Valero, Magali; Kocher, Claudia
The authors study the characteristics of students who take the Major Field Test in Business (MFT-B) versus those who do not. The authors find that students with higher cumulative grade point averages (GPAs) are more likely to take the test. Additionally, students are more likely to take the test if it is offered late in the semester. Further…
Godskesen, Mirjam Irene; Kobayashi, Sofie
In this paper we focus on individual coaching carried out by an external coach as a new pedagogical element that can impact doctoral students’ sense of progress in doctoral education. The study used a mixed methods approach in that we draw on quantitative and qualitative data from the evaluation...... impact the supervisor – student relationship in a positive way....
On 10 May, over 130 PhD students and their supervisors, from both CERN and partner universities, gathered for the 4th Doctoral Student Assembly in the Council Chamber. The assembly was followed by a poster session, at which eighteen doctoral students presented the outcome of their scientific work. The CERN Doctoral Student Programme currently hosts just over 200 students in applied physics, engineering, computing and science communication/education. The programme has been in place since 1985. It enables students to do their research at CERN for a maximum of three years and to work on a PhD thesis, which they defend at their University. The programme is steered by the TSC committee, which holds two selection committees per year, in June and December. The Doctoral Student Assembly was opened by the Director-General, Fabiola Gianotti, who stressed the importance of the programme in the scientific environment at CERN, emphasising that there is no more rewarding activity than lear...
On Wednesday 2 April, CERN hosted its third Doctoral Student Assembly in the Council Chamber. CERN PhD students show off their posters in CERN's Main Building. Speaking to a packed house, Director-General Rolf Heuer gave the assembly's opening speech and introduced the poster session that followed. Seventeen CERN PhD students presented posters on their work, and were greeted by their CERN and University supervisors. It was a very successful event!
Holmstrom, Engin Inel; Holmstrom, Robert W.
This study investigated factors underlying discrimination against woman doctoral students. Analyses revealed that faculty attitudes and behavior toward woman doctoral students contributed significantly to their emotional stresses and self-doubts. (Author/NE)
This study examines the influence of faculty mentorship in the shaping of African American doctoral student success. A case analysis framework is used to investigate the belief systems that doctoral students held about their doctoral experience. Data collection involved a one-phase semi-structured interview protocol used to gather information…
Spiro, J H; Roenneburg, M; Maly, B J
Physicians' emotional problems need to be recognized and treated. Intervention and prevention in this problem area have been attempted at the Medical College of Wisconsin through a programme of peer counselling designed to teach student physicians how to recognize and treat emotional difficulties faced by their peers. During the 18 months that the programme has been in operation, 20 peer counsellors reported a total 1,185 hours spent in counselling their peers, lending credence to the speculation that doctors will turn to their peers for help if, in medical school, there is acceptance of fallibility and responsiveness on the part of peers.
Brodin, Eva M.
Critical and creative thinking constitute important learning outcomes at doctoral level across the world. While the literature on doctoral education illuminates this matter through the lens of experienced senior researchers, the doctoral students' own perspective is missing. Based upon interviews with 14 doctoral students from four disciplines at…
Boden, Daniel; Borrego, Maura; Newswander, Lynita K.
Interdisciplinary approaches are often seen as necessary for attacking the most critical challenges facing the world today, and doctoral students and their training programs are recognized as central to increasing interdisciplinary research capacity. However, the traditional culture and organization of higher education are ill-equipped to…
The MFT core competencies and latest COAMFTE accreditation standards usher in a new paradigm for MFT education. This transition necessitates not only measuring student mastery of competencies but also, more importantly, adopting a contemporary pedagogical model. This article provides an overview of the changes, a review of parallel trends in other…
The main purpose of the study was to investigate the challenges faced by students in completion of an online doctoral program at the University of Liverpool, Online Doctoral Business Administration program. We analyse the responses of 91 doctoral students in an online DBA program. Based on the exploratory qualitative study themes were developed…
Demoz, A.; Munoz, V.; Mikula, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Western Research Centre
A method of controlling polymer mixing for the dewatering of mature fine tailings (MFT) was presented. The method was developed to accelerate water release from MFT and to recover more water for re-use. Dewatering rates are dependent upon hydrodynamic conditions as well as various physical mixing variables. The effect of mixing energy on the rate and amount of released water flocculated MFT was investigated using different impellers in order to determine the release water amount and capillary suction time. The mixing energy effect on the structure of the flocculated MFT was analyzed using rheology and stereo microscopy techniques. Batch mixing tests were conducted to determine dewatering characteristics. Flow was described using the Herschel-Bulkley model. Results of the study demonstrated a clear peak in the amount of water released with the mixing time. The effect was applicable to rim-ditch thin-lift, and dewatering by centrifugation. tabs., figs.
Vekkaila, Jenna; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Lonka, Kirsti
Little is known about what inspires students to be involved in their doctoral process and stay persistent when facing challenges. This study explored the nature of students' engagement in the doctoral work. Altogether, 21 behavioural sciences doctoral students from one top-level research community were interviewed. The interview data were…
Full Text Available James GM Crossley,1,2 Pirashanthie Vivekananda-Schmidt1 1University of Sheffield School of Medicine, Sheffield, 2Chesterfield Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Chesterfield, UK Abstract: In 2009, the General Medical Council UK (GMC published its updated guidance on medical education for the UK medical schools – Tomorrow's Doctors 2009. The Council recommended that the UK medical schools introduce, for the first time, a clinical placement in which a senior medical student, “assisting a junior doctor and under supervision, undertakes most of the duties of an F1 doctor”. In the UK, an F1 doctor is a postgraduation year 1 (PGY1 doctor. This new kind of placement was called a student assistantship. The recommendation was considered necessary because conventional UK clinical placements rarely provided medical students with opportunities to take responsibility for patients – even under supervision. This is in spite of good evidence that higher levels of learning, and the acquisition of essential clinical and nontechnical skills, depend on students participating in health care delivery and gradually assuming responsibility under supervision. This review discusses the gap between student and doctor, and the impact of the student assistantship policy. Early evaluation indicates substantial variation in the clarity of purpose, setting, length, and scope of existing assistantships. In particular, few models are explicit on the most critical issue: exactly how the student participates in care and how supervision is deployed to optimize learning and patient safety. Surveys indicate that these issues are central to students' perceptions of the assistantship. They know when they have experienced real responsibility and when they have not. This lack of clarity and variation has limited the impact of student assistantships. We also consider other important approaches to bridging the gap between student and doctor. These include supporting the
Deborah S. Garson
Full Text Available Creating a quality literature review is fundamental to doctoral student professionalization, yet research into how the literature review is taught, learned, or experienced is limited. Responding to this under-addressed but critical key to doctoral education, the focus of this mixed methods study is on students’ perceptions of a year-long course, co-taught by a faculty member and embedded librarian, devoted specifically to addressing the literature review. Analysis of students’ course evaluations and written reflections/feedback over an eight year period revealed four primary themes: 1 Entering students’ technological know-how does not guarantee effective information literacy skill and without the requisite skills one-shot library workshops are insufficient for making learning whole; 2 Rather than conceiving of the literature review as a product, constructing a literature review represents a pivotal process in doctoral students’ research and literacy skill development; 3 Creating a literature review, and the process it entails, signals in students the development of their professional researcher identity, involving movement beyond “how to” to address questions of “why” and “for whom”; 4 The literature review course was experienced as a substantively different course than is typical in the doctoral experience, mirroring the course’s foundational assumption that librarians, instructors, and learners share agency in creating the literature review process. The course curriculum is framed by two simultaneous learning streams: information literacy competencies and student research agenda. The course curriculum aligns information literacy competencies and research methodology with the goal of exploring and purposefully integrating creativity and curiosity in the search and research construction process.
Doyle, Stephanie; Manathunga, Catherine; Prinsen, Gerard; Tallon, Rachel; Cornforth, Sue
While the experiences of international doctoral students, especially those from Asian countries, have been well researched, fewer studies have explored the experiences of African students in Southern countries like Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand. This article reports on doctoral writing and student and supervisor perspectives on English…
This conceptual article uses the tools of Pierre Bourdieu (1977, 1986, 1990) to examine the socialization of doctoral students by suggesting that the processes of doctoral study highlight inequities among students. Using Young's (1990) social justice approach as a framework to complement the ideas of Bourdieu, I demonstrate how aspects of academic…
This article analyses doctoral education programmes in South Africa with a particular focus on student mobility. It investigates pull and push factors as a conceptual framework, arguing that the patterns of student mobility in doctoral education programmes in South Africa follow the patterns of international student mobility ...
Bircher, Lisa S.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the socialization (Weidman, Twale, & Stein, 2001) experiences of part-time doctoral students as a result of peer mentorship in one college. Part-time doctoral students are identified as students who are maintaining full-time employment or obligations outside of the university. The…
This study investigated the extent to which doctoral advisors provided mentoring to their students and if mentor support influenced doctoral student outcomes. Survey results from 477 respondents, across disciplines at two universities, indicated that most students believed mentoring was important and over half of them received mentoring support…
The article explores doctoral attrition in South Africa, investigating and comparing the attributions of attrition of doctoral students and PhD programme leaders. The article is based on secondary data analysis of two large studies on doctoral education in South Africa. The main point of the article is that the different understandings of the…
Middleton, Karen L.; Loveland, Karen A.
The authors describe the four stages of the closing the loop process undertaken by a college of business (COB) over a 6-year period. The COB developed and offered an online, noncredit review course to help students prepare for the Major Field Test in Business (MFT). Early results demonstrated the efficacy of the course as student scores rose from…
Asamenew Demessie Bireda
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate some challenges female doctoral students experience in their doctoral journey. The study used a qualitative design and structured interviews. The theoretical framework that guided the study was that of Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecosystemic theory. A purposely selected sample of five female doctoral students from the University of South Africa Ethiopia campus participated in the study. The results identified three major areas of concern such as: academic, psychosocial and home/work related. Specifically, female doctoral students reported concerns surrounding quality of supervision support, inadequate academic skill, nature or system of education, stress, motivation, isolation, balancing personal and professional life, relationship problems, home and work related concerns. Hence, universities must provide opportunities and resourceful strategies to meet the challenges posed by women scholars in the doctoral journey.
Writing a thesis is one of the most challenging activities that a doctoral student must undertake and can represent a barrier to timely completion. This is relevant in light of current and widespread concerns regarding doctoral completion rates. This study explored thesis writing approaches of students post or near Ph.D. completion through…
Presently, 130 doctoral students at CERN do their research on “technical” subjects such as magnets and cryogenics, beam and detector physics, computing and vacuum, among others. Student present their scientific achievements at the first doctoral student assembly. To present their scientific achievements and to bring together the students with CERN supervisors and CERN’s management was the main objective of the first doctoral student assembly and poster session, held June 30. The photograph shows about half of those who presented posters, all in their second year of assignment, and ready to attach their work to the panels. Another aim of the assembly was to discuss the outcome of the anonymous questionnaire and to gain feedback for the improvement of the doctoral student program. While there is vast overall satisfaction, improvements should aim at strengthening the links between students, CERN supervisors, and university professors. With 24 posters prese...
Ted M. Cross
Full Text Available As higher education is changing to reach larger numbers of students via online modalities, the issue of student attrition and other measures of student success become increasingly important. While research has focused largely on undergraduate online students, less has been done in the area of online non-traditional doctoral student success, particularly from the student trait perspective. The concept of grit, passion and persistence for long-term goals, has been identified as an important element of the successful attainment of long-term goals. As doctoral education is a long-term goal the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of doctoral student grit scores on student success. Success was measured by examining current student GPA and other factors. Significant relationships were found between grit and current student GPA, grit and the average number of hours students spent on their program of study weekly, and grit and age. The results of this research maybe important for informing how doctoral education is structured and how students might be better prepared for doctoral work.
Full Text Available A homolog of MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis and its biological function was investigated. Protein multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that HbMFT1 conserved critical amino acid residues to distinguish MFT, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT and TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1-like proteins and showed a closer genetic relationship to the MFT-like group. The accumulation of HbMFT1 was generally detected in various tissues except pericarps, with the highest expression in embryos and relatively higher expression in roots and stems of seedlings, flowering inflorescences, and male and female flowers. HbMFT1 putative promoter analysis showed that tissue-specific, environmental change responsive and hormone-signaling responsive elements were generally present. HbMFT1 was strongly induced under a short-day condition at 28 °C, with the highest expression after the onset of a day. Overexpression of HbMFT1 inhibited seed germination, seedling growth, and flowering in transgenic Arabidopsis. The qRT-PCR further confirmed that APETALA1 (AP1 and FRUITFULL (FUL were drastically down-regulated in 35S::HbMFT1 plants. A histochemical β-glucuronidase (GUS assay showed that HbMFT1::GUS activity was mainly detected in stamens and mature seeds coinciding with its original expression and notably induced in rosette leaves and seedlings of transgenic Arabidopsis by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA due to the presence of ABA cis-elements in HbMFT1 promoter. These results suggested that HbMFT1 was mainly involved in maintenance of seed maturation and stamen development, but negatively controlled germination, growth and development of seedlings and flowering. In addition, the HbMFT1 promoter can be utilized in controlling transgene expression in stamens and seeds of rubber tree or other plant species.
Almost ten years after the start of the programme in 2007, the hundredth Gentner Doctoral Student started his PhD at CERN. The hundredth Gentner Doctoral Student, Christian Zimmer, in front of the AEgIS detector in the AD hall, where he will spend a significant portion of the next 3 years. In 2007, the German Gentner Doctoral Student Programme was established at CERN, named in honour of the celebrated nuclear physicist Wolfgang Gentner, President of the CERN Council from 1972-74. On 1 July 2016, the 100th Gentner Doctoral Student, Christian Zimmer, started his PhD at CERN, where he will work on setting up the sympathetic laser cooling of antiprotons at the AEgIS experiment. CERN’s Doctoral Student Programme has been running for many years, with 200 students currently enrolled. The Gentner programme is fully integrated into the general CERN Doctoral Student Programme, but is entirely funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The programme sponsors 30 to 40...
Jinglai Zhou; Zhixin Zhang; Wenjie Shen [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Taiyuan (China)] [and others
Two-Stage Modified FT (MFT) process has been developed for producing high-octane gasoline from coal-based syngas. The main R&D are focused on the development of catalysts and technologies process. Duration tests were finished in the single-tube reactor, pilot plant (100T/Y), and industrial demonstration plant (2000T/Y). A series of satisfactory results has been obtained in terms of operating reliability of equipments, performance of catalysts, purification of coal - based syngas, optimum operating conditions, properties of gasoline and economics etc. Further scaling - up commercial plant is being considered.
Godskesen, Mirjam; Kobayashi, Sofie
In this paper we focus on individual coaching carried out by an external coach as a new pedagogical element that can impact doctoral students' sense of progress in doctoral education. The study used a mixed-methods approach in that we draw on quantitative and qualitative data from the evaluation of a project on coaching doctoral students. We…
Pfeiffer, M; Dimitriadis, K; Holzer, M; Reincke, M; Fischer, M R
Weight and quality of medical doctoral theses have been discussed in Germany for years. Doctoral study programs in various graduate schools offer opportunities to improve quality of medical doctoral theses. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate distinctions and differences concerning motivation, choice of subject and the dissertation process between doctoral candidates completing the doctoral seminar for doctoral students in the Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU) Munich and doctoral candidates doing their doctorate individually. All 4000 medical students of the LMU obtained an online-questionnaire which was completed by 767 students (19 % response rate). The theoretical framework of this study was based upon the Self-Determination-Theory by Deci and Ryan. Doctoral candidates completing the doctoral study program were more intrinsically motivated than doctoral candidates doing their doctorate individually; no difference was found in their extrinsic motivation. In regard to choice of subject and dissertation process the doctoral students in the seminar were distinguished from the individual group by having chosen a more challenging project. They anticipated a demanding dissertation process including conference participation, publishing of papers, etc. Intrinsic motivation correlates positively with choosing a challenging project and a demanding dissertation process. High intrinsic motivation seems to be very important for autonomous scholarly practice. Our results suggest that doctoral study programs have a positive impact on intrinsic motivation and interest in research. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Bruce, Christine; Stoodley, Ian; Pham, Binh
As part of their journey of learning to research, doctoral candidates need to become members of their research community. In part, this involves coming to be aware of their field in ways that are shared amongst longer-term members of the research community. One aspect of candidates' experience we need to understand, therefore, involves how they…
Vekkaila, Jenna; Pyhältö, Kirsi
Doctoral studies are about learning to create new knowledge and to become a researcher. Yet surprisingly little is known about the individual learning patterns of doctoral students. The study aims to explore learning patterns among natural science doctoral students. The participants included 19 doctoral students from a top-level natural science…
Baltrinic, Eric R.; Jencius, Marty; McGlothlin, Jason
This phenomenological study explored 10 counselor education doctoral students' coteaching experiences with faculty members. Three coteaching structures identified from the data were relational, operational, and developmental. A definition of coteaching supported by the findings is presented. Implications for counselor education programs,…
Kumar, Swapna; Johnson, Melissa
The purpose of our research was to explore faculty members' experiences with online mentoring during the dissertation stage of an online doctoral program. During semi-structured interviews, four mentors reflected on their online mentoring of students, specifically the strategies that worked well, challenges faced while mentoring online, and other…
Introduction: Various studies have reported poor awareness and knowledge of dentistry in the Nigerian population. There is, however, paucity of information assessing the knowledge and awareness of medical doctors/students and nurses about dentistry. The present study is aimed at determining the knowledge and ...
This qualitative study focused on counseling psychology doctoral students' perspectives regarding their practicum training experience in primary care psychology. The four participants included three females and one male. Semi-structured individual and focus group interviews were used to explore participants' experiences. The participants described…
Micheli, Amelia C.
The purpose of this study was to explore variables impacting dispositional empathy in doctoral psychology students. While there is a great deal of research regarding empathy in practicing psychologists and mental health professionals, little is known about empathy in psychology trainees. This is especially surprising given the importance of…
Amiri, Fatemeh; Puteh, Marlia
Communication apprehension has been identified as a major factor which inhibits an individual's willingness to communicate and his/her ability to develop effective communication skills. While many prior studies have investigated oral communication apprehension among undergraduate students, there has been little research exploring this phenomenon…
Kosh, Emily P.
Personality affects relationships. During the doctoral education, the second most important factor in degree completion, after financial support, is the student-advisor relationship. Approximately half of doctoral students do not finish their degrees. While it is known mentors have a profound impact on the success of doctoral students, the effect…
Much attention has been paid to formal pedagogic elements of the doctorate--supervision and other structured institutional provisions--but we know less about the role played by non-formal practices in doctoral students' learning. This paper explores the experiences of eight doctoral students involved in editing student-run journals. Editorship and…
Demoz, A.; Mikula, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Western Research Centre; Lahaie, R. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)
This PowerPoint presentation described a rim ditch method of dewatering mature fine tailings (MFT). Polymer additions were used to strengthen the MFT and to decrease the capillary suction time (CST). Laboratory and field-scale studies were conducted to demonstrate the dewatering method. The flocculants were added in a Komax inline mixer. Polymers were then injected into the tailings. The mixing processes were optimized in a series of laboratory studies and then demonstrated in the field tests. The tests showed that CST and high dewatering rates were consistently maintained using the method. MFT feeds were also consistent. Release water quality was improved using the method. The large-scale test site is now being monitored for compliance with Directive 74. tabs., figs.
The DWPF will satisfy the product consistency specification in the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications through control of the chemical composition of the glass product. This control will be achieved by ensuring that each batch of feed in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) will produce glass which satisfies the specification. The purpose of this report is to determine what degree of uniformity can be expected of material in the SME and Metter Feed Tank (MFT). These vessels were designed based on a design development process which had proven successful for similar hard-to-mix feeds in the past. This process resulted in a design of the SME and MFT agitation systems which was intended to provide highly uniform melter feed material. Based on the results of extensive tests in protoypic equipment, the SME and MFT designs have met this design goal
Lin, Yii-nii; Hsu, Angela Yi-ping
This study describes the peer mentoring experience from doctoral student mentors' point of view. Twelve science and engineering doctoral students participated in this phenomenology study. The findings suggest doctoral peer mentors served instrumental, psychosocial, buffering, and liaison roles; they passed on their social, professional, and…
Full Text Available A precise determination of the fuel efficiency is important because North/South station keeping ,which controls the inclination of the geostationary orbit, consumes most of the satellite fuel. We estimate the amount of fuel required during the lifetime of the KOREASAT when MFT(Minimum Fuel Target technique is adopted, and the result is compared to those when MCT(Maximum Compensation Target and TBCT(Track-Back Chord Target technique are applied. From this computation, we find that if MFT technique is adopted, the lifetime of the satellite can be extended at least 45 and 15 days, respectively, compared to those consumed with MCT and TBCT technique.
Sarah L Ferguson
Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to explore student perceptions of their own doctoral-level education and quantitative proficiency. Background: The challenges of preparing doctoral students in education have been discussed in the literature, but largely from the perspective of university faculty and program administrators. The current study directly explores the student voice on this issue. Methodology: Utilizing a sequential explanatory mixed-methods research design, the present study seeks to better understand doctoral-level education students’ perceptions of their quantitative methods training at a large public university in the southwestern United States. Findings: Results from both phases present the need for more application and consistency in doctoral-level quantitative courses. Additionally, there was a consistent theme of internal motivation in the responses, suggesting students perceive their quantitative training to be valuable beyond their personal interest in the topic. Recommendations for Practitioners: Quantitative methods instructors should emphasize practice in their quantitative courses and consider providing additional support for students through the inclusion of lab sections, tutoring, and/or differentiation. Pre-testing statistical ability at the start of a course is also suggested to better meet student needs. Impact on Society: The ultimate goal of quantitative methods in doctoral education is to produce high-quality educational researchers who are prepared to apply their knowledge to problems and research in education. Results of the present study can inform faculty and administrator decisions in doctoral education to best support this goal. Future Research: Using the student perspectives presented in the present study, future researchers should continue to explore effective instructional strategies and curriculum design within education doctoral programs. The inclusion of student voice can strengthen
Shapiro, Johanna; Rucker, Lloyd; Robitshek, Daniel
The authors describe a longitudinal third- and fourth-year elective, 'The Art of Doctoring', introduced in an attempt to counteract perceived frustration and cynicism in medical students at their home institution during the clinical years. The course goals aimed at helping students to develop self-reflective skills; improve awareness of and ability to modify personal attitudes and behaviors that compromise patient care; increase altruism, empathy and compassion toward patients; and sustain commitment to patient care, service and personal well-being. These goals were accomplished through introduction and development of five skill sets: learning from role models and peers; on-site readings of works by medical student- and physician-authors; self- and other-observation; self-reflective techniques; and case-based problem-solving. The course involved regular in-class exercises and homework assignments, as well as a personal project related to improving personal compassion, caring and empathy toward patients. Students also learned to use a coping algorithm to approach problematic clinical and interpersonal situations. Class discussions revealed three issues of recurring importance to students: loss of idealism, non-compliant patients, and indifferent, harsh or otherwise unpleasant attendings and residents. Quantitative and qualitative student evaluations overall indicated a generally favorable response to the course. Problems and barriers included attendance difficulties and variable levels of student engagement. Future directions for this type of educational intervention are considered, as well as its implications for medical education.
Kumar, Vijay; Aitchison, Claire
Very few empirical studies have investigated programmes in which doctoral students act as peer facilitators in faculty writing groups. We report on the development of a centrally delivered doctoral student writing programme in which twenty student participants were mentored and provided with the resources to initiate their own faculty-based…
Ding, Qun; Devine, Nesta
Chinese international students constitute the largest proportion of overseas students in several English-speaking countries such as the UK and New Zealand. Little research has been done concerning those undertaking doctoral study. This qualitative study explores how Chinese overseas doctoral students become involved in church communities and how…
Rinfrette, Elaine S.; Maccio, Elaine M.; Coyle, James P.; Jackson, Kelly F.; Hartinger-Saunders, Robin M.; Rine, Christine M.; Shulman, Lawrence
Teaching in higher education is often not addressed in doctoral education, even though many doctoral graduates will eventually teach. This article describes a biweekly teaching workshop, presents pitfalls and challenges that beginning instructors face, and advocates pedagogical training for doctoral students. Led by a well-known social work…
This year marks the start of a new phase between CERN and Morocco with the arrival of the first two Moroccan students. Mohamed Gouighri and Sara Boutouil, the first two Moroccan students at CERN. Thanks to the efforts of a small group of Moroccan academics, Morocco has been participating in the LHC programme for over ten years. About ten Moroccan physicists are members of the ATLAS collaboration, which comprises over 2000 physicists and 165 research institutes from 37 different countries. The arrival of the first Moroccan doctoral students at CERN was the logical next step. The new programme is the result of a multi-party agreement between CERN, the Sharing Knowledge Foundation, the Moroccan universities participating in the LHC programme and the Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology. Mohamed Gouighri is the first Moroccan to obtain a scholarship to study at CERN, which is being funded by the Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology. He has been studying physics at the Faculty of S...
Doctors, especially junior doctors, face immense pressure in their day-to-day work. As a result, the rates of depression and anxiety are particularly high in this demanding profession. The pressure, which is compounded by constantly being under societal scrutiny, can unfortunately drive the doctor to breaking point. However, we can help doctors deal with these pressures in a more meaningful way if we make them aware of their wider environment (within a social paradigm) and the implications of their actions.
Walsh, Robyn; Bambacus, Elizabeth; Gibson, Donna
The purpose of this article is to provide a supervision approach to experiential groups that replaces professors with doctoral students in the chain of supervision, enlists a faculty member to provide supervision of supervision to the doctoral students, and translates supervision theory to meet the unique needs of group counseling supervision.…
Jaeger, Audrey J.; Mitchall, Allison; O'Meara, KerryAnn; Grantham, Ashley; Zhang, Jingjing; Eliason, Jennifer; Cowdery, Kelly
This study examined and enriched our understanding of the career choice process for doctoral students of color in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. In addition, it explored the challenges facing all doctoral students in STEM in understanding and making meaning of diversity as it relates to individual perspectives and…
Oktay, Julianne S.; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Fisher, Elizabeth
The researchers conducted an exploratory study using grounded theory qualitative research methods to examine experiences of social work doctoral students as they learned to teach ("N"?=?14). A core category, "learning through experience," representing a basic social process, was identified. The doctoral students experienced…
Latinas currently attain the lowest number of terminal degrees in the United States when compared to White, African American, and Asian American women. While Latina doctoral students share common struggles with other minority/female doctoral students, the unique cultural expectations associated with their racial/ethnic and gender related…
Robertson, Margaret J.
This article raises two inter-related issues: firstly there is a correlation between the needs of doctoral students that are strongly related to age and career stage; and secondly, because these needs differ according to their demographic, the current discourse of developing work-readiness skills of doctoral students is misplaced for the growing…
Minor, Amanda J.; Pimpleton, Asher; Stinchfield, Tracy; Stevens, Heath; Othman, Nor Asma
Counselor education doctoral students (CEDSs), like other doctoral students, need assistance and support to ensure their self-care. One area markedly affecting self-care is one's relationships with others. The purpose of this article is to examine the multiple relationships involved within CEDSs supervision, the potential areas to utilize peer…
Terry, Helen; Liller, Karen D.
The purpose of this article is to describe the Doctoral Student Leadership Institute, an initiative developed to hone the leadership skills of doctoral students from a wide range of disciplines. The components of the Institute and preliminary assessment measures with findings are discussed. We particularly were pleased with the outcomes of the…
Goldman, Zachary W.; Goodboy, Alan K.
This study explored how psychosocial development affects doctoral students' relationship and communication with their advisor. Chickering and Reisser's vectors of psychosocial development were examined in the doctoral context to understand how students preserve communicatively satisfying relationships with their advisor through the use of…
Writing at the doctoral level presents many challenges for second language writers. This paper reports on a longitudinal study investigating English as a second language (ESL) doctoral students' writing problems and the strategies they developed to meet these challenges. Eight students were interviewed four times over a two-year period during…
Miller, John K.; Stone, Dana J.
The authors examined factors influencing career aspirations of doctoral students of color in family therapy doctoral programs across the country, with a special focus on careers in the professoriate. Qualitative interviews were conducted with students at varying levels of degree completion. Respondents discussed barriers to careers in academia as…
Frazier, Christina Coffee
This qualitative case study explored the experiences of doctoral students at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities as they transitioned from a fairly stable academic department experiencing significant changes. To achieve the purpose of the study, I investigated the experiences of doctoral students through an organizational development…
Qureshi, Zeshan U; Lattey, Katherine; Bryne, Patrick; Rodrigues, Mark; Ross, Michael; Maxwell, Simon
Medical textbooks are an important teaching supplement. Few have junior doctors or medical students ('juniors') as primary contributors. However, the strengths of junior-led face-to-face teaching are now well-established, and we hypothesized that similar advantages would be transferrable to a textbook setting. Juniors were approached to contribute to an independently published medical textbook, with senior clinicians recruited in parallel to ensure factual accuracy. Juniors directed every aspect of textbook writing and the production process. The published book stressed that it was an open collaboration with readers, inviting them to get in touch to evaluate the text and suggest ideas for new titles. Of 75 respondents, 93 % awarded the first textbook in the series 4 or 5 out of 5 for overall quality. Five other titles have been released, with seven more in development. Over 100 juniors are currently involved, with two students progressing from reviewers to editors after less than a year of mentorship. Juniors can be a motivated, dynamic, innovative group, capable of significant contributions to the medical textbook literature. This initiative has generated a sustainable infrastructure to facilitate junior-led publishing, and has the capacity for expansion to accommodate new initiatives and ideas.
Based on ethnographic interviews with 48 doctoral students and 22 faculty members in science and engineering, this study examines the ways in which doctoral students and faculty make market, symbolic, and social meaning of the presence or absence of money in doctoral student socialization and of funding from governmental and industrial sources.…
Mawson, Kate; Abbott, Ian
This article presents a discussion around issues of identity for part-time professional doctoral students. The current supervision arrangements of a professional doctoral programme were considered, using an exploratory study, to explore the idea that supervision for competent confident professionals should, in the early stages, focus on identity…
Guerin, Cally; Jayatilaka, Asangi; Ranasinghe, Damith; McCulloch, Alistair; Calder, Paul
A "knowledge society" relies on a workforce with high-level skills in Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Continuing development of ICT will arise partly from research undertaken by doctoral graduates. However, compared to other cognate disciplines, ICT has relatively few students taking up doctoral studies. This article…
Ynalvez, Marcus Antonius; Ynalvez, Ruby A.; Ramírez, Enrique
We explored the social shaping of science at the micro-level reality of face-to-face interaction in one of the traditional places for scientific activities--the scientific lab. We specifically examined how doctoral students' perception of their: (i) interaction with doctoral mentors (MMI) and (ii) lab social environment (LSE) influenced…
Herrington, Jan; Montgomerie, C.; McKenney, Susan; Seale, J.; Reeves, Thomas C.; Oliver, Ron
At first glance, design-based research may appear to be such a long-term and intensive approach to educational inquiry that doctoral students, most of whom expect to complete their Ph.D. degree in 4-5 years, should not attempt to adopt this approach for their doctoral dissertations. In this paper,
The present paper reports an investigation into the use of linking adverbials in the academic writing of Chinese doctoral students. The learner corpus used in the present study is composed of 20 applied linguistics doctoral dissertations. We also compiled a control corpus of 120 published articles in six international journals of applied…
Many people regard the doctorate as the pinnacle of success. Despite the challenges of completing the terminal degree, the dream of earning the doctoral degree remains a goal for many every year. Understanding the phenomenon of African American student enrollment at for-profit colleges and universities (FPCUs) is necessary because many African…
Kendra Lowery; Rachel Geesa; Kat McConnell
Objectives: In preparation for creating a peer-mentoring program for education doctorate (EdD) students, we conducted a literature review to learn about the characteristics of peer-mentoring programs for graduate students and EdD students specifically. Method: Our search criteria included articles about peer mentoring for graduate students only; published in peer-reviewed journals since the year 2000; and about programs that involved more experienced students, students farther along in t...
Tesh, Vernon L.
With the goal of promoting the development of early career investigators in the field of toxinology, Toxins welcomed applications for the 2016 Toxins Travel Awards for post-doctoral fellows and Ph.D. students. [...
Vernon L. Tesh
Full Text Available With the goal of promoting the development of early career investigators in the field of toxinology, Toxins welcomed applications for the 2016 Toxins Travel Awards for post-doctoral fellows and Ph.D. students. [...
Zamir, Q.; Nadeem, A.; Rizvi, A.H.
Objective: To assess the level of awareness regarding basic and practical knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and its importance in the eyes of medical/dental students and doctors. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in medical and dental colleges as well as hospitals of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, from June to September 2011. Non-probability convenience sampling was used and structured questionnaires on basic and practical knowledge of the procedure were distributed. The questionnaire had 26 items related to basic and advanced knowledge of the required skills. Doctors were divided into two groups based on their years of service and practice. Those with less than 5 years' experience were grouped as junior doctors, while rest as senior doctors. Descriptive statistics were employed to analyse the data using SPPS version 17 and Microsoft Excel. Percentages were worked out and the results were interpreted. Result: Of the 1000 questionnaires distributed, 646 (64.6%) were received duly filled and represented the study sample. Of the 646 participants, 34 (5.26%) were dentists, 424 (65.63%) were medical students, 92 (14.24%) were doctors and 96 (14.86%) were dental students. Basic knowledge of doctors was found to be better than that of dentists (n=96; 50% vs. n=8; 23%). Similarly, the advance knowledge of doctors was better than the dentists (n=53; 58% vs. n=11; 31%). The basic knowledge of junior doctors was found to be almost equal to the senior doctors (n=26; 44.75% vs. n=15; 45.5%). The advance knowledge of junior doctors was found to be better than the senior doctors (n=27; 45.37% vs. n=10; 29.48%). Among the students, 157 (37%) of the medical students had basic knowledge of CPR, while 36 (38%) dental students had basic knowledge of the topic. Medical students had more advanced knowledge (n=157; 37%) than dental students (n=34; 35%). Conclusion: The awareness of basic and advance knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills in medical
Gupchup, Gireesh V.; Borrego, Matthew E.; Konduri, Niranjan
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between student-life stress and health related quality of life (HRQOL) among Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) students. Data were collected for 166 students in the first three years of a Pharm.D. curriculum. Student-Life Stress Inventory scores were significantly negatively correlated to mental…
Gillard, J H; Dent, T H; Jolly, B C; Wallis, D A; Hicks, B H
We asked British medical schools and teaching hospitals about the training they offer to medical students and hospital doctors in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The response rate was 96%. Training that is practical and consistent with guidelines is offered to nearly all students and house officers, often by consultants. Training for other junior doctors and consultants is much less common. The organisation of training is haphazard, and many hospitals have no resuscitation training officers. As a result, few doctors receive the frequent retraining needed to maintain competence in managing cardiopulmonary arrest.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to determine differences in the image of ideal psychiatrist (IIP among patients, doctors involved in psychiatric care and medical students and also between individuals with different work experience (doctors vs. students. The psychiatrist’s personality seems an important factor in supporting therapeutic process; therefore it is worth searching for the patient’s needs. Materials and methods: Three groups participated in the study: patients of the psychiatric units, medical students of 6th year and psychiatrists. The Gough and Heilbrun ACL (Adjective Check List – based on Mur‑ ray’s theory of needs – was used to assess IIP. Results: Data analysis revealed statistically significant differences among patients, doctors and students involving five scales: Nurturance, Aggression, Change, Succorance and Deference. Patients had lower scores on Change scale than doctors and higher scores on the Nurturance, Succurance and Deference than stu‑ dents. Psychiatrists had higher scores on Nurturance and Deference scale and lower score on Aggression scale than students. Conclusions: The findings showed differences in the expectations of patients compared to those of students and doctors. The most significant difference that was observed involved the Change. It may indicate that patients prefer order, conventional approach and stability in psychiatrist’s personality traits more commonly than doctors. Study findings suggest that work experience has impact on IIP: with increasing work experience, opinion about IIP comes closer to patients’ expectations.
Crosslin, Matt; Wakefield, Jenny S.; Bennette, Phyllis; Black, James William, III
This paper details a proposed doctoral student connections program that is based on sociocultural theory. It is designed to assist new students with starting their educational journey. This program is designed to leverage social interactions, peer mentorship, personal reflection, purposeful planning, and existing resources to assist students in…
Löffler-Stastka, Henriette; Seitz, Tamara; Billeth, Sabrina; Pastner, Barbara; Preusche, Ingrid; Seidman, Charles
Gender-specific differences in the attitudes towards doctor-patient communication among medical students and physicians were assessed. A total of 150 medical students and 51 physicians from different departments took part in the study. The association, attitude and experiences regarding doctor-patient communication were assessed with a series of tools and questionnaires. Female doctors and students tended to describe the doctor-patient communication with positive attributes, such as "helpful", "sentimental", "voluble", "sociable", "gentle", "yielding" and "peaceful". Male students and physicians, on the other hand, described doctor-patient communication as "overbearing", "robust" and "inhibited". The most frequent associations females had with the term doctor-patient communication were "empathy", "confidence", "openess", while the most frequent association of the male colleagues was "medical history". Female doctors reported speaking about the psychosocial situation of the patient significantly more often and believed in higher patient satisfaction by sharing more information. Furthermore, they reported having longer conversations with a more equal partnership than their male colleagues. Compared to male students, female students were willing to take part in training their communication skills more often and had more interest in research about doctor-patient communication. Male medical students reported self-doubt during conversations with female patients, while one third of the male physicians talked about "the power over the patient". This study indicates a gender-dependent communication style influenced by stereotypes. At the establishment of communication training these differences should be taken into account, especially to strengthen male communication skills and improve their attitudes.
Full Text Available Background: The European Union (EU supports North–South Partnerships and collaborative research projects through its Framework Programmes and Horizon 2020. There is limited research on how such projects can be harnessed to provide a structured platform for doctoral level studies as a way of strengthening health system research capacity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the challenges of, and facilitating factors for, ‘nesting’ doctoral students in North–South collaborative research projects. The term nesting refers to the embedding of the processes of recruiting, supervising, and coordinating doctoral students in the overall research plan and processes. Design: This cross-sectional qualitative study was undertaken by the EU-funded QUALMAT Project. A questionnaire was implemented with doctoral students, supervisors, and country principal investigators (PIs, and content analysis was undertaken. Results: Completed questionnaires were received from nine doctoral students, six supervisors, and three country PIs (86% responses rate. The doctoral students from SSA described high expectations about the input they would receive (administrative support, equipment, training, supervision. This contrasted with the expectations of the supervisors for proactivity and self-management on the part of the students. The rationale for candidate selection, and understandings of the purpose of the doctoral students in the project were areas of considerable divergence. There were some challenges associated with the use of the country PIs as co-supervisors. Doctoral student progress was at times impeded by delays in the release of funding instalments from the EU. The paper provides a checklist of essential requirements and a set of recommendations for effective nesting of doctoral students in joint North–South projects. Conclusion: There are considerable challenges to the effective nesting of doctoral students within
Ensslin, Astrid; Slocombe, Will
This study reports on the pedagogic rationale, didactic design and implications of an AHRC-funded doctoral training scheme in collaborative and digital multimedia in the humanities. In the second part of this article we discuss three areas of provision that were identified as particularly significant and/or controversial. These include (1) desktop…
Sep 3, 2009 ... throughout the interviews and that all information would be treated with confidentiality. ... change.7 Saunders and Valente found that when doctors had not been able, ... earlier loss, and perhaps adopting a coping strategy of avoiding all grief ..... Perceptions of clients by professional helpers. Psychological ...
Walters, Gwendolyn M.
The concept of caring has been integral to the practice of nursing and nursing education since the early teachings of Florence Nightingale. Significant changes in both the practice and the need for educating increasing numbers of advanced-degree nurses have resulted in an increase in online doctoral-level nursing programs. This internet-based…
Full Text Available To study the awareness of Basic Life Support (BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges. A cross-sectional study was conducted by assessing responses to 20 selected basic questions regarding BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges. After excluding the incomplete response forms the data was analysed on 1,054 responders. The results were analysed using an answer key prepared with the use of the Advanced Cardiac Life Support manual. Out of 1,054 responders 345 were medical students, 75 were medical interns, 19 were dental students, 59 were dental interns, 105 were homeopathy interns, 319 were nursing students, 72 were doctors, 29 were dentists, 25 were nursing faculty and six were homeopathy doctors. No one among them had complete knowledge of BLS. Only two out of 1054 (0.19% had secured 80 - 89% marks, 10 out of 1054 (0.95% had secured 70 - 79% marks, 40 of 1054 (4.08% had secured 60 - 69% marks and 105 of 1054 (9.96% had secured 50 - 59% marks. A majority of them, that is, 894 (84.82% had secured less than 50% marks. Awareness of BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges is very poor.
McKenna, Hugh; Keeney, Sinead; Kim, Mi Ja; Park, Chang Gi
To evaluate the quality of doctoral education in nursing in the United Kingdom. In recent decades, doctoral education programmes in nursing are increasing worldwide. There are many reasons for this and concerns have been raised regarding the quality of provision in and across countries. To date, the quality of doctoral education on a global level has not been reported in the literature. This United Kingdom study is part of a seven country investigation into the quality of doctoral education in nursing (Australia, Japan, Korea, South Africa, Thailand, United Kingdom and United States of America). A quantitative study using a cross-sectional comparative survey design. An online survey was administered to collect the views of doctoral students and staff members on four domains: programme, faculty/staff, resource and evaluation. The study was carried out between 2010-2012. In most cases, staff perceived these more positively than students and the differences in perception were often statistically significant. Interestingly, many students rated the quality of supervision as excellent, whereas no staff member rated supervision this highly. The crucial importance of resources was confirmed in the path analysis of the four Quality of Doctoral Nursing Education domains. This demonstrates that investment in resources is much more cost-effective than investment in the other domains in relation to improving the overall quality of doctoral education in nursing. This study has wide-ranging implications for how the quality of doctoral education is monitored and enhanced. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vieira-Baptista, Pedro; Lima-Silva, Joana; Fonseca-Moutinho, José; Monteiro, Virgínia; Águas, Fernanda
Abstract Objective To assess themedical doctors andmedical students’ opinion regarding the evidence and ethical background of the performance of vulvovaginal aesthetic procedures (VVAPs). Methods Cross-sectional online survey among 664 Portuguese medical doctors and students. Results Most participants considered that there is never or there rarely is amedical reason to perform: vulvar whitening (85.9% [502/584]); hymenoplasty (72.0% [437/607]); mons pubis liposuction (71.6% [426/595]); ...
Sheng Guo; Jungmin Lee
We conduct an analysis of recent trends on the subfields of study that doctoral students in economics choose for their dissertations. By investigating data on the JEL classification codes of dissertations reported by the Journal of Economic Literature from 1991 to 2007, we find that the trends in the subfields of study of doctoral dissertations follow those of articles published at five major general-interest journals (American Economic Review, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Journal of Polit...
Rhoads, Robert A.; Zheng, Mi; Sun, Xiaoyang
This qualitative study reports findings from a comparative analysis of the methodological socialization of doctoral students in the social sciences at two universities: one in China and one in the USA. Relying primarily on theories of organizational socialization, the study focuses on formal and informal processes students report as part of…
Bates, Peter; Goff, Lori
This autoethnographic study explores the experiences of two part-time doctoral students as we document our journey of balancing our multiple competing roles. As we reflected and consulted the literature, we began to identify many benefits and challenges that part-time candidature brings to students, universities and employers. Through our…
Reichert, William M.
There are various ways to succeed in recruiting and retaining underrepresented minority (URM) doctoral students; but key to them all is the creation of real student-faculty relationships, which demonstrate by example that diversity and excellence can and should coexist. This cannot be delegated or done indirectly, and no amount of outreach, campus…
Bimstein, E; Mayes, A; Mittal, Hc
To evaluate dental students' perspectives about pre- and post-doctoral pediatric dentistry education venues. Surveys with visual analog scales (from 0 to 100) measuring the educational contribution of pediatric dentistry venues were conducted. The pre-doctoral venues included a 3rd year university twilight clinic (UTC), a 3rd year urban community based clinic (CBC) and 4th year mobile clinics (MCs). The post-doctoral venues included treatment of children under general anesthesia, oral sedations, a regular clinic (no sedations), seminars, journal club, case conferences and studding for the American Board of Pediatric Dentistry. Analyses of variance between the scores indicated that the 3rd year CBC score (68.2 ± 4.5) was statistically significant higher (p= .007) than the one for the 3rd year UTC score (44.9 ± 6.1). The 4th year students' MCs score (61.4 ± 4.0) was statistically significant higher than their retrospective scores for the 3rd year CBC (56.4 ± 4.4) or UTC (42.2 ± 4.9) scores (p= .03 and .004 respectively). Among the didactic or clinical post-doctoral venues, the regular clinic and the seminars received the highest scores (84.3 ± 1.7 and 71.6 ± 2.8 respectively). pre-doctoral community-based clinical education and post-doctoral regular university based clinic are considered by students to provide the main contribution to pediatric dental education.
Faghihi, Foroozandeh; Ethington, Corinna A.
This study examined the extent to which an individual doctoral student's characteristics and involvement in the academic and social life of the department influences the student's perception of growth and development during graduate school, and thus the student's persistence in pursuing a graduate degree. The study surveyed doctoral students…
Carr, Sandra E; Celenza, Antonio; Puddey, Ian B; Lake, Fiona
Little recent published evidence explores the relationship between academic performance in medical school and performance as a junior doctor. Although many forms of assessment are used to demonstrate a medical student's knowledge or competence, these measures may not reliably predict performance in clinical practice following graduation. This descriptive cohort study explores the relationship between academic performance of medical students and workplace performance as junior doctors, including the influence of age, gender, ethnicity, clinical attachment, assessment type and summary score measures (grade point average) on performance in the workplace as measured by the Junior Doctor Assessment Tool. There were two hundred participants. There were significant correlations between performance as a Junior Doctor (combined overall score) and the grade point average (r = 0.229, P = 0.002), the score from the Year 6 Emergency Medicine attachment (r = 0.361, P gender or ethnicity on the overall combined score of performance of the junior doctor. Performance on integrated assessments from medical school is correlated to performance as a practicing physician as measured by the Junior Doctor Assessment Tool. These findings support the value of combining undergraduate assessment scores to assess competence and predict future performance.
Lakhey, M; Lakhey, S; Niraula, S R; Jha, D; Pant, R
Many doctors are leaving Nepal to work abroad. To understand this problem better, we decided to study the attitude and plans of young doctors and medical students. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Kathmandu Medical College involving 65 first year medical students, 100 interns and 100 house officers. The data collected was entered in Microsoft excel and analysed by SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) programme. Chi-square test was used to compare two proportions. Significance level was set at 5%. Only 2% house officers said that their job prospects were excellent as compared to 22.4% of students, whereas 20% house officers as compared to 9% students thought job prospects in Nepal were poor (p= 0.003). Eighty two percent of students thought that a doctor's service to his country was very important as compared to 51% of interns (p= 0.001) and 58% of house officers. Forty percent of students, 58% of interns and 48% of house officers (no statistical significance between the three groups) planned to migrate to a developed country after graduation. Eighty eight percent of students, 89% interns and 74% of house officers (no statistical significant differences between the three groups) were of the opinion that improving career opportunities or working environment of the doctor could make the profession more attractive. Although majority of students, interns and house officers were of the opinion that a doctor's service to his community/country was very important, almost half of them still planned to migrate to a developed country after graduation. Improving the chances of professional advancement and professional working environment can make the profession more attractive, and therefore, may decrease this tendency for brain drain from our country.
Osburn, Kathryn Ann
Despite decades of research and reform efforts designed to bolster female retention in scientific disciplines, the conundrum of women's departure from doctoral programs in the sciences remains. This qualitative case study investigated the aspects of the graduate school experience that female doctoral students described as facilitating or impeding their successful degree completion in chemistry. I analyzed the graduate school narratives of twelve female participants who represented both successful and unsuccessful doctoral recipients from four advisors at one university. Participants identified four types of experiences that facilitated their retention in the doctoral program: feeling successful and confident in meeting the program requirements, having positive research experiences, receiving support from social networks, and being dedicated to career goals. Participants cited four kinds of experiences that impeded their continued participation in the doctoral program: having negative research experiences, feeling a lack of success and confidence in meeting the program requirements, changing career goals, and receiving no support from social networks. The graduate school experiences of participants who did and did not successfully attain their degree objectives differed in terms of four dimensions: pre-program experiences, academic experiences, advisory experiences, and social experiences. Based on these findings, I have proposed a model of attrition and retention that emphasizes the role that these unique program experiences play in shaping participants' sense of professional fit within the community of doctoral chemists, consequently contributing to their differential program outcomes. This study not only offers a new perspective on the phenomenon of female doctoral attrition in the sciences but also informs the development of more gender-inclusive graduate science practices and policies that will support the retention of female doctoral students.
Oyetola, Elijah Olufemi; Oyewole, Taiwo; Adedigba, Micheal; Aregbesola, Stephen Tunde; Umezudike, Kehinde; Adewale, Adedotun
Various studies have reported poor awareness and knowledge of dentistry in the Nigerian population. There is, however, paucity of information assessing the knowledge and awareness of medical doctors/students and nurses about dentistry. The present study is aimed at determining the knowledge and awareness of medical doctors/students and nurses about dentistry. Self-administered questionnaires were randomly distributed among medical doctors/students, and nurses of Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospitals' Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Information collected using the questionnaire included participants' biodata, questions evaluating dental awareness, knowledge of systemic and oral health connections as well as referral practices. The data analysis was done with STATA version 11 software. A total of 300 questionnaires were randomly distributed among doctors/students and nurses, 206 were returned (response rate of 69%). Of the returned questionnaires, 129(63%) were males and 77(37%) were females. There were 42 medical doctors, 49 nurses and 115 medical students. The mean age of the participants was 26.7 years (SD 5.2). Majority (99.5%) was aware of dental profession, but 92% had never referred patients for dental consultation. One third (31%) of medical doctors believed that Ludwig angina was a cardiac disease. A large proportion of the respondents (61%) see no need for routine dental visit while 27% would want to visit the dentist only when they had a dental complaint. Although a large percentage of the participants claimed to be aware of dentistry, our findings revealed low level of knowledge and attitude to Dentistry. Efforts should be made towards closing this knowledge gap to achieve efficient oral health.
Ryan, Maureen M; Walker, Madeline; Scaia, Margaret; Smith, Vivian
In this article, we offer a perspective into how Canadian doctoral nursing students' writing capacity is mentored and, as a result, we argue is disciplined. We do this by sharing our own disciplinary and interdisciplinary experiences of writing with, for and about nurses. We locate our experiences within a broader discourse that suggests doctoral (nursing) students be prepared as stewards of the (nursing) discipline. We draw attention to tensions and effects of writing within (nursing) disciplinary boundaries. We argue that traditional approaches to developing nurses' writing capacity in doctoral programs both shepherds and excludes emerging scholarly voices, and we present some examples to illustrate this dual role. We ask our nurse colleagues to consider for whom nurses write, offering an argument that nurses' writing must ultimately improve patient care and thus would benefit from multiple voices in writing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fricke, Tyson A; Lee, Melissa G Y; Brink, Johann; d'Udekem, Yves; Brizard, Christian P; Konstantinov, Igor E
In 2005 the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery at The Royal Children's Hospital started an early academic mentoring program for medical students and junior doctors with the aim of fostering an interest in academic surgery. Between 2005 and 2015, 37 medical students and junior doctors participated in research in the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery at The Royal Children's Hospital. Each was given an initial project on which to obtain ethics approval, perform a literature review, data collection, statistical analysis, and prepare a manuscript for publication. A search of the names of these former students and doctors was conducted on PubMed to identify publications. A total of 113 journal articles were published in peer-reviewed journals with an average impact factor of 4.1 (range, 1.1 to 19.9). Thirty (30 of 37, 81%) published at least one article. A mean of 4.3 journal articles was published per student or junior doctor (range, 0 to 29). Eleven (11 of 37, 30%) received scholarships for their research. Nine (9 of 37, 24%) have completed or are enrolled in higher research degrees with a cardiothoracic surgery focus. Of these 9, 2 have completed doctoral degrees while in cardiothoracic surgery training. Five will complete their cardiothoracic surgery training with a doctoral degree and the other 2 are pursuing training in cardiology. A successful early academic mentoring program in a busy cardiothoracic surgery unit is feasible. Mentoring of motivated individuals in academic surgery benefits not only their medical career, but also helps maintain high academic output of the unit. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Louis J. Grabowski
Full Text Available The emerging body of research on business professional doctoral programs has focused primarily on the programs’ composition and management, offering limited insight into students’ motivations and the impact the degree has on graduates and their careers. However, understanding these student motivations and career impacts is valuable for several reasons. In addition to helping future candidates assess various programs and the business professional doctoral degree itself, it can help enrolled students maximize their academic experience and help administrators improve these programs so that they better meet students’ personal and professional expectations. To bridge this research gap, this study pursued a mixed-methods approach to glean insights into why people pursue professional doctorates in business, the ultimate personal and professional outcomes of students, and the educational process producing those outcomes. The study revealed that most students entered these programs with a desire for personal or professional transformation, including the possibility of entering academia or a new industry. Moreover, the vast majority of program graduates believed they had experienced such a transformation, often in both professional and personal ways. Further, while important to personal growth, alumni perceived that certain program elements—such as the student networks they created and non-research related coursework—had little to no effect upon their career and viewed their research and the research process as far more important to their professional development. Based upon these findings, the researchers propose a comprehensive process model to explain the personal and professional factors and outcomes for graduates of business professional doctoral programs. They also suggest practical steps that students and administrators can take to improve the business professional doctoral educational experience.
Publishing English papers in journals listed in Science Citation Index (SCI) has become a requirement for degree conferment for doctoral science students at many universities in China. The publication requirement engenders high pressure for doctoral students and their supervisors and shapes the politics of the relationship between the two parties.…
Martin, Lisa D.
The purpose of this study was to examine music education doctoral students' shifting occupational identity beliefs, career intent and commitment, and overall confidence for teaching in higher education. A total of 124 music education doctoral students, enrolled at 29 institutions of higher education in the United States, completed a onetime,…
Covi, Lisa M.
Provides empirical evidence of how doctoral students and their faculty advisors use electronic communication technologies. Examines work patterns of doctoral students and data on recent introduction of new electronic communication practices, offering an alternative explanation to the Nintendo Generation Myth that claims electronic communication…
Curtin, Nicola; Malley, Janet; Stewart, Abigail J.
We know little about the role of faculty mentoring in the development of interest in pursuing an academic career among doctoral students. Drawing on Social Cognitive Career Theory, this study examined the relationships between different kinds of mentoring (instrumental, psychosocial, and sponsorship) and academic career self-efficacy, interests,…
Bennett, Liz; Folley, Sue
This paper explores the experiences of two doctoral students who embraced Web 2.0 tools in their digital scholarship practices. The paper gives an insider perspective of the challenges and potential of working with online tools, such as blogs, and participating in online communities, such as Twitter's #phdchat. We explore by drawing on our…
Woo, Hongryun; Jang, Yoo Jin; Henfield, Malik S.
This study explores 8 international doctoral students' perceptions of coping strategies used in supervision training in counselor education programs. Using human agency as a conceptual framework, the authors found 3 categories: (a) personal and professional self-directed strategies as personal agency, (b) support and care from mentors as proxy…
Schalko, Isabella; Jacob, Romain; Kuzmanovska, Irena
The present survey was conducted as a follow-up of the AVETH survey in 2014. Based on 1′052 completed answers this report summarizes the current employment situation and the corresponding opinion of doctoral students at ETH Zurich about their salary rate and additional duties.
Ford, Kentya C.; Olotu, Busuyi S.; Thach, Andrew V.; Roberts, Rochelle; Davis, Patrick
Objective: The purpose of this study was to report on perceived stress levels, identify its contributing factors, and evaluate the association between perceived stress and usage of university resources to cope with stress among a cross-section of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. Methods: Perceived stress was measured via a web-based survey of…
Stokes, D. Michelle.
This correlational study used standard multiple regression to determine if there was a relationship between the factors of cultural intelligence (metacognitive CQ, cognitive CQ, motivational CQ, and behavioral CQ) and transformational leadership in doctoral students. This study also sought to determine the best predictor of burnout by using a…
Ewen, Heidi H.; Carr, Dawn C.; Reynolds, Courtney
This research seeks to examine the characteristics and goals of students enrolled in gerontology doctoral education. The authors seek to identify the unique characteristics of scholars enrolled in the interdisciplinary study of aging and elicit discussion on the ways in which these scholars will contribute to the growth and development of the…
Dieker, Lisa; Wienke, Wilfred; Straub, Carrie; Finnegan, Lisa
In this article, the authors provide a summary of the current techniques being used to recruit, retain, and support a diverse range of scholars, including students with disabilities, in a doctoral program. The manuscript provides a summary of the current need for leadership personnel who are scholars with knowledge in special education, general…
Kelly, Steven N.; VanWeelden, Kimberly
This investigation addressed methods and experiences used to educate doctoral music education students to work as university college professors. Selected faculty representing every institution offering a Ph.D. in music education in the United States and Canada (N = 46) were sent an online questionnaire concerning (1) the extent respondents…
Stanton, Kate Valentine; Liew, Chern Li
Introduction: We examine doctoral students' awareness of and attitudes to open access forms of publication. Levels of awareness of open access and the concept of institutional repositories, publishing behaviour and perceptions of benefits and risks of open access publishing were explored. Method: Qualitative and quantitative data were collected…
Williamson, Madeline J.; Fenske, Robert H.
The purpose of this study was to determine factors affecting satisfaction of Mexican American (MA) and American Indian (AI) students with their doctoral programs. Faculty mentoring plays an extremely significant role in minority education. Previous research indicates differences between males and females in their interaction with faculty. Minority…
Falls, Leigh; Jara, Teresa; Sever, Tim
Managing change processes, resistance to change, and organizational members' emotional reactions to change are crucial skills for future educational leaders to learn. Our case study is based on a workshop conducted using two experiential exercises to facilitate current educational leadership doctoral students' reflections on their own reactions to…
McAlpine, Lynn; Turner, Gill
Increasingly, research staff positions rather than lectureships are the reality for social sciences PhD graduates wishing academic work. Within this context, our longitudinal study examined how social science doctoral students and research staff in two UK universities imagined their futures in and out of academia. The variation over time in how…
Nahata, Milap C.
A pharmacy doctoral program's independent-study component in pathophysiology, supported by computer-assisted instruction and self-evaluation, has the advantages of self-pacing, reduced faculty time commitment, and increased ability to work effectively with physicians. Disadvantages include student feeling of isolation, imbalanced content, and…
Locke, Anna Flores
Using a basic qualitative research design, this author interviewed eight Latino doctoral students in counseling programs about their professional identity development experiences. The author analyzed the data from a Latino Critical Race theoretical perspective to explore the ways in which power and privilege played a role in the participants'…
Vasil, Martina; McCall, Joyce M.
The purpose of this autoethnographic multiple case study was to compare experiences of two first-generation college students pursuing doctoral degrees in music education. Motivations for pursuing an advanced degree were to enact change in the field of music education and fulfill personal ambitions. Participants encountered two challenges,…
Kong, Xiaoqing; Chakraverty, Devasmita; Jeffe, Donna B; Andriole, Dorothy A; Wathington, Heather D; Tai, Robert H
This exploratory qualitative study investigated how doctoral students reported their personal and professional interaction experiences that they believed might facilitate or impede their academic pursuits in biomedical research. We collected 19 in-depth interviews with doctoral students in biomedical research from eight universities, and we based our qualitative analytic approach on the work of Miles and Huberman. The results indicated that among different sources and types of interaction, academic and emotional interactions from family and teachers in various stages essentially affected students' persistence in the biomedical science field. In addition, co-mentorship among peers, departmental environment, and volunteer experiences were other essential factors. This study also found related experiences among women and underrepresented minority students that were important to their academic pursuit.
Kumar, Swapna; Coe, Catherine
The increase in online graduate programs and the online mentoring of student research have led to the need to identify challenges faced by online mentees and successful strategies used by online mentors during the dissertation process. Based on semistructured interviews with ten graduates, strategies for online mentoring and areas of support…
Knight, Jane; Madden, Meggan
International academic mobility is an aspect of internationalization that is changing rapidly in terms of volume, scope, and impact. Although much of the attention and research on mobility has focused on undergraduate students participating in short-term study abroad, internships, and exchange experiences, the new push to develop international…
Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Welton, Anjale; Lee, Pei-Ling; Young, Michelle D.
Purpose: There is a meager body of research addressing the role educational leadership preparation programs in colleges and universities play in preparing women leaders. Also educational leadership preparation research has yet to explore ways in which mentorship provides additional capital for female graduate students. This study seeks to…
Scharfenberg, Janna; Schaper, Katharina; Krummenauer, Frank
The German "Dr med" plays a specific role in doctoral thesis settings since students may start the underlying doctoral project during their studies at medical school. If a Medical Faculty principally encourages this approach, then it should support the students in performing the respective projects as efficiently as possible. Consequently, it must be ensured that students are able to implement and complete a doctoral project in parallel to their studies. As a characteristic efficiency feature of these "Dr med" initiatives, the proportion of doctoral projects successfully completed shortly after graduating from medical school is proposed and illustrated. The proposed characteristic can be estimated by the time period between the state examination (date of completion of the qualifying medical examination) and the doctoral examination. Completion of the doctoral project "during their medical studies" was then characterised by a doctoral examination no later than 12 months after the qualifying medical state examination. To illustrate the estimation and interpretation of this characteristic, it was retrospectively estimated on the basis of the full sample of all doctorates successfully completed between July 2009 and June 2012 at the Department of Human Medicine at the Faculty of Health of the University of Witten/Herdecke. During the period of investigation defined, a total number of 56 doctoral examinations were documented, 30 % of which were completed within 12 months after the qualifying medical state examination (95% confidence interval 19 to 44 %). The median duration between state and doctoral examination was 27 months. The proportion of doctoral projects completed parallel to the medical studies increased during the investigation period from 14 % in the first year (July 2009 till June 2010) to 40 % in the third year (July 2011 till June 2012). Only about a third of all "Dr med" projects at the Witten/Herdecke Faculty of Health were completed during or close to
Graham, James M; Kim, Yang-Hyang
In the face of the rising number of doctoral recipients in professional psychology, many have voiced concerns about the quality of nontraditional training programs. Past research suggests that, on a variety of outcomes, graduates from clinical PhD programs outperform graduates from clinical PsyD and, to a lesser extent, counseling PhD programs. We examine an aggregate archival dataset to determine whether student or university characteristics account for the differences in outcomes among programs. The data show meaningful differences in the outcomes of clinical PhD, PsyD, and counseling PhD programs. Furthermore, graduates from research-intensive universities perform better on the psychology licensure exam and are more likely to become American Board of Professional Psychology diplomates. The available data support the notion that the ability to conduct research is an essential component of graduate education. In this light, PsyD programs represent a unique opportunity to train students in the types of evaluation and outcomes assessments used by practicing psychologists. We discuss implications for graduate-level training in professional psychology. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kim, Mi Ja; Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Ahn, Yang-Heui; Kim, Euisook; Yun, Soon-Nyoung; Lee, Kwang-Ja
The rapidly increasing number of nursing doctoral programs has caused concern about the quality of nursing doctoral education, including in Korea. To describe the perceived quality of Korean nursing doctoral education in faculty, student, curriculum and resources. Focus group. Fourteen Korean nursing doctoral programs that are research focused and include coursework. Four groups of deans, faculty, students and graduates; students completed three semesters of doctoral program; and graduates completed doctoral programs within the most recent 3 years. Focus groups examined the strengths and weaknesses of faculty, students, curriculum, and resources. Faculty strengths were universities' recognition of faculty research/scholarship and the ability of faculty to attract extramural funding. Faculty weaknesses were aging faculty; high faculty workload; insufficient number of faculty; and teaching without expertise in nursing theories. Student strengths were diverse student backgrounds; multidisciplinary dissertation committee members, and opportunities to socialize with peers and graduates/faculty. Students' weaknesses were overproduction of PhDs with low academic quality; a lower number and quality of doctoral applicants; and lack of full-time students. Curriculum strengths were focusing on specific research areas; emphasis on research ethics; and multidisciplinary courses. Curriculum weaknesses were insufficient time for curriculum development; inadequate courses for core research competencies; and a lack of linkage between theory and practice. Resources strengths were inter-institutional courses with credit transfer. Weaknesses were diminished university financial support for graduate students and limited access to school facilities. Variations in participant groups (providers [deans and faculty] vs. receivers [students and graduates]) and geographical location (capital city vs. regional) were noted on all the four components. The quality characteristics of faculty
Maynor, Lena M; Barrickman, Ashleigh Landis; Stamatakis, Mary K; Elliott, David P
To describe students' and faculty members' perceptions of the impact of lecture recording in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Second- and third-year pharmacy students and faculty members completed an anonymous survey instrument regarding their perceptions of lecture recording with 2 classroom lecture capture software programs, Camtasia Studio and Wimba Classroom. Most students (82%) responded that Camtasia was very helpful and almost half (49%) responded that Wimba Classroom was helpful (pstudents reported being more likely to miss a class that was recorded; however, few students (10%) reported using recordings as a substitute for attending class. The most common concern of faculty members was decreased student attendance (27%). Pharmacy students consider lecture recordings beneficial, and they use the recordings primarily to review the lecture. While faculty members reported concerns with decreased attendance, few students reported using recordings as an alternative to class attendance.
Full Text Available Although a large body of literature has suggested that doctoral supervisors play an important role in their students’ attempts at scholarly publishing, few studies have focused specifically on what roles they play. This study sought to address this gap by zooming in on the various roles a group of Chinese doctoral students found their supervisors playing in their scholarly publishing endeavors. Our analysis revealed four important roles played by the supervisors: ‘prey’ searchers, managers, manuscript correctors and masters. The results showed that the supervisors not only facilitated the doctoral students’ publishing output, but also fostered their apprenticeship in scholarly publishing and the academic community. However, the results also unveiled a general unavailability of sorely-needed detailed and specific guidance on students’ early publishing attempts and some supervisors’ limited ability to correct students’ English manuscripts. These findings underscore the important contributions doctoral supervisors can make to their students’ academic socialization. They also suggest a need for external editorial assistance with doctoral students’ English manuscripts and ample opportunities for their scaffolded initiation into the tacit conventions and practices of scholarly publishing.
Cai, J.; Zhu, D.; Rajaratnam, N. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering
A preliminary study of sand jets in water-capped artificial and real MFT was presented. Background information on oil sands tailing reclamation including water capping and sand capping were first discussed, followed by background information to the study, including non-Newtonian fluids and laponite clay, the artificial clay used mainly in small amounts as a rheology modifier in industrial fluids and materials. Although laponite clay is insoluble in water, it hydrates to make a clear and colourless colloidal, which is thixotropic and also behaves as a Bingham plastic fluid. The benefit of using gels made from laponite is the ability to see through to observe the physical processes in it. The objectives of the study were to examine the dynamics of sand jets in water-capped laponite gel and real MFT; improve the understanding of physical processes related to MFT and sand/slurry operations in tailings ponds; and find potential applications in recycling processed water and decommissioning of tailings ponds. It was concluded that it is much more difficult for jets to penetrate water-capped MFT due to larger yield stress in MFT. Future studies will focus on density correction, viscosity adjustment, and sensitivity analysis. tabs., figs.
Goodman, Barbara E; Ikiugu, Moses N
Recently, the Occupational Therapy Department requested a custom-designed medical physiology course for the students in the new occupational therapy doctoral program. The first author, a physiologist with extensive experience in teaching both undergraduate preprofessional and medical students in human physiology, was recruited to design and implement the course. The course was designed to be consistent with the constructivist philosophy that guides the occupational therapy curriculum. The course was offered for the first time during fall/spring 2015/2016 and included both first- and second-year occupational therapy doctoral students. A number of anonymous assessment tools were used to evaluate students' perceptions regarding the effectiveness of various pedagogies used in the course in enhancing their learning. A summative course assessment survey with comments was used at the end of the course. This paper describes the model of course design and the student feedback, which generated some suggestions for improvement of the course. This approach in designing a new course for a new disciplinary group of students should be helpful to other faculty involved in developing courses for health career programs populated by students with variable physiology backgrounds and different educational needs. The final relevant feedback from the course would be to have the students evaluate the usefulness of the course to their future careers immediately following their certification examinations in a year or two and during their subsequent clinical experiences; however, that information will likely be more difficult to obtain. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Finland, public health care is the responsibility of primary health care centres, which render a wide range of community level preventive, curative and rehabilitative medical care. Since 1990's, medical studies have involved early familiarization of medical students with general practice from the beginning of the studies, as this pre-clinical familiarisation helps medical students understand patients as human beings, recognise the importance of the doctor-patient relationship and identify practicing general practitioners (GPs as role models for their professional development. Focused on doctor-patient relationship, we analysed the reports of 2002 first year medical students in the University of Kuopio. The students observed GPs' work during their 2-day visit to primary health care centres. Methods We analysed systematically the texts of 127 written reports of 2002, which represents 95.5% of the 133 first year pre-clinical medical students reports. The reports of 2003 (N = 118 and 2004 (N = 130 were used as reference material. Results Majority of the students reported GPs as positive role models. Some students reported GPs' poor attitudes, which they, however, regarded as a learning opportunity. Students generally observed a great variety of responsibilities in general practice, and expressed admiration for the skills and abilities required. They appreciated the GPs' interest in patients concerns. GPs' communication styles were found to vary considerably. Students reported some factors disturbing the consultation session, such as the GP staring at the computer screen and other team members entering the room. Working with marginalized groups, the chronically and terminally ill, and dying patients was seen as an area for development in the busy Finnish primary health care centres. Conclusion During the analysis, we discovered that medical students' perceptions in this study are in line with the previous findings about the
Børsen, Tom; Antia, Avan N; Glessmer, Mirjam Sophia
The need to make young scientists aware of their social responsibilities is widely acknowledged, although the question of how to actually do it has so far gained limited attention. A 2-day workshop entitled "Prepared for social responsibility?" attended by doctoral students from multiple disciplines in climate science, was targeted at the perceived needs of the participants and employed a format that took them through three stages of ethics education: sensitization, information and empowerment. The workshop aimed at preparing doctoral students to manage ethical dilemmas that emerge when climate science meets the public sphere (e.g., to identify and balance legitimate perspectives on particular types of geo-engineering), and is an example of how to include social responsibility in doctoral education. The paper describes the workshop from the three different perspectives of the authors: the course teacher, the head of the graduate school, and a graduate student. The elements that contributed to the success of the workshop, and thus make it an example to follow, are (1) the involvement of participating students, (2) the introduction of external expertise and role models in climate science, and (3) a workshop design that focused on ethical analyses of examples from the climate sciences.
Pat J. Precin
Full Text Available Time perspective is a fundamental dimension in psychological time, dividing human experiences into past, present, and future. Time perspective influences individuals’ functioning in all occupations, including education. Previous research has examined the relationship between time perspective and academic outcomes, but the same research has not been done, to date, with occupational therapy doctoral students. This quantitative, cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between time perspective and academic success in occupational therapy doctoral students across the United States. Data from the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI and grade point averages (GPAs were collected from 50 participants via surveymonkey.com. Past Negative time perspective statistically predicted GPA in the negative direction (p = .001 for students in pre-professional OTD programs, but did not predict GPA for post-professional students. Age, gender, and learning environment did not significantly influence the prediction of GPA in either group. The method and results of this study demonstrate that the ZTPI, an instrument used in the field of psychology, may have value in the profession of occupational therapy and occupational therapy doctoral programs.
Robb, W B
Preparing graduates for the transformation from medical student to doctor provides medical schools with a real challenge. Medical educators advocate a process of graduated delegation of responsibility in the clinical years of medical school. This is best exemplified in the North American system of sub-internship programmes; an educational approach which European medical schools have been slow to adopt. This study reports on the introduction of an intensive two-week surgical sub-internship for final medical year students. "Sub-interns" were asked to complete pre and post sub-internship online questionnaires assessing their readiness to perform clinical and practical skills, attitudes towards the program, and how well it prepared students for internship. Forty-nine students completed a questionnaire pre sub-internship and 47 completed the post-questionnaire. Student confidence towards practical and clinical skills and their first day at work increased over the two weeks. Mean Iikert scores for all 6 practical and clinical skills improved post sub-internship. The introduction of a surgical sub-internship is timely and welcomed by medical students. Its development helps bridge the gap in responsibilities between medical student and doctor.
Nik, R.M.; Sego, D.C.; Morgenstern, N.R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Geotechnical Center
This PowerPoint presentation described an experimental study of a centrifugal dewatering filtration process for mature fine tailings (MFT). Various MFT samples from different oil sands operations were pumped into a filtering centrifuge that produced cake, thin tailings, and filtrate. The MFT was then transformed into non-segregated tailings (NST) and composite tailings (CT). The depositional characteristics of the CT-NST samples were evaluated in a series of flume tests. Flow profiles were presented for various samples. Vane shear tests were also conducted. The yield stress of each sample was compared with its flow duration and solids content. The results of the experimental tests demonstrated that the centrifugal filtration process can be considered as the initial stage of a multi-stage tailings management plan. The filtering centrifuge method can be used to produce robust CTs with higher solids content. Use of the method can decrease the amount of coagulants or flocculants required for further treatment. tabs., figs.
A statistical design and analysis of both elemental analyses and weight percent solids analyses data was utilized to evaluate the MFT homogeneity at low heel levels and low agitator speed at both high and low solids feed concentrations. The homogeneity was also evaluated at both low and high agitator speed at the 6000+ gallons static level. The dynamic level portion of the test simulated feeding the Melter from the MFT to evaluate the uniformity of the solids slurry composition (Frit-PHA-Sludge) entering the melter from the MFT. This final report provides the results and conclusions from the second half of the study, the low weight percent solids concentration portion, as well as a comparison with the results from the first half of the study, the high weight percent solids portion
Kayama, Mami; Gregg, Misuzu F; Asahara, Kiyomi; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Okuma, Keiko; Ohta, Kikuko; Kinoshita, Yasuhito
This study aimed to describe the process of mentoring doctoral students for qualitative research in Japanese graduate programs in nursing. Nine experienced faculty-seven nurse researchers and two sociologists-were interviewed. Participants were asked about their process of mentoring students for qualitative nursing dissertations. Data analysis was conducted using a qualitative descriptive method. Participants' age ranged from 48 to 60 years. The first theme in the mentoring process is about the individualized, one-on-one mentorship process. The second theme occurs in a group process. The third theme is coordinating mentors and establishing a network to support the evaluation system. The mentoring processes identified in this study will be useful for future faculty development. The study elucidated much room for improvement in doctoral education programs for qualitative research methods in nursing science. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Derck, Jordan; Zahn, Kate; Finks, Jonathan F; Mand, Simanjit; Sandhu, Gurjit
Racial minorities continue to be underrepresented in medicine (URiM). Increasing provider diversity is an essential component of addressing disparity in health delivery and outcomes. The pool of students URiM that are competitive applicants to medical school is often limited early on by educational inequalities in primary and secondary schooling. A growing body of evidence recognizing the importance of diversifying health professions advances the need for medical schools to develop outreach collaborations with primary and secondary schools to attract URiMs. The goal of this paper is to describe and evaluate a program that seeks to create a pipeline for URiMs early in secondary schooling by connecting these students with support and resources in the medical community that may be transformative in empowering these students to be stronger university and medical school applicants. The authors described a medical student-led, action-oriented pipeline program, Doctors of Tomorrow, which connects faculty and medical students at the University of Michigan Medical School with 9th grade students at Cass Technical High School (Cass Tech) in Detroit, Michigan. The program includes a core curriculum of hands-on experiential learning, development, and presentation of a capstone project, and mentoring of 9th grade students by medical students. Cass Tech student feedback was collected using focus groups, critical incident written narratives, and individual interviews. Medical student feedback was collected reviewing monthly meeting minutes from the Doctors of Tomorrow medical student leadership. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Two strong themes emerged from the Cass Tech student feedback: (i) Personal identity and its perceived effect on goal achievement and (ii) positive affect of direct mentorship and engagement with current healthcare providers through Doctors of Tomorrow. A challenge noted by the medical students was the lack of structured curriculum beyond the 1st
This paper examines ways educational leaders engaging with doctoral research have worked for students' participation in education systems. Twenty-four interviews were conducted with educational leaders of schools, colleges, and districts in England and the US doing doctoral research. The findings reveal that the leaders identify US and English…
Vieira-Baptista, Pedro; Lima-Silva, Joana; Fonseca-Moutinho, José; Monteiro, Virgínia; Águas, Fernanda
Objective To assess the medical doctors and medical students' opinion regarding the evidence and ethical background of the performance of vulvovaginal aesthetic procedures (VVAPs). Methods Cross-sectional online survey among 664 Portuguese medical doctors and students. Results Most participants considered that there is never or there rarely is a medical reason to perform: vulvar whitening (85.9% [502/584]); hymenoplasty (72.0% [437/607]); mons pubis liposuction (71.6% [426/595]); "G-spot" augmentation (71.0% [409/576]); labia majora augmentation (66.3% [390/588]); labia minora augmentation (58.3% [326/559]); or laser vaginal tightening (52.3% [313/599]). Gynecologists and specialists were more likely to consider that there are no medical reasons to perform VVAPs; the opposite was true for plastic surgeons and students/residents.Hymenoplasty raised ethical doubts in 51.1% (283/554) of the participants. Plastic surgeons and students/residents were less likely to raise ethical objections, while the opposite was true for gynecologists and specialists.Most considered that VVAPs could contribute to an improvement in self-esteem (92.3% [613/664]); sexual function (78.5% [521/664]); vaginal atrophy (69.9% [464/664]); quality of life (66.3% [440/664]); and sexual pain (61.4% [408/664]). Conclusions While medical doctors and students acknowledge the lack of evidence and scientific support for the performance of VVAPs, most do not raise ethical objections about them, especially if they are students or plastic surgeons, or if they have had or have considered having plastic surgery. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Full Text Available y article investigates the situation, goals, and discourse praxis of professors supervising doctoral students writing in English. It is part of a wider project examining student-teacher interaction which is designed to improve written communication, particularly at the higher levels of academic study. Like the students they supervise, the five professors studied are English as a Foreign Language users, and all give instruction exclusively in English. Based on separate interviews with each professor, my study demonstrates that there is a tendency among doctoral supervisors to focus on the content and form of the thesis to the detriment of socio-cultural practice, i.e., the discourse between the professor and student, as well as the recognition of the text as a piece of social practice, shaped by a particular kind of academic public and the rules of scholarship that have been developed over time. The type of social practice that students bring with them varies from culture to culture. I argue that a doctoral thesis bears witness not only to the student’s ability to conduct research at a high level, but also to the creation of a distinct scholarly identity that is the result of effective discourse between professor and student, whereby the professor communicates “the rules of the game” that lead to a successful career both at university and after. My paper reflects on how we as teachers/supervisors can promote the formation of scholarly identity through the medium of English as a Foreign Language. I do so by focusing on the five supervisors’ knowledge of English, their ability to provide guidance in English, and their awareness of the importance of promoting scholarly identity in English. The article concludes with some reflections on the type of support required, if any, from native English teachers.
Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Young-Mee
Communication is a core clinical skill that can be taught and learned. The authors intended to develop a patient-doctor communication model for teaching and assessing undergraduate medical students in Korea. To develop a model, literature reviews and an iterative process of discussion between faculty members of a communication skills course for second year medical students were conducted. The authors extracted common communication skill competencies by comparing the Kalamazoo Consensus Statement, SEGUE framework communication skills, the Calgary Cambridge Observation Guides, and previous communication skills lists that have been used by the authors. The content validity, with regard to clinical importance and feasibility, was surveyed by both faculty physicians and students. The first version of the model consisted of 36 items under 7 categories: initiating the session (8 items), building a relationship (6), gathering information (8), understanding a patient's perspectives (4), sharing information (4), reaching an agreement (3), and closing the session (3). It was used as a guide for both students and teachers in an actual communication skills course. At the end of the course, student performance was assessed using two 7-minute standardized patient interviews with a 34-item checklist. This assessment tool was modified from the first version of the model to reflect the case specificity of the scenarios. A patient-doctor communication model, which can be taught to those with limited patient care experience, was finally developed. We recommended a patient-doctor communication skills model that can be used for teaching and evaluating preclinical and clinical students. Further studies are needed to verify its validity and reliability.
Payne Karl Frederick
Full Text Available Abstract Background Smartphone usage has spread to many settings including that of healthcare with numerous potential and realised benefits. The ability to download custom-built software applications (apps has created a new wealth of clinical resources available to healthcare staff, providing evidence-based decisional tools to reduce medical errors. Previous literature has examined how smartphones can be utilised by both medical student and doctor populations, to enhance educational and workplace activities, with the potential to improve overall patient care. However, this literature has not examined smartphone acceptance and patterns of medical app usage within the student and junior doctor populations. Methods An online survey of medical student and foundation level junior doctor cohorts was undertaken within one United Kingdom healthcare region. Participants were asked whether they owned a Smartphone and if they used apps on their Smartphones to support their education and practice activities. Frequency of use and type of app used was also investigated. Open response questions explored participants’ views on apps that were desired or recommended and the characteristics of apps that were useful. Results 257 medical students and 131 junior doctors responded, equating to a response rate of 15.0% and 21.8% respectively. 79.0% (n=203/257 of medical students and 74.8% (n=98/131 of junior doctors owned a smartphone, with 56.6% (n=115/203 of students and 68.4% (n=67/98 of doctors owning an iPhone. The majority of students and doctors owned 1–5 medical related applications, with very few owning more than 10, and iPhone owners significantly more likely to own apps (Chi sq, p Conclusions This study found a high level of smartphone ownership and usage among medical students and junior doctors. Both groups endorse the development of more apps to support their education and clinical practice.
Arvidsson, Barbro; Franke, Anita
The aim was to describe variations in how doctoral students conceive their learning process to become researchers in the light of their professional background as nurses. Nursing research is an emerging discipline and the number of nurses who acquire a doctor's degree is increasing. The study had a descriptive, qualitative design with a phenomenographic approach and was carried out by means of 20 interviews. Three different description categories emerged: (1) A learning process that provides a synthesis of different parts of the research process aimed at developing preparedness for action within the nursing profession. (2) A learning process where practical problems are integrated with and problematised in relation to scientific theories. (3) A learning process involving the transformation from nurse to researcher. The description categories revealed that the focus was on solving problems that occur in health care and synthesising them by means of research tools. Furthermore, the doctoral students explored different ways of understanding and developing their awareness of the nature of research. Focus was also on the nursing profession and practice and a shift towards the role of a researcher was evident. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Robinson, C. Sean
Although there is a significant body of research on the process of undergraduate education and retention, much less research exists as it relates to the doctoral experience, which is intended to be transformational in nature. At each stage of the process students are presented with a unique set of challenges and experiences that must be negotiated and mastered. However, we know very little about entering students' expectations, beliefs, goals, and identities, and how these may or may not change over time within a doctoral program. Utilizing a framework built upon socialization theory and cognitive-ecological theory, this dissertation examines the expectations that incoming doctoral students have about their programs as well as the actual experiences that these students have during their first year. Interviews were conducted with twelve students from the departments of Botany, Chemistry, and Physics prior to matriculation into their respective doctoral programs. These initial interviews provided information about students' expectations. Interviews were then conducted approximately every six to eight weeks to assess students' perceptions about their actual experiences throughout their first year. The findings of this study showed that new doctoral students tend to have uninformed and naive expectations about their programs. In addition, many of the specific policies or procedures necessary for navigation through a doctoral program were unknown to the students. While few differences existed in terms of students' expectations based on gender or discipline, there were significant differences in how international students described their expectations compared to American students. The two primary differences between American and international students revolved around the role of faculty members and the language barrier. It is clear that the first year of doctoral study is indeed a year of transition. The nature and clarity of the expectations associated with the role of
Full Text Available This study examines the ways that part-time Ph.D. students develop community within the academic department and how a sense of community is related to persistence. This study included 12 participants (ten students and two program chairs in two academic departments at one urban research institution. This qualitative study followed a descriptive case study design and provided three levels of data: the institution is the bounded system; the academic departments are the cases; and the participants are embedded cases. Positive relationships with peers and faculty served as a source of encouragement and supported persistence, particularly during challenging semesters and later phases of the doctoral program. However, it was often difficult for the participants to develop and/or maintain relationships, due to limited proximity, limited access to faculty, and changing cohorts. Participants did not consider full-time doctoral students to be part of their community, due to perceived differences between part-time and full-time students. The participants also perceived that faculty catered to full-time students and preferred to conduct research with them rather than part-time students.
Burford, Bryan; Rosenthal-Stott, Harriet E S
The emergence of medical students' professional identity is important. This paper considers this in a snapshot of the early years of undergraduate medical education. From the perspective of social identity theory, it also considers self-stereotyping, the extent to which individuals associate with attributes identified as typical of groups. Paper questionnaires were completed by first and second year medical students following teaching sessions at the beginning (October) and end (April) of the academic year. Questionnaires consisted of scales measuring the strength and importance of identity and self-stereotyping, referent to 'doctors' and 'students'. Linear mixed effects regression considered longitudinal and cross-sectional effects of progress through the course, and differences in responses to 'doctor' and 'student' measures. In October, responses were received from 99% (n = 102) and 75% (n = 58) of first and second year cohorts respectively, and in April from 81% (n = 83) and 73% (n = 56). Response rates were over 95% of those present. Linear mixed effects regression found that all 'doctor'-referent measures were higher than 'student' measures. Strength of identity and self-stereotyping decreased between beginning and end of the year (across both groups). Men indicated lower importance of identity than women, also across both groups. There were no differences between year groups. Self-stereotyping was predicted more by importance of identification with a group than by strength of identification. Findings reinforce observations that medical students identify strongly as doctors from early in their studies, and that this identification is greater than as students. Decreases over time are surprising, but may be explained by changing group salience towards the end of the academic year. The lack of a gender effect on strength of identification contrasts with the literature, but may reflect students' lack of 'performance' of professional identity, while the
Koenigsfeld, Carrie F; Wall, Geoffrey C; Miesner, Andrew R; Schmidt, Ginelle; Haack, Sally L; Eastman, Darla K; Grady, Sarah; Fornoff, Anisa
To determine whether a faculty-led mock-interview activity enhanced pharmacy student preparation for the residency interview process and increased match rates. Twenty-eight doctor of pharmacy students volunteered for a 40-minute mock-interview session with 2-person faculty teams. A standard roster of 12 interview questions was derived from published literature and the faculty members' experience. Feedback on the student's interview performance was provided verbally during the session. Following the interview, students were given a 2-part survey instrument. The first part of the survey was administered immediately following the mock-interview session and the second part was administered after the standard date for residency program results (known as "Match Day"). Participant match rates were compared to American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) national rates. 82.5% (23 of 27) of students in the mock-interview group matched a postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) program. Compared to national rates (61.9%), more students in our surveyed mock-interview group matched a PGY1 residency (P = .015; odds ratio [OR] 3.546, 95% CI 1.161-12.116). Higher match rates were seen in the students completing the mock residency interview compared to ASHP national rates. In general, students completing the mock interview found the process helpful and felt better prepared for their residency interviews.
Harris, Robin; Birk, Stefanie B; Sherman, Jan
The growing number of online Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) programs, steady attrition rates, and shortage of faculty created an opportunity to explore the use of distance-mediated mentoring. Twenty first-year DNP Nursing Leadership students were matched with DNP-prepared mentors in a formalized e-mentoring program. The Ideal Mentor Scale was used to determine what students desired most from the mentoring relationship in addition to midpoint and end-of-program surveys. Quantitative analysis revealed mentors and mentees found the relationship to be beneficial (p mentors (92%) noted the program supplied adequate resources, and the majority of students would recommend the program. Having a mentor leads to both mentor- and mentee-perceived benefits. Recommendations include continuing to seek ways to improve the communication and commitment between the mentor and mentee in order to receive reciprocal program benefits. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(8):458-462.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to showcase the information literacy course for doctoral students called Information Resources and Tools for Research. Turku University Library organises this course in collaboration with the University of Turku Graduate School. The course, which was started in 2012, has been organised four times so far, twice in English and twice in Finnish. The course offers training to all doctoral Programs in all of the seven disciplines present at the University of Turku and doctoral candidates of the University. In our presentation we will describe the structure and contents of the course and share our experiences of the collaboration with the University of Turku Graduate School. In addition, we will describe how the information specialists of the Turku University Library have collaborated during the course. We will also discuss the challenges of the course. Based on the course feedback, it can be stated that in general, participants have found this course very useful for their research in the University of Turku.
Jennifer W. Beall
Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to examine perceived stress in doctor of pharmacy students during their first, second, and third years of their program in a fully implemented new curriculum. The secondary objectives were to determine if there is a relationship between perceived stress and certain demographic variables, to compare student pharmacist perceived stress to the perceived stress in the general population, and to examine student reported stressors during pharmacy school and coping strategies employed for those stressors. A previously validated survey (Perceived Stress Scale-10 was given to first, second, and third year student pharmacists. Females exhibited higher mean stress scores than males. The under 22 years and over 32 years age categories exhibited higher mean stress scores than the 22 to 26 year old student population. There was no significant difference in perceived stress scores between classes of the program. Only a portion of the variation in stress scores was predicted by gender, age, marital status, race, and year in curriculum. Stress scores among these student pharmacists are higher overall than those in previously published probability samples in the general population. Class assignments and completing electronic portfolios were the top stressors reported. Spending time with family and friends was the most frequent coping mechanism reported. Programming related to stress reduction (particularly among female and nontraditional age students appears warranted.
Full Text Available Although it has been agreed that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM should be included in the German medical curriculum, there is no consensus on which methods and how it should be taught. This study aimed to assess needs for CAM education by evaluating current knowledge, attitudes and interests of medical students, general physicians and gynecologists. Two instruments based on established and validated questionnaires were developed. One was given to seventh semester medical students and the other to office-based doctors. Data were analyzed by bivariate correlation and cross-tabulation. Altogether 550 questionnaires were distributed—280 to doctors and 270 to medical students. Completed questionnaires were returned by 80.4% of students and 78.2% of doctors. Although 73.8% (160/219 of doctors and 40% (87/217 of students had already informed themselves about CAM, neither group felt that they knew much about CAM. Doctors believed that CAM was most useful in general medicine, supportive oncology, pediatrics, dermatology and gynecology, while students believed that dermatology, general medicine, psychiatry and rheumatology offered opportunities; both recommended that CAM should be taught in these areas. Both groups believed that CAM should be included in medical education; however, they believed that CAM needed more investigation and should be taught “critically". German doctors and students would like to be better informed about CAM. An approach which teaches fundamental competences to students, chooses specific content based on evidence, demographics and medical conditions and provides students with the skills they need for future learning should be adopted.
Full Text Available A key aspect of the effective supervision of PhD research is the supervisor-student relationship. This interaction is affected by the characteristics and needs of students and institutional conditions, as well as the skills, attitudes, and roles of supervisors and their supervisory styles. When supervision is carried out at a distance, it entails an additional challenge, mainly concerning interaction. The purpose of this study is to improve the research process, supervision, and design of virtual environments in order to support this supervision. The study identifies the supervisory relationships that affect doctoral research conducted at a distance from the student’s academic institution. It also describes how students and their supervisors perceived the characteristics of supervision and the skills and attitudes students perceived in and expected from their supervisors. For data collection, semistructured interviews were used. The results indicate important differences between supervisors’ perceptions concerning their own role and students’ needs regarding supervision, and they demonstrate the importance of attending to student needs and, on the part of supervisors, exercising responsibility in the development of research competencies in students, as is the case of independence of criteria and autonomy.
Kizhakkeveettil, Anupama; Vosko, Andrew M; Brash, Marissa; Ph, Dr; Philips, Michael A
High levels of stress and fatigue are associated with decreased academic success, well-being, and quality of life. The objective of this research was to quantify levels of perceived stress and fatigue among chiropractic students to identify sources of and student coping mechanisms for perceived stress and fatigue and to identify the relationship between students' perceived stress and fatigue. A survey comprised of the Perceived Stress Scale, the Undergraduate Sources of Stress Survey, and the Piper Fatigue Scale was administered to chiropractic students in their 2nd, 5th, and 8th trimesters of doctoral study. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, 1-way analysis of variance, and linear correlation tests. Students reported having moderate to high levels of stress and fatigue, with higher levels of stress and fatigue seen in women than in men. A nonsignificant difference among stress scores and a significant difference among fatigue scores were observed based on program term. Levels of stress predicted levels of fatigue, and stress was strongly correlated with psychological health, relationships with family members, mood, and need for learning accommodations. Fatigue was strongly correlated with psychological health, academic demands, and conflicts between studies and other activities. There are differences in the reporting of perceived stress and fatigue levels in this chiropractic student population based on gender. The correlation between fatigue and stress also suggests that measures that may alleviate one may likely affect the other.
Tanners, Adam; McDougall, Dennis; Skouge, Jim; Narkon, Drue
The purpose of this alternating treatment, single-case research study was to compare reading comprehension and time expended reading, of a doctoral student with learning disabilities, under two reading conditions. In condition one, the student used a self-discovered accommodation, that is, listening, on an iPod, to an audiobook version…
Orfanou, Christina; Tsiamis, Costas; Karamagioli, Evika; Pikouli, Anastasia; Terzidis, Agis; Pikoulis, Emmanuel
Doctors in Greece face the possibility of encountering a person that has suffered torture, especially since the high rates of refugees' and migrants' inflows that took place over the last years. In order to assess the awareness and the knowledge of doctors and senior medical students in Greece regarding a manual on effective investigation and documentation of torture such as Istanbul Protocol (official United Nation document since 1999), a cross-sectional study was conducted using a structured anonymous questionnaire. The sample was doctors practicing in public hospitals in Greece, doctors volunteering at a non-governmental organization (NGO) and undergraduate medical students in their final year of studies in the Medical School of National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 23, using descriptive statistics and statistical significance tests.In a total of 289 participants, the mean total score of Istanbul Protocol knowledge was 4.43 ± 1.104 (the maximum possible score was 10) and the mean total score of Istanbul Protocol awareness was 2.04 ± 1.521 (the maximum possible score was 10). The most important conclusion was that among doctors and senior medical students, there seem to be knowledge, awareness, and information deficit about Istanbul Protocol and several issues relating to torture. The overall research outcome highlights the need for the development of a relevant informative/educational program, in order to cover the corresponding existing needs of the population of doctors in Greece.
Børsen, Tom; Antia, Avan N.; Glessmer, Mirjam Sophia
climate science meets the public sphere (e.g., to identify and balance legitimate perspectives on particular types of geo-engineering), and is an example of how to include social responsibility in doctoral education. The paper describes the workshop from the three different perspectives of the authors......: the course teacher, the head of the graduate school, and a graduate student. The elements that contributed to the success of the workshop, and thus make it an example to follow, are (1) the involvement of participating students, (2) the introduction of external expertise and role models in climate science......, and (3) a workshop design that focused on ethical analyses of examples from the climate sciences....
Hall, Samuel; Stephens, Jonathan; Andrade, Teu; Davids, Joseph; Powell, Matthew; Border, Scott
Near-peer teaching involves more experienced students acting as tutors and has been widely used in anatomy education. This approach has many advantages for the learner due to the social and cognitive congruence they share with the teacher, however, the influence of distance between the teacher and learner on these congruences has yet to be explored. The aim of this study was to compare the attitudes and perceptions of the student learner towards neuroanatomy review sessions taught by either a senior medical student or a junior doctor. The students were randomly assigned to an allocated tutor. All tutors used standardized material and had access to identical resources. The type of allocated tutor was swapped between the two teaching sessions and 99 student feedback forms were collected in total. The rating for the overall quality of the teaching session was not significantly different between the junior doctors and senior medical students (P = 0.11). However, criteria closely relating to social and cognitive congruence such as "enjoyment of the session," "delivery of the teaching," and "was it a good use of time" were all rated significantly higher for the senior medical students (P peer teaching spectrum have an impact upon the student's perception of their learning experience. While all teachers were suitable role models it appears that junior doctors are too far removed from their own undergraduate experiences to share congruences with pre-clinical medical students. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.
Girela Pérez, Beatriz; Rodríguez Cano, María Araceli; Girela López, Eloy
Doctor-patient relationship is of paramount importance for a good medical practice, however as long as medicine has been increasingly influenced by technology and science, it may be at risk of losing contact with basic human values of respect for the beliefs and preferences of the other person. In this study, we have analyzed the deontological vision of the physician-patient relationship perceived through clinical situations reflected in the portfolios carried out by 225 students of the 5th year of the Degree of Medicine at the University of Córdoba, during the courses 2014/15 and 2015/16. 201 out of 833 deontological considerations on articles of the Code of Medical Ethics constitute non-compliances. It is noteworthy that these breaches to the Code of Medical Ethics considered refer mainly (73%) to Chapter III (doctor-patient relationship). It is particularly interesting that the problems most frequently detected are those related to attitude, forms or language and lack of understanding/confidence of the physician with the patient (article 8 with 46 noncompliances), as well as problems in providing information (articles 12.1 and 15, with 18 and 42 noncompliances respectively).
Full Text Available Unlike the doctoral programs in places where students are paired with advisors at the time of admission itself, most US programs require the students to choose their advisors, and the advisors to formally accept the students as advisees. Little research has been done to understand how students and faculty approach this mutual selection and pairing process. This paper examines this process in STEM departments (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, with specific focus on factors influencing the decisions. Based on focus groups and interviews of doctoral students and faculty from STEM departments in an American university, we identify criteria applied by students and faculty in making their choices. Students were found to assess faculty on available funding, area of research, personality, ability to graduate students fast, and career prospects for students, and faculty to assess students on their qualifications/credentials and perceived ability to contribute to research. We also found that this mutual assessment was not objective, but influenced by perceptions associated with faculty gender and career stage, and student nationality. In the end, whether students and faculty were actually paired with persons of their choice depended on departmental factors including prevalent pairing practices, restrictions on student numbers per faculty, and reward structure. We discuss implications of the findings for research and practice.
Hensel, Desiree; Moorman, Margaret
Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) is a structured art-viewing technique designed to teach critical thinking and aesthetic appreciation. Literature on how VTS might be used in nursing is just emerging. This qualitative descriptive study examined written responses to how 14 doctorate of nursing practice students thought they might use VTS in their practice after engaging in a classroom session. Three themes emerged for how nurses might use VTS: Facilitating Interpersonal Relationships, Changing Thinking in Practice, and As a Teaching Tool. This study contributes to the growing body of literature that suggests that art and VTS and can be used in nursing with practitioners of all levels to promote conversations that involve listening intently and considering other possibilities. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(8):365-368. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Hwang, Kun; Lee, Seung Jae; Kim, Seong Yeon; Hwang, Se Won; Kim, Ae Yang
In South Korean ferry disaster in 2014, the captain abandoned the ship with passengers including high school students still aboard. We noticed the resemblance of abandoning the ship with passengers still aboard the ferry (named the Sewol) and the ship Patna, which was full of pilgrims, in Joseph Conrad's novel "Lord Jim." The aim of this study is to see how medical students think about the role of a medical doctor as a captain of a ship by analyzing book reports on Conrad's "Lord Jim." Participants included 49 third-year medical students. Their book reports were analyzed. If placed in the same situation as the character of Jim, 24 students of the 49 respondents answered that they would stay with the passengers, while 18 students indicated they would escape from the ship with the crew. Most of the students thought the role of a doctor in the medical field was like that of a 'captain.' The medical students reported that they wanted to be a doctor who is responsible for his or her patients, highly moral, warm-hearted, honest, and with high self-esteem. In conclusion, we found that "Lord Jim" induced the virtue of 'responsibility' from the medical students. Consequently, "Lord Jim" could be good teaching material for medical humanities.
@@ "To become a doctor is like becoming a bomb expert:It takes a long time to learn this skill; you must use care and intuition; and you must understand that your work has grave consequences for those around you,"said Amgalan Gamazhapov,an advanced medical student who studies traditional Chinese and Mongolian medicine at the Inner Mongolia Medical University.
Steffen, Julius; Grabbert, Markus; Pander, Tanja; Gradel, Maximilian; Köhler, Lisa-Maria; Fischer, Martin R; von der Borch, Philip; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos
The importance of research, as promoted by the CanMEDS framework, is widely acknowledged. Many medical students in Germany work on a research project as part of their doctoral thesis whilst still going to medical school. However, a significant amount of projects are abandoned unfinished, which leads to substantial wastage of resources. One reason for this is an information deficit concerning undergraduate research projects. To counteract this, we introduced an annual event at LMU Munich called DoktaMed with more than 600 visitors each year. It combines medical convention and research fair including keynote lectures, workshops and poster sessions as well as an exhibition of research groups and institutes. DoktaMed is a peer-to-peer event organized by a team of 40 students. A needs analysis before its implementation underlined the information deficit as a possible cause for the high rate of abandoned projects. In the annual evaluation, visitors of DoktaMed rate the event with an average grade of 2.1 on a six-level Likert scale (n=558, SD=1.06, with "1=very good", "6=poor"). They stated to now feel better informed about the topic and regarded visiting DoktaMed as a worthwhile investment of time. Students are generally satisfied with the event and feel better informed after visiting DoktaMed. However, many students never visit DoktaMed for various reasons. A possible improvement would be to present a greater number of clinical studies in addition to the laboratory work that DoktaMed focuses on now. Evaluation after six years of DoktaMed is very promising. Visitors seem to be better informed. Nevertheless there is space for improvement in order to get more students and more faculty members involved. More studies are needed to assess long-term effects.
Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of research, as promoted by the framework, is widely acknowledged. Many medical students in Germany work on a research project as part of their doctoral thesis whilst still going to medical school. However, a significant amount of projects are abandoned unfinished, which leads to substantial wastage of resources. One reason for this is an information deficit concerning undergraduate research projects.Project description: To counteract this, we introduced an annual event at LMU Munich called with more than 600 visitors each year. It combines medical convention and research fair including keynote lectures, workshops and poster sessions as well as an exhibition of research groups and institutes. is a peer-to-peer event organized by a team of 40 students. Results: A needs analysis before its implementation underlined the information deficit as a possible cause for the high rate of abandoned projects. In the annual evaluation, visitors of rate the event with an average grade of 2.1 on a six-level Likert scale (n=558, SD=1.06, with "1=very good", "6=poor". They stated to now feel better informed about the topic and regarded visiting as a worthwhile investment of time.Discussion: Students are generally satisfied with the event and feel better informed after visiting . However, many students never visit DoktaMed for various reasons. A possible improvement would be to present a greater number of clinical studies in addition to the laboratory work that focuses on now.Conclusion: Evaluation after six years of is very promising. Visitors seem to be better informed. Nevertheless there is space for improvement in order to get more students and more faculty members involved. More studies are needed to assess long-term effects.
Aitchison, Claire; Mowbray, Susan
This paper explores the experiences of women doctoral students and the role of emotion during doctoral candidature. The paper draws on the concept of emotional labour to examine the two sites of emotional investment students experienced and managed during their studies: writing and family relationships. Emotion is perceived by many dominant…
This dissertation examined the relationship between Asian international doctoral students' self-regulation on academic and social integration and explored how acculturation tendencies function as a mediator between self-regulated learning and academic and social integration. Previous research has indicated that self-regulated learning has a great…
Kuo, Patty Beyrong; Woo, Hongryun; Bang, Na Mi
The authors examined the relationship between research self-efficacy, motivation, and productivity, as well as advisory relationship as a moderator, among 190 counselor education doctoral students. Research self-efficacy and motivation predicted productivity. Advisory relationship moderated the relationship between intrinsic and failure avoidance…
Szelényi, Katalin; Bresonis, Kate
This article examines the research-related experiences of 48 doctoral students and 22 faculty in science and engineering fields at three research universities, with specific emphasis on the intersection of the public good and academic capitalism. Identifying an expansive, intersecting organizational space between the public good and academic…
Jalongo, Mary Renck; Boyer, Wanda; Ebbeck, Marjory
Expectations for academic writing and publication have intensified in Academia. Doctoral students in colleges of education are advised to publish even before they graduate and evidence of successful publication is influential in hiring, tenure, and promotion decisions. The purpose of this research was to study the process of writing for…
Chang, Peichin; Tsai, Chin-Chung
Taking an effective authorial stance in research argumentation has been designated as both vitally important and challenging. The study investigated English as a foreign language (EFL) doctoral students' conceptions of authorial stance, the role of domains in affecting their conceptions, and the ties of the conceptions to the participants'…
Terry, Tarae; Ghosh, Rajashi
Doctoral students leave their programs early due to lack of mentoring relationships needed to support degree completion and success. However, how mentoring contributes to Ed.D degree completion is not widely studied. In this qualitative narrative study, we sought to explore how multiple mentoring relationships reduced attrition in an Ed.D program.…
Full Text Available Nonnative English-speaking scholars and trainees are increasingly submitting their work to English journals. The study’s aim was to describe their experiences regarding scientific writing in English using a qualitative phenomenographic approach. Two focus groups (5 doctoral supervisors and 13 students were conducted. Participants were nonnative English-speakers in a Swedish health sciences faculty. Group discussion focused on scientific writing in English, specifically, rewards, challenges, facilitators, and barriers. Participants were asked about their needs for related educational supports. Inductive phenomenographic analysis included extraction of referential (phenomenon as a whole and structural (phenomenon parts aspects of the transcription data. Doctoral supervisors and students viewed English scientific writing as challenging but worthwhile. Both groups viewed mastering English scientific writing as necessary but each struggles with the process differently. Supervisors viewed it as a long-term professional responsibility (generating knowledge, networking, and promotion eligibility. Alternatively, doctoral students viewed its importance in the short term (learning publication skills. Both groups acknowledged they would benefit from personalized feedback on writing style/format, but in distinct ways. Nonnative English-speaking doctoral supervisors and students in Sweden may benefit from on-going writing educational supports. Editors/reviewers need to increase awareness of the challenges of international contributors and maximize the formative constructiveness of their reviews.
Pretto, Gabriella; Curró, Gina
Since 1980s the rate of technological change has been phenomenal, creating an impact on the information-seeking behaviors of doctoral students and other researchers. When searching the three fields of Information Technology (IT), Information and Communication Technology (ICT), and Educational Technology (EdTech), it is like opening a Pandora's…
Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard
heavily from the support from informal and extra-curricular researcher communities and non-formal support systems even beyond the institution in the private and societal lifeworlds. The chapter describes and analyses such forms of organizational and existential darkness within doctoral education...... and professionalization of doctoral education, with Graduate schools increasing in size and organizational complexity. Paradoxically, we see in contemporary research into doctoral students’ learning experiences that the students do not favour the formalized support systems and supervision, but on the contrary draw most......, and discusses how institutions and doctoral programmes could use such sprawling spaces for learning to build doctoral ecologies and to strengthening existentially based pedagogies within doctoral education....
Full Text Available Abstract Background The knowledge of scientific dishonesty is scarce and heterogeneous. Therefore this study investigates the experiences with and the attitudes towards various forms of scientific dishonesty among PhD-students at the medical faculties of all Norwegian universities. Method Anonymous questionnaire distributed to all post graduate students attending introductory PhD-courses at all medical faculties in Norway in 2010/2011. Descriptive statistics. Results 189 of 262 questionnaires were returned (72.1%. 65% of the respondents had not, during the last year, heard or read about researchers who committed scientific dishonesty. One respondent had experienced pressure to fabricate and to falsify data, and one had experienced pressure to plagiarize data. On average 60% of the respondents were uncertain whether their department had a written policy concerning scientific conduct. About 11% of the respondents had experienced unethical pressure concerning the order of authors during the last 12 months. 10% did not find it inappropriate to report experimental data without having conducted the experiment and 38% did not find it inappropriate to try a variety of different methods of analysis to find a statistically significant result. 13% agreed that it is acceptable to selectively omit contradictory results to expedite publication and 10% found it acceptable to falsify or fabricate data to expedite publication, if they were confident of their findings. 79% agreed that they would be willing to report misconduct to a responsible official. Conclusion Although there is less scientific dishonesty reported in Norway than in other countries, dishonesty is not unknown to doctoral students. Some forms of scientific misconduct are considered to be acceptable by a significant minority. There was little awareness of relevant policies for scientific conduct, but a high level of willingness to report misconduct.
Ligia Correia Lima de Souza
Full Text Available Choosing a medical specialty is an important, complex, and not fully understood process. The present study investigated the factors that are related to choosing and rejecting medical specialties in a group of students and recent medical doctors.A cross-sectional survey of 1,223 medical students and doctors was performed in Brazil in 2012. A standardized literature-based questionnaire was applied that gathered preferable or rejected specialties, and asked questions about extracurricular experiences and the influence of 14 factors on a Likert-type scale from 0 to 4. Specialties were grouped according to lifestyle categories: controllable and uncontrollable, which were subdivided into primary care, internal medicine, and surgical specialties. Notably, the time period of rejection was usually earlier than the time period of intended choice (p < 0.0001, χ(2 = 107.2. The choice mainly occurred during the internship period in medical school (n = 466; 38.7%. An overall large frequency of participation in extracurricular activities was observed (n = 1,184; 95.8%, which were highly associated with the respective medical area. Orthopedic surgery had the highest correlation with participation in specialty-specific organized groups (OR = 59.9, 95% CI = 21.6-166.3 and psychiatry was correlated with participation in research groups (OR = 18.0, 95% CI = 9.0-36.2. With regard to influential factors in controllable lifestyle specialties, "financial reason" (mean score ± standard deviation: 2.8 ± 1.0; median = 3 and "personal time" (3.1 ± 1.3; median = 4 were important factors. In primary care, these factors were less important (1.7 ± 1.3 and 1.7 ± 1.5, respectively; median = 2 for both, and higher scores were observed for "curricular internship" (3.2 ± 1.1, median = 4 and "social commitment" (2.6 ± 1.3, median = 3.The present findings provide important insights into developing strategies to stimulate interest in specialties based on the needs of the
Tanyildiz, Zeynep Esra
The United States has been a very attractive destination for foreign Science and Engineering (S&E) graduate students and postdoctoral scholars for a considerable period of time. Several studies have documented significant contributions of foreign students and foreign scientists in S&E. These contributions in turn foster economic development. Recent studies suggest, however, that the U.S. is losing its dominance in attracting foreign talent. Increased competition outside the U.S. contributes to the change as do changes in visa regulations. Despite the important role of foreign doctoral students in the U.S., relatively little is known about factors influencing their decision to attend an institution. One factor that is rarely explored is the effect of networks on institution selection. Through their networks, students learn about application procedures, studying at an institution, housing opportunities, general culture and people. In doing this, they draw both on the experience of the alumni as well as the support of current students and faculty at their target institution. Thus, networks can play an important role in where foreign doctoral students actually end up studying. This study aims to provide both qualitative and quantitative information about the role networks play in foreign doctoral students' institution selection. This three-part study utilizes different methodologies: (1) focus group interviews conducted with Turkish doctoral students at the Georgia Institute of Technology; (2) a web study of research laboratories in science and engineering; and (3) the estimation of Random Utility Model (RUM) of institution selection. These three components build on each other, in addition to the individual contributions that they make. Together they provide an in-depth and comprehensive analysis of the role of networks. The results from guided focus group interviews indicate that students, alumni, faculty and local community of the same nationality influence
Lahaie, R. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Ahmed, I.; Labelle, M.; Brown, R. [Golder Paste Technology, Sudbury, ON (Canada)
This presentation discussed a paste pumping and deposition field study conducted on dewatered mature fine tailings (MFT) located at Syncrude's Mildred Lake operation. Bench scale rheological examinations of centrifuge cakes and design field testing are used to determine the pumpability of MFT centrifuge cakes. The study included a transportation assessment for the conveyor and positive displacement pumps and pipelines, as well as geotechnical and environmental analyses of bulk materials. Flocculant optimization and centrifuge operational parameter assessments were conducted. Pressure differential and flow rate data were captured in the field studies in order to determine pipeline friction loss. The study showed that pipe friction factors can be obtained using the Bingham plastic model. A natural deposition angle was determined for the MFT centrifuged cake. The study showed that the cake must be sheared in order to reduce yield stress before pumping. It was concluded that displacement pumps can be used to reduced pipeline friction factors. tabs., figs.
Cian, Heidi; Dsouza, Nikeetha; Lyons, Renee; Alston, Daniel
This manuscript is written in response to Lydia Burke and Jesse Bazzul's article Locating a space of criticality as new scholars in science education. As doctoral students finding our place in the culture of science education, we respond by discussing our journeys towards the development of a scholarly identity, with particular focus on whether or how we see ourselves as critical scholars. Since each of us authoring this paper has a different perspective, a metalogue format is utilized to ensure all of our voices and journeys are represented. We use the Burke and Bazzul article as a platform for conversations about challenges faced for emerging scholars in the field of science education and explore how we see our role in responding to these challenges. Specifically, we discuss the barriers to publication, dissemination of research to practitioners, and how to approach these problems from a grounding in critical theory. As a result of our conversations, we conclude that there is a need to reshape the field of science education to invite more unorthodox research perspectives, methodologies, and publication formats. To do so, the issues we explore require a continued conversation between emerging scholars, practicing researchers, and practicing educators.
Full Text Available In Europe most studies of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL focus on language knowledge and language skills and most studies of CLIL are carried out in primary schools and secondary schools. As for the implementation of CLIL in China, most studies are done theoretically and are carried out among undergraduates. CLIL is mainly applied in the teaching and learning of general English rather than in the teaching and learning of English for Academic Purpose (EAP. In order to have a better understanding of the effect of CLIL on EAP learners, a sample analysis is undertaken among doctoral students of science. Two kinds of instruments are adopted in this paper to conduct both quantitative and qualitative study, including two questionnaires and a series of classroom observations. The study obtains the following findings: Firstly, as CLIL is effective due to its dual-focus, it is possible to implement CLIL in EAP teaching and learning. Secondly, class activities such as group work, pair work, class presentations as well as task-based course activities such as translation, paper writing, paper analysis and rewriting practice play an important role in motivating the participants to integrate discipline content and language. Besides, the four factors of CLIL which include content, communication, culture and cognition are attached great importance to by learners. Finally, the increasing ability to integrate content and language as well as the thinking patterns and cultural awareness in EAP writing greatly contributes to the participants’ further academic researches.
Boquet, Elizabeth; Kazer, Meredith; Manister, Nancy; Lucas, Owen; Shaw, Michael; Madaffari, Valerie; Gannett, Cinthia
In 2010, Fairfield University, a Jesuit Carnegie Masters Level 1 University located in the Northeast, established its first doctoral-level program: the Doctorate of Nursing Practice (DNP). In a developing program such as the DNP, some of the most pressing concerns of current rhetoric and writing in the disciplines align and interact with the…
Eastman, Christine; Maguire, Kate
This paper argues for a pedagogic practice to overcome the challenges that many professional practitioners face in undertaking a professional doctorate. Recent examination feedback on a professional doctoral programme of 300 candidates in the UK highlighted that a number of candidates often struggle to write persuasively, critically and…
Welton, Anjalé D.; Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Lee, Pei-Ling
There is limited research on quantitative differences between men and women's experiences in doctoral programs. We aim to fill that gap by sharing findings from a web-based exploratory survey of perceived gender differences on quality mentoring in educational leadership doctoral programs. According to survey results, there is limited…
Masterman, Ann Katherine
This study's purpose was to compare the lived experiences of doctoral women studying Education, a prototypically female field, with women studying Engineering, a prototypically male field to illustrate the phenomenon of doctoral degree progress in the two fields. Using critical feminist theory and Valian's (1999) concept of gender schemas, this…
Bhutta, M; Mandavia, R; Syed, I; Qureshi, A; Hettige, R; Wong, B Y W; Saeed, S; Cartledge, J
To ascertain determinants of an interest in a career in ENT surgery through a survey of medical students and junior doctors. A survey was administered, comprising Likert scales, forced response and single option questions, and free text responses, at five different courses or events for those interested in a career in ENT. The survey had an 87 per cent response rate; respondents consisted of 43 applicants for national selection, 15 foundation doctors and 23 medical students. The most important factors that encourage ENT as a career included: the variety of operative procedures, work-life balance, inherent interest in this clinical area and inspirational senior role models. Exposure to ENT in undergraduate or post-graduate training is critical in deciding to pursue this specialty. It is important to promote those aspects of ENT surgery that attract people to it, and to argue for greater exposure to ENT during undergraduate and post-graduate training.
Thomas, Tony J.
The purpose of this research is to understand more clearly the lived experiences of married doctoral students with children who are enrolled in a cohort-based program. Attempting to maintain a strong family relationship, balance a career, enroll in a doctoral program, and provide for a family is an avalanche of emotion and pressure on all members…
Hulsman, Robert L.; Pranger, Susan; Koot, Stephanie; Fabriek, Marcel; Karemaker, John M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.
Introduction: Medical communication can be a stressful experience for both doctors and patients. In particular, inexperienced doctors facing the demanding task of a bad news consultation may experience high levels of distress. The aim of this exploratory study is to test students' differential
Sloane, Stephanie; Liechty, Janet M.; Fiese, Barbara H.; Donovan, Sharon M.
Transdisciplinary (TD) approaches are increasingly used to address complex public health problems such as childhood obesity. Compared to traditional grant-funded scientific projects among established scientists, those designed around a TD, team-based approach yielded greater publication output after three to five years. However, little is known about how a TD focus throughout graduate school training may affect students’ publication-related productivity, impact, and collaboration. The objective of this study was to compare the publication patterns of students in traditional versus TD doctoral training programs. Productivity, impact, and collaboration of peer-reviewed publications were compared between traditional (n = 25) and TD (n = 11) students during the first five years of the TD program. Statistical differences were determined by t-test or chi square test at p students was 5.2 ± 10.1 (n = 56) compared to 3.6 ± 4.5 per traditional student (n = 82). Publication impact indicators were significantly higher for TD students vs. traditional students: 5.7 times more citations in Google Scholar, 6.1 times more citations in Scopus, 1.3 times higher journal impact factors, and a 1.4 times higher journal h-index. Collaboration indicators showed that publications by TD students had significantly more co-authors (1.3 times), and significantly more disciplines represented among co-authors (1.3 times), but not significantly more organizations represented per publication compared to traditional students. In conclusion, compared to doctoral students in traditional programs, TD students published works that were accepted into higher impact journals, were more frequently cited, and had more cross-disciplinary collaborations. PMID:29244832
Dunbar, R. W.; MacDonald, R.
The professional development program, "On the Cutting Edge", offers annual multi-day workshops for graduate students and post-doctoral fellows interested in pursuing academic careers. Goals are to prepare participants to become more effective teachers, stronger candidates for academic positions, and more aware of the realities of academic jobs. Insights that participants especially hope to gain from these workshops include feedback on the application process, especially an understanding of how search committees work; the different realities of balancing teaching, research, and personal life in a range of academic institutions; and expectations for tenure. The ten-person leadership team represents, by design, a wide range of academic career paths and institutions, and provides approximately 1:6 leader: participant ratio. Specific sessions include research on learning, an introduction to course and lab design, effective teaching and assessment strategies, developing a teaching statement, time management and early career faculty success, and moving research forward into new settings. Optional workshop sessions and discussions include the following topics: dual-career couples; families and careers; teaching portfolios; effective negotiation strategies; tenure and promotion; effective field trips; getting started in undergraduate research; opportunities in K-12 education; career options beyond faculty positions. Highlights of the workshop are faculty panel discussions about career paths and the academic job search. By workshop end, participants complete a goal setting and action planning activity. Two years of evaluation data suggest our goals are being met. Participants particularly appreciate the practical ideas and the opportunity to interact with, and learn from, a diverse leadership team and other participants.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of medical students’ professional identity is important. This paper considers this in a snapshot of the early years of undergraduate medical education. From the perspective of social identity theory, it also considers self-stereotyping, the extent to which individuals associate with attributes identified as typical of groups. Method Paper questionnaires were completed by first and second year medical students following teaching sessions at the beginning (October and end (April of the academic year. Questionnaires consisted of scales measuring the strength and importance of identity and self-stereotyping, referent to ‘doctors’ and ‘students’. Linear mixed effects regression considered longitudinal and cross-sectional effects of progress through the course, and differences in responses to ‘doctor’ and ‘student’ measures. Results In October, responses were received from 99% (n = 102 and 75% (n = 58 of first and second year cohorts respectively, and in April from 81% (n = 83 and 73% (n = 56. Response rates were over 95% of those present. Linear mixed effects regression found that all ‘doctor’-referent measures were higher than ‘student’ measures. Strength of identity and self-stereotyping decreased between beginning and end of the year (across both groups. Men indicated lower importance of identity than women, also across both groups. There were no differences between year groups. Self-stereotyping was predicted more by importance of identification with a group than by strength of identification. Conclusions Findings reinforce observations that medical students identify strongly as doctors from early in their studies, and that this identification is greater than as students. Decreases over time are surprising, but may be explained by changing group salience towards the end of the academic year. The lack of a gender effect on strength of identification contrasts with the literature
Hwang, Se Won; Kim, Hun; Kim, Ae Yang; Hwang, Kun
The purpose of this study is to find what medical students think the reward for their future work should be and whether they would keep their ideals or abandon them for prestige and wealth by analyzing the book reports of Cronin's The Citadel. Participants were 50 medical students of junior class. A month before the classroom lecture, the book and digital video disk were provided. Students had discussions in groups of seven and wrote book reports which include answers of three questions. Regarding what should be the reward for the medical doctor, two-thirds of students (66.7%) answered with spiritual compensation, while one-third (33.3%) chose material reward. In the situation presented to Manson, three-fifths (60.0%) answered they would keep their ideals (idealist), while the remaining two-fifths (40.0%) decided they would abandon them. Less than one-third of students (30.0%) answered they would reveal the corruptions of the doctor's society, while two-thirds (64.0%) would not. The larger number of idealists who prefer spiritual reward rather than a material reward represents the innocence of youth as in portrayed in The Citadel.
Bracke, N; Moens, L
The Doctoral Schools at Ghent University have a three-fold mission: (1) to provide support to doctoral students during their doctoral research, (2) to foster a quality culture in (doctoral) research, (3) to promote the international and social stature and prestige of the doctorate vis-a-vis potential researchers and the potential labour market. The Doctoral Schools offer top-level specialized courses and transferable skills training to doctoral students as part of their doctoral training programme. They establish mechanisms of quality assurance in doctoral research. The Doctoral Schools initialize and support initiatives of internationalization. They also organize information sessions, promotional events and interaction with the labour market, and as such keep a finger on the pulse of external stakeholders.
Smith, Thomas A., Jr.; And Others
Addresses issues pertinent to training Marriage and Family Therapy (MFT) students to develop the skills needed to become Employee Assistance Programs (EAP) professionals. Describes qualifications for becoming EAP professional. Suggests how skills may be taught within the framework of an academically based MFT training program. (Author/ABL)
Schwartz, Alan; Mazouni, Abdelhamid
Medical educators have been concerned that medical students may decline in empathy for patients during the course of their training, based on studies measuring clinical empathy using psychometrically strong self-report measures. Clinical empathy is a complex construct, incorporating attitudes toward patients but also other components, such as professional detachment. Triangulation of extant measures with instruments based on nonreactive methods could provide a better understanding of whether and how physician attitudes toward patients may be changing during training. We sought to develop and pilot-test such a nonreactive method. We develop variations of an implicit association test (IAT) designed to measure attitudes toward physicians and patients based on speed of reaction to images of actors and positive and negative words. In the IATs, the same actors are photographed as doctors, clinic outpatients, hospitalized inpatients, and as a "general public" control. We examine preliminary evidence for their validity by collecting pilot data from internet participants (not involved in the health professions), medical students, and nursing students. Internet participants (n = 314) and nursing students (n = 31) had more negative associations (IAT scores) with doctors than did medical students (n = 89); nursing students and female internet participants had more positive associations with hospitalized patients than did medical students and male internet participants. Medical students' associations with hospitalized patients varied by year of training. This IAT may provide insight into implicit attitudes among those who enter training for the health profession and changes in those attitudes that may be inculcated during that training.
Reyes, Antonio Jose; Ramcharan, Kanterpersad; Sharma, Sharda
A 29-year-old previously healthy woman, a doctor, was diagnosed with remitting relapsing multiple sclerosis after fulfilling McDonald's criteria for the diagnosis of definite multiple sclerosis. Despite 22 months of immunomodulatory treatment, the feasibility of continuing to train in a stressful specialty of medicine became an ethical and practical dilemma. Fitness for practice and career advancement among doctors with illnesses or having cognitive and physical decline from disease and/or ageing is a global problem. The need for addressing this issue in a compassionate and comprehensive manner is discussed. Cognitive and physical fitness are required in doctors and other healthcare workers since medical errors/adverse events are commonplace in medical practice. The public welfare is equally important in this global problem. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Lempp, H; Seabrook, M; Cochrane, M; Rees, J
In this prospective qualitative study over 12 months, we evaluated the educational and clinical effectiveness of a new final year undergraduate programme in a London medical school (Guy's, King's and St Thomas'). A stratified sample of 17/360 final year students were interviewed four times, and the content was assessed against 32 amalgamated learning outcomes identified in 1997 in The New Doctor. At the beginning of the preregistration year, eight of the learning outcomes were already met, 10 partly, eight remained to be attained and for six, insufficient evidence existed. Preregistration house officers who have been through the final year student house officer programme expressed competence in many of the outcomes of the General Medical Council's New Doctor. The study identified areas such as prescribing where further developments are needed and will help in planning the new foundation programme.
Szanton, Sarah L; Taylor, Holly A; Terhaar, Mary
As Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) programs proliferate, effective collaboration with institutional review boards (IRBs) is important to protect human subjects. It is particularly important that faculty and students recognize which DNP students' projects should be considered as "human subjects research" or "quality improvement." The former require IRB review, whereas the latter may be eligible for expedited review or may be considered exempt. We report outcomes following implementation of a combination of didactic training, one-to-one consultation, and a decision support protocol to improve preparation for and collaboration with the IRB at a large university. In the first year of using this protocol, 53% of projects were deemed human subjects research and received IRB review. The other 47% were deemed quality improvement projects and did not require IRB review. We offer our experience as an approach for teaching students how to protect the subjects included in their quality improvement activities. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
Hancock, Jason; Roberts, Martin; Monrouxe, Lynn; Mattick, Karen
The practice of medicine involves inherent ambiguity, arising from limitations of knowledge, diagnostic problems, complexities of treatment and outcome and unpredictability of patient response. Research into doctors' tolerance of ambiguity is hampered by poor conceptual clarity and inadequate measurement scales. We aimed to create and pilot a…
The number of Indigenous Australians completing doctoral qualifications is disparately below their non-Indigenous contemporaries. Whilst there has been a steady increase in Indigenous completions in recent years, significant work remains to redress the imbalance. Supervision has been identified as a primary influencer of the likely success of…
Maher, Michelle A.; Ford, Martin E.; Thompson, Candace M.
Using survey and qualitative data, this study identified emergent themes that remain consistent across or differentiate among reports of women earning their doctoral degree relatively quickly ("early-finishers") and those taking considerably longer ("late-finishers"). Emergent themes included commitment to timely degree completion, faculty…
Alroy, Gideon; Ber, Rosalie
Trigger films (short situational films followed by discussion) are seen as a suitable medium for teaching the intricacies of the interpersonal relationship, legitimate behavior patterns following doctor-patient interaction, and the sensitivity and ability to detect nonverbal and accessory communication. Guidelines for the production and use of…
Pabst, R; Park, D-H; Paulmann, V
Recently there were mostly emotional debates about the scientific background and relevance of the German academic title "Dr. med.", while objective data are scarce. When submitting their doctoral thesis at the Medical School of Hannover students were asked anonymously about the type, topic, duration, quality of supervision as well as frequency and type of publication of the results. 180 doctoral candidates (62% women) participated in the study. The supervision was graded as good by the majority of students. The duration working on the thesis was equivalent to 47 weeks of a full time employment. There was some negative influence in participating in lectures and courses. Nearly all participants (98%) would recommend younger students to work on a dissertation as they had done themselves in parallel to the curriculum. The ability of how to interprete scientific data was assumed to be positively influenced. About two thirds stated that the results had been published in original articles at the time of submitting the thesis. More data from other medical faculties are needed to document the relevance of the medical dissertation to replace the emotional by a more rational debate. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Helmke, Laura Andrews; Ulku-Steiner, Beril
Twenty students enrolled in Ph.D. programmes were interviewed to examine the role of gender in their academic experiences. Gender was examined in three ways: gender of the student, gender of the student's faculty supervisor and gender make-up of the faculty within the student's department or academic unit. All students reported the importance of…
Sennekamp, Monika; Paulitsch, Michael A; Broermann, Marischa; Klingebiel, Thomas; Gerlach, Ferdinand M
In Germany, medical doctorates are regularly criticized for their insufficient quality. In order to improve the quality of doctorates and to support doctoral candidates, a department-wide doctoral research program was established at the Goethe University of Frankfurt am Main in 2011 taking into account the practical needs of doctoral students at the School of Medicine. The program development proceeded in several steps: in the first step (2009/2010), a pilot study with eleven doctoral candidates was carried out at the Institute of General Practice. Their ratings of the perceived relevance and their own knowledge of 15 topics of scientific work were used to identify a provisional need for support. Subsequently an interdisciplinary panel of experts established the program throughout the faculty. Since its implementation, a requirements analysis in the form of questionnaires has been continuously carried out in order to assess the doctoral students' prior knowledge and their preferences expressed. At the same time, systematic searches for support programs in other medical fields have been conducted throughout Germany on several occasions. On the basis of the pilot study, the research results and the expert panel discussions the following topics were found to be particularly relevant: principles of good scientific practice, literature search, reference management, organization and structure of a doctoral thesis, formatting of Word documents, clinical epidemiology and data management. A specific, stepwise development process was used to design a concept for the faculty of medicine that pays close attention to the knowledge and interests of doctoral candidates. The establishment of the doctoral research program in Frankfurt and the results of its evaluation are presented in a second article (Paulitsch et al., 2016). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard; Robinson, Gill; Wisker, Gina
This paper presents our cross-national research into what we term the ‘doctoral learning penumbra’, which covers the diverse, unnoticed, and often unrecognised forms of help and support that doctoral students draw from during their PhD, and which are vital for completion. Our aim is to better...
Faghihi, Forooz; Rakow, Ernest A.; Ethington, Corinna
This study examined relationships among doctoral candidates' background characteristics, research preparation, research environment, research involvement, student-advisor relationship, research self-efficacy, and dissertation progress. The study focused on differences in research self-efficacy and dissertation progress among students from the…
Mr. Wen-chuan Li of China has become the first student to obtain a doctor's degree as a result of research work carried out in the Agency. Mr. Li, who is 33, graduated as a Bachelor of Agriculture at Taiwan Provincial Chung-hsing University in 1960 and in 1966 was granted a fellowship to study mutations in plant breeding at the Agency's Seibersdorf Laboratory near Vienna, under the direction of Dr. Knut Mikaelsen, a professor of the University of Bergen. The Hochschule fur Bodenkultur of Vienna accepted the research as being suitable for a thesis and have now granted the degree of Doctor of Agriculture. The subject of the thesis was modifying factors influencing the mutagenic effects of alkylating agents as compared with ionizing radiations in barley. Alkylating agents are involved in the use of chemicals as a means of changing the characteristics of seeds to bring about changes aimed at improving the quality of crops. Mr. Li's work is regarded as a significant contribution to the understanding of the mechanics by which mutations are induced, to the efficient use of chemicals and ionizing radiations in practical applications, and to the efforts of the Agency in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization to benefit food supplies. Mr. Li has now completed his fellowship with the Agency and has been appointed an Assistant Professor in Plant Breeding at Taiwan Provincial Chung-hsing University. The photograph, taken in the plastic hot house at Seibersdorf, shows him studying rice plants grown from seeds subjected to irradiation. Another noteworthy achievement is that of Mr. Karl-Franz Lacina, a security guard at the Agency's headquarters. At the age of 50 he has been accorded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Vienna University, the result of six years' work in his leisure time. The major subject was Arabic, with French and philosophy as supporting subject. (author)
Mr. Wen-chuan Li of China has become the first student to obtain a doctor's degree as a result of research work carried out in the Agency. Mr. Li, who is 33, graduated as a Bachelor of Agriculture at Taiwan Provincial Chung-hsing University in 1960 and in 1966 was granted a fellowship to study mutations in plant breeding at the Agency's Seibersdorf Laboratory near Vienna, under the direction of Dr. Knut Mikaelsen, a professor of the University of Bergen. The Hochschule fur Bodenkultur of Vienna accepted the research as being suitable for a thesis and have now granted the degree of Doctor of Agriculture. The subject of the thesis was modifying factors influencing the mutagenic effects of alkylating agents as compared with ionizing radiations in barley. Alkylating agents are involved in the use of chemicals as a means of changing the characteristics of seeds to bring about changes aimed at improving the quality of crops. Mr. Li's work is regarded as a significant contribution to the understanding of the mechanics by which mutations are induced, to the efficient use of chemicals and ionizing radiations in practical applications, and to the efforts of the Agency in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization to benefit food supplies. Mr. Li has now completed his fellowship with the Agency and has been appointed an Assistant Professor in Plant Breeding at Taiwan Provincial Chung-hsing University. The photograph, taken in the plastic hot house at Seibersdorf, shows him studying rice plants grown from seeds subjected to irradiation. Another noteworthy achievement is that of Mr. Karl-Franz Lacina, a security guard at the Agency's headquarters. At the age of 50 he has been accorded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Vienna University, the result of six years' work in his leisure time. The major subject was Arabic, with French and philosophy as supporting subject. (author)
Li, Wendan; Collins, Christopher S.
Although international students annually contribute billions of dollars to the US economy, meaningful intercultural interaction between international students, peers, and faculty is often missing at US host campuses. Feelings of isolation, loneliness, and alienation are pervasive among international students at US campuses; these feelings can…
Buck, Benjamin; Romeo, Katy Harper; Olbert, Charles M; Penn, David L
One possible explanation for the dearth of psychologists working in severe mental illness (SMI) areas is a lack of training opportunities. Recent studies have shown that while training opportunities have increased, there remain fewer resources available for SMI training compared to other disorders. Examines whether students express discomfort working with this population and whether they are satisfied with their level of training in SMI. One-hundred sixty-nine students currently enrolled in doctoral programs in clinical psychology in the United States and Canada were surveyed for their comfort treating and satisfaction with training related to a number of disorders. RESULTS indicate that students are significantly less comfortable treating and finding a referral for a patient with schizophrenia as well as dissatisfied with their current training in SMI and desirous of more training. Regression analyses showed that dissatisfaction with training predicted a desire for more training; however, discomfort in treating people with SMI did not predict a desire for more training in this sample. This pattern generally held across disorders. Our results suggest general discomfort among students surveyed in treating SMI compared to other disorders.
Thompson, Kris; Coon, Jill; Handford, Leandrea
With the move to the doctor of physical therapy (DPT) degree and increasing tuition costs, there is concern about financing entry-level education. The purposes of this study were to identify how students finance their DPT education and to describe the financial impact after graduation. A written survey was used to collect data on financing DPT education, student debt, and the financial impact on graduates. There were 92 subjects who had graduated from one program. Frequencies as well as nonparametric statistics using cross-tabulations and chi-squared statistics were calculated. The response rate was 55%. Of the respondents, 86% had student loans, 66% worked during school, 57% received some family assistance, and 21% had some scholarship support. The amount of monthly loan repayment was not statistically related to the ability to save for a house, the ability to obtain a loan for a house or car, or the decision to have children. Saving for the future (p = 0.016) and lifestyle choices (p = 0.035) were related to the amount of monthly loan repayment. Major sources of funding were student loans, employment income, and/or family assistance. Respondent's ability to save for the future and lifestyle choices were negatively impacted when loan debt increased. Physical therapist education programs should consider offering debt planning and counseling.
Elizabeth da Trindade de Andrade
Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO identifies 8.7 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB annually around the world. The unfavorable outcomes of TB treatment prevent the achievement of the WHO's cure target.To evaluate existing intersections in the conceptions relative to the knowledge of TB, the experience of the illness and the treatment.Doctors, medical students and patients were selected from a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2011 to 2013. The data were obtained by semi-structured individual and focus group interviews, participant observation and a field journal. The inclusion of patients was interrupted due to saturation, and the inclusion of doctors and medical students stopped due to exhaustion. The theoretical background included symbolic Interactionism, and the analysis used rounded Theory. The analysis prioritized the actions/interactions axis.Twenty-three patients with pulmonary TB, seven doctors and 15 medical students were included. In the interviews, themes such as stigma, self-segregation, and difficulties in assistance emerged, in addition to defense mechanisms such as denial, rationalization, isolation and other mental mechanisms, including guilt, accountability and concealment of the disease. Aspects related to the assistance strategy, the social support network, bonding with the healthcare staff and the doctor-patient relationship were highlighted as adherence enablers. Doctors and students recommended an expansion of the theoretical and practical instruction on TB during medical students' education. The existence of health programs and policies was mentioned as a potential enabler of adherence.The main concepts identified were the stigma, self-segregation, guilt, responsibility, concealment and emotional repercussions. In relation to the facilitation of therapeutic adherence, the concepts identified were the bonds with healthcare staff, the doctor-patient relationship, assistance and educational health
de Andrade, Elizabeth da Trindade; Hennington, Élida Azevedo; Siqueira, Hélio Ribeiro de; Rolla, Valeria Cavalcanti; Mannarino, Celina
The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies 8.7 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) annually around the world. The unfavorable outcomes of TB treatment prevent the achievement of the WHO's cure target. To evaluate existing intersections in the conceptions relative to the knowledge of TB, the experience of the illness and the treatment. Doctors, medical students and patients were selected from a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2011 to 2013. The data were obtained by semi-structured individual and focus group interviews, participant observation and a field journal. The inclusion of patients was interrupted due to saturation, and the inclusion of doctors and medical students stopped due to exhaustion. The theoretical background included symbolic Interactionism, and the analysis used rounded Theory. The analysis prioritized the actions/interactions axis. Twenty-three patients with pulmonary TB, seven doctors and 15 medical students were included. In the interviews, themes such as stigma, self-segregation, and difficulties in assistance emerged, in addition to defense mechanisms such as denial, rationalization, isolation and other mental mechanisms, including guilt, accountability and concealment of the disease. Aspects related to the assistance strategy, the social support network, bonding with the healthcare staff and the doctor-patient relationship were highlighted as adherence enablers. Doctors and students recommended an expansion of the theoretical and practical instruction on TB during medical students' education. The existence of health programs and policies was mentioned as a potential enabler of adherence. The main concepts identified were the stigma, self-segregation, guilt, responsibility, concealment and emotional repercussions. In relation to the facilitation of therapeutic adherence, the concepts identified were the bonds with healthcare staff, the doctor-patient relationship, assistance and educational health strategies.
Edge, Rhiannon; Goodwin, Dawn; Isba, Rachel; Keegan, Thomas
The Chief Medical Officer recommends that all health care workers receive an influenza vaccination annually. High vaccination coverage is believed to be the best protection against the spread of influenza within a hospital, although uptake by health care workers remains low. We conducted semistructured interviews with seven medical students and nine early career doctors, to explore the factors informing their influenza vaccination decision making. Data collection and analysis took place iteratively, until theoretical saturation was achieved, and a thematic analysis was performed. Socialization was important although its effects were attenuated by participants' previous experiences and a lack of clarity around the risks and benefits of vaccination. Many participants did not have strong intentions regarding vaccination. There was considerable disparity between an individual's opinion of the vaccine, their intentions, and their vaccination status. The indifference demonstrated here suggests few are strongly opposed to the vaccination-there is potential to increase vaccination coverage.
Joyce, Sharon T.
What happens when former first-generation college (FGC) students successfully graduate from college and then aim for post-undergraduate education? The purpose of this dissertation is to compare differences between FGC students and non-FGC admissions profiles regarding end-of-first-year performance at UC Berkeley's School of Optometry. The aims of…
Howells, Kerry; Stafford, Karen; Guijt, Rosanne; Breadmore, Michael
While increasing attention is being placed on the crucial importance of a positive supervisor-student relationship, few studies have investigated how to enhance this. Our paper investigates the effect of gratitude practices, proposing it brings both focus and intentionality to the student-supervisor relationship resulting in better research…
Vivekananda-Schmidt, Pirashanthie; Crossley, James; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah
Professional self-identity [PSI] can be defined as the degree to which an individual identifies with his or her professional group. Several authors have called for a better understanding of the processes by which healthcare students develop their professional identities, and suggested helpful theoretical frameworks borrowed from the social science and psychology literature. However to our knowledge, there has been little empirical work examining these processes in actual healthcare students, and we are aware of no data driven description of PSI development in healthcare students. Here, we report a data driven model of PSI formation in healthcare students. We interviewed 17 student doctors and dentists who had indicated, on a tracking questionnaire, the most substantial changes in their PSI. We analysed their perceptions of the experiences that had influenced their PSI, to develop a descriptive model. Both the primary coder and the secondary coder considered the data without reference to the existing literature; i.e. we used a bottom up approach rather than a top down approach. The results indicate that two overlapping frames of reference affect PSI formation: the students' self-perception and their perception of the professional role. They are 'learning' both; neither is static. Underpinning those two learning processes, the following key mechanisms operated:  When students are allowed to participate in the professional role they learn by trying out their knowledge and skill in the real world and finding out to what extent they work, and by trying to visualise themselves in the role.  When others acknowledge students as quasi-professionals they experience transference and may respond with counter-transference by changing to meet expectations or fulfil a prototype.  Students may also dry-run their professional role (i.e., independent practice of professional activities) in a safe setting when invited. Students' experiences, and their perceptions of those
Gleason, Brenda L; Gaebelein, Claude J; Grice, Gloria R; Crannage, Andrew J; Weck, Margaret A; Hurd, Peter; Walter, Brenda; Duncan, Wendy
To determine the feasibility of using a validated set of assessment rubrics to assess students' critical-thinking and problem-solving abilities across a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Trained faculty assessors used validated rubrics to assess student work samples for critical-thinking and problem-solving abilities. Assessment scores were collected and analyzed to determine student achievement of these 2 ability outcomes across the curriculum. Feasibility of the process was evaluated in terms of time and resources used. One hundred sixty-one samples were assessed for critical thinking, and 159 samples were assessed for problem-solving. Rubric scoring allowed assessors to evaluate four 5- to 7-page work samples per hour. The analysis indicated that overall critical-thinking scores improved over the curriculum. Although low yield for problem-solving samples precluded meaningful data analysis, it was informative for identifying potentially needed curricular improvements. Use of assessment rubrics for program ability outcomes was deemed authentic and feasible. Problem-solving was identified as a curricular area that may need improving. This assessment method has great potential to inform continuous quality improvement of a PharmD program.
Nelson, Joan M; Cook, Paul F; Raterink, Ginger
The past several years have seen explosive growth in the number of doctor of nursing practice (DNP) degree programs offered by colleges of nursing in the United States. Through a process of trial and error since 2005, the faculty at the University of Colorado, College of Nursing, have revised the course structure and procedures related to the DNP capstone project to improve the quality and usefulness of these student projects. Efforts have focused on educating and involving all nursing faculty in the DNP capstone process, distinguishing between competencies for our PhD and DNP projects, clearly aligning the DNP capstone project with quality improvement methods rather than with research, working with our campus institutional review board to clarify regulatory review requirements for quality improvement studies, developing a review committee to oversee DNP students' projects, and structuring our sequential course requirements to encourage students' professional presentations and publications. Our current capstone process reflects 7 years of iterative work, which we summarize in this article in hopes that it will help institutions currently in the process of developing a DNP program. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda J.; Bray, Oliver R., Jr.; Spaulding, Lucinda S.
This study examines how GRE scores can be used to better understand Education doctoral candidates' methodology choices for the dissertation as well as their persistence behaviors. Candidates' of one online doctoral education program were examined. Results of a MANOVA suggested that there is no difference in GRE scores based on doctoral candidates'…
de Andrade, Elizabeth da Trindade; Hennington, Élida Azevedo; de Siqueira, Hélio Ribeiro; Rolla, Valeria Cavalcanti; Mannarino, Celina
Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies 8.7 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) annually around the world. The unfavorable outcomes of TB treatment prevent the achievement of the WHO’s cure target. Goal To evaluate existing intersections in the conceptions relative to the knowledge of TB, the experience of the illness and the treatment. Methods Doctors, medical students and patients were selected from a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2011 to 2013. The data were obtained by semi-structured individual and focus group interviews, participant observation and a field journal. The inclusion of patients was interrupted due to saturation, and the inclusion of doctors and medical students stopped due to exhaustion. The theoretical background included symbolic Interactionism, and the analysis used rounded Theory. The analysis prioritized the actions/interactions axis. Results Twenty-three patients with pulmonary TB, seven doctors and 15 medical students were included. In the interviews, themes such as stigma, self-segregation, and difficulties in assistance emerged, in addition to defense mechanisms such as denial, rationalization, isolation and other mental mechanisms, including guilt, accountability and concealment of the disease. Aspects related to the assistance strategy, the social support network, bonding with the healthcare staff and the doctor-patient relationship were highlighted as adherence enablers. Doctors and students recommended an expansion of the theoretical and practical instruction on TB during medical students’ education. The existence of health programs and policies was mentioned as a potential enabler of adherence. Conclusion The main concepts identified were the stigma, self-segregation, guilt, responsibility, concealment and emotional repercussions. In relation to the facilitation of therapeutic adherence, the concepts identified were the bonds with healthcare staff, the doctor-patient relationship
Nelson, Michael H.; Bzowyckyj, Andrew S.; Fuentes, David G.; Rosenberg, Ettie; DiCenzo, Robert
The CAPE 2013 Outcomes answered the call for increased student leadership development (SLD) by identifying leadership as a desired curricular goal. To meet this outcome, colleges and schools of pharmacy are advised to first identify a set of SLD competencies aligned with their institution’s mission and goals and then organize these competencies into a SLD framework/model. Student leadership development should be integrated vertically and horizontally within the curriculum in a deliberate and longitudinal manner. It should include all student pharmacists, begin at the point of admission, and extend beyond extracurricular activities. The school’s assessment plan should be aligned with the identified SLD competencies so student learning related to leadership is assessed. To accomplish these recommendations, a positive environment for SLD should be cultivated within the school, including administrative backing and resources, as well as support among the broader faculty for integrating SLD into the curriculum. PMID:26941428
Janke, Kristin K; Nelson, Michael H; Bzowyckyj, Andrew S; Fuentes, David G; Rosenberg, Ettie; DiCenzo, Robert
The CAPE 2013 Outcomes answered the call for increased student leadership development (SLD) by identifying leadership as a desired curricular goal. To meet this outcome, colleges and schools of pharmacy are advised to first identify a set of SLD competencies aligned with their institution's mission and goals and then organize these competencies into a SLD framework/model. Student leadership development should be integrated vertically and horizontally within the curriculum in a deliberate and longitudinal manner. It should include all student pharmacists, begin at the point of admission, and extend beyond extracurricular activities. The school's assessment plan should be aligned with the identified SLD competencies so student learning related to leadership is assessed. To accomplish these recommendations, a positive environment for SLD should be cultivated within the school, including administrative backing and resources, as well as support among the broader faculty for integrating SLD into the curriculum.
Shaw, Kathy; Rabatsky, Ali; Dishman, Veronica; Meseke, Christopher
Objective : This study investigated the effect of completion of course prerequisites, undergraduate grade point average (GPA), undergraduate degree, and study habits on the performance of students in the biochemistry course at Palmer College of Chiropractic Florida. Methods : Students self-reported information regarding academic preparation at the beginning of the semester using a questionnaire. Final exam grade and final course grade were noted and used as measures of performance. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine if number of prerequisites completed, undergraduate GPA, undergraduate degree, hours spent studying in undergraduate study, and hours spent studying in the first quarter of the chiropractic program were associated significantly with the biochemistry final exam grade or the final grade for the biochemistry course. Results : The number of prerequisites completed, undergraduate degree, hours spent studying in undergraduate study, and hours spent studying in the first quarter of the chiropractic program did not significantly affect the biochemistry final exam grade or the final grade for the biochemistry course, but undergraduate GPA did. Subsequent univariate analysis and Tukey's post hoc comparisons revealed that students with an undergraduate GPA in the 3.5 to 3.99 range earned significantly higher final course grades than students with an undergraduate GPA in the 2.5 to 2.99 range. Conclusion : No single variable was determined to be a factor that determines student success in biochemistry. The interrelationship between the factors examined warrants further investigation to understand fully how to predict the success of a student in the biochemistry course.
Arhar, Joanne; Niesz, Tricia; Brossmann, Jeanette; Koebley, Sarah; O'Brien, Katherine; Loe, David; Black, Felicia
The focus of the Education Works Personalization Project was to facilitate teams of teacher action researchers whose goal was to personalize their teaching with the support of university partners including doctoral students in education. The subsequent apprentice-like research experience within this university-school partnership provided an…
Fajen, Ava Lee
Scholars predict that the current institutional, state, and federal push for the commercialization of research, as well as increases in industry funding, will challenge, and perhaps even alter, the culture and ethical standards of academe. A focal point for these trends at many institutions is the current emphasis on life sciences research. This study builds on what is known about doctoral students and their ethical training in the life sciences by examining the individual experiences of doctoral students within the context of changing research expectations and funding patterns at one research university. The project was conducted using a case study approach within the naturalistic tradition. Twenty-four advanced doctoral student in the life sciences were interviewed. They were asked about their perceptions and experiences related to three broad topics: the normative and ethical aspects of academic research behavior; the impact of changing funding sources and changing expectations for research outcomes; and the aspects of their graduate education and training related to research norms and ethics. A systematic qualitative data analysis process allowed the richness and complexity of the students' views and concerns to be revealed. The results of this study highlight their individual and shared understandings and experiences, provide a conceptual framework for understanding their perceptions, and offer related recommendations for improving doctoral education within the current, ethically complex research context.
Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a demand to include doctoral students and researchers in the curriculum for information literacy. Not only information search, but also the expertise of the librarians in scientific publishing, bibliometric analysis is demanded. As a result of the demand the two universities in Turku/Åbo have developed their research services. The libraries have also met for benchmarking and further cooperation is being discussed. 1.The implementation of three focus group interviews with 18 researchers at Åbo Akademi University The Focus Group survey methodology has its roots in social science qualitative research. It is widely used in the library world and is considered to be suitable particularly well for the evaluation and development of library services. The overall purpose with our interviews was to obtain feedback on how library users (in this case, researchers and graduate students wish ÅAUL to develop its services to better meet their needs. Three group interviews were conducted, with 6-8 participators. The following questions were, among others, discussed in every session: How do the researchers perceive the library's role in their daily work? What is the starting point for retrieving information (e.g. The MetaLib portal, Google Scholar or other? Is there a need for courses/more supervision in information search and reference management? Is there a need for tailored and integrated library services? As a result of the sessions and analysis of the group discussions a number of measures were proposed: Targeted teaching of subject-specific databases, more topic-specific sessions in the library portal and RefWorks. Compulsory information retrieval course for first year doctoral students. Information Weeks or "hands on" sessions on campus libraries. The library should participate more in workshops and seminars to increase their visibility and their services. The library should actively consider how to measure the impact and
Knaub, Alexis Victoria
Gender disparity is an issue among the many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Although many previous studies examine gender issues in STEM as an aggregate discipline, there are unique issues to each of the fields that are considered STEM fields. Some fields, such as physics, have fewer women graduating with degrees than other fields. This suggests that women's experiences vary by STEM field. The majority of previous research also examines gender and other disparities at either the nationwide or individual level. This project entailed social network analysis through survey and interview data to examine a single physics department's doctoral students in order to provide a comprehensive look at student social experiences. In addition to examining gender, other demographic variables were studied to see if the results are truly associated with gender; these variables include race/ethnicity, year in program, student type, relationship status, research type, undergraduate institute, and subfield. Data were examined to determine if there are relationships to social connections and outcome variables such as persistence in completing the degree and the time to degree. Data collected on faculty were used to rank faculty members; data such as h-indices and number of students graduate over the past 5 years were collected. Fifty-five (55) of 110 possible participants completed the survey; forty-three are male, and twelve are female. Twenty-eight of the fifty-five survey participants were interview; twenty-three are male, and five are female. Findings for peer networks include that peer networks are established during the first year and do not change drastically as one progresses in the program. Geographic location within the campus affects socializing with peers. Connections to fellow students are not necessarily reciprocated; the maximum percentage of reciprocated connections is 60%. The number of connections one has varies by network purpose
Kumar, Swapna; Antonenko, Pavlo
From an instrumental view, conceptual frameworks that are carefully assembled from existing literature in Educational Technology and related disciplines can help students structure all aspects of inquiry. In this article we detail how the development of a conceptual framework that connects theory, practice and method is scaffolded and facilitated…
Schnoes, Alexandra M.; Caliendo, Anne; Morand, Janice; Dillinger, Teresa; Naffziger-Hirsch, Michelle; Moses, Bruce; Gibeling, Jeffery C.; Yamamoto, Keith R.; Lindstaedt, Bill; McGee, Richard; O'Brien, Theresa C.
The Graduate Student Internships for Career Exploration (GSICE) program at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), offers structured training and hands-on experience through internships for a broad range of PhD-level careers. The GSICE program model was successfully replicated at the University of California, Davis (UC Davis). Here, we…
Frambach, J.M.; Manuel, B.A.; Fumo, A.M.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Driessen, E.W.
BACKGROUND: Evidence tailored to sub-Saharan Africa on outcomes of innovations in medical education is needed to encourage and advance their implementation in this region. AIM: To investigate preparedness for practice of students and graduates from an innovative and a conventional medical curriculum
Tackney, Charles T.; Gwozdz, Wencke
offers guided study in the statistical use of SPSS using a common EU data set. Course evaluations indicate students who had previously felt disinterested or unaware of the significance and role of quantitative studies emerged from the three day intensive with a better understanding and sense...
Moore, W. Allen; Noonan, Ann Cassidy
Recently, the use of animal laboratories has decreased in medical and basic science programs due to lack of trained faculty members, student concerns about animal welfare, and the increased availability of inexpensive alternatives such as computer simulations and videos. Animal laboratories, however, have several advantages over alternative forms…
Callary, Betina; Werthner, Penny; Trudel, Pierre
The PhD experience is often a transition from student to future faculty member, which involves considerable learning and development (Glaze, 2002; Hockey, 2004). Using a lifelong learning perspective (Jarvis, 2009), the purpose of this article is to explore, through a reflective self-study, my process of learning throughout the PhD degree. In this…
Jordan, Katy; Howe, Christine
Postgraduate students involved in delivering undergraduate teaching while working toward a research degree are known as graduate teaching assistants (GTAs). This study focused upon the problems and benefits arising from this dual role as researchers and teachers, as perceived by GTAs at the University of Cambridge. To this end, GTAs at Cambridge…
Conclusion: Fourth year students believed that pharmacy education and practice affect the health care system. Their favorite career areas were clinical pharmacy, industrial pharmacy, and hospital pharmacy. Personal interest was the most important factor involved in this selection. Most of them were interested in pharmacy-related research activities.
This study explored what motivated 6 Chinese international students to complete a PhD in science, technology, engineering, and math fields in the United States despite perceived dissatisfaction. This study was grounded in the value-expectancy achievement motivation theory and incorporated a Confucian cultural lens to understand motivation. Four…
Full Text Available Mohammad Yusuf Abdoolraheem,1 Mohammad Farwana2 1GKT School of Medical Education, King’s College London, UK; 2Frimley Health Foundation Trust, Camberley, UKWe read with great interest the research article published by Aggarwal and Khan1 concerning the experiences of final-year medical students in terms of both cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and discussions of advanced directives during clinical placements. While we would agree with the concluding opinion that there should be standardized formal education concerning CPR and “Do Not Attempt CPR” (DNACPR; the knowledge and skills developed during theoretical and simulation based teaching should also be complemented by clinical exposure to various scenarios such that the students are more prepared prior to starting their Foundation year training. View the original paper by Aggarwal and Khan.
Karpinski, Aryn C.
Objective. To examine racial differences in communication apprehension and interprofessional socialization in fourth-year PharmD students and to investigate the relationship between the two constructs. Methods. Two measures with reliability and validity psychometric evidence were administered to fourth-year pharmacy students at a single historically black university with a large racial minority population. The Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24) measures level of fear or anxiety associated with communication. The Interprofessional Socialization and Valuing Scale (ISVS) measures beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors towards interprofessional collaborative practice. Results. One hundred fourteen students completed the survey. This produced a 77.4% response rate and 45.6% of the participants were African American. There were significant differences between races (ie, White, African-American, and Asian) on both measures. The PCRA-24 and ISVS were significantly correlated in each racial group. Conclusion. As pharmacy education moves to more interprofessional collaborations, the racial differences need to be considered and further explored. Pharmacy curricula can be structured to promote students’ comfort when communicating interprofessionally across racial groups. Understanding of culture and early education in cultural competence may need to be emphasized to navigate racial or cultural differences. PMID:26941434
Larkin, Gregory Luke; Mello, Michael J
Possessed of both instinct and intellect, physician teachers are required to be respectful exemplars of professionalism and interpersonal ethics in all environments, be it the hospital, classroom, or outside the educational setting. Sometimes, even while protecting the sanctity of the teacher-student relationship, they may surreptitiously find themselves in the throes of consensual intimacy, boundary violations, student exploitation, or other negative interpersonal and/or departmental dynamics. One may question how an academic can consistently resolve this tension and summon the temperance, humility, charity, and restraint needed to subdue lust, pride, abuse, and incontinence in the workplace. One important answer may lie in an improved understanding of the moral necessity of social cooperation, fairness, reciprocity, and respect that is constitutive of the physician-teacher role. Although normative expectations and duties have been outlined in extant codes of ethics and conduct within academic medicine, to date, few training programs currently teach faculty and residents about the ethics of appropriate pedagogic and intimate relations between teaching staff and students, interns, residents, researchers, and other trainees. This essay highlights examples from history, literature, and medical ethics as one small step toward filling this void.
Full Text Available The analysis of the scientific - methodical sources. We prove the feasibility of using an integrative approach in the training of future health professionals. Scientists are perspectives on the essence of the concept of integration, their position relative to integrative learning in higher education. Integrative learning is seen as a new educational technology. The basic components of the integration of modern science: Interscience synthesis, synthesis of methodological, social synthesis. It is found that an integrative technology is based on the principles of integrative and personal - oriented education. Reveals the main ways of implementing these principles: the design of interdisciplinary integration, the identification of the same type of interdisciplinary topics; orientation training content on the personality of the student, the formation integrity valeological knowledge and practical skills (in the context valeological behavior. Lit their own opinions of the authors on the formation valeological competence of students of medical colleges in the integration environment. Predicted the final result of this process - a methodological willingness of future health professionals to use valeological component in professional activities.
This article attends to the affective-political dimensions of doctoral aspiration. It considers why doctoral students continue to hope for an 'academic good life' in spite of the depressed and precarious features of the academic present. The article emerges from 2013 research with ten doctoral students in the Arts and Social Sciences, at a…
Muniz Janaína Barbosa
Full Text Available Asthma results from a combination of three essential features: airflow obstruction, hyperresponsiveness of airways to endogenous or exogenous stimuli and inflammation. Inadequacy of the techniques to use different inhalation devices is one of the causes of therapeutic failure. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate how 20 medical students, 36 resident physicians of Internal Medicine/Pediatrics, and 40 asthma patients used three devices for inhalation therapy containing placebo. All patients were followed at the Pulmonary Outpatient Service of Botucatu Medical School and had been using inhaled medication for at least six months. The following devices were evaluated: metered dose inhalers (MDI, dry powder inhalers (DPI, and MDI attached to a spacer device. A single observer applied a protocol containing the main steps necessary to obtain a good inhaler technique to follow and grade the use of different devices. Health care professionals tested all three devices and patients tested only the device being used on their management. MDI was the device best known by doctors and patients. MDI use was associated with errors related to the coordination between inspiration and device activation. Failure to exhale completely before inhalation of the powder was the most frequent error observed with DPI use. In summary, patients did not receive precise instruction on how to use inhaled medication and health care professionals were not well prepared to adequately teach their patients.
Duke, Dawn C; Denicolo, Pam M
Over the past two decades, there has been a flurry of government papers and policy reports worldwide calling for increased number and diversity of doctoral researchers and a broadening of the curriculum to meet the developing needs of respective national 'knowledge-driven' economies. This has been followed by position papers and best practice examples of employability skills development in boundary-crossing doctoral programmes, especially in response to these initiatives. However, there is a disassociation between this ample literature expounding the new doctorate with its broader remit, inclusivity and production of 'industry-ready' graduates and the comparatively sparse literature on the doctoral candidates' experiences of their programmes and career readiness. Within this review, we briefly outline international government initiatives and examples of the responses by Life Science and Biomedical doctoral programmes to address these various challenges. Furthermore, we explore the recent literature on the lived experience of doctoral researchers by examining their perception of the recent changes to the research context to make recommendations for universities and supervisors on how to better support an ever more diverse doctoral population for a wide range of career opportunities. Examples of how doctoral researchers themselves can make the best of currently available opportunities are also provided. © FEMS 2017.
Quality health care is an issue of concern worldwide, and nursing can and must play a major and global role in transforming the healthcare environment. Doctorally prepared nurses are very much needed in the discipline to further develop and expand the science, as well as to prepare its future educators, scholars, leaders, and policy makers. In 1968, the Master of Science in Nursing Program was initiated in Turkey, followed by the Nursing Doctoral Education Program in 1972. Six University Schools of Nursing provide nursing doctoral education. By the graduating year of 2001, 154 students had graduated with the Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing (Ph.D.), and 206 students were enrolled in related courses. Many countries in the world are systematically building various collaborative models in their nursing doctoral education programs. Turkey would like to play an active role in creating collaborative nursing doctoral education programs with other countries. This paper centres on the structure and model of doctoral education for nurses in Turkey. It touches on doctoral programs around the world; describes in detail nursing doctoral education in Turkey, including its program structure, admission process, course units, assessment strategies and dissertation procedure; and discusses efforts to promote Turkey as a potential partner in international initiatives to improve nursing doctoral education.
Doctors’ relationship with patients and their role in society is changing. Until the 1960s doctors concentrated on the welfare of patients with less emphasis placed on patients’ rights1. Over recent decades there has been increasing empowerment of the individual across all facets of society including health care. Doctors continue to be perceived as having expertise and authority over medical science. Patients, however, now hold sway over questions of values or preferences. We all must be aware of this change in the doctor- patient interaction. We need to be more aware of the outcomes that patients view as important. The concept of shared decision-making with the patient is now widely appreciated. The process involves a change in mind set particularly for doctors who trained in an earlier era.
1 ABSTRACT The aim of this text is to provide an analysis of the phenomenon of spin doctoring in the Euro-Atlantic area. Spin doctors are educated people in the fields of semiotics, cultural studies, public relations, political communication and especially familiar with the infrastructure and the functioning of the media industry. Critical reflection of manipulative communication techniques puts spin phenomenon in historical perspective and traces its practical use in today's social communica...
Hwang, Kun; Lee, Seung Jae; Kim, Seong Yeon; Hwang, Se Won; Kim, Ae Yang
Purpose: In South Korean ferry disaster in 2014, the captain abandoned the ship with passengers including high school students still aboard. We noticed the resemblance of abandoning the ship with passengers still aboard the ferry (named the Sewol) and the ship Patna, which was full of pilgrims, in Joseph Conrad’s novel “Lord Jim.” The aim of this study is to see how medical students think about the role of a medical doctor as a captain of a ship by analyzing book reports on Conrad’s “Lord Jim...
Smith, T A; Salts, C J; Smith, C W
While the number of Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) has grown tremendously, opportunities for marriage and family therapists in EAP settings have not been adequately described. This paper addresses issues pertinent to training Marriage and Family Therapy (MFT) students to develop the skills needed to become EAP professionals. Qualifications for becoming an EAP professional are described and suggestions are made as to how these skills may be taught within the framework of an academically based MFT training program.
Scott P. Kerlin
Full Text Available This article probes the implications of neo-conservative public education policies for the future of the academic profession through a detailed examination of critical issues shaping contemporary doctoral education in U.S. and Canadian universities. Institutional and social factors such as financial retrenchment, declining support for affirmative action, downward economic mobility, a weak academic labor market for tenure-track faculty, professional ethics in graduate education, and backlash against women's progress form the backdrop for analysis of the author's survey of current doctoral students' opinions about funding, support, the job market, and quality of learning experiences.
Gonsalves, Allison J.
Doctoral physics students have stories about what kinds of actions, behaviours and ways of doing physics allow individuals to be recognized as physicists. Viewing a physics department as a case study, and individual participants as embedded cases, this study used a sociocultural approach to examine the ways doctoral students construct these stories about becoming physicists. Through observations, photo-elicitation, and life history interviews, eleven men and women shared stories about their experiences with physics, and the contexts that have enabled or constrained their trajectories into doctoral physics. The results of this study revealed the salience of recognition in the constitution of physicist identities; but how recognition was achieved often entailed the reproduction or reworking of persistent discourses of gender norms. Various interchangeable forms of competence (technical, analytical, and academic) emerged as assets that can be used to achieve recognition in this physics community. However, competence was not the only means by which one might be recognized as a physicist. Contributing to the possibility for recognition was the performance of stereotypical Discourses for physicist that relied on traditional gender norms for the field. The results demonstrated that achieving recognition as a competent physicist often involved a complex negotiation of gender roles and the practice of physics.
Full Text Available The content of three stages of training of technologies of development of physical capacity is revealed. The efficiency of the solution of the set tasks of the research by means of implementation of the methodology of teaching technology development of physical fitness of students - future doctors is shown. The proposed method of teaching the technologies of the development of physical fitness of students - future doctors aimed at the introduction of differentiated tasks, methods, forms and means aimed at the development of physical fitness of students, taking into account their physical preparedness, and provided for the unity of general and special training of students - future doctors for future professional activities. The proposed author's technique envisaged three main stages of teaching technology of physical fitness development for students - future physicians. The initial stage of training was aimed at the development of general endurance, improvement of the functions of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, strengthening the musculoskeletal system of students, which was achieved by the gradual retraction of the body into work, which was expressed in elongation of the running distance, walking while maintaining a uniform pace. At the second stage, students were offered exercises with an increase in the volume of loading in the mixed aerobic-anaerobic mode of energy supply in accordance with the state of health, physical and functional preparedness of students, while applying a continuous unified work in the form of cross-country running, paced Scandinavian walking in a wide range speeds, as well as continuous variable work, while turning to circular training. In the third stage, if students had a good level of physical fitness, we continued to increase gradually not only the amount of training loads, but also increased the intensity of exercises. But in most cases, when the increased requirements to the level of development of
Storm, Cheryl L.
Describes masters level course for marriage and family therapists that teaches systemic underpinnings of field while also addressing feminist critique of ideas. Notes goal of course is for students to understand and adopt gender sensitive view; students then have a yardstick as they study and evaluate marriage and family therapy theories, observe…
Full Text Available The article presents the biographical data of John Langdon Down, his invaluable contribution to the development of rehabilitation programs for children with Down syndrome. The basis of these programs was the socialization of people with intellectual disabilities. In doctor Down’s rehabilitation center there were used methods, including health care, education, physical education, the formation of correct behavior.
Wisker, Gina; Robinson, Gill; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard
Much international doctoral learning research focuses on personal, institutional and learning support provided by supervisors, managed relationships,‘nudging’ robust, conceptual, critical, creative work. Other work focuses on stresses experienced in supervisor-student relationships and doctoral...... journeys. Some considers formal and informal learning communities supporting students on research journeys, and roles played by families, friends and others, sometimes o ering encouragement and sometimes added stress. However, little has been explored concerning often uno cial, largely unrecognised...... sanctioned (‘lightside’), and less well recognised often unsanctioned (‘darkside’) on doctoral research and writing learning journey, instigating questions about doctoral student needs, and the range of support provided, both legitimate, well known, less legitimate. This work concentrates on the ‘darkside’....
Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth; Piert, Joyce; Militello, Matthew
In this article, the authors use their personal narratives and collaborative portraits as methods to shed light on the complexities of developing a research identity while journeying through a doctoral program. Using the metaphors of a wanderer, a chameleon, and a warrior, their narratives represent portraits of experiences faced by doctoral…
Youdas, James W.; Krause, David A.; Hellyer, Nathan J.; Rindflesch, Aaron B.; Hollman, John H.
Medical professionals and public consumers expect that new physical therapy graduates possess cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills required to provide safe and high-quality care to patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if a repertoire of ten professional behaviors assessed at the beginning of doctorate of physical therapy…
Williamson, Madeline J.; Fenske, Robert H.
In response to concern about the supply of minority faculty available to replace retiring academics, a study investigated academic achievement in doctoral programs by two of the United States' fastest-growing subpopulations, Mexican-Americans (MA) and American Indians (AI). The objectives were to establish a conceptual framework, to refine…
Full Text Available Objective: At the University of Leipzig, the requirements of the Licensing Regulations for Doctors (Approbationsordnung für Ärzte for the practical training of communication skills are actively implemented by a two-semester communication course. During this course, student tutors impart the basics of interpersonal as well as selected aspects of doctor-patient communication using interactive training methods. This article reports on the effect the training has on the self-assessed communication skills of the medicine students.Methods: The students’ self-perceived communication skills were assessed, both at the beginning and after the completion of the first and second course semesters using questionnaires related to the course’s learning goals. Pre-post comparisons were then carried out. 142 students (of 163 students in total participated in the survey at the start of the course, of which 117 completed the T2-questionnaire at the end of the first course semester. Only the 84 students who also completed the questionnaires in the second course semester were included in the statistical analysis. These responses were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics.Results: The comparison of the self-assessments between the four measurement points showed that statistically significant learning progress for all assessed communication skills had taken place from the point of view of the students. The largest changes between measurements, and therefore the greatest learning progress, could be seen in knowledge related skills.Conclusion: From the students’ point of view the communication training contributes significantly to the acquisition of communication skills. The results suggest that this “hands-on” course concept is suited to successfully enhance the students’ communication skills. The course concept should therefore be retained for both the course in its current form as well as for any extension of the course into the
Ullrich, Lauren; Dumanis, Sonya B; Evans, Tanya M; Jeannotte, Alexis M; Leonard, Carrie; Rozzi, Summer J; Taylor, Caitlin M; Gale, Karen; Kanwal, Jagmeet S; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A; Wolfe, Barry B; Forcelli, Patrick A
A key facet of professional development is the formation of professional identity. At its most basic level, professional identity for a scientist centers on mastery of a discipline and the development of research skills during doctoral training. To develop a broader understanding of professional identity in the context of doctoral training, the Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate (CID) ran a multi-institutional study from 2001 to 2005. A key outcome of the CID was the development of the concept of 'stewards of the discipline'. The Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience (IPN) at Georgetown University participated in CID from 2003 to 2005. Here, we describe the IPN and highlight the programmatic developments resulting from participation in the CID. In particular, we emphasize programmatic activities that are designed to promote professional skills in parallel with scientific development. We describe activities in the domains of leadership, communication, teaching, public outreach, ethics, collaboration, and mentorship. Finally, we provide data that demonstrate that traditional metrics of academic success are not adversely affected by the inclusion of professional development activities in the curricula. By incorporating these seven 'professional development' activities into the required coursework and dissertation research experience, the IPN motivates students to become stewards of the discipline.
other students' outcomes by employing data from a matched sample of S&E doctoral students trained at the Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers, I/UCRCs (N=173), and doctoral students from the same universities and disciplines who were trained more traditionally (N=87). Two exploratory path models demonstrate the important role of availability of network resources and proxy for mobilizing them on students' perceived career preparedness and satisfaction with their training. Study 2 is a case study of one I/UCRC's whole social network. The researcher attempts to provide a better understanding of the embeddedness components of students' social capital in their I/UCRC network. The case study has significant limitations in that findings cannot be generalized to the population of I/UCRC students. Nevertheless, findings are interesting for the one I/UCRC. The students scored significantly higher on preparedness when they had higher out-degree centrality, indicator of how much they reach out to other center's personnel. Also, a visual representation of the whole I/UCRC social network could be used to understand better students' embeddedness. Both studies show that social capital is a very hard concept to measure mainly because of its different dimensions. Nevertheless, they also show that social capital is a useful tool for comparing students' outcomes in different STI programs. A focus on students and social capital is one of the ways the S&T human capital model can be applied in evaluation of the STI programs. Such focus provides a considerable contrast to linear STI metrics that focus on long-term outcomes and often exclude students all together. It is important to provide information about the human side of science in its current state including students' graduate training, experiences and social networks. In addition, inclusion of students provides a view into the future - an opportunity to look at science of tomorrow as the same students will be part of the
Cresswell, Penelope; Monrouxe, Lynn V
Compliance to hygiene behaviours has long been recognised as important in the prevention and control of healthcare associated infections, but medical doctors still display some of the lowest rates of compliance of all healthcare workers. We aim to understand compliance to hygiene behaviours by analysing medical students', junior doctors' and medical educators' narratives of these behaviours to identify their respective attitudes and beliefs around compliance and how these are learnt during training. Such an understanding can inform future interventions to improve compliance targeted to areas of greatest need. A qualitative study, using narrative interviews (nine focus groups and one individual interview). Data were analysed thematically using inductive framework analysis. Teaching hospitals in the UK. Convenience sample of 25 participants: third-year medical students in their first clinical year (n=13), junior doctors (n=6) and medical educators (n=6). We identified four main themes: (1) knowledge, (2) constraints, (3) role models/culture and (4) hygiene as an added extra. Knowledge varied across participant groups and appeared to influence behaviours; medical students relied on what they have been told by seniors, while medical educators relied on their own knowledge and experience. There was a strong belief that evidence for the effectiveness of good hygiene behaviours is lacking. Furthermore, medical educators' behaviour appears to strongly influence others. Finally, hygiene was predominately viewed as an added extra rather than an integral part of the process. Awareness of the evidence around good hygiene needs to be improved at all levels. Medical students and junior doctors should be encouraged to consider why they are asked to perform certain hygiene behaviours in order to improve ownership of those behaviours. Medical educators need to recognise their responsibilities as role models for their junior counterparts, thereby understanding their role in
Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner
Doctoral education covers the “third cycle” of degrees following the bachelor’s and the master’s degree. The education of researchers is necessary for developing music therapy as a scientific discipline and calls for a certain research culture that not only brings knowledge on research...... with an integration of science and practice. This leads to a description of the principles of problem-based learning as a social constructive approach, problematization, self-directed learning and learning community. The chapter is concluded with an example of a model of doctoral education, the Aalborg model, where...... the coursework, supervision, and curriculum is based on problem-based learning. About the book: 'International Perspectives in Music Therapy Education and Training: Adapting to a Changing World,' the first anthology of its kind, edited by Professor Karen Goodman, brings noted educators from Brazil, Canada...
Staff members of the Agency working at the Seibersdorf laboratory are continuing to achieve high academic distinction. Two more - both Austrian - have now been awarded the degree of Doctor of Agriculture. Joachim Kramer, who is 26, graduated from the Hochschule fur Bodenkultur in 1967 with the degree of Diplom-Ingenieur and then started work in the plant breeding and genetics section of the laboratory under the direction of Dr. Knut Mikaelsen. The results of the research work he carried out were accepted as the subject of a thesis for which he has now been granted his doctorate. The doctoral promotion took place on 30 June, at a ceremony attended by Dr. Andre Finkelstein, Deputy Director General for Research and Isotopes. The subject of Dr. Kramer's thesis was a comprehensive study of the mutagenic effects of fast neutrons and gamma rays, and the influence of various modifying factors such as water content, oxygen and metabolic state of seeds at the time of irradiation. This work has contributed significantly to the understanding of the mechanisms by which these two types of ionizing radiation produce mutations in seeds. The knowledge gained will be of great importance in the efficient use of ionizing radiation in practical plant breeding. Paul Wassermann, who is 33 years old, joined the Agency in 1965. He, too, graduated from the Hochschule fur Bodenkultur as Diplom-Ingenieur in agriculture, having graduated with honours previously from the agricultural secondary school at Raumberg, Austria, in 1958. Dr. Wassermann's own words may be used to explain how he came to gain his doctorate. 'In October, 1966, I completed my studies at the Hochschule,' he writes. 'I was employed at the Agency laboratories in Seibersdorf, working in the plant and soils group. Encouraged by the interesting research which was performed there, a thesis entitled 'the Fate of Nitrogen in Submerged Rice Soils' was started, which finally led to the doctor's degree in Agriculture in June this year
Elliott, Naomi; Farnum, Karen; Beauchesne, Michelle
Although graduates of doctor of nursing practice (DNP) programs are expected to demonstrate competence in advanced clinical scholarship, mentoring, and leadership, little is published about how team debate on a global health care topic supports DNP student learning and skill development. This article reports on an illuminative evaluation of DNP student learning experiences of team debate in the context of a 2-week international school program in Ireland. A focused illuminative evaluation approach involving a cohort of seven DNP students, who had participated in an international school team debate, was used. Data were collected using a Web-based qualitative questionnaire designed to elicit in-depth reflective accounts of DNP students' learning experiences. Content analysis revealed that team debate on a global health care topic enhanced learning in relation to fostering critical thinking and critical appraisal skills; encouraging teamwork; providing opportunities for mentoring, relationship building, and socialization into profession; and, from the DNP student perspective, increasing knowledge and global understanding of health care. This evaluation provides insights for nurse educators into the benefits of introducing team debate as a group activity to enhancing scholarly inquiry and mentoring skills of DNP students. Further research to evaluate team debate in other nurse education programs is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fisher, James M; Rudd, Matthew P; Walker, Richard W; Stewart, Jane
In recognition of the fact that elder abuse is a global problem that doctors underrecognize and underreport, a simulation training session for undergraduate medical students was developed. The primary objective of this qualitative study was to examine barriers to and drivers of medical students making a diagnosis of elder abuse in simulated practice, with the goal of refining teaching methods and informing future teaching sessions for other clinical teachers. Third-year medical students (Newcastle University, United Kingdom) undertook a simulation scenario with a high-fidelity mannequin representing an elder abuse victim. After the simulation scenario, students underwent a semistructured debriefing. A tripartite approach to data collection was employed that included audio recordings of the simulation, data sheets capturing students' thoughts during the scenario, and postscenario debriefing. A different researcher analyzed each data set in isolation before discussions were held to triangulate findings from the data sets. Forty-six students undertook the scenario; none declined to participate. A number of barriers to students diagnosing elder abuse were identified. Students held a low index of suspicion for elder abuse and were overly optimistic regarding the etiology of the individual's injuries. Students lacked the confidence to raise concerns about possible elder abuse, believing that certainty was required before doing so. There was widespread confusion about nomenclature. These findings provide clinical teachers with important topic areas to address in future teaching sessions. Simulation, as a method to teach about elder abuse in a reproducible and immersive fashion, is recommended to clinical teachers. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.
Turner, Paul D.; Monaghan, Michael S.; Walters, Ryan W.; Merkel, Jennifer J.; Lipschultz, Jeremy H.; Lenz, Thomas L.
Objective To examine faculty members' and students' expectations and perceptions of e-mail communication in a dual pathway pharmacy program. Methods Three parallel survey instruments were administered to campus students, distance students, and faculty members, respectively. Focus groups with students and faculty were conducted. Results Faculty members perceived themselves as more accessible and approachable by e-mail than either group of students did. Campus students expected a shorter faculty response time to e-mail and for faculty members to be more available than did distance students. Conclusion E-mail is an effective means of computer-mediated communication between faculty members and students and can be used to promote a sense of community and inclusiveness (ie, immediacy), especially with distant students. PMID:21436932
Christensen, Mette Krogh; Lund, Ole
Scholarly communities are dependent on and often measured by their ability to attract and develop doctoral students. Recent literature suggests that most scholarly communities entail ecological niches in which the doctoral students learn the codes and practices of research. In this article, we...... successful doctoral education because it: 1) fleshes out the professional attitude that is necessary for becoming a successful researcher in the department, 2) shapes and adapts the doctoral students’ desires to grasp and identify with the department’s practices, and 3) provides the doctoral students...... explore the microclimate in an ecological niche of doctoral education. Based on a theoretical definition of microclimate as the emotional atmosphere that ties group members together and affects their actions, we conducted a case study that aimed to describe the key features of the microclimate...
Boyle, Cynthia J.; Janke, Kristin K.
Objective. To assist administrators and faculty members in colleges and schools of pharmacy by gathering expert opinion to frame, direct, and support investments in student leadership development. Methods. Twenty-six leadership instructors participated in a 3-round, online, modified Delphi process to define doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) student leadership instruction. Round 1 asked open-ended questions about leadership knowledge, skills, and attitudes to begin the generation of student leadership development guiding principles and competencies. Statements were identified as guiding principles when they were perceived as foundational to the instructional approach. Round 2 grouped responses for agreement rating and comment. Group consensus with a statement as a guiding principle was set prospectively at 80%. Round 3 allowed rating and comment on guidelines, modified from feedback in round 2, that did not meet consensus. The principles were verified by identifying common contemporary leadership development approaches in the literature. Results. Twelve guiding principles, related to concepts of leadership and educational philosophy, were defined and could be linked to contemporary leadership development thought. These guiding principles describe the motivation for teaching leadership, the fundamental precepts of student leadership development, and the core tenets for leadership instruction. Conclusions. Expert opinion gathered using a Delphi process resulted in guiding principles that help to address many of the fundamental questions that arise when implementing or refining leadership curricula. The principles identified are supported by common contemporary leadership development thought. PMID:24371345
Traynor, Andrew P; Boyle, Cynthia J; Janke, Kristin K
To assist administrators and faculty members in colleges and schools of pharmacy by gathering expert opinion to frame, direct, and support investments in student leadership development. Twenty-six leadership instructors participated in a 3-round, online, modified Delphi process to define doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) student leadership instruction. Round 1 asked open-ended questions about leadership knowledge, skills, and attitudes to begin the generation of student leadership development guiding principles and competencies. Statements were identified as guiding principles when they were perceived as foundational to the instructional approach. Round 2 grouped responses for agreement rating and comment. Group consensus with a statement as a guiding principle was set prospectively at 80%. Round 3 allowed rating and comment on guidelines, modified from feedback in round 2, that did not meet consensus. The principles were verified by identifying common contemporary leadership development approaches in the literature. Twelve guiding principles, related to concepts of leadership and educational philosophy, were defined and could be linked to contemporary leadership development thought. These guiding principles describe the motivation for teaching leadership, the fundamental precepts of student leadership development, and the core tenets for leadership instruction. Expert opinion gathered using a Delphi process resulted in guiding principles that help to address many of the fundamental questions that arise when implementing or refining leadership curricula. The principles identified are supported by common contemporary leadership development thought.
Aaberg, Anne Marie Roust; Larsen, Caroline Emilie Brenner; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen
BACKGROUND: Early recognition and immediate bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation are critical determinants of survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Our aim was to evaluate current knowledge on basic life support (BLS) in Danish high school students and benefits of a single...... training session run by junior doctors. METHODS: Six-hundred-fifty-one students were included. They underwent one 45-minute BLS training session including theoretical aspects and hands-on training with mannequins. The students completed a baseline questionnaire before the training session and a follow...... areas of BLS is poor among high school students. One hands-on training session run by junior doctors seems to be efficient to empower the students to be first responders to OHCA....
Aitchison, Claire; Catterall, Janice; Ross, Pauline; Burgin, Shelley
Contemporary changes to the doctorate mean student researchers are likely to be expected to write differently, write more and more often, and yet, despite a growing interest in doctoral education, we still know relatively little about the teaching and learning practices of students and supervisors vis-a-vis doctoral writing. This paper draws from…
Holm, Søren; Hofmann, Bjørn
A precondition for reducing scientific misconduct is evidence about scientists' attitudes. We need reliable survey instruments, and this study investigates the reliability of Kalichman's "Survey 2: research misconduct" questionnaire. The study is a post hoc analysis of data from three surveys among biomedical doctoral students in Scandinavia (2010-2015). We perform reliability analysis, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis using a split-sample design as a partial validation. The results indicate that a reliable 13-item scale can be formed (Cronbach's α = .705), and factor analysis indicates that there are four reliable subscales each tapping a different construct: (a) general attitude to misconduct (α = .768), (b) attitude to personal misconduct (α = .784), (c) attitude to whistleblowing (α = .841), and (d) attitude to blameworthiness/punishment (α = .877). A full validation of the questionnaire requires further research. We, nevertheless, hope that the results will facilitate the increased use of the questionnaire in research.
Niemczyk, Ewalina Kinga
Graduate students' development as researchers is a key objective in higher education internationally. Research assistantships (RAships) nurture graduate students as novice researchers as they develop theoretical and methodological knowledge. However, few studies have investigated the ways institutional regulations, informal practices, and…
This award covers field research expenses for advanced doctoral students who intend ... serious security challenges, IDRC may ask you to delay your field research, .... Women candidates applying to IDRC Doctoral Research Awards calls in ...
Nationaler Kompetenzbasierter Lernzielkatalog Medizin (NKLM für Deutschland: Zusammenarbeit der Gesellschaft für Medizinische Ausbildung (GMA und des Medizinischen Fakultätentages (MFT [National Competence-Based Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM in Germany: Cooperation of the Association for Medical Education (GMA and the Association of Medical Faculties in Germany (MFT
Hahn, Eckhart G.
Full Text Available [english] The Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area (FQ-EHEA; Bologna Process and the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning (EQF-LLL; Lisbon Process are competence-driven frameworks for vocational and higher education programmes in need for defined learning objectives. In the field of medical education, The Netherlands and Switzerland have developed national catalogues for undergraduate medical training, which are competence-based and compatible with a two-cycle curriculum comprised of a Bachelor in Medicine and a Master in Medicine. In Germany, virtually all medical organizations, last not least the Association of Medical Faculties (MFT, have voted against the application of the two-cycle (and the three-cycle curriculum to medical undergraduate education. A standstill of the European processes will not be accepted in the political arena, and a proposition was made by the Conference of German Ministers of Higher Education to develop a medical qualification framework for Germany, asking the Association for Medical Education (GMA and the MFT to join forces. This is not possible without consented national learning objectives derived from the professional context of physicians. The GMA has teamed up with the MFT to develop National Competence-Based Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM in Germany (see Figure 1 to fulfill these needs.
Charles D. Kamilos
Full Text Available At some seminaries the question of who is more effective teaching library research is an open question. There are two camps of thought: (1 that the program faculty member is more effective in providing library research instruction as he or she is intimately engaged in the subject of the course(s, or (2 that the theological librarian is more effective in providing library research instruction as he or she is more familiar with the scope of resources that are available, as well as how to obtain “hard to get” resources. What began as a librarian’s interest in determining the extent to which Doctor of Ministry (DMin students begin their research using Google, resulted in the development of a survey. Given the interesting results returned from the first survey in fall of 2008, the survey was conducted again in the fall of 2011. The results of the comparative data led to the discovery of some useful data that will be used to adjust future instruction sessions for DMin students. The results of the surveys indicated that the instruction provided by the theological librarian was more effective as students were more prepared to obtain and use resources most likely to provide the best information for course projects. Additionally, following the instruction of library research skills by the librarian (2011 survey, DMin students were more likely to begin the search process for information resources using university provided catalogs and databases than what was reported in the 2008 survey. The responses to the two surveys piqued interest regarding both eBook use during the research process and the reduction of research frustration to be addressed in a follow-up survey to be given in 2014, results of which we hope to report in a future article.
Sethares, Kristen A; Morris, Nancy S
Peer review is an expectation of PhD-prepared nurses but a lack of evidence in the best methods to train students is of concern. Guided by the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) model, faculty at two universities developed, implemented, and evaluated a peer review assignment for 22 second-year PhD nursing students. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. Students reported the process of peer review was beneficial (82%) because it informed their own writing (59%), assisted them to read more critically (73%), and increased their appreciation of the role of peer review in the revision process (77%). Giving constructive feedback was difficult for students, but the feedback they received was helpful. Peer review is important to the development of science and an expectation of PhD-prepared nurses. Methods to include peer review in education are needed. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(6):342-344.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Minkara, Mona S.; Weaver, Michael N.; Gorske, Jim; Bowers, Clifford R.; Merz, Kenneth M., Jr.
There exists a sparse representation of blind and low-vision students in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. This is due in part to these individuals being discouraged from pursuing STEM degrees as well as a lack of appropriate adaptive resources in upper level STEM courses and research. Mona Minkara is a rising fifth…
Bereznicki, Hannah; Sutherland-Smith, Wendy; Horwood, Sharon
Much of the burden of undergraduate teaching in Australian higher education institutions falls to sessional staff and postgraduate students. These members of staff assume high teaching loads and administrative management responsibilities. This paper explores the perspectives of two female academics in the unique position of being the subject…
Park, Hee-Young; Berkowitz, Oren; Symes, Karen; Dasgupta, Shoumita
The goal of this study was to investigate associations between admissions criteria and performance in Ph.D. programs at Boston University School of Medicine. The initial phase of this project examined student performance in the classroom component of a newly established curriculum named "Foundations in Biomedical Sciences (FiBS)". Quantitative measures including undergraduate grade point average (GPA), graduate record examination (GRE; a standardized, computer-based test) scores for the verbal (assessment of test takers' ability to analyze, evaluate, and synthesize information and concepts provided in writing) and quantitative (assessment of test takers' problem-solving ability) components of the examination, previous research experience, and competitiveness of previous research institution were used in the study. These criteria were compared with competencies in the program defined as students who pass the curriculum as well as students categorized as High Performers. These data indicated that there is a significant positive correlation between FiBS performance and undergraduate GPA, GRE scores, and competitiveness of undergraduate institution. No significant correlations were found between FiBS performance and research background. By taking a data-driven approach to examine admissions and performance, we hope to refine our admissions criteria to facilitate an unbiased approach to recruitment of students in the life sciences and to share our strategy to support similar goals at other institutions.
Hall, Samuel; Stephens, Jonathan; Andrade, Teu; Davids, Joseph; Powell, Matthew; Border, Scott
Near-peer teaching involves more experienced students acting as tutors and has been widely used in anatomy education. This approach has many advantages for the learner due to the social and cognitive congruence they share with the teacher, however, the influence of distance between the teacher and learner on these congruences has yet to be…
Kimberly A. Griffin
Full Text Available While researchers, institutional leaders, and policymakers have made significant progress towards increasing undergraduate student diversity in the United States, diversity in graduate education has been less often studied and a more challenging goal on which to make progress. This qualitative study explores the roles and work of graduate diversity officers (GDOs in student recruitment activities with a focus on how race and issues of diversity manifest and influence this process. Interviews with fourteen GDOs at 11 different research universities in the United States highlight the phases in the graduate recruitment process, the manner in which diversity is considered at each stage, and GDOs’ perceptions of their ability to shape this process. Findings suggest that GDOs are important institutional agents in diversification efforts; however, faculty engagement and broad institutional commitment are required to increase diversity in graduate education due to GDOs’ often limited involvement in the admissions stage of the recruitment process, where race becomes the most salient in decision making.
Judie L. Brill
Full Text Available The aim of this critical literature review is to outline best practices in doctoral retention and the successful approach of one university to improve graduation success by providing effective mentorship for faculty and students alike. The focus of this literature review is on distance learning relationships between faculty and doctoral students, regarding retention, persistence, and mentoring models. Key phrases and words used in the search and focusing on mentoring resulted in over 20,000 sources. The search was narrowed to include only doctoral study and mentoring. Research questions of interest were: Why do high attrition rates exist for doctoral students? What are the barriers to retention? What are the benefits of doctoral mentoring? What programs do institutions have in place to reduce attrition? The researchers found a key factor influencing doctoral student retention and success is effective faculty mentorship. In particular, the design of a mentoring and faculty training program to increase retention and provide for success after graduation is important. This research represents a key area of interest in the retention literature, as institutions continue to search for ways to better support students during their doctoral programs and post-graduation. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v4i2.186
Traynor, Andrew P.; Boyle, Cynthia J.
Objective. To assist curriculum committees and leadership instructors by gathering expert opinion to define student leadership development competencies for pharmacy curricula. Methods. Twenty-six leadership instructors participated in a 3-round, online, modified Delphi process to define competencies for student leadership development in pharmacy curricula. Round 1 asked open-ended questions about leadership knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Round 2 grouped responses for agreement rating and comment. Round 3 allowed rating and comment on competencies not yet meeting consensus, which was prospectively set at 80%. Results. Eleven competencies attained 80% consensus or higher and were grouped into 3 areas: leadership knowledge, personal leadership commitment, and leadership skill development. Connections to contemporary leadership development literature were outlined for each competency as a means of verifying the panel’s work. Conclusions. The leadership competencies will aid students in addressing: What is leadership? Who am I as a leader? What skills and abilities do I need to be effective? The competencies will help curriculum committees and leadership instructors to focus leadership development opportunities, identify learning assessments, and define program evaluation. PMID:24371346
Janke, Kristin K; Traynor, Andrew P; Boyle, Cynthia J
To assist curriculum committees and leadership instructors by gathering expert opinion to define student leadership development competencies for pharmacy curricula. Twenty-six leadership instructors participated in a 3-round, online, modified Delphi process to define competencies for student leadership development in pharmacy curricula. Round 1 asked open-ended questions about leadership knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Round 2 grouped responses for agreement rating and comment. Round 3 allowed rating and comment on competencies not yet meeting consensus, which was prospectively set at 80%. Eleven competencies attained 80% consensus or higher and were grouped into 3 areas: leadership knowledge, personal leadership commitment, and leadership skill development. Connections to contemporary leadership development literature were outlined for each competency as a means of verifying the panel's work. The leadership competencies will aid students in addressing: What is leadership? Who am I as a leader? What skills and abilities do I need to be effective? The competencies will help curriculum committees and leadership instructors to focus leadership development opportunities, identify learning assessments, and define program evaluation.
de Leeuw, Peter W
To investigate how often doctors fall in love or are in a relationship with a colleague. Descriptive questionnaire. Doctors and medical students completed an online questionnaire during the summer of 2012. The questions concerned baseline characteristics as well as their feelings of happiness. In addition, we asked them whether they were in love or had ever been with a colleague and whether this had resulted in a steady relationship. A total of 401 individuals participated, of which 41% were male and 59% female. Their mean age was 40 years. Altogether, 40% of the participants indicated to be or have been in love with a colleague. This occurred more often in women than men. In 82% the relationship was of an equivalent nature; it was hierarchical in the remainder. In only 23% of cases, the relationship was steady; this was independent of age. Dermatologists appeared to be the least apt to fall in love with a colleague, while obstetricians had the highest rate. Although love between colleagues is a frequently occurring phenomenon, this is associated with a steady relationship in only about 25% of cases. There is wide variation among specialists in their proneness to intercollegial love.
Review of doctoral degree programs in Texas public colleges and universities is discussed. Attention is directed to review procedures and strengths and weaknesses in the state's doctoral programs in educational psychology, counseling and guidance, and student personnel services. Doctoral programs were reviewed because of their high cost and a…
If doctors take the costs of treatment into account when prescribing medication, their objectives differ from their patients' objectives because the patients are insured. This misalignment of interests hampers communication between patient and doctor. Giving cost incentives to doctors increases...... welfare if (i) the doctor's examination technology is sufficiently good or (ii) (marginal) costs of treatment are high enough. If the planner can costlessly choose the extent to which doctors take costs into account, he will opt for less than 100%. Optimal health care systems should implement different...... degrees of cost incentives depending on type of disease and/or doctor....
Purpose: Case Method Teaching approach is a teaching tool used commonly in business school to challenge students with real-world situations—i.e. cases. The students are placed in the role of the decision maker and have to provide a solution based on the multitude of information provided. Specifically, students must develop an ability to quickly make sense of a complex problem, provide a solution incorporating all of the objectives (at time conflicting) and constraints, and communicate that solution in a succinct, professional and effective manner. The validity of the solution is highly dependent on the auxiliary information provided in the case and the basic didactic knowledge of the student. A Case Method Teaching approach was developed and implemented into an on-going course focused on AAPM Task Group reports at UTHSCSA. Methods: A current course at UTHSCSA reviews and discusses 15 AAPM Task Group reports per semester. The course is structured into three topic modules: Imaging QA, Stereotactic Radiotherapy, and Special Patient Measurements—i.e. pacemakers, fetal dose. After a topic module is complete, the students are divided into groups (2–3 people) and are asked to review a case study related to the module topic. Students then provide a solution presented in an executive summary and class presentation. Results: Case studies were created to address each module topic. Through team work and whole-class discussion, a collaborative learning environment was established. Students additionally learned concepts such vendor relations, financial negotiations, capital project management, and competitive strategy. Conclusion: Case Method Teaching approach is an effective teaching tool to further enhance the learning experience of radiation oncology physics students by presenting them with though-provoking dilemmas that require students to distinguish pertinent from peripheral information, formulate strategies and recommendations for action, and confront obstacles to
Gutierrez, A [University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)
Purpose: Case Method Teaching approach is a teaching tool used commonly in business school to challenge students with real-world situations—i.e. cases. The students are placed in the role of the decision maker and have to provide a solution based on the multitude of information provided. Specifically, students must develop an ability to quickly make sense of a complex problem, provide a solution incorporating all of the objectives (at time conflicting) and constraints, and communicate that solution in a succinct, professional and effective manner. The validity of the solution is highly dependent on the auxiliary information provided in the case and the basic didactic knowledge of the student. A Case Method Teaching approach was developed and implemented into an on-going course focused on AAPM Task Group reports at UTHSCSA. Methods: A current course at UTHSCSA reviews and discusses 15 AAPM Task Group reports per semester. The course is structured into three topic modules: Imaging QA, Stereotactic Radiotherapy, and Special Patient Measurements—i.e. pacemakers, fetal dose. After a topic module is complete, the students are divided into groups (2–3 people) and are asked to review a case study related to the module topic. Students then provide a solution presented in an executive summary and class presentation. Results: Case studies were created to address each module topic. Through team work and whole-class discussion, a collaborative learning environment was established. Students additionally learned concepts such vendor relations, financial negotiations, capital project management, and competitive strategy. Conclusion: Case Method Teaching approach is an effective teaching tool to further enhance the learning experience of radiation oncology physics students by presenting them with though-provoking dilemmas that require students to distinguish pertinent from peripheral information, formulate strategies and recommendations for action, and confront obstacles to
This paper re-examines the widespread belief that doctors have a proneness for suicide greater than the general population. The Standardized Mortality Ratio for male physicians is 335 and for single women doctors 257. Doctors' wives have an even greater risk: their SMR is 458. These rates for doctors are higher than for most other professional groups (except pharmacists) and the rate for doctors' wives far exceeds that for wives of other professionals. The intrinsic causes of the physician's high occupational mortality include his knowledge of toxicology and ready access to lethal drugs, so that impulsive suicide is more often successful. Professional stress and overwork, particularly the unrelenting responsibility for decisions upon which the lives of others may depend, have been inculpated. These stresses interact with the decline in the doctors' self-respect and with a personality that is prestige-oriented and independent. Some physicians turn in their frustration to alcohol/and or drugs, accelerating the process of deterioration. The high suicide rate in doctors' wives appears to be the result of unrequited needs for caring and dependency which the doctors' career demands and personality deny them.
Doctoral education is a major priority for European universities. In the context of the Bologna Process the importance of doctoral education as the third cycle of higher education and the first stage of a young researchers career, and thus in linking the European Higher Education and Research Areas, was first highlighted in the 2003 Berlin Report. The core component of doctoral training is the advancement of knowledge through original research. considering the need for structured doctoral programs and the need for transparent supervision and assessment, we note that the normal workload of the third cycle in most countries would correspond 3-4 years full time. This is spirit of the new Spanish Doctoral Law. Then, universities should ensure that their doctoral programmes promote interdisciplinary training and the development of transferable skills, thus meeting the needs of the wider employment market. We need to achieve and overall increase in the numbers of doctoral candidates taking up research careers as early stage researchers and also increase the employability as a normal way as it is the case of other advance countries. In Spain, universities with doctoral nuclear programmes and the CIEMAT, with the sponsorship of the nuclear sector, a doctoral school in nuclear science and engineering should be created to enhance the research careers of Young students for the future of nuclear activities in Spain. (Author)
Full Text Available ... You Talking to Your Doctor Science Education Resources Community Resources Clear Health A–Z Publications List More » ... can play an active role in your health care by talking to your doctor. Clear and honest ...
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Full Text Available ... for the doctor’s contact information and their preferred method of communication. Remember that nurses and pharmacists are also good sources of information. How to Talk to your Doctor Talking With Your Doctor , NIH ...
Oliver Kisalay Burmeister
Full Text Available Professional doctorates in Information Technology (IT have been a relatively recent phenomenon, giving IT professionals career management choices not previously available to them. However, successful completion rates are the lowest of all disciplines. Completed doctorates rate in quality equivalent to PhDs, and retention has been identified as a major obstacle to completion. This qualitative study, involving 44 semi-structured interviews with students, supervisors and institutional support personnel, investigated the obstacles. Amongst the strategies discovered to improve completion rates were retention, student engagement with supervisors, feedback on progress, student engagement in the course, and student involvement in institutional communities of practice.
Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing prospects of actions manifested by future doctors in the beginning of their doctoral training. The research started through my involvement in the ambit of doctoral education in the curriculum component Epistemological Basis of Research on Education in Science and Mathematics, offered in the Postgraduate Course in Science and Mathematics Education, at Federal University of Pori (UFPA in 2010 academic year. At these meetings, the teachers trainers requested the doctoral students, in pairs, to elaborate three questions about the following positioning: "HOW DO I SEE MYSELF AS A DOCTOR?" These questions were discussed by all the doctoral students and subsequently reduced to five to be answered by all individually. The responses to this questionnaire provided the data for this research. The answers revealed that doctoral students are not tied to methodologies or unique processes, this positioning being demonstrated through prospects of performance in ways that were diverse and interactive
'The nice thing about doctors is that you can sometimes get a day off school': an action research study to bring lived experiences from children, parents and hospice staff into medical students' preparation for practice.
Spalding, Jessica; Yardley, Sarah
Patient and public involvement in healthcare is important to ensure services meet their needs and priorities. Increasingly, patient experiences are being used to educate healthcare professionals. The potential contribution to medical education of children and parents using hospice services has not yet been fully explored. (1) To explore perceptions of what medical students must learn to become 'good doctors' among children, parents and staff in a hospice. (2) To collaborate with children/parents and staff to develop educational materials based on their lived experiences for medical students. (3) To assess feasibility of student-led action research in a children's hospice to develop research skills. Prospective ethical approval received. Volunteer children (n=7), parents (n=5) and staff (n=6) were recruited from a children's hospice. Data were generated in audio-recorded semistructured focus groups, individual interviews and/or activity workshops. Participants discussed what newly qualified doctors' needed to care for children with life-limiting conditions. Audio data were transcribed and combined with visual data for thematic analysis. Findings were refined by participant feedback. This paper presents thematic findings and educational material created from the project. Thematic analysis identified six learning themes: (1) treat children as individuals; (2) act as a person before being a doctor; (3) interpersonal communication; (4) appreciate the clinical environment; (5) learn from children, parents and other staff; (6) how to be a doctor as part of a team. The student researcher successfully developed qualitative research skills, coproducing materials with participants for sharing learning derived from lived experiences. All participants were willing and able to make valuable contributions, and believed that this was a worthwhile use of time and effort. Further work is required to understand how best to integrate the experiences of children in hospices into
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Smith-Han, Kelby; Martyn, Helen; Barrett, Anthony; Nicholson, Helen
Experiencing the death of a patient can be one of the most challenging aspects of clinical medicine for medical students. Exploring what students' learn from this difficult experience may contribute to our understanding of how medical students become doctors, and provide insights into the role a medical school may play in this development. This research examined medical students' responses of being involved personally in the death of a patient. Ten undergraduate medical students were followed through their three years of clinical medical education. A total of 53 individual semi-structured interviews were conducted. Grounded theory analysis was used to analyze the data. Students illustrated a variety of experiences from the death of a patient. Three main themes from the analysis were derived: (i) Students' reactions to death and their means of coping. Experiencing the death of a patient led to students feeling emotionally diminished, a decrease in empathy to cope with the emotional pain and seeking encouragement through the comfort of colleagues; (ii) Changing perceptions about the role of the doctor, the practice of medicine, and personal identity. This involved a change in students' perceptions from an heroic curing view of the doctor's role to a role of caring, shaped their view of death as a part of life rather than something traumatic, and resulted in them perceiving a change in identity including dampening their emotions; (iii) Professional environment, roles and responsibilities. Students began to experience the professional environment of the hospital by witnessing the ordinariness of death, understanding their role in formalizing the death of a patient, and beginning to feel responsible for patients. Along with an integrative approach to facilitate students learning about death, we propose staff development targeting a working knowledge of the hidden curriculum. Knowledge of the hidden curriculum, along with the role staff play in exercising this influence
Balzac wrote his novels during a time of great literary and scientific change. Romanticism gave way to the school of realism, of which Balzac could be considered the founder. It was via realism, where both the positive and negative aspects of life were depicted, that doctors naturally gained a much more active role in novels. In conjunction with this was the development of science and medicine, which fascinated Balzac, also leading to the significant and prevalent role of doctors in his works. His fascination with the sciences led to him to gain many acquaintances and much knowledge in the medical domain, especially in neuropsychiatry and physiology. His fictional doctors, such as Desplein and Bianchon, thus demonstrate considerable knowledge of pathology, physiology, and neuropsychiatry. The doctors in Balzac's novels can be grouped into four categories: provincial doctors, Parisian doctors, country doctors, and military doctors. They were most often fictitious representations of real individuals (e.g. Guillaume Dupuytren), and often symbolize schools of thought which were in vogue at the time. In addition to the accurate scientific depiction of doctors, it must be noted that his doctors not only played an active role in clinically assessing their patients, but also had a sociological role in assessing society; it is through his doctors that Balzac gave his opinion of the world in which he lived. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
van der Merwe, Mathilde
Writing-for-publication is a practice that doctoral students should acquire for integration into international research culture. Publication rates and forms of pedagogy supporting the development of publication skills for doctoral students, however, remain inadequate worldwide. Limited data of doctoral student publication from African universities…
Beran, Roy G
The pharmaceutical industry is seen as seducing doctors by providing expensive gifts, subsidising travel and underwriting practice expenses in return for those doctors prescribing products that otherwise they would not use. This paints doctors in a very negative light; suggests doctors are available to the highest bidder; implies doctors do not adequately act as independent agents; and that doctors are driven more by self-interest than by patient needs. Similar practices, in other industries, are accepted as normal business behaviour but it is automatically assumed to be improper if the pharmaceutical industry supports doctors. Should the pharmaceutical industry withdraw educational grants then there would be: fewer scientific meetings; reduced attendance at conferences; limited post graduate education; and a depreciated level of maintenance of professional standards. To suggest that doctors prescribe inappropriately in return for largesse maligns their integrity but where there is no scientific reason to choose between different treatments then there can be little argument against selecting the product manufactured by a company that has invested in the doctor and the question arises as to whether this represents bad medicine? This paper will examine what constitutes non-professional conduct in response to inducements by the pharmaceutical industry. It will review: conflict of interest; relationships between doctors and pharma and the consequences for patients; and the need for critical appraisal before automatically decrying this relationship while accepting that there remain those who do not practice ethical medicine.
It is important to understand the thought patterns of students and supervisors that underlie the choice of paradigm and determine the progression of doctoral studies as an integral part of articulating scholarship at the doctoral level and subsequently, to completing the research. This paper traces a student's and a supervisor's ...
Lahenius, K.; Martinsuo, M.
The duration of doctoral studies has increased in Europe. Personal study planning has been considered as one possible solution to help students in achieving shorter study times. This study investigates how doctoral students experience and use personal study plans in one university department of industrial engineering. The research material…
Matheson, Catherine B; Matheson, David J; Saunders, John H; Howarth, Claire
The UK General Medical Council recommends that medical students have the opportunity of shadowing the outgoing new doctor whose post they will soon undertake. At the University of Nottingham the two-week shadowing period was preceded by two weeks of lectures/seminars wherein students followed sessions on topics such as common medical/surgical emergencies, contracts, time management, surviving the first two years of clinical practice, careers advice and so on. The present study aimed to gain a better knowledge and understanding of the lasting impact of a four-week preparation course for new Foundation Year 1 doctors [F1 s - interns]. The objectives chosen to achieve this aim were: 1/ to determine the extent to which the lecture/seminar course and shadowing period achieved their stated aim of smoothing the transition from life as a medical student to work as a new doctor; 2/ to evaluate perceptions of the importance of various forms of knowledge in easing the transition between medical student and new doctor In the spring of 2007, 90 graduates from Nottingham were randomly selected and then emailed a link to a short, online survey of quantitative and qualitative questions. Of these 76 responded. Analysis of quantitative data was carried out using SPSS 16.0 and employed McNemar's test. Analysis of the qualitative data was carried out using the constant comparative method. Only 31% of respondents strongly agreed or agreed that the lecture/seminar part of the course prepared them well for their first FY1 post; 14% agreed that during their first job they drew on the knowledge gained during the lecture/seminar course; 94% strongly agreed or agreed that the shadowing part of the course was more useful than the lecture/seminar part. Experiential knowledge gained in the shadowing was the most highly valued, followed by procedural knowledge with propositional knowledge coming far behind. Our study shows that new doctors retrospectively value most the knowledge they are able
Pruthi, Sonal; Goel, Ashish
Physicians have tried to understand whether crying for a patient is a raw emotion that demonstrates their lack of control over themselves and the situation, or whether it is a sign of humanity and concern for one's fellow beings. Studies on medical students and doctors'narrations of times when they have shed tears over a patient's suffering or death have established beyond doubt that medical students and physicians are not immune to their patients'suffering and may cry when overwhelmed by stress and emotions. Even though humanity is the cornerstone of medicine, depersonalisation has somehow crept into the physician-patient relationship and crying is considered incompatible with the image of a good physician, who is supposed to be strong, confident and fully in charge. Thus, crying has been equated to weakness and at times, incompetence. This could be attributed to the fact that our medical curriculum has ingrained in us the belief that emotion clouds rationality and prevents us from being objective while making decisions regarding a patient's clinical progress. Our curriculum fails to teach us how to handle emotional situations, witness the dying process, communicate bad news, interact with the bereaved during the period of grief immediately following death, and reduce the professional stress involved in working with newly bereaved persons. Our training focuses on cure, amelioration of disease and the restoration of good health, with little emphasis on death, which is an absolute reality. It is crucial that medical educators take note of these lacunae in the curriculum. Physicians and teachers must recognise and accept the emotions that medical students experience in these situations, and teach them to offer their patients a sound blend of rationality and compassion with an attitude of humility.
Doctoral aducation is a major priority for European universities. In the context of the Bologna Process the importance of doctoral education as the third cycle of higher education and the first stage of a young researchers career, and thus in linking the European Higher Education and Research Areas, was first highlighted in the 2003 Berlin Report. The core component of doctoral training is the advancement of knowledge through original research. considering the need for structured doctoral programs and the need for transparent supervision and assessment, we note that the normal workload of the third cycle in most countries would correspond 3-4 years full time. This is spirit of the new Spanish Doctoral Law. Then, universities should ensure that their doctoral programmes promote interdisciplinary training and the development of transferable skills, thus meeting the needs of the wider employment market. We need to achieve and overall increase in the numbers of doctoral candidates taking up research careers as early stage researchers and also increase the employability as a normal way as it is the case of other advance countries. In Spain, universities with doctoral nuclear programmes and the CIEMAT, with the sponsorship of the nuclear sector, a doctoral school in nuclear science and engineering should be created to enhance the research careers of Young students for the future of nuclear activities in Spain. (Author)
Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: This paper considers the role of supervisors’ discipline expertise in doctoral learning from a student perspective. Background:\tDoctoral students need to develop expertise in a particular field of study. In this context, developing expertise requires doctoral students to master disciplinary knowledge, conventions and scholarship under the guidance of supervisors. Methodology\t: The study draws on a mixed-method approach, using an online survey and semi-structured interviews conducted with doctoral students. Contribution: The paper brings to the fore the role of supervisors’ discipline expertise on doctoral students’ research progress. Findings: The survey data suggest that doctoral students nominate their supervisors on the basis of their discipline expertise. They also view supervisors’ expertise as key to the development of ‘insider’ knowledge of their doctoral research. Recommendations for Practitioners: Supervisors play a pivotal role in helping doctoral students overcome intellectual barriers by imparting their discipline knowledge as well as balancing satisfactory doctoral completion rate and high quality student experience. Impact on Society\t: Doctoral supervision equips doctoral students with the right arsenal to be able to competently operate within their field and prepares them for their future research or professional career that demands a high level of discipline expertise. Future Research:\tThe scope of the findings leaves open a discussion about the experiences of doctoral students matched with non-discipline expert supervisory teams; for example, the extent of the mismatch and its ramifications.
Lange, Sheila Edwards
The need to broaden participation in the nation's science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) undergraduate and graduate programs is currently a matter of national urgency. The small number of women and underrepresented minorities (URM) earning doctoral degrees in STEM is particularly troubling given significant increases in the number of students earning master's degrees since 1990. In the decade between 1990 and 2000, the total number of master's recipients increased by 42%. During this same time period, the number of women earning master's degrees increased by 56%, African Americans increased by 132%, American Indians by 101%, Hispanics by 146%, and Asian Americans by 117% (Syverson, 2003). Growth in underrepresented group education at the master's level raises questions about the relationship between master's and doctoral education. Secondary data analysis of the Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED) was used to examine institutional pathways to the doctorate in STEM disciplines and transitions from master's to doctoral programs by race and gender. While the study revealed no significant gender differences in pathways, compared to White and Asian American students, URM students take significantly different pathways to the doctorate. URM students are significantly more likely to earn the bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees at three different institutions. Their path is significantly more likely to include earning a master's degree en route to the doctorate. Further, URM students are more likely to experience transition between the master's and doctoral degrees, and the transitions are not limited to those who earn master's degrees at master's-only institutions. These findings suggest that earning a master's degree is more often a stepping stone to the doctorate for URM students. Master's degree programs, therefore, have the potential to be a valuable resource for policymakers and graduate programs seeking to increase the diversity of URM students
Shankar, P R
In Nepal, a number of private sector medical schools have opened recently; although sufficient numbers of doctors are graduating there continues to be a doctor shortage in rural areas. This article analysed the rural doctor shortage in Nepal and reviewed the international literature for strategies that may be suitable for use in Nepal. Original research articles, reviews, magazine articles and project reports dealing with Nepal and other developing countries during the period 1995 to 2010 were sourced via Google, Google Scholar and Pubmed. Full text access was obtained via WHO's HINARI database. The health workforce in Nepal is unevenly distributed resulting in doctor shortages in rural areas. The recent introduction of mandatory rural service for scholarship students was aimed to reduce the loss of medical graduates to developed nations. High tuition fees in private medical schools and low Government wages prevent recent graduates from taking up rural positions, and those who do face many challenges. Potential corrective strategies include community-based medical education, selecting rural-background medical students, and providing a partial or complete tuition fee waiver for medical students who commit to rural service. Traditional healers and paramedical staff can also be trained for and authorized to provide rural health care. A range of strategies developed elsewhere could be used in Nepal, especially community-oriented medical education that involves rural doctors in training medical students. The reimbursement of tuition fees, assistance with relocation, and provision of opportunities for academic and professional advancement for rural doctors should also be considered. Government investment in improving working conditions in rural Nepal would assist rural communities to attract and retain doctors.
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Ynalvez, Ruby; Garza-Gongora, Claudia; Ynalvez, Marcus Antonius; Hara, Noriko
Although doctoral mentors recognize the benefits of providing quality advisement and close guidance, those of sharing project management responsibilities with mentees are still not well recognized. We observed that mentees, who have the opportunity to co-manage projects, generate more written output. Here we examine the link between research…
Full Text Available [english] The feminization of the medical profession, demographic change with an impending shortage of physicians, Generation Y - these issues are new challenges for medical schools in terms of their social responsibility and the training of the next generation of highly qualified scientists. This study, conducted by the University Hospital of Ulm throughout Baden-Württemberg via an online survey provides a valuable data basis which can be used to optimise support activities.A disproportionately high percentage of students with children in Tübingen must, as an additional challenge, cope with a lower than average monthly income. Students with children need organisational support in this doubly challenging situation. The Dean's Office can provide valuable assistance as an advocate (contact with the departments/institutions, provide organisational help (course guidance, individual support and infrastructure (childcare/changing rooms, etc.. In Tübingen, high intrinsic motivation (willingness to engage in self-managed care networks is also found amongst students, something that needs to be integrated into the development of the existing support networks.[german] Die Feminisierung des Arztberufes, der demographische Wandel mit drohendem Ärztemangel, Generation Y – diese Themen stellen die Medizinischen Fakultäten in Hinblick auf ihren sozialen Auftrag der Ausbildung eines hochqualifizierten wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses vor neue Herausforderungen. Die durch das Universitätsklinikum Ulm durchgeführte Baden-Württemberg-weite Online- Befragung liefert eine wertvolle Datengrundlage, welche zur Optimierung der unterstützenden Tätigkeiten herangezogen werden kann.Der überproportional hohe Anteil der Studierenden mit Kind in Tübingen muss als zusätzliche Herausforderung mit einem durchschnittlich niedrigerem monatlichen Einkommen zurechtkommen. Die Studierenden mit Kind benötigen in dieser Doppelbelastung organisatorische Unterst
This article examines the experiences of Chicano/Latino(a) doctoral students at a research-intensive doctorate-granting institution. Based on in-depth qualitative interviews with 24 Chicano/Latino(a) doctoral students across social science, humanities, education, and science disciplines, this qualitative investigation analyzed how disciplinary…
Davis, Ashley; Livingstone, Allyson
Across-racial group of social work doctoral students engaged in an Anti-Racism Project. Through shared journaling and group discussions, participants explored and interrogated experiences of racism related to doctoral education. A thematic analysis of qualitative data surfaced several themes: experiences with racism as a doctoral student, noticing…
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The development of education options for nurses has been inexorable and it is increasingly the case that senior nurses are considering a doctorate as the logical next step in their educational career. Such individuals need to make important decisions as to whether they should embark on a taught doctorate, professional doctorate or a traditional PhD. Each of these options will necessitate a considerable investment in time and money as well as the sacrifice of quality time and spare time over a significant number of years. A doctorate is not for everyone. Those still reading this text may be asking 'could this possibly be for me'? This paper will try to help the reader decide which if any option to take. It is suggested that nurses will now turn to the doctoral degree as their next adventure in academic study. It is argued that this development is not being controlled by management forces and indeed cannot be controlled by them. This last is chiefly because the move towards doctoral education is led by individuals who choose to study for a doctorate simply because they can. The paper considers what choices are available to nurses who wish to pursue a doctoral programme of study. In particular, this paper considers what new developments in doctoral courses are becoming available and what advantage there may be in studying for one of the newer professional doctorates rather than a traditional PhD. The material here is the result of a review of the literature on recent developments in doctoral education for nurses. The existing provision by UK and other universities was also reviewed, the data being collected by an informal review of universities' advertising material. It is inevitable that some nurses who are already qualified to degree and masters degree will take advantage of the doctoral degree opportunities which now newly present themselves. For nurses in practice, the advantages of the professional doctorate is that it is more structured, enables more peer and
Kanwar, R S
Doctoral and post-doctoral training programs at leading research universities in the USA are highly important in generating the much needed knowledge in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics for keeping rural and urban economies strong and societies healthy and prosperous. In addition, innovative graduate and post doctoral research programs are the driving engines of the success of U.S. economy and have made the U.S. the most successful model of generating new knowledge in the broader areas of life sciences (and agricultural education, research, and extension). We need to do everything in our power to make these training programs innovative, collaborative, independent, and resourceful so that students are trained in different disciplines making them more flexible within a range of challenges and opportunities. The training programs must empower students to solve complex and interdisciplinary problems of the society in 21st century and make our students competitive within a global economic system, to improve the health of the nation's economy. If our land grant schools and institutions of higher learning are not preparing doctoral students to be globally competitive scientists to create new knowledge and technologies to solve complex and interdisciplinary problems of the 21st century, then either we need to redefine the mission of our land grant system or we risk losing our role to serve the public and industry effectively. Doctoral and post doctoral students should be given the needed skills and experiences to prepare them for tenure track faculty jobs at leading US Universities in the 21st century as well as prepare them for the world outside of academia. I would say minimum competency skills are needed as "bare survival skills" for all doctoral students to become successful after obtaining PhD degrees. Today's PhD students will be working in a global but highly competitive, rapidly changing, and complex world. It is no longer enough to be a good
Naydene de Lange
Full Text Available We document the efforts of the faculty of education of a large research-oriented university in supporting doctoral learning. The development of a space for doctoral learning is in line with the need to develop a community of researchers in South Africa. We describe the historical origins of this cohort model of doctoral supervision and support, draw on literature around doctoral learning, and analyse a cohort of doctoral students' evaluation of the seminarsoverthree years. The findings indicate that the model has great value in developing scholarship and reflective practice in candidates, in providing support and supervision, and in sustaining students towards the completion of their doctorates.
Siedine K. Coetzee
Full Text Available Background: The number of doctoral programmes in nursing has multiplied rapidly throughout the world. This has led to widespread concern about nursing doctoral education, specifically with regard to the quality of curricula and faculty, as well as to the availability of appropriate institutional resources. In South Africa, no study of these issues has been conducted at a national level. Objective: To explore and describe the quality of nursing doctoral education in South Africa from the perspectives of deans, faculty, doctoral graduates and students. Method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. All deans (N = 15; n = 12, faculty (N = 50; n = 26, doctoral graduates (N = 43; n = 26 and students (N = 106; n = 63 at South African nursing schools that offer a nursing doctoral programme (N = 16; n = 15 were invited to participate. Data were collected by means of structured email-mediated Quality of Nursing Doctoral Education surveys. Results: Overall, the graduate participants scored their programme quality most positively of all the groups and faculty scored it most negatively. All of the groups rated the quality of their doctoral programmes as good, but certain problems related to the quality of resources, students and faculty were identified. Conclusion: These evaluations, by the people directly involved in the programmes, demonstrated significant differences amongst the groups and thus provide valuable baseline data for building strategies to improve the quality of doctoral nursing education in South Africa.
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Doctoral Students in New Zealand Have Low Awareness of Institutional Repository Existence, but Positive Attitudes Toward Open Access Publication of Their Work. A Review of: Stanton, K. V., & Liew, C. L. (2012. Open access theses in institutional repositories: An exploratory study of the perceptions of doctoral students. Information Research, 17(1, paper 507. Available from http://InformationR.net/ir/17-1/paper507.html
Theresa S. Arndt
Full Text Available Objective – To investigate doctoral students'knowledge of and attitudes toward openaccess models of scholarly communication andinstitutional repositories, and to examine theirwillingness to comply with a mandatoryinstitutional repository (IR submission policy.Design – Mixed method, sequentialexploratory design.Setting – A large, multi-campus New Zealanduniversity that mandates IR deposit of doctoraltheses.Subjects – Two doctoral students from each offour university colleges were interviewed. All901 doctoral students were subsequently sent asurvey, with 251 responding.Methods – Semi-structured interviews witheight subjects selected by purposive sampling,followed by a survey sent to all doctoralstudents. The authors used NVivo 8 foranalysis of interview data, along with a twophaseapproach to coding. First, they analyzedtranscripts from semi-structured interviewsline-by-line to identify themes. In the secondphase, authors employed focused coding toanalyze the most common themes and tomerge or drop peripheral themes. Themeswere mapped against Rogers' diffusion ofinnovation theory and social exchange theoryconstructs to aid interpretation. The resultswere used to develop a survey with a fixed set of response choices. Authors then analyzed survey results using Excel and SurveyMonkey, first as a single data set and then by discipline.Main Results – The authors found that general awareness of open access was high (62%, and overall support for open access publication was 86.3%. Awareness of IRs as a general concept was much lower at 48%. Those subject to a mandatory IR deposit policy for doctoral theses overwhelmingly indicated willingness to comply (92.6%, as did those matriculating prior to the policy (83.3%, although only 77.3% of all respondents agreed that deposit should be mandatory. Only 17.6% of respondents had deposited their own work in an IR, while 31.7% reported directly accessing a repository for research. The greatest perceived
Katherine P. Dabney; Robert H. Tai
The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female...
Kyvik, Svein; Tvede, Olaf
Overview of research training systems leading to doctoral degrees in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden emphasizes the structure of postgraduate education, administration and funding, number of students, time to degree, completion rates, labor market, and study abroad. Comparisons to U.S., British, German, and French systems suggests a trend…
Zayapragassarazan, Zayabalaradjane; Menon, Vikas; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar; Batmanabane, Gitanjali
Medical students master an enormous body of knowledge, but lack systematic problem solving ability and effective clinical decision making. High profile reports have called for reforms in medical education to create a better generation of doctors who can cope with the system based problems they would encounter in an interdisciplinary and…
Perry, Jill Alexa
Beginning with 21 US schools of education, the Carnegie Project on the Education Doctorate (CPED) has created a network of education faculty who are differentiating the EdD from the PhD in order to better meet the needs of their practitioner-scholar students. Their discussions center on two questions: "What are the knowledge, skills, and…
Johansson, Carol; Yerrabati, Sridevi
At the core of doctoral education is the importance of the quality of the supervisor and student relationship. Research has shown that this relationship is directly linked to completion rates, and impacts the quality of the doctorate and its ultimate success or failure (Gill and Burnard, 2008). One influence on the supervisory relationship is the…
Christiansen, Janus Mølgaard; Gerke, Oke; Karstoft, Jens
INTRODUCTION: Studies targeting medical students and junior doctors have shown that their radiological skills are insufficient. Despite the widespread use of chest X-ray; however, a study of Danish junior doctors' skills has not previously been performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 22...
Ewen, Heidi H.; Rowles, Graham D.; Watkins, John F.
This article reports on the Gerontology Doctoral Student Assessment Model (GDSAM), a comprehensive web-based system premised on developing an evaluation mechanism attuned to the special requirements of advanced graduate education at the doctoral level. The system focuses on longitudinal tracking of selected dimensions of intellectual,…
Kobayashi, Sofie; Grout, Brian W.; Rump, Camilla Østerberg
Research into doctoral supervision has increased rapidly over the last decades, yet our understanding of how doctoral students learn scientific thinking from supervision is limited. Most studies are based on interviews with little work being reported that is based on observation of actual supervision. While joint supervision has become widely…
This paper examines the relationship between political change and epistemologies and methodologies employed at doctorate level. It does so by analysing the range of topics, questions and methodologies used by doctoral students at the University of Pretoria's Faculty of Education between 1985 and 2005--a time-frame that covers the decade before and…
Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: This article offers a conceptual summary and critique of existing literature on doctoral writing and emotion. The article seeks to intervene in current debates about doctoral writing by re-positioning it as an affective-political practice Background: Over recent decades public interest in the doctorate has expanded as it has become re-framed as a key component of national success in the global knowledge economy. It is within this context that the practice of doctoral writing has crystallised as an object of interest. While researchers have examined the increased regulation, surveillance, and intensification of doctoral writing, often this work is motivated to develop pedagogies that support students to meet these new expectations. At this point, there has been limited attention to what broad changes to the meanings and practices of doctoral writing feel like for students. Methodology: The paper offers a conceptual review that examines the ways in which doctoral writing tends to be understood. A review of literature in the areas of doctoral writing, doctoral emotion, and critical studies of academic labour was undertaken in order to produce a more comprehensive understanding of the political and emotional dynamics of doctoral writing. Contribution: It is intended that this conceptual research paper help researchers attend to the emotional context of doctoral writing in the current university context. Critical studies of academic work and life are identified as a possible platform for the development of future doctoral education research, and the conceptual tool of “affective-politics” is advanced as a novel frame for approaching doctoral writing research.
Feldman, M K
Everybody's doing it. Lawyers. Professors. Yes, even doctors. Professionals in positions of authority and trust are taking a closer look at how they relate to their clients, students, or patients. Perhaps it all started with Anita Hill, the woman who sounded the wake-up call that was heard around America with the message that sexual harassment, even sexual innuendo, will no longer be tolerated. It's a new day and age. Today, for ethical as well as practical reasons, some bar associations (including Minnesota's) are warning lawyers not to have sex with clients, and many colleges are forbidding professors from getting involved with students. The American Medical Association and state medical boards are also re-evaluating the rules, because in today's climate even something as simple as a pat on the knee can get a physician in trouble.
Lovdal, L T; Pearson, R
A study was conducted to determine what consumers value in doctors' behavior. Results indicate that consumers in the sample population studied prefer doctors who are friendly and caring as well as those who are technically competent. However, these respondents reported less favorable opinions about doctors' friendliness (i.e., affective behavior) than they did about doctors' competence (i.e., instrumental behavior).
Medical thrillers have been a mainstay of popular fiction since the late 1970s and still attract a wide readership today. This article examines this specialized genre and its core conventions within the context of professionally-based fiction, i.e. the class of thrillers written by professionals or former professionals. The author maps this largely unchartered territory and analyzes the fictional representations of doctors and medicine provided in such novels. He argues that medical thrillers, which are not originally aimed at specialized readers and sometimes project a flawed image of medicine, may be used as a pedagogical tool with non-native learners of medical English.
Nilas, Lisbeth; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth; Laursen, Jacob Brink
English skills was perceived low. Conclusion Teaching in English was rated as 30 % more difficult than in Danish, and a significant subgroup of doctors had difficulties in all forms of communication in English, resulting in challenges when introducing international students in non-native English speaking...... medical departments. Keywords International students Clinical teaching Teaching in foreign language Doctors’ English skills Self-assessment......Background From 2012–2015, the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and of Pediatrics at the University of Copenhagen conducted a project, “Internationalization at Home ”, offering clinical teaching in English. The project allowed international students to work with Danish speaking students...
Full Text Available Dear editor Clinical environments encounter is an important part of studying medicine (1. Patient contact as an integral part of medical education occurs in various formats in the clinical settings (2, 3. During clinical training, medical students may experience high levels of stress, and some may not deal with it well. The abruptness of students’ transition to the clinical setting generated positive and negative emotions. Due to being a novice, they did not receive adequate training on how to get emotionally prepared for meeting seriously ill people. In such circumstances, the shortage of training will have predictably crucial consequences. Early clinical contact has been suggested to reduce these stresses and help the students adapt effectively to changes in the hospital climate (2. Patient contact creates an environment where each student appreciates cultural diversity and reinforces the development of clinical professional interpersonal skills through social, emotional and cognitive experiences (4, 5. It encourages validating of the relationship between patients and doctors and allows students to experience a more personal relationship with patients and nurture the ability to empathize with them, providing considerable benefits for trainees and patients. In this way, the social emotions that students experience when empathizing with a patient represent a uniquely human achievement. By internalizing their subjective interpretations of patient’s beliefs and feelings, the student’s body, brain and mind come together to produce cognition and emotion . They construct culturally relevant knowledge and make decisions about how to act and think about the patient’s problems as if they were their own. On the other hand, patient interaction in undergraduate education offers students a valuable early insight into the day-to-day role of a doctor and the patients’ perspective on specific conditions. Early experience provides a greater knowledge
Lorettu, Liliana; Falchi, Lorenzo; Nivoli, Fabrizia L; Milia, Paolo; Nivoli, Giancarlo; Nivoli, Alessandra M
To examine possible risk factors for the doctor to be killed by the patient in the clinical practice by examining a series of murders that involved physicians. This aim has been achieved through a retrospective review on clinical cases of doctors killed by patients within the period between 1988 and 2013, in Italy. In this period 18 Italian doctors have been killed in the workplace, with a rate of 0.3/100,000. In 7 cases, the murder resulted in the context of doctor-dissatisfaction; in 7 cases the murder was committed by a psychiatric patient; 1 case in the context of a stalking; 3 cases occurred in a workplace which was not safe enough. Four categories of at-risk contexts have been identified. One category includes a murder in the context of a doctor-dissatisfaction, perceived by patient. The second category concerns murders committed by patients suffering from mental illness. A third category includes homicides in a workplace which is not safe. The last category comprises the murder in the context of stalking. These categories identify specific dangerous situations for physicians, in which are highlighted elements that have played a crucial role in the murder and for which special precautions are suggested preventive.
Reneker, Jennifer C; Weems, Kyra; Scaia, Vincent
This study was aimed at determining the effect of an integrated group balance class for community-dwelling older adults within entry-level physical therapist coursework on student perceptions of geriatric physical therapy and geriatric physical therapy education. Twenty-nine Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) students, 21-33 years old, in their second year of coursework in 2012, participated in an integrated clinical experience with exposure to geriatric patients at an outpatient facility at the Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Akron, Ohio, USA. Student perceptions were collected before and after participation in the 8-week balance class. The Wilcoxon sign-ranked test was used to identify differences in perceptions after participation in the group balance class. Cohen's d values were calculated to measure the size of the pre-participation to post-participation effect for each measure. At the conclusion of the group class, the DPT students demonstrated an increase in positive perceptions of geriatric physical therapy in 8 measures, with small effect sizes (d=0.15-0.30). Two perceptions of geriatric physical therapy demonstrated a significant positive increase (Pgeriatric education in the curriculum demonstrated a large positive effect for quality (d=1.68) and enjoyment (d=1.96). Positive changes were found in most of the perceptions of geriatrics and geriatric education after participation, suggesting that integrated clinical experiences with geriatric patients are an effective way to positively influence perceptions of physical therapist practice with older adults.
: academy, doctoral research education, Ghana, graduate writing course, support .... courses draw international students from various departments throughout the .... know how to apply critical thinking to transform and create knowledge as well.
Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: Both the quality and the quantity of doctoral supervision have been identified as central determinants of the doctoral journey. However, there is a gap in our understanding of how supervision activities are associated with lack of wellbeing, such as burnout, and also to completion of the studies among doctoral students. Background:\tThe study explored doctoral students’ perceptions of different aspects of supervision including the primary sources, frequency, expressed satisfaction and their interrelation with experienced stress, exhaustion and cynicism. Methodology: Altogether 248 doctoral students from three Finnish universities representing social sciences, arts and humanities, and natural and life sciences responded to an adapted version of a Doctoral Experience Survey. A combination of several measures was used to investigate the students’ experiences of supervision and burnout. Contribution:\tThe results showed that students benefit from having several and different kinds of supervision activities. Various sources contribute not only to experiences of the doctoral journey and burnout, but also to the completion of the studies. Findings: Experienced lack of satisfaction with supervision and equality within the researcher community and a low frequency of supervision were related to experiences of burnout. Experiences of burnout were connected to students’ attrition intentions. Attrition intentions were related to source of supervision, the form of thesis, and inadequate supervision frequency. Frequency was related to both experience of burnout and likelihood of attrition. Recommendations for Practitioners: A recommendation developed from this research is to assist doctoral students with sufficient support, especially equality within the scholarly community and frequency of supervision. Further, greater emphasis could be put on group supervision and other collective forms of supervision. It is important that doctoral
Full Text Available Georgina Kerry,1 Shyam Gokani,2 Dara Rasasingam,2 Alexander Zargaran,3 Javier Ash,2 Aaina Mittal2 1College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, 2Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, 3Faculty of Medicine, St George’s University of London, London, UK Abstract: Technological advancements have revolutionized modern medicine and smartphones are now ubiquitous among health care professionals. The ability to look up information promptly is invaluable to doctors and medical students alike, but there is an additional contiguous benefit to patients. Queries can be answered more accurately through fingertip access to evidence-based medicine, and physicians have instant access to emergency care protocols. However, is consideration always extended to the patient’s perception of the use of smartphones by doctors? Do patients know why we use smartphones to assist us in their care? What do they think when they see a doctor using a smartphone?An independent question, conducted within a wider service evaluation (ethical approval not required, full verbal and written electronic consent provided by all patients at St. Mary’s Hospital, London, indicated that although the majority (91.0% of patients owned a smartphone, many (61.6% did not agree that the use of smartphones at work by doctors is professional. This highlights the potential for damage to the doctor–patient relationship. There is a risk that these patients will disconnect with care services with possible detriment to their health. Additionally, it is notable that a larger proportion of those patients aged >70 years found the use of smartphones by doctors at work unprofessional, compared with patients aged <70 years.Adequate communication between the doctor and patient is critical in ensuring that doctors can make use of modern technology to provide the best possible care and that patients are comfortable with this and do not feel isolated or
Crowley, Jennifer; Ball, Lauren; Han, Dug Yeo; McGill, Anne-Thea; Arroll, Bruce; Leveritt, Michael; Wall, Clare
Improvements in individuals' nutrition behaviour can improve risk factors and outcomes associated with lifestyle-related chronic diseases. This study describes and compares New Zealand medical students, general practice registrars and general practitioners' (GPs') attitudes towards incorporating nutrition care into practice, and self-perceived skills in providing nutrition care. A total of 183 New Zealand medical students, 51 general practice registrars and 57 GPs completed a 60-item questionnaire investigating attitudes towards incorporating nutrition care into practice and self-perceived skills in providing nutrition care. Items were scored using a 5-point Likert scale. Factor analysis was conducted to group questionnaire items and a generalised linear model compared differences between medical students, general practice registrars and GPs. All groups indicated that incorporating nutrition care into practice is important. GPs displayed more positive attitudes than students towards incorporating nutrition in routine care (ppractice registrars were more positive than students towards performing nutrition recommendations (p=0.004), specified practices (p=0.037), and eliciting behaviour change (p=0.024). All groups displayed moderate confidence towards providing nutrition care. GPs were more confident than students in areas relating to wellness and disease (pmedical students, general practice registrars and GPs have positive attitudes and moderate confidence towards incorporating nutrition care into practice. It is possible that GPs' experience providing nutrition care contributes to greater confidence. Strategies to facilitate medical students developing confidence in providing nutrition care are warranted.
Kanyi, Titus Kamau
Doctoral studies are at the apex of the education system. Attracting, recruiting, enrolling, and graduating the best suited students in doctoral education is, therefore, critical in ensuring the highest academic standards and service to society. Focusing on Rowan University's Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) in Educational Leadership program, this…
Does one need really need boundaries between doctoral supervisor and supervisee when talking about mature learners? Drawing on reflection from her extensive experience, the author believes it is critical to maintain this divide. There is an increase in doctoral students, proliferation of doctoral programmes globally and practices which vary from…
Mesa, V.; Valero, Paola
In this paper we discuss the doctoral programs in which we have been enrolled as students during the last four years. We describe the doctoral programs at the University of Georgia (Athens, Georgia, USA) and at the Royal Danish School of Educational Studies (Denmark). Then we discuss these doctoral...... for the Colombian mathematics education research community....
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Sung Uk Chae
Full Text Available Purpose Although there have been studies emphasizing the re-education of North Korean (NK doctors for post-unification of the Korean Peninsula, study on the content and scope of such re-education has yet to be conducted. Researchers intended to set the content and scope of re-education by a comparative analysis for the scores of the preliminary examination, which is comparable to the Korean Medical Licensing Examination (KMLE. Methods The scores of the first and second preliminary exams were analyzed by subject using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The passing status of the group of NK doctors for KMLE in recent 3 years were investigated. The multiple-choice-question (MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of South Korean (SK medical students by two times of the standard deviation of the scores of SK medical students were selected to investigate the relevant reasons. Results The average scores of nearly all subjects were improved in the second exam compared with the first exam. The passing rate of the group of NK doctors was 75%. The number of MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of SK medical students was 51 (6.38%. NK doctors’ lack of understandings for Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Therapeutics, Prenatal Care, and Managed Care Programs was suggested as the possible reason. Conclusion The education of integrated courses focusing on Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures and Therapeutics, and apprenticeship-style training for clinical practice of core subjects are needed. Special lectures on the Preventive Medicine are likely to be required also.
Twitter and other social networking sites have much to offer doctoral students, especially given that models for doctoral education are increasingly becoming more diverse with more students studying part-time for traditional PhDs, or on programmes such as professional doctorates. Prior research has highlighted the benefits of Twitter but, as other…
Kim, Dongbin; Roh, Jin-young
This study explores whether patterns of doctorate attainment among Chinese and Korean international students in the USA have changed over time, both in terms of quantity (i.e., number of international students) and quality (i.e., the selectivity of the undergraduate and doctoral institutions), and whether these changes reflect the improvements in…
Full Text Available There has been a seismic shift in the lives of people because of technology. People are far better informed than they were in the 1980s and 1990s. Much of this information is available through the media but even more is available and archived on the internet. The forces pushing the internet into health and health care are strong and unstoppable, ensuring that the internet and the choices it offers must be part of the design of our future health care system. We are no longer content to wait in queues as we live at a faster pace than earlier generations — we don’t not have time to wait for appointments months, weeks or even days in advance. The internet offers the prospect of online consultations in the comfort of your own home. The physical examination will change as new devices are developed to allow the necessary sounds and signals emitted by our malfunctioning bodies to be recorded, interpreted and captured at a remote location. Meanwhile, for those who prefer to see a health care practitioner in person the options to consult practitioners other than doctors who can advise on our health is expanding. The reality is we can’t afford to train or pay for all the doctors we need under the current “doctor-knows-best” system of health care. Patients no longer believe the rhetoric and are already voting with their feet. Pharmacists, nurses and other allied health professionals are beginning to play a much greater role in offering relief from symptoms and monitoring of chronic diseases. Of course, the doctor of the future will still need to offer face-to-face consultations to some people most of the time or most people some of the time. The social role doctors play will continue to be important as humans will always need other humans to personally respond to their distress. As doctors reinvent themselves, the internet and the value of time with patients will be the driving forces that move us into a more sustainable future in health care.
Wanderléia Quinhoeiro Blasca
tutoring and practical activity. During the 1st stage, participants attended a lecture given by tutors. During the 2nd stage the participants had access to a web-based electronic tutor, the 'Cybertutor'. During the 3rd stage practical activities were prepared, providing construction and multiplication of learning for the students. To evaluate the educational online material participants answered an evaluation questionnaire about 'Cybertutor' at the end of the training program. RESULTS: 100% of the participants performed the three stages of the training program. Following the proposal of the Young Doctor Project, the students were entitled "Young Doctors" and multiplied the knowledge gained about hearing health, through a fair exhibition in their respective schools. Data from the evaluation questionnaire on the 'Cybertutor' indicate that most participants showed a positive opinion, showing a high level of approval for the 'Cybertutor'. CONCLUSION: this training program on hearing health promotes learning in this theme on the proposed population. Health education initiatives, such as the Young Doctor Project, besides providing the multiplication of knowledge, also made possible the integration of the students with the University and the University with the community, forming a network of collaborative learning.
Footitt, Steven; Ölçer-Footitt, Hülya; Hambidge, Angela J; Finch-Savage, William E
Environmental signals drive seed dormancy cycling in the soil to synchronize germination with the optimal time of year, a process essential for species' fitness and survival. Previous correlation of transcription profiles in exhumed seeds with annual environmental signals revealed the coordination of dormancy-regulating mechanisms with the soil environment. Here, we developed a rapid and robust laboratory dormancy cycling simulation. The utility of this simulation was tested in two ways: firstly, using mutants in known dormancy-related genes [DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1), MOTHER OF FLOWERING TIME (MFT), CBL-INTERACTING PROTEIN KINASE 23 (CIPK23) and PHYTOCHROME A (PHYA)] and secondly, using further mutants, we test the hypothesis that components of the circadian clock are involved in coordination of the annual seed dormancy cycle. The rate of dormancy induction and relief differed in all lines tested. In the mutants, dog1-2 and mft2, dormancy induction was reduced but not absent. DOG1 is not absolutely required for dormancy. In cipk23 and phyA dormancy, induction was accelerated. Involvement of the clock in dormancy cycling was clear when mutants in the morning and evening loops of the clock were compared. Dormancy induction was faster when the morning loop was compromised and delayed when the evening loop was compromised. © 2017 The Authors Plant, Cell & Environment Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Weizblit, Nataly; Noble, Jason; Baerlocher, Mark Otto
We examined the differences in work patterns between female and male doctors in Canada to gain insight into the effect of an increased number of female doctors on overall doctor productivity. Data on the practice profiles of female and male doctors across Canada were extracted from the 2007 National Physician Survey. A doctor productivity measure, 'work hours per week per population' (WHPWPP), was created, based on the number of weekly doctor hours spent providing direct patient care per 100,000 citizens. The predicted WHPWPP was calculated for a hypothetical time-point when the female and male doctor populations reach equilibrium. The differences in current and predicted WHPWPP were then analysed. Female medical students currently (2007) outnumber male medical students (at 57.8% of the medical student population). The percentage of practising doctors who are women is highest in the fields of paediatrics, obstetrics and gynaecology, psychiatry and family practice. Female doctors work an average of 47.5 hours per week (giving 30.0 hours of direct patient care), compared with 53.8 hours worked by male doctors (35.0 hours of direct patient care) (P work less on call hours per week and see fewer patients while on-call. Female doctors are also more likely to take parental leave or a leave of absence (P work patterns described in the present study persist, an overall decrease in doctor productivity is to be anticipated.
Brady, C; Bambury, R M; O'Reilly, S
Empathy is increasingly being recognized as a crucial component for an effective doctor-patient relationship. Using a mixed method approach, we surveyed 125 patients and 361 medical practitioners (doctors and medical students) views of the doctor-patient relationship. We qualitatively assessed patients' views of what constituted a good doctor and qualitatively measured empathy using a validated scale in medical practitioners. Patients desire a doctor that is both clinically proficient 66 (55%) and caring 32 (27%). Doctors who have a personal experience of illness have a statistically higher empathy score. These doctors may be well placed to help develop and foster empathy in our profession.
Nitschke, I.A.; Brennan, T.; Wadach, J.B.; O'Neil, R.
The term house doctor may be generalized to include persons skilled in the use of instruments and procedures necessary to identify, diagnose, and correct indoor air quality problems as well as energy, infiltration, and structural problems in houses. A radon house doctor would then be a specialist in radon house problems. Valuable experience in the skills necessary to be developed by radon house doctors has recently been gained in an extensive radon monitoring and mitigation program in upstate New York sponsored by Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. These skills, to be described in detail in this paper, include: (i) the use of appropriate instruments, (ii) the evaluation of the symptoms of a radon-sick house, (iii) the diagnostic procedures required to characterize radon sources in houses, (iv) the prescription procedures needed to specify treatment of the problem, (v) the supervision of the implementation of the treatment program, (vi) the check-up procedures required to insure the house cured of radon problems. 31 references, 3 tables
Stanley, Adrian G; Khan, Khalid M; Hussain, Walayat; Tweed, Michael
Career progression during undergraduate and early postgraduate years is currently determined by successfully passing examinations. Both academic factors (secondary school examination results, learning style and training opportunities) and non-academic factors (maturity, ethnic origin, gender and motivation) have been identified as predicting examination outcome. Few studies have examined organization skills. Disorganized medical students are more likely to perform poorly in end-of-year examinations but this observation has not been examined in junior doctors. This study asked whether organization skills relate to examination outcome amongst junior doctors taking the clinical Part II examination for the Membership of the Royal College of Physicians (Practical Assessment of Clinical Examination Skills). The study was conducted prospectively at four consecutive clinical courses that provided clinical teaching and practice to prepare trainees for the examination. Arrival time at registration for the course was the chosen surrogate for organization skills. Trainees were advised that they should arrive promptly at 8.00 a.m. for registration and it was explained that the course would start at 8.30 a.m. Recorded arrival times were compared with the pass lists published by the Royal College of Physicians. The mean arrival time was 8.17 a.m. A total of 81 doctors (53.3%) passed the examination with a mean arrival time of 8.14 a.m. However, 71 doctors failed the exam and arrived, on average, six minutes later than doctors who passed (p?=?0.006). Better-prepared junior doctors were more likely to pass the final examination. Arriving on time represents a composite of several skills involved in the planning of appropriate travel arrangements and is therefore a valid marker of organization skills and preparation. This novel study has shown that good time-keeping skills are positively associated with examination outcome.
Ommen, M.E. van; Daalmans, S.; Weijers, G.W.M.
Background: Research shows that medical students like to watch the morally ambiguous medical drama House, M.D., but there is some concern about how the unethical behavior of the main character might eventually affect their professional behavior. The aim of the current study is to provide insight
Kennedy, Eileen; Gray, Morag
Online students use highly emotional language to describe their experiences, indicating that learners do feel a great deal online. This paper draws on Wetherell's exploration of affective practice to theorise learners' responses to the pedagogical and technological online environment. Findings of a research project that focused on two cohorts of…
Kobayashi, Sofie; Berge, Maria; Grout, Brian William Wilson
for learning. Earlier research into doctoral supervision has been rather vague on how doctoral students learn to carry out research. Empirically, we have based the study on four cases each with one doctoral student and their supervisors. The supervision sessions were captured on video and audio to provide...... for verbatim transcripts that were subsequently analysed. Our results illustrate how supervisors and doctoral students create learning opportunities by varying aspects of research in the discussion. Better understanding of this mechanism whereby learning opportunities are created by bringing aspects......With this paper we aim to contribute towards an understanding of learning dynamics in doctoral supervision by analysing how learning opportunities are created in the interaction. We analyse interaction between supervisors and doctoral students using the notion of experiencing variation as a key...
Richardson, R. M.; Ormand, C. J.; MacDonald, H.; Dunbar, R. W.; Allen-King, R. M.; Manduca, C. A.
Launching an academic career presents a number of challenges. A recent article in the Chronicle of Higher Education depicts academia as an “ivory sweatshop,” citing rising standards for tenure. Most graduate programs provide minimal training for life beyond graduate school. The professional development program “On the Cutting Edge” fills this gap by providing workshops and web resources on academic careers for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and early career faculty. These workshops and web resources address a wide range of topics related to teaching, research, and managing one’s career, tailored for each group. The Preparing for an Academic Career in the Geosciences workshop to help graduate students and postdoctoral fellows make the transition into an academic career has been offered annually since 2003. It provides a panel on academic careers in different institutional settings, sessions on research on learning, various teaching strategies, design of effective teaching activities, moving research forward to new settings, effective teaching and research statements, the job search process, negotiation, and presenting oneself to others. Complementary online resources (http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/careerprep/index.html) focus on these topics. The workshops and web resources offer guidance for each step of the job search process, for developing and teaching one’s own courses, and for making the transition from being a research student to being in charge of a research program. Online resources also include case studies of successful dual career couples, documenting their job search strategies. A four-day workshop for Early Career Geoscience Faculty: Teaching, Research, and Managing Your Career, offered annually since 1999, provides sessions on teaching strategies, course design, developing a strategic plan for research, supervising student researchers, navigating departmental and institutional politics, preparing for tenure, time and
Sobczak, Krzysztof; Leoniuk, Katarzyna; Janaszczyk, Agata; Pietrzykowska, Małgorzata
Numerous guidelines for students and medical professionals provide the instructions of proper behavior during encounters with patients in a doctor's office. However, they quite often do not consider cultural differences that may affect the doctor-patient relationship. In our study we analyzed Polish patients' expectations (N = 976) for their physicians' actual behavior. We compared our results with analogue studies performed in the United States. We determined that patient expectations concerning a desirable form of verbal and nonverbal communication with a physician vary to a considerable degree. Relatively universal, however, is the wish that the doctors introduce themselves and apply personalized forms of contact.
Barry, Deborah S.
As the realities of the academic job market have forced some PhD recipients to accept less-preferable position types, there has been increasing concerns that these students are not prepared for their careers, especially in STEM fields. However, aside from the labor market, few studies have explored the influences on career aspiration and attainment among doctoral degree holders. This study utilized the socialization theory framework to identify aspects of the doctoral education process that are predictive of the likelihood of certain career aspirations among science and engineering doctoral candidates and career attainment among STEM doctoral recipients by utilizing nationally representative datasets: The National Research Council's Assessment of Research Doctorate Programs student questionnaire and the National Science Foundation's Survey of Earned Doctorates. This study identified field of study, research productivity rank of doctoral programs, primary type of finding doctoral students received, level of satisfaction with research experiences, and their sense of belonging within their doctoral program as factors that predict the likelihood of certain career aspirations compared with a career in education. Doctoral candidates' background characteristics that were significant predictors of career aspirations were gender, marital status, dependent status, race, age, and citizenship status. Further, this study identified participant's field of study, the Carnegie Rank of institutions attended, primary type of funding received, length of time to PhD, gender, marital status, dependent status, race, citizenship stats, and age as factors that predict the likelihood of the career outcomes investigated in this study, including doctoral recipients' employment field and primary work activity.
Tapper, Elliot B.
Doctors have been portrayed on television for over 50 years. In that time, their character has undergone significant changes, evolving from caring but infallible supermen with smoldering good looks and impeccable bedside manners to drug-addicted, sex-obsessed antiheroes. This article summarizes the major programs of the genre and explains the pattern of the TV doctors' character changes. Articulated over time in the many permutations of the doctor character is a complex, constant conversation...
This article discusses an under-researched group and provides an analytical overview of the comparative experiences of African, Indian and Coloured doctors at South African universities during the apartheid era. It probes diversity of experience in training and practice as well as gendered differentiation amongst black students before going on to discuss the careers and political activism of black doctors as well as the impact of recent transformational change on their position. It briefly assesses how singular this South African experience was.
Feldon, David F.; Rates, Christopher; Sun, Chongning
In the biological sciences, very little is known about the mechanisms by which doctoral students acquire the skills they need to become independent scientists. In the postsecondary biology education literature, identification of specific skills and effective methods for helping students to acquire them are limited to undergraduate education. To…
Miller, J. Jay; Duron, Jacquelynn F.; Bosk, Emily Adlin; Finno-Velasquez, Megan; Abner, Kristin S.
Peer-learning networks (PLN) can be valuable tools for doctoral students. Participation in these networks can aid in the completion of the dissertation, lead to increased scholarship productivity, and assist in student retention. Yet, despite the promise of PLNs, few studies have documented their effect on social work doctoral education. This…
Teeuwsen, Phil; Ratkovic, Snežana; Tilley, Susan A.
An important element of doctoral studies is identification with the academic community. Such identification is often complicated by part-time student status. In this paper, two part-time doctoral students and their supervisor employ Lave and Wenger's concept of legitimate peripheral participation to explore, through a critical socio-cultural lens,…
Gregory, Kristen H.; Diacopoulos, Mark M.; Branyon, Angela; Butler, Brandon M.
Teacher education doctoral seminars can provide a space for students to collaborate, reflect and support each other as they transition from teacher to teacher educator. These spaces also provide a forum for the learning of new research methodologies. This collaborative self-study chronicles how one group of doctoral students learned self-study…
Mills, David; Paulson, Julia
Recent research on doctoral education in the U.K. has revealed the increasing number and diversity of academic relationships that shape the lives of research students, and students' own role in activating, mobilising and maintaining these relationships. Higher education policy reforms promoting doctoral "skills training",…
States are investing in their futures through the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Doctoral Scholars Program, which helps minority Ph.D. students become faculty members. The return on investment? Candidates complete their doctorates faster and serve as role models for the increasingly diverse college students they teach as faculty members.…
Tapper, Elliot B
Doctors have been portrayed on television for over 50 years. In that time, their character has undergone significant changes, evolving from caring but infallible supermen with smoldering good looks and impeccable bedside manners to drug-addicted, sex-obsessed antiheroes. This article summarizes the major programs of the genre and explains the pattern of the TV doctors' character changes. Articulated over time in the many permutations of the doctor character is a complex, constant conversation between viewer and viewed representing public attitudes towards doctors, medicine, and science.
Full Text Available This article examines the efforts and achievements of Oen Boen Ing, a Tionghoa doctor, to improve the quality of health of the poorer inhabitants of Surakarta. Dr Oen played an important role in five different periods: Dutch colonialism, the Japanese occupation, the Indonesian revolution, Soekarno’s regime, and Suharto’s New Order. Known for being a benevolent doctor, activist, and patriot of the revolution during his life-time, Dr Oen also gave medical assistance to the needy, which famously earned him the accolade of “doctor of the poor”. During the Indonesian revolution, Dr Oen assisted the Student Soldiers (Tentara Pelajar and afterwards was appointed the member of Supreme Advisory Council (Dewan Pertimbangan Agung/DPA by Soekarno in 1949. As a benevolent doctor and activist, Dr Oen is remembered for founding the Panti Kosala Hospital which was renamed to perpetuate his name on 30 October 1983, exactly a year after his passing. When he died, thousands of peoples gathered to pay their final respects to the doctor. He was honoured with a ceremony conducted in the Mangkunegaran Palace. Dr Oen’s name will be eternally respected, especially in Surakarta.
Katherine P. Dabney
Full Text Available The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.
Full Text Available The core business of medicine is the consultation. During the consultation one human being responds to another in distress. Most doctors spend more time talking with people than performing surgery, prescribing pills or ordering tests. The extent to which the doctor succeeds as a communicator may even govern the ‘success’ of any procedure performed, if we define success as relief from the condition causing distress. As human beings our ability to benefit from what is offered to alleviate our symptoms is limited by the extent to which we feel that we have been heard and supported with empathy. It has been demonstrated that the human body has the capacity to heal and that healers are limited by their capacity to facilitate that process. That is not to say that ‘talking’ can spare us the need for other interventions. In this review the author examines the factors that impact on the medical consultation with particular emphasis on the scope for harm when the consultation is interrupted.
Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.
The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.
Health behaviour involves maintaining, improving and restoration of health. The aim of the author was to assess correlations of health behaviour with age, gender, job type and overtime. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire (N = 186). Data were analyzed with chi-square, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Doctors working in in-patient care drink more coffee (p = 0.034) and energy drinks (p = 0.018); they eat undisturbed only on weekends at home (p = 0.032). Men consume more alcohol (p = 0.003), red meats (pmeals (p = 0.018) and their daily fluid consumption exceeds 2 litres (p = 0.005); their body mass index values are higher compared to women (peat more hot meals (p = 0.005), and those under the age of 30 consume more crisps, fast food (p = 0.001) and energy drinks (p = 0.005), while they are more active (p = 0.010). Dietary habits of doctors are not ideal and their physical activity is diminished compared to international trends. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(30), 1198-1206.
Jeannot, Jean Gabriel; Bischoff, Thomas
The majority of the Swiss population uses the internet to seek information about health. The objective is to be better informed, before or after the consultation. Doctors can advise their information-seeking patients about high quality websites, be it medical portals or websites dedicated to a specific pathology. Doctors should not see the internet as a threat but rather as an opportunity to strengthen the doctor-patient relationship.
Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw
Doctors' job satisfaction has been discussed internationally in recent years based on reports of increasing professional dissatisfaction. We have studied Norwegian doctors' job satisfaction and their general satisfaction with life. A survey was conducted among a representative sample of practicing Norwegian doctors in 2008. The validated 10-item Job Satisfaction Scale was used to assess job satisfaction. 1,072 (65 %) doctors responded. They reported a mean job satisfaction of 5.3 on a scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). Job satisfaction increased with increasing age. Private practice specialists reported the highest level of job satisfaction (5.8), and general practitioners reported higher job satisfaction (5.5) than hospital doctors (5.1). Among specialty groups, community doctors scored highest (5.6) and doctors in surgical disciplines lowest (5.0). While long working hours was negatively correlated with job satisfaction, the perception of being professionally updated and having part-time affiliation(s) in addition to a regular job were positively correlated with job satisfaction. 52.9 % of doctors reported a very high general satisfaction. Norwegian doctors have a high level of job satisfaction. Satisfaction with life in general is also high and at least in line with that in the Norwegian population.
Lee, Alison; Brennan, Marie; Green, Bill
Portents of the demise of the Professional Doctorate have emerged in some recent policy and institutional circles in Australia, raising questions about the meaning and relevance of the Professional Doctorate in an era of "league tables" and research assessment in Australia. This article argues that such portents, based largely on narrow…
Advances in Remote Sensing Approaches for Hazard Mitigation and Natural Resource Protection in Pacific Latin America: A Workshop for Advanced Graduate Students, Post- Doctoral Researchers, and Junior Faculty
Gierke, J. S.; Rose, W. I.; Waite, G. P.; Palma, J. L.; Gross, E. L.
Though much of the developing world has the potential to gain significantly from remote sensing techniques in terms of public health and safety, they often lack resources for advancing the development and practice of remote sensing. All countries share a mutual interest in furthering remote sensing capabilities for natural hazard mitigation and resource development. With National Science Foundation support from the Partnerships in International Research and Education program, we are developing a new educational system of applied research and engineering for advancing collaborative linkages among agencies and institutions in Pacific Latin American countries (to date: Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and Ecuador) in the development of remote sensing tools for hazard mitigation and water resources management. The project aims to prepare students for careers in science and engineering through their efforts to solve suites of problems needing creative solutions: collaboration with foreign agencies; living abroad immersed in different cultures; and adapting their academic training to contend with potentially difficult field conditions and limited resources. The ultimate goal of integrating research with education is to encourage cross-disciplinary, creative, and critical thinking in problem solving and foster the ability to deal with uncertainty in analyzing problems and designing appropriate solutions. In addition to traditional approaches for graduate and undergraduate research, we have built new educational systems of applied research and engineering: (1) the Peace Corp/Master's International program in Natural Hazards which features a 2-year field assignment during service in the U.S. Peace Corps, (2) the Michigan Tech Enterprise program for undergraduates, which gives teams of students from different disciplines the opportunity to work for three years in a business-like setting to solve real-world problems, and (3) a unique university exchange
Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.
Collaboration on Effective Professional Practice. This register is kept up to date by searching the following databases for reports of relevant research: DHSS-DATA; EMBASE; MEDLINE; SIGLE; Resource Database in Continuing Medical Education (1975-1994), along with bibliographies of related topics, hand searching......The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...... of key journals and personal contact with content area experts. Randomised controlled trials and non-equivalent group designs with pre- and post-intervention measures were included. Outcome measures were those used by the study authors. For each study we determined whether these were positive, negative...
Newell, Anna; Kleiman, Paul
Between 2008-2010 the School of Medicine at Queen's University Belfast funded and supported two unique and intensive three week interdisciplinary performance projects in which medical and drama students worked together to create an experimental dance theatre piece. One of the unique aspects of this collaboration was that the medical students who…
Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut
Medical doctor and engineer are highly esteemed STEM professions. This study investigates academic and motivational characteristics of a sample of high school students in Thailand who aspire to become medical doctors or engineers. We used logistic regression to compare maths performance, gender typicality, gender contentedness, and maths and physics self-concepts among students with aspirations for these two professions. We found that high levels of felt gender contentedness in men had positive association with aspirations for engineering irrespective of the levels of maths or physics self-concept. We found that high levels of felt gender contentedness combined with high levels of maths or physics self-concept in women had positive associations with aspirations to become a medical doctor. These findings are evidence that student views of self are associated with uneven gendered patterns in career aspirations and have implications for the potential for future participation.
Salani, Deborah; Albuja, Laura Dean; Azaiza, Khitam
This article will review an innovative on-line preimmersion course for a hybrid doctor of nursing practice (DNP) program and a traditional face-to-face doctor of philosophy nursing program. The doctoral candidates include both postbaccalaureate and postmaster's students. The authors of the preimmersion course developed and initiated the course in order to address various issues that have surfaced in discussions between students and faculty. Examples of common themes identified include writing skills, statistics, life-work-school balance, and navigating instructional technology. Doctoral studies may pose challenges to students studying nursing, in regard to academic rigor and experiencing on-line education for the first time, especially for students who have been out of school for an extended amount of time or are not accustomed to a nontraditional classroom; thus, having a preimmersion course established may facilitate a smooth transition to rigorous academic studies in a hybrid program. The course, which was developed and delivered through Blackboard, a learning management system, includes the following 9 preimmersion modules: academic strategies (learning styles, creating an effective PowerPoint presentation), library support (introduction to the university library, literature review tutorial, and citation styles), mindfulness, wellness, statistics essentials, writing express, DNP capstone, netiquette, and DNP/doctor of philosophy mentorship. Each module consists of various tools that may promote student success in specific courses and the programs in general. The purpose of designing the preimmersion course is to decrease attrition rates and increase success of the students. While the majority of students have succeeded in their coursework and been graduated from the program, the authors of this article found that many students struggled with the work, life, and school balance. Future work will include the evaluation of results from graduate students enrolled in
This study explored the experiences of seven Afghan women pursuing doctoral degrees in a variety of disciplines and programs across the United States. The guiding question for this study was: What factors influence Afghan women's journeys to and experiences in doctoral programs? In an attempt to understand Afghan women doctoral students, I…
Montoya, Isaac D; Kimball, Olive M
Over the past decade, clinical doctorate programs in health disciplines have proliferated amid both support and controversy among educators, professional organizations, practitioners, administrators, and third-party payers. Supporters argue that the explosion of new knowledge and increasing sophistication of technology have created a need for advanced practice models to enhance patient care and safety and to reduce costs. Critics argue that necessary technological advances can be incorporated into existing programs and believe that clinical doctorates will increase health care costs, not reduce them. Despite the controversy, many health disciplines have advanced the clinical doctorate (the most recent is the doctor of nursing practice in 2004), with some professions mandating the doctorate as the entry-level degree (i.e., psychology, pharmacy, audiology, and so on). One aspect of the introduction of clinical doctoral degrees has been largely overlooked, and that is the marketing aspect. Because of marketing considerations, some clinical doctorates have been more successfully implemented and accepted than others. Marketing is composed of variables commonly known as "the four P's of marketing": product, price, promotion, and place. This report explores these four P's within the context of clinical doctorates in the health disciplines.
This paper discusses the impact of medical technology on health care in light of the fact that doctors are becoming more reliant on technology for obtaining patient information, making diagnoses and in carrying out treatments. Evidence has shown that technology can negatively affect doctor-patient communications, physical examination skills, and…
Centra, John A; Kuykendall, Nancy M.
This study describes the current status and professional development of a sample of women doctorates and compares them to a sample of men who have attained the same educational status. Chapters cover the sample and procedures used; employment patterns; doctorates in academe; publications, income, and job satisfaction; marriage and family life;…
Chemical and Engineering News, 1982
The University of Texas (Dallas) has initiated a new Ph.D. program specifically to train chemists for doctoral level work in industry (Doctor of Chemistry). Participants will complete three research practica (at an industrial site and in two laboratory settings) instead of the traditional dissertation, emphasizing breadth and flexibility in…
Intolerance and grouse against doctors is a global phenomenon but India seems to lead the world in violence against doctors. According to World Health Organization, about 8-38% healthcare workers suffer physical violence at some point in their careers. Many more are verbally abused or threatened. Public is almost behaving like health sector terrorists. The spate of increasing attacks on doctors by damaging their property and causing physical injury is not acceptable by any civilized society. The public is becoming increasingly intolerant to a large number of social issues because of poor governance and vote bank politics. There is a need to arrest the development of further distrust between doctors and their patients/relatives, otherwise it will compromise all achievements of medical science and adversely affect healing capabilities of doctors. Rude and aggressive behavior of the patients or their family members, and arrogant and lackadaisical approach of the doctor, adversely affects the doctor-patient relationship and the outcome of the patient. The doctors, hospital administration and government must exercise "zero tolerance" with respect to acts of violence against healthcare professionals. It is possible to reduce the incidence of intolerance against doctors but difficult to eliminate it completely. The healthcare providers should demonstrate greater compassion and empathy with improved communication skills. The hospitals must have adequate infrastructure, facilities and staff to handle emergencies without delay and with due confidence and skills. The security of healthcare providers, especially in sensitive areas, should be improved by having adequate number of security guards, frisking facilities, extensive CCTV network and availability of "Quick response team" to handle unruly mob. In case of any grievances for alleged mismanagement, the public should handle the situation in a civilized manner and seek redressal through Medical Protection Act and legal
Esma Emmioglu Sarikaya; Lynn McAlpine; Cheryl Amundsen
Aim/Purpose: This paper examined the balance and meaning of two types of experiences in the day-to-day activity of doctoral students that draw them into academia and that move them away from academia: ‘feeling like an academic and belonging to an academic community;’ and ‘not feeling like an academic and feeling excluded from an academic community.’ Background: As students navigate doctoral work, they are learning what is entailed in being an academic by engaging with their peers and mor...
Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner
The first important initiatives to establish international collaboration in music therapy research were taken in 1995 by Inge Nygaard Pedersen, Lars Ole Bonde and Tony Wigram. In 1997 Tony was given the task of leading, developing and creating a doctoral programme. The faculty of humanities granted...... the necessary resources, so that the first five PhD students could be enrolled. Under Tony’s leadership of the doctoral programme, the number of PhD students grew from the initial 5, to 10 in 2001 and 25 in 2010....
Ramsden, Sophie; Abidogun, Abiola; Stringer, Emma; Mahgoub, Sara; Kastrissianakis, Artemis; Baker, Paul
Peer teaching has been used informally throughout the history of medical education. Formal studies within the medical student and allied health care professional communities have found it to be a popular, and highly effective, method of teaching. Newly qualified doctors are currently an underused resource in terms of teaching one another. A committee, made up of newly qualified doctors and postgraduate education staff, was established. Using only a few resources, this committee organised regular, peer-led tutorials and used educational needs assessment tools, such as questionnaires, to make improvements to early postgraduate training. A realistic and well-received intervention to improve the teaching of newly qualified doctors, which is feasible in the modern, busy health care setting. Other institutions may find this method and its resources valuable. Newly qualified doctors are currently an underused resource in terms of teaching one another. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard
of future researchers, mainly through doctoral education, has become of heightened interest. In this process several global trends and related drivers of such changes can be identified, e.g. professionalization and quality assurance of doctoral education, and researcher mobility. With the European...... for students during the PhD – when at the same time political fractions state that “[o]verregulation of doctoral programs should be avoided” as doctoral education is seen as “a source for human capital for research but is also an extremely important part of the research itself” (Gudmundsson, 2008, p. 77). Also...... the PhD to not only international disciplinary arenas, but also to a world beyond the campus made manifest through a culturally diverse and existentially enhanced PhD process and learning environment. I argue that we should acknowledge that globalisation does not only make possible ‘standardisation...
Wang, Yi; Tang, Yu; He, Yan; Zhu, Ya-qin
To evaluate the effect of doctor-patient communication education on dental clinical practice. The process of 61 dental interns' clinical practice was divided into two stages. The dental interns were taught with traditional teaching method in the first stage. Doctor-patient communication and communication skill training were added to the second stage. Scale of medical student's doctor-patient communication behavior was used to evaluate the dental interns' behavior by themselves after two stages. The SEGUE frame work was used to evaluate the dental interns' behavior by teachers after two stages. All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0 software package. The result of scale of medical student's doctor-patient communication behavior was analyzed using Fisher exact test or Chi-square test. The score of the SEGUE frame work was analyzed using Student's t test. The result of Scale of medical student's doctor-patient communication behavior showed only 37.71% of dental interns could establish good doctor-patient relationship in the first stage. After doctor-patient communication and communication skill training, the percentage became 75.4%. The result of the SEGUE frame work showed the score was raised from 16.066±3.308 to 21.867±2.456, and a significant difference was found between the two stages. Doctor-Patient communication education can improve dental interns' communication skills and help to establish a good doctor-patient relationship.
Snaith, B.; Harris, M.A.; Harris, R.
Introduction: Radiography aspires to be a research active profession, but there is limited information regarding the number of individuals with, or studying for, a doctoral award. This study aims to profile UK doctoral radiographers; including their chosen award, approach and employment status. Method: This was a prospective cohort study utilising an electronic survey. No formal database of doctoral radiographers existed therefore a snowball sampling method was adopted. The study sample was radiographers (diagnostic and therapeutic) based in the UK who were registered with the Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) and who held, or were studying for, a doctoral award. Results: A total of 90 unique responses were received within the timescale. The respondents comprised 58 females (64.4%) and the majority were diagnostic radiographers (n = 71/90; 78.9%). The traditional PhD was the most common award, although increasing numbers were pursuing Education or Professional Doctorates. An overall increase in doctoral studies is observed over time, but was greatest amongst those working in academic institutions, with 63.3% of respondents (n = 57/90) working solely within a university, and a further 10% employed in a clinical–academic role (n = 9/90). Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that radiography is emerging as a research active profession, with increasing numbers of radiographers engaged in study at a doctoral level. This should provide a platform for the future development of academic and clinical research. - Highlights: • 90 radiographers were identified as holding, or studying for, a doctoral award. • The PhD is the most common award. • EdD and professional doctorates are increasing in popularity. • Academic staff were more likely to pursue such research training.
Nyhsen, C.M.; Patel, P.; O'Connell, J.E.
Introduction: NHS staff have the right to work in an environment free from bullying, harassment and violence. There should be good team-working with colleagues from all disciplines. Reports of bullying experienced by junior doctors resulted in mandatory annual GMC surveys regarding the quality of training. This led to medical trainees being surveyed more than any other staff. Radiographers informally reported bullying and harassment (B&H) incidents involving trainees. This survey aims to quantify the issue. Methods: Online survey of general and CT radiographers at a large acute hospital in the North East of England addressing incidents involving junior doctors and occurring in the preceding 12 months. Results: The survey was completed by 86% (44/51) general and 5/7 CT radiographers. Overall 45% experienced bullying, 92% had their own/witnessed a colleague's opinion being ignored and 57% were the target of loud verbal abuse/anger or witnessed colleagues being treated in that way. Several radiographers reported 5 or more B&H incidents. 26 radiographers (51%) were shouted at/ridiculed in theatre, 4 feeling unsafe/physically threatened. Junior doctors regularly queried the need to supervise CT contrast injections on call. Free text comments highlighted that doctors rarely introduced themselves to radiology staff. Conclusion: Radiographers report significant incidents of B&H involving junior doctors, who do not always seem to appreciate radiation exposure legislation, patient safety protocols or respect the seniority of highly trained radiographers. Measures introduced subsequently include guidance for radiographers, a dedicated radiology e-learning package for trainees and classroom sessions for foundation doctors and final year undergraduate students. - Highlights: • Bullying and harassment of radiographers is a persistent problem. • Some radiographers reported feeling physically threatened in theatre. • Some junior doctors do not respect radiation exposure
Nilas, L; Løkkegaard, E C; Laursen, J B; Kling, J; Cortes, D
From 2012-2015, the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and of Pediatrics at the University of Copenhagen conducted a project, "Internationalization at Home ", offering clinical teaching in English. The project allowed international students to work with Danish speaking students in a clinical setting. Using semi-quantitative questionnaires to 89 clinicians about use of English and need for training, this paper considers if Danish clinical doctors are prepared to teach in English. The majority self-assessed their English proficiency between seven and eight on a 10 unit visual analogue scale, with 10 equivalent to working in Danish, while 15 % rated five or less. However, one-fourth found teaching and writing in English to be twice as difficult than in Danish, and 12 % rated all teaching tasks in English at four or less compared to Danish. The self-assessed need for additional English skills was perceived low. Teaching in English was rated as 30 % more difficult than in Danish, and a significant subgroup of doctors had difficulties in all forms of communication in English, resulting in challenges when introducing international students in non-native English speaking medical departments.
Full Text Available Background: Much of the contentious debate surrounding the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (“Obamacare” concerned its financing and its attempt to guarantee (near universal access to healthcare through the private insurance market. Aside from sensationalist stories of “death panels,” much less attention went to implications of the bill for the actual provision of healthcare. Methodology: This paper examines the "patient-centered medical home" (PCMH model which has been widely promoted as a means of reviving and improving primary care (i.e. general internal medicine, family medicine, and pediatrics. Argument: The PCMH and many of its components (e.g pay-for-performance, electronic medical records were interventions that were implemented on a massive basis without any evidence of benefit. Recent research has not generally supported clinical benefits with the PCMH model. Instead it seems to designed to de-professionalize (make proletarians of health care workers and enforce corporate models of health. The core values of professional work are undermined while the PCMH does nothing to address the structural marginalization of primary care within US health care. Conclusions: The development of alternative models will require political changes. Both doctors and teachers are in a position of advocate for more progressive systems of care and education.
What to ask your doctor about epilepsy - adult; Seizures - what to ask your doctor - adult; Seizure - what to ask your doctor ... call to find more information about driving and epilepsy? What should I discuss with my boss at ...
Himmelstein, Mary S; Sanchez, Diana T
Mortality and morbidity data suggest that men have shorter life expectancies than women and outrank women on several leading causes of death. These gendered disparities may be influenced by psychosocial factors like masculinity. Three studies (Total N=546) examined the role of masculinity in men's doctor choices and doctor-patient interactions. In Studies 1 and 2, men completed measures of masculinity, gender bias, and doctor preference. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the direct relationship between masculinity and male doctor preference and the indirect relationship of masculinity on male doctor preference through an association with gendered competence stereotypes. Participants in Study 3 disclosed symptoms in private followed by disclosure to a male or female interviewer in a clinical setting. Using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), we examined the interaction among symptom reporting, masculinity and doctor gender, controlling for participant comfort. In Study 1, results suggested that masculinity encouraged choice of a male doctor directly and indirectly via beliefs that men make more competent doctors than women; Study 2 directly replicated the results of Study 1. In Study 3, independent of participant comfort, an interaction between interviewer gender and masculinity emerged such that men scoring higher on masculinity reported symptoms less consistently to male interviewers (relative to higher scoring men reporting to female interviewers); the reverse was found for men scoring low on masculinity. Taken together these studies suggest that masculinity may affect men's health by encouraging choice of a male doctor with whom doctor-patient communication may be impaired. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Esteban Hernández Esteve
Full Text Available TESIS DOCTORALES Doctoral dissertations María Soledad Campos Lucena: El control de las arcas municipales a través de la rendición de cuentas. La transformación del proceso del Antiguo al Nuevo régimen y la consolidación del modelo liberal: 1745-1914 The control of municipal coffers by means of account rendering. The change from Ancien Régime to the New Regime and the consolidation of liberalism: 1745-1914 Candelaria Castro Pérez: La institución parroquial a través de los registros contables del Señorío episcopal de la Villa de Agüimes. (1500-1860 The parochial institution seen through the account books of the Episcopal domain of the city of Aguimes (1500-1860 José Julián Hernández Borreguero: El Cabildo Catedral de Sevilla: organización y sistema contable. (1625-1650 Administrative and accounting organization of the Seville Cathedral. (1625-1650 Juan Lanero Fernández: El esplendor de la teneduría de libros: la partida doble en los tratados contables ingleses de la dinastia Tudor (1543-1588 Bookkeeping splendor: double-entry in the English accounting treatises at the time of the Tudor dynasty (1543-1588 María Llompart Bibiloni: Un análisis histórico-contable de la Procuración del Real Patrimonio en el Reino de Mallorca, período 1310-1330 An accounting historical análisis of the Royal Exchequer of the Kingdom of Mallorca (1310-1330
Zsinkó-Szabó, Zoltán; Lázár, Imre
Eighteen years experience of teaching medical anthropology at a Hungarian medical school offers insight into the dynamics of interference between the rationalist epistemological tradition of biomedicine as one of the central paradigms of modernism and the cultural relativism of medical anthropology, as cultural anthropology is considered to be one of the generators of postmodern thinking. Tracing back the informal "prehistory" of our Institute, we can reveal its psychosomatic, humanistic commitment and critical basis as having represented a kind of counterculture compared with the technocrats of state-socialist Hungary's health ideology. The historical change and socio-cultural transition in Hungary after 1989 was accompanied by changes in the medical system as well as in philosophy and in the structure of the teaching of social sciences. The developing pluralism in the medical system together with the pluralism of social ideologies allowed the substitution of the dogmatic Marxist-Leninist framework with the more pragmatic and empiricist behavioral sciences including medical sociology and medical anthropology. The conflict between the initiation function of the hard preclinical training of the first two years, and the reflective, relativistic and critical narrative on "biomedicine as culture bound entity" constructed by medical anthropology during the second year of medical training is discussed. We also submit our fieldwork data gained as a result of a two year investigation period focusing on diverse initiation types of "would be" physicians. The main proportion of our data derives from individual semi structured deep interviews together with focus group interviews carried out with medical students of upper years. Finally, the role of medical anthropology in the "rite of passage" of becoming a medical doctor is summarized, paying attention to their field work reports and the risks and gains in this process.
Elliot, Dely; Guccione, Kay; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard
-Martek, Chen & McAlpine, 2011). PGRs’ motivation, creativity, resilience and momentum during their long and intense doctoral journey are often strongly sustained by unseen informal structures, social support systems and extra-curricular activities tacitly providing emotional, social, pastoral and academic......Part 1 Abstract Ongoing educational and psycho-social challenges in doctoral education (e.g. psychological distress, attrition and delay in completion) warrant a more comprehensive understanding of the expanded doctoral education context and how the different facets of doctoral support mechanisms......, 2016b; Bengtsen & Barnett, 2017; Bryan & Guccione, 2018; Elliot et al., 2016b, 2016c; Wisker et al., 2017). Yet, there remains a somewhat limited understanding not only of these multifaceted components but how they interact with already existing formal and informal support mechanisms offered...
Lubienski, Sarah Theule; Miller, Emily K.; Saclarides, Evthokia Stephanie
Women in the sciences who earn PhDs are less likely than their male counterparts to pursue tenure-track positions at research universities. Moreover, among those who become STEM researchers, men have been found to publish more than women. These patterns raise questions about when sex differences in publication begin. Using data from a survey of…
Olaf Gjerløw Aasland
Full Text Available Doctors are among the healthiest segments of the population in western countries. Nevertheless, they complain strongly of stress and burnout. Their own explanation is deprofessionalisation: The honourable art of doctoring has been replaced by standardised interventions and production lines; professional autonomy has withered. This view is shared by many medical sociologists who have identified a “golden age of medicine,” or “golden age of doctoring,” starting after World War II and declining around 1970. This article looks at some of the central sociological literature on deprofessionalisation, particularly in a perspective of countervailing powers. It also looks into another rise-and-fall model, proposed by the medical profession itself, where the fall in professional power was generated by the notion that there are no more white spots to explore on the map of medicine. Contemporary doctoring is a case of cognitive dissonance, where the traditional doctor role seems incompatible with modern health care.Keywords: deprofessionalisation, professional autonomy, cognitive dissonance, golden age of doctoring
Prim-Espada, María Pilar; De Diego-Sastre, Juan Ignacio; Pérez-Fernández, Elia
In last decades women in Spain have a greater access to postgraduate education. The objective of this study was to perform a gender analysis on the Otolaryngology doctoral theses presented in a 25 year-period. The TESEO data base on doctoral theses was searched for theses on Otorhinolaryngology written between 1981 and 2005. As strategy for the research we employed the terms: 1) Otorrinolaringología (Otorhinolaryngology); 2) Cirugía de garganta, nariz y oídos (Ear, nose and throat surgery); 3) Fisiología de la audición (Physiology of hearing); 4) Fisiología del equilibrio (Physiology of balance); 5) Física de la audición (Physics of hearing); and 6) Bioacústica (Bioacoustics). A total of 450 theses (18.0±8.3 theses/year) were found, of which 129 were written by females (28.6%). There was a gender imbalance among authors, with 5.2±3.4 theses/year for women vs. 12.9±6.6 theses/year for men (p=0.0002). Nevertheless, there was a tendency toward equality in the last 10 years (p=0.001). On the other hand, the PhD student's gender was clearly related to the supervisor's gender (p=0.0001). With respect to the main topics in our area (otology, audiology/vestibular diseases, rhinology and pathology of paranasal sinuses and neck diseases), there were no significant differences between males and females (p=0.231). These results indicate a tendency towards equality in the number of men and women successfully completing doctoral studies in Otolaryngology. However, the PhD student's gender is clearly related to the supervisor's gender. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Clinical practice is not always user-friendly. Specialisation fragments patient care across different investigations and modes of management. Increasing hospital throughput, especially by day surgery, diminishes the time available for students and other health professionals in the team to interact with the patient and verify the appropriateness of the care plan. Patients are at a serious disadvantage in ensuring that their concerns are understood, and in negotiation of which management plan would optimise the outcomes they seek.
Pryce, Julia M.; Ainbinder, Alisa; Werner-Lin, Allison V.; Browne, Teri A.; Smithgall, Cheryl
Doctoral student training has become focused in recent years on acquiring subject-area knowledge and research skills, rather than on teaching. This shift often leaves aspiring junior faculty feeling unprepared to address the demanding pedagogical requirements of the professoriate. In the area of social work, few programs contain a structured,…
The aim of this study was to determine the publication success and problems of postgraduate studies in the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State (UFS). The sample consisted of students who obtained a postgraduate qualification based on a Master's or doctoral thesis in the faculty from March 2001 to April
Research ethics are the cornerstone of conducting effective and meaningful research. Selected theses by doctoral students show variations in ethical considerations applicable. This article discusses personal reflections and refractions in an experiential journey in which child-rearing practices of refugees were studied.
Relationships between the expectations of the PhD, creativity and identity are a rich terrain for research, explored here. Doctoral student identity and the expectations of the PhD have been the focus of much previous work, while work on candidates pursuing research in literature and art has focused on tensions in their work, ...
Health-related doctoral distance education programmes: A review of ethical scholarship considerations. ... Universities should encourage and support supervisors and students to publish research findings in academic journals and to present these at conferences. However, communities that participated in a research project ...
This paper explores the drive to expand the quantity and quality of PhD's in South Africa and the impact this has had on under-represented groups, in particular black graduates. Based on both qualitative and quantitative data, the paper argues that while there has been a significant increase in the number of black students in doctoral education,…
Bancroft, Senetta F.
Most studies exploring the experiences of underrepresented doctoral students of color in science fields focus on their socialization into predominantly white institutions. While the socialization process is fundamental to doctoral success and consequently deserves attention, it is critical to inquire into how the widespread and lasting perception of people of color as socioculturally deficient shapes underrepresented students` socialization into science doctoral programs. Further, the existing research literature and educational policies addressing the persistent underrepresentation of students of color in science doctorates remain fixated on increasing racial diversity for U.S. economic security rather than racial equity. In view of the limitation of existing research literature, in this study, drawing from critical race theories, fictive-kinship, and forms of capital, I use counterstorytelling to recast racial inequities in the education of science doctorates as a problem of social justice, not as an issue of the students' sociocultural deficits or as a matter of economic security. Through interviews I examined the experiences, from elementary school to current careers, of three women of color who were science doctoral students. Participants' counterstories revealed institutionalized racism embedded in doctoral programs exploited their identities and dismissed their lived experiences, thereby, relegating them to outsiders-within academe. This marginalization precluded the inclusive socialization of participants into their doctoral programs and ultimately set up barriers to their pursuit of scientific careers. This study divulges the academic and career consequences of the sustained privilege disparities between underrepresented students of color's experience and the experiences of their white and Asian counterparts. In light of the participants' experiences, I recommend that, in order to change the existing policy of socially integrating students into oppressive
Danowitz, Mary Ann
Research suggests that doctoral students' learning and experiences are influenced by their relationships and predominant organizational norms and structures, create gender inequality and discourage or prevent alternative behaviors. However, there is very little empirical information on the nature of doctoral experiences and organizational…
Guccione, Kay; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard
at different times in the doctoral journey? What are the physical and structural barriers to doctoral learning? Buddies, for example: Does a supervisor have to be a friend to a student to supervise them well? How do we enable supervisors to cultivate trusting partnerships? How do peers and post-docs support...
Chronicle of Higher Education, 1984
Student characteristics of 1982-83 earned doctorate recipients include sex, racial or ethnic group, citizenship, marital status, age, years from bachelor's degree to doctorate, percentage with bachelor's degree in the same field, planned postdoctoral study and employment, primary postdoctoral work, and region of postdoctoral employment. (MSE)
Solorzano, Daniel G.
Reviews the status of black doctorate production from U.S. universities during the 1980s, updating baseline information and examining the baccalaureate origins of African American doctorates. Black students continue to be underrepresented, especially in science and engineering, and gender differences persist. The role of historically black…
Rodríguez, Mariela A.
Personal narrative essays were used to analyze the experiences of four Latina doctoral students who completed their first year in an educational leadership doctoral program in a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) in the southwestern U.S. Four themes emerged from their "testimonios" 1) "Con todo el corazón"; 2) "Somos como…
Ramagli, Howard J., Jr.; Greenwood, Gordon E.
The influence of the Doctor Fox effect on student ratings on instruction was examined. The idea for the Doctor Fox effect stemmed from the work of Erving Goffman and his notion that expressive behavior may influence an audience as much or more than substance when there is little time or reason for the audience to evaluate the presentation (1950).…
Grable, John E.
Innovation in doctoral degree program development and delivery provides an effective counterpoint to the expert-apprentice model established in the Middle Ages. The author outlines the importance of innovation in reaching adult learners and describes an innovative hybrid PhD program designed to allow aspiring doctoral adult-age students to pursue…
Truong, Kimberly A.; Museus, Samuel D.
In this study, Kimberly A. Truong and Samuel D. Museus focus on understanding strategies doctoral students of color use to respond to racism. The authors conducted semi-structured individual interviews with twenty-six participants who self-reported experiencing racism and racial trauma during doctoral studies. Analysis of the data resulted in…
Full Text Available This paper presents quantitative results of a comparative study evaluating the management skills of doctoral candidates working toward a PhD and additional information related to their lifestyles. We conducted a survey among enrolled doctoral candidates at five universities in Israel and three technological universities in Western Europe. 1013 Israeli candidates and 457 Western European candidates replied to our survey. In our analysis, we compared the answers of Israeli Science and Engineering candidates to those of Social Sciences and Humanities candidates; in addition, we compared the answers of Israeli Science and Engineering students to their Western European peers. Our analysis focused on finding significant patterns by comparing these groups of students. In order to identify such patterns, we analyzed each question using the Pearson chi-square test. The current study’s main finding is that the majority of candidates, regardless of their chosen academic field or the region where they study, have no training or expertise in managing a doctoral research project. Based on these findings, we suggest that all doctoral candidates be taught basic research-project management. We believe that such training will provide them with a powerful tool for better managing their research as they advance towards successful completion of their doctorate.
Boyce, Barbara Ann; Lund, Jackie; O'Neil, Kason
Quality preparation of doctoral students is a key to the survival of physical education teacher education. Past research has revealed a shortage of students graduating with a doctoral degree in physical education and a general reluctance of teachers to leave their jobs to pursue an advanced degree. As the number of universities preparing new…
Bernard, R. E.; Mayfield, K. K.
Geoscience is currently recognized as the least diverse of all STEM fields. While attention typically focuses on K-12 and undergraduate populations, the extreme lack of diversity among graduate students, and doctoral students in particular, should be examined and addressed. In 2016, members of underrepresented minority (URM) groups made up only 6% of those graduating with geoscience PhDs. In all STEM fields, only 48% of Hispanic/Latino and 38% of Black/African American doctoral studies had earned doctorates within 7 years, with 36% of members of these groups leaving the program entirely. Recent studies suggest that these high attrition rates can be attributed, in part, to a mismatch between motivations of URM members and PhD-granting institutions while students are pursuing scientific education and careers. Traditional STEM doctoral programs do not offer, facilitate, or incentivize substantial opportunities to integrate social justice issues, community involvement, and altruism—factors which have been found to be of more importance to these populations than to male members of well-represented groups. URM members are also less likely to be interested in purely academic research careers, so doctoral programs may be failing to attract (and failing to prepare) diverse populations by not offering experiences beyond typical research and TA duties. In this presentation, trends in motivation and persistence among URM students in STEM will be discussed, in addition to highlighting education and outreach activities that can be successfully incorporated for a more fulfilling, balanced, attractive, and preparatory education experience. Specific activities undertaken and recommended by the presenter in her PhD experience include the following: a federal research internship, a state government policy internship, a formal partnership with a local K-12 teacher though a former NSF GK-12 program, a two-week education workshop aboard a scientific research drillship, and attending a
To identify the impact of family life on the ways women practice rural medicine and the changes needed to attract women to rural practice. Census of women rural doctors in Victoria in 2000, using a self-completed postal survey. General and specialist practice. Two hundred and seventy-one female general practitioners and 31 female specialists practising in Rural, Remote and Metropolitan Area Classifications 3-7. General practitioners are those doctors with a primary medical degree and without additional specialist qualifications. Interaction of hours and type of work with family responsibilities. Generalist and specialist women rural doctors carry the main responsibility for family care. This is reflected in the number of hours they work in clinical and non-clinical professional practice, availability for on-call and hospital work, and preference for the responsibilities of practice partnership or the flexibility of salaried positions. Most of the doctors had established a satisfactory balance between work and family responsibilities, although a substantial number were overworked in order to provide an income for their families or meet the needs of their communities. Thirty-six percent of female rural general practitioners and 56% of female rural specialists preferred to work fewer hours. Female general practitioners with responsibility for children were more than twice as likely as female general practitioners without children to be in a salaried position and less likely to be a practice partner. The changes needed to attract and retain women in rural practice include a place for everyone in the doctor's family, flexible practice structures, mentoring by women doctors and financial and personal recognition. Women make up less than a quarter of the rural general practice workforce and an even smaller percentage of the specialist rural medical workforce. As a result their experiences are not well articulated in research on rural medical practice and their needs are
IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGAD 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME, open 24h/24h 748-49-50 Association Of Geneva Doctors Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 URGENCES PEDIATRIQUES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European EmergencyCall 112 FRANCE EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 04-72-11-69-11 All doctors will...
Peirce, Anne Griswold; Smith, Jennifer A
Ethical questions dealt with by nurses who have Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degrees include traditional bioethical questions, but also business and legal ethics. Doctorally prepared nurses are increasingly in positions to make ethical decisions rather than to respond to decisions made by others. The traditional master's-degree advanced practice nursing curriculum does not address the extended expertise and decision-making skills needed by DNP practitioners as they face these new types of ethical dilemmas. We propose that a curricular framework that addresses clinical, research, business, and legal ethics is needed by all DNP students.
Montalvo-Javé, Eduardo Esteban; Mendoza-Barrera, Germán Eduardo; Valderrama-Treviño, Alan Isaac; Alcántara-Medina, Stefany; Macías-Huerta, Nain Abraham; Tapia-Jurado, Jesús
The Doctor of Philosophy is the highest academic degree that can be obtained in universities. Graduate Education Program in Medicine in Mexico is divided into 2 major categories: Medical Specialty and Master studies/Doctor of Philosophy. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the importance of master's degrees and Doctor of Philosophy in general surgery. A literature search in PubMed and Medline among others, from 1970 to 2015 with subsequent analysis of the literature reviews found. The physicians who conducted doctoral studies stand out as leaders in research, teaching and academic activities. Dual training with a doctorate medical specialty is a significant predictor for active participation in research projects within the best educational institutions. It is important to study a PhD in the education of doctors specialising in surgery, who show more training in teaching, research and development of academic activities. Currently, although there is a little proportion of students who do not finish the doctoral program, the ones who do are expected to play an important role in the future of medical scientific staff. It has been shown that most doctors with Doctor of Philosophy have wide range of career options. The importance of doctoral studies in the formation of general surgery is due to various reasons; the main one being comprehensively training physician scientists who can develop in clinical, teaching and research. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
In this paper, I review a theoretical paradigm (attachment theory) which facilitates an understanding of how human care-giving and care-eliciting behaviours develop and are maintained over the lifespan. I argue that this paradigm has particular utility in: (i) the training of doctors; (ii) understanding why some doctors and medical students experience high levels of stress, and (iii) developing interventions to help those who struggle to manage high levels of work-related stress. I carried out a review of key texts and previously published studies of attachment styles in caregivers. Large-scale epidemiological studies, using valid and reliable measures, show that insecure attachment styles are found in a proportion of normal populations of both males and females. Insecure attachment is associated with impaired stress management and subtle deficits in care-giving sensitivity. It is reasonable to assume that a proportion of students entering medical training and doctors with performance problems may have insecure attachment styles which influence how they approach their training experience and how they manage occupational stress. Attachment theory is a useful paradigm for thinking about training as a professional caregiver. Insecure early attachment experiences may be a risk factor for poor stress management in some medical students and doctors who are exposed to increasing demands as carers. These findings lead to suggestions for possible research and support interventions.
Wheeler, Rebecca McCombs; Eichelberger, Lisa Wright
Increasing the number of nurses with doctorates is a goal of the nursing profession. The Georgia Nursing Leadership Coalition developed a survey to understand the perspectives of nurses pursuing doctoral degrees in Georgia to improve recruitment and retention strategies. A 26-item online survey was distributed to all students enrolled in Georgia-based doctoral programs in nursing in spring 2014. One hundred fifty responses were received (54% response rate). Most students first seriously considered doctoral education during their master's programs or more than 5 years into practice. For most, obtaining a doctoral degree was a personal life goal. Work-life balance was the most significant barrier. Recruitment of nurses to doctoral programs should focus on messaging, timing, and highlighting the unique aspects of programs. Schools should work to reduce barriers. Understanding students' perspectives of doctoral education in nursing can improve recruitment strategies and increase the number of nurses graduating with doctorates in Georgia. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(8):466-470.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Koffi-Tessio, Annick Viwalé; Oniankitan, Owonayo; Mijiyawa, Moustafa
A study has been carried out by Togolese medical doctors in order to determine the perceived and the real life of their profession. The study, which was transversal, has taken in account a sample of 52 medical doctors made on the basis of a cautious choice. Most of these medical doctors (15 general practitioners, 23 specialists and 14 hospitalo-universitaires) work in the medical cares centres of Lomé. A sheet of survey has permitted the collection of demographic data and data relating to the medical studies and career. The 52 medical doctors included in the study (7 women, 45 men) were between 25 and 59 years old; their age of getting their A-level was between 16 and 23 years old, and that of getting the doctorate diploma between 24 and 37. The length of professional experience stands between 8 months and 27 years. The marital status was specified by 47 of the 52 medical doctors: 13 single, one divorced, and 33 married; 5 of the 7 women who took part in the survey were single and without any child. The love of the profession (65%), the social status it confers (37%) and the honour tied to the profession (27%) were the main motives of choosing the profession. The decision of doing medical studies was taken during secondary studies by 45 of the 52 persons. The faculty of medicine of Lomé has been the study frame to general medicine studies of 35 persons (67%). The low payment (83%), the poverty of the patients (83%), the narrowness of the technical platform (79%), the insufficiency of cares structures in paramedical personnel (67%), the insufficiency of continuing education (60%), and the lack or insufficiency of drugs (58%) were the main problems encountered during their professional experience by the people questioned. 22 medical doctors (43%) have estimated that their profession has given them a particular social status. Only 8 medical doctors have found that the real things they have gone trough in the profession matches with the idea they had, while 32 (62
The doctor who attended the mother of Adolf Hitler in her terminal illness has been blamed as a cause of the Holocaust. The medical details recorded of this professional relationship are presented and discussed. Dr Bloch's medical care of Mrs Hitler was consistent with the prevailing medical practice of the management of fungating breast carcinoma. Indeed, the general practitioner's care and attention of the family appear to have been astute and supportive. There is nothing to suggest that Dr Bloch's medical care was other than competent. Doctors who have the (mis)fortune to professionally attend major figures of history may be unfairly viewed, despite their appropriate and adequate care.
The Carnegie Foundation commissioned a collection of essays as part of the Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate (CID). Essays and essayists represent six disciplines that are part of the CID: chemistry, education, English, history, mathematics, and neuroscience. Intended to engender conversation about the conceptual foundation of doctoral…
Full Text Available The lack of a formed professional self-determination among high school students leads to the fact that in the process of medical education and the first years of professional activity, a significant number of students and young specialists leave medicine. Purpose of the study: sociological assessment of professional self-determination of schoolchildren of the upper grades, including those who choose the profession of a doctor, as well as the factors that determine it. Methods. The study was conducted using a sociological survey using a specially developed questionnaire. Results. The level of professional self-determination of schoolchildren of the upper grades is low, one out of every three schoolchildren surveyed has not yet decided on the choice of the future profession, about 8 % of the students have not even chosen an approximate direction of future professional activity. Schoolchildren who have chosen the profession of a doctor, the main motivation is an adherence and a life situation, while prestige and the level of wages are not decisive. As the main base of forming professional self-determination two out of three respondents named the school, meaning the speech made for them by doctors and medical students. For those schoolchildren who have chosen the profession of a doctor on their own, the main motivation factor usually is the visit to the medical university during Doors Open Days. Conclusion. The most important role in the formation of professional self-determination of future doctors belongs to the development and implementation of vocational guidance activities carried out by the forces of the school and medical university.
Esquerda, Montse; Pifarré, Josep; Roig, Helena; Busquets, Ester; Yuguero, Oriol; Viñas, Joan
In the last decades, bioethics has been incorporated into the academic training of the Medical Schools. Some studies analyze the ethical-moral development of medical students and the effect of ethical education in other countries. This evaluation is done by measuring Kohlberg's moral reasoning (virtuous doctors), or ethical sensitivity to resolve clinical cases (physicians with ethical skills). The following study is proposed to assess the impact of bioethics training on these two variables, in Spanish medical students. Observational cross-sectional study. SITE: Faculty of Medicine, University of Lleida. 175 students from third year of medicine (78 before bioethics and 97 after bioethics, in different courses) were conducted. Bioethics course. A socio-demographic questionnaire, the Rest Defining Issue test scale, and Problem Identification Test with clinical vignettes were administered. A consistent and significant correlation has been found between moral reasoning and ethical sensitivity. Women presented greater post-conventional reasoning. There were no changes in Kohlberg's stage of global moral reasoning with ethical training. There were changes in ethical sensitivity with bioethical training, with a significantly and globally improvement. In our study, training in bioethics does not improve moral development but rather the ethical problem solving skills. It is asked if this improvement is enough to train doctors prepared for the new challenges. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
The author of this short text book treats all theme ranges of the subject catalogue for the medical preliminary examination and presents simultaneously the foundations of physics in a simple, concise, and although closed form. Many examples, which have a close relation to working-day and environment and which origin whenever possible from the medical field, illustrate the physical facts and laws. So it is suggested to the reader that finally all life processes and also a manifold of diagnostic and therapeutic methods are based on physical laws. The mathematical tools, which are also for this elementary representation indispensable, are mediated in the first chapter of the book. Also here examples from medicine and biology establish the direct relation to the main study. The easily understandable layout of the book with many illustrative pictures, especially pronounced definitions, as well as summarizing tables facilitates the fast repeating in the preparation for the examination. Generally the book presents to the student of medicine the physical knowledge important for him in a balanced and easily accessible form. (orig.) [de
Petersen, Margit Anne; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine Marie
) enhancement purposes. Methods: The study is based on ethnographic fieldwork and in-depth interviews with 20 university students from multiple universities in New York City, from which the case is drawn. Findings: Three main themes were identified in the analysis. “The doctor prescribed them” illustrates how...... these students use doctors as easy access to study drugs, and legitimize their use of stimulants because they were prescribed. The second theme, “A good cause”, shows that the purpose is what counts as a measure for whether stimulant use is considered morally acceptable or not. The third theme, “Being......Aims: With this article, we aim to use students’ moral ambivalence towards prescription stimulants and the doctor’s who prescribe them to problematize the distinction between enhancement and treatment. We do this by investigating a case in which students obtain legitimate prescriptions for (covert...
Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard
pedagogies: To what extent does the personal and social relation between doctoral supervisors and students influence the learning outcome of the PhD, and how do doctoral supervisors reflect this pedagogical element? During my research stay at the Oxford Learning Institute, University of Oxford, in the spring...... the personal (private) and professional sides of the supervisor-student relationship. This group of supervisors find an emotional bond between supervisors and students to be potentially dangerous and threatening the sober and Socratic academic relation in the supervision process. The second category contains...... of trust and honesty in the supervision process, which hightens the quality of the research and the probability for timely completion. The variety of supervisor perspectives show that even within a small sample of a relatively homogenous educational context the pedagogical implications for the research...
Full Text Available Doctor studies have been included into formalised education system as a third cycle studies. In the light of ministerial regulations, the archive studies doctoral program ought to encompass classes on archives, methodology of sciences, didactics of higher education studies, the social role of an academic, conducting student internship. Does this mean, that a doctoral seminar in archive studies is excessive? On the contrary, the seminar seems to be the best place to bequeath knowledge and skills on methodology and the proper attitude of a scholar, in awareness of his or her role in the society.By these standards, the seminar should be understood not solely as a place to forge doctoral theses, but also as a site on which to conduct discussion with one's academic authorities and advisors and guest experts; it also should be the key class, taking up the most of the timetable. The validity of preparing an archivist for the role of a university teacher has been questioned.Both the profile of the doctor courses and observation of their effectiveness has led us to believe informal seminar to be the better way of doctoral education for archive students. Perhaps though, the kind of steps, that must be taken if doctor course on archive studies was to be created, is worth considering. Is there a chance, and, is it worth striving for the archive studies to be an independent department? It would not only mean opening doctor programmes, but also the right confer a PhD degree in Humanities, on the subject of archive studies, and not history, as it has hitherto been done. The archive studies have definite research subject, range and methodology. What is noticeable is a kind of archival sensitivity, that allows for all the users and all the purposes for using the resources to be on equal rights. Archive studies have matured, and it is ready to become an independent academic discipline. Thereby, it can be expected, that at last, it's maturity will be put to good
Kobayashi, Sofie; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Rump, Camilla Østerberg
Research into doctoral supervision has increased rapidly over the last decades, yet our understanding of how doctoral students learn scientific thinking from supervision is limited. Most studies are based on interviews with little work being reported that is based on observation of actual...... supervision. While joint supervision has become widely used, its learning dynamics remains under-researched and this paper aims to address these gaps in research by exploring learning opportunities in doctoral supervision with two supervisors. The study explores how the tensions in scientific discussion...... between supervisors can become learning opportunities. We combine two different theoretical perspectives, using participation and positioning theory as a sociocultural perspective and variation theory as an individual constructivist perspective on learning. Based on our analysis of a complex episode we...
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to see what medical students think about the role of spouse of a devoted medical doctor through the book reports of The Painted Veil (1925. Methods: The 53 medical students were asked to read Maugham’s The Painted Veil and to have a discussion. In their book reports, following questions were asked to be included: What it is like to be married a devoted medical doctor? Do you think that patients realize, value, and respect the importance of doctor’s work? In the outbreak of highly infectious and fatal disease, can you carry out a heroic fight to control it? Results: Among the 53 respondents, seven students (13% answered that they would be happy if they marry a devoted doctor and scientist and 34 (64% unhappy. The remaining 12 (23% could not make a decision. The six students (11% answered that doctor is valued and respected by patients while 46 (87% answered doctor is neither valued nor respected. The remaining one (2% could not decide. The 20 students (38% answered that they would fight for the infectious disease and the remaining 30 (57% answered that they would not. The remaining three (5% could not determine their mind. Conclusion: The Painted Veil induced a virtue of “life of balance and harmony” and “attitude of doctor who give superiority to responsibility and duty over prestige and wealth” from the medical students. It could be a good teaching material for medical humanity.
Swift, Louise; Miles, Susan; Price, Gill M; Shepstone, Lee; Leinster, Sam J
There is little published evidence on what doctors do in their work that requires probability and statistics, yet the General Medical Council (GMC) requires new doctors to have these skills. This study investigated doctors' use of and attitudes to probability and statistics with a view to informing undergraduate teaching.An email questionnaire was sent to 473 clinicians with an affiliation to the University of East Anglia's Medical School.Of 130 respondents approximately 90 per cent of doctors who performed each of the following activities found probability and statistics useful for that activity: accessing clinical guidelines and evidence summaries, explaining levels of risk to patients, assessing medical marketing and advertising material, interpreting the results of a screening test, reading research publications for general professional interest, and using research publications to explore non-standard treatment and management options.Seventy-nine per cent (103/130, 95 per cent CI 71 per cent, 86 per cent) of participants considered probability and statistics important in their work. Sixty-three per cent (78/124, 95 per cent CI 54 per cent, 71 per cent) said that there were activities that they could do better or start doing if they had an improved understanding of these areas and 74 of these participants elaborated on this. Themes highlighted by participants included: being better able to critically evaluate other people's research; becoming more research-active, having a better understanding of risk; and being better able to explain things to, or teach, other people.Our results can be used to inform how probability and statistics should be taught to medical undergraduates and should encourage today's medical students of the subjects' relevance to their future careers. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Edinburgh has had eight physic gardens on different sites since its first one was created by the Incorporation of Barbers and Surgeons in 1656. As the gardens grew in size, they evolved from herb gardens to botanic gardens with small herbaria for the supply of medical herbs. They were intended for the instruction of medical, surgical and apothecary students and, in the case of the physicians, to demonstrate the need for a physicians' college and a pharmacopoeia. Some of the doctors in charge of them were equally famous and influential in botany as in medicine, and while Edinburgh Town Council enjoyed the fame the gardens brought to the city it was parsimonious and slow to support its botanical pioneers. The gardens are celebrated today in the Sibbald Garden within the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh.
Full Text Available Doctoral research supervision is one of the major avenues for sustaining students’ satisfaction with the programme, preparing students to be independent researchers and effectively initiating students into the academic community. This work reports doctoral students’ evaluation of their various supervision models, their satisfaction with these supervision models, and development of research-related skills. The study used a descriptive research design and was guided by three research questions and two hypotheses. A sample of 310 Ph.D. candidates drawn from a federal university in Eastern part of Nigeria was used for this study. The data generated through the questionnaire was analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-tests. Results show that face-to-face interactive model was not only the most frequently used, but also the most widely adopted in doctoral thesis supervision while ICT-based models were rarely used. Students supervised under face-to-face interactive model reported being more satisfied with dissertation supervision than those operating under face-to-face noninteractive model. However, students supervised under these two models did not differ significantly in their perceived development in research-related skills.
Feldon, David F.; Rates, Christopher; Sun, Chongning
In the biological sciences, very little is known about the mechanisms by which doctoral students acquire the skills they need to become independent scientists. In the postsecondary biology education literature, identification of specific skills and effective methods for helping students to acquire them are limited to undergraduate education. To establish a foundation from which to investigate the developmental trajectory of biologists' research skills, it is necessary to identify those skills which are integral to doctoral study and distinct from skills acquired earlier in students' educational pathways. In this context, the current study engages the framework of threshold concepts to identify candidate skills that are both obstacles and significant opportunities for developing proficiency in conducting research. Such threshold concepts are typically characterised as transformative, integrative, irreversible, and challenging. The results from interviews and focus groups with current and former doctoral students in cellular and molecular biology suggest two such threshold concepts relevant to their subfield: the first is an ability to effectively engage primary research literature from the biological sciences in a way that is critical without dismissing the value of its contributions. The second is the ability to conceptualise appropriate control conditions necessary to design and interpret the results of experiments in an efficient and effective manner for research in the biological sciences as a discipline. Implications for prioritising and sequencing graduate training experiences are discussed on the basis of the identified thresholds.
Jaundice - what to ask your doctor; What to ask your doctor about newborn jaundice ... What causes jaundice in a newborn child? How common is newborn jaundice? Will the jaundice harm my child? What are the ...
What to ask your doctor about epilepsy - child; Seizures - what to ask your doctor - child ... should I discuss with my child's teachers about epilepsy? Will my child need to take medicines during ...
Tadisina, Suresh K.; Bhasin, Vijay
The application of a pairwise comparison methodology (Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process) to the doctoral program selection process is illustrated. A hierarchy for structuring and facilitating the doctoral program selection decision is described. (Author/MLW)
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Editorial Editorial Welcome to this special doctoral workshop on Research Methodology which forms part of what is now a well-established support mechanism for researchers in the discipline of the Built Environment and more particularly construction management. The ARCOM doctoral series, around now for some seventeen years, has addressed many of the diverse research areas that PhD researchers in the discipline have chosen to focus on in their doctoral journey. This doctoral workshop has as ...
Alvich, Dori; Manning, JoAnn; McCormick, Kathy; Campbell, Robert
This paper reflects on how one mid-Atlantic University innovatively incorporated technology into the development of a hybrid doctoral program in educational leadership. The paper describes a hybrid doctoral degree program using a rigorous design; challenges of reworking a traditional syllabus of record to a hybrid doctoral program; the perceptions…
What to ask your doctor about dementia; Alzheimer disease - what to ask your doctor; Cognitive impairment - what to ask your doctor ... Alzheimer's Association. Dementia Care Practice Recommendations ... in a Home Setting. Updated 2009. Alz.org. www.alz.org/national/ ...
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The differences between male and female doctors are investigated, and what patients expect from their doctors is examined. Some conclusions are drawn from the preferences which patients express for male and female doctors and from the different outcomes of male and female doctor-patient interactions.
Jouni A Peltonen
Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to better understand the individual variations in supervisory and researcher community support among doctoral students by analyzing the social support profiles of Finnish doctoral students. The differences among the profiles, in terms of satisfaction with supervision, experienced burnout, time to candidacy and disciplinary background were also examined. Background: This study explores social support profiles and their association with the experienced burnout, satisfaction with supervision, drop-out intentions, disciplinary background, and form of dissertation among doctoral students by employing a person-oriented approach. Methodology: In total, 402 doctoral students from a Finnish university completed a Doctoral Experience survey. Latent Profile Analysis (LPA was used to group doctoral students according to social support from supervisors and the researcher community. Contribution: The present study is among the first quantitative studies to explore doctoral student social support profiles and their association with burnout, drop-out intentions, and time to candidacy. It brings into focus the importance of supervisory and researcher community support as one of the most crucial assets of doctoral education in researcher communities. Findings: Two social support profiles, a sufficient support from supervisor and researched community, and b insufficient support from both of these, were identified. Further investigation suggested that the doctoral students who received sufficient support were less likely to suffer from burnout and were less likely to develop drop-out intentions than students who received insufficient support from their supervisor and the researcher community. Recommendations for Practitioners: A recommendation deriving from this research is to identify students at risk as early as possible and assist them with sufficient support.
Spooner, Sharon; Pearson, Emma; Gibson, Jonathan; Checkland, Kath
This study draws on an in-depth investigation of factors that influenced the career decisions of junior doctors. Junior doctors in the UK can choose to enter specialty training (ST) programmes within 2 years of becoming doctors. Their specialty choices contribute to shaping the balance of the future medical workforce, with views on general practice (GP) careers of particular interest because of current recruitment difficulties. This paper examines how experiences of medical work and perceptions about specialty training shape junior doctors' career decisions. Twenty doctors in the second year of a Foundation Training Programme in England were recruited. Purposive sampling was used to achieve a diverse sample from respondents to an online survey. Narrative interviewing techniques encouraged doctors to reflect on how experiences during medical school and in medical workplaces had influenced their preferences and perceptions of different specialties. They also spoke about personal aspirations, work priorities and their wider future.Junior doctors' decisions were informed by knowledge about the requirements of ST programmes and direct observation of the pressures under which ST doctors worked. When they encountered negative attitudes towards a specialty they had intended to choose, some became defensive while others kept silent. Achievement of an acceptable work-life balance was a central objective that could override other preferences.Events linked with specific specialties influenced doctors' attitudes towards them. For example, findings confirmed that while early, positive experiences of GP work could increase its attractiveness, negative experiences in GP settings had the opposite effect. Junior doctors' preferences and perceptions about medical work are influenced by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors and experiences. This paper highlights the importance of understanding how perceptions are formed and preferences are developed, as a basis for generating
Ahmed Zaky Abushady, (1892-1955) was an author, beekeeper, doctor and poet. This paper follows his life from his upbringing in Egypt and his time as a medical student in England to his later life as a pathologist working in Alexandria and Cairo and finally his years in the United States of America. It emphasises his contributions in several fields not directly related to medicine and looks at his continuing influence.
... With Osteoporosis: How to Find a Doctor For People With Osteoporosis: How to Find a Doctor Isabel ... a doctor with expertise in osteoporosis. For many people, finding a doctor who is knowledgeable about osteoporosis ...
Filippelli, Laura Ann
The mentoring relationships of male and female scientists during their doctoral studies were examined. Male and female biologists, chemists, engineers and physicists were compared regarding the importance of doctoral students receiving career enhancing and psychosocial mentoring from their doctoral chairperson and student colleagues. Scientists' satisfaction with their chairperson and colleagues as providers of these mentoring functions was also investigated. In addition, scientists identified individuals other than their chairperson and colleagues who were positive influencers on their professional development as scientists and those who hindered their development. A reliable instrument, "The Survey of Accomplished Scientists' Doctoral Experiences," was developed to assess career enhancing and psychosocial mentoring of doctoral chairpersons and student colleagues based on the review of literature, interviews with scientists and two pilot studies. Surveys were mailed to a total of 400 men and women scientists with earned doctorates, of which 209 were completed and returned. The findings reveal that female scientists considered the doctoral chairperson furnishing career enhancing mentoring more important than did the men, while both were in accordance with the importance of them providing psychosocial mentoring. In addition, female scientists were not as satisfied as men with their chairperson providing most of the career enhancing and psychosocial mentoring functions. For doctoral student colleagues, female scientists, when compared to men, indicated that they considered student colleagues more important in providing career enhancing and psychosocial mentoring. However, male and female scientists were equally satisfied with their colleagues as providers of these mentoring functions. Lastly, the majority of male scientists indicated that professors served as a positive influencer, while women revealed that spouses and friends positively influenced their professional
Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter; Doll, Gayle; Pearson-Scott, Jean
The delivery of higher education in gerontology is changing; students are now able to receive an education solely online. Perhaps it is time to consider offering this option at the doctoral level. A needs assessment was conducted to assess whether a doctoral program in gerontology should be created in the Great Plains Interactive Distance Education Alliance (GPIDEA) program. An online survey was sent to 247 students enrolled in the GPIDEA program and to students who had taken a GPIDEA course in gerontology but were not currently enrolled in the program. One hundred and twenty-three students began the survey, although only 120 students completed the survey. Findings indicated students are interested in a doctoral program in gerontology. Approximately 65% of students were interested in obtaining a PhD from a distance education program. However, an applied program focusing on community outreach and leadership was of most interest to students. Students were less interested in research-based programs or in research residency. Therefore, the development of distance education doctoral degree programs in gerontology may need to be created differently than "traditional" formats.
Merrill, J M; Laux, L F; Thornby, J I
Studies have shown that physicians' performance has not been as good as it should be in detecting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and in counseling patients about their transmission. The AIDS pandemic has underscored the need to find out why this is true. In our study, we identified the major reasons physicians believe other doctors fail to take adequate sex histories. Scales were then developed to measure the three principal reasons given by these physicians: embarrassment, belief that the sex history is not relevant to the patient's chief complaint, and belief by the physicians that they are not adequately trained. When 350 senior medical students were surveyed, 93% thought that knowledge of a patient's sexual practices is an important part of their patient's medical history, but 50% felt poorly trained to take this history and 25% felt embarrassed to ask the necessary questions. To learn why some students score well on these three dimensions and others do not, a limited number of personal attributes were measured and correlated with the scores on these three measures. Shyness and social anxiety as a personal trait predicted which student was most likely to experience embarrassment in taking a sex history. A nonsympathetic view of patients' psychosocial problems was the variable most closely related to the belief that the sex history was of little importance in understanding a patient's problem. Students who believed this most strongly were the same ones who were most homophobic, authoritarian, and had the greatest fear of AIDS infection. The sense of not feeling adequately trained to take a sex history related most strongly to low self-esteem. How these barriers to STD risk assessment might be overcome is discussed.
Hwang, Kun; Kim, Hun; Kim, Ae Yang; Hwang, Se Won; Hwang, Se Ho
The aim of this study is to see what medical students think about the role of spouse of a devoted medical doctor through the book reports of The Painted Veil (1925). The 53 medical students were asked to read Maugham's The Painted Veil and to have a discussion. In their book reports, following questions were asked to be included: What it is like to be married a devoted medical doctor? Do you think that patients realize, value, and respect the importance of doctor's work? In the outbreak of highly infectious and fatal disease, can you carry out a heroic fight to control it? Among the 53 respondents, seven students (13%) answered that they would be happy if they marry a devoted doctor and scientist and 34 (64%) unhappy. The remaining 12 (23%) could not make a decision. The six students (11%) answered that doctor is valued and respected by patients while 46 (87%) answered doctor is neither valued nor respected. The remaining one (2%) could not decide. The 20 students (38%) answered that they would fight for the infectious disease and the remaining 30 (57%) answered that they would not. The remaining three (5%) could not determine their mind. The Painted Veil induced a virtue of "life of balance and harmony" and "attitude of doctor who give superiority to responsibility and duty over prestige and wealth" from the medical students. It could be a good teaching material for medical humanity.
Anderson, Nathan Charles
The purpose of this disquisition is to increase knowledge about the factors and outcomes of success in doctoral education. Enhanced understanding about the factors and outcomes of success could help optimize effectiveness of the complex systems that educate doctoral students. To achieve the purpose of this disquisition, three manuscripts were…
van der Haert, Margaux; Arias Ortiz, Elena; Emplit, Philippe; Halloin, Véronique; Dehon, Catherine
In this article, the determinants of "time to dropout" from doctoral studies and "time to PhD completion" are studied using a discrete-time competing risks survival analysis for a sample of 3092 doctoral candidates from the Université libre de Bruxelles. Not surprisingly, results show that students supported with research…
Lenz Taguchi, Hillevi
In the context of Swedish reforms of postgraduate and doctoral education in a global knowledge economy, this article aims to theorise on the documented processes of doing collaborative analysis during elective graduate course-work on deconstructive methodologies in the social sciences, with 10 doctoral students over a period of seven months. I…
In 1927, a law was implemented in Norway that for the first time required medical students to be state authorised before they could practice medicine and use the title medical doctor. The question of authorisation split the professional elite, both the Norwegian Medical Association and the Medical Faculty at the University of Oslo. Those very few members of the professional elite that advocated authorisation did, however, convince the government as well as the parliament that authorisation should be given and recalled by the state. State authorisation was first of all aimed at protecting the medical profession against "unfit" members; it was not a question of monopolising medical work or preventing other groups from working within the healthcare services. To put this into context, one should know that there had been a transition from a bureaucratic to a free labour market and most doctors were no longer engaged by the State, but had to practise in a private market. One feared that this would undermine the doctors' authority and status. In this situation, authorisation by the state was considered necessary to safeguard the public's confidence in doctors and their work.
Engelberts, Connie E; Mevius, Lucas
To study the relationship between doctors and comic books, cartoons, superheroes and bionic prosthetic organs. Descriptive survey. For this study, 341 doctors and medical students filled in a digital survey in the autumn of 2013. The questionnaire contained questions about comic books and cartoons, their superheroes, prosthetic organs and about bionic and non-bionic super powers. As a child more than half of the participants read comic books regularly or often, and most watched cartoons regularly or often. Now their childhood interest in this subject has mostly been lost. In their youth, Suske & Wiske were the favourite, and now it is Donald Duck. The number of doctors with a favourite superhero decreased as aged increased from 52% to 37%. The care givers entertain lively fantasies about having bionic superpowers. According to the participants, the idea doctor would have ultrasonic eyes and all sorts of other super senses. Ninety-one per cent thought that 'the development of prosthetic organs is not a waste of money'. If Batman and Superman come to blows, Catwoman wins.
Shaw, Joanne; Brown, Rhonda; Dunn, Stewart
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between doctors' bad news delivery style and their experience of physiological stress during simulated bad news consultations. 31 doctors participated in two simulated breaking bad news (BBN) consultations. Delivery style was categorized as either blunt, forecasting or stalling (i.e. avoidant), based on the time to deliver the bad news and qualitative analysis of the interaction content and doctor's language style. Doctors' heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) were recorded in consecutive 30s epochs. Doctors experienced a significant decrease in HR (F(1,36)=44.9, p.05) or SC (F(2,48)=.66, p>.05). Doctors experience heightened stress in the pre-news delivery phase of breaking bad news interactions. Delaying the delivery of bad news exposes doctors to a longer period of increased stress.This suggests that medical students and doctors should be taught to deliver bad news without delay, to help mitigate their response to this stressful encounter. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Mars, Nina; Kalske, Jaakko; Halttunen-Nieminen, Mervi; Pitkäranta, Anne
At the University of Helsinki, the licentiate degree in medicine involves internships that can be conducted as a medical intern or locum doctor. The students and their supervisors fill out a feedback form, which helps in assessing the students' improvement in various areas. Based on the feedback form between 2008 and 2013, students having worked as locum doctor rated better improvement in their diagnostic skills, writing medical records, interacting with the patient, and operating in the work community. Supervisor evaluations did not show a similar clear difference between the job positions.
Esma Emmioglu Sarikaya
Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: This paper examined the balance and meaning of two types of experiences in the day-to-day activity of doctoral students that draw them into academia and that move them away from academia: ‘feeling like an academic and belonging to an academic community;’ and ‘not feeling like an academic and feeling excluded from an academic community.’ Background: As students navigate doctoral work, they are learning what is entailed in being an academic by engaging with their peers and more experienced academics within their community. They are also personally and directly experiencing the rewards as well as the challenges related to doing academic work. Methodology\t: This study used a qualitative methodology; and daily activity logs as a data collection method. The data was collected from 57 PhD students in the social sciences and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics fields at two universities in the UK and two in Canada. Contribution: The current study moves beyond the earlier studies by elaborating on how academic activities contribute/hinder doctoral students’ sense of being an academic. Findings: The participants of the study generally focused on disciplinary/scholarly rather than institutional/service aspects of academic work, aside from teaching, and regarded a wide range of activities as having more positive than negative meanings. The findings related to both extrinsic and intrinsic factors that play important roles in students’ experiences of feeling (or not like academics are elaborated in the study. Recommendations for Practitioners: Supervisors should encourage their students to develop their own support networks and to participate in a wide range of academic activities as much as possible. Supervisors should encourage students to self-assess and to state the activities they feel they need to develop proficiency in. Future Research: More research is needed to examine the role of teaching in doctoral
This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discoura...