimally processed vegetables. Thus L. monocytogenes may contaminate fresh produce if present in the growing environment (soil and water. Prevention of biofilm formation is an important control measure to reduce the prevalence and survival of L. monocytogenes in growing environments and on fresh produce. This article specifically focuses on fresh produce–associated listeriosis outbreaks, prevalence in growing environments, contamination levels of fresh produce, and associated fresh produce safety challenges.

  15. Fresh gasoline emissions, not paved road dust, alter cardiac repolarization in ApoE-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campen, Matthew J; McDonald, Jacob D; Reed, Matthew D; Seagrave, Jeanclare

    2006-01-01

    Fresh vehicular emissions potentially represent a ubiquitous environmental concern for cardiovascular health. We compared electrocardiographic effects of fresh gasoline engine emissions with resuspended paved road dust in a mouse model of coronary insufficiency. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-/- mice on a high fat diet were exposed by whole-body inhalation to either gasoline emissions at 60 microg/m3 particulate matter (PM), an equivalent atmosphere with particles filtered out of the whole exhaust, or paved road dust at 0.5 and 3.5 mg /m3 for 6 h/d for 3 d. Radiotelemetry recordings of electrocardiogram (ECG) were analyzed for changes in T-wave morphology (QT interval, T-wave amplitude, and T-wave Area). Following exposures, lung lavage and blood samples were obtained to assay for markers of pulmonary and systemic inflammation. No exposure induced significant changes in heart rate and only the high concentration of road dust induced signs of pulmonary inflammation. T-wave area exhibited significant deviation from baseline values during exposure to gasoline exhaust particulates, but not to either concentration of road dust or gasoline emissions sans particulates. Gasoline-exposed mice demonstrated elevated plasma endothelin-1, but did not cause systemic inflammation. These data support the hypothesis that freshly-generated engine emissions, as opposed to resuspended paved road dust, may drive cardiac effects that have been observed at road-sides in the environment. The absence of ECG effects for both very high concentrations of road dust PM and equivalent concentrations of the vapor/gas phase of gasoline engine exhaust further indicate the specific risk conferred by fresh vehicular PM.

  16. An ESR study of radicals induced in irradiated fresh mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Hussain, Mohammed S.; Morishita, Norio; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Ukai, Mitsuko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2009-01-01

    An electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic study was performed on the radicals induced irradiated fresh mangoes. Fresh Philippine mangoes were irradiated by the γ-rays, lyophilized and powdered. The ESR spectrum of the dry specimen showed a strong main peak at g=2.004 and a pair of peaks at both magnetic fields of the main peak. The main peak detected from flesh and skin specimens faded away in a few days after the irradiation. On the other hand, the side peaks showed a well-defined dose response even 9 days after the irradiation. The side-peak is a useful mean to define the irradiation on fresh mangoes. (author)

  17. Development of iodimetric redox method for routine estimation of ascorbic acid from fresh fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, M.; Baloch, A. K.; Khan, W. A.; Ahmad, F.; Jamil, M.

    2013-01-01

    The iodimetric method (Im) is developed for rapid estimation of ascorbic acid from fresh fruit and vegetables. The efficiency of Im was compared with standard with standard dye method (Dm) utilizing a variety of model solutions and aqueous extracts from fresh fruit and vegetables of different colors. The Im presented consistently accurate and precise results from colorless to colored model solutions and from fruit/vegetable extracts with standard deviation (Stdev) in the range of +-0.013 - +-0.405 and +-0.019 - +-0.428 respectively with no significant difference between the replicates. The Dm worked also satisfactorily for colorless model solutions and extracts (Stdev range +-0.235 - +-0.309) while producing unsatisfactory results (+-0.464 - +-3.281) for colored counterparts. Severe discrepancies/ overestimates continued to pileup (52% to 197%) estimating the nutrient from high (3.0 mg/10mL) to low (0.5 mg/10mL) concentration levels, respectively. On the basis of precision and reliability, the Im technique is suggested for adoption in general laboratories for routine estimation of ascorbic acid from fruit and vegetables possessing any shade. (author)

  18. Control of spoiler Pseudomonas spp. on fresh cut vegetables by neutral electrolyzed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Loris; Ippolito, Antonio; Baruzzi, Federico

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) against 14 strains of spoilage Pseudomonas of fresh cut vegetables under cold storage. The NEW, produced from solutions of potassium and sodium chloride, and sodium bicarbonate developed up to 4000 mg/L of free chlorine, depending on the salt and relative concentration used. The antimicrobial effect of the NEW was evaluated against different bacterial strains at 10(5) cells/ml, with different combinations of free chlorine concentration/contact time; all concentrations above 100 mg/L, regardless of the salt used, were found to be bactericidal already after 2 min. When catalogna chicory and lettuce leaves were dipped for 5 min in diluted NEW, microbial loads of mesophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae were reduced on average of 1.7 log cfu/g. In addition, when lettuce leaves were dipped in a cellular suspension of the spoiler Pseudomonas chicorii I3C strain, diluted NEW was able to reduce Pseudomonas population of about 1.0 log cfu/g. Thanks to its high antimicrobial activity against spoilage microorganisms, and low cost of operation, the application of cycles of electrolysis to the washing water looks as an effective tool in controlling fresh cut vegetable microbial spoilage contamination occurring during washing steps. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavioural response of pink salmon Fry Oncorhynchus gorbuscha to fresh, weathered, and dispersed crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moles, A.

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about fish behaviour in relation to oil spill contamination. In this study, out-migrant pink salmon fry Oncorhynchus gorbuscha were subjected to varying concentrations of oil and sea water solutions, or uncontaminated sea water at a temperature of 7 degrees C. Fresh oil, artificially weathered oil, and dispersed oil samples were used. Twenty trials were run for concentrations of 48 aromatic and 30alkane hydrocarbons. The number of minutes spent in the uncontaminated water was significantly higher than sample areas. Fry avoided water-accommodated mixtures of Alaska North Slope crude oil in sea water at concentrations of 960 mg/L total aromatic hydrocarbon fresh oil and 873 mg/L total aromatic hydrocarbon dispersed oil. Concentrations corresponded to 75 per cent and 68 per cent of the median lethal concentration level. However, the fry did not avoid the weathered oil, which indicated that the fry may be sensitive to monoaromatic hydrocarbon components in the oil. It was concluded that oil pollution may alter pink salmon migration behaviour. 28 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  20. Low intensity monochromatic red, blue or green light increases the carbohydrate levels and substantially extends the shelf life of fresh-cut lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.; Seifu, Y.W.

    2015-01-01

    During dark storage of fresh-cut product prepared from butterhead and iceberg lettuce the levels of carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch) decrease. Carbohydrate levels were low in butterhead lettuce at the start [~20 mg/g dry matter (DW)] and levels decreased by over 50% during storage

  1. Effect of Chlorine Dioxide and Ascorbic Acid on Enzymatic Browning and Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Red Delicious and Granny Smith Apples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remorini, Damiano; Landi, Marco; Tardelli, Francesca; Lugani, Arianna; Massai, Rossano; Graziani, Giulia; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Guidi, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we tested the hypothesis that ascorbic acid (AA) reduces browning of fresh-cut apples (Red Delicious, RD, and Granny Smith, GS), and we investigated the impact of AA on phenylpropanoid metabolism of RD and GS. Apple slices were dipped in a solution of 100mg/L of chlorine dioxide

  2. sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal. 22 .... Trained and consumer pan- els from the local black ... selected as the best formulations or recipes, as judged by the ... loosening of the sausage from the pan with a.

  3. Effect of fresh air ventilation on indoor radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hao; Wu Jianhua; Fu Shi

    2012-01-01

    The radon concentration of laboratory for radon simulation (LRS) was measured by the RAD7 radon monitor, and the effect of the different fresh air ventilations on indoor radon concentration was studied and analyzed. The indoor radon concentration of LRS can be accumulated up to 2000 Bq/m 3 and the average radon exhalation rate of the LRS is 14.5 Bq · m -2 . h -1 . Furthermore, when the fresh air enters into the LRS continuously, the indoor radon concentration decreases exponentially with the increase of time. The equilibrium radon concentration and equilibrium time of LRS decrease exponentially with the increase of the rate of fresh air ventilation. In addition, the indoor radon concentration increases by accumulation with the decrease of the rate of fresh air ventilation. (authors)

  4. In Vivo Digestibility of Molasses-Treated Fresh Banana Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated fresh banana leaves in West African Dwarf sheep was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm and Animal Nutrition Laboratory of the University of Dschang between August and September 2009. For this, six sheep were used and ...

  5. Green and technical efficient growth in Danish fresh water aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    growth can be achieved by introducing new environmentally friendly water purification systems in Danish fresh water aquaculture. Data Envelopment Analysis is used to investigate whether different water purification systems and farm size influence technical efficiency. The empirical results indicate...

  6. Application of Ultrasonic Waves on Maintaining Freshness of Tilapia Fillet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruddy Suwandi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ish fillet is one of fisheries products that easily deteriorated; hence handling techniques are needed to maintain the freshness. Ultrasonic wave have been widely applied to some of food products for maintaining freshness through microbial inactivation, however the ultrasonic application to fisheries products has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of ultrasonic wave on fish freshness. The stages of the study were sample preparation, sonication, freshness parameters examination and histology observation. Ultrasonic wave did not affectthe organoleptic value and the TVB, but affected the pH value and the TPC. The sample in which the TPC value was found significantly different, were further observed after 48 and 96 hours storage. The result showed that the TPC value of sonicated sample for 9 minutes was lower to that of without sonication. Histology analysis showed, however, sonication made the structure of muscle fiber less compact and deformation of myomer was found.

  7. Chemical qualities of oils from some fresh and market vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    production was examined by evaluating the oil yield and chemical qualities of oil extracted from fresh ... oil may be considered as Nigeria potential asset for biofuel and oleochemical production. Keywords: ..... standards for edible Arachis oil.

  8. Socioeconomic Determinants of Income From Fresh and Processed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total sample size of 84 crayfish marketers were in all randomly selected across three major Cray ... determine the income derived from fresh crayfish marketing while household size and purchasing ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  9. Physicochemical changes in minimal ozone-treated fresh shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated fresh shrimp were evaluated tandem with microbiological efficacy of treatment during iced storage of up to 10 days. Safely discharged from commercially available domestic-type ozone facility, a previously defined minimal ozone treatment ...

  10. Antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from fresh cow milk in settled ... produced alpha haemolysin, 45.5% (n=25) produced beta haemolysin and ... resistant strains of S. aureus of animal and human biotypes and can serve as ...

  11. Analysis of fresh maize marketing in Anambra state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of fresh maize marketing in Anambra state, Nigeria. ... on marketing income in Anambra State, this study utilized descriptive statistic, Sherpherd-futrel model of determining marketing efficiency ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  12. Wrinkle Ridges and Young Fresh Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 May 2002) The Science Wrinkle ridges are a very common landform on Mars, Mercury, Venus, and the Moon. These ridges are linear to arcuate asymmetric topographic highs commonly found on smooth plains. The origin of wrinkle ridges is not certain and two leading hypotheses have been put forth by scientists over the past 40 years. The volcanic model calls for the extrusion of high viscosity lavas along linear conduits. This thick lava accumulated over these conduits and formed the ridges. The other model is tectonic and advocates that the ridges are formed by compressional faulting and folding. Today's THEMIS image is of the ridged plains of Lunae Planum located between Kasei Valles and Valles Marineris in the northern hemisphere of the planet. Wrinkle ridges are found mostly along the eastern side of the image. The broadest wrinkle ridges in this image are up to 2 km wide. A 3 km diameter young fresh crater is located near the bottom of the image. The crater's ejecta blanket is also clearly seen surrounding the sharp well-defined crater rim. These features are indicative of a very young crater that has not been subjected to erosional processes. The Story The great thing about the solar system is that planets are both alike and different. They're all foreign enough to be mysterious and intriguing, and yet familiar enough to be seen as planetary 'cousins.' By comparing them, we can learn a lot about how planets form and then evolve geologically over time. Crinkled over smooth plains, the long, wavy raised landforms seen here are called 'wrinkle ridges,' and they've been found on Mars, Mercury, Venus, and the Moon - that is, on rocky bodies that are a part of our inner solar system. We know from this observation that planets (and large-enough moons) follow similar processes. What we don't know for sure is HOW these processes work. Scientists have been trying to understand how wrinkle ridges form for 40 years, and they still haven't reached a conclusion. That

  13. Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Najam ul; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective...

  14. Warm fresh whole blood and thoracic traumain iraq and afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keneally, Ryan J; Parsons, Andrew M; Willett, Peter B

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic trauma occurred in 10% of the patients seen at US military treatment facilities in Iraq and Afghanistan and 52% of those patients were transfused. Among those transfused, 281 patients received warm fresh whole blood. A previous report documented improved survival with warm fresh whole blood in patients injured in combat without stratification by injury pattern. A later report described an increase in acute lung injuries after its administration. Survivorship and warm fresh whole blood have never been analyzed in a subpopulation at highest risk for lung injuries, such as patients with thoracic trauma. There may be a heterogeneous relationship between whole blood and survival based on likelihood of a concomitant pulmonary injury. In this report, the relationship between warm fresh whole blood and survivorship was analyzed among patients at highest risk for concomitant pulmonary injuries. Patients with thoracic trauma who received a transfusion were identified in the Joint Theater Trauma Registry. Gross mortality rates were compared between whole blood recipients and patients transfused with component therapy only. The association between each blood component and mortality was determined in a regression model. The overall mortality risk was compared between warm fresh whole blood recipients and non-recipients. Patients transfused with warm fresh whole blood in addition to component therapy had a higher mortality rate than patients transfused only separated blood components (21.3% vs. 12.8%, P warm fresh whole blood in addition to component therapy was not associated with increased mortality risk compared with the transfusion of component therapy only (OR 1.247 [95% CI 0.760-2.048], P = 0.382). Patients with combat related thoracic trauma transfused with warm fresh whole blood were not at increased risk for mortality compared to those who received component therapy alone when controlling for covariates.

  15. [Comparison of 1 mg/body and 3 mg/body of intravenous granisetron for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and adverse events in hematological malignancy patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Shinya; Hori, Katsuhito; Ono, Takaaki; Ohnishi, Kazunori; Kawakami, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Granisetron is a selective 5-hydroxy tryptamine3 receptor antagonist and widely used for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Recommended dose of intravenous granisetron in the USA and Europe has been set at 0.01 mg/kg (1 mg/body) in the antiemetic treatment guidelines established by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and National Comprehension Cancer Network. In contrast, the approved dose in Japan is 0.04 mg/kg (3 mg/body). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared 1 mg/body with 3 mg/body of intravenous granisetron for CINV had been reported in Japan. In these RCTs, however, hematological malignancy patients were excluded. We performed observational retrospective study to compare 1 mg/body with 3 mg/body of intravenous granisetron for the prevention of CINV and adverse events in hematological malignancy patients. Number of the patients and chemotherapy courses were 15 and 30 in the 1 mg/body group, and 15 and 27 in the 3 mg/body group, respectively. No nausea rates in the 1 and 3 mg/body group were 83% and 89% of courses, respectively. No vomiting rates in the 1 and 3 mg/body group were 97% and 100% of courses, respectively. The incidences of constipation in the 1 and 3 mg/body group were 34% and 45% of courses, respectively. Anaphylaxis and headache did not occur in both groups. Our findings suggested that 1 mg/body of intravenous granisetron can prevent from CINV in hematological malignancy patients, as well as 3 mg/body.

  16. Capabilities of diffusion-weighted and fresh blood imaging in depicting fresh thrombus. Presidential award proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Ritsuko; Manabe, Tsutomu; Tazawa, Satoru

    2007-01-01

    We examined the capabilities of diffusion-weighted (DWI) and fresh-blood imaging (FBI) in depicting thrombus. A paper-clay phantom holding test syringes of various sizes filled with either contrast medium or fresh human blood were scanned using a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging unit, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and signal intensities on DWI and FBI of the specimens were obtained. FBI depicted all the specimens regardless of syringe diameter, but DWI failed to image the syringe measuring 0.5 cm in diameter. B-factors and/or number of acquisitions (NAQ) seemed responsible for DWI's depiction capability. ADC values and signal intensities on DWI and FBI correlated with the viscosity of the contrast medium samples. Clotted blood, the most viscous of the samples, had the smallest ADC value and no relationship with signal intensities on DWI and FBI. Larger b-factors reduced signal intensity in contrast medium on DWI, but signals decreased only minimally in clotted blood. The result suggested that although viscosity was the influential factor for signal intensities on DWI in contrast medium, other factors, such as particle sizes of fibrin and hemoglobin, accounted for the low ADC values in clotting blood. T 2 relaxation time seemed to play a significant role in making signal intensities on DWI irrelevant to b-factors. Despite lapsed time, the clots were persistently hyperintense on FBI with a tendency to decrease only gradually. On DWI, there was a certain period when signal intensities were high and ADC values were low. The signal intensities on DWI and ADC values were considered to be influenced by the process of clot formation, and disappearance of signal seemed likely attributable to degeneration of protein and organization of the clot. (author)

  17. Determination of Properties of Selected Fresh and Processed Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley G. Cabrera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the chemical properties, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and toxicity level of fresh and processed medicinal plants such as corn (Zea mays silk, pancitpancitan (Peperomiapellucida leaves, pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves, and commercially available tea. The toxicity level of the samples was measured using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Results showed that in terms of chemical properties there is significant difference between fresh and processed corn silk except in crude fiber content was noted. Based on proximate analyses of fresh and processed medicinal plants specifically in terms of % moisture, %crude protein and % total carbohydrates were also observed. In addition, there is also significant difference on bioactive compound contents such as total flavonoids and total phenolics between fresh and processed corn silk except in total vitamin E (TVE content. Pandan and pancit-pancitan showed significant difference in all bioactive compounds except in total antioxidant content (TAC. Fresh pancit-pancitan has the highest total phenolics content (TPC and TAC, while the fresh and processed corn silk has the lowest TAC and TVE content, respectively. Furthermore, results of BSLA for the three medicinal plants and commercially available tea extract showed after 24 hours exposure significant difference in toxicity level was observed. The percentage mortality increased with an increase in exposure time of the three medicinal plants and tea extract. The results of the study can served as baseline data for further processing and commercialization of these medicinal plants.

  18. Identifying risk event in Indonesian fresh meat supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, H. C.; Vanany, I.; Ciptomulyono, U.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify risk issues in Indonesian fresh meat supply chain from the farm until to the “plate”. The critical points for food safety in physical fresh meat product flow are also identified. The paper employed one case study in the Indonesian fresh meat company by conducting observations and in-depth three stages of interviews. At the first interview, the players, process, and activities in the fresh meat industry were identified. In the second interview, critical points for food safety were recognized. The risk events in each player and process were identified in the last interview. The research will be conducted in three stages, but this article focuses on risk identification process (first stage) only. The second stage is measuring risk and the third stage focuses on determining the value of risk priority. The results showed that there were four players in the fresh meat supply chain: livestock (source), slaughter (make), distributor and retail (deliver). Each player has different activities and identified 16 risk events in the fresh meat supply chain. Some of the strategies that can be used to reduce the occurrence of such risks include improving the ability of laborers on food safety systems, improving cutting equipment and distribution processes

  19. The Preventive and Curative Effects of Fresh Garlic Extract And its Aerial Parts on Fibrosarcoma in Balb/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rafieian-kopaei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Garlic has been demonstrated to have anticancer activity in some studies; however its effect on fibrosarcoma is not evident. This study intends to examine the preventive and curative effects of fresh garlic extract and its aerial parts on the growth of WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cells in Balb/c mice. Methods: In this preclinical study, 48 female inbred Balb/c mice(6 to 7 weeks old were divided in to 6 groups of 8 each. A single aliquot of WEHI-164 cells(5 × 106 cells/100 μl was injected subcutaneously in the chest of animal. Two weeks before or three weeks after cell injection, 0.2 cc of normal saline or 20 mg/kg extract of garlic or its aerial parts were injected intraperitoneally(IP to the Balb/c mice. The tumors sizes were compared with each other, using ANOVA test. The antioxidant potential and total phenolic compounds of the extracts were also assessed. Results: The mean sizes of tumor growth in groups which received fresh garlic extract or its aerial parts were smaller than that of control group. However this difference was significant on the 21st day only in garlic extract group(p<0.05. The antioxidant power of fresh garlic involved 35.6%, whereas for its aerial parts it was 15.3%. Moreover, the general amount of phenol in fresh garlic was 12.61 mg/g and in its aerial parts was 2.44 mg/g. Conclusion: Garlic consumption might have a crucial role in prevention and control of fibrosarcoma growth. Furthermore, the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of garlic aerial parts are less in comparison to garlic itself, however, higher doses might have anticancer activity

  20. Carbon sequestration capacity of sediments, algae, and zooplankton from fresh water aquaculture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikuttan, K K; Adhikari, S; Kavitha, M; Jayasankar, P

    2016-07-01

    The contribution of aquaculture and allied activities to the emission of green house gases and consequently to global warming is an emerging concern among environmentalists in the recent past. However, there exists ample scope for aquaculture activities to sequester carbon and thus compensate for the carbon emissions linked to aquaculture. This article attempts to elucidate the carbon sequestration capacity of sediments, algae, and zooplankton from fresh water aquaculture ponds. The percent organic carbon in the pond sediments ranged from 0.39 to 1.31 with an average value of 0.912 ± 0.321 whereas the carbon sequestration capacity ranged from 0.442 to 1.882 MgC/ha (1 Mg = 10(6) g) with an average value of 1.018 ± 0.447 MgC/ha. In the case of zooplankton and algae from pond, the percent organic carbon was 7.688 ± 0.196 and 2.354 ± 0.047, respectively, whereas the total estimated carbon burial rate was 0.009 ± 0.005 and 0.150 ± 0.003 MgC/ha, respectively. These findings are discussed with the previous reports available at present and are found to be in comparable ranges.

  1. Effect of Nanoemulsified and Microencapsulated Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) Essential Oil Coatings on Quality of Fresh Pork Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Elvia; Lira-Moreno, César Y; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; Wild-Padua, Graciela; Di Pierro, Prospero; García-Almendárez, Blanca E; Regalado-González, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Fresh meat is a highly perishable food. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) incorporated into active coatings (ACs) spread on fresh pork meat as free (FEO), nanoemulsified (NEO), and microencapsulated (MEO) essential oil (EO), on its microbiological, physicochemical and sensory properties during 15 d at 4 ± 1 °C. Thymol and γ-terpinene were identified in the EO. In vitro effect of 2.85 mg EO/cm 2 was tested against Brochothrix thermosphacta, Micrococcus luteus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pseudomonas fragi, and Salmonella Infantis. FEO antioxidant capacity (DPPH assay) was significantly higher than that of thymol, NEO and MEO (93.53%, 89.92%, 77.79%, and 78.50% inhibition, respectively), and similar to BHA (96.03%) and gallic acid (95.57%). FEO, NEO, and MEO ACs on meat caused growth inhibition of lactic acid bacteria (5 log population reduction) and Pseudomonas spp. (4 log reduction), whereas ≤1.5 log population reduction was observed for B. thermosphacta and Salmonella Infantis. Meat microbiota was more efficiently controlled by MEO than by FEO or NEO. ACs delayed lipid and oxymyoglobin oxidation of fresh pork meat. After 15 d of cold storage meat added with EO coatings was desirable for panelists, whereas untreated (UT) samples were undesirable. Active coatings are a significant alternative method for fresh meat preservation. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Review: Impacts of permafrost degradation on inorganic chemistry of surface fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Nicola; Salerno, Franco; Gruber, Stephan; Freppaz, Michele; Williams, Mark; Fratianni, Simona; Giardino, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that climate change is impacting the inorganic chemical characteristics of surface fresh water in permafrost areas and affecting aquatic ecosystems. Concentrations of major ions (e.g., Ca2 +, Mg2 +, SO42 -, NO3-) can increase following permafrost degradation with associated deepening of flow pathways and increased contributions of deep groundwater. In addition, thickening of the active layer and melting of near-surface ground ice can influence inorganic chemical fluxes from permafrost into surface water. Permafrost degradation has also the capability to modify trace element (e.g., Ni, Mn, Al, Hg, Pb) contents in surface water. Although several local and regional modifications of inorganic chemistry of surface fresh water have been attributed to permafrost degradation, a comprehensive review of the observed changes is lacking. The goal of this paper is to distil insight gained across differing permafrost settings through the identification of common patterns in previous studies, at global scale. In this review we focus on three typical permafrost configurations (pervasive permafrost degradation, thermokarst, and thawing rock glaciers) as examples and distinguish impacts on (i) major ions and (ii) trace elements. Consequences of warming climate have caused spatially-distributed progressive increases of major ion and trace element delivery to surface fresh water in both polar and mountain areas following pervasive permafrost degradation. Moreover, localised releases of major ions and trace elements to surface water due to the liberation of soluble materials sequestered in permafrost and ground ice have been found in ice-rich terrains both at high latitude (thermokarst features) and high elevation (rock glaciers). Further release of solutes and related transport to surface fresh water can be expected under warming climatic conditions. However, complex interactions among several factors able to influence the timing and magnitude of the impacts

  3. Batch and column studies on biosorption of acid dyes on fresh water macro alga Azolla filiculoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmesh, T V N; Vijayaraghavan, K; Sekaran, G; Velan, M

    2005-10-17

    The biosorption of Acid red 88 (AR88), Acid green 3 (AG3) and Acid orange 7 (AO7) by deactivated fresh water macro alga Azolla filiculoides was investigated in batch mode. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the batch biosorption equilibrium data and model constants were evaluated. The adsorption capacity was pH dependent with a maximum value of 109.0 mg/g at pH 7 for AR88, 133.5 mg/g at pH 3 for AG3 and 109.6 mg/g at pH 3 for AO7, respectively, was obtained. The pseudo first and second order kinetic models were also applied to the experimental kinetic data and high correlation coefficients favor pseudo second order model for the present systems. The ability of A. filiculoides to biosorb AG3 in packed column was also investigated. The column experiments were conducted to study the effect of important design parameters such as initial dye concentration (50-100 mg/L), bed height (15-25 cm) and flow rate (5-15 mL/min) to the well-adsorbed dye. At optimum bed height (25 cm), flow rate (5 mL/min) and initial dye concentration (100 mg/L), A. filiculoides exhibited 28.1mg/g for AG3. The Bed Depth Service Time model and the Thomas model were used to analyze the experimental data and the model parameters were evaluated.

  4. Toward an Improved Understanding of the Global Fresh Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    The major components of the global fresh water cycle include the evaporation from the land and ocean surfaces, precipitation onto the Ocean and land surfaces, the net atmospheric transport of water from oceanic areas over land, and the return flow of water from the land back into the ocean. The additional components of oceanic water transport are few, principally, the mixing of fresh water through the oceanic boundary layer, transport by ocean currents, and sea ice processes. On land the situation is considerably more complex, and includes the deposition of rain and snow on land; water flow in runoff; infiltration of water into the soil and groundwater; storage of water in soil, lakes and streams, and groundwater; polar and glacial ice; and use of water in vegetation and human activities. Knowledge of the key terms in the fresh water flux budget is poor. Some components of the budget, e.g. precipitation, runoff, storage, are measured with variable accuracy across the globe. We are just now obtaining precise measurements of the major components of global fresh water storage in global ice and ground water. The easily accessible fresh water sources in rivers, lakes and snow runoff are only adequately measured in the more affluent portions of the world. presents proposals are suggesting methods of making global measurements of these quantities from space. At the same time, knowledge of the global fresh water resources under the effects of climate change is of increasing importance and the human population grows. This paper provides an overview of the state of knowledge of the global fresh water budget, evaluating the accuracy of various global water budget measuring and modeling techniques. We review the measurement capabilities of satellite instruments as compared with field validation studies and modeling approaches. Based on these analyses, and on the goal of improved knowledge of the global fresh water budget under the effects of climate change, we suggest

  5. Aflatoxin B1 and total fumonisin contamination and their producing fungi in fresh and stored sorghum grain in East Hararghe, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Wondimeneh; Ayalew, Amare; Chala, Alemayehu; Dejene, Mashilla

    2016-12-01

    Natural contamination of sorghum grains by aflatoxin B 1 and total fumonisin and their producing toxigenic fungi has been studied. A total of 90 sorghum grain samples were collected from small-scale farmers' threshing floors and 5-6 months later from underground pits during 2013 harvest from three districts of East Hararghe, Ethiopia. Mycotoxin analysis was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The limits of detection were in the range 0.01-0.03 μg kg -1 . The results revealed that all sorghum grain samples were contaminated with both Aspergillus and Fusarium species. Aflatoxin B 1 was detected at levels ranging from fumonisin levels varied between 907 and 2041 µg kg -1 grain across the samples. Lowest total fumonisin was recorded in freshly harvested sorghum grain samples. Sorghum is a main staple cereal in the studied districts and its consumption per day per person is high. Daily intake of low doses of mycotoxin-contaminated food stuff over a period of time could lead to chronic mycotoxicosis.

  6. Total phenolics, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant properties of fresh-cut mango (Mangifera indica L., cv. Tommy Atkin) as affected by infrared heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogi, D S; Siddiq, M; Roidoung, S; Dolan, K D

    2012-11-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a major tropical fruit that has not been exploited for fresh-cut or minimally processed products on a scale similar to apples, pineapples, or melons. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of infrared (IR) treatment on total phenolics, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant properties of fresh-cut cubes from 'Tommy Atkin' mangoes. Mango cubes were IR treated (5, 10, 15 min) and evaluated at 4-d intervals during 16-d storage at 4 ± 1 °C. Total phenolics, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid content in fresh-cut control mango cubes were 43.33, 1.37, and 15.97 mg/100 g FW, respectively. IR treatments increased total phenolics (59.23 to 71.16 mg/100 g FW) and decreased ascorbic acid (12.14 to 15.38 mg/100 g, FW). Total carotenoids showed a mixed trend (1.13 to 1.66 mg/100 g, FW). The IR treatment showed a significant positive impact on antioxidant properties (μM TE/100 g, FW) of mango cubes, as assayed by ABTS (261.5 compared with 338.0 to 416.4), DPPH (270.5 compared with 289.4 to 360.5), and ORAC (6686 compared with 8450 to 12230). Total phenolics, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant capacity decreased over 16-d storage. However, IR treated samples had consistently higher ABTS, DPPH, and total phenolics during storage. It was demonstrated that IR treatment can be effectively used in improving antioxidant properties of fresh-cut mangoes with minimal effect on the visual appearance. Various methods/treatments are in use for extending the quality of fresh-cut fruits, including mild heat treatment. This study explored the application of infrared (IR) heat for processing fresh-cut mango cubes and evaluated its effect on vitamin C and antioxidant capacity during 16-d storage. This is the first study reporting on the use of IR heat in fresh-cut fruits. IR treatment was shown to be effective in retaining antioxidant properties of fresh-cut mango cubes with minimal effect on the visual appearance. © 2012 Institute

  7. Option contracts in fresh produce supply chain with circulation loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate management decisions via option contracts in a two-stage supply chain in which a fresh produce supplier sells to a retailer, considering the circulation loss of the fresh produce. Design/methodology/approach: Authors propose a Stackelberg model to analyze the supply chain members’ decisions in the decentralized supply chain compared with the integrated one under the newsvendor framework. Findings: The results illustrate that there exists a unique optimal option order quantity for the retailer and a unique optimal option order price for the supplier giving certain conditions; furthermore, option contracts cannot coordinate the fresh produce supply chain when the retailer only orders options. Originality/value: Agricultural products especially fresh produce’s characteristics such as circulation loss and high risk are considered. Option contracts and game theory are combined to manage the fresh produce supply chain’s risk. The proposed tool and models are hoped to shed light to the future works in the field of supply chain risk management.

  8. Efficacy of Peracetic Acid in Inactivating Foodborne Pathogens on Fresh Produce Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant; Hung, Yen-Con; Qi, Hang

    2018-02-01

    Washing treatment with effective sanitizer is one of the critical steps in ensuring fresh produce safety. This study was to evaluate the efficacy of peracetic acid (PAA; VigorOx® 15 F&V), chlorine-based sanitizers (acidic electrolyzed water [AEO], near neutral electrolyzed water and bleach), lactic acid, and deionized (DI) water to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 from fresh produce surfaces. A 5-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and S. Typhimurium DT104 was separately prepared and used for surface inoculation on produce samples (E. coli O157:H7 on romaine lettuce, lemons, tomatoes, and blueberries; L. monocytogenes on romaine lettuce and cantaloupe; S. Typhimurium DT104 on lemons, tomatoes, cantaloupe, and blueberries). PAA at 45, 85, and 100 mg/L; AEO, NNEO, and bleach at 100 mg/L of free chlorine; lactic acid at 2%; and DI water were used for washing inoculated produce in an automated produce washer for 5 min. In general, PAA at 100 mg/L achieved the highest microbial inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 (lettuce, lemon, tomato, and blueberry at 2.2, 5.7, 5.5, and 6.7 log CFU/g, respectively), S. Typhimurium DT104 (lemon, tomato, cantaloupe, blueberry at 5.4, 6.8, 4.5, and 5.9 log CFU/g, respectively), and L. monocytogenes (lettuce and cantaloupe at 2.4 and 4.4 log CFU/g, respectively). Efficacy of sanitizers on produce with coarse surface (for example, lettuce and cantaloupe) was lower than produce with smooth texture (lemon, tomato, and blueberry). Cross-contamination of E. coli O157:H7 among romaine lettuce heads during simulated retail crisping process was greatly reduced by the application of PAA and NNEO. NNEO and PAA showed high efficacy in foodborne pathogen removal from fresh produce. Produce surface texture plays an important role in pathogen removal. NNEO and PAA effectively prevented cross-contamination during the crisping process. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Calcite Wettability in the Presence of Dissolved Mg2+ and SO42-

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Generosi, Johanna; Ceccato, Marcel; Andersson, Martin Peter

    2017-01-01

    that potential determining ions in seawater, Mg2+, Ca2+, and SO42–, are responsible for altering the wettability of calcite surfaces. In favorable conditions, e.g., elevated temperature, calcium at the calcite surface can be replaced by magnesium, making organic molecules bind more weakly and water molecules...... bind more strongly, rendering the surface more hydrophilic. We used atomic force microscopy in chemical force mapping mode to probe the adhesion forces between a hydrophobic CH3-terminated AFM tip and a freshly cleaved calcite {10.4} surface to investigate wettability change in the presence of Mg2...... with calcite even after rinsing with CaCO3-saturated deionized water, suggesting sorption on or in calcite. When the calcite-saturated solution of MgSO4 was replaced by calcite-saturated NaCl at the same ionic strength, adhesion force increased again, indicating that the effect is reversible and suggesting Mg...

  10. Efficacy of fresh leaf extracts of Spondias mombin against some clinical bacterial isolates from typhoid patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olukemi Aromolaran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the phytochemical properties and antibacterial activity of methanol, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of fresh leaves of Spondias mombin (S. mombin on some clinical bacterial isolates. Methods: Clean and fresh leaves of S. mombin were collected in Ondo, Southwestern Nigeria. The leaves were blended, extracted with methanol, acetone, ethanol and water. The extracts were evaporated to dryness using rotary evaporator and tested for the presence of saponins, tannins, cardiac glycoside, terpenoids, flavonoids, reducing sugars, volatile oils, alkaloids and glycoside. The extract were tested against Gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumonia, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella typhi and Enterobacter aerogens; Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus by observing the zones of inhibition using agar well diffusion assay. Results: The study showed that the leaves contained saponins, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and glycoside. All the solvent extracts showed activity against all the test bacteria. The methanol extract also showed the highest activity against Enterobacter aerogens, zone of diameter (15.00 依1.89 mm, while the ethanol extract showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus with zone of diameter (12.50依1.50 mm. The acetone extract showed the highest activity against Salmonella typhi, zone of diameter (17.50依0.29 mm followed by methanol extract showing zone of diameter (15.67依1.01 mm. The acetone extract showed the highest activity against Klebsiella pneumonia (15.17依0.67 mm, while the aqueous extract shows the highest activity against Serratia marcescens (14.67依2.68 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the leaf extracts ranged between 10-90 mg/mL. Conclusions: This study showed that the aqueous and organic solvents extract of fresh leaves of S. mombin has anti-microbial activity against all the tested organisms.

  11. Planning and control in fresh food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Cecilie Maria; Chabada, Lukas; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2013-01-01

    directions. Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on a structured literature review of articles with the main focus on P&C of fresh food products. The review is based on a range of published works from main journals on supply chain management over the last 10 years. The gaps and challenges...... directions in this area. Practical implications The paper enhances the focus on P&C in FFSC in practice, and defines important implications for why and how P&C should be practiced from a supply chain perspective. Original/value The paper presents an overview of the literature on P&C issues of fresh food......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine the current state of research in the planning and control (P&C) literature in regards to fresh food supply chains (FFSC). Based on the literature review, important research areas are identified and serve as guidelines for defining future research...

  12. Effect of dim light irradiation on preservation of fresh lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, F.; Uchino, T.; Akimoto, K.; Hu, W.

    2001-01-01

    In order to preserve fresh lettuce, the dim light irradiation storage was investigated. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) stored for about 120 hours at 5 or 20 deg C under continuous illumination at 0 (darkness), 1.6, 3.4, 6.5, 13 or 19.7 micro mol/m**-2/s**-1 photosynthetic photon flux. The light compensation point was about 3.4 micro mol/m**-2/s**-1 at 5 deg C, about 19.7 micro mol/m**-2/s**-1 at 20 deg C. Fresh weight of lettuce decreased by promotion of transpiration caused by the dim light. Accordingly the root of lettuce should not be removed, so as to up-take water. The optimum dim light irradiation preserved the chlorophyll content in lettuce leaf or increased it. Therefore it appeared that the dim light irradiation was effective for the fresh lettuce preservation

  13. Uptake of {sup 137}Cs by fresh water fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, C.K.; Kwok, Y.H

    2000-02-01

    The uptake and discharge rates of {sup 137}Cs by fresh water fish at different radionuclide concentrations have been studied. A dual compartment model was used to fit the experimental data. The discharge rates have been found to be negligible for the duration of the experiment of 10 days. The uptake rates were independent of radionuclide concentrations for a particular type of fresh water fish and were different for different types of fish. The uptake rates of carp, tilapia and snakehead were 1.58, 1.66 and 2.23, in unit of 10{sup -6} h{sup -1}, respectively. It was also estimated that the consumption of fresh water fish, even if the water were contaminated as much as that in the Chernobyl accident, leads to negligible latent cancer fatality to the Hong Kong population.

  14. Fertilization and Embryo Development of Fresh and Cryopreserved Sibling Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Casper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oocyte cryopreservation is potentially the best way to preserve female fertility forunmarried women or young girls at risk of losing ovarian function. The aim of this study was tocompare fertilization and embryo development in frozen-thawed oocytes to their fresh siblings inwomen undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF and embryo transfer (ET.Materials and Methods: Eleven infertile women undergoing infertility treatment, between theages of 24 to 37 years (mean ± SD = 31.6 ± 3.5, were included in this study. Mature oocytesfrom each patient were randomized into cryopreserved and fresh groups prior to intracytoplasmicsperm injection (ICSI. One hundred and thirty nine oocytes were retrieved, of which 105 were atmetaphase II (MII. Forty- five fresh MII oocytes were kept in culture whereas their sibling 60 MIIoocytes were cryopreserved using a slow cooling protocol. The frozen oocytes remained in LN2for 2 hours before thawing. ICSI was performed 1-2 hours after thawing for frozen oocytes and 4-5hours after retrieval for fresh oocytes. Fertilization and embryo development were compared.Results: Following thawing, 31 oocytes (51.6 % survived and 22 fertilized (79% while 32 freshoocytes fertilized upon ICSI (71%. The mean ± SE scores for embryos developing from frozenthawedoocytes were significantly lower at 48 and 72 hours post-ICSI than for embryos resultingfrom fresh oocytes (p<0.05.Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that oocyte freezing resulted in acceptable survival ratesfollowing cryopreservation, and similar fertilization rates following ICSI as compared to the freshsibling oocytes. However the number of blastomeres and the embryo quality on day three wassuperior in embryos from fresh oocytes when compared to the frozen oocytes.

  15. Does generic advertising work? A systematic evaluation of the Danish campaign for fresh fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to their attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish...

  16. Does generic advertising work? A systematic evaluation of the Danish campaign for fresh fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to their attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish...

  17. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTS OF FRESH AND PRESERVED ROYAL JELLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinka Maksimović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial effects of the fresh royal jelly, royal jelly stored at 4 °C and -40 °C for a period of 12 months against reference and isolated bacterial strains from the different clinical samples, were tested and compared by the diffusion test. Royal jelly shows antibacterial effects against both tested gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Fresh royal jelly has the most effective antibacterial activity. Storage temperature at -40 oC slightly affects antibacterial activity of royal jelly, while storage temperature at 4 oC decreases its antibacterial activity.Key words: royal jelly, antibacterial effects, storage temperature, storage duration

  18. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoroki, Setsuko

    1998-01-01

    To establish irradiation technologies as one of alternative technology of methyl bromide fumigation, radiation sensitivities for each kind of fresh agricultural products and reduction of radiation injury were investigated. Fresh vegetables and flowers such as cabbage, sprouts, asparagus, lettuce, chrysanthemum, carnation, rose, etc. were used and irradiated with 750 Gy γ-ray. Flowers received radiation injury were soaked into various kinds of solutions for one night, then they were irradiated with 500 Gy γ-ray. They showed different radiation sensitivities. Cruciferae plant showed radioresistance and Compositae plant radiosensitivity. A keeping quality agent for cut flowers indicated protection effect on radiation injury. (S.Y.)

  19. Fresh chicken as main risk factor for campylobacteriosis, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Anne; Neimann, Jakob; Engberg, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were...... exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously frozen chicken, was only indicated from borderline significant 2-factor interactions. The marked increase...

  20. Bionic Duplication of Fresh Navodon septentrionalis Fish Surface Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Qu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic superhydrophobic surface was fabricated by replicating topography of the fresh fish skin surface of Navodon septentrionalis with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS elastomer. A two-step replicating method was developed to make the surface structure of the fresh fish skin be replicated with high fidelity. After duplication, it was found that the static contact angle of the replica was as large as 173°. Theoretic analysis based on Young's and Cassie-Baxter (C-B model was performed to explain the relationship between structure and hydrophobicity.

  1. Synergies between renewable energy and fresh water production. Scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geurts, F.; Noothout, P.; Schaap, A. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    The IEA Implementing Agreement for Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD) investigated the opportunities for coupling renewable energy systems with fresh water supply systems. The four main conclusions of the scoping study, carried out by Ecofys, are: (1) Fresh water production based on desalination technologies provide most options for synergies with renewable energy production; (2) Linking desalination to renewable sources is currently not economically viable; (3) There is a large potential for small scale (decentralised) desalination plants; (4) Current commercially-sized desalination technologies are in need of a constant operation point. Reverse osmosis and thermal membrane technologies might give future synergies as deferrable load.

  2. Fresh Chicken as Main Risk Factor for Campylobacteriosis, Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Wingstrand, Anne; Neimann, Jakob; Engberg, Jørgen; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Wegener, Henrik C.; Mølbak, Kåre

    2006-01-01

    We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1–15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously f...

  3. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoroki, Setsuko [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    To establish irradiation technologies as one of alternative technology of methyl bromide fumigation, radiation sensitivities for each kind of fresh agricultural products and reduction of radiation injury were investigated. Fresh vegetables and flowers such as cabbage, sprouts, asparagus, lettuce, chrysanthemum, carnation, rose, etc. were used and irradiated with 750 Gy {gamma}-ray. Flowers received radiation injury were soaked into various kinds of solutions for one night, then they were irradiated with 500 Gy {gamma}-ray. They showed different radiation sensitivities. Cruciferae plant showed radioresistance and Compositae plant radiosensitivity. A keeping quality agent for cut flowers indicated protection effect on radiation injury. (S.Y.)

  4. Preparation and Application of LDPE/ZnO Nanocomposites for Extending Shelf Life of Fresh Strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamifar, Aryou; Mohammadizadeh, Mehri

    2015-12-01

    Strawberries have a very short post-harvest life mostly due to their relatively high water content, intense metabolic activity and susceptibility to microbial rot. Antimicrobial low-density polyethylene nanocomposite films containing ZnO nanoparticles at different mass fractions were prepared by melt mixing and followed by compression moulding using a hot press machine. Fresh strawberries were packed in nanocomposite films and stored at 4 °C. Their microbial stability, ascorbic acid content and titratable acidity were evaluated after 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days of storage. Microbial growth rate was significantly reduced up to 16 days as a result of the use of nanocomposite packaging material containing ZnO nanoparticles. By increasing the ZnO nanoparticle mass fraction to 5%, the antimicrobial activity of the film increased. All packages containing the ZnO nanoparticles kept the microbial load of fresh strawberries below the level that affects shelf life (5 log CFU/g) up to 16 days. The lowest degradation of ascorbic acid content (6.55 mg per 100 g), and loss of acidity (0.68%) were observed in packages containing 3% of ZnO nanoparticles with 10% polyethylene-grafted maleic anhydride.

  5. Preparation and Application of LDPE/ZnO Nanocomposites for Extending Shelf Life of Fresh Strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Mohammadizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries have a very short post-harvest life mostly due to their relatively high water content, intense metabolic activity and susceptibility to microbial rot. Antimicrobial low-density polyethylene nanocomposite films containing ZnO nanoparticles at different mass fractions were prepared by melt mixing and followed by compression moulding using a hot press machine. Fresh strawberries were packed in nanocomposite films and stored at 4 °C. Their microbial stability, ascorbic acid content and titratable acidity were evaluated after 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days of storage. Microbial growth rate was significantly reduced up to 16 days as a result of the use of nanocomposite packaging material containing ZnO nanoparticles. By increasing the ZnO nanoparticle mass fraction to 5 %, the antimicrobial activity of the film increased. All packages containing the ZnO nanoparticles kept the microbial load of fresh strawberries below the level that affects shelf life (5 log CFU/g up to 16 days. The lowest degradation of ascorbic acid content (6.55 mg per 100 g, and loss of acidity (0.68 % were observed in packages containing 3 % of ZnO nanoparticles with 10 % polyethylene-grafted maleic anhydride.

  6. Preparation and Hydrogen Storage Properties of Mg-Rich Mg-Ni Ultrafine Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Mg-rich Mg-Ni ultrafine powders were prepared through an arc plasma method. The phase components, microstructure, and hydrogen storage properties of the powders were carefully investigated. It is found that Mg2Ni and MgNi2 could be obtained directly from the vapor state reactions between Mg and Ni, depending on the local vapor content in the reaction chamber. A nanostructured MgH2 + Mg2NiH4 hydrogen storage composite could be generated after hydrogenation of the Mg-Ni ultrafine powders. After dehydrogenation, MgH2 and Mg2NiH4 decomposed into nanograined Mg and Mg2Ni, respectively. Thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC analyses showed that Mg2NiH4 phase may play a catalytic role in the dehydriding process of the hydrogenated Mg ultrafine particles.

  7. Plasma free hemoglobin and microcirculatory response to fresh or old blood transfusions in sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Damiani

    Full Text Available Free hemoglobin (fHb may induce vasoconstriction by scavenging nitric oxide. It may increase in older blood units due to storage lesions. This study evaluated whether old red blood cell transfusion increases plasma fHb in sepsis and how the microvascular response may be affected.This is a secondary analysis of a randomized study. Twenty adult septic patients received either fresh or old (15 days storage, respectively RBC transfusions. fHb was measured in RBC units and in the plasma before and 1 hour after transfusion. Simultaneously, the sublingual microcirculation was assessed with sidestream-dark field imaging. The perfused boundary region was calculated as an index of glycocalyx damage. Tissue oxygen saturation (StO2 and Hb index (THI were measured with near-infrared spectroscopy and a vascular occlusion test was performed.Similar fHb levels were found in the supernatant of fresh and old RBC units. Despite this, plasma fHb increased in the old RBC group after transfusion (from 0.125 [0.098-0.219] mg/mL to 0.238 [0.163-0.369] mg/mL, p = 0.006. The sublingual microcirculation was unaltered in both groups, while THI increased. The change in plasma fHb was inversely correlated with the changes in total vessel density (r = -0.57 [95% confidence interval -0.82, -0.16], p = 0.008, De Backer score (r = -0.63 [95% confidence interval -0.84, -0.25], p = 0.003 and THI (r = -0.72 [95% confidence interval -0.88, -0.39], p = 0.0003.Old RBC transfusion was associated with an increase in plasma fHb in septic patients. Increasing plasma fHb levels were associated with decreased microvascular density.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01584999.

  8. Emerging Perspectives on the Natural Microbiome of Fresh Produce Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin R. Jackson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants harbor a diverse microbiome existing as bacterial populations on the leaf surface (the phyllosphere and within plant tissues (endophytes. The composition of this microbiome has been largely unexplored in fresh produce vegetables, where studies have tended to focus on pathogen detection and survival. However, the application of next-generation 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches is beginning to reveal the diversity of this produce-associated bacterial community. In this article we review what is known about the composition of the microbiome of fresh produce vegetables, placing it in the context of general phyllosphere research. We also demonstrate how next-generation sequencing can be used to assess the bacterial assemblages present on fresh produce, using fresh herbs as an example. That data shows how the use of such culture-independent approaches can detect groups of taxa (anaerobes, psychrophiles that may be missed by traditional culture-based techniques. Other issues discussed include questions as to whether to determine the microbiome during plant growth or at point of purchase or consumption, and the potential role of the natural bacterial community in mitigating pathogen survival.

  9. Effect of solarization with fresh chicken manure on verticillium wilt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of reducing wilt disease through the medium of fresh chicken manure (FCM) mixed with soil before solarized and then artificial Verticillium dahliae (V.d) inoculation on yield of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under field conditions. According to the splitplot design, ...

  10. Relating the Electrical Resistance of Fresh Concrete to Mixture Proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obla, K; Hong, R; Sherman, S; Bentz, D P; Jones, S Z

    2018-01-01

    Characterization of fresh concrete is critical for assuring the quality of our nation's constructed infrastructure. While fresh concrete arriving at a job site in a ready-mixed concrete truck is typically characterized by measuring temperature, slump, unit weight, and air content, here the measurement of the electrical resistance of a freshly cast cylinder of concrete is investigated as a means of assessing mixture proportions, specifically cement and water contents. Both cement and water contents influence the measured electrical resistance of a sample of fresh concrete: the cement by producing ions (chiefly K + , Na + , and OH - ) that are the main source of electrical conduction; and the water by providing the main conductive pathways through which the current travels. Relating the measured electrical resistance to attributes of the mixture proportions, such as water-cement ratio by mass ( w/c ), is explored for a set of eleven different concrete mixtures prepared in the laboratory. In these mixtures, w/c , paste content, air content, fly ash content, high range water reducer dosage, and cement alkali content are all varied. Additionally, concrete electrical resistance data is supplemented by measuring the resistivity of its component pore solution obtained from 5 laboratory-prepared cement pastes with the same proportions as their corresponding concrete mixtures. Only measuring the concrete electrical resistance can provide a prediction of the mixture's paste content or the product w*c ; conversely, when pore solution resistivity is also available, w/c and water content of the concrete mixture can be reasonably assessed.

  11. Fresh or dehydrated spineless cactus in diets for lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solano Felipe Just de Andrade

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of partial or total replacement of Tifton 85 hay with fresh or dehydrated spineless cactus on performance and body weight components of sheep. Thirty hair lambs, with 19 kg ± 0.35 kg initial weight, were randomly divided into five treatments, namely: Tifton 85 Hay (HA; Tifton 85 Hay + fresh spineless cactus (HAFC; Tifton 85 Hay + dehydrated spineless cactus (HADC; fresh spineless cactus (FC; dehydrated spineless cactus (DC. In addition to the spineless cactus and hay, the complete mixture contained soybean meal, mineral salt and limestone in all treatments. Animals were confined for 75 days and then slaughtered. The weight of body components was recorded. Dry matter intake, total digestible nutrients intake and voluntary water intake were higher (p 0.05 by treatments. The cold carcass weight, rib eye area, weight and yield of the skin, liver, kidney and large intestine were higher (p < 0.05 for the DC and HADC treatments. Partial or total replacement of Tifton 85 hay with fresh or dehydrated spineless cactus, in complete diets for sheep, increases the weight of the cold carcass and non-carcass components.

  12. Challenges with mechanical harvesting of blueberries for the fresh market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern highbush blueberries (SHB) (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are mostly hand harvested for the fresh market. Hand harvesting of blueberry is labor intensive and costly. Efforts are under way to develop blueberry genotypes that will develop less bruising after impact with hard surfaces on the harv...

  13. Microbial and Sensory Quality of Freshly Processed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were also evaluated for difference and preference. The study showed that the reconstituted beverage had better microbiological quality with detectable difference between the two samples with the fresh sample being preferred. Key words: Millet grains, Kununzaki, microbial quality, sensory quality. J Food Tech ...

  14. Effect of accessions on the chemical quality of fresh pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty (20) fresh pumpkin fruits were assessed for dry matter, total soluble solid, total sugar, reducing sugar, titratable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid and sugar-to-acid ratio. Statistically significant (P < 0.01) differences were found for dry matter, total soluble solid, total sugar, reducing sugar, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, pH ...

  15. Biodegradability of unused lubricating brake fluids in fresh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biodegradability of four unused lubricating brake fluids (Total brake fluid, Allied brake fluid, Oando brake fluid and Ate brake fluid) was carried out in fresh and marine water obtained from Isiokpo stream and Bonny river of the Niger Delta, South South Nigeria. Biodegradability, of the brake fluids were obtained after a 56 ...

  16. Shipment of VINCA Institute's HEU fresh fuel to Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, Milan; Sotic, Obrad

    2002-01-01

    This paper shows, for the first time, the basic data related to the recent shipment of the fresh HEU fuel elements from Yugoslavia back to Russia for uranium down blending. In this way, Yugoslavia gives its contribution to the RERTR program and to the world's joint efforts to prevent possible terrorist action against nuclear material potentially usable for production of nuclear weapons. (author)

  17. Steroidal saponins from fresh stems of Dracaena angustifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six new steroidal saponins (1-6), angudracanosides A-F, were isolated from fresh stems of Dracaena angustifolia, together with eight known compounds. The structures of compounds 1-6 were determined by detailed spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. Antifungal testing of all compounds showed th...

  18. Assessment of the contamination of fresh water ecosystems by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed reports and records of the contamination of fresh water ecosystem by pesticides and herbicides in irrigated rice fields and their effects on fish production. It highlights pesticides and herbicides application in agriculture in view of the transfer and degradation processes. The pesticides often remain ...

  19. Determination of long-term effects of consecutive effective fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the weed density and the most economical way of weed control in eggplant (Solanum melongena) fields contaminated with Verticillium dahliae (Kleb) after the application of fresh chicken manure and solarization in the second year as the same crop was grown. The effect of solarization ...

  20. Post-harvest decay in fresh-cut lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelf-life of fresh-cut lettuce was assessed in two mapping population (Salinas 88 x La Brillante, and Pavane x Parade. The most significant QTL was detected in both populations on linkage group 4. This QTL was detected in seven experiments grown in different environments. Molecular markers are bein...

  1. HACCP implementation in the production of fresh-cut produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The number of foodborne illness outbreaks linked to fresh produce has increased in the last few years. Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella have been implicated as major bacterial pathogens of concern to produce safety. Microbial contamination of produce may occur anytime during the prod...

  2. Fresh heat is in demand; Frische Waerme ist beliebt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augsten, Eva

    2012-10-22

    Increasingly, solar heat customers are getting their hot water fresh from the flow-through station, even in single-family dwellings. Stations are getting more compact, more intelligent, and also more efficient. So-called legionella filters should be used with caution.

  3. Shear rheological properties of fresh human faeces with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-11

    Mar 11, 2014 ... Short communication. Shear rheological properties of fresh human faeces with different moisture content. SM Woolley1, RS Cottingham1, J Pocock1 and CA Buckley1*. 1Pollution Research Group, School of Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, King George V Avenue, Berea 4041, South Africa.

  4. Uptake of tritiated lysine by fresh water alga, Scenedesmus obliquus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogate, S.S.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium uptake by fresh water alga. S.obliquus was studied using tritium labelled lysine, and a sequential solvent extraction procedure was used to study the distribution of tritium in different organic constituents of the algal cells. The accumulation of tritium in the algal cells was found to be 3-4 orders of magnitude more than that obtained for tritiated water. (author)

  5. Incidence of chilling injury in fresh-cut 'Kent' mangoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The preferred storage temperature for fresh-cut fruits in terms of visual quality retention is around 5 °C, which is considered to be a chilling temperature for chilling sensitive tropical fruits like mango (Mangifera indica L.). Changes in visual and compositional quality factors, aroma volatile pr...

  6. Fresh fish ( Clarias gariepinus ) marketing system in major towns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate marketing system, market channel, nature of costs, market margins and the factors determining the marketing profit of fresh fish (Clarias gariepinus) in major towns in Ibarapa Zone, Oyo state. Data were collected through the use of questionnaire administered to the fish traders.

  7. Internet Usage In The Fresh Produce Supply Chainin China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoxiao; Duan, Yanqing; Fu, Zetian; Liu, Xue

    Although effective implementation of the Internet technologies has a great potential for improving efficiency and reducing wastage within the fresh produce supply chain. the situation of the Internet usage by SMEs (small and medium sized enterprises) in the fresh produce supply chain is still unclear in China. As the main players, SMEs haven't been given enough attention from both academics and governments. Therefore, this research attempts to address this issue by, first, investigating the current usage of the Internet and related software by Chinese SMEs in the fresh produce supply chain, and then, by identifying enablers and barriers faced by SMEs to call government's attention. As a part of an EU-Asia IT&C funded project, a survey was carried out with SMEs in this industry from five major cities in China. The results reveal that in the relatively developed areas of China, SMEs in the fresh produce supply chain are rapidly adopting the Internet and software packages, but the level of adoption varies greatly and there is a significant lack of integration among the supply chain partners. Chinese SMEs are keen to embrace emerging technologies and have acted to adopt new software and tools. Given that cost of implementation is not a barrier, their concern over legal protection and online security must be addressed for further development.

  8. Laboratory evaluation of freshly prepared juice from garlic ( Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistically significant (P<0.05) reduced grain loss was also observed in all the treatments when compared with the control. The juice prepared from an indigenous Nigerian garlic cultivar (GUN) was more lethal (causing 93% adult mortality), when applied topically on the freshly emerged S. zeamais adults, compared to the ...

  9. Availability of Fresh Produce in Nutrition Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Alexandria, VA. Office of Analysis and Evaluation.

    Noting that fruit and vegetable consumption is an important component of a balanced diet consistent with the "Dietary Guidelines for Americans" and the Food Guide Pyramid, this report fulfills a request from the Appropriations Committee Directives to analyze current levels of fresh produce in Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutritional…

  10. Osmotic Power: A Fresh Look at an Old Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Pam

    2014-01-01

    Electricity from osmotic pressure might seem a far-fetched idea but this article describes a prototype in Norway where the osmotic pressure generated between salt and fresh water drives a turbine. This idea was applied in a student investigation, where they were tasked with researching which alternative materials could be used for the…

  11. Simulation of heavy metal contamination of fresh water bodies: toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    www.bioline.org.br/ja. Simulation of heavy metal contamination of fresh water bodies: toxic effects in the ... 96 hours (though sampling was done at the 48th hour). Biochemical markers of ... silver, while enhancing the bioavailability of mercury in Ceriodaphnia ..... Biochemical and molecular disorders of bilirubin metabolism.

  12. Fresh frozen cadaver workshops for advanced vascular surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Shirley; Cowie, Margaret; Linehan, John; Hamdorf, Jeffery M

    2014-11-01

    Reduction in working hours, streamlined training schemes and increasing use of endovascular techniques has meant a reduction in operative experience for newer vascular surgical trainees, especially those exposures which are not routinely performed such as thoracoabdominal, thoracotomy and retroperitoneal aortic, for example. This paper describes an Advanced Anatomy of Exposure course which was designed and convened at the Clinical Training & Evaluation Centre in Western Australia and uses fresh frozen cadavers. Feedback was obtained from the participants who attended over three courses by questionnaire. Feedback was strongly positive for the course meeting both its learning outcomes and personal learning objectives, and in addition, making a significant contribution to specialty skills. Most participants thought the fresh frozen cadaveric model significantly improved the learning objectives for training. The fresh frozen cadaver is an excellent teaching model highly representative of the living open surgical scenario where advanced trainees and newly qualified consultants can improve their operative confidence and consequently patient safety in vascular surgery. An efficient fresh frozen cadaver teaching programme can benefit many health professionals simultaneously maximizing the use of donated human tissue. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  13. Effect of salinity stress on plant fresh weight and nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of salinity stress on plant fresh weight and nutrient composition of some Canola ( Brassica napus L.) cultivars. ... K+, Ca2+ and K+/Na+ contents in plants decreased by salt stress, but Na+ and Cl- content in the roots, ... from 32 Countries:.

  14. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analysed the strontium-90 and Cesium-137 contents in fresh water from 7 prefectures in Japan by the commission of Science and Technology Agency of Japanese Government. The method described in ''Radioactivity Survey Data in Japan No. 43 (NIRS-RSD-43, 1977) was applied to the analysis of these two radionuclides in samples. (author)

  15. Comparative Study of Antibacterial Activities of the Fresh and Dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fresh and dried fruit extracts of Capsicum species were screened for antibacterial activities against Staph. aureus, S. typhi and B. subtilis using two assay methods. The filter disk and agar plate diffusion were the assay methods employed in the study. The results of the study revealed that the extracts obtained from the ...

  16. Semi-continuous anaerobic treatment of fresh leachate from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A semi-continuous leachate treatment process was developed in the present study. The fresh leachate was obtained from a municipal solid waste transfer station and palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge was used as sources of anaerobic microbial complex. The semi-continuous treatment of leachate was operated in two ...

  17. Microbiota analysis to reveal temperature abuse of fresh pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschhardt, Tasja; Bahl, Martin Iain; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2017-01-01

    whether temperature induced changes in the community composition on fresh meat surfaces can reflect the temperature-history (combination of time and temperature). Sterile pieces of pork were inoculated with a carcass swab homogenate, to which Salmonella was added. Changes in the meat microbiota were...

  18. Huge increases in bacterivores on freshly killed barley roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S.; Griffiths, B.; Ekelund, Flemming

    1992-01-01

    Adding fresh roots to intact soil cores resulted in marked increases in microbial and microfaunal activity at the resource islands. Microbial activity increased in two phases following root addition. Respiratory activity and concentration of respiratory enzyme (dehydrogenase) in soil adhering to ...

  19. Color image segmentation to detect defects on fresh ham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty-Mahe, Pascale; Loisel, Philippe; Brossard, Didier

    2003-04-01

    We present in this paper the color segmentation methods that were used to detect appearance defects on 3 dimensional shape of fresh ham. The use of color histograms turned out to be an efficient solution to characterize the healthy skin, but a special care must be taken to choose the color components because of the 3 dimensional shape of ham.

  20. Supply chain risks and smallholder fresh produce farmers in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of 52 smallholder fresh produce farmers was conducted in the Gauteng province of South Africa to grasp how risk and its management affect the mainstreaming of smallholder farmers into formal, high-value markets. The study employed a supply chain analysis approach, which focused on the functions and risks ...

  1. 77 FR 10772 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing duty order and antidumping duty order on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would not... and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-302 and 731-TA-454 (Third Review...

  2. Genetic by environment interaction on fresh root yield, dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighteen yellow-fleshed cassava genotypes and two released white-fleshed clones (check) were evaluated in five locations representing the major cassava growing agroecological zones of Nigeria to access their performance for fresh root yield, dry matter content, total carotene content and genotypes by environment ...

  3. Bacterial spoilage of fresh meat in some selected Lagos markets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the bacteria associated with spoilage of fresh meat was carried out. The flora causing spoilage of meat include Alcaligenes liquefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Lactobacillus sp., Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sarcina sp. Serratia ...

  4. Aroma volatile compounds from two fresh pineapple varieties in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang-Yong; Sun, Guang-Ming; Liu, Yu-Ge; Lv, Ling-Ling; Yang, Wen-Xiu; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Wei, Chang-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Volatile compounds from two pineapples varieties (Tainong No.4 and No.6) were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In the Tainong No. 4 and No. 6 pineapples, a total of 11 and 28 volatile compounds were identified according to their retention time on capillary columns and their mass spectra, and quantified with total concentrations of 1080.44 μg·kg(-1) and 380.66 μg·kg(-1) in the Tainong No.4 and No. 6 pineapples, respectively. The odor active values (OAVs) of volatile compounds from pineapples were also calculated. According to the OAVs, four compounds were defined as the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 4 pineapple, including furaneol, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid methyl ester, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid ethyl ester and δ-octalactone. The OAVs of five compounds including ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl-2-methylbutyrate, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl hexanoate and decanal were considered to be the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 6 pineapple.

  5. Pharmacodynamic correlations using fresh and cryopreserved tissue following use of vaginal rings containing dapivirine and/or maraviroc in a randomized, placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezzutti, Charlene S; Richardson-Harman, Nicola; Rohan, Lisa C; Marzinke, Mark A; Hoesley, Craig J; Panther, Lori; Johnson, Sherri; Nuttall, Jeremy P; Nel, Annalene; Chen, Beatrice A

    2016-07-01

    The ex vivo challenge assay is a bio-indicator of drug efficacy and was utilized in this randomized, placebo controlled trial as one of the exploratory endpoints. Fresh and cryopreserved tissues were evaluated for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) relationships. HIV-negative women used vaginal rings containing 25 mg dapivirine (DPV)/100 mg maraviroc (MVC) (n = 12), DPV only (n = 12), MVC only (n = 12), or placebo (n = 12) for 28 days. Blood plasma, cervicovaginal fluid (CVF), and cervical biopsies were collected for drug quantification and the ex vivo challenge assay; half (fresh) were exposed immediately to HIV while the other half were cryopreserved, thawed, then exposed to HIV. HIV replication was monitored by p24 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from culture supernatant. Data were log-transformed and analyzed by linear least squared regression, nonlinear Emax dose-response model and Satterthwaite t test. HIV replication was greater in fresh compared to cryopreserved tissue (P = 0.04). DPV was detected in all compartments, while MVC was consistently detected only in CVF. Significant negative correlations between p24 and DPV levels were observed in fresh cervical tissue (P = 0.01) and CVF (P = 0.03), but not plasma. CVF MVC levels showed a significant negative correlation with p24 levels (P = 0.03); drug levels in plasma and tissue were not correlated with HIV suppression. p24 levels from cryopreserved tissue did not correlate to either drug from any compartment. Fresh tissue replicated HIV to greater levels and defined PK/PD relationships while cryopreserved tissue did not. The ex vivo challenge assay using fresh tissue could prioritize drugs being considered for HIV prevention.

  6. Alterations of Mg2+ After Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mun-Young; Yang, Dong Kwon; Kim, Shang-Jin

    2017-11-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is generally characterized by hemodynamic instability with cellular hypoxia and diminishing cellular function, resulting from an imbalance between systemic oxygen delivery and consumption and redistribution of fluid and electrolytes. Magnesium (Mg) is the fourth most abundant cation overall and second most abundant intracellular cation in the body and an essential cofactor for the energy production and cellular metabolism. Data for blood total Mg (tMg; free-ionized, protein-bound, and anion-bound forms) and free Mg 2+ levels after a traumatic injury are inconsistent and only limited information is available on hemorrhagic effects on free Mg 2+ as the physiologically active form. The aim of this study was to determine changes in blood Mg 2+ and tMg after hemorrhage in rats identifying mechanism and origin of the changes in blood Mg 2+ . Hemorrhagic shock produced significant increases in blood Mg 2+ , plasma tMg, Na + , K + , Cl - , anion gap, partial pressures of oxygen, glucose, and blood urea nitrogen but significant decreases in RBC tMg, blood Ca 2+ , HCO 3 - , pH, partial pressures of carbon dioxide, hematocrit, hemoglobin, total cholesterol, and plasma/RBC ATP. During hemorrhagic shock, K + , anion gap, and BUN showed significant positive correlations with changes in blood Mg 2+ level, while Ca 2+ , pH, and T-CHO correlated to Mg 2+ in a negative manner. In conclusion, hemorrhagic shock induced an increase in both blood-free Mg 2+ and tMg, resulted from Mg 2+ efflux from metabolic damaged cell with acidosis and ATP depletion.

  7. The 1064 nm laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) inspection to detect the nutrient elements in freshly cut carrot samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudasari, N.; Prasetyo, S.; Suliyanti, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was applied to detect the nutrient elements contained in fresh carrot. Nd:YAG laser the wavelength of 1064 nm was employed in the experiments for ablation. Employing simple set-up of LIBS and preparing the sample with less step method, we are able to detect 18 chemical elements including some fundamental element of carrot, i.e Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Ca, and Mn. By applying normalized profiles calculation on some of the element, we are able to compare the concentration level of each element of the outer and inner part of carrot.

  8. Biogenic amines as freshness index of meat wrapped in a new active packaging system formulated with essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirocchi, Veronica; Caprioli, Giovanni; Cecchini, Cinzia; Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cresci, Alberto; Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are considered as an important indicator of freshness and quality of food. In this work, a new active packaging (AP) system for meat that, incorporating essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis at 4% (w/w), inhibits the increase of BAs and the bacteria involved into their production was developed. BAs were analyzed by a SPE-HPLC-DAD method during the storage time of meat (0-7 d, 4 °C). Results showed that, in each monitored day, Biogenic Amine Index (BAI) expressed in mg kg(-1) is lower in meat wrapped in AP with respect to that packed in polycoupled packaging (PP) (from 19% to 62%). A strong correlation was found between the inhibition of increase of putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and their bacteria producers such as Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and Brocothrix thermospacta. By exploiting antimicrobial and antioxidant action of essential oil of R. officinalis, the new APs contribute to increase the shelf life of fresh meat and to preserve its important nutrients.

  9. Modeling and stabilities of Mg/MgH2 interfaces: A first-principles investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Jun Tang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have theoretically investigated the modeling and the structural stabilities of various Mg/MgH2 interfaces, i.e. Mg(101¯0/MgH2(210, Mg(0001/MgH2(101 and Mg(101¯0/MgH2(101, and provided illuminating insights into Mg/MgH2 interface. Specifically, the main factors, which impact the interfacial energies, are fully considered, including surface energies of two phases, mutual lattice constants of interface model, and relative position of two phases. The surface energies of Mg and MgH2, on the one hand, are found to be greatly impacting the interfacial energies, reflected by the lowest interfacial energy of Mg(0001/MgH2(101 which is comprised of two lowest energy surfaces. On the other hand, it is demonstrated that the mutual lattice constants and the relative position of two phases lead to variations of interfacial energies, thus influencing the interface stabilities dramatically. Moreover, the Mg-H bonding at interface is found to be the determinant of Mg/MgH2 interface stability. Lastly, interfacial and strain effects on defect formations are also studied, both of which are highly facilitating the defect formations. Our results provide a detailed insight into Mg/MgH2 interface structures and the corresponding stabilities.

  10. Dietary utilisation of protein and energy from fresh and ensiled coffee pulp by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Moreau

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein and energy utilisation of diets containing fresh and ensiled coffee pulp were studied on 3.2 ± 0.2 g Nile tilapia for 28 days. Diets formulation and feeding were designed on the basis of daily dietary protein and energy allowance. A control diet A (100 % protein and 100 % energy allowance corresponding to 15 g CP kg-1 day-1 and 750 kJ kg-1 day-1, a low protein control diet B (80 % protein and 100 % energy allowance, two diets C and E (100 % protein and 100 % energy allowance where 20 % of protein were supplied by coffee pulp, and two diets D and F with the same amount of coffee pulp than in C and E and supplementation in non-protein energy. Inclusion of coffee pulp in the diet strongly impaired growth and feed utilisation. Silage process improved overall feed utilisation comparing to fresh coffee pulp. Results showed that fresh or ensiled coffee pulp was not a suitable feedstuff for Nile tilapia. However, better knowledge on modification occurring during silage process could allow finding the way to significantly improve nutritive value of coffee pulp by-products.Polpa de café ensilada foi utilizada na dieta calórica-protéica de Tilápia do Nilo na razão de 3.2 g ± 0,2 durante um período de 28 dias. As dietas calórico-protéica foram formuladas com base na ingestão diária permitida. Uma dieta A controle (100% de proteína e 100% da energia que corresponde a g PC/kg/dia e 750 Kj/Kg/dia, uma dieta B baixa em proteína (80% de proteína e 100% da energia, duas dietas C e E (100% de proteína e 100% da energia onde 20% da proteína foi suplementada com polpa de café e duas dietas D e F com a mesma concentração de polpa de café é prejudicial a dieta de crescimento. O processo de ensilagem melhorou sua utilização como alimento em comparação com a polpa de café fresca. Os resultados demonstraram que a polpa fresca ou ensilada não é para ser usada como alimentação de Tilápia do Nilo. Entretanto, uma melhor

  11. Integration of antimicrobial pectin-based edible coating and active modified atmosphere packaging to preserve the quality and microbial safety of fresh-cut persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. Rojo Brillante).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchís, Elena; Ghidelli, Christian; Sheth, Chirag C; Mateos, Milagros; Palou, Lluís; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2017-01-01

    The greatest hurdle to the commercial marketing of fresh-cut fruits is related to their higher susceptibility to enzymatic browning, tissue softening, and microbial growth. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a pectin-based edible coating and low oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) to control enzymatic browning and reduce microbial growth of fresh-cut 'Rojo Brillante' persimmon. The survival of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes artificially inoculated on fresh-cut fruit was also assessed. The pectin coating was amended with 500 IU mL -1 nisin (NI) as antimicrobial agent and 10 g kg -1 citric acid and 10 g kg -1 calcium chloride as anti-browning and firming agents, respectively. Persimmon slices were dipped in the coating or in water (control) and packed under 5 kPa O 2 (MAP) or in ambient atmosphere for up to 9 days at 5 °C. Microbial growth, package gas composition, colour, firmness, polyphenol oxidase activity, visual quality and overall sensory flavour of persimmon slices were measured during storage. Coating application combined with active MAP significantly reduced the CO 2 emission and O 2 consumption in the package. The coating was effective in reducing browning and also inhibited the growth of mesophilic aerobic bacteria. Coating also reduced the populations of E. coli, S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes. The combination of the pectin-based edible coating and active MAP proved to be the most effective treatment to maintain the sensory and microbiological quality of persimmon slices for more than 9 days of storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Ethnobotanical survey of usage of fresh medicinal plants in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Yin-Yin; Zareisedehizadeh, Sogand; Seetoh, Wei-Guang; Neo, Soek-Ying; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2014-09-29

    The use of medicinal plants in human health has been documented since ancient times and they provide a useful source of new therapeutics. In Singapore, despite the accessibility to modern healthcare, there still exist pockets of the population who choose to use locally grown fresh medicinal plants for health promotion and even therapeutic purposes. However to date, there is no published report of first-hand account of their usage in Singapore. As land is scarce and rapidly used for re-development, such important knowledge may be lost if not properly documented in time. This work safeguards the local folk knowledge, and provides information on common and scarcely reported fresh medicinal plants. The objective of this study is to gather information regarding the usage of fresh medicinal plants in Singapore through face-to-face interviews. Information on demographic data and plant-use methods were collated via face-to-face interviews of 200 fresh medicinal plant users who have used fresh medicinal plants in the last five years. The survey protocol was approved by the National University of Singapore Institutional Review Board and informed consent was obtained from every participant. A total of 414 plants represented by 104 plant species from 44 families were reportedly used by the 200 participants. The five most commonly used plants were Clinacanthus nutans (34 users), Strobilanthes crispus (31 users), Pereskia bleo (25 users), Aloe vera (18 users) and Zingiber officinale (16 users). Leaves were the most commonly used plant part while preparing a decoction was the most common method of preparation. The majority of interviewees used plants for general health purposes and to treat diseases related to the respiratory system and cancer. Our survey has successfully documented the rich wealth of traditional usage and knowledge on 414 fresh medicinal plants grown in Singapore through face-to-face interviews with 200 users. This study will serve as a useful resource for

  13. Microbiology of organic and conventionally grown fresh produce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele F. Maffei

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fresh produce is a generalized term for a group of farm-produced crops, including fruits and vegetables. Organic agriculture has been on the rise and attracting the attention of the food production sector, since it uses eco-agricultural principles that are ostensibly environmentally-friendly and provides products potentially free from the residues of agrochemicals. Organic farming practices such as the use of animal manure can however increase the risk of contamination by enteric pathogenic microorganisms and may consequently pose health risks. A number of scientific studies conducted in different countries have compared the microbiological quality of produce samples from organic and conventional production and results are contradictory. While some have reported greater microbial counts in fresh produce from organic production, other studies do not. This manuscript provides a brief review of the current knowledge and summarizes data on the occurrence of pathogenic microorganisms in vegetables from organic production.

  14. Effectiveness of Gamma Irradiated Chitosan for Fresh Meat Preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a food preservative of natural origin that has drawn the attention of scientists working in the field of radiation processing and natural polymer products development. The effectiveness of 1% chitosan (CS) and chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) (chitosan subjected to γ irradiation, 50 or 100 kGy) dipping to preserve fresh beef slices during refrigerated storage was investigated. The microbiological quality, lipid and color stability were evaluated. The results revealed that dipping in 1% CS, COS 50 and COS 100 significantly (Ρ< 0.05) improved the microbiological quality and reduced lipid oxidation in beef samples compared to the control samples. On day 7, control samples were considered rejected from the microbiological and lipid oxidation point of view. Dipping in 1% COS 100 significantly (p< 0.05) influenced color properties compared with the other groups. It could be concluded that dipping in 1% COS improved quality parameters of fresh beef and could be used in preservation.

  15. Meat and fish freshness inspection system based on odor sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najam ul Hasan; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2012-11-09

    We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor), and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy.

  16. Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Seok Kim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor, and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy.

  17. Fresh pasta production enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Cesar Lemes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the enrichment of Spirulina platensis in wheat flour to prepare fresh pasta to evaluate the green color and nutritional enrichment in addition to functional properties due to the presence of the bioactive compounds in the cyanobacterium. The pastas were evaluated for the centesimal composition, microbiological contamination, sensorial acceptance and technological characteristics such as cooking time, water absorption, volume displacement and loss of solids. The superior protein contents and the satisfactory technological and sensorial attributes compared with the control with no cyanobacterium showed the usefulness of incorporating S. platensis biomass in the fresh pastas. The microbiological quality was in compliance with the legislation in force. The sensorial quality was considered satisfactory (“liked very much” and purchase intention high (“probably would buy”.

  18. Drop testing of the Westinghouse fresh nuclear fuel package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.; Sanders, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the Westinghouse Columbia Fuel Fabrication Facility has been faced with increasing pressure from utilities that wished to take the fuel in their nuclear power plants to higher burnups. To help accommodate this trend, Westinghouse has determined that it needs the ability to increase the enrichment of the fresh fuel it delivers to its customers. One critical step in this process is to certify a new (Type A, fissile) fresh fuel package design that has the capability to transport fuel with a higher enrichment than was previously available. A prototype package was tested in support of the Safety Analysis Report of the Packaging. This paper provides detailed information on those tests and their results

  19. Chemical interaction of fresh and saline waters with compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Lehikoinen, J.; Melamed, A.; Pitkaenen, P.

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of compacted sodium bentonite with fresh and saline ground-water simulant was studied. The parameters varied in the experiments were the compositions of the solutions and oxygen and carbon dioxide content in the surroundings. The main interests of the study were the chemical changes in the experimental solution, bentonite porewater and bentonite together with the microstructural properties of bentonite. The major processes with fresh water were the diffusion of sodium, potassium, sulphate, bicarbonate and chloride from bentonite to the solution, and the diffusion of calcium and magnesium from the solution into bentonite. The major processes in the experiments with saline water were the diffusion of the sodium, magnesium, sulphate and bicarbonate from bentonite into the solution, and the diffusion of calcium from the solution into bentonite

  20. The relaxation phenomena of radicals induced in irradiated fresh mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Morishita, Norio; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko

    2009-01-01

    Using the γ-irradiated fresh mangoes followed by freeze-drying and powderization, electron spin resonance spectrometry of specimens was performed. As a result, a strong single peak in the flesh, the pericarp and the seed was observed at g=2.004 and attributed to organic free radicals. When relaxation times of the peak was calculated using the method of Lund et al., T 2 showed dose responses according to increasing doses while T 1 was almost constant. Dose responsibility of the relaxation time T 2 obtained from flesh specimens of the mangoes could be measured regardless of the preservation period of 1 to 9 days following γ-irradiation. Therefore, there might be possible to detect the irradiation treatment of fresh mangoes using relaxation time T 2 . (author)

  1. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoroki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru

    1999-01-01

    Radiation exposure has been paid attention as an alternative technique of methylbromide to protect agricultural products against insects. However, it has been pointed out that radiation at a dose lower than 300-400 Gy necessary for insecticidal effects might produce damages in fresh agricultural products. To reduce such radiation damages, radiation sensitivities of various fresh products were determined to clarify whether sugar treatment is effective for reduction of damages. Further, the timing of the treatment and its influence on the metabolism of agricultural product were investigated. When sucrose was added to a cut flower of chrysanthemum via water before and during irradiation, the withering time of its leaves and flowers was earlier than that of the untreated product, whereas continuous administration of sucrose after radiation exposure caused to lengthen the flower's life and delay the leave's yellowing. Thus, it was indicated that continuous sugar supply after irradiation was effective for prevention of radiation damages. (M.N.)

  2. Fog as a fresh-water resource: overview and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Otto; Schemenauer, Robert S; Lummerich, Anne; Cereceda, Pilar; Marzol, Victoria; Corell, David; van Heerden, Johan; Reinhard, Dirk; Gherezghiher, Tseggai; Olivier, Jana; Osses, Pablo; Sarsour, Jamal; Frost, Ernst; Estrela, María J; Valiente, José A; Fessehaye, Gebregiorgis Mussie

    2012-05-01

    The collection of fog water is a simple and sustainable technology to obtain fresh water for afforestation, gardening, and as a drinking water source for human and animal consumption. In regions where fresh water is sparse and fog frequently occurs, it is feasible to set up a passive mesh system for fog water collection. The mesh is directly exposed to the atmosphere, and the foggy air is pushed through the mesh by the wind. Fog droplets are deposited on the mesh, combine to form larger droplets, and run down passing into a storage tank. Fog water collection rates vary dramatically from site to site but yearly averages from 3 to 10 l m(-2) of mesh per day are typical of operational projects. The scope of this article is to review fog collection projects worldwide, to analyze factors of success, and to evaluate the prospects of this technology.

  3. Importance of Seed Quality for the Fresh-cut Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Shetty, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Seed is the most fundamental input in vegetable production on, which the effectiveness of other inputs and outputs depends. If the seed is of poor quality, the use of other inputs is less successful and will occasionally be irrelevant. A definition of seed quality will depend upon the use for......, which the seed is intended. Viability, vigor, uniformity, purity and health of the seeds are quality parameters important for all production systems. The ideal situation for both fresh produce and fresh cut would be seeds, which germinate uniform at a high percentage and subsequently grow relatively...... fast to the desired size, thus, resulting in leaves of improved quality. It is likely that such leaves will be more able to withstand the rigorous processing that includes harvest, transportation, washing, sanitization, de-watering and packaging. This ideal situation would both be determined...

  4. Comparative evaluation of maceration and ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from fresh olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Junlin; Xu, Zhou; Xiang, Chunrong; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Lijun; Li, Tian; Yang, Zeshen; Ding, Chunbang

    2017-07-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and maceration extraction (ME) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) for total phenolic compounds (TPC) from fresh olives. The main phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of TPC were also investigated. The optimized result for UAE was 22mL/g of liquid-solid ratio, 47°C of extraction temperature and 30min of extraction time, 7.01mg/g of yielding, and for ME was 24mL/g of liquid-solid ratio, 50°C of extraction temperature and 4.7h of extraction time, 5.18mg/g of yielding. The HPLC analysis revealed that the extracts by UAE and ME possessed 14 main phenolic compounds, and UAE exhibited more amounts of all phenols than ME. The most abundant phenolic compounds in olive extracts were hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein and rutin. Both extracts showed excellent antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, UAE could effectively increase the yield of phenolic compounds from olives. In addition these phenolic compounds could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determinants of Fresh Fish Purchasing Behavior Among Malaysian Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahi Farah Ahmed; Zainalabidin Mohamed and Mohd Mansor Ismail

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates demographic and attitudinal characteristics that can affect the purchase decisions of marine fish among Malaysian consumers. A survey was conducted on Kuala Lumpur households using structured questionnaires. Seven hundred respondents were randomly interviewed with regard to their buying behaviour pattern, attitude and perception on fresh marine fish consumption. The data were analyzed using a logit binary model. It was found that the size and income of the households, g...

  6. Sorption of cobalt and zinc from fresh water and seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnoldus, R.; Weijden, C.H. van der; Das, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    The adsorption of Cosup(II) and Znsup(II) from artificial fresh and sea water on to clay minerals is studied. The adsorption isotherms are measured at pH-values of 7 and 8. The specific adsorption of zinc is higher than that of cobalt. This is compatible with the higher average residence time of cobalt than that of zinc in the oceans

  7. Microbiology of organic and conventionally grown fresh produce

    OpenAIRE

    Maffei, Daniele F.; Batalha, Erika Y.; Landgraf, Mariza; Schaffner, Donald W.; Franco, Bernadette D.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fresh produce is a generalized term for a group of farm-produced crops, including fruits and vegetables. Organic agriculture has been on the rise and attracting the attention of the food production sector, since it uses eco-agricultural principles that are ostensibly environmentally-friendly and provides products potentially free from the residues of agrochemicals. Organic farming practices such as the use of animal manure can however increase the risk of contamination by enteric pat...

  8. [The personalised donation of fresh breastmilk in neonatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Gwénaëlle

    2016-01-01

    Donation of fresh breastmilk in neonatology is subject to guidelines set out in a 1997 memorandum and recommendations issued in 2005. The results of a survey carried out in 2013 show that practices in this area vary greatly from one neonatology unit to another. There is a clear need to adopt a national consensus regarding the conditions of this donation in neonatology, in order to adapt and standardise practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Survival and growth of fresh and stored planting stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Ruth

    1953-01-01

    Does planting stock that has been kept in storage survive and grow as well as freshly dug stock? This question is important because the ground at a forest nursery may still be frozen when spring planting time arrives in the warmer parts of the region. This means that seedlings for spring planting need to be dug in the fall, kept in cold storage over winter, and shipped...

  10. Nutrients, phytochemicals, fungal flora and aflatoxin in fresh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effect of salting on the pH, phytochemicals, fungal flora and nutrient composition of Vernonia amygdalina leaves was investigated. There was a decrease in pH from 5.88 for the fresh, to 5.80, 5.73, 5.24, and 5.02 for the light brined, light salted, heavy salted and light brine + vinegar treated leaves, ...

  11. Muscle characteristics only partially explain color variations in fresh hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stufft, K; Elgin, J; Patterson, B; Matarneh, S K; Preisser, R; Shi, H; England, E M; Scheffler, T L; Mills, E W; Gerrard, D E

    2017-06-01

    Fresh hams display significant lean color variation that persists through further processing and contributes to a less desirable cured product. In an attempt to understand the underlying cause of this color disparity, we evaluated the differences in muscle characteristics and energy metabolites across semimembranosus (SM) muscles differing in color variation. The L* (lightness) and a* (redness) values were highest and lowest (Pham color variation but suggest other factors may mitigate or exacerbate these variances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Environmental Kuznets Curve: Exploring a Fresh Specification

    OpenAIRE

    David Bradford; Rebecca Schlieckert; Stephen H. Shore

    2000-01-01

    Using a new specification, we reanalyze the data on worldwide environmental quality investigated by Gene Grossman and Alan Krueger in a well-known paper on the environmental Kuznets curve (which postulates an inverse U shaped relationship between income level and pollution). The new specification enables us to draw conclusions from fixed effects estimation. In general, we find support for the environmental Kuznets curve for some pollutants and for its rejection in other cases. The fresh speci...

  13. Fresh Air Practices in English and Scottish Homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    This article presents anthropological research results on how and why English and Scottish families use the fresh air from outside into the home (FAFOH). The introducing exchange was often heard in the English and Scottish families visited. Throughout the entire study the opposite only occurred...... in a few cases: The man opening the window, the woman closing it, in her own words: ”so that I stay snug”....

  14. Transformation of Mg-bearing amorphous calcium carbonate to Mg-calcite - In situ monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purgstaller, Bettina; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Immenhauser, Adrian; Dietzel, Martin

    2016-02-01

    The formation of Mg-bearing calcite via an amorphous precursor is a poorly understood process that is of relevance for biogenic and abiogenic carbonate precipitation. In order to gain an improved insight on the controls of Mg incorporation in calcite formed via an Mg-rich amorphous calcium carbonate (Mg-ACC) precursor, the precipitation of Mg-ACC and its transformation to Mg-calcite was monitored by in situ Raman spectroscopy. The experiments were performed at 25.0 ± 0.03 °C and pH 8.3 ± 0.1 and revealed two distinct pathways of Mg-calcite formation: (i) At initial aqueous Mg/Ca molar ratios ⩽ 1:6, Mg-calcite formation occurs via direct precipitation from solution. (ii) Conversely, at higher initial Mg/Ca molar ratios, Mg-calcite forms via an intermediate Mg-rich ACC phase. In the latter case, the final product is a calcite with up to 20 mol% Mg. This Mg content is significant higher than that of the Mg-rich ACC precursor phase. Thus, a strong net uptake of Mg ions from the solution into the crystalline precipitate throughout and also subsequent to ACC transformation is postulated. Moreover, the temporal evolution of the geochemical composition of the reactive solution and the Mg-ACC has no significant effect on the obtained ;solubility product; of Mg-ACC. The enrichment of Mg in calcite throughout and subsequent to Mg-ACC transformation is likely affected by the high aqueous Mg/Ca ratio and carbonate alkalinity concentrations in the reactive solution. The experimental results have a bearing on the formation mechanism of Mg-rich calcites in marine early diagenetic environments, where high carbonate alkalinity concentrations are the rule rather than the exception, and on the insufficiently investigated inorganic component of biomineralisation pathways in many calcite secreting organisms.

  15. Diagnose nutricional de cafeeiros da região do Alto Jequitinhonha (MG: normas dris e faixas críticas de nutrientes Nutritional diagnosis of coffee plantations in the Upper Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: dris norms and critical nutrient ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Múcio Mágno de Melo Farnezi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As normas do Sistema Integrado de Diagnose e Recomendação (DRIS ainda não foram estabelecidas para a cultura do café do Alto Jequitinhonha, MG, o que impede que o DRIS seja aplicado nos cafeeiros da região. A diagnose foliar, mediante o uso do DRIS e de faixas críticas de referência, destaca-se entre as ferramentas potenciais que permitem usar eficientemente os fertilizantes. Desse modo, este trabalho objetiva estabelecer as normas DRIS, bem como estimar os valores das faixas críticas dos nutrientes de referência para a diagnose nutricional de cafeeiros da região do Alto Jequitinhonha, por meio do DRIS. Determinaram-se os teores foliares de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn em 52 lavouras cafeeiras, em duas safras (2005 e 2006. Foram selecionadas, para estabelecer as normas DRIS, 23 lavouras em cada safra com produtividade maior e igual a 30 sacas de grãos de café por hectare. As faixas críticas obtidas do DRIS, determinando-se a frequência com que o teor de cada nutriente das lavouras nas duas safras foi deficiente, adequado ou excessivo em relação aos padrões mencionados e teores considerados adequados pela literatura. As normas DRIS foram estabelecidas para cafeeiros da região do Alto Jequitinhonha e utilizadas para propor faixas críticas adequadas. Para isso, foram estabelecidos os valores para N (2,25-2,79 dag kg-1, P (0,18-0,22 dag kg-1, K (1,72-2,10 dag kg-1, Ca (1,26-1,51 dag kg-1, Mg (0,29-0,35 dag kg-1, S (0,13-0,32 dag kg-1, B (83,8-96,3 mg kg-1, Cu (5,7-9,3 mg kg-1, Fe (67,5-116,2 mg kg-1, Mn (219-422 mg kg-1 e Zn (17,4-30,0 mg kg-1, e faixas críticas adequadas para diagnose nutricional de cafeeiros da região do Alto Jequitinhonha, no Estado de Minas Gerais. Os cafezais da região em desequilíbrio apresentaram deficiência em P, K, S, B, Cu, Mn e Zn e excesso de Ca, Mg e Fe.In the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS, norms for coffee in the Upper Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil

  16. Thermodynamics of saline and fresh water mixing in estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhilin; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2018-03-01

    The mixing of saline and fresh water is a process of energy dissipation. The freshwater flow that enters an estuary from the river contains potential energy with respect to the saline ocean water. This potential energy is able to perform work. Looking from the ocean to the river, there is a gradual transition from saline to fresh water and an associated rise in the water level in accordance with the increase in potential energy. Alluvial estuaries are systems that are free to adjust dissipation processes to the energy sources that drive them, primarily the kinetic energy of the tide and the potential energy of the river flow and to a minor extent the energy in wind and waves. Mixing is the process that dissipates the potential energy of the fresh water. The maximum power (MP) concept assumes that this dissipation takes place at maximum power, whereby the different mixing mechanisms of the estuary jointly perform the work. In this paper, the power is maximized with respect to the dispersion coefficient that reflects the combined mixing processes. The resulting equation is an additional differential equation that can be solved in combination with the advection-dispersion equation, requiring only two boundary conditions for the salinity and the dispersion. The new equation has been confronted with 52 salinity distributions observed in 23 estuaries in different parts of the world and performs very well.

  17. Evaluation of fuel performance for fresh and aged CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jong Yeob; Bae, Jun Ho; Park, Joo Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Like all other industrial plants, nuclear power plants also undergo degradations, so called ageing, with their operation time. Accordingly, in the recent safety analysis for a refurbished Wolsong 1 NPP, various ageing effects were incorporated into the hydraulic models of a number of the components in the primary heat transport system for conservatism. The ageing data of thermal-hydraulic components for 11 EFPY of Wolsong 1 were derived by using NUCIRC code based on the site operation data and they were modified to the appropriate input data for CATHENA code which is a thermal hydraulic code for a postulated accident analysis. This paper deals with the ageing effect of the PHTS (primary heat transport system) of CANDU reactor on the fuel performance during the normal operation. Initial conditions for fuel performance analysis were derived from the thermal-hydraulic analysis for both fresh and aged core models. Here, fresh core means a core state just right after the refurbishment and the aged core is 11 EFPY state after the refurbishment of Wolsong 1. The fuel performance was analyzed by using ELESTRES code for both fresh and aged core state and the results were compared in order to verify the ageing effect of CANDU HTS on the fuel performance.

  18. Migration of fresh and cryopreserved human spermatozoa in polyacrylamide gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, M C; Wix, L S; Foote, R H; Feldschuh, R; Feldschuh, J

    1982-05-01

    The ability of freshly collected and frozen human spermatozoa to migrate in round capillary tubes containing specially formulated polyacrylamide gel was investigated, using 33 ejaculates from 27 donors. Each semen sample was divided; one portion was left undiluted, and the other portion was diluted to 50 x 10(6) sperm/ml. Glycerol was used as the cryoprotectant. The percentage of motile sperm cells was determined before and after freezing. Fresh semen contained a higher percentage of motile cells, which migrated farther than those of cryopreserved-thawed semen. Various correlations between the percentage of motile sperm and migration distance ranged from 0.57 to 0.62. There was a low positive correlation of migration distance with sperm cell concentration per milliliter, r = 0.25 to 0.34; and thus adjusting semen samples to a standard sperm concentration improved the accuracy of the test only slightly. The regression coefficient of migration distance on the percentage of motile sperm in fresh semen was 0.65, indicating that for each 10% increase in sperm motility, migration distance is predicted to increase 6.5 mm. Five batches of polyacrylamide gel gave uniform results, and the application of this stable gel to fertility investigations is discussed.

  19. Is Shape of a Fresh and Dried Leaf the Same?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Tomaszewski

    Full Text Available Plants kept as dried herbarium specimens share many characteristics with their living counterparts, but there are some substantial differences between them. Due to dehydration, leaves of herbarium specimens change not only their mass and colour, but in many cases change their dimensions, too. The present study aimed to determine whether leaf shape changes during the drying process. A total of 794 pairs of fresh and dried leaves or leaflets of 22 plant taxa were studied. The shape of the blades was quantified using elliptic Fourier analysis combined with principal component analysis. In addition, area and mass of the leaves were measured. Statistical tests were applied for comparing fresh and dried leaves. The results indicate that the preservation process of pressing and drying plants for herbarium purposes causes changes in leaf shape. In general, the shape changes were directional. As the shape of fresh and dried plants is different, it is strongly recommended that shape analyses should be performed on datasets containing either of the leaf types.

  20. The use of electron accelerators for fresh fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.; Minea, R.

    2000-01-01

    There are presented the results of tests concerning the effects of accelerated electron-beam to some early fresh fruits like strawberries, cherries, sour-cherries and apples. The irradiation were performed on common varieties, in normal conditions, to the NILPRP-Electron Accelerator Laboratory facility consisting in electron-beam accelerators which have the following parameters: - mean beam current, 5 μA; - electron mean energy approximately, 7 MeV; - pulse period, 3.5 μs. The doses varied between 0.5-3.0 kGy and the dose rate was about 1500 Gy/min. It was determined the fruit shelf life and there were analysed the main organoleptic and nutritional properties, as: size, shape, colour, dry weight, acidity, total and reducing sugars, ascorbic acid content and other. For the electron-beam treated fruits it was pointed out an increase in freshness and shelf life extension by 5-7 days for strawberries and more than two weeks for cherries. Otherwise, for the applied doses, the electron-beam irradiation did not produce any significant changes in the fruit characteristic values. These results lead to the conclusion that the electron accelerators could be successfully used as a technological solution for the fresh fruits processing, in view of shelf life extension. There are presented also some technical and economical considerations on the feasibility of this technology and on the use of electron-beam machines for food irradiation. (authors)

  1. Efficacy of fresh packed red blood transfusion in organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hang-Xing; Tong, Pei-Jian; Li, Cai-Xia; Du, Jing; Chen, Bing-Yu; Huang, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Ying

    2017-03-01

    The mortality rate caused by organophosphate (OP) poisoning is still high, even the standard treatment such as atropine and oxime improves a lot. To search for alternative therapies, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of packed red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in acute OP poisoning, and compare the therapeutic effects of RBCs at different storage times.Patients diagnosed with OP poisoning were included in this prospective study. Fresh RBCs (packed RBCs stored less than 10 days) and longer-storage RBCs (stored more than 10 days but less than 35 days) were randomly transfused or not into OP poisoning patients. Cholinesterase (ChE) levels in blood, atropine usage and durations, pralidoxime durations were measured.We found that both fresh and longer-storage RBCs (200-400 mL) significantly increased blood ChE levels 6 hours after transfusion, shortened the duration for ChE recovery and length of hospital stay, and reduced the usage of atropine and pralidoxime. In addition, fresh RBCs demonstrated stronger therapeutic effects than longer-storage RBCs.Packed RBCs might be an alternative approach in patients with OP poisoning, especially during early stages.

  2. Behaviour of some fresh fruits under electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.; Stroia, A.L.; Potcoava, A.; Cojocaru, M.; Mihnea, R.; Oproiu, C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation in preservation of fruits and vegetables is widely recognized. In this paper it is presented a study of the effect of electron-beam irradiation of some fresh, early and perishable fruits, like strawberries, cherries, and sour cherries concerning their shelf-life time extension. The irradiations were performed on common varieties in normal conditions to the IPTRD's electron-beam accelerator (Bucharest-Magurele) having the following parameters: flow current 10 μA, power 60 W and electron mean energy 6.23 MeV. The irradiation doses varied between 0.5-3.0 kGy and the dose rates between 100-1500 Gy/min. It was observed the fruit preservation capability of the treatment and it was analysed the main characteristics as organoleptic properties, weight of dry component, acidity, total and reducing sugars, ascorbic acid content and others. It was evidenced an increase in freshness and shelf-life extension by 5-7 days for strawberries and up to two weeks for cherries without any significant changes in the values of the considered parameters. Otherwise, for the applied doses, the electron-beam irradiation did not produce any significant changes in the values of fruit characteristic parameters. The results lead to the conclusion that the electron-beam irradiation is a good technological solution for fresh fruit processing. (Author) 1 Tab., 7 Refs

  3. Evaluation of Food Freshness and Locality by Odor Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Takayuki; Shimada, Koji; Kamimura, Hironobu; Kaneki, Noriaki

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food freshness and locality can be classified using a food evaluation system consisting four SnO2-semiconductor gas sensors and a solid phase column, into which collecting aroma materials. The temperature of sensors was periodically changed to be in unsteady state and thus, the sensor information was increased. The parameters (in quefrency band) were extracted from sensor information using cepstrum analysis that enable to separate superimposed information on sinusoidal wave. The quefrency was used as parameters for principal component and discriminant analyses (PCA and DCA) to detect food freshness and food localities. We used three kinds of strawberries, people can perceive its odors, passed from one to three days after harvest, and kelps and Ceylon tea, people are hardly to perceive its odor, corrected from five areas as sample. Then, the deterioration of strawberries and localities of kelps and Ceylon teas were visually evaluated using the numerical analyses. While the deteriorations were classified using PCA or DCA, the localities were classified only by DCA. The findings indicate that, although odorant intensity influenced the method detecting food quality, the quefrency obtained from odorant information using cepstrum analysis were available to detect the difference in the freshness and the localities of foods.

  4. Physicochemical and microbiological changes in irradiated fresh pork loins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogbevi, M.K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of γ-irradiation on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of fresh pork was studied. Radiation treatments were carried out under air on fresh pork loins at doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy and the loins were evaluated for deamidation, solubility, sulphydryl content and surface hydrophobicity. Deamidation was significantly (p⩽0.05) affected by the treatment with 98% deamidation at a dose of 8 kGy. No significant changes (p>0.05) were noted in sulphydryl content under the same conditions. The increase in deamidation resulted in a decrease in hydrophobicity and an increase in protein solubility. γ-irradiation also reduced the number of microorganisms in the meat. Mesophiles were more resistant to the irradiation treatment than psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas. All irradiated pork samples (1 or 3 kGy) had a bacterial count lower that 10(7) CFU/g after 15 days of storage. A minimal dose of 1 kGy was sufficient to increase the shelf life of fresh pork loins although variations in initial pork contamination was found to be the determining factor accounting for the effectiveness of the treatment

  5. Factors influencing the microbial safety of fresh produce: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2012-10-01

    Increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of fresh produce over the past two decades have contributed to an increase in the number of illness outbreaks caused by this commodity. Pathogen contamination of fresh produce may originate before or after harvest, but once contaminated produce is difficult to sanitize. The prospect that some pathogens invade the vascular system of plants and establish "sub-clinical" infection needs to be better understood to enable estimation of its influence upon risk of human illness. Conventional surface sanitation methods can reduce the microbial load, but cannot eliminate pathogens if present. Chlorine dioxide, electrolyzed water, UV light, cold atmospheric plasma, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids and acidified sodium chlorite show promise, but irradiation at 1 kGy in high oxygen atmospheres may prove to be the most effective means to assure elimination of both surface and internal contamination of produce by pathogens. Pathogens of greatest current concern are Salmonella (tomatoes, seed sprouts and spices) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on leafy greens (spinach and lettuce). This review considers new information on illness outbreaks caused by produce, identifies factors which influence their frequency and size and examines intervention effectiveness. Research needed to increase our understanding of the factors influencing microbial safety of fresh produce is addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effectiveness of FRESH Technique to Teach Descriptive Paragraph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Faisal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at knowing the effectiveness of FRESH technique in teaching descriptive paragraph. The method of this study was quasi experimental method. This study was conducted at one of the state madrasah aliyah in academic year 2012/2013. The total sample of this study was 78 respondents divided into two groups: the control class with no treatment and the experimental class with FRESH technique. The data collection technique used essay tests for pre-test and post-test. The evaluation covered content, organization, vocabulary, style, and mechanic. After data analyses, the students in the experimental class had better achievement than those in the control class. The result of t-test computation was 1.968, with t-table value = 1.664 at the significant level α = 0.05. The t-test result was higher than the value of t-table (1.968 > 1.664. It meant that the hypothesis was accepted or FRESH technique was effective in teaching descriptive paragraph to the students of that school in academic year 2012/2013.

  7. Thermal conductivity of fresh and irradiated U-Mo fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Tanja K.; Breitkreutz, Harald; Burkes, Douglas E.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Elgeti, Stefan; Reiter, Christian; Robinson, Adam. B.; Smith, Frances. N.; Wachs, Daniel. M.; Petry, Winfried

    2018-05-01

    The thermal conductivity of fresh and irradiated U-Mo dispersion and monolithic fuel has been investigated experimentally and compared to theoretical models. During in-pile irradiation, thermal conductivity of fresh dispersion fuel at a temperature of 150 °C decreased from 59 W/m·K to 18 W/m·K at a burn-up of 4.9·1021 f/cc and further to 9 W/m·K at a burn-up of 6.1·1021 f/cc. Fresh monolithic fuel has a considerably lower thermal conductivity of 15 W/m·K at a temperature of 150 °C and consequently its decrease during in-pile irradiation is less steep than for dispersion fuel. For a burn-up of 3.5·1021 f/cc of monolithic fuel, a thermal conductivity of 11 W/m·K at a temperature of 150 °C has been measured by Burkes et al. (2015). The difference of decrease for both fuels originates from effects in the matrix that occur during irradiation, like for dispersion fuel the gradual disappearance of the Al matrix with increased burn-up and the subsequent growth of an interaction layer (IDL) between the U-Mo fuel particle and Al matrix and subsequent matrix hardening. The growth of fission gas bubbles and the decomposition of the U-Mo crystal lattice also affect both dispersion and monolithic fuel.

  8. Fresh fuel pre-heating device in reactor facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Asakuni.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To simplify the structure of a fresh nuclear fuel pre-heating device and improve the reliability to gas supply. Constitution: Fresh fuels taken out from a fresh fuel stredge rack and contained in a fuel strage pipe of a fuel transportation cask are pre-heated at the pre-stage of transfer by sending heating gases from the outside. Gas outlet pipes of the device are led out from the lower portion of the strage pipe, disposed side by side at the top of the strage pipe and opened upwardly. Further, gas supply pipes are connected to the inside of a movable guiding cylinder on the side of the floor surface and the opening end of return pipes are opposed to the exit opening end of the strage pipe. In such a constitution, a gas recycling loop can be formed between the strage pipe and the gas heating device by way of the movable guiding cylinder only by the operation of combining the fuel strage pipe of the transportation cask and the movable guiding pipe disposed on the side of the floor surface. Thus, the coupling structure is facilitated, the connection operation can surely be conducted to improve the reliability as compared with the conventional case. (Horiuchi, T.)

  9. Gastrointestinal transport of Ca2+ and Mg2+ during the digestion of a single meal in the freshwater rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucking, Carol; Wood, Chris M

    2007-04-01

    A diet containing an inert marker (ballotini beads, quantified by X-radiography) was used to quantify the transport of two essential minerals, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) from the diet during the digestion and absorption of a single meal of commercial trout food (3% ration). Initially, net uptake of Ca(2+) was observed in the stomach followed by subsequent Ca(2+) fluxes along the intestine which were variable, but for the most part secretory. This indicated a net secretion of Ca(2+) along the intestinal tract resulting in a net assimilation of dietary Ca(2+) of 28%. Similar handling of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) was observed along the gastrointestinal tract (GI), although net assimilation differed substantially between the cations, with Mg(2+) assimilation being close to 60%, mostly a result of greater uptake by the stomach. The stomach displayed the highest net uptake rates for both cations (1.5 and 1.3 mmol kg(-1) fish body mass for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), respectively), occurring within 2 h following ingestion of the meal. Substantial secretions of both Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were observed in the anterior intestine, which were attributed to bile and other intestinal secretions, while fluxes in the mid and posterior intestine were small and variable. The overall patterns of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) handling in the GI tract were similar to those observed for Na(+) and K(+) (but not Cl(-)) in a previous study. Overall, these results emphasize the importance of dietary electrolytes in ionoregulatory homeostasis.

  10. Re-examining the 26Mg(α ,α')26Mg reaction: Probing astrophysically important states in 26Mg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsley, P.; Brümmer, J. W.; Li, K. C. W.; Marín-Lámbarri, D. J.; Kheswa, N. Y.; Donaldson, L. M.; Neveling, R.; Papka, P.; Pellegri, L.; Pesudo, V.; Pool, L. C.; Smit, F. D.; van Zyl, J. J.

    2017-11-01

    Background: The 22Ne(α ,n )25Mg reaction is one of the neutron sources for the s process in massive stars. The properties of levels in 26Mg above the α -particle threshold control the strengths of the 22Ne(α ,n )25Mg and 22Ne(α ,γ )26Mg reactions. The strengths of these reactions as functions of temperature are one of the major uncertainties in the s process. Purpose: Information on the existence, spin, and parity of levels in 26Mg can assist in constraining the strengths of the 22Ne(α ,γ )26Mg and 22Ne(α ,n )25Mg reactions, and therefore in constraining s -process abundances. Methods: Inelastically scattered α particles from a 26Mg target were momentum-analyzed in the K600 magnetic spectrometer at iThemba LABS, South Africa. The differential cross sections of states were deduced from the focal-plane trajectory of the scattered α particles. Based on the differential cross sections, spin and parity assignments to states are made. Results: A newly assigned 0+ state was observed in addition to a number of other states, some of which can be associated with states observed in other experiments. Some of the deduced Jπ values of the states observed in the present study show discrepancies with those assigned in a similar experiment performed at RCNP Osaka. The reassignments and additions of the various states can strongly affect the reaction rate at low temperatures. Conclusion: The number, location, and assignment of levels in 26Mg that may contribute to the 22Ne+α reactions are not clear. Future experimental investigations of 26Mg must have an extremely good energy resolution to separate the contributions from different levels. Coincidence experiments of 26Mg provide a possible route for future investigations.

  11. Eat fresh vegetables, fruit, and whole grain products | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diverticulitis "Eat fresh vegetables, fruit, and whole grain products." Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... or the diverticulitis. I once again eat fresh vegetables and fruit and whole grain products. My two episodes of ...

  12. Promoting seafood consumption: An evaluation of the Danish campaign for fresh fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2003-01-01

    was that preparing a tasty meal from fresh fish was actually not difficult. In supplementary materials consumers were provided with recipes for fresh fish. At the same time, major retail chains made MAP-packaged fresh fish filets available in Danish supermarkets. The influence of family expectations was harnessed......Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to their attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish......, and actual consumption frequencies. In the pre-campaign survey (effective N = 641), significant determinants of consumption were availability in shops, meal preparation skills, and intentions to buy fresh fish. The campaign was especially designed to conquer these barriers. The key proposition...

  13. Antibacterial biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Tie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of magnesium alloys as degradable metals for biomedical applications is a topic of ongoing research and the demand for multifunctional materials is increasing. Hence, binary Mg-Ag alloys were designed as implant materials to combine the favourable properties of magnesium with the well-known antibacterial property of silver. In this study, three Mg-Ag alloys, Mg2Ag, Mg4Ag and Mg6Ag that contain 1.87 %, 3.82 % and 6.00 % silver by weight, respectively, were cast and processed with solution (T4 and aging (T6 heat treatment.The metallurgical analysis and phase identification showed that all alloys contained Mg4Ag as the dominant β phase. After heat treatment, the mechanical properties of all Mg-Ag alloys were significantly improved and the corrosion rate was also significantly reduced, due to presence of silver. Mg(OH2 and MgO present the main magnesium corrosion products, while AgCl was found as the corresponding primary silver corrosion product. Immersion tests, under cell culture conditions, demonstrated that the silver content did not significantly shift the pH and magnesium ion release. In vitro tests, with both primary osteoblasts and cell lines (MG63, RAW 264.7, revealed that Mg-Ag alloys show negligible cytotoxicity and sound cytocompatibility. Antibacterial assays, performed in a dynamic bioreactor system, proved that the alloys reduce the viability of two common pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (DSMZ 20231 and Staphylococcus epidermidis (DSMZ 3269, and the results showed that the killing rate of the alloys against tested bacteria exceeded 90%. In summary, biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys are cytocompatible materials with adjustable mechanical and corrosion properties and show promising antibacterial activity, which indicates their potential as antibacterial biodegradable implant materials.

  14. Direct ultrasound-assisted extraction and characterization of phenolic compounds from fresh houseleek (Sempervivum marmoreum L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabegović Ivana T.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ultrasound power and frequency on the yield of total extractive substances (TES, total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC and antioxidant activity (AOA of fresh houseleek leaves extracts obtained by direct ultrasound-assisted extraction (DUAE were studied. Preliminary extraction of plant material was performed using methanol, acetone and 2-propanol by Soxhlet extraction. It was found that maximum TES yield could be obtained by methanol extraction (2.91±0.02, followed by acetone and 2-propanol with a TES yield of 2.32±0.01 and 2.01±0.03 g per 100 g of fresh plant material, respectively. In the fresh houseleek leaves extracts obtained by DUAE and methanol as the chosen solvent, TPC, TFC and AOA were in the ranges of: 40.5–85.9 mg gallic acid/g dry extract, 12.7–19.3 mg rutin/g dry extract and 24.6–108.2μg/ml, respectively. The results showed that the increase in the ultrasound power and extraction time have positive and significant (p < 0.05 effects on the TPC, TFC and AOA, while the increase in the ultrasound frequency leads to a decrease in the TPC, TFC and AOA of the extracts. A chromatographic analysis of crude extract identified the following: kaempferol 3-O-(6’’-O-malonylglucoside- 7-O-glucosyde, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside-7-O-rhamnoside, luteolin 5-O-(6’’-O-malonylglucoside, kaempferol 3-O-(6’’-O-acetylglucoside-7-O-rhamnoside, genkwanin 5-O-glucoside, luteolin 5-O-(6’’-O-malonylglucoside, kaempferol 3-O-(6’’-O-malonylglucoside, kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin, genkwanin 4’-O-glucoside and hyperoside. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172047

  15. Biochars with excellent Pb(II) adsorption property produced from fresh and dehydrated banana peels via hydrothermal carbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Chen, Honggang; Xi, Junting; Yao, Denghui; Zhou, Zhi; Tian, Yun; Lu, Xiangyang

    2017-05-01

    Fresh and dehydrated banana peels were used as biomass feedstock to produce highly effective sorbent biochars through a facile one-step hydrothermal carbonization approach with 20%vol phosphoric acid as the reaction medium. The elemental ratio of oxygen content of the two as-prepared biochars were about 20%, and the FT-IR analysis confirmed the existence of abundant surface functional groups such as hydroxyl and carboxyl which greatly enhanced the adsorption performance. The sorbents showed excellent lead clarification capability of 359mg·g -1 and 193mg·g -1 for dehydrated and fresh banana peels based biochars, respectively. The change of the CO/OCO and the appearance of PbO/PbOC on the surface after adsorption confirmed that the ion exchange might be the dominant mechanism. The dehydration and pulverization pre-treatment and the addition of phosphoric acid can benefit the formation of those functional groups and hydrothermal carbonization can be a promising method to transfer biomass like fruit peels into biochars with excellent adsorption performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intra-individual comparison of different contrast media concentrations (300 mg, 370 mg and 400 mg iodine) in MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrendt, Florian F.; Keil, Sebastian; Plumhans, Cedric; Guenther, Rolf W. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Aachen (Germany); Pietsch, Hubertus; Jost, Gregor; Sieber, Martin A.; Seidensticker, Peter [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Mahnken, Andreas H. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Aachen (Germany); RWTH Aachen University, Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz-Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Aachen (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    To compare intra-individual contrast enhancement in multi-detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) using contrast media (CM) containing 300, 370 and 400 mg iodine per ml (mgI/ml). Six pigs underwent repeated chest MDCT using three different CM (iopromide 300, iopromide 370, iomeprol 400). An identical iodine delivery (IDR) rate of 1.5 gI/s and a constant total iodine dose of 300 mg/kg body weight were used. Dynamic CT were acquired at the level of the pulmonary artery, and the ascending and descending aorta. After the time enhancement curves were computed, the pulmonary and aortic peak enhancement, time to peak and plateau time above 300 HU were calculated. Intra-individual peak contrast enhancement was significantly higher for the 300 mgI/ml contrast medium compared with the 370 and 400 mgI/ml media: pulmonary trunk 595 HU vs 516 HU (p = 0.0093) vs 472HU (p = 0.0005), and aorta 505 HU vs 454 HU (p = 0.0008) vs 439 HU (p = 0.0001), respectively. Comparison of time to peaks showed no significant difference. Plateau times were significantly longer for the 300 mgI/ml than for the 370 and 400 mgI/ml CM at all anatomical sites. Given normalised IDR and total iodine burden, the use of CM with a standard concentration with 300 mg iodine/ml provides improved contrast enhancement compared with highly concentrated CM in the chest. (orig.)

  17. Compositional and structural variabilities of Mg-rich iron oxide spinels from tuffite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. N. Mussel

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Maghemite (γFe2O3 from tuffite is exceptionally rich in Mg, relatively to most of those reportedly found in other mafic lithosystems. To investigate in detail the compositional and structural variabilities of this natural magnetic iron oxide, sets of crystals were isolated from samples collected at different positions in a tuffite weathering mantle. These sets of crystal were individually powdered and studied by X-ray diffractometry, Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements and chemical analysis. Lattice parameter of the cubic cell (a0 was found to vary from 0.834(1 to 0.8412(1 nm. Lower a0-values are characteristic of maghemite whereas higher ones are related to a magnetite precursor. FeO content ranges up to 17 mass % and spontaneous magnetization ranges from 8 to 32 J T-1 kg-1. Zero-field room temperature Mössbauer spectra are rather complex, indicating that the hyperfine field distributions due to Fe3+ and mixed valence Fe3+/2+ overlap. The structural variabilities of the (Mg, Ti-rich iron oxide spinels is essentially related to the range of chemical composition of its precursor (Mg, Ti-rich magnetite, and probably to the extent to which it has been oxidized during transformation in soil.

  18. DEHA-plasticized PVC for retail packaging of fresh meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Naamansen, Ebbe Tubæk

    1998-01-01

    around 20 mg DEHA/ kg. When previously packaged loin was cut into steaks or chops, repackaged, minced and repackaged again, the DEHA concentration doubled to around 40 mg/kg, Finally if meatballs were then produced from the said mince, repackaged and stored at 65 degrees C for 24 h, the DEHA...

  19. 75 FR 38986 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC), meet the statutory and regulatory... garlic from the PRC was published on November 16, 1994. See Antidumping Duty Order: Fresh Garlic from the...

  20. 76 FR 78694 - Fresh Garlic From China; Scheduling of an expedited five-year review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-683 (Third Review)] Fresh Garlic From... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from China would be likely to lead to... submitted by the Fresh Garlic Producers Association and its individual members Christopher Ranch L.L.C., The...

  1. 77 FR 266 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... determined that two requests for a new shipper review (NSR) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Department published the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from...

  2. 77 FR 22467 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ...-0006] RIN 0563-AC32 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop... Insurance Corporation (FCIC) finalizes the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar... Common Crop Insurance Regulations (7 CFR part 457), Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions...

  3. 7 CFR 457.148 - Fresh market pepper crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh market pepper crop insurance provisions. 457.148... pepper crop insurance provisions. The fresh market pepper crop insurance provisions for the 1999 and... Fresh Market Pepper Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order of...

  4. On-line fresh-cut lettuce quality measurement system using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce, which is a main type of fresh-cut vegetable, has been used in various fresh-cut products. In this study, an online quality measurement system for detecting foreign substances on the fresh-cut lettuce was developed using hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The online detection system with a s...

  5. 7 CFR 457.129 - Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions. 457... sweet corn crop insurance provisions. The fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions for the 2008... Reinsured Policies Fresh Market Sweet Corn Crop Provisions 1. Definitions Allowable cost.—The dollar amount...

  6. Novel technologies for decontamination of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complex challenges facing producers and processors of fresh produce require creative applications of conventional treatments and innovative approaches to develop entirely novel treatments. The varied nature of fresh and fresh-cut produce demands solutions that are adapted and optimized for each ...

  7. 75 FR 32370 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway AGENCY: Import... Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway SUMMARY: On August 5... antidumping order on fresh and chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway and preliminarily determined that Nordic...

  8. 78 FR 25692 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Barhi Dates From Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...] Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Barhi Dates From Israel AGENCY: Animal and Plant... authorize the importation into the United States of fresh dates of the cultivar Barhi from Israel. Based on... weeds via the importation of fresh dates of the cultivar Barhi from Israel. In addition, based on the...

  9. In situ preparation of MgCo2O4 nanosheets on Ni-foam as a binder-free electrode for high performance hybrid supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Subbukalai; Nagamuthu, Sadayappan; Ryu, Kwang-Sun

    2018-05-15

    A binder-free, MgCo2O4 nanosheet-like architecture was prepared on Ni-foam using a hydrothermal method. MgCo2O4/Ni-foam was characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The FESEM image revealed a nanosheet array-like architecture. The MgCo2O4 nanosheets grown on Ni-foam exhibited the maximum specific capacity of 947 C g-1 at a specific current of 2 A g-1. Approximately 96% of the specific capacity was retained from the maximum specific capacity after 5000 continuous charge-discharge cycles. This hybrid device exhibited a maximum specific capacity of 52 C g-1 at a specific current of 0.5 A g-1, and also exhibited a maximum specific energy of 12.99 W h kg-1 at a specific power of 448.7 W kg-1. These results confirmed that the binder-free MgCo2O4 nanosheets grown on Ni-foam are a suitable positive electrode material for hybrid supercapacitors.

  10. The effect of the MgO buffer layer thickness on magnetic anisotropy in MgO/Fe/Cr/MgO buffer/MgO(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozioł-Rachwał, Anna, E-mail: a.koziolrachwal@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Spintronics Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Nozaki, Takayuki; Zayets, Vadym; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Spintronics Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Suzuki, Yoshishige [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Spintronics Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2016-08-28

    The relationship between the magnetic properties and MgO buffer layer thickness d was studied in epitaxial MgO/Fe(t)/Cr/MgO(d) layers grown on MgO(001) substrate in which the Fe thickness t ranged from 0.4 nm to 1.1 nm. For 0.4 nm ≤ t ≤ 0.7 nm, a non-monotonic coercivity dependence on the MgO buffer thickness was shown by perpendicular magneto-optic Kerr effect magnetometry. For thicker Fe films, an increase in the buffer layer thickness resulted in a spin reorientation transition from perpendicular to the in-plane magnetization direction. Possible origins of these unusual behaviors were discussed in terms of the suppression of carbon contamination at the Fe surface and changes in the magnetoelastic anisotropy in the system. These results illustrate a method to control magnetic anisotropy in MgO/Fe/Cr/MgO(d) via an appropriate choice of MgO buffer layer thickness d.

  11. Ultraviolet spectra of Mg in liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriwaki, Y.; Morita, N.

    1999-01-01

    Emission and absorption spectra of Mg atoms implanted in liquid helium have been observed in the ultraviolet region. We have presented a model of exciplex formation of Mg-He 10 and found that this model is more suitable for understanding the dynamics in the 3s3p 1 P→3s 21 S transition than the bubble model. (orig.)

  12. Conceptual Assessment of a Fresh Fuel Transport Package for KJRR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Chan; Choi, W. S.; Bang, K. S.; Yu, S. H.; Park, J. S.; Yang, Y. Y. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The IAEA and domestic regulations stipulate that the fissile material transport package be subjected to the cumulative effects of a 9 m drop, 1 m puncture, 800 ℃ thermal and water leakage tests. A fissile material transport package should be maintained the subcriticality during the normal and accident conditions for contingency of leakage of water into or out of package, rearrangement of the contents, reduction of spaces and temperature changes. KAERI has been developing a fresh fuel transport package for Kijang research reactor (KJRR). This paper describes a conceptual design and preliminary safety analysis of the transport package for KJRR. The transport package was designed for shipment of a fresh fuel and a FM (Fission Molybdenum) target. Low-enriched uranium (LEU) of U-Mo fuel with U-235 enrichment of 19.75 w/o is used as a research reactor fuel. And LEU of UAlx-Al with U-235 enrichment of 19.75 w/o is used as a FM target material. The transport package was designed for shipment of a fresh fuel and a FM target. Safety analyses were conducted on all areas, including criticality, structural, and thermal fields. In the criticality analysis, effective neutron multiplication factors were below the criticality safety limit. In the structural analysis, the maximum stress satisfied the stress requirement stipulated in the ASME code. After 9 m free drop and 1 m puncture test, there was no significant deformation of fuel basket to cause a criticality. In the thermal analysis, the maximum temperatures at each part were lower than the allowable values.

  13. TECHNOLOGY OF FRESH HERBS STORAGE USING HYDROGEL AND ANTIOXIDANT COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia PRISS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a stable consumer demand for fresh culinary herbs. Also, the greenery contains a large number of valuable phytonutrients. Despite high efficiency and increasing annual production of fresh herbs, the problem of preserving their quality in the post-harvest period remains unresolved. Because of the high specific surface area of evaporation, in the green crops droop quickly, they lose their marketable quality, and, as a result, the level of profitability of greenery production in general is being reduced. It is necessary to use new effective approaches to leafy greens storage in order to reduce product losses during transportation and storage. For example, agrarian hydrogel can be used for storage of greenery. Hydrogel is an acrylic potassium polymer that is non-toxic and has a high environmental standard. The hydrogel granules can absorb up to 250 times more moisture than their weight. We propose the following procedure as the method of greenery preservation: the greens are packed in bundles and put in sticks in polyethylene bags with a fastener, pre-filled with hydrogel solutions. The storage temperature is maintained optimally for each species of fresh herbs, the relative humidity is 95 ± 3%. Usage of the proposed method allows obtaining environment-friendly products, preserving their high biological value and increasing the shelf life. The accumulation of peroxide products, which cause physiological disorders, is inhibited as the result of such storage. The use of hydrogel reduces the natural loss of mass by 10% as compared with the control. Duration of greenery storage increases by 30 days.

  14. Consumer attitudes and preferences for fresh market tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, A E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2014-10-01

    This study established attractive attributes and consumer desires for fresh tomatoes. Three focus groups (n = 28 participants) were conducted to explore how consumers perceived tomatoes, including how they purchased and consumed them. Subsequently, an Adaptive Choice Based Conjoint (ACBC) survey was conducted to understand consumer preferences toward traditional tomatoes. The ACBC survey with Kano questions (n = 1037 consumers in Raleigh, NC) explored the importance of color, firmness, size, skin, texture, interior, seed presence, flavor, and health benefits. The most important tomato attribute was color, then juice when sliced, followed by size, followed by seed presence, which was at parity with firmness. An attractive tomato was red, firm, medium/small sized, crisp, meaty, juicy, flavorful, and with few seeds. Deviations from these features resulted in a tomato that was rejected by consumers. Segmentations of consumers were determined by patterns in utility scores. External attributes were the main drivers of tomato liking, but different groups of tomato consumers exist with distinct preferences for juiciness, firmness, flavor, and health benefits. Conjoint analysis is a research technique that collects a large amount of data from consumers in a format designed to be reflective of a real life market setting and can be combined with qualitative insight from focus groups to gain information on consumer consumption and purchase behaviors. This study established that the most important fresh tomato attributes were color, amount of juice when sliced, and size. Distinct consumer clusters were differentiated by preference for color/appearance, juiciness and firm texture. Tomato growers can utilize the results to target attributes that drive consumer choice for fresh tomatoes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. The traveller: a new look for PWR fresh fuel packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayley, B.; Stilwell, W.E.; Kent, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Traveller PWR fresh fuel shipping package represents a radical departure from conventional PWR fuel package designs. This paper follows the development effort from the establishment of goals and objectives, to intermediate testing and analysis, to final testing and licensing. The discussion starts with concept origination and covers the myriad iterations that followed until arriving at a design that would meet the demanding licensing requirements, last for 30 years, and would be easy to load and unload fuel, easy to handle, inexpensive to manufacture and transport, and simple and inexpensive to maintain

  16. BATCH ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF FRESH LEACHATE FROM TRANSFER STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED MOHAMMAD DARA GHASIMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Leachate from transfer station requires treatment before being discharged into the environment to avoid surface and underground water contamination. Various factors such as waste composition, availability of oxygen and moisture, designing and controlling of transfer station operations have been shown to affect the composition of the leachate. The high COD, BOD, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N and heavy metals contents of fresh leachate are the main problems faced by leachate treatment operators. The result of the present study indicated that this process reduced the COD content by 43%.The average removal efficiencies of BOD5, TS, TSS, and VSS were 80, 49, 37 and 39 %, respectively.

  17. Ground Zero/Fresh Kills: Cataloguing Ruins, Garbage, and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Cinzia Scarpino

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the rise and fall of the Twin Towers can be read in relation to the rise and fall of the Staten Island Fresh Kills landfill, how their destinies were entwined from the start, and how the immediate cultural response to the collapse of the former and the closing of the latter recurred to the form of catalogues of objects, words, and images. From this angle it will be possible to posit the events within a larger, if somewhat unusual, cultural frame encompassi...

  18. Shelf-life extension of fresh chicken through radurisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemand, J.G.; Van der Linde, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    The article discusses the shelf-life extension of fresh chicken through radurization. In order to assess the potential of this process on the South African market, a detailed investigation was carried out to determine the shelf-life extension under local conditions. The following aspects were investigated; 1) reduction of bacterial numbers at different radurisation doses; 2) influence of storage temperature on shelf-life and 3) the elimination of Salmonella. Organoleptic testing was carried out on poultry radurised to doses of 3, 5, 7,5 and 10 kGy as well as on non-radurised controls

  19. Consumer Willingness to Pay for Quality Attributes of Fresh Seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Haider, Wolfgang; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2015-01-01

    We applied a labeled choice experiment (LCE) to investigate consumer demand and choice behavior for fresh seafood in a retail market. The LCE was conducted for a large number of seafood alternatives (i.e., seafood species) labeled by the respective seafood name (e.g., cod, salmon, mussels......). Consumer heterogeneity in preference was expressed by estimating a labeled latent class model with alternative-specific effects, which varies choice probability and model parameters over seafood alternatives and across classes. The willingness to pay (WTP) for extrinsic attributes (e.g., product form...

  20. Nanomaterials for fresh-keeping and sterilization in food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongfang; Gu, Ning

    2009-06-01

    Food sterilizing and antistaling technologies are very important to the public's health and safety and have been attracting more and more attentions. In the past several years, new development chance was created by the introduction of nanomaterials to this critical field. Nanomaterials possess lots of outstanding properties, such as unique quantum size effect, large surface area and catalytic properties, which jointly facilitate high effective fresh-keeping, and thus were considered as promising materials in food sterilization and antistale. This review article focuses on the patented applications of nanomaterials as food biocidal agents, bacteriostatic agents, catalysts and carriers for antistaling agents.

  1. Effect of irradiation on quality of fresh fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basbayraktar, V.; Gueclue, H.

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasing trend for the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables in developing and developed countries. However, they carry the potential risk of contamination from soil, irrigation water and/or manure and result in food borne outbreaks. Since they are consumed without any treatments, they are the potential sources of contamination. Irradiation is a physical food preservation method; foods are exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation for sterilization or preservation purposes. Irradiation treatment has been shown to effectively enhance the microbial quality and increase the shelf-life by 3-5 times. Also, this treatment reduces the post harvest losses and controls the insects.

  2. Neuropharmacological profile and chemical analysis of fresh rhizome essential oil of Curcuma longa (turmeric) cultivated in Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyemitan, Idris A; Elusiyan, Christianah A; Onifade, Ayoola O; Akanmu, Moses A; Oyedeji, Adebola O; McDonald, Armando G

    2017-01-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) is commonly used as spice and also used to treat fever, cough and febrile convulsions in Nigeria. This study determined the chemical composition of the essential oil of C. longa and evaluated its neuropharmacological activity in mice. Essential oil of C. longa (EOCL) fresh rhizome was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition determined by GC-MS. Acute toxicity (LD 50 ) profile of the essential oil was determined orally (p.o.) and intraperitoneally (i.p.); and the EOCL (50-200 mg/kg, i.p.) was evaluated for its behavioural, anxiolytic, sedative and anticonvulsant activities using appropriate models in Albino mice (Vom Strain, Jos, Nigeria). Analysis of the oil showed the presence of 23 compounds with turmerone (35.9%) being the major component. The LD 50 values obtained for the mice were 2154 mg/kg, p.o., and 693 mg/kg, i.p. The EOCL (50-200 mg/kg, i.p.) caused significant (p longa species was turmerone; the oil was slightly toxic orally but moderately toxic intraperitoneally in mice; exhibited significant anxiolytic, sedative and anticonvulsant activities in mice.

  3. Combination of peracetic acid and ultrasound reduces Salmonella Typhimurium on fresh lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Luiza Oliveira; do Rosário, Denes Kaic Alves; Giori, Ana Carolina Garcia; Oliveira, Syllas Borburema Silva; da Silva Mutz, Yhan; Marques, Clara Suprani; Coelho, Jussara Moreira; Bernardes, Patrícia Campos

    2018-04-01

    Salmonella outbreaks related to fruits and vegetables have been reported being lettuce one of the most contaminated. Peracetic acid (PA) at 50 mg/L, sodium dichloroisocyanurate (SD) at 100 mg/L, and the combination of SD at 100 mg/L and babaçu coconut ( Attalea speciosa ) oil detergent at 100 mg/L were applied to fresh lettuce. Natural contaminant microbiota, physicochemical characteristics, and sensory attributes were evaluated. PA and SD reduced mesophilic aerobic counts by 2.1 and 1.5 log cfu/g, respectively. The most efficient treatment in reducing natural microbiota (i.e., PA) was applied alone and in combination with ultrasound (US). It reduced Salmonella enterica Typhimurium counts to undetectable levels (< 1 log cfu/g). US further reduced S. Typhimurium counts by 0.6 log cfu/g in relation to PA, treatment which lessened the pH but increased the titratable acidity of lettuce, but did not cause total color difference. Therefore, the combination of PA and US holds a potential industrial application for sanitization purposes.

  4. Natural weathering in dry disposed ash dump: Insight from chemical, mineralogical and geochemical analysis of fresh and unsaturated drilled cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, S A; Akinlua, A; Gitari, W M; Khuse, N; Eze, P; Akinyeye, R O; Petrik, L F

    2012-07-15

    encapsulate the salt or act as a sustainable salt sink due to over time reduction in pore water pH. The leaching behaviours of Ca, Mg, Na+, K+, Se, Cr and Sr are controlled by the pH of the leachant in both fresh and unsaturated weathered ash. Other trace metals like As, Mo and Pb showed amphoteric behaviour with respect to the pH of the leachant. The precipitation of minor quantities of secondary mineral phases in the unsaturated weathered ash has significant effects on the acid susceptibility and leaching patterns of chemical species in comparison with fresh ash. The unsaturated weathered ash had lower buffering capacity at neutral pH (7.94-8.00) compared to fresh (unweathered) ash. This may be due to the initial high leaching/flushing of soluble basic buffering constituents from fly ash after disposal. The overall results of the acid susceptibility tests suggest that both fresh ash and unsaturated weathered ash would release a large percentage of their chemical species when in contact with slightly acidified rain. Proper management of ash dumps is therefore essential to safeguard the environmental risks of water percolation in different fly ashes behaviour. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Manufacturing and Construction of Fresh Fuel Storage Rack for a Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jinho; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, Jongmin; Ryu, Jeong-Soo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study is to provide the manufacturing and construction information regarding the Fresh Fuel Storage Rack (FFSR). The main function of a FFSR is to store and protect the 2 core new fuel assemblies for the operation of the research reactor. The fresh fuel assemblies are stored in a rack made of stainless steel and the storage rack is installed in the fresh fuel storage room. The fresh fuel facility provides fresh fuel assemblies with dry storage space. General design requirements of the fresh fuel storage facilities are given in the ANSI-57.3. Design, manufacturing, and construction of the fresh fuel storage rack are introduced. The analysis is performed to confirm the structural intensity of the fresh fuel storage rack under the seismic loads. The fresh fuel storage rack designed for storage of fresh fuel assemblies should be manufactured and installed with consideration of predicted number of fresh fuel assemblies, structural integrity, resistivity to corrosion and radiation, cleaning, and workability.

  6. Manufacturing and Construction of Fresh Fuel Storage Rack for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jinho; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, Jongmin; Ryu, Jeong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide the manufacturing and construction information regarding the Fresh Fuel Storage Rack (FFSR). The main function of a FFSR is to store and protect the 2 core new fuel assemblies for the operation of the research reactor. The fresh fuel assemblies are stored in a rack made of stainless steel and the storage rack is installed in the fresh fuel storage room. The fresh fuel facility provides fresh fuel assemblies with dry storage space. General design requirements of the fresh fuel storage facilities are given in the ANSI-57.3. Design, manufacturing, and construction of the fresh fuel storage rack are introduced. The analysis is performed to confirm the structural intensity of the fresh fuel storage rack under the seismic loads. The fresh fuel storage rack designed for storage of fresh fuel assemblies should be manufactured and installed with consideration of predicted number of fresh fuel assemblies, structural integrity, resistivity to corrosion and radiation, cleaning, and workability

  7. Study on storage efficiency of the fresh food e-commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Sun, Jie; Li, Huihui

    2017-06-01

    As the last cake in the area of e-commerce industry, the temperature of fresh food e-commerce is always rising starting from about 2014. This paper is based on the imperfection that the existing study about fresh food e-commerce is lack of studies on storage efficiency. And we took some variables in this paper such as consumers’ satisfaction and length for preservation and storage time. On this basis we built the model of storage efficiency of fresh food e-commerce. We find that as the development of fresh food e-commerce, the fresh food e-commerce enterprise will pay more attention to the consumers’ satisfaction. They can take some effective ways like reducing the wastage of fresh food and lengthening the refreshing time of fresh food and so on.

  8. Optical absorption and thermoluminescence in Mg O, Mg O:Ni and Mg O:Li irradiated at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, L.

    1984-01-01

    Optical absorption and thermoluminescence (TL) studies in Mg O, Mg O:Ni and Mg O:Li irradiated at room temperature are presented. In pure Mg O the thermal annihilation of Fe3+ by recombination with thermally released electrons at ∼ 90 and 175 degree centigree and the V center annealing by hole release up to 100 degree centigree cause the observed glow peaks at these temperatures. The TL excitation spectrum shows two maxima at 245 nm (electron center) and 288 nm (Fe3+). In Mg O:Ni X irradiation induces Fe 2 + →- Fe 3 + and Ni 2 + → Ni 3 + oxidations. Two TL emission bands centered at 110 degree centigree (red) and 80 o C (green) are assigned to electron release and their recombination at Fe 3 + and Ni 3 + respectively. In Mg O:Li two TL emission bands, one blue (430 nm) and the other red (730 nm) with excitation maxima at 245 nm (electron center) and 200 nm (hole center) respectively are observed. No V-center formation was detected in both Ni and Li doped samples. (Author) 42 refs

  9. Effects of essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus leaves and its susceptibility on the quality of fresh orange juice during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euloge Adjou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the effect of essential oil (EO from Cymbopogon citratus leaves against the spoilage flora of fresh orange juice. Thus, the EO was extracted by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus collected in southern Benin and its chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography, coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Orange samples were collected from large production areas of South and Central Benin and juices were extracted by mechanical pressing. After identification of spoilage flora of fresh orange juice, antimicrobial tests were carried out with the EO of Cymbopogon citratus to evaluate its antimicrobial activity on spoilage flora of fresh orange juice.  Results indicate that the spoilage flora of fresh orange juice is mainly composed of fungi belonging to the genera of Cladosporium, Penicillium and Fusarium. Bacteria such as Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes were also identified in some samples. The major compounds identified in the EO by GC/MS are Neral (33.0% and geranial (41.3% with a predominance of oxygenated monoterpenes (85.5%. Antimicrobial tests have revealed a high antibacterial activity of the EO, with minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC between 0.1 and 0.15 μL.mL-1. Antifungal tests revealed that fungi are also susceptible to this EO with minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC between 0.15 and 0.25 μL.mL-1. Results obtained during the evaluation of the physicochemical characteristics of the orange juice stored by adding EO, indicated a significant decrease in the pH and vitamin C content. However, with EO concentration of 0.250 μL.mL-1, the pH of stored juice was 6.4 ± 0.1 after 15 days of preservation, with a best vitamin C content of 28.06 ± 0.03 mg / 100mL. The EO of Cymbopogon citratus, with high antimicrobial activity, could be used as an alternative in the preservation of fruit juices, replacing antimicrobials from chemical synthesis.

  10. Modified atmosphere packaging of fresh meats : sudden partial adaption caused an increase in sustainability of Dutch supply chains of fresh meats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden Van Velzen, E.U.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade, a major transition evolved in the Dutch fresh meat industry with ramifications for the entire meat business. In 1995, more than 95% of all fresh meat products for consumers were either sold loose or packed in the traditional way, i.e. on a white styrofoam tray with stretch wrap.

  11. Analysing PKCS#11 Key Management APIs with Unbounded Fresh Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröschle, Sibylle; Steel, Graham

    We extend Delaune, Kremer and Steel’s framework for analysis of PKCS#11-based APIs from bounded to unbounded fresh data. We achieve this by: formally defining the notion of an attribute policy; showing that a well-designed API should have a certain class of policy we call complete; showing that APIs with complete policies may be safely abstracted to APIs where the attributes are fixed; and proving that these static APIs can be analysed in a small bounded model such that security properties will hold for the unbounded case. We automate analysis in our framework using the SAT-based security protocol model checker SATMC. We show that a symmetric key management subset of the Eracom PKCS#11 API, used in their ProtectServer product, preserves the secrecy of sensitive keys for unbounded numbers of fresh keys and handles, i.e. pointers to keys. We also show that this API is not robust: if an encryption key is lost to the intruder, SATMC finds an attack whereby all the keys may be compromised.

  12. Recent developments in smart freezing technology applied to fresh foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ji-Cheng; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Adhikari, Benu

    2017-09-02

    Due to the increased awareness of consumers in sensorial and nutritional quality of frozen foods, the freezing technology has to seek new and innovative technologies for better retaining the fresh like quality of foods. In this article, we review the recent developments in smart freezing technology applied to fresh foods. The application of these intelligent technologies and the associated underpinning concepts have greatly improved the quality of frozen foods and the freezing efficiency. These technologies are able to automatically collect the information in-line during freezing and help control the freezing process better. Smart freezing technology includes new and intelligent technologies and concepts applied to the pretreatment of the frozen product, freezing processes, cold chain logistics as well as warehouse management. These technologies enable real-time monitoring of quality during the freezing process and help improve product quality and freezing efficiency. We also provide a brief overview of several sensing technologies used to achieve automatic control of individual steps of freezing process. These sensing technologies include computer vision, electronic nose, electronic tongue, digital simulation, confocal laser, near infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance technology and ultrasound. Understanding of the mechanism of these new technologies will be helpful for applying them to improve the quality of frozen foods.

  13. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ON NATURAL NUTRITION OF FRESH-WATER FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Piria

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers the entire review on the research methodology in natural nutrition of fresh-water fish. The data on fresh-water fish nutrition, particularly on fish of lower economic value, is inadequate. Reviewing the literature on assesment of nutritional parameters, the authors obviously use differenet approaches and methods. This paper is about most frequently used parameteres in qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative analysis of food structure is the overall list of determinable taxa (mostlyu species and genera. The quantitative analysis comprises the assessment of particular nutritional categories by nutritional indices and coefficients. Bio-identification and numeric data processing can have numerous drawbacsk such as effect of regurgitation or the degree of digestion of the prey. The analyses of those effects proceed through statistical data processing in order to include spatial distribution of certain prey categories as well. The importance of this data is to determine the nutritional needs of potential species for culture as well as to come up with new insights on a particular aquatic ecosystem.

  14. Bacterial communities of fresh goat meat packaged in modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizosa, Elia; Benito, María José; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Hernández, Alejandro; Villalobos, Maria Del Carmen; Martín, Alberto; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study the growth and development of fortuitous flora and food pathogens in fresh goat meat packaged under modified atmospheres containing two different concentrations of CO 2 . Meat samples were stored at 10 °C under two different modified-atmosphere packing (MAP) conditions: treatment A had 45% CO 2  + 20% O 2  + 35% N 2 and treatment B had 20% CO 2  + 55% O 2  + 25% N 2 . During 14 days of storage, counts of each bacterial group and dominant species identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were performed to determine the microbial diversity present. The MAP condition used for treatment A was a more effective gas mixture for increasing the shelf life of fresh goat meat, significantly reducing the total number of viable bacteria and enterobacteria counts. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae family were the most common contaminants, although Hafnia alvei was dominant in treatment A and Serratia proteamaculans in treatment B. Identification studies at the species level showed that different microorganisms develop under different storage conditions, reflecting the importance of gas composition in the modified atmosphere on the bacterial community. This work provides new insights into the microbial changes of goat meat storage under different MAP conditions, which will be beneficial for the meat industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quality and Acceptability of Meat Nuggets with Fresh Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rajkumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and textural properties, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters. Changes in lipid oxidation and microbial growth of nuggets were also evaluated over 9 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that AVG significantly (p<0.05 decreased the pH value and protein content of meat emulsion and nuggets. Product yield was affected at 5% level of gel. Addition of AVG in the formulation significantly affected the values of texture profile analysis. The AVG reduced the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in nuggets during storage. Sensory panelists preferred nuggets with 2.5% AVG over nuggets with 5% AVG. Therefore, AVG up to 2.5% level could be used for quality improvement in goat meat nuggets without affecting its sensorial, textural and nutritive values.

  16. Ground Zero/Fresh Kills: Cataloguing Ruins, Garbage, and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Scarpino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how the rise and fall of the Twin Towers can be read in relation to the rise and fall of the Staten Island Fresh Kills landfill, how their destinies were entwined from the start, and how the immediate cultural response to the collapse of the former and the closing of the latter recurred to the form of catalogues of objects, words, and images. From this angle it will be possible to posit the events within a larger, if somewhat unusual, cultural frame encompassing the history of two different yet complementary symbols of New York up to 2001 (the WTC and Fresh Kills. From Don DeLillo’s Underworld (1997 and Falling Man (2007 through Holman, Steve Zeitlin e Joe Dobkin’s Crisis (2001-2002; from Art Spiegelman’s In the Shadows of No Tower (2004 to Artists Respond’s 9-11 (2002; from the New York Times to Bearing Witness to History, the 2003-2006 retrospective of the Smithsonian Museum, relevant collective or individual responses to the 2001 attacks took the form of a catalogue, a list, a vertical or horizontal juxtaposition of data, objects, and memories, evoking a suggestive parallel to the organizing principle of past relics collected in museums and garbage stratified in sanitary landfills.

  17. Detection of Fumonisins in Fresh and Dehydrated Commercial Garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonti, Stefano; Mandrioli, Mara; Nipoti, Paola; Pisi, Annamaria; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Prodi, Antonio

    2017-08-16

    An epidemic fungal disease caused by Fusarium proliferatum, responsible for fumonisin production (FB1, FB2, and FB3), has been reported in the main garlic-producing countries in recent years. Fumonisins are a group of structurally related toxic metabolites produced by this pathogen. The aim of this work was to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure, mostly applied to cereals, that is suitable for fumonisin detection in garlic and compare these results to those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and screening of fresh and dehydrated garlic for toxicological risk. The results show good correlation between the two analytical methods. In fresh symptomatic garlic, fumonisin levels were higher in the basal plates than those in the portions with necrotic spots. Among the 56 commercially dehydrated garlic samples screened, three were positive by ELISA test and only one was above the limit of quantitation. The same samples analyzed by HPLC showed the presence of FB1 in trace amounts that was below the limit of quantitation; FB2 and FB3 were absent. The results are reassuring, because no substantial contamination by fumonisins was found in commercial garlic.

  18. Microbiology of organic and conventionally grown fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Daniele F; Batalha, Erika Y; Landgraf, Mariza; Schaffner, Donald W; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2016-12-01

    Fresh produce is a generalized term for a group of farm-produced crops, including fruits and vegetables. Organic agriculture has been on the rise and attracting the attention of the food production sector, since it uses eco-agricultural principles that are ostensibly environmentally-friendly and provides products potentially free from the residues of agrochemicals. Organic farming practices such as the use of animal manure can however increase the risk of contamination by enteric pathogenic microorganisms and may consequently pose health risks. A number of scientific studies conducted in different countries have compared the microbiological quality of produce samples from organic and conventional production and results are contradictory. While some have reported greater microbial counts in fresh produce from organic production, other studies do not. This manuscript provides a brief review of the current knowledge and summarizes data on the occurrence of pathogenic microorganisms in vegetables from organic production. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Ensuring Microbiological Safety of Fresh Eggs by Using Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A. A.; Swailam, H.M.; Aly, W. F.

    2008-01-01

    Egg shell sanitizing practices are necessary to improve microbiological safety of fresh eggs. In this work, fifteen fresh eggs samples of each (Balady, White and Brown eggs) were collected from different local supermarkets to evaluate their microbiological quality. The results indicated that Balady eggs were higher in microbial population in comparison with the two other varieties. Salmonella spp. was detected in 9 (60%) samples of Balady eggs. The effect of gamma irradiation at dose of 0, 2, 3 and 4 kGy on microbiological quality of Balady eggs during storage at 4±1 degree C for 35 days was studied. The effects of irradiation and storage on total cholesterol, and total carotenoids contents in Balady eggs were also investigated. The results showed that irradiation at 3 kGy reduced total aerobic bacterial counts. Coliform bacteria, E. coli and Salmonella spp. were completely eliminated. Total cholesterol and total carotenoids were decreased in yolk egg as a result of irradiation. Treated Balady eggs with irradiation dose of 3 kGy were efficient and sufficient for ensuring safety, maintain quality and extend shelf-life.

  20. Effects of Eating Fresh Lean Pork on Cardiometabolic Health Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R. C. Howe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High protein meat-based diets are commonly promoted for weight loss, supposedly by increasing satiety and energy expenditure. Pork is a good source of protein however little information on the metabolic effects of pork consumption exists. This pilot study aimed to examine whether regular consumption of fresh lean pork could improve body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in a 6 month parallel intervention trial. 164 overweight adults (mean BMI 32 were randomly assigned to incorporate up to 1 kg pork/week by substituting for other foods or maintain their habitual diet (control. Plasma levels of lipids, glucose and insulin, BMI, waist/hip circumference, blood pressure, heart rate and arterial compliance were measured at baseline and 3 and 6 months. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 144 volunteers completed and volunteers in the pork group increased their intake 10 fold by substituting pork for mainly beef and chicken. After 3 months, there were significant (p ≤ 0.01 reductions in weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fat mass and abdominal fat in the pork group relative to controls, which persisted for 6 months. There was no change in lean mass, indicating that the reduction in weight was due to loss of fat mass. There were no significant effects on other metabolic parameters. Regular consumption of lean fresh pork may improve body composition.

  1. Greenhouse heating with a fresh water floating collector solar pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbel, A.; Sokolov, M.

    1991-01-01

    The fresh water floating collector solar pond was investigated both experimentally and theoretically in a previous work, and it is now matched, by simulation, with the heat load requirements of a greenhouse. Results of the simulation indicate that such a pond is a potential energy source for greenhouse heating. This is especially true when the material properties are such that solar absorption and storage are enhanced. This paper reports that to demonstrate this point, three sets of collectors constructed with materials of different physical (radiation) properties were tested. One set is constructed of common materials which are readily available and are normally used as covers for greenhouses. The second set made of improved materials which are also available but have a smaller long-wave transmittance. The last set made of ideal material which additionally possesses selective radiation absorption properties. Collectors made of ideal materials make a superior solar pond; thus, manufacturing films with improved properties should become a worthwhile challenge for the agricultural polyethylene-films industry. Preliminary economic studies indicate that even with the low oil (<$20/Bbl) prices which exist between 1986-1989, the fresh water floating collectors solar pond provides an economically attractive alternative to the conventional oil-burning heating system. This is especially true in mild climate areas and when the large initial investment is justified by long-term greenhouse utilization planning

  2. Dimensional measurement of fresh fuel bundle for CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Chang Keun; Cho, Moon Sung; Suk, Ho Chun; Koo, Dae Seo; Jun, Ji Su; Jung, Jong Yeob

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the results of the dimensional measurement of fresh fuel bundles for the CANDU reactor in order to estimate the integrity of fuel bundle in two-phase flow in the CANDU-6 fuel channel. The dimensional measurements of fuel bundles are performed by using the 'CANDU Fuel In-Bay Inspection and Dimensional Measurement System', which was developed by this project. The dimensional measurements are done from February 2004 to March 2004 in the CANDU fuel storage of KNFC for the 36 fresh fuel bundles, which are produced by KNFC and are waiting for the delivery to the Wolsong-3 plant. The detail items of dimensional measurements are included fuel rod and bearing pad profiles of the outer ring in fuel bundle, diameter of fuel bundle, bowing of fuel bundle, fuel rod length, and surface profile of end plate profile. The measurement data will be compared with those of the post-irradiated bundles cooled in Wolsong-3 NPP spent fuel pool by using the same bundles and In-Bay Measurement System. So, this analysis of data will be applied for the evaluation of fuel bundle integrity in two-phase flow of the CANDU-6 fuel channel

  3. Limnological study of fresh water of rawal dam, islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leghari, M.K.; Ghafar, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The limnological study of Fresh water of Rawal Dam was carried out for the first time from June 2000 to May 2001 during Research Project. C-PMNHIBio(311). Data was collected on physico-chemical properties of the Fresh water and the Algal Flora. The fluctuations of temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen, salinity, T.D.S., Total hardness etc., were studied. From algal flora, a total. 291 algal species were found to belong to 108 genera 10 Phylum. From Cyanophyta, 68 species belongs to 21 genera with 23.37%, Volvocophyta 107 species belongs to 40 genera with 36.77%, Chlorophyta 18 species belongs to 13 genera with 6.19%, Bacillariophyta 66 species 19 genera with 22.67%, Chrysophyta 3 species belongs to 2 genera with 1.03%, Xanthophyta 5 species belongs to 5 genera with 1.72%, Vaucheriophyta 1 species belongs to 1 genus with 0.34%, Euglenophyta 16 species belongs to 4 genera with 1.72%, Dinophyta 5 species belongs to 2 genera with 1.72%, Charophyta 2 species belong to 1 genus with 0.7%, were recorded and classified by latest classification according to Shameel (2001). The present work shows the changes in physico-chemical factor along with algal flora in Rawal Dam during collection period and co-relation of different factors. (author)

  4. Keeping education fresh-not just in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnert, Beatrix

    2017-11-15

    Innovative practice from around the globe, addressing a range of recent educational themes and trends, was published in the FEMS Microbiology Letters virtual Thematic Issue 'Keeping Education Fresh' in October 2017. Its thought-provoking content is reviewed here to more directly facilitate reflections and discussions in the professional community. The focus is on best practice approaches when enhancing student engagement, how to adjust those to the diversity of learners, learning situations and infrastructures, and to a broad range of subjects. The need for authentic learning and to move away from didactic teaching is emphasized. The 'students as researchers' theme is featured e.g. in context of service learning. Creative approaches are presented such as using performing arts, popular culture and gamification. The development of interdisciplinary and intercultural competences, and the exploration of socioscientific themes and philosophical issues are considered. Revisions of curricula and programmes, reflective of educational advancements and sector drivers, are discussed from undergraduate to postgraduate and professional specialist level also in light of problem-based learning, interactive distance and on-campus learning, and even the legacy of Massive Open Online Courses. Such changes always require resources and skills, and carry risks. Yet, innovation is a risk worth taking to keep education fresh. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Shallow and deep fresh impact craters in Hesperia Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Hayashi, Joan N.

    1993-01-01

    The depths of 109 impact craters about 2-16 km in diameter, located on the ridged plains materials of Hesperia Planum, Mars, have been measured from their shadow lengths using digital Viking Orbiter images (orbit numbers 417S-419S) and the PICS computer software. On the basis of their pristine morphology (very fresh lobate ejecta blankets, well preserved rim crests, and lack of superposed impact craters), 57 of these craters have been selected for detailed analysis of their spatial distribution and geometry. We find that south of 30 deg S, craters less than 6.0 km in diameter are markedly shallower than similar-sized craters equatorward of this latitude. No comparable relationship is observed for morphologically fresh craters greater than 6.0 km diameter. We also find that two populations exist for older craters less than 6.0 km diameter. When craters that lack ejecta blankets are grouped on the basis of depth/diameter ratio, the deeper craters also typically lie equatorward of 30 S. We interpret the spatial variation in crater depth/diameter ratios as most likely due to a poleward increase in volatiles within the top 400 m of the surface at the times these craters were formed.

  6. Mg2BIV: Narrow Bandgap Thermoelectric Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Ho

    2018-05-01

    Thermoelectric materials can convert thermal energy directly into electric energy and vice versa. The electricity generation from waste heat via thermoelectric devices can be considered as a new energy source. For instance, automotive exhaust gas and all industrial processes generate an enormous amount of waste heat that can be converted to electricity by using thermoelectric devices. Magnesium compound Mg2BIV (BIV = Si, Ge or Sn) has a favorable combination of physical and chemical properties and can be a good base for the development of new efficient thermoelectrics. Because they possess similar properties to those of group BIV elemental semiconductors, they have been recognized as good candidates for thermoelectric applications. Mg2Si, Mg2Ge and Mg2Sn with an antifluorite structure are narrow bandgap semiconductors with indirect band gaps of 0.77 eV, 0.74 eV, and 0.35 eV, respectively. Mg2BIV has been recognized as a promising material for thermoelectric energy conversion at temperatures ranging from 500 K to 800 K. Compared to other thermoelectric materials operating in the similar temperature range, such as PbTe and filled skutterudites, the important aspects of Mg2BIV are non-toxic and earth-abundant elements. Based on classical thermoelectric theory, the material factor β ( m* / m e)3/2μκ L -1 can be utilized as the criterion for thermoelectric material selection, where m* is the density-of-states effective mass, me is the mass of an electron, μ is the carrier mobility, and κL is the lattice thermal conductivity. The β for magnesium silicides is 14, which is very high compared to 0.8 for iron silicides, 1.4 for manganese silicides, and 2.6 for silicon-germanium alloys. In this paper, basic phenomena of thermoelectricity and transport parameters for thermoelectric materials were briefly introduced, and thermoelectric properties of Mg2BIV synthesized by using a solid-state reaction were reviewed. In addition, various Mg2BIV compounds were discussed

  7. Antimicrobial activity of gallic acid against food-related Pseudomonas strains and its use as biocontrol tool to improve the shelf life of fresh black truffles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Elena; Succi, Mariantonietta; Tipaldi, Luca; Pannella, Gianfranco; Maiuro, Lucia; Sturchio, Marina; Coppola, Raffaele; Tremonte, Patrizio

    2018-02-02

    Refrigeration alone or in combination with other technologies represents the main tool used in the last decades to preserve the freshness of black truffles. This is principally due to the delicateness and vulnerability of this edible hypogeous fungus, so that other invasive preservation practices cannot be adopted. However, the proliferation of some microbial species during the cold storage still represents an unsolved problem. Pseudomonads are among the main spoiler bacteria responsible for the deterioration of refrigerated black truffles. Their growth ability at low temperatures requires the use of additional hurdles to prolong the shelf-life of truffles without altering their major features. The use of natural compounds may represent an alternative system for the biocontrol of this kind of product. Specifically, gallic acid (GA) is a phenolic acid naturally present in different foods, whose effectiveness was in vitro demonstrated against Pseudomonas spp. In our study, we reported the antimicrobial activity expressed by GA not only in vitro, using as target bacteria Pseudomonas putida DSMZ 291 T , P. fluorescens DSMZ 50090 T , P. fragi DSMZ 3456 T and Pseudomonas spp. P30-4, previously isolated from black truffles, but also in situ on fresh black truffles stored at 4°C for 28days. Our results showed Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of 2.5mg/mL GA for all tested strains, except for P. fluorescens DSMZ 50090 T , having a MIC corresponding to 5mg/mL GA. The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) was 10mg/mL for all strains. The analysis of kinetic parameters showed that the survival declined passing from 2.5 to 10mg/mL GA concentrations, with P. fluorescens confirmed to be the most resistant strain. Moreover, images obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed that Pseudomonas cells were strongly injured by the treatment with GA at 2.5mg/mL concentration, displaying visible pores on the cellular surfaces, absence of flagella and lysis with loss of

  8. Cytological comparison of gill chloride cells and blood serum ion concentrations in kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum spawners from brackish (Caspian Sea and fresh water (Khoshkrood River environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahremanzadeh Zahra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The size and number of chloride cells and serum ion concentrations in kutum, Rutillus frisii kutum Nordman, from brackish (Caspian Sea and fresh water (Khoshkrood River environments were studied to gain a better understanding of osmoregulation in this species. Twenty mature kutum specimens were collected from the Caspian Sea (Anzali coasts, 8.49 ppt salinity and 12.4°C temperature and 20 specimens from Khoshkrood River (0.18 ppt salinity and 18°C temperature. Gill samples were analyzed histologically and concentrations of Na+, Cl- , K+, and Mg2+ ions were determined in the blood serum. Concentrations of Na+, Cl- , K+, and Mg2+ ions and osmotic pressure in mature kutum from brackish water were significantly higher than in specimens from fresh water. The average size and number of chloride cells in the fish from seawater were considerably larger than those from fresh water. The mean size of chloride cells was 6.89 ± 1.16 μm in brackish water samples and 5.1 ± 0.81 μm in river samples. The average number of chloride cells in brackish and river water samples were 16.92 and 6.57, respectively. The density and size of chloride cells increased with increases in salinity

  9. Superconductivity in MgB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muranaka, Takahiro; Akimitsu, Jun [Aoyama Gakuin Univ., Kanagawa (Japan). Dept. of Physics and Mathematics

    2011-07-01

    We review superconductivity in MgB{sub 2} in terms of crystal and electronic structure, electron-phonon coupling, two-gap superconductivity and application. Finally, we introduce the development of new superconducting materials in related compounds. (orig.)

  10. Additive Manufacturing of Magnesium (Mg) Alloys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work is to investigate additive manufacturing techniques for Mg alloys.  It will leverage off research being conducted at University of Florida and...

  11. Chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5-cells under the influence of Mg and Mg alloy degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Sanchez, Adela H; Feyerabend, Frank; Laipple, Daniel; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Weinberg, Annelie; Luthringer, Bérengère J C

    2017-03-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg)-based materials are a potential alternative to permanent implants for application in children. Nevertheless effects of those materials on growth plate cartilage and chondrogenesis have not been previously evaluated. In vitro differentiation of ATDC5 cells was evaluated under the influence of pure Mg (PMg), Mg with 10wt% of gadolinium (Mg-10Gd) and Mg with 2wt% of silver (Mg-2Ag) degradation products (extracts) and direct cell culture on the materials. Gene expression showed an inhibitory effect on ATDC5 mineralization with the three extracts and a chondrogenic potential of Mg-10Gd. Cells cultured in Mg-10Gd and Mg-2Ag extracts showed the same proliferation and morphology than cells cultured in growth conditions. Mg-10Gd induced an increase in production of ECM and a bigger cell size, similar to the effects found with differentiation conditions. An increased metabolic activity was observed in cells cultured under the influence of Mg-10Gd extracts, indicated by an acidic pH during most of the culture period. After 7days of culture on the materials, ATDC5 growth, distribution and ECM synthesis were higher on Mg-10Gd samples, followed by Mg-2Ag and PMg, which was influenced by the homogeneity and composition of the degradation layer. This study confirmed the tolerance of ATDC5 cells to Mg-based materials and a chondrogenic effect of Mg-10Gd. Further studies in vitro and in vivo are necessary to evaluate cell reactions to those materials, as well as the effects on bone growth and the biocompatibility of the alloying system in the body. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mg/Ca of Continental Ostracode Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, E.; Forester, R. M.; Marco-Barba, J.; Mezquita, F.

    2007-12-01

    Marine ionic chemistry is thought to remain constant. This, together with the belief that marine calcifiers partition Mg/Ca in a systematic manner as functions of temperature (and Mg/Ca) of water forms the basis of the Mg/Ca thermometer. In continental settings both of these assumptions are usually not true. Continental waters contain a wide variety of solutes in absolute and relative ion concentrations. Hence, waters with identical Mg/Ca may have very different concentrations of Mg and Ca and very different anions. Here we use two examples to focus on the effects of ion chemistry on Mg/Ca partitioning in continental ostracode shells and we ignore the complexities of solute evolution, which can change Mg/Ca over timescales of minutes to millennia. Palacios-Fest and Dettman (2001) conducted a monthly study of ,Cypridopsis vidua at El Yeso Lake in Sonora, Mexico. They established a relation between temperature and average shell Mg/Ca using regression analyses on averaged data. When their Mg/Ca-temperature relation is applied to monthly ,C. vidua data from Page Pond near Cleveland, Ohio, water temperatures of -8 to -1°C are obtained. The observed Mg/Ca ranges for El Yeso Lake (0.31 to 0.46) and Page Pond (0.33 to 0.46) are similar, as are their specific conductivities (700 to 850μS for El Yeso Lake; 400 to 600μS for Page Pond). However, [Ca] is 140-260 mg/L for El Yeso, but only 70-90 mg/L for Page Pond. Page Pond data, in fact, shows a good temperature shell Mg/Ca relation for .C. vidua, but the relation is different from that at El Yeso. Hence, shell Mg/Ca is a multi-valued, family of curves function of temperature and Mg/Ca of water that depends on the [Mg] and [Ca] values in water and perhaps other factors. Our second example comes from sites near Valencia, Spain and involves shell data for ,Cyprideis torosa, an estuarine ostracode that is tolerant of a wide range of salinity and can live in continental waters as long as the carbonate alkalinity to Ca ratio is

  13. Prussian Blue Mg-Li Hybrid Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqi; Duffort, Victor; Nazar, Linda F

    2016-08-01

    The major advantage of Mg batteries relies on their promise of employing an Mg metal negative electrode, which offers much higher energy density compared to graphitic carbon. However, the strong coulombic interaction of Mg 2+ ions with anions leads to their sluggish diffusion in the solid state, which along with a high desolvation energy, hinders the development of positive electrode materials. To circumvent this limitation, Mg metal negative electrodes can be used in hybrid systems by coupling an Li + insertion cathode through a dual salt electrolyte. Two "high voltage" Prussian blue analogues (average 2.3 V vs Mg/Mg 2+ ; 3.0 V vs Li/Li + ) are investigated as cathode materials and the influence of structural water is shown. Their electrochemical profiles, presenting two voltage plateaus, are explained based on the two unique Fe bonding environments. Structural water has a beneficial impact on the cell voltage. Capacities of 125 mAh g -1 are obtained at a current density of 10 mA g -1 (≈C/10), while stable performance up to 300 cycles is demonstrated at 200 mA g -1 (≈2C). The hybrid cell design is a step toward building a safe and high density energy storage system.

  14. Who's on first? Part I: Influence of plant growth on C association with fresh soil minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurath, R.; Whitman, T.; Nico, P. S.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Firestone, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral surfaces provide sites for carbon stabilization in soils, protecting soil organic matter (SOM) from microbial degradation. SOM distributed across mineral surfaces is expected to be patchy and certain minerals undergo re-mineralization under dynamic soil conditions, such that soil minerals surfaces can range from fresh to thickly-coated with SOM. Our research investigates the intersection of microbiology and geochemistry, and aims to build a mechanistic understanding of plant-derived carbon (C) association with mineral surfaces and the factors that determine SOM fate in soil. Plants are the primary source of C in soil, with roots exuding low-molecular weight compounds during growth and contributing more complex litter compounds at senescence. We grew the annual grass, Avena barbata, (wild oat) in a 99 atom% 13CO2 atmosphere in soil microcosms incubated with three mineral types representing a spectrum of reactivity and surface area: quartz, kaolinite, and ferrihydrite. These minerals, isolated in mesh bags to exclude roots but not microorganisms, were extracted and analyzed for total C and 13C at multiple plant growth stages. At plant senescence, the quartz had the least mineral-bound C (0.40 mg-g-1) and ferrihydrite the most (0.78 mg-g-1). Ferrihydrite and kaolinite also accumulated more plant-derived C (3.0 and 3.1% 13C, respectively). The experiment was repeated with partially digested 13C-labled root litter to simulate litter decomposition during plant senescence. Thus, we are able evaluate contributions derived from living and dead root materials on soil minerals using FTIR and 13C-NMR. We find that mineral-associated C bears a distinct microbial signature, with soil microbes not only transforming SOM prior to mineral association, but also populating mineral surfaces over time. Our research shows that both soil mineralogy and the chemical character of plant-derived compounds are important controls of mineral protection of SOM.

  15. Prediction of egg freshness during storage using electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimenu, Samuel M; Kim, J Y; Kim, B S

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of a fast gas chromatography (GC) e-nose for freshness discrimination and for prediction of storage time as well as sensory and internal quality changes during storage of hen eggs. All samples were obtained from the same egg production farm and stored at 20 °C for 20 d. Egg sampling was conducted every 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 d. During each sampling time, 4 egg cartons (each containing 10 eggs) were randomly selected: one carton for Haugh units, one carton for sensory evaluation and 2 cartons for the e-nose experiment. The e-nose study included 2 independent test sets; calibration (35 samples) and validation (28 samples). Every sampling time, 5 replicates were prepared from one egg carton for calibration samples and 4 replicates were prepared from the remaining egg carton for validation samples. Sensors (peaks) were selected prior to multivariate chemometric analysis; qualitative sensors for principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA) and quantitative sensors for partial least square (PLS) modeling. PCA and DFA confirmed the difference in volatile profiles of egg samples from 7 different storage times accounting for a total variance of 95.7% and 93.71%, respectively. Models for predicting storage time, Haugh units, odor score, and overall acceptability score from e-nose data were developed using calibration samples by PLS regression. The results showed that these quality indices were well predicted from the e- nose signals, with correlation coefficients of R2 = 0.9441, R2 = 0.9511, R2 = 0.9725, and R2 = 0.9530 and with training errors of 0.887, 1.24, 0.626, and 0.629, respectively. As a result of ANOVA, most of the PLS model results were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the corresponding reference values. These results proved that the fast GC electronic nose has the potential to assess egg freshness and feasibility to predict multiple egg freshness indices

  16. Formation and Corrosion Resistance of Mg-Al Hydrotalcite Film on Mg-Gd-Zn Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Z. X.; Dong, Q. S.; Kong, S. X.; Zhang, X. B.; Xue, Y. J.; Chen, Y. J.

    2017-06-01

    An environment-friendly technique for depositing a Mg-Al hydrotalcite (HT) (Mg6Al2(OH)16-CO3ṡ4H2O) conversion film was developed to protect the Mg-Gd-Zn alloy from corrosion. The morphology and chemical compositions of the film were analyzed by scanning electronic microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy (RS), respectively. The electrochemical test and hydrogen evolution test were employed to evaluate the biocorrosion behavior of Mg-Gd-Zn alloy coated with the Mg-Al HT film in the simulated body fluid (SBF). It was found that the formation of Mg-Al HT film was a transition from amorphous precursor to a crystalline HT structure. The HT film can effectively improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy. It indicates that the process provides a promising approach to modify Mg-Gd-Zn alloy.

  17. Microstructural evolution in Mg-rich Mg-Zn-Y alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, T.; Ranganathan, S.; Nair, S.; Bajargan, G.

    2005-01-01

    Mg-rich Mg-Zn-Y alloys with nominal compositions Mg 97 Zn 1 Y 2 , Mg 97 Zn 2 Y 1 , Mg 92 Zn 6.5 Y 1.5 and Mg 97-x Zn 1 Y 2 Zr x have been chosen for the present study. These alloys are prepared by using sand casting mold. The sand cast alloys are remelted and subjected to copper mold casting and melt spinning techniques. The effect of cooling rate on microstructures was studied. It is observed that the size of the precipitates decreases with an increase of cooling rate. The formation of nano precipitates results in higher strength of the alloy as compared to the conventional alloys. The microstructures of melt spun ribbons are compared with RS/PM (rapidly solidified power metallurgy) Mg 97 Zn 1 Y 2 alloy, obtained from a different source. (author)

  18. VCO Production from Fresh Old Coconut Bunch by Circulating and Pumping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Maulana Azimatun Nur

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available VCO (Virgin Coconut Oil is one of coco-diesel source, made without high heating and chemicals. Commercial processes production, such fermentation and centrifugation usually need more time and expensive in cost and investment. Circulating by pumping through a nozzle is a new process method invented to produce VCO. The process followed by coalescence method, breaking emulsion by hitting particles through pipe and nozzle. The problem of this method was that the product gave lower yield than another method and not yet qualified. This research was purposed to discover correlation between pressure and time of circulation variables against yield and content (FFA, Peroxide, water content represented by SNI (national Indonesian standard. Producing VCO initiated by producing coconut milk from fresh old coconut, then each 1 litre milk were pumped through the pipe and nozzle with variation of circulations pressures and time. The results were decanted for 10 hours so the oil and water would be separated. The oil at upper layer was taken as final product. Then the last step was analysed the oils and oil cake (blondo. The results showed that pressure and time of circulating variables gave impact to the yield. On optimum variables, 2 atm pressure and 15 minutes of circulating gave better results with 97% yield. This operating variables also affecting oil quality. The minimum water content is 0.1%, free fatty acid is 0.18% and peroxide value is 2 mg/kg eq. The results showed that all of parameters meet the SNI standard.

  19. Straightforward rapid spectrophotometric quantification of total cyanogenic glycosides in fresh and processed cassava products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivana, Lucas Daniel; Da Cruz Francisco, Jose; Zelder, Felix; Bergenståhl, Bjorn; Dejmek, Petr

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we extend pioneering studies and demonstrate straightforward applicability of the corrin-based chemosensor, aquacyanocobyrinic acid (ACCA), for the instantaneous detection and rapid quantification of endogenous cyanide in fresh and processed cassava roots. Hydrolytically liberated endogenous cyanide from cyanogenic glycosides (CNp) reacts with ACCA to form dicyanocobyrinic acid (DCCA), accompanied by a change of colour from orange to violet. The method was successfully tested on various cassava samples containing between 6 and 200 mg equiv. HCN/kg as verified with isonicotinate/1,3-dimethylbarbiturate as an independent method. The affinity of ACCA sensor to cyanide is high, coordination occurs fast and the colorimetric response can therefore be instantaneously monitored with spectrophotometric methods. Direct applications of the sensor without need of extensive and laborious extraction processes are demonstrated in water-extracted samples, in acid-extracted samples, and directly on juice drops. ACCA showed high precision with a standard deviation (STDV) between 0.03 and 0.06 and high accuracy (93-96%). Overall, the ACCA procedure is straightforward, safe and easily performed. In a proof-of-concept study, rapid screening of ten samples within 20 min has been tested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. VCO Production from Fresh Old Coconut Bunch by Circulating and Pumping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Maulana Azimatun Nur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available VCO (Virgin Coconut Oil is one of coco-diesel source, made without high heating and chemicals. Commercial processes production, such fermentation and centrifugation usually need more time and expensive in cost and investment. Circulating by pumping through a nozzle is a new process method invented to produce VCO. The process followed by coalescence method, breaking emulsion by hitting particles through pipe and nozzle. The problem of this method was that the product gave lower yield than another method and not yet qualified. This research was purposed to discover correlation between pressure and time of circulation variables against yield and content (FFA, Peroxide, water content represented by SNI (national Indonesian standard. Producing VCO initiated by producing coconut milk from fresh old coconut, then each 1 litre milk were pumped through the pipe and nozzle with variation of circulations pressures and time. The results were decanted for 10 hours so the oil and water would be separated. The oil at upper layer was taken as final product. Then the last step was analysed the oils and oil cake (blondo. The results showed that pressure and time of circulating variables gave impact to the yield. On optimum variables, 2 atm pressure and 15 minutes of circulating gave better results with 97% yield. This operating variables also affecting oil quality. The minimum water content is 0.1%, free fatty acid is 0.18% and peroxide value is 2 mg/kg eq. The results showed that all of parameters meet the SNI standard.

  1. Histamine formation and the freshness of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares stored at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K.K.K. Jinadasa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of storage temperatures on the shelf life of yellowfin tuna (YFT loins by studying of microbial, chemical and organoleptic changes. Shelf life of YFT was determined through changes in total aerobic bacterial plate counts (APC, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N trimethylamine (TMA, organoleptic properties and histamine development during storage at 0, 4 and 7°C. Based on TVB-N value indices, YFT maintained an acceptable shelf life for 21, 17 and 12 days at 0, 4 and 7°C, respectively. Nevertheless, YFT was rejected earlier by the sensory panellists than their TVB-N value indicated. Histamine development was found to be lower than the European Union safety level for 100 mg/kg fish during storage at 0 and 7°C for 21 and 17 days, respectively. Aerobic bacteria initially dominated the micro-flora on YFT; however, as storage time increased, aerobic bacteria became dominant at cold storage, but the numbers exceeded the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF limit of 107 cfu/g in storage at 7°C after 17 days. Therefore, it can be concluded that the storage of fresh YFT in below 4°C has good enough to the shelf life of products (two weeks.

  2. Fresh water green microalga Scenedesmus abundans: A potential feedstock for high quality biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandotra, S K; Kumar, Pankaj; Suseela, M R; Ramteke, P W

    2014-03-01

    Present investigation studied the potential of fresh water green microalga Scenedesmus abundans as a feedstock for biodiesel production. To study the biomass and lipid yield, the culture was grown in BBM, Modified CHU-13 and BG-11 medium. Among the tested nitrogen concentration using Modified CHU-13 medium, the highest biomass and lipid yield of 1.113±0.05g/L and 489±23mg/L respectively was found in the culture medium with 0.32g/L of nitrogen (KNO3). Different lipid extraction as well as transesterification methods were also tested. Fatty acid profile of alga grown in large scale indigenous made photobioreactor has shown abundance of fatty acids with carbon chain length of C16 and C18. Various biodiesel properties such as cetane number, iodine value and saponification value were found to be in accordance with Brazilian National Petroleum Agency (ANP255) and European biodiesel standard EN14214 which makes S. abundans as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing Pesticide Contamination to Fresh Water in Some Agricultural Sites, Close to Oaxaca City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, G.

    2002-12-01

    This study presents the results of a survey on pesticides in fresh water in shallow aquifers, rivers and dams in Zaachila, Tlacolula and Etla and agricultural valleys close to Oaxaca City, SW of Mexico. In the study zones, there are generalized uses of pesticides and the impact on the water resources by inadequate use of agricultural activities. Water is used for irrigation and drinking. Surveying criteria was to sample the aquifer (production wells), its water table (dig wells) and a regional water collector (Plan Benito Juarez Yuayapan dam). A total of 14 samples were analyzed for the identification and quantification of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides. Method was 508-EPA. Gas chromatographer was a 5890 series II Hewlett Packard, calibrated with several patterns. Results: 10 samples are contaminated with some pesticide of the used patterns; Dieldrin, Chlordano, Malathion, Mirex were not found; Traces of organophosphorus compounds were found in 8 samples, mainly Merphos, Parathion Ethylic and Disulfoton ; There was detected traces of world-forbidden insecticides as Metoxychlor, Parathion Ethylic and Disulfoton; and In one sample (Cuilapam well #1) DDT exceeds, the Mexican maximum limit for potable water (1 mg/l),

  4. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of fresh and processed white cauliflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Fouad A; Ali, Rehab F M

    2013-01-01

    Brassica species are very rich in health-promoting phytochemicals, including phenolic compounds, vitamin C, and minerals. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different blanching (i.e., water and steam) and cooking (i.e., water boiling, steam boiling, microwaving, and stir-frying) methods on the nutrient components, phytochemical contents (i.e., polyphenols, carotenoids, flavonoid, and ascorbic acid), antioxidant activity measured by DPPH assay, and phenolic profiles of white cauliflower. Results showed that water boiling and water blanching processes had a great effect on the nutrient components and caused significant losses of dry matter, protein, and mineral and phytochemical contents. However, steam treatments (blanching and cooking), stir-frying, and microwaving presented the lowest reductions. Methanolic extract of fresh cauliflower had significantly the highest antioxidant activity (68.91%) followed by the extracts of steam-blanched, steam-boiled, stir-fried, and microwaved cauliflower 61.83%, 59.15%, 58.93%, and 58.24%, respectively. HPLC analysis revealed that the predominant phenolics of raw cauliflower were protocatechuic acid (192.45), quercetin (202.4), pyrogallol (18.9), vanillic acid (11.90), coumaric acid (6.94), and kaempferol (25.91) mg/100 g DW, respectively.

  5. Melting relations in the MgO-MgSiO3 system up to 70 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Satoka; Kuwayama, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Toru

    2017-06-01

    Melting experiments in a binary system MgO-MgSiO3 were performed up to 70 GPa using a CO2 laser heated diamond anvil cell. The quenched samples were polished and analyzed by a dualbeam focused ion beam (FIB) and a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), respectively. The liquidus phase and the eutectic composition were determined on the basis of textual and chemical analyses of sample cross sections. Our experimental results show that the eutectic composition is the Si/Mg molar ratio of 0.76 at 35 GPa and it decreases with increasing pressure. Above 45 GPa, it becomes relatively constant at about 0.64-0.65 Si/Mg molar ratio. Using our experimental data collected at a wide pressure range up to 70 GPa together with previous experimental data, we have constructed a thermodynamic model of the eutectic composition of the MgO-MgSiO3 system. The eutectic composition extrapolated to the pressure and temperature conditions at the base of the mantle is about 0.64 Si/Mg molar ratio. The modeled eutectic composition is quite consistent with a previous prediction from ab initio calculations (de Koker et al. in Earth Planet Sci Lett 361:58-63, 2013), suggesting that the simple assumption of a non-ideal regular solution model can well describe the melting relation of the MgO-MgSiO3 system at high pressure. Our results show that the liquidus phase changes from MgO-periclase to MgSiO3-bridgmanite at 35 GPa for the simplified pyrolite composition ( 0.7 Si/Mg molar ratio), while MgSiO3-bridgmanite is the liquidus phase at the entire lower mantle conditions for the chondritic composition ( 0.84 Si/Mg molar ratio).

  6. Chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5-cells under the influence of Mg and Mg alloy degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Sanchez, Adela H., E-mail: adela.martinez@hzg.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Material Research, Department for Structural Research on Macromolecules, Geesthacht (Germany); Feyerabend, Frank; Laipple, Daniel; Willumeit-Römer, Regine [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Material Research, Department for Structural Research on Macromolecules, Geesthacht (Germany); Weinberg, Annelie [Department of Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery, Medical University of Graz (Austria); Luthringer, Bérengère J.C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Material Research, Department for Structural Research on Macromolecules, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg)-based materials are a potential alternative to permanent implants for application in children. Nevertheless effects of those materials on growth plate cartilage and chondrogenesis have not been previously evaluated. In vitro differentiation of ATDC5 cells was evaluated under the influence of pure Mg (PMg), Mg with 10 wt% of gadolinium (Mg-10Gd) and Mg with 2 wt% of silver (Mg-2Ag) degradation products (extracts) and direct cell culture on the materials. Gene expression showed an inhibitory effect on ATDC5 mineralization with the three extracts and a chondrogenic potential of Mg-10Gd. Cells cultured in Mg-10Gd and Mg-2Ag extracts showed the same proliferation and morphology than cells cultured in growth conditions. Mg-10Gd induced an increase in production of ECM and a bigger cell size, similar to the effects found with differentiation conditions. An increased metabolic activity was observed in cells cultured under the influence of Mg-10Gd extracts, indicated by an acidic pH during most of the culture period. After 7 days of culture on the materials, ATDC5 growth, distribution and ECM synthesis were higher on Mg-10Gd samples, followed by Mg-2Ag and PMg, which was influenced by the homogeneity and composition of the degradation layer. This study confirmed the tolerance of ATDC5 cells to Mg-based materials and a chondrogenic effect of Mg-10Gd. Further studies in vitro and in vivo are necessary to evaluate cell reactions to those materials, as well as the effects on bone growth and the biocompatibility of the alloying system in the body. - Highlights: • Degradation of PMg, and Mg-2Ag do not influence ATDC5 cells growth and chondrogenic redifferentiation. • Mg-10Gd enhances fast chondrogenic redifferentiation and expression of hyperthrophic markers on ATDC5 cells. • Further evaluation of the effects of PMg, Mg-10Gd and Mg-2Ag in vivo are necessary to confirm its potential for application in growing bones.

  7. Chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5-cells under the influence of Mg and Mg alloy degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Sanchez, Adela H.; Feyerabend, Frank; Laipple, Daniel; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Weinberg, Annelie; Luthringer, Bérengère J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg)-based materials are a potential alternative to permanent implants for application in children. Nevertheless effects of those materials on growth plate cartilage and chondrogenesis have not been previously evaluated. In vitro differentiation of ATDC5 cells was evaluated under the influence of pure Mg (PMg), Mg with 10 wt% of gadolinium (Mg-10Gd) and Mg with 2 wt% of silver (Mg-2Ag) degradation products (extracts) and direct cell culture on the materials. Gene expression showed an inhibitory effect on ATDC5 mineralization with the three extracts and a chondrogenic potential of Mg-10Gd. Cells cultured in Mg-10Gd and Mg-2Ag extracts showed the same proliferation and morphology than cells cultured in growth conditions. Mg-10Gd induced an increase in production of ECM and a bigger cell size, similar to the effects found with differentiation conditions. An increased metabolic activity was observed in cells cultured under the influence of Mg-10Gd extracts, indicated by an acidic pH during most of the culture period. After 7 days of culture on the materials, ATDC5 growth, distribution and ECM synthesis were higher on Mg-10Gd samples, followed by Mg-2Ag and PMg, which was influenced by the homogeneity and composition of the degradation layer. This study confirmed the tolerance of ATDC5 cells to Mg-based materials and a chondrogenic effect of Mg-10Gd. Further studies in vitro and in vivo are necessary to evaluate cell reactions to those materials, as well as the effects on bone growth and the biocompatibility of the alloying system in the body. - Highlights: • Degradation of PMg, and Mg-2Ag do not influence ATDC5 cells growth and chondrogenic redifferentiation. • Mg-10Gd enhances fast chondrogenic redifferentiation and expression of hyperthrophic markers on ATDC5 cells. • Further evaluation of the effects of PMg, Mg-10Gd and Mg-2Ag in vivo are necessary to confirm its potential for application in growing bones.

  8. Drop testing of the Westinghouse fresh nuclear fuel package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.; Sanders, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    The Westinghouse Columbia Fuel Fabrication Facility has decided to develop and certify a new fresh fuel package design (type A, fissile) that has the capability to transport more highly enriched fuel than was previously possible. A prototype package was tested in support of the Safety Analysis Report of the Packaging (SARP). This paper provides detailed information on the tests and test results. A first prototype test was carried out at the STF, and the design did not give the safety margin that Westinghouse wanted for their containers. The data from the test were used to redesign the connection between the clamping frame and the pressure pad, and the tests were reinitiated. Three packages were then tested at the STF. All packages met the acceptance criteria and acceleration information was obtained that provided an indication of the behavior of the cradle and strongback which holds the fuel assemblies and nuclear poison in place. (J.P.N.)

  9. Low hygroscopicity of ambient fresh carbonaceous aerosols from pyrotechnics smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, Christian M.; Gomez, Samantha L.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Aiken, Allison C.

    2018-04-01

    Pyrotechnics (fireworks) displays are common for many cultures worldwide, with Independence Day celebrations occurring annually on July 4th as the most notable in the U.S. Given an episodic nature, fireworks aerosol properties are poorly characterized. Here we report observations of optical properties of fresh smoke emissions from Independence Day fireworks smoke sampled at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico U.S.A. on 4-5 July 2016. Aerosol optical properties were measured with a photoacoustic extinctiometer (PAX, DMT, Inc., Model 870 nm) at low RH laboratory testing with ground-level sparklers showed that pyrotechnics smoke can generate a strong hygroscopic response, however. As confirmed with chemical analysis, the chemistry of the fireworks was key to defining the hygroscopic response. Sparkler smoke was dominated by salt species such as hygroscopic potassium chloride while it lacked the black powder explosives in aerial fireworks that contribute organic and elemental carbon to its non-hygroscopic smoke.

  10. Relating Fresh Concrete Viscosity Measurements from Different Rheometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Chiara F; Martys, Nicos S

    2003-01-01

    Concrete rheological properties need to be properly measured and predicted in order to characterize the workability of fresh concrete, including special concretes such as self-consolidating concrete (SCC). It was shown by a round-robin test held in 2000 [1,2] that different rheometer designs gave different values of viscosity for the same concrete. While empirical correlation between different rheometers was possible, for a procedure that is supposed to "scientifically" improve on the empirical slump tests, this situation is unsatisfactory. To remedy this situation, a new interpretation of the data was developed. In this paper, it is shown that all instruments tested could be directly and quantitatively compared in terms of relative plastic viscosity instead of the plastic viscosity alone. This should eventually allow the measurements from various rheometer designs to be directly calibrated against known standards of plastic viscosity, putting concrete rheometry and concrete workability on a sounder materials science basis.

  11. Chemical dispersibility testing of fresh and weathered oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandvik, P.J.; Daling, P.S.; Aareskjold, K.

    1991-05-01

    This activity in the DIspersants on Weathered Oils-project (DIWO) is a continuation and an extended study of the dispersibility study described in DIWO report No. 3. The main objective has been to study the chemical dispersibility of fresh and weathered oils produced or transported in Norwegian waters. Other important aims of this study have been: To correlate the effectiveness results obtained by three different laboratory methods; to determine the relationship between the dispersant effectiveness and the change in the oils' physico-chemical properties due to weathering (topping, photo-oxidation and w/o-emulsification). This study has been performed with 8 different oil types and 12 different weathering degrees of each oil type. The work performed clearly demonstrates that the oil type and especially the weathering properties are essential for the performance of dispersants at sea. 41 figs., 5 tabs., 16 refs

  12. Research of radiation technology in keeping pet feed fresh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Qin; Zhang Tongcheng; Liu Qingfang; Wang Chunlei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To find a effective, simple, quick method of radiation keeping fresh technology. Method: To detect the number of bacterium colony and pathogen and D 10 in Raschide dog chews firstly, then calculate them with the formulate of S D = D 10 log N 0 /SAL. Result: The total number of bacterium colony and pathogen in Raschide dog chews, a kind of pet feed, were detected. The mean total number of colony forming units was 3980 every gram and G + bacilli predominant, cocci less. The D 10 value of G + bacilli was 1.51 KGy. Conclusion: According to the certain formula method, the product SAL can be kept at 10 -6 level with 14.50 KGy radiation dose

  13. Technology Optimization of Lysozyme's Fresh Maintaining Effect on Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun-Hong, Liu; Kun-Yu, Wang

    2016-10-03

    Lysozyme is a kind of alkaline globin, which functions well in the degradation of the cell wall of microbe. Currently, lysozyme is widely used in various fields, such as medicine, fruit, and vegetable industry, dairy industry, and so on. Therefore, the exploitation and utilization of lysozyme is of significant economic benefit. Taking apple as material, weight loss ratio and reducing sugar content as objectives, this paper studied the fresh-keeping effect of lysozyme. Influential factors, lysozyme concentration, soaking time, modified temperature, and reaction time were discussed in detail. The results showed that reducing sugar content was 2.043% and the weight loss ratio was the minimum in the presence of soaking time of 2 min, modified temperature of 65 °C, reaction time of 4 d, and lysozyme concentration of 0.5 g/L. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. A new megastigmane from fresh roots of Rehmannia glutinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisheng Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new megastigmane, rehmamegastigmane (1, together with eighteen known compounds lariciresinol (2, lariciresinol-4′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3, hierochin D (4, yemuoside YM1 (5, darendoside B (6, decaffeoylacteoside (7, jionoside B1 (8, catalpol (9, ajugol (10, 6-O-vanilloylajugol (11, 6-O-E-feruloylajugol (12, rehmapicroside (13, rehmapicrogenin (14, 3-methoxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexane-1-enecarboxylic acid (15, vanillic acid (16, hydroferulic acid (17, threo-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-1,2,3-propanetriol (18, p-hydroxyphenylethyl alcohol (19 was isolated from the fresh roots of Rehmannia glutinosa. Compounds 2–6 and 16–18 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  15. Freshly squeezed: anaphylaxis caused by drone larvae juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoevesandt, J; Trautmann, A

    2017-11-30

    Drone larvae are mostly considered a by-product of beekeeping, but have recently been advo-cated as a high-protein source of food. There are as yet no data concerning their allergenic po-tential. We report on a 29-year old bee keeper who experienced an anaphylactic reaction following the consumption of a freshly prepared beverage from raw drone larvae. Larvae-specific sensitization was confirmed by prick-to-prick and basophil activation testing. Bee stings and classical bee products including honey and royal jelly were tolerated. This is the hitherto first report on IgE-mediated allergy to drone larvae. We suggest that a certain awareness towards the allergenicity of bee larvae is required.

  16. Successful selling of packed fresh fruit and vegetable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Presová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the marketability of packaged fruit and vegetables, as a new trend of satisfying consumer needs, in connection with selling-culture of stall selling and self-stores sales. It emphasize fact that food have to be wrapped into the quality, health packages, under the conditions of the Act. 477/2001 Coll.Specific data for the analytical part of this paper was provided by Hortim International Ltd. This company has operate on the Czech market since 1995. Analysis of the economic results confirmes the legitimacy of the sale of packaged fresh fruits and vegetables, but there will be neccesary longer lasting promotion. This fact also confirmed the research of consumer demand, that was made by authors. Determinant for the success sales are these factors: consumer confidence that the packaged products of fruit and vegetables are high quality.

  17. Development of process control for the irradiation of fresh mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabalfin, E G; Lanuza, L G; Maningas, A L; Solomon, H M; Madera, G G; Pares, F A [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2001-03-01

    Dose distribution studies in mangoes contained in boxes used in commercial trade for export, were done using the multipurpose irradiation facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. The mangoes were irradiated at a target dose of 100 Gy, the dose required for quarantine treatment of fresh mangoes against fruitflies. Positions of minimum dose and maximum dose were identified and dose uniformity ratio was determined. Fricke and Gammachrome YR dosimeters were used for the dose distribution studies. The performance of STERIN threshold indicators was evaluated by irradiating them at different doses. STERIN 125 indicators were also attached to the surface of the mango boxes during the dose distribution studies. STERIN indicators can be useful to differentiate between irradiated and unirradiated products. (author)

  18. Development of process control for the irradiation of fresh mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalfin, E.G.; Lanuza, L.G.; Maningas, A.L.; Solomon, H.M.; Madera, G.G.; Pares, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    Dose distribution studies in mangoes contained in boxes used in commercial trade for export, were done using the multipurpose irradiation facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. The mangoes were irradiated at a target dose of 100 Gy, the dose required for quarantine treatment of fresh mangoes against fruitflies. Positions of minimum dose and maximum dose were identified and dose uniformity ratio was determined. Fricke and Gammachrome YR dosimeters were used for the dose distribution studies. The performance of STERIN threshold indicators was evaluated by irradiating them at different doses. STERIN 125 indicators were also attached to the surface of the mango boxes during the dose distribution studies. STERIN indicators can be useful to differentiate between irradiated and unirradiated products. (author)

  19. Update on Fresh Fuel Characterization of U-Mo Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkes, D.E.; Wachs, D.M.; Keiser, D.D.; Okuniewski, M.A.; Jue, J.F.; Rice, F.J.; Prabhakaran, R.

    2009-01-01

    The need to provide more accurate property information on U-Mo fuel alloys to operators, modellers, researchers, fabricators, and government increases as success of the GTRI Reactor Convert program continues. This presentation provides an update on fresh fuel characterization activities that have occurred at the INL since the RERTR 2008 conference in Washington, D.C. The update is particularly focused on properties recently obtained and on the development progress of new measurement techniques. Furthermore, areas where useful and necessary information is still lacking is discussed. The update deals with mechanical, physical, and microstructural properties for both integrated and separate effects. Appropriate discussion of fabrication characteristics, impurities, thermodynamic response, and effects on the topic areas are provided, along with a background on the characterization techniques used and developed to obtain the information. Efforts to measure similar characteristics on irradiated fuel plates are discussed.

  20. Dispersant effectiveness in the field on fresh oils and emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunel, T.; Davies, L.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed data set on the effectiveness of dispersants on fresh oils and emulsions, was presented. The data set could be used to calibrate laboratory dispersant tests and dispersion models so that oil spill response teams would have accurate information to make decisions regarding remediation processes. AEA Technology developed steady state continuous release experiments to provide a data set with quantitative measures of dispersant effectiveness in the field. The Sea Empress incident was closely monitored in order to compare the quantification obtained through field trials. It was noted that the prediction of the percentage of oil dispersed chemically is not the only indication of whether or not to use a dispersant. The important determinant to consider should be the extent to which the natural dispersion process would be enhanced by dispersant application. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 18 figs

  1. Development of fresh fuel packaging for ATR demonstration reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurakami, J.; Kurita, I.

    1993-01-01

    Related to development of the demonstration advanced thermal reactor, it is necessary and important to develop transport packaging which is used for transporting fresh fuel assemblies. Therefore, the packaging is now being developed in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Currently, PNC is fabricating two prototype packagings based on the final design, and land cruising and vibration tests, handling performance tests and prototype packaging tests will be executed with prototype packagings in order to experimentally confirm the soundness of packaging and its contents and the propriety of design technique. This paper describes the summary of general specifications and structures of this packaging and the summary of preliminary safety analysis of package. (J.P.N.)

  2. Viability Tests for Fresh and Stored Haemopoietic Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliedner, T. M. [Abteilung fuer klinische Physiologie, Zentrum fuer Klinische Grundlagenforschung, Universitaet Ulm, Ulm, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1969-07-15

    This paper reviews current methods of measurement of the viability of fresh and stored haemopoietic cells. The life expectancy of granulocytes and monocytes after transfusion can be studied by in-vitro labelling with {sup 3}H-DFP and subsequent autoradiography. The evaluation of data in about 30 patients with various haemopoietic conditions indicates a wide variation of the disappearance half-time of granulocytes. {sup 3}H-cytidine labels essentially all lymphocytes in vitro, predominantly in their RNA. Transfusion of {sup 3}H-cytidine-labelled lymphocytes enables one to measure the lower limit of their life-expectancy as well as their rate of RNA metabolism. If bone-marrow cells are labelled in vitro with {sup 3}H-thymidine and subsequently transfused, their capability to circulate, to reach the haemopoietic tissue of the host, to proliferate and to mature can be demonstrated. However, the repopulating capacity of frozen and thawed marrow is independent of the ability of {sup 3}H-TDR-labelled marrow cells to circulate, proliferate and mature. It is assumed that bone-marrow cells capable of repopulating depleted haemopoietic tissue are resting under steady-state conditions and can be labelled by means of {sup 3}H-TDR only using special conditions. Thus the only viability tests for fresh and stored bone-marrow cells at present appear to be bioassay methods at the animal experimental level. The results indicate the need for the development of reliable viability tests for stem cells applicable in both experimental and clinical conditions. (author)

  3. Changes in the business model for Spanish fresh tomato trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo-Valenciano, J. de; Giacinti-Battistuzzi, M.A.; Tassile, T.; García-Azcárate, T.

    2017-01-01

    The business model applied to the fresh tomato trade from Almería is well known in Spain and abroad. The changes in demand are forcing export companies to change their trade strategies to become or remain competitive. The purpose of this paper is to know the business structure and its export dynamics in addition to the changes in trade strategies made by companies in Almería during the 2009-2013 period. The methodology is based on the Herfindahl-Hirshman index and the foreign trade competitiveness index, whereas the congruence analysis is based on Pearson’s correlation coefficients and the RV coefficient. We have also applied the dual multiple factor analysis to verify changes made to the trade policy in leading businesses between two periods or scenarios. The research shows that export-driven companies behave as a moderately concentrated structure and there is an increase in the number of exporters. The competitiveness map for Almería reveals the sector’s trend with regard to the most important markets. We have verified the changes made to their trade strategy to adjust to changes in foreign trade between the 2008/09 and 2012/13 campaigns. Finally, it can be pointed out that, in the analyzed period, changes in the business model for fresh tomato trade of Almería have not been significant, being its structure of moderate concentration. In addition, the great majority of variations in strategies of companies to adapt to the competitive environment have been made by leading companies.

  4. Changes in the business model for Spanish fresh tomato trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pablo-Valenciano, J. de; Giacinti-Battistuzzi, M.A.; Tassile, T.; García-Azcárate, T.

    2017-09-01

    The business model applied to the fresh tomato trade from Almería is well known in Spain and abroad. The changes in demand are forcing export companies to change their trade strategies to become or remain competitive. The purpose of this paper is to know the business structure and its export dynamics in addition to the changes in trade strategies made by companies in Almería during the 2009-2013 period. The methodology is based on the Herfindahl-Hirshman index and the foreign trade competitiveness index, whereas the congruence analysis is based on Pearson’s correlation coefficients and the RV coefficient. We have also applied the dual multiple factor analysis to verify changes made to the trade policy in leading businesses between two periods or scenarios. The research shows that export-driven companies behave as a moderately concentrated structure and there is an increase in the number of exporters. The competitiveness map for Almería reveals the sector’s trend with regard to the most important markets. We have verified the changes made to their trade strategy to adjust to changes in foreign trade between the 2008/09 and 2012/13 campaigns. Finally, it can be pointed out that, in the analyzed period, changes in the business model for fresh tomato trade of Almería have not been significant, being its structure of moderate concentration. In addition, the great majority of variations in strategies of companies to adapt to the competitive environment have been made by leading companies.

  5. Development of analytical methods for iodine speciation in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaku, Yuichi; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2007-01-01

    Analytical methods for physicochemical speciation of iodine in fresh water samples were developed to elucidate its behavior in the environment. The methods combined inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SEC) or capillary electrophoresis (CE). Freshwater samples were collected from Lake Towada and rivers surrounding the lake. After filtration through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane filter, iodine in the water samples was pre-concentrated with an ultra-filtration filter which had a cut-off size of 10 kDa. The fraction with molecular size over 10 kDa was concentrated to 100 times in the original water, and then introduced into the SEC-ICP-MS. Molecular size chromatograms of all river and lake water samples showed two peaks for iodine concentrations: 40 kDa and 20 kDa. The method for separately determining two valence states of inorganic iodine, I - and IO 3 - , was also developed using the CE-ICP-MS system and it was successfully applied to the fresh water samples. Analysis results of surface water samples in Lake Towada and rivers surrounding the lake indicated that the chemical form of inorganic iodine in all samples was IO 3 - . Additional lake water samples were collected from Lake O-ike-higashi in the Juni-ko area at Shirakami-Sanchi, which is a UNESCO natural world heritage. The lake has a strong thermocline during all seasons; its bottom layer is in a highly reductive state. Depth profiles of I - and IO 3 - clearly showed that I - was not detected in the surface layer, but it was predominant in the bottom layer, and vice versa for IO 3 - . As this separation method is rapid and sensitive, it will be widely used in the future. (author)

  6. The History of Variable Stars: A Fresh Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, R. A.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) For historians of astronomy, variable stars are important for a simple reason - stars change. But good evidence suggests this is a very modern idea. Over the millennia, our species has viewed stars as eternal and unchanging, forever fixed in time and space - indeed, the Celestial Dance was a celebration of order, reason, and stability. But everything changed in the period between Copernicus and Newton. According to tradition, two New Stars announced the birth of the New Science. Blazing across the celestial stage, Tycho's Star (1572) and Kepler's Star (1604) appeared dramatically - and just as unexpectedly - disappeared forever. But variable stars were different. Mira Ceti, the oldest, brightest, and most controversial variable star, was important because it appeared and disappeared again and again. Mira was important because it did not go away. The purpose of this essay is to take a fresh look at the history of variable stars. In re-thinking the traditional narrative, I begin with the first sightings of David Fabricius (1596) and his contemporaries - particularly Hevelius (1662) and Boulliau (1667) - to new traditions that unfolded from Newton and Maupertuis to Herschel (1780) and Pigott (1805). The essay concludes with important 19th-century developments, particularly by Argelander (1838), Pickering (1888), and Lockyer (1890). Across three centuries, variable stars prompted astronomers to re-think all the ways that stars were no longer "fixed." New strategies were needed. Astronomers needed to organize, to make continuous observations, to track changing magnitudes, and to explain stellar phases. Importantly - as Mira suggested from the outset - these challenges called for an army of observers with the discipline of Spartans. But recruiting that army required a strategy, a set of theories with shared expectations. Observation and theory worked hand-in-hand. In presenting new historical evidence from neglected printed sources and unpublished

  7. Pathogen detection, testing, and control in fresh broccoli sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahey Jed W

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent increased interest in consuming green vegetable sprouts has been tempered by the fact that fresh sprouts can in some cases be vehicles for food-borne illnesses. They must be grown according to proper conditions of sanitation and handled as a food product rather than as an agricultural commodity. When sprouts are grown in accordance with the criteria proposed from within the sprout industry, developed by regulatory agencies, and adhered to by many sprouters, green sprouts can be produced with very low risk. Contamination may occur when these guidelines are not followed. Methods A one year program of microbial hold-and-release testing, conducted in concert with strict seed and facility cleaning procedures by 13 U.S. broccoli sprout growers was evaluated. Microbial contamination tests were performed on 6839 drums of sprouts, equivalent to about 5 million consumer packages of fresh green sprouts. Results Only 24 (0.75% of the 3191 sprout samples gave an initial positive test for Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella spp., and when re-tested, 3 drums again tested positive. Composite testing (e.g., pooling up to 7 drums for pathogen testing was equally sensitive to single drum testing. Conclusion By using a "test-and-re-test" protocol, growers were able to minimize crop destruction. By pooling drums for testing, they were also able to reduce testing costs which now represent a substantial portion of the costs associated with sprout growing. The test-and-hold scheme described herein allowed those few batches of contaminated sprouts to be found prior to packaging and shipping. These events were isolated, and only safe sprouts entered the food supply.

  8. Traceability and Demand Sensitiveness: Evidences from Italian Fresh Potatoes Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Caracciolo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available When a traceability system takes place, either when mandatory or voluntary, many questions arise that need to be addressed and answered. One of the firsts concerns whether it introduces new costs with no gain in efficiency or, on the contrary, the system efficiency increases lowering costs and, as a consequence, market price of the good in hand. Among others, another issue that only rarely is addressed regards the effect of a price change on the final market. The objective of this paper was to simulate the effect on fresh Italian vegetables market of prices change due to a newer traceability procedure, focusing on early potato. Reasons why early potato was the main object of our study will be explained in detail later in the paper. Moreover, this study concerns a demand system estimation that has, as main goal, the measurement of own and cross price elasticities as well as expenditure elasticities. Such estimations are not strictly related with traceability because they measure any change in quantity demanded due to price changes due to any market perturbation. However, since early potato is experiencing a peculiar market and chain change in Italy, our simulation is meant to reason in terms of a “what if” approach, formally simulating the effect of any change in price due to an hypothesis of traceability system involved. In order to estimate a demand system, real household consumption data (3,000 observations of a statistically representative sample of the Italian population of households was taken into account. Relevant measures of market variables were estimated by means of a Linear Almost Ideal Demand System implementing a large set of fresh vegetables: potato split in early and late, cabbage, salad, mushrooms, fruits vegetables, roots, asparagus, onion, tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, beans, zucchinis and others.

  9. Wettability contrasts between fresh and weathered diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Stephanie S; O'Carroll, Denis M; Gerhard, Jason I

    2013-01-01

    The remediation of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminated sites is impeded due to subsurface complexities, including wettability. Wettability quantifies which of two immiscible fluids preferentially coats a solid. At most contaminated sites water-wetting conditions are typically assumed despite mounting evidence that this is not always the case. In this study, wettability was examined for two NAPL samples of contrasting origin: a fresh and a field sample. Wettability was assessed through (i) cyclical, 'cumulative elapsed contact time' intrinsic contact angle measurements, (ii) interface jar tests, and (iii) cyclical, pseudo-static capillary pressure-saturation curves. The work as a whole demonstrated that while the fresh diesel sample was consistently water-wet, the field diesel sample exhibited repeatable cycles of wettability reversal between water drainage and imbibition. And while wettability hysteresis increased with contact time for the field diesel, the occurrence of wettability reversal at each change of saturation direction was independent of contact time. Such behavior is not easily assessed by standard wettability indices. Moreover, it contrasts with the permanent wettability alteration observed for complex organics (e.g., coal tar) observed in most studies. It is hypothesized that the cyclical wettability reversal is related to cyclical changes in intermediate pore wettability due to sorption of surface active compounds (causing NAPL-wetting imbibition) and rupturing of the soil grain water film (causing water-wet drainage). The wettability differences between the two NAPLs may be due to additives (i.e., a surfactant) in the original formulation and/or byproducts from subsurface weathering. These results support better characterization of site-specific wettability, improved model development and more realistic site conceptual models for improved remediation efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Freshness indices of roasted coffee: monitoring the loss of freshness for single serve capsules and roasted whole beans in different packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glöss, Alexia N; Schönbächler, Barbara; Rast, Markus; Deuber, Louis; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2014-01-01

    With the growing demand for high-quality coffee, it is becoming increasingly important to establish quantitative measures of the freshness of coffee, or the loss thereof, over time. Indeed, freshness has become a critical quality criterion in the specialty coffee scene, where the aim is to deliver the most pleasant flavor in the cup, from highest quality beans. A series of intensity ratios of selected volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the headspace of coffee (by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) were revisited, with the aim to establish robust indicators of freshness of coffee - called freshness indices. Roasted whole beans in four different packaging materials and four commercial capsule systems from the Swiss market were investigated over a period of up to one year of storage time. These measurements revealed three types of insight. First, a clear link between barrier properties of the packaging material and the evolution of selected freshness indices was observed. Packaging materials that contain an aluminum layer offer better protection. Second, processing steps prior to packaging are reflected in the absolute values of freshness indices. Third, differences in the standard deviations of freshness-indices for single serve coffee capsule systems are indicative of differences in the consistency among systems, consistency being an important quality attribute of capsules.

  11. Effects of limestone, N, K and Mg fertilizers on Mg absorption by oats and barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alston, A M

    1966-01-01

    Oats grown in a pot experiment on two sandy loams were sampled at four stages of growth. Neither KCl nor MgSO/sub 4/. 7H/sub 2/O had any effect on yield but % Mg and total Mg uptake were consistently decreased by applying K and increased by applying Mg. Ca(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ increased % Mg more than did (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, but yield and total Mg uptake were higher where (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ was applied. The effects of fertilizers were similar on both soils. The effects of applying (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and NaNO/sub 2/ to the soil on % Mg in barley were compared in a field experiment on an acid loam to which several rates of limestone had been applied. Treatments had no effect on the % Mg in grain or straw at maturity. At four earlier stages of growth (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO)/sub 4/ increased % Mg in the plants more than did NaNO/sub 2/. Limestone slightly increased % Mg. Nitrification of NH/sub 4/ in the soil was rapid.

  12. Mg Incorporation Efficiency in Pulsed MOCVD of N-Polar GaN:Mg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Jonathan; Mahaboob, Isra; Hogan, Kasey; Novak, Steve; Bell, L. D.; Shahedipour-Sandvik, F.

    2017-10-01

    We report on the effect of growth polarity and pulsed or δ -doped growth mode on impurity incorporation in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition-grown GaN. In Ga-polar orientation, up to 12× enhancement in Mg concentration for given Mg flow rate is observed, resulting in enhanced p-type conductivity for these samples. In contrast, this enhancement effect is greatly diminished for N-polar samples, falling off with increasing Mg flow and showing maximum enhancement of 2.7× at 30 nmol/min Mg flow. At higher Mg flow rates, Mg incorporation at normal levels did not correspond to p-type conductivity, which may be due to Mg incorporation at nonacceptor sites. Concentrations of C, O, and Si were also investigated, revealing dependence on Mg flow in N-polar pulsed samples. Carbon incorporation was found to decrease with increasing Mg flow, and oxygen incorporation was found to remain high across varied Mg flow. These effects combine to result in N-polar samples that are not p-type when using the pulsed growth mode.

  13. Structural characteristics and corrosion behavior of biodegradable Mg-Zn, Mg-Zn-Gd alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubásek, J; Vojtěch, D

    2013-07-01

    In this research, binary Mg-Zn (up to 3 wt% Zn) and ternary Mg-Zn-Gd (up to 3 wt% Gd, 3 wt% Zn) alloys were prepared by induction melting in an argon atmosphere. The structures of these alloys were characterized using light and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. In addition, Brinell hardness measurements were taken to supplement these studies. Corrosion behavior was evaluated by immersion tests and potentiodynamic measurements in a physiological solution (9 g/l NaCl). Depending on the composition, structures of the as-cast alloys contained α-Mg dendrites, MgZn, Mg5Gd and Mg3Gd2Zn3 phases. Compared to pure Mg, zinc improved the corrosion resistance of binary Mg-Zn. Gadolinium also improved the corrosion resistance in the case of Mg-1Zn-3Gd alloy. The highest corrosion rate was observed for Mg-3Zn-3Gd alloy. Our results improve the understanding of the relationships between the structure and corrosion behavior of our studied alloy systems.

  14. Prevention of ligneous conjunctivitis by topical and subconjunctival fresh frozen plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F

    2004-08-01

    To present a case of ligneous conjunctivitis where the recurrence of membranous conjunctivitis was prevented by subconjunctival and topical instillation of fresh frozen plasma. Interventional case report. A case of ligneous conjunctivitis with multiple recurrences since the age of 3 years developed recurrent membranous conjunctivitis after transconjunctival levator recession. Blood plasminogen activity was determined. The membrane was excised, and the membrane reappeared 4 days later. The patient was treated with excision of the membrane and subconjunctival injection of fresh frozen plasma and topical fresh frozen plasma. Plasminogen activity of the fresh frozen plasma was normal. Plasminogen blood functional activity was 52% (normal is 80%-120%). The patient had complete remission with no recurrences of membranous conjunctivitis after topical and subconjunctival fresh frozen plasma. Prophylactic use of topical and subconjunctival fresh frozen plasma may help in the prevention of membranes in susceptible patients with plasminogen deficiency.

  15. A New On-Line Detecting Apparatus of the Residual Chlorine in Disinfectant for Fresh-Cut Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chao; Su, Shu-Qiang; Li, Bao-Guo; Liu, Meng-Fang

    With the fast development of modern food and beverage industry, fresh-cut vegetables have wider application than before. During the process of sterilization in fresh-cut vegetables, the concentration of chloric disinfectant is usually so high that the common sensor can't be used directly on the product line. In order to solve this problem, we have invented a new detecting apparatus which could detect high concentration of chloric disinfectant directly. In this paper, the working principle, main monitor indicators, application and technical creations of the on-line apparatus have been discussed, and we also carried on the experimental analysis for its performance. The actual demands in factory could be met when the detecting flux is 2L/min, the dilution ratio is 15 and input amount of the disinfectant is 200ml per time, the max of the detecting deviation achieves ±4.8ppm(mg/L). The main detecting range of residual chlorine is 0~300ppm.

  16. Application of Cold Chain Logistics Safety Reliability in Fresh Food Distribution Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Zou Yifeng; Xie Ruhe

    2013-01-01

    In view of the nature of fresh food’s continuous decrease of safety during distribution process, this study applied safety reliability of food cold chain logistics to establish fresh food distribution routing optimization model with time windows, and solved the model using MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) with case analysis. Studies have shown that the mentioned model and algorithm can better solve the problem of fresh food distribution routing optimization with time windows.

  17. Hiding in Fresh Fruits and Vegetables: Opportunistic Pathogens May Cross Geographical Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kharousi, Zahra S.; Guizani, Nejib; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M.; Al-Bulushi, Ismail M.; Shaharoona, Baby

    2016-01-01

    Different microbial groups of the microbiome of fresh produce can have diverse effects on human health. This study was aimed at identifying some microbial communities of fresh produce by analyzing 105 samples of imported fresh fruits and vegetables originated from different countries in the world including local samples (Oman) for aerobic plate count and the counts of Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus. The isolated bacteria were identified by molecular (PCR) and bioc...

  18. Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold at central markets in Khartoum state, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Mona Ali; Siddig, Emmanuel Edwar; Elaagip, Arwa Hassan; Edris, Ali Mahmoud Mohammed; Nasr, Awad Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background Fresh vegetables are considered as vital nutrients of a healthy diet as they supply the body with essential supplements. The consumption of raw vegetables is the main way for transmission of intestinal parasitic organisms. This study was aimed at detecting the parasitic contamination in fresh vegetables sold in two central open-aired markets in Khartoum state, Sudan. Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 260 fresh vegetable samples and 50 water samples used ...

  19. Consumer’s attitude and perception of fresh seafood products: cognitive effects on behaviour buying

    OpenAIRE

    Gouin, Stéphane; Mesnildrey, Lucile; Lesueur, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Since 2004, the French fishery field has had to cope with a levelling off of consumption of fresh seafood products whereas the consumption of processed seafood products is increasing. Nowadays, consumers prefer easier products: fresh deli products, easy to cook or ready to consume. Therefore, fresh seafood products do not seem to fulfil current consumer demand intrinsically (aspect, taste) and extrinsically (cooking methods, use, origin, brand and price). In order to understand the evolution ...

  20. Effect of minimal processing on physiology and quality of fresh-cut potatoes, a review

    OpenAIRE

    Rocculi, Pietro; Romani, Santina; Gomez, Federico; Dalla Rosa, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Fresh-cut fruit and vegetable are minimally processed products that have to maintain their quality (appearance, texture, flavour and nutritive value) similar to those of the fresh product. The fundamental principle underlying the quality of these commodities is that they are metabolic active tissues and, as a consequence, show physiological response to preparation procedures as well as to the environment created in the package in which they are enclosed. Minimal processing for fresh-cut potat...

  1. Potential use of ionizing radiation as quarantine treatment for fresh fruits, vegetables and flowers in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Ricardo

    1990-01-01

    It is presented a brief description of the investigations Technology. Considering the potentiality of the country, to export non traditional and exotic fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, and ornamental fresh cut flowers, studies ares initiated to use ionizing radiation as quarantine treatments. This paper reports the initial data obtained with two species of fruit fly of high incidence in the fruit producer zones of Ecuador, whose stable and permanent microclimates allow to produce a sort of fruits along all year

  2. Thermoelectric power of PrMg3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isikawa, Yosikazu; Somiya, Kazuya; Koyanagi, Huruto; Mizushima, Toshio; Kuwai, Tomohiko; Tayama, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    PrMg3 is supposed to be one of the strongly correlated electron systems originated from the hybridization between the Pr 4f and conduction electrons, because the gigantic electronic specific heat coefficient C/T was observed at low temperatures. However, a typical behaviour of - ln T dependence was not observed in the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity. The thermoelectric power S is a powerful tool to investigate the density of states at the Fermi energy. We measured carefully the thermoelectric power of PrMg3 in the temperature range between 2 and 300 K. S is extremely small, ranged within ±1 μV/K over the whole temperature. The value of S/T at low temperature limit was also significantly smaller than expected from the specific heat results. We therefore conclude that the density of state at the Fermi level is not enhanced in PrMg3.

  3. Thermoelectric power of PrMg3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isikawa, Yosikazu; Somiya, Kazuya; Koyanagi, Huruto; Mizushima, Toshio; Kuwai, Tomohiko; Tayama, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    PrMg 3 is supposed to be one of the strongly correlated electron systems originated from the hybridization between the Pr 4f and conduction electrons, because the gigantic electronic specific heat coefficient C/T was observed at low temperatures. However, a typical behaviour of - ln T dependence was not observed in the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity. The thermoelectric power S is a powerful tool to investigate the density of states at the Fermi energy. We measured carefully the thermoelectric power of PrMg 3 in the temperature range between 2 and 300 K. S is extremely small, ranged within ±1 μV/K over the whole temperature. The value of S/T at low temperature limit was also significantly smaller than expected from the specific heat results. We therefore conclude that the density of state at the Fermi level is not enhanced in PrMg 3 .

  4. Rumen dry matter degradability of fresh and ensiled sugarcane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    my mord

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Brasileira de Zootecnia, Viçosa-MG. pp. 977-985. Ferreira DA, Gonçalves L, Molina LR, Castro-Neto A, Tomich TR. (2007). Fermentation of sugarcane silage treated with urea, zeolita, bacteria inoculant and bacteria/enzymatic inoculants. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec. 59:423-433. Garcia H, Abreu M, Soto JM ...

  5. Determination of silver in fresh water by atomic absorption spectrometry following flotation preconcentration by iron(III) collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cundeva, K.; Stafilov, T. [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, St. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje (Yugoslavia)

    1997-08-01

    Colloid precipitate flotation of silver from fresh water is applied for preconcentration and separation. Optimal conditions using hydrated iron(III) oxide and iron(III) tetramethylenedithiocarbamate as collectors were investigated. Various factors affecting the silver recovery, including collector mass, nature of the supporting electrolyte, pH of the working medium, electrokinetic potential of the collector particle surfaces, type of surfactant, induction time etc., were checked. Within the optimal pH range (5.5-6.5) silver was separated quantitatively (94.9- 100.0%) with 30 mg Fe(III) as collector. The content of silver was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and compared to that from inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The detection limit of silver by the method described is 0.01 {mu}g/L. (orig.) With 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Comparison of the nutrient content of fresh fruit juices vs commercial fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu; Phosuya, Panarat; Tritiprat, Amornrat; Patraarat, Siriphan; Pidatcha, Pannee; Suwannthol, Lerson

    2002-08-01

    To compare the types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolytes, pH and osmolarity of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices. Forty kinds of fresh fruits available in Thai markets were analyzed for types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolyte, pH and osmolarity and compared with previously obtained data for commercial fruit juices. Most fresh fruit juices did not contain sucrose, whereas, commercial fruit juices mostly have sucrose in the range of 3-112 g/L. Although both fruit juices were acidic (pH varied from 3.6-6.7 and 3.2-5.8 of fresh juice and commercial juice), fresh fruit juices had a more neutral pH than commercial fruit juices. Apple, guava, orange, pear, and pineapple juices from commercial fruit juices had a high osmolarity compared with fresh fruit juices. All types of fresh fruit juices contained less sodium than commercial ones, whereas, most fresh fruit juices contained more potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium than commercial fluids. The nutrient content of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices from the same kinds of fruits are not the same, possibly due to the manufacturing process. Therefore, physicians should know the composition of fruit juices in order to advise patients properly.

  7. The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Png, G M; Ng, B W-H; Mickan, S P; Abbott, D; Choi, J W; Zhang, X-C

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of how residual hydration in fresh rat tissue samples can vastly alter their extracted terahertz (THz) optical properties and influence their health assessment. Fresh (as opposed to preserved) tissue most closely mimics in vivo conditions, but high water content creates many challenges for tissue handling and THz measurement. Our THz measurements of fresh tissue over time highlight the effect of tissue hydration on tissue texture and dimension, the latter directly influencing the accuracy of calculated optical properties. We then introduce lyophilization (freeze drying) as a viable solution for overcoming hydration and freshness problems. Lyophilization removes large amounts of water while retaining sample freshness. In addition, lyophilized tissue samples are easy to handle and their textures and dimensions do not vary over time, allowing for consistent and stable THz measurements. A comparison of lyophilized and fresh tissue shows for the first time that freeze drying may be one way of overcoming tissue hydration issues while preserving tissue cellular structure. Finally, we compare THz measurements from fresh tissue against necrotic tissue to verify freshness over time. Indeed, THz measurements from fresh and necrotic tissues show marked differences

  8. Recent Developments in Film and Gas Research in Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Fresh Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Meng, Xiangyong; Bhandari, Bhesh; Fang, Zhongxiang

    2016-10-02

    Due to the rise of consumer's awareness of fresh foods to health, in the past few years, the consumption of fresh and fresh-cut produces has increased sturdily. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) possesses a potential to become one of the most appropriate technologies for packaging fresh and fresh-cut produces. The MAP has advantages of extending the shelf-life, preserving or stabilizing the desired properties of fresh produces, and convenience in handing and distribution. The success of MAP-fresh foods depends on many factors including types of fresh foods, storage temperature and humidity, gas composition, and the characteristics of package materials. This paper reviews the recent developments highlighting the most critical factors of film and gas on the quality of MAP fresh foods. Although the innovations and development of food packaging technology will continue to promote the development of novel MAP, concentrated research and endeavors from scientists and engineers are still important to the development of MAP that focuses on consumers' requirements, enhancing product quality, environmental friendly design, and cost-effective application.

  9. Inactivation of Escherichia coli inoculated onto fresh-cut chopped cabbage using electron-beam processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Uribe-Rendon, Roberto M; Lee, Ken

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade there were more than 50 reported outbreaks involving leafy green vegetables contaminated with foodborne pathogens. Leafy greens, including cabbage, are fresh foods rarely heated before consumption, which enables foodborne illness. The need for improved safety of fresh food drives the demand for nonthermal food processes to decrease the risk of pathogens while maintaining fresh quality. This study examines the efficacy of electron-beam (e-beam) irradiation in decreasing indigenous microflora on fresh-cut cabbage and determines the optimal dosage to pasteurize fresh-cut cabbage inoculated with Escherichia coli K-12. Fresh-cut cabbage (100 g) was inoculated with ∼8 log E. coli K-12 and e-beam irradiated at doses of 0, 1.0, 2.3, or 4.0 kGy. At 2.3 kGy there was 7-log reduction of E. coli K-12 in the fresh-cut cabbage. The D(10)-value for E. coli K-12 in fresh-cut cabbage was 0.564 kGy. E-beam irradiation is thus a viable nonthermal treatment that extends the shelf life and increases the safety of fresh cabbage by reducing or eliminating indigenous microflora and unwanted pathogens.

  10. Excited states in 22Mg via the 12C(12C,2n)22Mg reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewett, Cybele; Baktash, Cyrus; Bardayan, Daniel W.; Blackmon, Jeff C.; Chipps, K.; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo; Greife, U.; Gross, Carl J.; Jones, K. L.; Liang, Junjien; Livesay, Jake; Kozub, R. L.; Nesaraja, Caroline D; Radford, David C.; Sarazin, F.; Smith, Michael Scott; Thomas, J. S.; Yu, Chang-Hong

    2007-01-01

    The 12C(12C, 2n)22Mg reaction was measured with the CLARION array and the RMS separator at the Holifield Facility of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This experiment was performed to gather more information on the excited states in 22Mg, which might be of relevance to recent radioactive ion beam measurements of the astrophysically important 21Na(p,γ)22Mg reaction. The results are compared to direct measurements, transfer experiments and a competing experiment performed with Gammasphere

  11. Mifepristone 5 mg versus 10 mg for emergency contraception: double-blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbonell JL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Josep Lluis Carbonell,1 Ramon Garcia,2 Adriana Gonzalez,2 Andres Breto,2 Carlos Sanchez2 1Mediterranea Medica Clinic, Valencia, Spain; 2Eusebio Hernandez Gynecology and Obstetrics Teaching Hospital, Havana, Cuba Purpose: To estimate the efficacy and safety of 5 mg and 10 mg mifepristone for emergency contraception up to 144 hours after unprotected coitus. Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial was carried out at Eusebio Hernandez Hospital (Havana, Cuba. A total of 2,418 women who requested emergency contraception after unprotected coitus received either 5 mg or 10 mg mifepristone. The variables for assessing efficacy were the pregnancies that occurred and the fraction of pregnancies that were prevented. Other variables assessed were the side effects of mifepristone, vaginal bleeding, and changes in the date of the following menstruation. Results: There were 15/1,206 (1.2% and 9/1,212 (0.7% pregnancies in the 5 mg and 10 mg group, respectively (P=0.107. There were 88% and 93% prevented pregnancies in the 5 mg and 10 mg group, respectively. The side effect profiles were similar in both groups. Delayed menstruation ≥7 days was experienced by 4.9% and 11.0% of subjects in the 5 mg and 10 mg group, respectively (P=0.001. There was a significant high failure rate for women weighing >75 kg in the 5 mg group. Conclusion: It would be advisable to use the 10 mg dose of mifepristone for emergency contraception as there was a trend suggesting that the failure rate of the larger dose was lower. Keywords: mifepristone, emergency contraception

  12. Superconducting properties of MgB2 particle impregnated with Mg-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yusuke; Matsuda, Kenji; Mizutani, Manabu; Nishimura, Katsuhiko; Kawabata, Tokimasa; Ikeno, Susumu; Hishinuma, Yoshimitsu; Aoyama, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    The three-dimensional penetration method combined with semi-solid casting (SS-3DPC) was utilized to prepare magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) powder composite materials with various host materials of Mg, Mg-3%Al, Mg-3%Al-1%Zn, Mg-9%Al, and Mg-9%Al-1%Zn. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated predominant peak patterns of MgB 2 and a host alloy, implying that the host material tightly bonded MgB 2 grains without melting the MgB 2 powder. This was confirmed by SEM images. Measured electrical resistivity and magnetization versus temperature showed clear signals of superconducting transition temperature of 27-38 K for all the samples cut out from the billets. Magnetic hysteresis loop observed at 5 K enabled us to estimate a critical current density (J c ) based on the extended Bean model. Additions of aluminum and zinc elements to magnesium host-matrix were found to enhance J c and increase residual resistivity (ρ 0 ) suggesting that aluminum and zinc have an effect on pinning magnetic flux flow for J c enhancement, and scattering conduction electrons for increase of ρ 0 . (author)

  13. Shelf-life of chilled fresh Mediterranean swordfish (Xiphias gladius) stored under various packaging conditions: microbiological, biochemical and sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazi, D; Papavergou, A; Pournis, N; Kontominas, M G; Savvaidis, I N

    2008-02-01

    The present work evaluated the effect of air, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the shelf-life of chilled Mediterranean swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Fresh swordfish slices were stored in air, under vacuum and MAP (40%/30%/30%, CO(2)/N(2)/O(2)) under refrigeration (4 degrees C) for a period of 16 days. Of the three treatments used (vacuum, MAP and air), both MAP and vacuum packaging (VP) were the most effective for inhibiting growth of aerobic microflora in swordfish samples until days 9-10 of refrigerated storage. Of the microbial species determined, both Pseudomonas spp. and H(2)S-producing bacteria (including Shewanella putrefaciens) were dominant in swordfish samples stored in air, whereas growth of these species was partly inhibited under VP and MAP conditions. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Enterobacteriaceae were also found to be members of the final swordfish microbial flora, irrespective of packaging conditions throughout the entire storage period. Of the chemical freshness indices determined, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values were variable in swordfish samples, indicative of no specific oxidative rancidity trend. Trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N) values of swordfish samples stored in air, under VP and MAP exceeded the limit value of 5mgN/100g fish muscle after days 7, 8-9 and 11 days of storage, respectively. In a similar trend, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) for swordfish samples stored in air, under VP and MAP exceeded the limit value of 25mgN/100g fish muscle after 7-8, 10 and 12 days of storage, respectively. Sensory analyses (odor and taste attributes) indicated a shelf-life of ca. 7 days for air, 9 days for VP and 11-12 days for the MA-packaged swordfish samples.

  14. Monoterpene concentrations in fresh, senescent, and decaying foliage of singleleaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla Torr. & Frem.: Pinaceae) from the western Great Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, F M; Miller, G C; Everett, R L; Hackett, M

    1993-02-01

    Senescent foliage from pines is potentially a large contributor to the total monoterpene content of the litter layer, and the availability of these compounds as phytotoxins may result from release of these compounds into the vapor phase. In order to determine the fate of several monoterpene hydrocarbons in the natural environment, we examined their concentrations in fresh, senescent, and decaying needles from 32 single-leaf pinyon pine (Pinus monophylla Torr. & Frem.: Pinaceae) trees growing at two different locations. Total monoterpene content was highest in the fresh needles (mean=5.6 ± 2.2 mg/g extracted air dry weight), but also remained relatively high in senescent needles (mean=3.6 ±1.8 mg/g extracted air dry weight), either still attached to the tree or forming the freshest layer of understory litter. Decaying needles within a dark decomposing layer of litter material 5-20 cm from the surface were found to contain much lower amounts of total monoterpenes (average: =0.12 ±0.06 mg/g extracted air dry weight). Further investigation of the fate of these compounds in the pinyon understory is required to determine if these hydrocarbons are indeed exerting phytotoxic characteristics.

  15. Electronic structure of MgB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound MgB2 using the. FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange-correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, c/a ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent ...

  16. Electronic structure of MgB 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound MgB2 using the FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange-correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, / ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent agreement with ...

  17. doped LiMgPO4 phosphor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    attention because of their remarkable luminescence proper- ties and .... Figure 1. (a) X-ray diffraction patterns of LiMgPO4:Tb3+ phosphor and (b) standard data. ICDD file. .... ground signal which affects the signal to noise ratio [17]. MDD was ...

  18. Understanding Freshness Perception from the Cognitive Mechanisms of Flavor: The Case of Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Jérémy; Auvray, Malika; Lafraire, Jérémie

    2018-01-01

    Freshness perception has received recent consideration in the field of consumer science mainly because of its hedonic dimension, which is assumed to influence consumers’ preference and behavior. However, most studies have considered freshness as a multisensory attribute of food and beverage products without investigating the cognitive mechanisms at hand. In the present review, we endorse a slightly different perspective on freshness. We focus on (i) the multisensory integration processes that underpin freshness perception, and (ii) the top–down factors that influence the explicit attribution of freshness to a product by consumers. To do so, we exploit the recent literature on the cognitive underpinnings of flavor perception as a heuristic to better characterize the mechanisms of freshness perception in the particular case of beverages. We argue that the lack of consideration of particular instances of flavor, such as freshness, has resulted in a lack of consensus about the content and structure of different types of flavor representations. We then enrich these theoretical analyses, with a review of the cognitive mechanisms of flavor perception: from multisensory integration processes to the influence of top–down factors (e.g., attentional and semantic). We conclude that similarly to flavor, freshness perception is characterized by hybrid content, both perceptual and semantic, but that freshness has a higher-degree of specificity than flavor. In particular, contrary to flavor, freshness is characterized by specific functions (e.g., alleviation of oropharyngeal symptoms) and likely differs from flavor with respect to the weighting of each sensory contributor, as well as to its subjective location. Finally, we provide a comprehensive model of the cognitive mechanisms that underlie freshness perception. This model paves the way for further empirical research on particular instances of flavor, and will enable advances in the field of food and beverage cognition

  19. Understanding Freshness Perception from the Cognitive Mechanisms of Flavor: The Case of Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Roque

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshness perception has received recent consideration in the field of consumer science mainly because of its hedonic dimension, which is assumed to influence consumers’ preference and behavior. However, most studies have considered freshness as a multisensory attribute of food and beverage products without investigating the cognitive mechanisms at hand. In the present review, we endorse a slightly different perspective on freshness. We focus on (i the multisensory integration processes that underpin freshness perception, and (ii the top–down factors that influence the explicit attribution of freshness to a product by consumers. To do so, we exploit the recent literature on the cognitive underpinnings of flavor perception as a heuristic to better characterize the mechanisms of freshness perception in the particular case of beverages. We argue that the lack of consideration of particular instances of flavor, such as freshness, has resulted in a lack of consensus about the content and structure of different types of flavor representations. We then enrich these theoretical analyses, with a review of the cognitive mechanisms of flavor perception: from multisensory integration processes to the influence of top–down factors (e.g., attentional and semantic. We conclude that similarly to flavor, freshness perception is characterized by hybrid content, both perceptual and semantic, but that freshness has a higher-degree of specificity than flavor. In particular, contrary to flavor, freshness is characterized by specific functions (e.g., alleviation of oropharyngeal symptoms and likely differs from flavor with respect to the weighting of each sensory contributor, as well as to its subjective location. Finally, we provide a comprehensive model of the cognitive mechanisms that underlie freshness perception. This model paves the way for further empirical research on particular instances of flavor, and will enable advances in the field of food and

  20. Preliminary study of the characteristics of a high Mg containing Al-Mg-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, F; McKay, B J; Fan, Z; Chen, M F

    2012-01-01

    An Al-20Mg-4Si high Mg containing alloy has been produced and its characteristics investigated. The as-cast alloy revealed primary Mg 2 Si particles evenly distributed throughout an α-Al matrix with a β-Al 3 Mg 2 fully divorced eutectic phase observed in interdendritic regions. The Mg 2 Si particles displayed octahedral, truncated octahedral, and hopper morphologies. Additions of Sb, Ti and Zr had a refining influence reducing the size of the Mg 2 Si from 52 ± 4 μm to 25 ± 0.1 μm, 35 ± 1 μm and 34 ± 1 μm respectively. HPDC tensile test samples could be produced with a 0.6 wt.% Mn addition which prevented die soldering. Solution heating for 1 hr was found to dissolve the majority of the Al 3 Mg 2 eutectic phase with no evidence of any effect on the primary Mg 2 Si. Preliminary results indicate that the heat treatment has a beneficial effect on the elongation and the UTS.

  1. Investigation of the 24Mg(d, p)25Mg reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurders, F.; Korte, G. de

    1975-01-01

    Abstract Proton angular distributions from the 24Mg(d, p)25Mg reaction at Ed = 12.0 MeV have been measured with a split-pole magnetic spectrograph for Ex < 6 MeV at an average resolution (FWHM) of 7 keV. New ln values have been determined for three levels. A DWBA analysis yielded spectroscopic

  2. Investigation of the 26Mg(d, p)27Mg reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurders, F.; Steld, A. van der

    1974-01-01

    The angular distributions of 31 protons groups from the 26Mg(d, p)27Mg reaction have been measured at Ed = 12.0 MeV with a split-pole magnetic spectrograph. Excitation energies have been determined for 29 bound states. Three new levels have been found. A DWBA analysis yields ln values for 19 levels;

  3. Respiratory outcomes following 100 mg/kg v. 200 mg/kg of poractant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In keeping with current evidence, the initial dose of poractant alpha was increased from 100 mg/kg to 200 mg/kg. e outcomes of newborns requiring treatment with surfactant before and aer this change were reviewed. Methods. Electronic clinical records were reviewed of infants admitted to ACH who received surfactant ...

  4. Mg/Ca ratio in fertilization and agricultural soils, Mg percent of liming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strong increase of NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) in mineral fertilization (fm) included relative delay in Mg supplementation and dilution in plant available silicon (Si) via recycled nutrients (rcl). (Silicon is not included in essential fertilizers in Finland.) Methods: We have assessed old data on Ca and Mg in ...

  5. Prompt burst energetics experiments: fresh oxide/sodium series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reil, K.O.; Young, M.F.

    1978-08-01

    A series of in-pile experiments has been performed to provide information on thermal energy to work conversion under prompt burst excursion (PBE) conditions. These consisted of single pin tests using fresh uranium oxide or uranium carbide fuel in a capsule geometry, with either stagnant sodium or helium in the coolant channel. The experiments were irradiated with single or double pulses in the Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR) to provide energy depositions up to 2900 J/g. This report covers the seven single and five double pulse UO 2 sodium-in tests. Experimental data includes pressure and linear motion transducer histories, measured work-energy conversion efficiencies, and post-irradiation examination. Analysis includes derived work-energy conversion efficiencies (up to 0.54%), pin failure modeling, hydrodynamic analysis of pressure pulse propagation in the channel, and piston stopping effects. Initial pressure events in the single pulse experiments appear to be dominated by fuel vapor pressure. Definite fuel-coolant interactions were observed in several experiments, including some that were coincident with stopping of the linear motion transducer piston, suggesting a possible triggering effect by the deceleration pressure

  6. From fresh heterologous oocyte donation to autologous oocyte banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, D

    2012-01-01

    Today, oocyte donation has become well established, giving rise to thousands of children born worldwide annually. The introduction of oocyte cryopreservation through vitrification allows the introduction of egg banking, improving the efficiency and comfort of oocyte donation. Moreover, the vitrification technique can now enable autologous donation of oocytes to prevent future infertility. We evaluated fresh heterologous oocyte donation in terms of obstetrical and perinatal outcome as well as of the reproductive outcome of past donors. We then evaluated the efficiency of a closed vitrification device and its clinical applications within ART. Thirdly, we evaluated the opinion of women with regard to preventive egg freezing and the efficiency of a human oocyte in relation to age. Oocyte donation is associated with an increased risk of first trimester bleeding and pregnancy induced hypertension. Donating oocytes does not seem to increase the likelihood for a later need of fertility treatment. The chance of an oocyte to result in live birth (utilization rate) in women women would consider safeguarding their reproductive potential through egg freezing or are at least open to the idea. The introduction of efficient oocyte cryopreservation has revolutionized oocyte donation through the establishment of eggbank donation. The technique also enables women to perform autologous donation after preventive oocyte storage in order to circumvent their biological clock.

  7. Waste tyre rubberized concrete: properties at fresh and hardened state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, M A; Leuzzi, F

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the properties of various concrete mixtures at fresh and hardened state, obtained by a partial substitution of coarse and fine aggregate with different volume percentages of waste tyres rubber particles, having the same dimensions of the replaced aggregate. Workability, unit weight, compressive and flexural strength and post-cracking behaviour were evaluated and a comparison of the results for the different rubcrete mixtures were proposed in order to define the better mix proportions in terms of mechanical properties of the rubberized concrete. Results showed in this paper were also compared to data reported in literature. Moreover, a preliminary geometrical, physical and mechanical characterization on scrap tyre rubber shreds was made. The rubberized concrete mixtures showed lower unit weight compared to plain concrete and good workability. The results of compressive and flexural tests indicated a larger reduction of mechanical properties of rubcrete when replacing coarse aggregate rather than fine aggregate. On the other hand, the post-cracking behaviour of rubberized concrete was positively affected by the substitution of coarse aggregate with rubber shreds, showing a good energy absorption and ductility indexes in the range observed for fibrous concrete, as suggested by standard (ASTM C1018-97, 1997). 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bronchodilatory effect of deep inspiration in freshly isolated sheep lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William D; Wang, Lu; Paré, Peter D; Seow, Chun Y

    2017-02-01

    Taking a big breath is known to reverse bronchoconstriction induced by bronchochallenge in healthy subjects; this bronchodilatory effect of deep inspiration (DI) is diminished in asthmatics. The mechanism underlying the DI effect is not clear. Observations from experiments using isolated airway smooth muscle (ASM) preparations and airway segments suggest that straining of ASM due to DI could lead to bronchodilation, possibly due to strain-induced reduction in ASM contractility. However, factors external to the lung cannot be excluded as potential causes for the DI effect. Neural reflex initiated by stretch receptors in the lung are known to inhibit the broncho-motor tone and enhance vasodilatation; the former directly reduces airway resistance, and the latter facilitates removal of contractile agonists through the bronchial circulation. If the DI effect is solely mediated by factors extrinsic to the lung, the DI effect would be absent in isolated, nonperfused lungs. Here we examined the DI effect in freshly isolated, nonperfused sheep lungs. We found that imposition of DI on isolated lungs resulted in significant bronchodilation, that this DI effect was present only after the lungs were challenged with a contractile agonist (acetylcholine or histamine), and that the effect was independent of the difference in lung volume observed pre- and post-DI. We conclude that a significant portion of the bronchodilatory DI effect stems from factors internal to the lung related to the activation of ASM. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Application of tidal energy for purification in fresh water lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rho-Taek Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to preserve the quality of fresh water in the artificial lake after the reclamation of an intertidal flat at the mouth of a river, we suggest two novel methods of water purification by using tidal potential energy and an enclosed permeable embankment called an utsuro (Akai et al., 1990 in the reclaimed region. One method uses an inflatable bag on the seabed within an utsuro, while the other uses a moored floating barge out of a dyke. Each case employs a subsea pipe to allow flow between the inside and outside of the utsuro. The change in water level in the utsuro, which is pushed through the pipe by the potential energy outside, caused circulation in the artificial lake. In this paper, we analyzed the inflatable bag and floating barge motion as well as the pipe flow characteristics and drafts as given by a harmonic sea level, and compared the theoretical value with an experimental value with a simple small model basin. The numerical calculation based on theory showed good agreement with experimental values.

  10. Improving Scotland's health: time for a fresh approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, D H

    2012-05-01

    Scotland's health remains the worst in the UK. There are several probable reasons for this. Of those that are amenable to change, health improvement policy has been excessively preoccupied with targeting individuals perceived to be 'at risk' rather than adopting a whole population perspective. Environmental as opposed to behavioural approaches to health improvement have been relatively neglected. To meet the challenge of Scotland's poor health more effectively in the future, new strategic thinking is necessary. Three initial steps are required: recognize that current approaches are inadequate and that fresh ideas are needed; identify the principles that should underlie future strategy development; translate these principles into achievable operational objectives. Five principles of a revitalized strategy to improve the health of Scotland in the future are proposed. These are start early and sustain effort; create a healthy and safe environment; reduce geographical as well as social inequalities in health; adopt an evidence-based approach to public health interventions; use epidemiology to assess need, plan interventions and monitor progress. These principles may then be translated into achievable operational policy and practice objectives.

  11. Impact of ionisation on the conservation of fresh stuffed pasta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Dhaou, Thouraya

    2012-01-01

    Fresh stuffed pasta are highly appreciated by consumers due to their specific taste and flavor. However, they are perishable foodstuffs having a short shelf life. The aim of this work was to extend their shelf life using three doses of ionizing gamma 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Studing the impact of this treatment on the microbiological (FAMT, E-coli, Staphylococcus coagulase, Sallmonelle, yeasts and molds), physicochemical (pH, water content and water activity), sensory (color) and cooking qualities (swelling, cooking loss and spalling) of the product showed the effectiveness of its doses toward the spoilage and pathogenic flora. However, organoleptic and cooking qualities were significantly affected by the doses 3 and 5 kGy. Only the dose 1 kGy could improve the microbiological quality without influencing the organoleptic and culinary qualities of the product. The shelf life prediction according to ASLT (Accelerated Shelf Life Testing) method of different samples confirmed the effectiveness of the dose 1 kGy which gave the highest shelf life value (62 days). As the shelf life of un-ionized product is 45 days, the 1 kGy dose has allowed extending the shelf life of 17 days.

  12. Antioxidant properties of natural substances in irradiated fresh poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrour, A.; Lacroix, M.; Nketsa-Tabiri, J.; Calderon, N.; Gagnon, M.

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if a combined treatment (marinating in natural plant extracts or vacuum) with irradiation could have a synergistic effect, in order to prevent the lipid oxidation resulting in the development of undesirable flavours. The fresh chicken legs were irradiated at 0,3 and 5 kGy. The fatty acids composition of lipids was identified using gas liquid chromatography. The effect of irradiation treatment combined with a pre-treatment on the fatty acids composition was followed. The day after irradiation, ten panallists were asked to evaluate, using the instruction scaling, the overall appearance, the odor, the flavor and the overall acceptability of the samples. The major fatty acids identified in lipids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid and stearic acid. Pre-treatments have a significant effect on linoleic acid (C18:2) and higher fatty acids. The unsaturated fatty acids derived from phospholipids appeared to be more affected by the irradiation dose: however, marinating have better protection on C18:2 derived from phospholipids. The results of sensory evaluation have shown a significant better odor and flavor for the irradiated chicken at 5 kGy than the control. No significant difference have been found between the marinated chicken, the chicken irradiated under vacuum and the control

  13. Acceptance and storage of fresh cheese made with essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelmir Grassi Presente

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the acceptance and conservation of Minas fresh cheese with essential oils added of oregano and ginger in its formulation. The quality of the milk used as raw material was evaluated for pH, acidity, alizarol, total solids, density, and total microbial load. The cheeses produced were characterized as pH, acidity, moisture, lipids, proteins and ashes. The cheeses were also evaluated by sensorial affective tests using hedonic and attitude scales, in order to determine the acceptance and purchase intention by judges. The count of total aerobic mesophilic microorganisms was used to estimate the shelf-life of cheeses. The milk used as raw material is presented within the quality standards required by legislation. The cheeses made with essential oils showed pH and acidity around 6.9 and 0.87%, respectively, 57.6% moisture, 31.3% lipids, 11.4% protein and 0.9% ash. The cheese added essential oil of oregano and the control cheese were those given by the judges the best values for acceptance (7.5 and 7.6, respectively and purchase intention (4.2 and 4.4 respectively. Regarding the estimated shelf-life, the cheeses added essential oil of oregano and ginger had lower overall microbial load values compared to the control (no oil and mixed (two oils addition, presented counts values with up 106 UFC/g only from the 28th day of storage.

  14. Practical aspects of sea and fresh-water algae utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyanishkene, V.B.; Zlobin, V.S.; Zheleznyakova, O.V.

    1988-01-01

    Regularities of sea and fresh-water microalgae cultivation, revealed during the operation of industrial plants, are presented in detail. The study of the Platymonas viridis cultivation mechanisms has shown the possibility of active intervention into the cycle of intense reproduction of the biomass. Among physical factors of the medium, which influence the reproduction of the industrial strain of Platymonas viridis, the effect of the red light, ultraviolet radiation, ultrahigh frequency fields and gamma radiation upon the cell division of these microalgae has been investigated. It has been shown that the effect of gamma radiation on the cell division of Platymonas viridis, other bacteria and protozoans is inhibiting. In the experiments using the radionuclides strontium-90 and cerium-144 as indicators of metabolism the dependence of the radionuclide accumulation factor on the quantity of stable lead as well as the effect of the temperature on the accumulation process have been studied. The coefficients of 90 Sr and 144 Ce accumulation by Nitellopsis obtusa cell compartments depending on stable lead and temperature are presented. 200 refs.; 21 figs.; 54 tabs

  15. Antifungal Edible Coatings for Fresh Citrus Fruit: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Palou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to their origin, major postharvest losses of citrus fruit are caused by weight loss, fungal diseases, physiological disorders, and quarantine pests. Cold storage and postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides, synthetic waxes, or combinations of them are commonly used to minimize postharvest losses. However, the repeated application of these treatments has led to important problems such as health and environmental issues associated with fungicide residues or waxes containing ammoniacal compounds, or the proliferation of resistant pathogenic fungal strains. There is, therefore, an increasing need to find non-polluting alternatives to be used as part of integrated disease management (IDM programs for preservation of fresh citrus fruit. Among them, the development of novel natural edible films and coatings with antimicrobial properties is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Chitosan and other edible coatings formulated by adding antifungal agents to composite emulsions based on polysaccharides or proteins and lipids are reviewed in this article. The most important antifungal ingredients are selected for their ability to control major citrus postharvest diseases like green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, and include low-toxicity or natural chemicals such as food additives, generally recognized as safe (GRAS compounds, plant extracts, or essential oils, and biological control agents such as some antagonistic strains of yeasts or bacteria.

  16. Tensile and compressive properties of fresh human carotid atherosclerotic plaques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maher, Eoghan

    2009-12-11

    Accurate characterisation of the mechanical properties of human atherosclerotic plaque is important for our understanding of the role of vascular mechanics in the development and treatment of atherosclerosis. The majority of previous studies investigating the mechanical properties of human plaque are based on tests of plaque tissue removed following autopsy. This study aims to characterise the mechanical behaviour of fresh human carotid plaques removed during endarterectomy and tested within 2h. A total of 50 radial compressive and 17 circumferential tensile uniaxial tests were performed on samples taken from 14 carotid plaques. The clinical classification of each plaque, as determined by duplex ultrasound is also reported. Plaques were classified as calcified, mixed or echolucent. Experimental data indicated that plaques were highly inhomogeneous; with variations seen in the mechanical properties of plaque obtained from individual donors and between donors. The mean behaviour of samples for each classification indicated that calcified plaques had the stiffest response, while echolucent plaques were the least stiff. Results also indicated that there may be a difference in behaviour of samples taken from different anatomical locations (common, internal and external carotid), however the large variability indicates that more testing is needed to reach significant conclusions. This work represents a step towards a better understanding of the in vivo mechanical behaviour of human atherosclerotic plaque.

  17. Profile and effects of consumer involvement in fresh meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Vackier, Isabelle

    2004-05-01

    This study investigates the profile and effects of consumer involvement in fresh meat as a product category based on cross-sectional data collected in Belgium. Analyses confirm that involvement in meat is a multidimensional construct including four facets: pleasure value, symbolic value, risk importance and risk probability. Four involvement-based meat consumer segments are identified: straightforward, cautious, indifferent, and concerned. Socio-demographic differences between the segments relate to gender, age and presence of children. The segments differ in terms of extensiveness of the decision-making process, impact and trust in information sources, levels of concern, price consciousness, claimed meat consumption, consumption intention, and preferred place of purchase. The two segments with a strong perception of meat risks constitute two-thirds of the market. They can be typified as cautious meat lovers versus concerned meat consumers. Efforts aiming at consumer reassurance through quality improvement, traceability, labelling or communication may gain effectiveness when targeted specifically to these two segments. Whereas straightforward meat lovers focus mainly on taste as the decisive criterion, indifferent consumers are strongly price oriented.

  18. Birefringence in heat-mechanical modified freshly moulded polyester fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velev, V; Dimov, T; Popov, A; Denev, Y; Hristov, H; Angelov, T; Markova, K; Zagortcheva, M; Arhangelova, N; Uzunov, N, E-mail: v.velev@shu-bg.ne

    2010-11-01

    The article submits new experimental data concerning to the role of combined thermo-mechanical treatments on the structural development of freshly moulded uncrystallized but crystallizable poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibers. The object of the present work is PET as a thermoplastic polymer with a large practical application. The report is devoted to the influence of the heat-mechanical modification temperature on the structure rearrangement in uniaxially orientated amorphous PET. The heat-mechanical modification of the investigated yarns and the optical measurements were realized by specialized gears constructed and built in the author's laboratories. The fibers heat-mechanical modification includes samples annealing at constant temperature above their glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) without strain stress. The yarn annealing has been followed from well defined uniaxially strain-loading with values from 0 MPa up to 30 MPa during two minutes. The optical measurements were carried out by an optical system using a polarization microscope and a CCD camera. The obtained experimental data has been analyzed by Mocha-1.2 (Jandel Scientific) software. There are established dependences between the heat-mechanical modification mode and the structural rearrangements running in the studied PET samples.

  19. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices.

  20. Study of dielectric properties of adulterated milk concentration and freshness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitendra Murthy, V.; Sai Kiranmai, N.; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2017-08-01

    The knowledge of dielectric properties may hold a potential to develop a new technique for quality evaluation of milk. The dielectric properties of water diluted cow’s milk with milk concentration from 70 percent to 100 percent stored during 36hour storage at 22°C and 144 hour at 5°C were measured at room temperature for frequencies ranging from 10 to 4500 MHz and at low, high & at microwave frequencies using X band bench and open-ended coaxial-line probe technology, along with electrical conductivity. The raw milk had the lowest dielectric constant (ɛ‧) when the frequency was higher than about 20M.Hz, and had the highest loss (ɛ″) or decepation factor tan (δ) at each frequency. The penetration depth (dp) increased with decreasing frequency, water content and storage time, which was large enough to detect dielectric properties changes in milk samples and provide large scale RF pasteurization processes. The loss factor can be an indicator in predicting milk concentration and freshness.

  1. Transfer factor for 137Cs in fresh water aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varughese, K.G.; Ramkumar, S.; John, Jaison T.; Rajan, M.P.; Gurg, R.P.

    2002-01-01

    137 Cs is one of the most abundant radionuclides produced in nuclear fission and due to its long radiological half-life and chemical similarity to potassium it has greater biological significance. Radioactive waste materials generated at nuclear facilities are generally disposed within the plant premises under its administrative control for effective radiation protection practices. However trace quantities of radionuclides are released into the environment through liquid and gaseous releases under the guidelines of regulatory agencies. The concentration of these radioactive elements in the environment is not detectable under normal circumstances due to the large dispersion and dilutions available in the environment. But these radionuclides can get accumulated in environmental matrices like silt, weed etc. and indicate the presence of radioactivity in the environment. This paper presents the results of a face-controlled studies conducted at Environmental Survey Laboratories at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) and Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) to estimate distribution of low-level radioactivity in the fresh water system. An attempt has been made to derive the Transfer Factor for 137 Cs in fish, weed, and silt and to evaluate the concentration of 137 Cs in water samples, which is otherwise not detectable under normal procedure of measurement. (author)

  2. Flow conditions of fresh mortar and concrete in different pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, Stefan; Haugan, Lars; Hammer, Tor Arne; Kalogiannidis, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    The variation in fresh concrete flow rate over the pipe cross section was investigated on differently coloured and highly flowable concrete mixes flowing through pipes of different materials (rubber, steel, acryl). First, uncoloured (gray) concrete was poured through the pipe and the pipe blocked. Similar but coloured (black) concrete was then poured into the pipe filled with gray concrete, flowing after the gray concrete for a while before being blocked and hardened. The advance of the colouring along the pipe wall (showing boundary flow rate) was observed on the moulded concrete surface appearing after removing the pipe from the hardened concrete. The shapes of the interfaces between uncoloured and coloured concrete (showing variation of flow rate over the pipe cross section) were observed on sawn surfaces of concrete half cylinders cut along the length axes of the concrete-filled pipe. Flow profiles over the pipe cross section were clearly seen with maximum flow rates near the centre of the pipe and low flow rate at the pipe wall (typically rubber pipe with reference concrete without silica fume and/or stabilizers). More plug-shaped profiles, with long slip layers and less variation of flow rate over the cross section, were also seen (typically in smooth acrylic pipes). Flow rate, amount of concrete sticking to the wall after flow and SEM-images of pipe surface roughness were observed, illustrating the problem of testing full scale pumping.

  3. Fresh frozen bone in oral and maxillofacial surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Fabrizio Rodella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to review the use of fresh frozen bone (FFB in oral and maxillofacial surgery. We performed a review of the articles published in the literature between 1976 and May 2014 analyzing three medical databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase and using specific search terms. Literature analysis on FFB applications in oral and maxillofacial surgery revealed 47 articles between 1976 and May 2014. There are 46 clinical articles and one review. Clinical articles are represented by 22 case reports and case series and 24 retrospective studies. Classifying the scientific production by year of publication, it is evident that especially during the last 6 years there was an increase of FFB graft use in oral and maxillofacial approaches. The literature analysis on FFB's use shows that its application in oral and maxillofacial surgery began slowly in 1992 with Perrott and since 2006 it had a real development. The recent significant increase emphasizes the importance of FFB for bone regeneration in oral and maxillofacial surgery. This review found consistent evidence of FFB's use increase in oral and maxillofacial surgery suggesting a valid instrument for bone regeneration. To date, risks connected to the infections' transmission and to the immunogenic potential are extremely low and could be considered practically absent. So, this is an important alternative in the preimplant reconstructive surgery.

  4. Decay of a Jπ=36+ Resonance in the 24Mg+24Mg Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salsac, M.-D.; Haas, F.; Courtin, S.

    2005-01-01

    For the 24 Mg+ 24 Mg reaction, striking narrow and correlated resonance structures have been observed previously in the excitation functions of the elastic and low-lying channels. In our study we have decided to focus on the resonance at E C M =45.7 MeV, which is known to have J π =36 + . Despite the very high excitation energy(∼60 MeV) in the 48 Cr composite system, this resonance has a narrow total width of 170 keV. To determine precisely which states in the inelastic 24 Mg channels carry away the resonance flux, an experiment, on the 24 Mg + 24 Mg reaction at energies On and OFF resonance, has been performed at the Legnaro Tandem accelerator using the Prisma fragment spectrometer associated with the CLARA γ array

  5. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    were cleaned, crushed, homogenized and dried by lyophilization for further analysis by INAA. The INAA procedure consisted of irradiating aliquots of the samples obtained in powder form in polyethylene envelopes in the nuclear research reactor IEA - R1 of IPEN / CNEN - SP together with synthetic standards of elements. The irradiation time in the reactor was 8 to 10 s under the thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1. The concentrations of the elements were calculated using the comparative method. The INAA procedure was validated with respect to accuracy and precision, through the analysis of certified reference materials NIST SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST SRM 2876 Mussel Tissue. The results of these certified reference materials indicated good quality of results with respect to precision and accuracy. The ranges of concentrations (dry basis weight) of the elements obtained in mussels collected in Santos and Praia da Cocanha for the four seasons of the year were: 173.80 to 358.99 mg kg-1 for Br; 45658 ± 1811 to 109166 ± 824 mg kg -1 for Cl; 7043 ± 856 to 12506 ± 675 mg kg -1 for K; 2774 ± 211 to 5691 ± 717 mg kg -1 for Mg; 7.01 ± 0.30 to 29.74 ± 3.32 mg kg -1 for Mn and 0.77 ± 0.02 to 3.43 ± 0.28 mg kg -1 for V. The seasonal and spatial variations of the concentrations of these elements were studied and the values compared to the literature. From the results obtained it can be concluded that the species of Perna perna mussels, can be used as biomonitors of marine contamination. (author)

  6. 77 FR 73980 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC), covering the period of review (POR... merchandise at less than normal value (NV). The Department is also preliminarily determining that five...

  7. 78 FR 36168 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ...- Market Economy Unit regarding ``Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Deadline...'s Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010-2011 AGENCY... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC...

  8. Modelling quality of fresh-cut tomato based on stage of maturity and storage conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lana, M.

    2005-01-01

    Fresh-cut or minimally processed vegetables are those which have been trimmed and/or peeled and/or cut into 100% usable product and still maintain freshness. Contrary to other processing methods (freezing, canning and drying for example) the minimal processing operations reduce the shelf life in

  9. Climatic impacts of fresh water hosing under Last Glacial Maximum conditions: a multi-model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kageyama, M.; Merkel, U.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Prange, M.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Lohmann, G.; Ohgaito, R.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.; Singarayer, J

    2013-01-01

    Fresh water hosing simulations, in which a fresh water flux is imposed in the North Atlantic to force fluctuations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, have been routinely performed, first to study the climatic signature of different states of this circulation, then, under present or

  10. Modelling RGB colour aspects and translucency of fresh-cut tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lana, M.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2006-01-01

    Translucency is one of the major problems in fresh-cut fruit. This phenomenon seriously limits the use of fruit by the fresh-cut industries. Techniques for measuring translucency in this kind of product are not readily available. As a consequence, the processes that are important in the development

  11. The effect of drying on the nutritional composition of fresh and dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to identify some nutritional properties of Moringa Oeifera leaf and to compare the nutritional qualities of fresh and dried leaves of Moringa Oleifera.Two samples each of fresh and dried Moringa Oeifera leaves were used for the experiment and the mean values in their nutritional qualities compared.

  12. 78 FR 41259 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... therefore opposed importation of fresh citrus fruit from Uruguay until its effectiveness could be validated...'' imports. The commenter stated that this argument is invalid due to the year-round marketing of citrus... metric tons, which is less than 3 percent of U.S. production. Uruguay's total fresh orange and lemon...

  13. Fluorescence hyperspectral imaging technique for the foreign substance detection on fresh-cut lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondestructive methods based on fluorescence hyperspectral imaging (HSI) techniques were developed in order to detect worms on fresh-cut lettuce. The optimal wavebands for detecting worms on fresh-cut lettuce were investigated using the one-way ANOVA analysis and correlation analysis. The worm detec...

  14. Accuracy, reliability, and timing of visual evaluations of decay in fresh-cut lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visual assessments are used for evaluating the quality of food products, such as fresh-cut lettuce packaged in bags with modified atmosphere. We have compared the accuracy and the reliability of visual evaluations of decay on fresh-cut lettuce performed with experienced and inexperienced raters. In ...

  15. The Effects Of Fresh And Thermoxidized Palm Oil Diets On Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of fresh and thermoxidized palm oil diets on some haematalogical indices in the rat were investigated in albino rats (Wistar strain). The animals were divided into three groups namely, the first group fed on thermoxidized palm oil (TPO) diet, a second group fed on fresh palm oil (FPO) diet and a third fed on normal ...

  16. The USDA Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program: A Case Study of Implementation and Consumption in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamelske, Eric M.; Bica, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The US Department of Agriculture created its Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) to address poor nutrition and rising obesity among children. The FFVP allocates funding for selected elementary schools with at least 50% free/reduced price school meal enrollments to provide free fresh fruit and vegetable snacks to students.…

  17. Some mineral profiles of fresh and bottled palm wine – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some mineral profiles of fresh palm wine and those of seven brands of bottled palm wine were analysed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and the values were compared. Three of the bottled samples contained toxic levels of either Pb or Cd or both. Neither metal was detected in fresh palm wine. Zn, Cr and Ni were 2 to ...

  18. Food safety standards in the fresh produce supply chain: advantages and disadvantages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyttendaele, M.; Jacxsens, L.; Boxstael, Van S.; Kirezieva, K.; Luning, P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract : Food safety standards in the fresh produce supply chain are discussed in view of the outcomes of a European Union Directorates General (EU DG) Research project FP7 Veg-i-Trade ‘Impact of climate change and international trade on the safety of fresh produce’. Various standards are outlined

  19. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions...

  20. Consumer preferences for fresh citrus: Impacts of demographic and behavioral characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 2000 to 2006, per capita consumption of fresh citrus fruit increased by 11.0%, but the relative shares of types of citrus consumed changed. Per capita consumption of the historically dominant citrus fruit, fresh oranges, experienced a continuous decline from 12.4 pounds to 7.4 pounds from 1990 ...

  1. Effect of irradiation on fresh-keeping of strawberry stored at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongfu; Xie Zongchuan; Lu Zhaoxin

    1999-01-01

    The fresh keeping period of strawberry irradiated with 4.0 kGy dose and stored at room temperature was prolonged to 6 days. Further experiment showed that the irradiation treatment decreased the number of mold in strawberry by two orders of magnitude, inhibited the strawberry fruit respiration and water loss, therefore, improved the effect of strawberry fresh-keeping

  2. The market value of freshness: observations from the swordfish and blue shark longline fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishimura, G.; Bailey, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    One important component in determining the market value of fish is freshness, essentially the time period from capture to consumer. By shortening the time from harvest to landing, freshness can be improved and thus the market value may increase. The opportunistic nature of the marine capture

  3. Effect of essential oils against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on fresh herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer awareness of fresh herbs and demand has increased in recent years due to health benefits and distinct aroma in prepared food. There are specific markets for local growers, especially for organically grown herbs. Fresh herbs have been implicated in illnesses associated with Salmonella, E. co...

  4. A Liquid Desiccant Cycle for Dehumidification and Fresh Water Supply in Controlled Environment Agriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Lefers, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    of food import miles and capitalizing upon the demand for fresh, tasty, and nutritious food. However, the growing of food, both indoors and outdoors, consumes huge quantities of water - as much as 70-80% of global fresh water supplies. The utilization

  5. Effects of Chitosan-Essential Oil Coatings on Safety and Quality of Fresh Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitosan coating plus different essential oils was developed and applied to fresh blueberries, in order to find environmentally friendly and healthy treatments to preserve fresh fruit quality and safety during postharvest storage. Studies were first performed in vitro where wild-type Escherichia col...

  6. Does a frozen embryo transfer ameliorate the effect of elevated progesterone seen in fresh transfer cycles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Mae Wu; Patounakis, George; Connell, Matt T; Devine, Kate; DeCherney, Alan H; Levy, Michael J; Hill, Micah J

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effect of progesterone (P) on the day of trigger in fresh assisted reproduction technology (ART) transfer cycles versus its effect on subsequent frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. Retrospective cohort study. Large private ART practice. Fresh autologous and FET cycles from 2011-2013. None. Live birth. A paired analysis of patients who underwent both a fresh transfer and subsequent FET cycle and an unpaired analysis of data from all fresh transfer cycles and all FET cycles were performed. We analyzed 1,216 paired and 4,124 unpaired cycles, and P was negatively associated with birth in fresh but not FET cycles in all analyses. Interaction testing of P and cycle type indicated P had a different association with birth in fresh versus FET cycles. When P was ≥ 2 ng/mL at the time of trigger, live birth was more likely in FET versus fresh cycles in the paired analysis (47% vs. 10%), in the unpaired analysis (51% vs. 14%), and in unpaired, good blastocyst only transfer subgroup (51% vs. 29%). Live birth was similar in FET cycles, with P ≥ 2 ng/mL versus P cycles, with P ≥ 2 ng/mL versus P cycle were negatively associated with live birth in the fresh transfer cycles but not in subsequent FET cycles. Freezing embryos and performing a subsequent FET cycle ameliorates the effect of elevated P on live-birth rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. CRYOPRESERVATION OF FRESHLY ISOLATED SYNAPTOSOMES PREPARED FROM THE CEREBRAL-CORTEX OF RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GLEITZ, J; BEILE, A; WILFFERT, B; TEGTMEIER, F

    In the present study, we established a cryopreservation method for freshly isolated synaptosomes prepared from the cerebral cortex of rats. Freshly prepared synaptosomes were either shock-frozen or frozen under temperature-controlled conditions using a programmable temperature controller. Each group

  8. Pre-Harvest light intensity affects shelf-Life of fresh-cut lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkowska, I.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    The industry of fresh-cut produce is continuously growing due to increasing demand for fresh, healthy and convenient foods. However, processing of vegetables accelerates quality deterioration due to structural, physiological and biochemical changes. Therefore, the value of the produce to the

  9. Fresh and Commercially Pasteurized Orange Juice: An Analysis of the Metabolism of Flavonoid Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange juice is a rich source of flavonoids, mainly the flavanones hesperidin and narirutin, associated with health benefits in humans. The objective of this study was to analyze the uptake of flavonoids in humans after the consumption of two types of orange juice, fresh squeezed (fresh juice, FJ) a...

  10. The lycopene content in pulp ad peel of five fresh tomato varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovic, K.; Panjkota-Krbavcic, I.; Krpan, M.; Bicanic, D.D.; Vahcic, N.

    2010-01-01

    The lycopene content in pulp and peel of five fresh tomato cultivars, most common on Croatian market, was determined by spectrophotometry and the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Peels from the raw tomatoes contained more lycopene (expressed on a fresh basis) than the pulps: the ratio

  11. 76 FR 5626 - Notice and Opportunity for Hearing: SinoFresh Healthcare, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63776; File No. 0-49764] Notice and Opportunity for Hearing: SinoFresh Healthcare, Inc. January 26, 2011 Notice is hereby given that on November 1, 2010, SinoFresh Healthcare, Inc. (Applicant) filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission a Form...

  12. Fresh muscle fiber fragments on a scaffold in rats-a new concept in urogynecology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boennelycke, Marie; Christensen, Lise; Nielsen, Lene F

    2011-01-01

    To investigate if a synthetic, biodegradable scaffold with either autologous in vitro cultured muscle-derived cells or autologous fresh muscle fiber fragments could be used for tissue repair.......To investigate if a synthetic, biodegradable scaffold with either autologous in vitro cultured muscle-derived cells or autologous fresh muscle fiber fragments could be used for tissue repair....

  13. Mg II Line Variation of 32 Cygni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Woon Kang

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mg II lines have been extracted from the IUE archival spectra of 32 Cygni to investigate the effect of the atmospheric eclipse. The UV light curve has been reduced from the continuum flux at the center wavelength of 2807.5 Å in the IUE spectra. The equivalent width of the Mg II k absoption line has been measured for each spectra. The results of the light variation and flux tracing of the absorption line at the vicinity of the primary eclipse confirmed the atmospheric eclipse. The atmospheric effect lasted until the phase 0.06 in the absorptin line tracing, while it lasted until the phase 0.02 in the UV light curve, respectively.

  14. Study on Handing Process and Quality Degradation of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Sharif, Zainon Binti; Taib, Norhasnina Binti Mohd; Yusof, Mohd Sallehuddin Bin; Rahim, Mohammad Zulafif Bin; Tobi, Abdul Latif Bin Mohd; Othman, Mohd Syafiq Bin

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine the relationship between quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) and handling processes. The study employs exploratory and descriptive design, with quantitative approach and purposive sampling using self-administrated questionnaires, were obtained from 30 smallholder respondents from the Southern Region, Peninsular Malaysia. The study reveals that there was a convincing relationship between quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) and handling processes. The main handling process factors influencing quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) were harvesting activity and handling at the plantation area. As a result, it can be deduced that the handling process factors variable explains 82.80% of the variance that reflects the quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB). The overall findings reveal that the handling process factors do play a significant role in the quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB).

  15. Fresh market to supermarket: nutrition transition insights from Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Bronwyn Alison; Dixon, Jane; Banwell, Cathy

    2010-06-01

    A preliminary investigation into different eating patterns among Thai consumers who shop at fresh markets as opposed to supermarkets in Chiang Mai. A short questionnaire adopted from a previous study was administered to the forty-four participants, who comprised supermarket users, fresh market users and people who consistently shopped at both supermarkets and fresh markets. Participants were recruited within four fresh markets and two food courts attached to supermarkets in Chiang Mai. Chiang Mai residents who agreed to participate in the study. Equal numbers were regular fresh market and supermarket users. Initial results suggest an association between shopping at supermarkets and attributing bread with culinary value. Supermarkets may be potentially significant players in the 'nutrition transition', providing Thais more convenient shopping at some cost to their healthy food choices.

  16. Quality changes and nutrient retention in fresh-cut versus whole fruits during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, María I; Aguayo, Encarna; Kader, Adel A

    2006-06-14

    The influences of processing and storage on the quality indices and nutritional content of fresh-cut fruits were evaluated in comparison to whole fruits stored for the same duration but prepared on the day of sampling. Fresh-cut pineapples, mangoes, cantaloupes, watermelons, strawberries, and kiwifruits and whole fruits were stored for up to 9 days in air at 5 degrees C. The postcutting life based on visual appearance was shorter than 6 days for fresh-cut kiwifruit and shorter than 9 days for fresh-cut pineapple, cantaloupe, and strawberry. On the other hand, fresh-cut watermelon and mango pieces were still marketable after 9 days at 5 degrees C. Losses in vitamin C after 6 days at 5 degrees C were spoil before any significant nutrient loss occurs.

  17. High temperature mechanical forming of Mg alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwembela, A.; McQueen, H.J.; Myshlyaev, M.

    2002-01-01

    Mg alloys are hot worked in the range 180-450 o C and 0.0-10 s -1 ; the present project data are compared with a wide selection of published results. The flow stresses and their dependence on temperature and strain rate are fairly similar to simple Al alloys: however, the hot ductility is much lower (≤3 in torsion). Twinning plays a significant role in Mg alloys almost independently of temperature; the twins initiate at low strains in grains poorly oriented for basal slip and in consequence become well disposed for such slip. As T rises, there is increasing formation of subgrains that spread toward the grain centers from grain and twin boundaries: this is indicative of stress concentrations inducing non-basal sup which helps provide the geometrically necessary dislocations. Above about 240 o C, dynamic (DRX) nucleates at grain and twin boundaries, preferentially at intersections; this again is evidence of non-basal slip that provides the highly misoriented cells. The boundaries in which further strain concentrates producing further DRX. The microstructure remains very heterogeneous compared to the uniform dynamically recovered substructure in Al alloys, thus giving rise to the reduced ductility. These results are employed to interpret the mechanical and microstructural behavior of Mg alloys in extrusion, rolling and forging. (author)

  18. Mg,Ca-ATPase activity under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladutin, V.V.; Orlova, V.V.; Lob, P.A.; Gerasiminko, I.V.; Mack, E.I.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The influence of different doses irradiation at the Mg,Ca-ATPase activity at the rat brain has been investigated. The analyses were made at the apparatus of LKB and Carl-Ceis-Jena firm with help of reagents of Sigma and Boehringer firm. Rats decapitated after 1, 3, 6, 24 and 48 h after action of irradiation. Dose 0.206 C/kg. Erythrocytes. 1 and 3h after irradiation influence- decrease of Mg,Ca-ATPase activity to 86-87% relatively control level, 24 and 48 h - increase of activity to the control level. Dose 0.312 C/kg. Large hemispheres. 1h - decrease of ATPase activity to 90% relatively control, 3h - increase to control level, 24h - fall to 86%, after 48h small increase to 93% relatively control. Dose 9.287 C/kg. Large hemispheres. 1h - sharp fall of Mg, Ca-ATPase activity to 67 % relatively control, increase of activity to 96% after 3h and sharp fall of activity to 64% 6h after action of irradiation. Dose 9.287 C/kg. Cerebellum. 1h - sharp decrease of ATPase activity to 80%. After 3h -sharp increase to 160% relatively control level and sharp fall of ATPase activity to 47% relatively control after 6h. The mechanism of radiation pathology of active ion transport has been discussed

  19. Interstitial Fe in MgO

    CERN Document Server

    Mølholt, T E; Gunnlaugsson, H P; Svane, A; Masenda, H; Naidoo, D; Bharuth-Ram, K; Fanciulli, M; Gislason, H P; Johnston, K; Langouche, G; Ólafsson, S; Sielemann, R; Weyer, G

    2014-01-01

    Isolated Fe-57 atoms were studied in MgO single-crystals by emission Mossbauer spectroscopy following implantation of Mn-57 decaying to Fe-57. Four Mossbauer spectral components were found corresponding to different Fe lattice positions and/or charge states. Two components represent Fe atoms substituting Mg as Fe2+ and Fe3+, respectively; a third component is due to Fe in a strongly implantation-induced disturbed region. The fourth component, which is the focus of this paper, can be assigned to Fe at an interstitial site. Comparison of its measured isomer shift with ab initio calculations suggests that the interstitial Fe is located on, or close to, the face of the rock-salt MgO structure. To harmonize such an assignment with the measured near-zero quadrupole interaction a local motion process (cage motion) of the Fe has to be stipulated. The relation of such a local motion as a starting point for long range diffusion is discussed.

  20. Microbial and chemical characterization of underwater fresh water springs in the Dead Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Ionescu

    Full Text Available Due to its extreme salinity and high Mg concentration the Dead Sea is characterized by a very low density of cells most of which are Archaea. We discovered several underwater fresh to brackish water springs in the Dead Sea harboring dense microbial communities. We provide the first characterization of these communities, discuss their possible origin, hydrochemical environment, energetic resources and the putative biogeochemical pathways they are mediating. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community fingerprinting methods showed that the spring community originates from the Dead Sea sediments and not from the aquifer. Furthermore, it suggested that there is a dense Archaeal community in the shoreline pore water of the lake. Sequences of bacterial sulfate reducers, nitrifiers iron oxidizers and iron reducers were identified as well. Analysis of white and green biofilms suggested that sulfide oxidation through chemolitotrophy and phototrophy is highly significant. Hyperspectral analysis showed a tight association between abundant green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria in the green biofilms. Together, our findings show that the Dead Sea floor harbors diverse microbial communities, part of which is not known from other hypersaline environments. Analysis of the water's chemistry shows evidence of microbial activity along the path and suggests that the springs supply nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter to the microbial communities in the Dead Sea. The underwater springs are a newly recognized water source for the Dead Sea. Their input of microorganisms and nutrients needs to be considered in the assessment of possible impact of dilution events of the lake surface waters, such as those that will occur in the future due to the intended establishment of the Red Sea-Dead Sea water conduit.

  1. Electronic structure of ferromagnet-insulator interfaces: Fe/MgO and Co/MgO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, M.

    2007-07-11

    In this thesis the electronic structure of Fe/MgO{sub x} and Co/MgO{sub x} ferromagnet-insulator interfaces, representing material systems which are widely used in magnetic tunnel junctions, is studied by means of spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The photoemission studies focus particularly on the response of the ferromagnetic electronic system in contact with MgO of varying stoichiometries, as this reflects the mechanisms of metal-oxide bonding at real ferromagnet-insulator interfaces. The correlation between chemical bonding and electronic structure formation is analyzed by combining information from core- and valence-band photoemission spectroscopy. The spectral features are compared to band structure calculations, which are performed using the SPR-KKR method. The Fe/MgO and Co/MgO systems are prepared by molecular beam epitaxy under ultrahigh vacuum conditions on well-defined (4 x 6) GaAs(001) substrates. A structural analysis by means of low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) reveals their body-centered cubic crystalline structure, whereas the chemical characterization by Auger electron spectroscopy is used to quantify the chemical environment at the sample surfaces. The magnetic analysis, using the magneto-optical Kerr effect, reveals the uniaxial anisotropy of the ferromagnetic layers. A crucial parameter is given by the MgO degree of oxidation, which is addressed by means of core-level spectroscopy and quantified by suitable fitting procedures of the Mg 2p core level. The results of the photoemission experiments show, that the electronic structure of the Fe/MgO and Co/MgO ferromagnet/insulator interfaces and, consequently, the interfacial spin polarization are sensitively controlled by the interface chemistry. In particular, three distinct scenarios are identified: the nearly stoichiometric, the oxygen-deficient and the over-oxidized ferromagnet/MgO interface. Each case is defined by innate characteristics of the electronic structure at

  2. Morphometry and Morphology of Fresh Craters on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R. L.; Wood, C. A.; Neish, C.; Lucas, A.; Hayes, A. G.; Cassini Radar Team

    2011-12-01

    Cassini RADAR imagery obtained on Titan flyby T77 revealed a 40-km diameter fresh impact crater at 11.6° N 44.6° W. This is only the 8th crater identified with high confidence (Wood et al., 2010, Icarus 206, 334), and the 3rd (after Sinlap D=79 km and Ksa D=30 km) for which the depth can be estimated by comparing the foreshortening of the near and far walls. This "autostereo" technique yields an estimated depth of 680 m. The T77 image forms a stereo pair with the T17 discovery image of Ksa from which we estimate the depth of Ksa at 750-800 m, in close agreement with SARTopo data. The depth of Sinlap is 760 m based on SARTopo. Depth-diameter ratios for these craters thus range from 0.01 to 0.025 and the depths are comparable to but 200-400 m shallower than fresh craters of the same size on Ganymede (Bray et al., 2008, Met. Planet Sci. 43, 1979). The depth differences could be explained by initial crater morphometry, by relaxation in a different thermal environment, or (perhaps most plausibly given the bland floors of even the freshest Titan craters) to sedimentary infill. In contrast, the 18x36 km elliptical depression at Sotra Facula is much deeper than Ganymede craters of similar size (d=1500 m from stereo), supporting the conclusion that it is not an impact crater. All three craters exhibit a relatively radar-bright annulus around the outer edge of the floor, possibly as the result of mass wasting of blocky materials from the crater walls. The central part of each crater is darker. The central darker floor of the new crater is symmetrical and featureless, whereas Ksa has a bright central ring 7 km in diameter. Stereo spot heights indicate the ring is 350±100 m above the outer floor. This height is in close agreement with the scaling for Ganymede crater central peaks from Bray et al. (2008). The darker floor area of Sinlap is substantially asymmetrical with a small bright central spot whose elevation is unknown. The new crater has continuous, radar

  3. Mobilities of radionuclides in fresh and fractured crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torstenfelt, B.; Ittner, T.; Allard, B.; Andersson, K.; Olofsson, U.

    1982-12-01

    Sorption and migration of technetium, cesium and americium on fracture surfaces and fresh surfaces of granites taken from drilling cores from the Finnsjoen and Studsvik areas and the Stripa mine are reported. The three elements were used as reference elements with different chemistry and behaviour in water; under the conditions used in the experiments technetium exists as the heptavalent TcO -4 -ion, cesium as the non-complexed monovalent cation Cs + and americium as the strongly hydrolysed Am(OH)super (3-x) (x-1-4). The waters used were synthetic groundwaters representative of waters from the drilling holes. After the exposure of the fracture samples to spiked groundwater solutions for a period of three up to six months the penetration depths and concentration profiles were analysed and autoradiographs of cesium and americium distribution vs depth were taken. The sorption of technetium was found to be negligible. The transport of TcO -4 depends on accessibility to fractures and micro-fissures in the rock. Cesium is sorbed through an ion-exchange process. Migration of cesium depends not only on the transport in water into fractures and micro-fissures, but also on migration through mineral veins with a high CEC. Americium is strongly sorbed on most solid surfaces and did not migrate significantly during the contact time of three months. The diffusivity in granite was found to be around 10 - 13 m 2 /s for cesium; preliminary values for technetium and americium were 10 - 12 m 2 /s and less than 10 - 16 m 2 /s, respectively. (Authors)

  4. Evaluating oil palm fresh fruit bunch processing in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyaoha, Kelechi E; Sakrabani, Ruben; Patchigolla, Kumar; Mouazen, Abdul M

    2018-03-01

    Three routes of oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) processing in Nigeria namely, industrial, small-scale and traditional were compared by means of determining fruit losses associated with each route. The fruits that are not recovered after each process were hand-picked and quantified in terms of crude palm oil (CPO), palm kernel (PK), mesocarp fibre (MF) and palm kernel shell (PKS). The energy value of empty fruit bunch (EFB), MF and PKS were used to determine the value of energy lost for each route. Additionally, the environmental implications of disposal of EFB were estimated, and socio-economics of the industrial and small-scale routes were related. The analysis showed that 29, 18, 75 and 27 kg of CPO, PK, MF and PKS were lost for every 1000 kg of FFB processed with the industrial route, whereas 5.6, 3.2, 1.4 and 5.1 g were lost with the small-scale route, respectively. Approximately 89 kWh and 31 kWh more energy were lost from MF and PKS with the industrial route than the other two routes, respectively. An equivalent of 6670 tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent of methane and nitrogen oxide was released due to the disposal of 29,000 tonnes of EFB from one palm oil mill. The monetary value of lost CPO per 1000 kg of FFB processed in the industrial route is more than the labour cost of processing 1000 kg of FFB in the small-scale route. The advantages of the industrial route are high throughput in terms of FFB processed per hour and high quality of CPO; however, high fruit loss is associated with it and therefore, the poorly threshed EFB is recommended to be fed into the small-scale route.

  5. Determination of trace metals in natural fresh waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, K.; Borg, H.; Korhonen, M.

    1989-06-01

    The determination method still most widely used is atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace. The natural levels of several elements are however too low to be accurately determined without any preconcentration. Besides, in sea water, the high salt content causes matric effects, which require time consuming separation steps as solvent extraction or ion exchange. The report describes two procedures for preconcentration of fresh water samples, freeze-drying and replicate injections in the furnace, respectively. The procedures are designed to be used on a routine basis. All water samples are collected in polypropylene bottles which are soaked before use in HCl 1+1, rinsed and allowed to stand until use filled with 0.1 M HNO 3 . The samples are preserved by addition of conc. HNO 3 (2 ml/l, sub boiling distilled). In the freeze-drying procedure, the samples are weighed and frozen in the pre-weighed polypropylene sampling bottles and evaporated to about one tenth of the original volume in the vaccum chamber of a freeze dryer. The samples are then weighed again for determination of the concentration factor and alayzed by graphite furnace AAS. When using the other procedure, the water samples are directly injected into the frunace for several times (2-8) before atomization and measurement of the absorption signal. The drying and ashing step is allowed to proceed after every injection. Comparisons of the two procedures have shown good agreement. The advantage of the replicate injection technique is primarily that the concentration factor is more esily controlled and repeated than by the freeze drying procedure. Further, the latter procedure sometimes suffers from precipitates being formed during the evaporation,especially in humic waters rich in iron. (12 figs., 7 tabs., 14 refs.)

  6. Consumer Acceptability of Fresh-Market Muscadine Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kelly; Sims, Charles; Odabasi, Asli; Bartoshuk, Linda; Conner, Patrick; Gray, Dennis

    2016-10-14

    The objective of this research was to investigate the acceptability of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) genotypes (cultivars and selections) and to correlate overall liking to other quality measurements to determine the main drivers of liking. Twenty-two genotypes grown at the Univ. of Georgia-Tifton Campus were evaluated. Four retail commercial grape genotypes (Vitis vinifera and "Concord") were also evaluated for comparison. Panelists familiar with muscadine grapes used the hedonic general labeled magnitude scale (HgLMS, -100 = strongest disliking of any kind ever experienced, +100 = strongest liking of any kind ever experienced) to rate overall liking and the liking of appearance, flavor, pulp texture, and skin texture. Puncture testing was done to assess grape berry texture, and compositional attributes soluble solids and pH were also measured. The sensory results indicated that the grapes were variable with overall liking scores from 12.2 to 39.6. The factors highly correlated with overall liking scores were muscadine flavor, pulp and skin liking, while a significant negative correlation was found between skin liking and skin texture and mechanical texture measures. The muscadine grapes with the highest overall liking scores were Ga. 5-1-34 and Ga. 2-8-21. Principal component analysis confirmed that grapes with a thinner skin and a higher pH tended to group around overall liking and flavor points. These results indicate that even among panelists familiar with muscadine grapes, skin thickness is a negative characteristic. Breeding for thinner skins may be a positive step in muscadines gaining a more widespread appeal in the fresh fruit market. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Taste and aroma of fresh and stored mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietel, Zipora; Plotto, Anne; Fallik, Elazar; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Porat, Ron

    2011-01-15

    During the last decade there has been a continuous rise in consumption of fresh easy-to-peel mandarins. However, mandarins are much more perishable than other citrus fruit, mainly due to rapid deterioration in sensory acceptability after harvest. In the current review we discuss the biochemical components involved in forming the unique flavor of mandarins, and how postharvest storage operations influence taste and aroma and consequently consumer sensory acceptability. What we perceive as mandarin flavor is actually the combination of basic taste, aroma and mouth-feel. The taste of mandarins is principally governed by the levels of sugars and acids in the juice sacs and the relative ratios among them, whereas the aroma of mandarins is derived from a mixture of different aroma volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes/hydrocarbons and esters. During postharvest storage and marketing there is a gradual decrease in mandarin sensory acceptability, which has been attributed to decreases in acidity and typical mandarin flavor, paralleling an accumulation of off-flavor. Biochemical analysis of volatile and non-volatile constituents in mandarin juice demonstrated that these changes in sensory acceptability were concomitant with decreases in acidity and content of terpenes and aldehydes, which provide green, piney and citrus aroma on the one hand, and increases in ethanol fermentation metabolism products and esters on the other, which are likely to cause 'overripe' and off-flavors. Overall, we demonstrate the vast importance of the genetic background, maturity stage at harvest, commercial postharvest operation treatments, including curing, degreening and waxing, and storage duration on mandarin sensory quality. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Trends of fresh green food for lactating roe deer females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Annette; Stahl, Benjamin; Laube, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Increasing temperatures, changed precipitation patterns as well as more intense and frequent extreme events will alter the phenology of both flora and fauna and shift species distributions. Moreover, farmers respond to climate change by adapting land use and management, and thus the cultural landscape is changing. Therefore, the health and fitness of wild animals will be largely affected by factors directly and indirectly linked to climate change. Familiar examples of mismatch due to loss of temporal synchrony in food webs are known from birds (timing of migration or egg laying in relation to food resources) and insect pollination (timing of first flights in relation to plant flowering). However, also large herbivory mammals may suffer from climate change induced phenological mismatch if they are not able to "surf on the green wave" any more. Taking roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) as key example, we studied changes in the spring phenology of potential food plants during the last four decades in southern Germany. Our analysis is based on the phenological observations of the German Meteorological Service as well as on the comprehensive multi-species dataset of a dedicated citizen scientist. Roe deer is sensitive to slight phenological changes of food plants, since only the first fresh green contains maximal protein contents which are needed by the females to suckle their fawns born mid of May till mid of June. We find indications for an increasing number of food plant species available in the lactation period, however probably with a decreasing food quality over the decades. Since females have delayed implantation it may be difficult to well synchronise the postnatal period to the vegetation development. A unique dataset of marked fawns suggests that also the timing of birth has slightly advanced in recent decades. We discuss these changes in the match-mismatch of lactation period of roe deer and spring leaf phenology and their driving factors in detail.

  9. Purification of papain from fresh latex of Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Monti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we wish to report a method of crystallizing papain from fresh papaya latex which gave higher yields than previously reported. This method does not involve the use of sulphydryl reagents. The papain thus obtained is practically pure and shows a single band when submitted to electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and is identical to the papain obtained by other methods. In routine enzymatic assays, specific activity was measured using Z-gly-pNP and BAEE as substrates. Papain crystallized by this method, without the use of high concentrations of salts or thiol-containing substances such as cysteine and dithiothreitol, is obtained in the form of a complex with natural inhibitors existent in latex which can be removed by dialysis.No presente trabalho apresenta-se um método de cristalização da papaína oriunda do látex fresco de mamão, o qual apresenta uma alta produtividade em relação aos métodos previamente descritos. A metodologia aqui descrita não envolve o uso de reagentes sulfidrílicos, a papaína foi obtida de forma praticamente pura, apresentando uma simples banda quando submetida a eletroforese, e com propriedades idênticas àquelas obtidas por outros métodos. A atividade específica foi determinada utilizando Z-gly-pNP e BAEE como substrato. A papaína obtida por essa metodologia, sem uso de substâncias tais como cisteína e ditiotreitol, apresenta-se na forma de um complexo com inibidores naturais, os quais podem ser removidos por diálise.

  10. Comparison of hydrogen storage properties of pure Mg and milled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    increase the hydriding and dehydriding rates, pure Mg was ground under hydrogen atmosphere (reactive .... Hydrogen storage properties of pure Mg and milled pure Mg. 833. Figure 3. ... elongated and flat shapes via collisions with the steel.

  11. Discharge behaviour of Mg-Al-Pb and Mg-Al-Pb-In alloys as anodes for Mg-air battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Naiguang; Wang, Richu; Peng, Chaoqun; Peng, Bing; Feng, Yan; Hu, Chengwang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the effect of indium on the discharge behaviour of Mg-Al-Pb alloy. • We evaluate the performance of Mg-air batteries with Mg-Al-Pb and Mg-Al-Pb-In anodes. • We analyze the activation mechanism of Mg-Al-Pb-In alloy in the discharge process. - Abstract: The discharge behaviour of Mg-Al-Pb and Mg-Al-Pb-In alloys in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution is investigated by electrochemical techniques, and compared with that of pure magnesium. The results show that Mg-Al-Pb-In alloy provides a more negative potential and exhibits a higher utilization efficiency in contrast with Mg-Al-Pb alloy and pure magnesium during the half-cell test at a large current density, and gives desirable discharge performance when used as anode for Mg- air battery. The peak power density of the Mg-air battery with Mg-Al-Pb-In anode is 94.5 mW cm −2 , which is comparable with those of Mg-H 2 O 2 semi-fuel batteries. Moreover, the activation mechanism of Mg-Al-Pb-In alloy during the discharge process is also analyzed

  12. Mass transfer and kinetic modelling of supercritical CO 2 extraction of fresh tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Vasantrao Gadkari

    Full Text Available Abstract Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction was employed to extract solids from fresh tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L. at various pressures(15 to 35 MPa and temperatures (313 to 333K with addition of ethanol as a polarity modifier. The diffusion model and Langmuir model fit well to experimental data and the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.94. Caffeine solubility was determined in supercritical CO2 and the Gordillo model was employed to correlate the experimental solubility values. The Gordillo model fit well to the experimental values with a correlation coefficient 0.91 and 8.91% average absolute relative deviation. Total phenol content of spent materials varied from 57 to 85.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per g spent material, total flavonoid content varied from 50.4 to 58.2 mg of rutin equivalent per g spent material and the IC50 value (antioxidant content varied from 27.20 to 38.11 µg of extract per mL. There was significant reduction in polyphenol, flavonoid and antioxidant content in the extract when supercritical CO2 extraction was carried out at a higher pressure of 35 MPa.

  13. Proton resonance elastic scattering of $^{30}$Mg for single particle structure of $^{31}$Mg

    CERN Multimedia

    The single particle structure of $^{31}$Mg, which is located in the so-called “island of inversion”, will be studied through measuring Isobaric Analog Resonances (IARs) of bound states of $^{31}$Mg. They are located in the high excitation energy of $^{31}$Al. We are going to determine the spectroscopic factors and angular momenta of the parent states by measuring the excitation function of the proton resonance elastic scattering around 0 degrees in the laboratory frame with around 3 MeV/nucleon $^{30}$Mg beam. The present study will reveal the shell evolution around $^{32}$Mg. In addition, the spectroscopic factor of the (7/2)$^{−}$ state which was not yet determined experimentally, may allow one to study the shape coexistence in this nucleus.

  14. Applications of thermodynamic calculations to Mg alloy design: Mg-Sn based alloy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, In-Ho; Park, Woo-Jin; Ahn, Sang Ho; Kang, Dae Hoon; Kim, Nack J.

    2007-01-01

    Recently an Mg-Sn based alloy system has been investigated actively in order to develop new magnesium alloys which have a stable structure and good mechanical properties at high temperatures. Thermodynamic modeling of the Mg-Al-Mn-Sb-Si-Sn-Zn system was performed based on available thermodynamic, phase equilibria and phase diagram data. Using the optimized database, the phase relationships of the Mg-Sn-Al-Zn alloys with additions of Si and Sb were calculated and compared with their experimental microstructures. It is shown that the calculated results are in good agreement with experimental microstructures, which proves the applicability of thermodynamic calculations for new Mg alloy design. All calculations were performed using FactSage thermochemical software. (orig.)

  15. Green emission from ZnO–MgO nanocomposite due to Mg diffusion at the interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowri Babu, K.; Ramachandra Reddy, A.; Venugopal Reddy, K.

    2015-01-01

    The origin and electronic transitions responsible for green emission observed from ZnO–MgO nanocomposite are investigated. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of ZnO–MgO nanocomposite annealed at 600 °C showed only a sharp and intense UV emission peak centered at 396 nm. As the annealing temperature increased from 600 °C to 1000 °C, the green emission positioned at 503 nm is emerged and its intensity enhanced gradually and reached maximum value at 900 °C and then decreased at 1000 °C. It is observed that both UV and green emission intensities are enhanced with variation of atomic ratio (Zn/Mg=1.52, 0.50, 0.30, 0.21, 0.15). Our experiments confirmed that the enhancement of green emission intensity is due to the formation of oxygen vacancies (V o ) due to Mg doping at the interface of ZnO and MgO. This experimental observation is in good agreement with the recent theoretical predictions which states that Mg doping in ZnO lowers the formation energies of oxygen vacancies (V o ) and zinc interstitials (Zn i ) significantly. PL excitation and emission spectra analysis reveals that excited state for both UV and green emissions is same and lies 0.24 eV below the conduction band of ZnO. Hence, the green emission is attributed to the transition of an electron form the shallow donor (defect level of Zn i ) to the deep acceptor (defect level of V o ). - Highlights: • It is found that the UV emission intensity from ZnO–MgO nanocomposite enhanced with increase of Mg concentration. • The intensity of the green emission is enhanced gradually as the temperature increased from 600 °C to 900 °C and then decreased at 1000 °C. • The effect of Mg concentration, MgO, strain at the interface on green emission is investigated. • These experiments confirmed that green emission is due to the oxygen vacancies created in ZnO due to the Mg doping at the interface and it is in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. • The decrease of green emission intensity is

  16. Corrosion analysis of AlMg2 and AlMgSi using electrochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dian A; Maman Kartaman; Rosika K; Yanlinastuti

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion test of cladding materials and structures of research reactor fuel, AlMgSi and AlMg2 have been performed in demineralized water of pH 2 and 6.7 using an electrochemical method. Corrosion phenomenon is affected by several factor such as composition and condition of solution. The purpose of this activity is to investigate the corrosion phenomena through the determination of the parameters of corrosion and polarization curve. The materials used are AlMg2 and AlMgSi alloy in circular dish shape with an area of 1 Cm"2. Preparation of the test sample is performed through several stages polishing, cleaning and drying procedures followed ASTM G3. The electrochemical method is done by measuring the open circuit potential (OCP), polarization resistance and potentiodynamic in demineralized water of pH 2 and pH 6.7 at temperature of 25°C. The results of the OCP is the corrosion potential (Ecorr) of AlMg2 and AlMgSi each of -906.1 mV and -619.8 mV at pH 2 and -868.6 and -756.7 mV at pH 6.7 mV. The results of measurements by polarization resistance technique showed that the corrosion rate of AlMg2 and AlMgSi in safe category (<2 mpy) at pH 6.7 and at pH 2 corrosion rate increased significantly, but still in the lightweight category (<20 mpy). Potentiodynamic curves showed that the passivation at pH 6.7 is very low while the passivation at pH 2 occurs within a relatively short range potential and followed events corroded. (author)

  17. A study on preparation and hydriding of β-Mg2Al3 and γ-Mg17Al12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadi Suwarno

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of the synthetic formation of β-Mg 2 Al 3 and γ-Mg 17 Al 12 has been studied. Mechanical alloying of Mg and Al powders with the atomic ratio of Mg:Al = 2:3 in toluene solution yields β-Mg 2 Al 3 compound after milling for 30 h. The γ-Mg 17 Al 12 can be formed by heating the β-Mg 2 Al 3 at 430°C under high vacuum. The measured hydrogen capacities of β-Mg 2 Al 3 and γ-Mg 17 Al 12 as hydride at 300°C are 3.2 and 4.9 wt%, respectively. Microstructure of the Mg-Al specimen shows that on hydriding at 300°C the polygonal shape of the γ-Mg 17 Al 12 changes into irregular shapes which are composed of γ-MgH 2 and Al. (author)

  18. Hydrogen absorption kinetics and structural properties of Mg85Ni10Ca5 and Mg90Ni10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masakazu; Saito, Katsushi; Towata, Shin-ichi

    2005-01-01

    Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 and Mg 90 Ni 10 were prepared by melting mixtures of the elements in mild steel crucibles and pouring them into copper molds. Hydrogen absorption kinetics and structural properties of the alloys were characterized by the volumetric method using a Sievert's apparatus, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallite size of Mg in Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 , which is evaluated by XRD peak broadening, is about 50% smaller than that in Mg 90 Ni 10 . In addition, the nanometer-scale structure composed of Mg, Mg 2 Ni, Mg 2 Ca was observed in Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 . Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 shows better hydrogen absorption kinetics than Mg 90 Ni 10 in the temperature range of room temperature to 573 K. The better absorption kinetics of Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 is mainly attributed to the nanometer-scale structure

  19. The Inhibitor Pathogen Bacteria’s of Sea Grape Caulerpa lentillifera Applies on Fresh Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonsina M.Tapotubun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of pathogen bacteries at the fresh fish may occur during the post harvesting to the consuming period, and endanger human health. One of simple and safe way to protect secureness of fresh fish food is the use of Caulerpa lentillifera to push down pathogen bacteries activity. The aims of this research to investigate lability of sea grape (Caulerpa lentillifera against the activity of pathogen bacteries Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella sp., in fresh fish, during storage phase, at ambient and ice temperatures. Method used in this research is experimental laboratories method, that is, 10%, 20% and 30% blended sea grapes applied on fresh fishes, Selar crumenopthalmus during storage of 1, 2 and 3 days at ambient and ice temperatures. All the applied of blended of Caulerpa lentillifera, shows the ability to obstruct the activity of bactery group coliform and Escherichia coli on fresh fish Selar crumenopthalmus up to 2x 24 hours, at ambient temperature, and 3x24 hours at ice temperature. During storage period, the occurance and grows of Salmonella sp. and Vibrio cholerae bacteries is undetected. Fresh sea grapes concentration of 10% is sufficient to be applied on fresh fish to obstruct the activity of pathogen bacteries Escherichia coli during storage time of 2 x 24 hours at room temperature, and 3 x 24 hours at ice temperature, and to block the occurance of Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella sp. during storage period. .

  20. DETERMINATION OF MINERAL CONTAIN AND BACTERIA CONTAMINANT ON ORGANIC AND NONORGANIC FRESH VEGETABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsojo Harsojo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of mineral content and bacteria contaminant on fresh vegetable of long bean (Vegan ungulate Wall., white cabbage (Basic tolerance L., and lettuce (Lectuca sativa L. that cultivated by organic and nonorganic system have been done. The mineral content has been analyzed using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy method, while bacteria contaminant by total plate count number using Nutrient Agar, Mac Conkey Agar, Baird Parker medium, and Salmonella using selective medium. The results showed that there are some essential mineral such as Fe, Zn, Ca, Co, and nonessential mineral Cd. There is tendency that fresh vegetable that cultivated by organic system contained Fe, Zn, Ca, Co and Cd mineral less than nonorganic. The Zn mineral content in nonorganic of fresh vegetable were higher than the limit of threshold number from Health Department, Republic of Indonesia (2004, while Cd mineral in organic or nonorganic of fresh vegetable were greater then threshold number from Codex Alimentarius Commision. The measurement of bacteria contaminant on organic and nonorganic of fresh vegetables contained aerob, coli, and Staphylococcus bacteria in organic of fresh vegetables were less compared to nonorganic of fresh vegetables.   Keywords: mineral, bacteria aerob, coli, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, organic, and nonorganic vegetable, neutron activation