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Sample records for mexico state related

  1. State and Community Responses to Drug-related Violence in Mexico

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Extrants. Études. State and community responses to drug-related violence in Mexico. Rapports. Respuestas estatales y comunitarias a la violencia asociada al narcotráfico en México : informe técnico. Rapports. State and community responses to drug-related violence in Mexico ...

  2. Survey of Indian issues in the state of New Mexico relating to uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandevender, S.G.; Barsumian, L.; Gurbaxani, S.H.

    1979-11-01

    Estimates of Indian uranium resources range from 11 to 50% of the US total resources. About 17% of New Mexico's reserves are known to be on Indian lands. New Mexico has produced almost half of the nation's uranium supply; over half of the known reserves are located within the state. However, the state has virtually no jurisdiction over development of Indian uranium. As a result, economic and environmental impacts on the state are beyond its control. The lack of state and federal control over these impacts is influencing how the Indians allow development to proceed. The impacts of Indian uranium development also influence state control of non-Indian. To the extent that these controls affect the availability of uranium concentrate, DOE needs to understand the issues involved. This issue paper identifies some of the related problems for both the Indians and the state and explores the reasons behind them

  3. New Mexico State Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the generalized physical boundaries of New Mexico State Parks, in polygonal form with limited attributes, compiled using...

  4. State and Community Responses to Drug-related Violence in Mexico

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Violent conflict related to drug trafficking in Mexico has had a profound impact on the ... mostly due to illegal drug trafficking and the government's response to it, ... security forces and drug traffickers or in executions related to the drug trade.

  5. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Their Relation to Academic Results Indicators in State Public Universities in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos-Vega, José L.; Ramiro Marentes, Fabiola; Algravez Uranga, Juan J.

    2017-01-01

    We present an analysis regarding Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and their relation with indicators of academic results in bachelor's degree programs offered in state public universities in Mexico. This work is non experimental, cross-sectional, and correlational. The goal is to determine significant relations between variables:…

  6. State, fetishism and social relations: Mexico in front of indian strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Haro Navejas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main argument of this text, its theoretical and methodological contribution, is that the state strengthens and even creates groups and social classes. Under different circumstances, groups and social classes influence state institutions to mold them according to their needs. In the Indian continent violence with multiple actors and motives was enthroned after the Partition (1947, so it is inherent and endemic to the Indian political system. In Mexico, under the second government of Pan leadership priority was to seek governance through the use of largescale violence. The text suggests Mexicans could recover from India, for example, the maintenance of the state in economic activity, helping actor trough discriminatory policies.

  7. All projects related to Mexico | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    State and Community Responses to Drug-related Violence in Mexico. Project. Violent conflict related to drug trafficking in Mexico has had a profound impact on the quality of life and health of .... Program: Food, Environment, and Health.

  8. 77 FR 54601 - New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of New Mexico resulting from flooding... State of New Mexico are eligible to apply for assistance under the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. (The... declaration of a major disaster for the State of New Mexico (FEMA-4079-DR), dated August 24, 2012, and related...

  9. United States Strategy for Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Centner, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    The security and stability of Mexico is of national interest to the United States, and a strong, effective alliance between the two countries is pivotal to our national defense strategy and economic prosperity...

  10. New Mexico State Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  11. The ambivalent relation between state and illegal actors: piracy retail in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, José Carlos G.

    2011-01-01

    In the rise of democratic governments across Latin America, the neoliberal law-and-order perspective has been the most influential model of security in the region. This approach is based on the opposition between state and illegal agents, as if they were two different sets of actors. Influenced by this model, Mexican president Vicente Fox launched an extensive anti-piracy programme to eradicate retail of counterfeit. Based on ethnographic material gathered in the San Juan de Dios market in Gu...

  12. Rare Earth Elements (REE Deposits Associated with Great Plain Margin Deposits (Alkaline-Related, Southwestern United States and Eastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia T. McLemore

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available W.G. Lindgren in 1933 first noted that a belt of alkaline-igneous rocks extends along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains and Basin and Range provinces from Alaska and British Columbia southward into New Mexico, Trans-Pecos Texas, and eastern Mexico and that these rocks contain relatively large quantities of important commodities such as, gold, fluorine, zirconium, rare earth elements (REE, tellurium, gallium, and other critical elements. In New Mexico, these deposits were called Great Plain Margin (GPM deposits, because this north-south belt of alkaline-igneous rocks roughly coincides with crustal thickening along the margin between the Great Plains physiographic province with the Basin and Range (including the Rio Grande rift and Rocky Mountains physiographic provinces, which extends into Trans-Pecos Texas and eastern Mexico. Since 1996, only minor exploration and development of these deposits in New Mexico, Texas, and eastern Mexico has occurred because of low commodity prices, permitting issues, and environmental concerns. However, as the current demand for gold and critical elements, such as REE and tellurium has increased, new exploration programs have encouraged additional research on the geology of these deposits. The lack of abundant quartz in these systems results in these deposits being less resistant to erosion, being covered, and not as well exposed as other types of quartz-rich deposits, therefore additional undiscovered alkaline-related gold and REE deposits are likely in these areas. Deposits of Th-REE-fluorite (±U, Nb epithermal veins and breccias are found in the several GPM districts, but typically do not contain significant gold, although trace amounts of gold are found in most GPM districts. Gold-rich deposits in these districts tend to have moderate to low REE and anomalously high tungsten and sporadic amounts of tellurium. Carbonatites are only found in New Mexico and Mexico. The diversity of igneous rocks, including

  13. New Mexico State Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...

  14. 78 FR 67381 - New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    .... FEMA-4152-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of New Mexico (FEMA-4152-DR), dated October 29, 2013, and... dated October 29, 2013, the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the...

  15. 76 FR 76171 - New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    .... FEMA-4047-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of New Mexico (FEMA-4047-DR), dated November 23, 2011, and... dated November 23, 2011, the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the...

  16. 78 FR 64522 - New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    .... FEMA-4148-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of New Mexico (FEMA-4148-DR), dated September 30, 2013, and... dated September 30, 2013, the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the...

  17. HSIP New Mexico State Government Buildings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset includes buildings occupied by the headquarters of cabinet level state government executive departments, legislative offices buildings outside of the...

  18. Relations between Mexico and the European Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Alonso

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexico-EC bilateral relations must be considered within the general relation ECLatin America which -as the author remarks, do not appear among EC's preferential relations.Latin America can benefit from the Generalized Preference System which is not discriminatory, without reciprocity and generalized, but has some restrictions: for some products as textile, leather or oil. This affects some Latin American countries and specifically Mexico.Mexico initiates its relation with the EC in 1960; in 1975 both parts sign the Agreement on Economic and Trade Cooperation which has been substituted by the new General Agreement on Cooperation signed on April26, 1991. A new factor that will condition this relation is the Free Trade Agreement recently signed between USA, Canada and Mexico.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus, Nuevo Leon State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitvich, Bradley J; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Contreras-Cordero, Juan F; Loroño-Pino, María A; Marlenee, Nicole L; Díaz, Francisco J; González-Rojas, José I; Obregón-Martínez, Nelson; Chiu-García, Jorge A; Black, William C; Beaty, Barry J

    2004-07-01

    West Nile virus RNA was detected in brain tissue from a horse that died in June 2003 in Nuevo Leon State, Mexico. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the premembrane and envelope genes showed that the virus was most closely related to West Nile virus isolates collected in Texas in 2002.

  20. Influenza-like illness in Mexico and the United States

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-04-13

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Influenza-like illness in Mexico and the United States. Mexico. First case April 13, 2009 in Mexico. By May 3, 2,498 suspected cases,165 deaths in 31 of 32 States in Mexico. The USA. 24 April 2009. The US reported 7 confirmed human cases of Influenza A/H1N1. Five cases in ...

  1. Mexico: a regional power or a failed State?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Derwich

    2015-10-01

    Caribbean region for many years. This opinion has strong foundations. Territory, geographical location, economy, and political influence are the key factors that predestine this country to the role of a regional power. The democratic transition that has taken place in Mexico in last decades and economic cooperation with the United States also allow it to play a role of regional leader. However, Mexico has significant problems that make it difficult for the country to play the role of a real leader. The most important one is the development of narcobusiness. This phenomenon brings not only the growing activity of drug cartels but also the eruption of narcoviolence in Mexico. This gives rise to grave problems for the Mexican authorities. The development of narcobusiness is partially the result of weakness of some of its institutions. For example, police forces do not carry out their tasks and are closely related to the drug cartels. As a result, the Mexican state is incapable of assuring security to its citizens – one of the most important functions of every state. Is it able to control its territory? It definitely does not have a monopoly for the use of violence on its territory. Huge corruption enables different non-state actors to influence decision making processes. All these problems make substantiated theses that the Mexican state is dysfunctional in some areas. Some analysts go much further in their opinions and describe Mexico as a failed state. The aim of the paper is to analyze the present position of Mexico in Latin America and the Caribbean region. Are the contemporary problems so big that they can lead to the collapse of the Mexican state or does Mexico have a real potential to play the role of a local leader and regional power? The author would like to analyze the impact of the present day internal problems in Mexico’s geopolitical position.

  2. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations.

  3. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Coahuila, Mexico, with comparison with adjoining states

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos-Espinal, Julio A.; Smith, Geoffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We compiled a checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the state of Coahuila, Mexico. The list comprises 133 species (24 amphibians, 109 reptiles), representing 27 families (9 amphibians, 18 reptiles) and 65 genera (16 amphibians, 49 reptiles). Coahuila has a high richness of lizards in the genus Sceloporus . Coahuila has relatively few state endemics, but has several regional endemics. Overlap in the herpetofauna of Coahuila and bordering states is fairly extensive. Of the 132 sp...

  4. State energy conservation plan for New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The energy-savings and energy-management programs set up by state agencies in New Mexico are presented. Also the energy-savings and energy-management programs for public schools are presented. Plans and summaries are also given for the following program: solar water heaters for secondary schools; solar portable classroom demonstration; energy-savings and energy-management programs for county and municipal governments; energy-savings programs for commercial and residential sectors; weatherization; solar sustenance; energy-savings programs for hospitals and industrial buildings; carpools and vanpools; a program encouraging compliance with the national 55-mph speed limit; waste-oil recycling; utilitites; agriculture; procurement; modification; public information; and an administrative packet containing information on how to facilitate internal accounting procedures.

  5. Merida Initiative: Insight Into U.S. Mexico Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    LEGISLATION IN THE UNITED STATES ....................................................................................................33 E. MEXICO AS...United States and Mexico go far beyond sheer geography.” She goes on to say, “Bound by economic, environmental , cultural, familial, security, and...attribute the rise in prevalence of Mexican cartels to U.S. seizures of drugs in the Caribbean, essentially closing this route down and forcing Colombian

  6. 77 FR 3152 - New Mexico: Final Authorization of State-Initiated Changes and Incorporation-by-Reference of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Water pollution control, Water supply... Mexico: Final Authorization of State-Initiated Changes and Incorporation-by-Reference of State Hazardous.... SUMMARY: During a review of New Mexico's regulations, the EPA identified a variety of State-initiated...

  7. United States/Mexico electricity exchanges. [History, incentives, and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    As a result of the agreement between the respective presidents, a joint study was undertaken to analyze the possibilities of increasing the international electricity exchange between the two countries. Responsibility for this undertaking was assigned to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and to the Direccion de Energia de Mexico (DEM) through the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Representatives from Mexico and the US were chosen from the regional utilities along the border between the two countries and made up working groups that particiated in the study. With the support of both governments, and a high degree of cooperation between the two countries, work on the study was completed within fourteen months The completion of the study has been a major step in broadening the base of bilateral energy relations. the study highlights the opportunities for increased electricity exchanges, which could increase cooperation along the common border. Expansion of electricity interchange could offer substantial economic benefit to both countries, both directly and indirectly. Direct benefits include increased reliability of electric power and cost savings through economies of scale and diversity of peak demand patterns. Indirect benefits include improved economic and employment opportunities, especially in the border areas of both countries. This report provides background on the history of past exchanges and the characteristics of the US and Mexico electric systems, a summary of opportunities and incentives, and suggestions for procedures to remove obstacles and constraints.

  8. The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, Robert R.; Adcock, Larry D.; Gentry, Lucille M.; Ben-David, Shaul; Temple, John

    1999-08-09

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a Department of Energy federally funded national security laboratory that uses engineering and science to ensure the security of the Nation. SNL provides scientific and engineering solutions to meet national needs in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, and environmental integrity. SNL works in partnerships with universities and industry to enhance their mission and transfer technology that will address emerging national challenges for both government and industry. For several years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained an inter-industry, input-output (I/O) model with capabilities to assess the impacts of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. This model will be used to assess economic, personal income and employment impacts of SNL on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico. Caution should be exercised when comparing economic impacts between fiscal years prior to this report. The I/O model was rebased for FY 1998. The fringe benefits coefficients have been updated for the FY 1996 and FY 1997 economic impacts analysis. Prior to FY 1993 two different I/O base models were used to estimate the impacts. New technical information was released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), U.S. Department of Commerce in 1991 and in 1994 and was incorporated in FY 1991, FY 1993, and FY 1994 I/O models. Also in 1993, the state and local tax coefficients and expenditure patterns were updated from a 1986 study for the FY 1992 report. Further details about the input-output model can be found in ''The Economic Impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico--FY 1998'' report by Lansford, et al. (1999). For this report, the reference period is FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998) and includes two major

  9. Bilateral relations Mexico-Korea today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Ramírez Figueroa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The ambassador of the Republic of Korea in Mexico, Sr. Cho Kyuhyung, remember us the first century if the korean migration to Mexico. In this one hundred years ours countries have approched and lauched a joint work with great value. They have worked for growth of trade and investment, They have promoted cultural and scientific exchanges. They have worked, especially in the enrichment of a friendship that will surely last for many more years.

  10. Indian Employment in New Mexico State Government: 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Ernest J.

    To update a 1974 report on the status of American Indian employment in the state of New Mexico, a 1977 study on the composition of the state's work force was undertaken, including descriptions of the overall distribution of state employment by job category, grade, and salary level. Despite progress, it was found that: (1) Indians still constituted…

  11. New Mexico, 2010 Military Installation State-based

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  12. New Mexico, 2010 Census Census Tract State-based

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  13. New Mexico, 2010 Census Block State-based

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  14. New Mexico, 2010 Census County Subdivision State-based

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  15. New Mexico, 2010 Census Block Group State-based

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  16. Mexico: Failing State or Emerging Democracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    were dominated by The Institutional Revolutionary Party, or PRI. Mexican politics largely resembled the subliminally oppressive conditions... communications equipment, while Mexican security forces have only austere capabilities.27 The Mexican Federal Police and the Mexican Army killed...economic and government institutions. Mexico joins a community U.S. Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Admiral

  17. U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    Time,” Economia , Fall 2003. 49 Esquivel, Gerardo, and José Antonio Rodríguez-López, “Technology, trade, and wage inequality in Mexico before and after...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress U.S.- Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications...25 JAN 2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE U.S.- Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and

  18. Obesity and excess mortality among the elderly in the United States and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, Malena; Noronha, Kenya; Palloni, Alberto; Novak, Beatriz

    2010-02-01

    Increasing levels of obesity could compromise future gains in life expectancy in low- and high-income countries. Although excess mortality associated with obesity and, more generally, higher levels of body mass index (BAI) have been investigated in the United States, there is little research about the impact of obesity on mortality in Latin American countries, where very the rapid rate of growth of prevalence of obesity and overweight occur jointly with poor socioeconomic conditions. The aim of this article is to assess the magnitude of excess mortality due to obesity and overweight in Mexico and the United States. For this purpose, we take advantage of two comparable data sets: the Health and Retirement Study 2000 and 2004 for the United States, and the Mexican Health and Aging Study 2001 and 2003 for Mexico. We find higher excess mortality risks among obese and overweight individuals aged 60 and older in Mexico than in the United States. Yet, when analyzing excess mortality among different socioeconomic strata, we observe greater gaps by education in the United States than in Mexico. We also find that although the probability of experiencing obesity-related chronic diseases among individuals with high BMI is larger for the U.S. elderly, the relative risk of dying conditional on experiencing these diseases is higher in Mexico.

  19. ADDRESSING CONFLICT IN TOP MEDIA EDUCATION IN MEXICO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualberto Gatica Reyna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mexico is going through a period of exacerbated violence, corruption, intolerance, etc. as it is shown by the index of Peace (2015, where the country as a whole is less than the peaceful Central America and the state of Mexico ranks 23 out of 32 states that make up the Mexican republic. These behaviors permeate schools are a product of society itself and although efforts have been made to reverse these trends by manual or classical coercive discipline offenders actually work must be with the entire school population that the results are lasting.

  20. Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    2006 San Salvador Atenco confrontation between street vendors and state and local police in the state of Mexico and the 2006 killing of Bradley Will...participated in the Atenco operation, which resulted in two deaths and the alleged rape of 47 women by police, had been convicted of any crime. In the Brad

  1. Country-specific HPV-related genital disease among men residing in Brazil, Mexico and The United States: The HIM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudenga, Staci L; Torres, B Nelson; Fulp, William J; Silva, Roberto; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Ingles, Donna J; Stoler, Mark; Messina, Jane L; Abrahamsen, Martha; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the incidence of histopathologically confirmed condyloma and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) and rates of genital HPV infection progression to these lesions differs by country (Brazil, Mexico and the U.S.). At each visit, lesions were biopsied and were categorized by pathologic diagnoses. The Linear Array genotyping method was used to identify HPV genotypes from genital swabs, while the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra method was used for tissue specimens. Age-specific analyses were conducted for lesion incidence by country, with Kaplan-Meier estimation of cumulative incidence. The proportion of HPV infections that progressed to condyloma and PeIN, the median time to lesion development and the incidence rates were estimated by country. When comparing demographic and sexual characteristics across the three countries, sexual orientation (p = 0.008) and lifetime number of female sexual partners (p < 0.0001) were differentially associated with lesion incidence in the three countries. Condyloma incidence in Brazil and the U.S. decreased with age, while incidence remained constant across the lifespan in Mexico. There were no differences by country and age for PeIN incidence. HPV types 6 and 11 were the most common types to progress to condyloma and HPV types 16, 6 and 11 were the most common types to progress to PeIN in all three countries. The continuous risk of condyloma and PeIN across all age groups and countries in this study emphasizes the need to ensure that strong HPV immunity, such as that obtained through vaccination, is maintained across the lifespan of men. © 2016 UICC.

  2. [The current state of obesity in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Rodríguez-González, Arturo; Molina-Ayala, Mario Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Excess weight (overweight and obesity) is currently recognized as one of the most important challenges of public health in the world, given its size, speed of growth, and the negative effect on the population who suffers it. Overweight and obesity increases significantly the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases, and premature mortality, as well as the social cost of health. Today, Mexico has the second global prevalence of obesity in the adult population (30 %), which is ten times higher than Korea's or Japan's (4 %). Until 2012, 26 million Mexican adults were overweight, and 22 million, obese. This implies a major challenge for the health sector. Mexico needs to plan and implement strategies and cost-effective actions for the prevention and control of obesity in children, adolescents, and adults. Global experience shows that proper care of obesity and overweight demands to formulate and coordinate efficient multi-sectoral strategies for enhancing protective factors to health, particularly to modify individual behavior, family and community.

  3. Migration from Mexico to the United States: A high-speed cancer transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Paulo S; Callahan, Karen E; Stern, Mariana C; de Vries, Esther

    2018-02-01

    Differences and similarities in cancer patterns between the country of Mexico and the United States' Mexican population, 11% of the entire US population, have not been studied. Mortality data from 2008 to 2012 in Mexico and California were analyzed and compared for causes of cancer death among adult and pediatric populations, using standard techniques and negative binomial regression. A total of 380,227 cancer deaths from Mexico and California were included. Mexican Americans had 49% and 13% higher mortality than their counterparts in Mexico among males and females, respectively. For Mexican Immigrants in the US, overall cancer mortality was similar to Mexico, their country of birth, but all-cancers-combined rates mask wide variation by specific cancer site. The most extreme results were recorded when comparing Mexican Americans to Mexicans in Mexico: with mortality rate ratios ranging from 2.72 (95% CI: 2.44-3.03) for colorectal cancer in males to 0.28 (95% CI: 0.24-0.33) for cervical cancer in females. These findings further reinforce the preeminent role that the environment, in its multiple aspects, has on cancer. Overall, mortality from obesity and tobacco-related cancers was higher among Mexican origin populations in the US compared to Mexico, suggesting a higher risk for these cancers, while mortality from prostate, stomach, and especially cervical and pediatric cancers was markedly higher in Mexico. Among children, brain cancer and neuroblastoma patterns suggest an environmental role in the etiology of these malignancies as well. Partnered research between the US and Mexico for cancer studies is warranted. © 2017 UICC.

  4. Preferred Styles of Conflict Resolution. Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielidis, Cristina; Stephan, Walter G.; Ybarra, Oscar; Pearson, Virginia Dos Santos; Villareal, Lucila

    1997-01-01

    Examined cultural differences in preferences for conflict resolution styles using the dual-concern model with 103 college students in Mexico (collectivistic culture) and 91 college students in the United States (individualistic culture). Results suggest that independence of the self and interdependence of the self may be separate dimensions,…

  5. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of New Mexico. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  6. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Coahuila, Mexico, with comparison with adjoining states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos-Espinal, Julio A; Smith, Geoffrey R

    2016-01-01

    We compiled a checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the state of Coahuila, Mexico. The list comprises 133 species (24 amphibians, 109 reptiles), representing 27 families (9 amphibians, 18 reptiles) and 65 genera (16 amphibians, 49 reptiles). Coahuila has a high richness of lizards in the genus Sceloporus. Coahuila has relatively few state endemics, but has several regional endemics. Overlap in the herpetofauna of Coahuila and bordering states is fairly extensive. Of the 132 species of native amphibians and reptiles, eight are listed as Vulnerable, six as Near Threatened, and six as Endangered in the IUCN Red List. In the SEMARNAT listing, 19 species are Subject to Special Protection, 26 are Threatened, and three are in Danger of Extinction. Coahuila is home to several species of conservation concern, especially lizards and turtles. Coahuila is an important state for the conservation of the native regional fauna.

  7. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Leslie

    The text explores Mexico's history, geography, art, religion, and lifestyles in the context of its complex economy. The text focuses on Mexico's economy and reasons for its current situation. Part I of this teaching unit includes: Teacher Overview, Why Study Mexico, Mexico Fact Sheet, Map of Mexico, the Land and Climate, History, Government,…

  8. Why are we resentment of Mexico in the United States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Sánchez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The essay engages into a cultural analysis of Mexico from a populist foreign perspective. The complaints of some Latin Americans on the cultural imposition of Mexico are inserted in this cultural overview. Systematically several cultural aspects that cause resentment against México are discussed throughout the essay. A pattern of cultural “mexicanization” which eventually becomes an imposition by the great masses of Mexicans in Mexico, as well as the ones living in the United States, becomes obvious. It is a matter of the exportation of Mexican culture on the Latin American cultures in a disproportionate manner. It is an exposition of Mexican culture through complaints of Latin-Americans searching for a cultural equilibrium.

  9. Adolescent Worlds and Literacy Practices on the United States-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Piedra, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    This article presents partial results of an ethnographic study about literacy practices among adolescents living near the United States-Mexico border. The students became involved in literacy practices with their friends and family at home. These practices were related to the adolescents' interests in popular culture such as reading magazines or…

  10. 77 FR 47558 - Extension of Border Zone in the State of New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    .... Although the border zone was intended to promote the economic stability of the border region by allowing... the economic stability of the region. On November 12, 1953, the United States and Mexico entered into... invites comments that relate to the economic, environmental, or federalism effects that might result from...

  11. [Labor migration to the United States by natives from the State of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Becerril, J G

    1998-01-01

    Based primarily on data from the Encuesta sobre Migracion en la Frontera Norte de Mexico, results of a study of international migration from the Mexican state of Mexico to the United States over time are presented The author notes that from 1942 to 1964, labor migration between the two countries was organized under an agreement between the two governments concerned. However, since that agreement ended, an increasing volume of illegal labor migration has occurred in response to the economic situation. Attention is given to migrant characteristics, the characteristics of illegal immigrants deported back to Mexico, and migrant remittances.

  12. Waterfowl community from a protected artificial wetland in Mexico State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Hernández-Colina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems worldwide due to the great biologic diversity that they harbor and the re­sources and ecosystem services that they provide; however, their conservation is seriously threatened. Waterfowl are one of the most representative components of wetland biodiversity and the study of their communities is necessary to establish protection priorities appropriately. In this study, we describe the species richness and relative abundance of the waterfowl community of an artificial wetland in Mexico State which we visited from August 2010 to August 2011. We found 23 species, most of which belong to the Anatidae (ducks and Ardeidae (herons families and we recorded an accumulated abundance of 25,220 individuals. We performed an accumulation curve and we used Clench’s model which estimated 24 species; thus, we observed 95% of the predicted species. The arrival of migratory species contributed substantially to the increase of the species richness and the abundance of individuals, especially from October to March. We consider that the species richness and the abundance that we recorded, including observations of rare species, species reproducing, and species under a conservation category, are indicative of the great ecological value of this wetland despite its limited size. Therefore, it is relevant to assess ecological features of natural and artificial wetlands, including waterfowl communities, in order to improve the conservation actions in this region.

  13. Qualitative evidence on abortion stigma from Mexico City and five states in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorhaindo, Annik M; Juárez-Ramírez, Clara; Díaz Olavarrieta, Claudia; Aldaz, Evelyn; Mejía Piñeros, María Consuelo; Garcia, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Social manifestations of abortion stigma depend upon cultural, legal, and religious context. Abortion stigma in Mexico is under-researched. This study explored the sources, experiences, and consequences of stigma from the perspectives of women who had had an abortion, male partners, and members of the general population in different regional and legal contexts. We explored abortion stigma in Mexico City where abortion is legal in the first trimester and five states-Chihuahua, Chiapas, Jalisco, Oaxaca, and Yucatán-where abortion remains restricted. In each state, we conducted three focus groups-men ages 24-40 years (n = 36), women 25-40 years (n = 37), and young women ages 18-24 years (n = 27)-and four in-depth face-to-face interviews in total; two with women (n = 12) and two with the male partners of women who had had an abortion (n = 12). For 4 of the 12 women, this was their second abortion. This exploratory study suggests that abortion stigma was influenced by norms that placed a high value on motherhood and a conservative Catholic discourse. Some participants in this study described abortion as an "indelible mark" on a woman's identity and "divine punishment" as a consequence. Perspectives encountered in Mexico City often differed from the conservative postures in the states.

  14. 2015 State Geodatabase for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  15. United States-Mexico cross-border health insurance initiatives: Salud Migrante and Medicare in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Laugesen, Miriam; Caban, Mabel; Rosenau, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    While U.S. health care reform will most likely reduce the overall number of uninsured Mexican-Americans, it does not address challenges related to health care coverage for undocumented Mexican immigrants, who will remain uninsured under the measures of the reform; documented low-income Mexican immigrants who have not met the five-year waiting period required for Medicaid benefits; or the growing number of retired U.S. citizens living in Mexico, who lack easy access to Medicare-supported services. This article reviews two promising binational initiatives that could help address these challenges-Salud Migrante and Medicare in Mexico; discusses their prospective applications within the context of U.S. health care reform; and identifies potential challenges to their implementation (legal, political, and regulatory), as well as the possible benefits, including coverage of uninsured Mexican immigrants, and their integration into the U.S. health care system (through Salud Migrante), and access to lower-cost Medicare-supported health care for U.S. retirees in Mexico (Medicare in Mexico).

  16. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Hidalgo, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos-Espinal, Julio; Smith, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    We compiled a checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. The herpetofauna of Hidalgo consists of a total of 175 species: 54 amphibians (14 salamanders and 40 anurans); and 121 reptiles (one crocodile, five turtles, 36 lizards, 79 snakes). These taxa represent 32 families (12 amphibian families, 20 reptile families) and 87 genera (24 amphibian genera, 63 reptile genera). Two of these species are non-native species (Hemidactylus frenatus Duméril and Bibron, 1836 a...

  17. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF STATE DATA RELATED TO ABANDONED CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Seay Nance

    2003-03-01

    This 2003 Spring Semi-Annual Report contains a summary of the Final Technical Report being prepared for the Soil Remediation Requirements at Commercial and Centralized Drilling-Fluid Disposal (CCDD) Sites project funded by the United States Department of Energy under DOE Award No. DE-AC26-99BC15225. The summary describes (1) the objectives of the investigation, (2) a rationale and methodology of the investigation, (3) sources of data, assessment of data quality, and data availability, (4) examples of well documented centralized and commercial drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites and other sites where drilling fluid was disposed of, and (5) examples of abandoned sites and measures undertaken for their assessment and remediation. The report also includes most of the figures, tables, and appendices that will be included in the final report.

  18. The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on central New Mexico and the state of New Mexico fiscal year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansford, R.R.; Nielsen, T.G.; Schultz, J.; Adcock, L.D.; Gentry, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) was established in 1949 to perform the engineering development and ordnance responsibilities associated with nuclear weapons. By the early 1960's the facility had evolved into an engineering research and development laboratory and became a multiprogram laboratory during the 1970s. Sandia is operated for the US Department of Energy by the Sandia Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin, Incorporated. For several years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained an inter-industry, input-output model with capabilities to assess the impacts of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. This model will be used to assess economic, personal income and employment impacts of SNL on central New Mexico and the state of New Mexico. For this report, the reference period is FY 1997 (October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997) and includes two major impact analyses: the impact of SNL activities on central New Mexico and the economic impacts of SNL on the state of New Mexico. For purposes of this report, the central New Mexico region includes Bernalillo, Sandoval, Valencia, and Torrance counties. Total impact represents both direct and indirect respending by business, including induced effects (respending by households). The standard multipliers used in determining impacts results from the inter-industry, input-output models developed for the four-county region and the state of New Mexico. 6 figs., 10 tabs

  19. New Mexico, 2010 Census State Legislative District (SLD) Lower Chamber State-based

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  20. New Mexico, 2010 Census State Legislative District (SLD) Upper Chamber State-based

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  1. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, with comparisons with adjoining states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos-Espinal, Julio A; Smith, Geoffrey R; Woolrich-Piña, Guillermo A; Cruz, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Chihuahua is Mexico's largest state, and its physiographic complexity affects the distribution of its herpetofauna. We list amphibians and reptiles for the state of Chihuahua, with their conservation status. We also compare this list to those of six adjoining states in the United States and Mexico (New Mexico, Texas, Coahuila, Durango, Sinaloa, and Sonora). A total of 175 species of amphibians and reptiles is found in Chihuahua. Thirty-eight are amphibians, and 137 reptiles. Chihuahuan amphibians and reptiles represent just over 37% of such species from Chihuahua and neighboring states. Chihuahua shares the highest proportion of its herpetofauna with Sonora and Durango. Most of the herpetofauna of Chihuahua falls in IUCNs least concern category and is not listed by SEMARNAT. However, turtles in Chihuahua are a group of particular conservation concern.

  2. Jaguar taxonomy and genetic diversity for southern Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Melanie; Hein, Alexander Ochoa

    2016-06-28

    Executive SummaryThe jaguar is the largest Neotropical felid and the only extant representative of the genus Panthera in the Americas. In recorded history, the jaguars range has extended from the Southern United States, throughout Mexico, to Central and South America, and they occupy a wide variety of habitats. A previous jaguar genetic study found high historical levels of gene flow among jaguar populations over broad areas but did not include any samples of jaguar from the States of Arizona, United States, or Sonora, Mexico. Arizona and Sonora have been part of the historical distribution of jaguars; however, poaching and habitat fragmentation have limited their distribution until they were declared extinct in the United States and endangered in Sonora. Therefore, a need was apparent to have this northernmost (Arizona/Sonora) jaguar population included in an overall jaguar molecular taxonomy and genetic diversity analyses. In this study, we used molecular genetic markers to examine diversity and taxonomy for jaguars in the Northwestern Jaguar Recovery Unit (NJRU; Sonora, Sinaloa, and Jalisco, Mexico; and southern Arizona and New Mexico, United States) relative to jaguars in other parts of the jaguar range (Central and South America). The objectives of this study were to:Collect opportunistic jaguar samples (hide, blood, hair, saliva, and scat), from historical and current individuals, that originated in NJRU areas of Arizona, New Mexico, and Sonora;Use these samples to assess molecular taxonomy of NJRU jaguars compared to data from a previous study of jaguars rangewide; andDevelop suggestions for conservation of NJRU jaguars based on the results.

  3. U.S. State Responsibility á la Trail Smelter: Arms Trafficking and Transboundary Harm to Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Both President Obama and Secretary Clinton have stated that the United States accepts shared responsibility with Mexico for the Mexican drug war. The question this article will attempt to answer is whether shared responsibility for illegal arms trafficking from the United States into Mexico reaches beyond the world of political rhetoric. In attempting to examine whether there is a basis in international law for holding the United States responsible for arms trafficking into Mexico, this artic...

  4. SPANISH WRITTEN BY BILINGUAL STUDENTS IN THE INTERCULTURAL UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF MEXICO: SURVEY OF LINGUIST TRANSFER

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Emilia Mina Viáfara

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARYThis survey results from the evaluation of achievements and academical progress obtain by my students of the subject critical reading and texts production in the Intercultural University of the State of Mexico, in San Felipe del Progreso, during the first year and besides the profit to my teaching labour related to compare the results obtained of my thesis Linguistics transfers from náhuatl to Spanish in Santa Ana Tlacotenco in Mexico City with the characteristic from spanish of bilin...

  5. Towards a Transborder Perspective: U.S.-Mexico Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Stephen

    2014-06-01

    This article embeds a discussion of transborder communities –communities spread out in multiple locations in the U.S. and Mexico– in the history of U.S.-Mexico relations. These relations are read through the colonial and contemporary mapping of space, place, people, race, and ethnicity both literally and metaphorically as well as through U.S. immigration policy in the 19th and 20th centuries. The concept of “transborder,” which can include borders of coloniality, ethnicity, race, nation, and region, can help us to illuminate U.S.-Mexico relationships through time, the racialization of Mexicans in the U.S., and contemporary dynamics of migration and immigration. The crossing of many borders and the carrying of these borders within one’s experience allows us to see migration and immigration in terms of family relationships, social, economic, and cultural relationships, communities, and networks.

  6. Climatic Action Plan Project for the state of Veracruz (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, A.; Ochoa, C.

    2007-05-01

    With financing of the British Government and support of the National Institute of Ecology, from April of 2006 to March of 2008 an action plan which intends variability effects and climatic change for the state of Veracruz will be made. This plan will be taken to the state government and will be spread out to manufacturers, industrialists and population. Throughout the Gulf of Mexico, the state of Veracruz is a 745 km coast in length with a width that goes from 156 km in the center to 47 km in the north. The state has large mountains, forests, plains, rivers, cascades, lagoons and coasts. Veracruz is the 10th largest state in Mexico with a 72,420 km2 surface, it is located between 17°00' and 22°28' north latitude and between 93°95' and 98°38' west longitude. Because of the orographic effect, the Sierra Madre Oriental causes the existence of many types of climate, from dry to tropical forest, going through snow on the top of the Pico de Orizaba (5747m of altitude). The wind affects the coasts by not allowing to fish during a hundred days a year (particularly in winter), and on summer tropical waves and occasionally hurricanes affect rivers causing overflow and urban floods in fields. These phenomena do not have a regular affectation; they are subject to climate variability effects. Veracruz is the third state with most population in the country (7.1 million people in 2005), only surpassed by the state of Mexico and Mexico City. Although it occupies 3.7% of the national territory, Veracruz has 6.9% of human population in the country, and is the 6th state of PIB national contribution (240 thousands of millions pesos approximately). Of the possible effects of the climatic change the following can be expected: , , : Most of the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico, low and sandy, less of a meter on the sea level, represent the most vulnerable territory of Veracruz. Towns will be affected, the saline water will infiltrate until the phreatic mantles and the coast electrical

  7. The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansford, Robert R.; Adcock, Larry D.; Gentry, Lucille M.; Ben-David, Shaul; Temple, John

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a Department of Energy federally funded national security laboratory that uses engineering and science to ensure the security of the Nation. SNL provides scientific and engineering solutions to meet national needs in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, and environmental integrity. SNL works in partnerships with universities and industry to enhance their mission and transfer technology that will address emerging national challenges for both government and industry. For several years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained an inter-industry, input-output (I/O) model with capabilities to assess the impacts of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. This model will be used to assess economic, personal income and employment impacts of SNL on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico. Caution should be exercised when comparing economic impacts between fiscal years prior to this report. The I/O model was rebased for FY 1998. The fringe benefits coefficients have been updated for the FY 1996 and FY 1997 economic impacts analysis. Prior to FY 1993 two different I/O base models were used to estimate the impacts. New technical information was released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), U.S. Department of Commerce in 1991 and in 1994 and was incorporated in FY 1991, FY 1993, and FY 1994 I/O models. Also in 1993, the state and local tax coefficients and expenditure patterns were updated from a 1986 study for the FY 1992 report. Further details about the input-output model can be found in ''The Economic Impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico-FY 1998'' report by Lansford, et al. (1999). For this report, the reference period is FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998) and includes two major impact analyses: The

  8. 77 FR 3224 - New Mexico: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Mexico: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental... entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs,'' New Mexico's authorized hazardous waste... of the State regulations that are authorized and that the EPA will enforce under the Solid Waste...

  9. Incidence and phylogenetic analyses of Armillaria spp. associated with root disease in peach orchards in the State of Mexico, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. D. Elias-Roman; R. A. Guzman-Plazola; N. B. Klopfenstein; D. Alvarado-Rosales; G. Calderon-Zavala; J. A. Mora-Aguilera; M.-S. Kim; R. Garcia-Espinosa

    2013-01-01

    Incidence of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] tree mortality attributed to Armillaria root disease was assessed from 2009 to 2011 in 15 orchards in the State of Mexico, Mexico. Incidence increased gradually every year of assessment, reaching average values of 9.7, 15.3 and 20.3% tree mortality and 23.2, 24.7 and 28.3% disease-impacted area of the orchards during 2009...

  10. Natural gas expectations in Mexico a United States analyst's perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foss, Michelle Michot [Energy Institute, University of Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The United States has a mature nature gas infrastructure but still needs continued improvements and expansion. Natural gas policy in the United States at both the federal and state level has generally not provide the right incentives or signals to producers, transports, distributors or customers and, as a result, natural gas not enjoy the market share that it probably should have. In 1973, natural gas consumption in the United States was 30 percent of total energy consumption. In 1994, the share for natural gas was 25 percent. Looking at the United States experience, natural gas has potential in Mexico, but there are constraints. It is useful to keep in mind the size of Mexico's market relative to her resource base of about 70 tcf of proven reserves and the potential and probable reserves that are likely to exist. Therefore, rational decision-makers will also need to consider whether Mexico could do well by exporting natural gas to the United States. [Spanish] Los Estados Unidos tienen una infraestructura madura en gas natural, pero aun necesita mejoras continuas y expansion. La politica de gas natural en los Estados Unidos, tanto en el ambito federal como en el ambito estatal, generalmente no ha proporcionado los incentivos o senales adecuados a los productores, transportadores, distribuidores o clientes y, como resultado, el gas natural no disfruta de la participacion en el mercado que probablemente deberia tener. En 1973, el consumo de gas natural era del 30 % del total del consumo de energia. En 1994, la participacion del gas natural fue del 25%. Viendo la experiencia de los Estados Unidos, el gas natural tiene potencial en Mexico. Pero existen factores limitantes. Es conveniente tener presente el tamano del mercado de Mexico en relacion con su recurso basico de sus reservas probadas de alrededor de 70 tcf y el potencial y probables reservas que pudieran existir. Por lo tanto, los responsables de las decisiones racionales tendran tambien la necesidad de

  11. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, with comparisons with adjoining states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Lemos-Espinal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chihuahua is Mexico’s largest state, and its physiographic complexity affects the distribution of its herpetofauna. We list amphibians and reptiles for the state of Chihuahua, with their conservation status. We also compare this list to those of six adjoining states in the United States and Mexico (New Mexico, Texas, Coahuila, Durango, Sinaloa, and Sonora. A total of 175 species of amphibians and reptiles is found in Chihuahua. Thirty-eight are amphibians, and 137 reptiles. Chihuahuan amphibians and reptiles represent just over 37% of such species from Chihuahua and neighboring states. Chihuahua shares the highest proportion of its herpetofauna with Sonora and Durango. Most of the herpetofauna of Chihuahua falls in IUCNs least concern category and is not listed by SEMARNAT. However, turtles in Chihuahua are a group of particular conservation concern.

  12. Estilos de vida asociados al riesgo cardiovascular global en trabajadores universitarios del Estado de México Lifestyle conditions related to global cardiovascular risk among university workers in the State of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cerecero

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación del estilo de vida con el riesgo cardiovascular (RCV en trabajadores universitarios del Estado de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de casos y controles anidado en una cohorte. Se evaluaron variables del estilo de vida, sociodemográficas, antropométricas y antecedentes familiares. El análisis estimó razones de momios pareadas crudas y ajustadas a través de regresión logística condicional. RESULTADOS: Se estudiaron 342 casos con RCV y 684 controles. En los trabajadores con sobrepeso u obesidad, el RCV superó al de aquéllos con peso normal. Los antecedentes familiares de infarto del miocardio se asociaron directamente, y la actividad física moderada-vigorosa inversamente con el RCV, en modelos con interacciones entre género y actividad física; esta relación se mantuvo sólo en los hombres. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados muestran el papel preponderante de la actividad física moderada-vigorosa como factor del estilo de vida asociado con menor RCV.OBJETIVES: To assess the relationship between lifestyle and cardiovascular risk (CR among university workers in the State of Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted and lifestyle, sociodemographic, anthropometric, body mass index and family history of cardiovascular disease were assessed. The analysis included the estimation of crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: The study included 342 workers with CR and 684 controls. CR was greater for workers with overweight or obesity than for those with normal weight. Family history of myocardial infarction was directly associated with CR, while physical activity was inversely associated. In models with interactions of gender and physical activity, this relation was observed only for men. CONCLUSIONS: Results show an inverse association between the lifestyle factor of physical activity and CR.

  13. Coastal vulnerability index for the Tabasco State coast, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Nuñez Gómez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea level rise is one of the most serious events that will impact low-lying lands, as is the case of most of Tabasco State. Historically, the State of Tabasco has been repeatedly impacted by extreme floods, the most recent one occurring in 2007. However, recent studies have shown that coastal erosion is the effect that most directly has impacted the Tabasco’s coastline, as this has even modified soil strata; this is also related to extreme hydrometeorological events associated with environmental changes and changes in the salinity gradient off the coast. In such a situation, future changes in the coastline are almost certain. Tabasco’s coastline has been recognized as one of the most vulnerable zones in the country since Mexico’s first national communication to the UNFCCC in 1997. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the vulnerability of this zone. The purpose of this study was to estimate the vulnerability of the Tabasco’s coastline by applying the coastal vulnerability index method (IVM using a geographic information system (GIS. This method has been successfully applied in several different places around the world including Canada, the United State, Spain and Indonesia. This model is suitable for the local conditions of Tabasco coast, as the input variables it requires (including waves, tides, sea level, coastal slope, erosion rates and geomorphology are available for the study area, thus allowing the possibility of estimating the coast’s vulnerability based on local data. Results from map algebra operations showed that the zones of very high or high vulnerability encompass a six-kilometer stretch around the Sánchez Magallanes community, near the del Carmen lagoon in the municipality of H. Cárdenas, Tabasco. This is due to the high-waves regime and other conditions associated to the coastal dune geomorphology as well as the unconsolidated fine sediments prevailing therein. Other high vulnerability zones are found just in front

  14. Migration from Mexico to the United States and subsequent risk for depressive and anxiety disorders: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Joshua; Borges, Guilherme; Tancredi, Daniel; Saito, Naomi; Kravitz, Richard; Hinton, Ladson; Vega, William; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio

    2011-04-01

    Migration is suspected to increase risk for depressive and anxiety disorders. To test the hypothesized increase in risk for depressive and anxiety disorders after arrival in the United States among Mexican migrants. We combined data from surveys conducted separately in Mexico and the United States that used the same diagnostic interview. Discrete time survival models were specified to estimate the relative odds of first onset of depressive disorders (major depressive episode and dysthymia) and anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder) among migrants after their arrival in the United States compared with nonmigrant Mexicans who have a migrant in their immediate family. Population surveys in the United States and Mexico. Two thousand five hundred nineteen nonmigrant family members of migrants in Mexico and 554 Mexican migrants in the United States. First onset of any depressive or anxiety disorder. After arrival in the United States, migrants had a significantly higher risk for first onset of any depressive or anxiety disorder than did nonmigrant family members of migrants in Mexico (odds ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.94). Associations between migration and disorder varied across birth cohorts. Elevated risk among migrants relative to nonmigrants was restricted to the 2 younger cohorts (those aged 18-25 or 26-35 years at interview). In the most recent birth cohort, the association between migration and first onset of any depressive or anxiety disorder was particularly strong (odds ratio, 3.89; 95% confidence interval, 2.74-5.53). This is, to our knowledge, the first study to compare risk for first onset of psychiatric disorder between representative samples of migrants in the United States and nonmigrants in Mexico. The findings are consistent with the hypothesized adverse effect of migration from Mexico to the United States on the mental health of migrants, but only among

  15. BULLYING IN AN AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalva Ruíz-Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation analyzes bullying in a high school belonging to an agrarian university in the municipal area of Texcoco, State of Mexico. The profile of the students that attend this agrarian high school was analyzed, the impact of bullying on education is explained, along with the risk factors and their consequences, a phenomenon which is very scarcely documented in formative spaces of high school studies, and particularly absent in investigations from agrarian institutions in Mexico. A quantitative investigation was proposed containing a sample of 112 students. In order to collect data, a questionnaire was used, and the information was analyzed using univariate descriptive statistics and Spearman’s correlation analysis. Out of all the interviewees, 99.1% claimed there is bullying in the agrarian high school and mentioned that the main cause is the lack of values among students, who discriminate their classmates; due to gender stereotypes, it is men who are mainly in the triangle of bullying as attackers, victims, or observers. The analysis of bullying in the agrarian high school helped to know the profile of the students who are vulnerable to become victims, attackers, or observers of bullying: they are not friendly or tolerant, they partake in pranks, they are violent, aggressive, jealous, restless, and they feel uncomfortable in the presence of homosexual or transgender people.

  16. United States-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevalence Survey: lessons learned from implementation of the project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cosío, Federico G; Díaz-Apodaca, Beatriz A; Ruiz-Holguín, Rosalba; Lara, Agustín; Castillo-Salgado, Carlos

    2010-09-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the main procedures and policies that need to be followed when designing and implementing a binational survey such as the United States of America (U.S.)-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevalence Study that took place between 2001 and 2002. The main objective of the survey was to determine the prevalence of diabetes in the population 18 years of age or older along U.S.-Mexico border counties and municipalities. Several political, administrative, financial, legal, and cultural issues were identified as critical factors that need to be considered when developing and implementing similar binational projects. The lack of understanding of public health practices, implementation of existing policies, legislation, and management procedures in Mexico and the United States may delay or cancel binational research, affecting the working relation of both countries. Many challenges were identified: multiagency/multifunding, ethical/budget clearances, project management, administrative procedures, laboratory procedures, cultural issues, and project communications. Binational projects are complex; they require coordination between agencies and institutions at federal, state, and local levels and between countries and need a political, administrative, bureaucratic, cultural, and language balance. Binational agencies and staff should coordinate these projects for successful implementation.

  17. Pensando en Cynthia y su Hermana: Educational Implications of United States-Mexico Transnationalism for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Edmund T.; Zuniga, Victor; Garcia, Juan Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    We use 3 brief educational biographies of students in Mexico who have previously attended public school in the United States to introduce this literature review on United States-Mexico transnational students. This article is also the first of several planned articles stemming from a currently ongoing, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y…

  18. 76 FR 45847 - Vendor Outreach Workshop for Small Businesses in New Mexico of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... in New Mexico of the United States AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Mexico of the United States that are interested in doing business with each agency. This outreach workshop will review market contracting opportunities for the attendees. Business owners will be able to...

  19. All projects related to mexico | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Argentina, South America, Mexico, North and Central America, Peru ... West Indies, Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Mexico ... which interact in the diffusion, production and use of new and economically useful ...

  20. New Mexico State University Arrowhead Center PROSPER Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peach, James

    2012-12-31

    This document is the final technical report of the Arrowhead Center Prosper Project at New Mexico State University. The Prosper Project was a research and public policy initiative funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Prosper project (DOE Grant Number DE-NT0004397) began on October 1, 2008 (FY2009, Quarter 1) and ended on December 31, 2012 (FY2013, Quarter 1). All project milestones were completed on time and within the budget. This report contains a summary of ten technical reports resulting from research conducted during the project. This report also contains a detailed description of the research dissemination and outreach activities of the project including a description of the policy impacts of the project. The report also describes project activities that will be maintained after the end of the project.

  1. 76 FR 61251 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    .... APHIS-2011-0093] Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; New Mexico AGENCY...: We are amending the bovine tuberculosis regulations regarding State and zone classifications by...

  2. Baryoniums and related states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Mo, C.

    1978-01-01

    A brief introduction is given to current theoretical ideas on baryonium states with particular emphasis on their interpretation as 'colour molecules'. It is argued that baryonium spectroscopy provides a valuable test for colour as a new degree of freedom. (author)

  3. Learning Styles and Attitudes toward Online Education in Four Universities in the State of Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez de Monarrez, Patricia; Korniejczuk, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to find the relation-ship between the predominant learning styles among university online students and their attitude toward online education. Data were collected from 385 students enrolled in undergraduate and graduate programs from four universities in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Significant effects of…

  4. Decline in Tuberculosis among Mexico-Born Persons in the United States, 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Brian J.; Jeffries, Carla D.; Moonan, Patrick K.

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2010, Mexico was the most common (22.9%) country of origin for foreign-born persons with tuberculosis in the United States, and overall trends in tuberculosis morbidity are substantially influenced by the Mexico-born population. Objectives To determine the risk of tuberculosis disease among Mexico-born persons living in the United States. Methods Using data from the U.S. National Tuberculosis Surveillance System and the American Community Survey, we examined tuberculosis case counts and case rates stratified by years since entry into the United States and geographic proximity to the United States–Mexico border. We calculated trends in case rates over time measured by average annual percent change. Results The total tuberculosis case count (−14.5%) and annual tuberculosis case rate (average annual percent change −5.1%) declined among Mexico-born persons. Among those diagnosed with tuberculosis less than 1 year since entry into the United States (newly arrived persons), there was a decrease in tuberculosis cases (−60.4%), no change in tuberculosis case rate (average annual percent change of 0.0%), and a decrease in population (−60.7%). Among those living in the United States for more than 5 years (non-recently arrived persons), there was an increase in tuberculosis cases (+3.4%), a decrease in tuberculosis case rate (average annual percent change of −4.9%), and an increase in population (+62.7%). In 2010, 66.7% of Mexico-born cases were among non–recently arrived persons, compared with 51.1% in 2000. Although border states reported the highest proportions (>15%) of tuberculosis cases that were Mexico-born, the highest Mexico-born–specific tuberculosis case rates (>20/100,000 population) were in states in the eastern and southeastern regions of the United States. Conclusions The decline in tuberculosis morbidity among Mexico-born persons may be attributed to fewer newly arrived persons from Mexico and lower tuberculosis case rates among

  5. Non-firearm-related homicide, New Mexico, 2001-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazerouni, N Neely; Shah, N; Lathrop, S; Landen, M G

    2009-10-01

    New Mexico (NM) has the highest rate of non-firearm-related homicide in the USA and ranks 20th in firearm-related homicides. Because non-firearm-related homicides are inadequately described in the literature, characterisation of non-firearm-related homicide victims will enhance efforts to reduce homicides. Homicide victims were identified through the Office of the Medical Investigator. Age-specific and age-adjusted homicide death rates were calculated for 2001-3 by sex and race/ethnicity, and associations between covariates and non-firearm-related homicide were measured. Non-firearm-related homicides comprised 33% of US homicide victims, 47% of NM homicide victims, and 74% of NM American Indian (AI) homicide victims. Of 212 NM non-firearm-related homicide victims, 37% had been beaten, 32% had been stabbed, and 12% had been strangled. Females comprised 30% of non-firearm-related homicide victims and 18% of firearm-related homicide victims. A blood alcohol concentration (BAC) >or=0.08 mg/dl was detected among 43% of non-firearm-related (61% of AI) and 33% of firearm-related (50% of AI) homicide victims. Non-firearm-related homicide rates were highest among AI men aged 25-34 years (31/100,000). Non-firearm-related homicide victims were more likely than firearm-related victims to be AI (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.20; 95% CI 2.16 to 8.16) and female (AOR 2.05; 95% CI 1.27 to 3.31), and to have had a BAC >or=0.08 mg/dl (AOR 1.65; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.52). Homicide-prevention efforts among AIs in NM should focus on non-firearm-related homicides. The association between excessive drinking and non-firearm-related homicide should be further characterised. Continued surveillance for non-firearm-related homicides will assist these efforts.

  6. Determination of the provenance of obsidian samples collected in the archaeological site of San Miguel Ixtapan, Mexico State, Mexico by means of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almazan-Torres, M.G.; Aguirre-Martinez, P.I.

    2004-01-01

    Obsidian samples from San Miguel Ixtapan Mexico State, Mexico were analyzed by means of neutron activation. Statistical treatments such as bivariate, cluster and principal-components analyses were applied to the data set. Obsidians were identified as coming from three important sources: Sierra of Pachuca in the state of Hidalgo, Zinap uaro and Zin aro-Varal in the state of Michoacan. (author)

  7. Disturbance and climate change in United States/Mexico borderland plant communities: a state-of-the-knowledge review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy R. McPherson; Jake F. Weltzin

    2000-01-01

    This review evaluates the effects and importance of disturbance and climate change on plant community dynamics in the United States/Mexico borderlands region. Our primary focus is on knowledge of physiognomic-level change in grasslands and woodlands of southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico. Changes in vegetation physiognomy have broad implications for...

  8. The herpetofauna of Sonora, Mexico, with comparisons to adjoining states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enderson, E. F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Situated in the topographically complex transition between the Neotropics and the temperate biomes of North America,the state of Sonora, Mexico, has an extraordinarily diverse herpetofauna. Surprisingly little research has been conductedon the state’s amphibians and reptiles and many systematic and biogeographic questions remain unanswered. Tofacilitate future research, we provide a checklist of Sonora’s herpetofauna, documenting species presence based onmuseum specimens, our fieldwork, and published research. Sonora’s herpetofauna is placed in a regional biogeographicperspective via a checklist for the six adjoining states together with faunal analyses. A total of 402 species ofamphibians and reptiles are recorded from these seven states. Sonora has the greatest species richness (187 species,followed by Chihuahua (169 species, and Sinaloa (146 species. Sonora's herpetofauna is most similar to that ofChihuahua, with which it shares a long border. Eleven biogeographic affinity-based faunal groups are recognized. Ofthese, three are dominant in Sonora: a core group classified as "Sonoran" demonstrates strong affinity to SonoranDesertscrub and Sinaloan Thornscrub communities; a Tropical group - with many species reaching their northerndistributional limits in the state; and a Madrean group consisting largely of montane species. Our state-level faunalanalysis provides some evidence of peninsular depauperization of the herpetofauna on the Baja California peninsula duein part to the small number of Neotropical species present in Baja California Sur. Our faunal analysis points towarddistinctive mainland and peninsular Sonoran Desert herpetofaunas centered on Sonora and the Baja CaliforniaPeninsula, respectively, each with about 50 non-insular species, and each with species-level endemism nearing 50%.

  9. Land grants of New Mexico and the United States Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Raish; Alice M. McSweeney

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service (FS) has a long, shared history with the Spanish and Mexican land grants of northern New Mexico. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the war between the United States and Mexico, was supposed to recognize and respect the property rights of the resident Hispano population. In many cases the intent of the Treaty was not honored. During...

  10. 14 CFR 91.707 - Flights between Mexico or Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Canada and the United States without filing an IFR or VFR flight plan, as appropriate. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flights between Mexico or Canada and the... Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft § 91.707 Flights between Mexico or Canada and the United...

  11. Preliminary assessment of biogeographic affinities of selected insect taxa of the state of Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Jones; Alejandro Obregon-Zuniga; Sandra Guzman-Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    The biogeographic affinites of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperidae), damsel and dragonflies (Odonata), and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) reported from the State of Sonora, Mexico were analyzed using published species lists. The combined distribution of these taxa was proportionally greater (47.4%) for those species within the Mega-Mexico3...

  12. DNA-based identification of Armillaria isolates from peach orchards in Mexico state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben Damian Elias Roman; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Dionicio Alvarado Rosales; Mee-Sook Kim; Anna E. Case; Sara M. Ashiglar; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Remigio A. Guzman Plazola

    2012-01-01

    A collaborative project between the Programa de Fitopatología, Colegio de Postgraduados, Texcoco, Estado de Mexico and the USDA Forest Service - RMRS, Moscow Forest Pathology Laboratory has begun this year (2011) to assess which species of Armillaria are causing widespread and severe damage to the peach orchards from México state, Mexico. We are employing a DNA-based...

  13. Comparison of the Natural History of Genital HPV Infection among Men by Country: Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudenga, Staci L; Torres, B Nelson; Silva, Roberto; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Abrahamsen, Martha; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R

    2017-07-01

    Background: Male genital human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and incidence has been reported to vary by geographical location. Our objective was to assess the natural history of genital HPV by country among men with a median of 48 months of follow-up. Methods: Men ages 18-70 years were recruited from United States ( n = 1,326), Mexico ( n = 1,349), and Brazil ( n = 1,410). Genital specimens were collected every 6 months and HPV genotyping identified 37 HPV genotypes. Prevalence of HPV was compared between the three countries using the Fisher exact test. Incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The median time to HPV clearance among men with an incident infection was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The prevalence and incidence of the genital HPV types known to cause disease in males (HPV 16 and 6) was significantly higher among men from Brazil than men from Mexico. Prevalence and incidence of those genital HPV types in the United States varied between being comparable with those of Mexico or Brazil. Although genital HPV16 duration was significantly longer in Brazil ( P = 0.04) compared with Mexico and the United States, HPV6 duration was shortest in Brazil ( P = 0.03) compared with Mexico and the United States. Conclusions: Men in Brazil and Mexico often have similar, if not higher prevalence of HPV compared with men from the United States. Impact: Currently, there is no routine screening for genital HPV among males and while HPV is common in men, and most naturally clear the infection, a proportion of men do develop HPV-related diseases. Men may benefit from gender-neutral vaccine policies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1043-52. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. SES Gradients Among Mexicans in the United States and in Mexico: A New Twist to the Hispanic Paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Palloni, Alberto; Riosmena, Fernando; Wong, Rebeca

    2016-10-01

    Recent empirical findings have suggested the existence of a twist in the Hispanic paradox, in which Mexican and other Hispanic foreign-born migrants living in the United States experience shallower socioeconomic status (SES) health disparities than those in the U.S. In this article, we seek to replicate this finding and test conjectures that could explain this new observed phenomenon using objective indicators of adult health by educational attainment in several groups: (1) Mexican-born individuals living in Mexico and in the United States, (2) U.S.-born Mexican Americans, and (3) non-Hispanic American whites. Our analytical strategy improves upon previous research on three fronts. First, we derive four hypotheses from a general framework that has also been used to explain the standard Hispanic paradox. Second, we study biomarkers rather than self-reported health and related conditions. Third, we use a binational data platform that includes both Mexicans living in Mexico (Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006) and Mexican migrants to the United States (NHANES 1999-2010). We find steep education gradients among Mexicans living in Mexico's urban areas in five of six biomarkers of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and in the overall MetS score. Mexican migrants living in the United States experience similar patterns to Mexicans living in Mexico in glucose and obesity biomarkers. These results are inconsistent with previous findings, suggesting that Mexican migrants in the United States experience significantly attenuated health gradients relative to the non-Hispanic white U.S. Our empirical evidence also contradicts the idea that SES-health gradients in Mexico are shallower than those in the United States and could be invoked to explain shallower gradients among Mexicans living in the United States.

  15. Use of Internet Search Data to Monitor Rotavirus Vaccine Impact in the United States, United Kingdom, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Minesh P; Lopman, Benjamin A; Tate, Jacqueline E; Harris, John; Esparza-Aguilar, Marcelino; Sanchez-Uribe, Edgar; Richardson, Vesta; Steiner, Claudia A; Parashar, Umesh D

    2018-02-19

    Previous studies have found a strong correlation between internet search and public health surveillance data. Less is known about how search data respond to public health interventions, such as vaccination, and the consistency of responses in different countries. In this study, we aimed to study the correlation between internet searches for "rotavirus" and rotavirus disease activity in the United States, United Kingdom, and Mexico before and after introduction of rotavirus vaccine. We compared time series of internet searches for "rotavirus" from Google Trends with rotavirus laboratory reports from the United States and United Kingdom and with hospitalizations for acute gastroenteritis in the United States and Mexico. Using time and location parameters, Google quantifies an internet query share (IQS) to measure the relative search volume for specific terms. We analyzed the correlation between IQS and laboratory and hospitalization data before and after national vaccine introductions. There was a strong positive correlation between the rotavirus IQS and laboratory reports in the United States (R2 = 0.79) and United Kingdom (R2 = 0.60) and between the rotavirus IQS and acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations in the United States (R2 = 0.87) and Mexico (R2 = 0.69) (P United States and by 70% (95% CI, 55%-86%) in Mexico. In the United Kingdom, there was a loss of seasonal variation after vaccine introduction. Rotavirus internet search data trends mirrored national rotavirus laboratory trends in the United States and United Kingdom and gastroenteritis-hospitalization data in the United States and Mexico; lower correlations were found after rotavirus vaccine introduction. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Illegal Immigration: Is the Use of Military Force in Policing the United states' Border with Mexico a Viable Option?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopez, David

    2001-01-01

    Illegal immigration across the United States' borders, in particular the Southern Border with Mexico, has been a continual problem confronting our local, state and national political decision makers...

  17. 75 FR 65432 - New Mexico: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... destination facilities. The State's regulations also include specific requirements with which the regulated... Pollutant 67 FR 77687-77692, New Mexico Statute Standards for Combustors- December 19, 2002. Annotated (NMSA...

  18. United States National Grid for New Mexico, UTM 12, (1000m X 1000m polygons )

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This is a polygon feature data layer of United States National Grid (1000m x 1000m polygons ) constructed by the Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Information...

  19. United States National Grid for New Mexico, UTM 13, (1000m X 1000m polygons )

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This is a polygon feature data layer of United States National Grid (1000m x 1000m polygons ) constructed by the Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Information...

  20. Alcohol Consumption and Chronic Liver Disease Mortality in New Mexico and the United States, 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomedi, Laura E; Roeber, Jim; Landen, Michael

    Current chronic liver disease (CLD) mortality surveillance methods may not adequately capture data on all causes of CLD mortality. The objective of this study was to calculate and compare CLD death rates in New Mexico and the United States by using both an expanded definition of CLD and estimates of the fractional impact of alcohol on CLD deaths. We defined CLD mortality as deaths due to alcoholic liver disease, cirrhosis, viral hepatitis, and other liver conditions. We estimated alcohol-attributable CLD deaths by using national and state alcohol-attributable fractions from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Alcohol-Related Disease Impact application. We classified causes of CLD death as being alcohol-attributable, non-alcohol-attributable, or hepatitis C. We calculated average annual age-adjusted CLD death rates during five 3-year periods from 1999 through 2013, and we stratified those rates by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. By cause of death, CLD death rates were highest for alcohol-attributable CLD. By sex and race/ethnicity, CLD death rates per 100 000 population increased from 1999-2001 to 2011-2013 among American Indian men in New Mexico (67.4-90.6) and the United States (38.9-49.4), American Indian women in New Mexico (48.4-63.0) and the United States (27.5-39.5), Hispanic men in New Mexico (48.6-52.0), Hispanic women in New Mexico (16.9-24.0) and the United States (12.8-13.1), non-Hispanic white men in New Mexico (17.4-21.3) and the United States (15.9-18.4), and non-Hispanic white women in New Mexico (9.7-11.6) and the United States (7.6-9.7). CLD death rates decreased among Hispanic men in the United States (30.5-27.4). An expanded CLD definition and alcohol-attributable fractions can be used to create comprehensive data on CLD mortality. When stratified by CLD cause and demographic characteristics, these data may help states and jurisdictions improve CLD prevention programs.

  1. Apple Pay & Digital Wallets in Mexico and the United States: Illusion or Financial Revolution?

    OpenAIRE

    Heredia Salazar, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Apple Pay and digital wallets have gained popularity since the fall of 2014. Perceiving Apple Pay & digital wallets as a financial revolution at this moment might be a mistake. The following study shows that it is just the evolution of a payment system in Mexico and the United States of America, a system that opened the door to a possible future financial revolution. Current financial regulation in Mexico and the United States of America is not accurately applied; therefore, proper ...

  2. Papadakis methodology for agroclimatic delimitation, applied to Sinaloa State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Velasco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Relief influences on climate, lead to a wide environmental conditions, even more than latitude. The Köppen Method, one of the most used, is of physical type, and leads to excellent approaches to real climate conditions, but it doesn't consider in a full dimension the water-soil-cultivated-plant-atmosphere interaction, being that these factors decide so much the natural vegetation as crops. The periods with freezing temperatures or with high frost risk, and the duration of dry months, all of them are decisive for agriculture. These risk factors are considered in the Papadakis Method, which allows evaluating the potentiality and limitations of the climatic areas, related to crops. In this work an application is made of this method on a wide region in Northwest Mexico, where agriculture is very important, and the obtained results converge to define that existent climatic groups are the following, according to Papadakis Method: 1.4: continental savanna 1.5: tropical semi-arid 1.9: tropical with fresh winter 2.3: medium-cold highland 4.2: continental subtropical 4.3: continental semitropical

  3. Does Adding Information on Toxic Constituents to Cigarette Pack Warnings Increase Smokers' Perceptions about the Health Risks of Smoking? A Longitudinal Study in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoo Jin; Thrasher, James F.; Swayampakala, Kamala; Lipkus, Isaac; Hammond, David; Cummings, Kenneth Michael; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hardin, James W.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packs in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the United States include varying information about toxic cigarette smoke constituents and smoking-related health risks. HWL information changed more recently in Australia, Canada, and Mexico than in the United States. Aims: To investigate whether…

  4. New Mexico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The New Mexico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Mexico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Mexico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Mexico

  5. Tuberculosis along the United States-Mexico border, 1993-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Eileen; Laserson, Kayla F; Wells, Charles D; Moore, Marisa

    2004-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading public health problem and a recognized priority for the federal Governments of both Mexico and the United States of America. The objectives of this research, primarily for the four states in the United States that are along the border with Mexico, were to: (1) describe the epidemiological situation of TB, (2) identify TB risk factors, and (3) discuss tuberculosis program strategies. We analyzed tuberculosis case reports collected from 1993 through 2001 by the tuberculosis surveillance system of the United States. We used those data to compare TB cases mainly among three groups: (1) Mexican-born persons in the four United States border states (Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas), (2) persons in those four border states who had been born in the United States, and (3) Mexican-born persons in the 46 other states of the United States, which do not border Mexico. For the period from 1993 through 2001, of the 16 223 TB cases reported for Mexican-born persons in the United States, 12 450 of them (76.7%) were reported by Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas. In those four border states overall in 2001, tuberculosis case rates for Mexican-born persons were 5.0 times as high as the rates for persons born in the United States; those four states have 23 counties that directly border on Mexico, and the ratio in those counties was 5.8. HIV seropositivity, drug and alcohol use, unemployment, and incarceration were significantly less likely to be reported in Mexican-born TB patients from the four border states and the nonborder states than in patients born in the United States from the four border states (P pulmonary tuberculosis patients who were 18-64 years of age and residing in the four border states, the Mexican-born patients were 3.6 times as likely as the United States-born patients were to have resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampin (i. e., to have multidrug-resistant TB) and twice as likely to have isoniazid resistance

  6. All projects related to Mexico | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Six out of ten Central American women on their way through Mexico are ... Violence Prevention, Access to Justice, and Economic Empowerment of ... Latin America is home to the greatest inequities in the world, including inequality in access to ...

  7. All projects related to Mexico | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: North and Central America, South America, Mexico. Program: Food ... Ongoing trade reforms and economic restructuring in Latin America have implications for gender equity. Start Date: March 29, ... Program: Employment and Growth.

  8. All projects related to Mexico | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · What we do / Regions and countries / Mexico ... Caribbean (LAC) have serious deficiencies in water and sanitation provision. ... The daily commute of millions of people to their workplace is a major source of pollution in urban areas.

  9. Dynamics of State-Society relationship in education in Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Hevia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is interest in analyzing participation in Mexico. Through the case study of education, the objective is to analyze different patterns of relationship between society and State beyond institutional devices. The methodology is mixed: we applied focus groups and interviews, a questionnaire to school boards (N = 127 was applied, databases petitions to the authorities (N = 2783 and newspaper notes (N = 1326 were built. The results describe three dynamics of relationship between society and State: 1 regulated participation, which is expressed in the performance of the School Councils of Social Participation, 2 particularistic relations, which are based on finding a direct relationship between citizen-authority through petitions and applications, and 3 contentious-disruptive relationships characterized by protest actions. The effects of these dynamics are discussed, in terms of reproducing the asymmetries of power and building differentiated response capabilities by the government, and a research agenda is proposed.

  10. Reforming "developing" health systems: Tanzania, Mexico, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernichovsky, Dov; Martinez, Gabriel; Aguilera, Nelly

    2009-01-01

    Tanzania, Mexico, and the United States are at vastly different points on the economic development scale. Yet, their health systems can be classified as "developing": they do not live up to their potential, considering the resources available to them. The three, representing many others, share a common structural deficiency: a segregated health care system that cannot achieve its basic goals, the optimal health of its people, and their possible satisfaction with the system. Segregation follows and signifies first and foremost the lack of financial integration in the system that prevents it from serving its goals through the objectives of equity, cost containment and sustainability, efficient production of care and health, and choice. The chapter contrasts the nature of the developing health care system with the common goals', objectives, and principles of the Emerging Paradigm (EP) in developed, integrated--yet decentralized--systems. In this context, the developing health care system is defined by its structural deficiencies, and reform proposals are outlined. In spite of the vast differences amongst the three countries, their health care systems share strikingly similar features. At least 50% of their total funding sources are private. The systems comprise exclusive vertically integrated, yet segregated, "silos" that handle all systemic functions. These reflect and promote wide variations in health insurance coverage and levels of benefits--substantial portions of their populations are without adequate coverage altogether; a considerable lack of income protection from medical spending; an inability to formalize and follow a coherent health policy; a lack of financial discipline that threatens sustainability and overall efficiency; inefficient production of care and health; and an dissatisfied population. These features are often promoted by the state, using tax money, and donors. The situation can be rectified by (a) "centralizing"--at any level of development

  11. Characterization of ceramics from the archaeological site of San Miguel Ixtapan, Mexico State, Mexico, using NAA, SEM, XRD and PIXE techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenorio, D.; Monroy-Guzman, F.; Longoria, L.C.; Almazan-Torres, M.G.; Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca; Rodriguez-Garcia, N.L.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic samples found in San Miguel Ixtapan, Mexico State, Mexico, were analyzed by means of NAA, PIXE, SEM and XRD. Statistical treatments such as bivariate cluster and principal-components analysis were applied to the data set. The origins of these ceramic samples were classified as local, regional and foreign. (author)

  12. Mexico and the global problematic: power relations, knowledge and communication in neoliberal Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez-Llata Cázares, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    Enrique Gómez-Llata onderzocht welke sociale structuren tussen 1980 en 2010 hebben bijgedragen aan de toename van armoede en agressie in de Mexicaanse samenleving. Hij richtte zich met name op de communicatiepraktijken die tijdens deze periode in Mexico gebruikelijk waren. Gómez-Llata concludeert

  13. New Mexico, 2010 Census Combined Statistical Area (CSA) State-based

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  14. New Mexico, 2010 Census Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area (CBSA) State-based

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  15. New Mexico, 2010 Census American Indian Tribal Subdivision (AITS) State-based

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  16. Measuring Structural Gender Equality in Mexico: A State Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Sonia M.

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to assess the level of gender equality across the 32 Mexican states. After reviewing conceptual and methodological issues related to previous measures of structural inequality I detail the logic and methodology involved in the construction of a composite and multidimensional measure of gender equality, at the…

  17. Contributions to improve fallow system in Yucatan State Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel Uribe Valle; Juan Jiménez-Osornio; Roberto Dzib Echeverría

    2006-01-01

    More than 25 percent of earth warming can be attributes to deforestation practices such as crop rotations performed in southeast part of Mexico. In the Yucatan peninsula 20 percent of staple foods such as maize and beans are produced under slash and burn system. It has been practiced for many centuries by native Mayans however population pressure and food scarcity made...

  18. Fisher Sand & Gravel New Mexico, Inc. General Air Quality Permit: Related Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents related to the Fisher Sand & Gravel – New Mexico, Inc., Grey Mesa Gravel Pit General Air Quality Permit for New or Modified Minor Source Stone Quarrying, Crushing, and Screening Facilities in Indian Country.

  19. Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes the key energy data for Mexico: 1 - energy organizations and policy: Ministry of energy (SENER), Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), Ministry of Finances, Ministry of trade and industrial development (SECOFI), national commission for energy savings (CONAE); 2 - companies: federal commission of electricity (CFE), Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido (MICARE - coal), Pemex (petroleum); 3 - energy production: resources, electric power, petroleum, natural gas; 4 - energy consumption; 5 - stakes and perspectives. Some economic and energy indicators are summarized in a series of tables: general indicators, supply indicators (reserves, refining and electric capacity, energy production, foreign trade), demand indicators (consumption trends, end use, energy independence, energy efficiency, CO 2 emissions), energy status per year and per energy source. (J.S.)

  20. Willingness to Pay for Conservation of Transborder Migratory Species: A Case Study of the Mexican Free-Tailed Bat in the United States and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefele, Michelle A; Loomis, John B; Merideth, Robert; Lien, Aaron; Semmens, Darius J; Dubovsky, James; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Huang, Ta-Ken; McCracken, Gary; Medellin, Rodrigo A; Diffendorfer, James E; López-Hoffman, Laura

    2018-05-06

    We estimated U.S. and Mexican citizens' willingness to pay (WTP) for protecting habitat for a transborder migratory species, the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana), using the contingent valuation method. Few contingent valuation surveys have evaluated whether households in one country would pay to protect habitat in another country. This study addresses that gap. In our study, Mexican respondents were asked about their WTP for conservation of Mexican free-tailed bat habitat in Mexico and in the United States. Similarly, U.S. respondents were asked about their WTP for conservation in the United States and in Mexico. U.S. households would pay $30 annually to protect habitat in the United States and $24 annually to protect habitat in Mexico. Mexican households would pay $8 annually to protect habitat in Mexico and $5 annually to protect habitat in the United States. In both countries, these WTP amounts rose significantly for increasing the size of the bat population rather than simply stabilizing the current bat population. The ratio of Mexican household WTP relative to U.S. household WTP is nearly identical to that of Mexican household income relative to U.S. household income. This suggests that the perceived economic benefits received from the bats is similar in Mexico and the United States, and that scaling WTP by relative income in international benefit transfer may be plausible.

  1. Establishing a binational student-run free-clinic in Tijuana, Mexico: a model for US-Mexico border states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Victoria D; Eppstein, Amy; Lozada, Remedios; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana C; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goodman, David; Burgos, Jose L

    2014-06-01

    In 2011, a bi-national student-run free clinic for the underserved, known as "Health Frontiers in Tijuana" (HFiT), was created in Tijuana, Mexico. Students and faculty from one Mexican and one US medical school staff the clinic and attend patients on Saturdays. Students from both medical schools enroll in a didactic course during the quarter/semester that they attend the free clinic. The course addresses clinical, ethical, cultural, population-specific issues and the structure, financing and delivery of medical care in Mexico. The clinic implements an electronic medical record and is developing telemedicine for consulting on complex cases. Despite challenges related to sustaining adequate funding, this program may be replicated in other border communities.

  2. All projects related to mexico | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Development luminaries like Jeffrey Sachs and Muhammad Yunus espouse the ... The Role of Civil Society in Influencing Public Health Policy for Indigenous Women ... Tobacco Taxes and Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay ... of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Russia.

  3. All projects related to mexico | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    HIV/AIDS has emerged as a major challenge to sustainable development and ... Tax policies in developing countries, and indeed around the world, are under ... where families can face economic ruin from catastrophic health expenses. ... Region: China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Turkey, Zambia, Poland, South Africa.

  4. Environmental overview for the development of geothermal resources in the State of New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, M.; Starkey, A.H.; Dick-Peddie, W.A.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview of the present day geothermal applications for hydrothermal electrical generation and direct heat use and their environmental implications is provided. Technologies and environmental impacts are considered at all points on the pathway of development resource exploration; well field, plant and transmission line construction; and plant operation. The technologies for electrical generation-direct, dry steam conversion; separated steam conversion; single-flash conversion, separated-steam/single-flash conversion and binary cycle conversion and the technologies for direct heat use - direct use of geothermal waters, surface heat exhanger, down-the hole heat exchanger and heat pump are described. A summary of the geothermal technologies planned or in operation within New Mexico geothermal areas is provided. A review of regulations that affect geothermal development and its related environmental impact in New Mexico is presented. The regulatory pathway, both state and federal, of geothermal exploration after the securing of appropriate leases, development, and construction and implementation of a geothermal facility are described. Six categories (Geophysical, Water, Air, Noise, Biota and Socioeconomics) were selected for environmental assessment. The data available is described.

  5. United States National Security Interests and the Republic of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    worsened problems already present in the economy such as a skewed income distribution and an increasing dualism . As the pro- ductivity increases of...should develop stringent programs to foster economic development, improve employment opportunities and decrease the population growth in rural areas...military interaction to foster stability and enhance the economic development of those countries in need. Mexico should be encouraged to pursue a

  6. Gambling Trends in the State of New Mexico: 1996-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Jason; Starling, Randall; Woodall, W. G.; May, Philip A.

    2009-01-01

    New Mexico experienced a surge in the gaming industry during the mid-1990s with the initiation of a state lottery and other new gaming opportunities, as well as the development of many Indian gaming establishments. This paper explores patterns associated with gambling in two random samples of the adult population (N = 2674) in the entire State of…

  7. Measuring the importance of oil-related revenues in total fiscal income for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Loya, Manuel Lorenzo; Blanco, Lorenzo [Facultad de Economia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Loma Redonda 1515 Pte., Col. Loma Larga, C.P. 64710, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2008-09-15

    Revenues from oil exports are an important part of government budgets in Mexico. A time-series analysis is conducted using monthly data from 1990 to 2005 examining three different specifications to determine how international oil price fluctuations and government income generated from oil exports influence fiscal policy in Mexico. The behavior of government spending and taxation is consistent with the spend-tax hypothesis. The results show that there is an inverse relationship between oil-related revenues and tax revenue from non-oil sources. Fiscal policy reform is urgently needed in order to improve tax collection as oil reserves in Mexico become more and more depleted. (author)

  8. Measuring the importance of oil-related revenues in total fiscal income for Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Loya, Manuel Lorenzo; Blanco, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Revenues from oil exports are an important part of government budgets in Mexico. A time-series analysis is conducted using monthly data from 1990 to 2005 examining three different specifications to determine how international oil price fluctuations and government income generated from oil exports influence fiscal policy in Mexico. The behavior of government spending and taxation is consistent with the spend-tax hypothesis. The results show that there is an inverse relationship between oil-related revenues and tax revenue from non-oil sources. Fiscal policy reform is urgently needed in order to improve tax collection as oil reserves in Mexico become more and more depleted. (author)

  9. The State in the accumulation process through disposession in the municipality of Chalco, state of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Salinas Arreortua

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Enlightened by the debate on the restructuration of the world economy and accepting the existence of a post-fordist transition, this paper analyzes the socio-territorial impacts produced by the implementation of neoliberal policies, particularly the constitutional article 27 in 1992, which has made possible the incorporation of land of social property into the real-state market in Mexico. Given these circumstances, the concept of accumulation through dispossession is used to evidence the current situation, in which economic neoliberalism characterizes urban expansion. Such is the case of the municipality of Chalco, where the social and economic problems of the local people are worsening everyday. This work proposes an approach wich binds recent transformations with the process of capitalist accumulation through dispossession, a process that is evidenced by the growing development of housing complexes.

  10. Mortality trends and risk of dying from breast cancer in the 32 states and 7 socioeconomic regions of Mexico, 2002-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Sánchez-Barriga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine mortality trends from breast cancer in Mexico nationwide, by state, by socioeconomic region, and to establish an association between education, state of residence, and socioeconomic region with mortality from breast cancer in 2002–2011.Methods. Records of mortality associated with breast cancer were obtained. Rates of mortality nationwide, by state, and by socioeconomic region were calculated. The strength of association between states where women resided, socioeconomic regions, and education with mortality from breast cancer was determined.Results. Women who completed elementary school had a higher risk of dying from breast cancer than people with more education [relative risk (RR 2.58, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.49–2.67]. Mexico City had the strongest association with dying from breast cancer as state and as socioeconomic region 7 [Mexico City: RR 3.47, CI95% 2.7-4.46 (2002 and RR 3.33, CI95% 2.66-4.15 (2011 and region 7: RR 3.72, CI 95%: 3.15-4.38 (2002 and RR 2.87, CI 95%: 2.51-3.28 (2011].Conclusions. In Mexico, the raw mortality rates per 100 000 women who died from breast cancer increased. Mortality was higher in women who had elementary school than in those with more education. The strongest association was in Mexico City as state and as region 7. 

  11. Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-18

    Mexico adopted a series of economic, political, and foreign policy reforms. It opened its economy to trade and investment, adopted electoral ...institutions and election agency. The Federal Election Institute (IFE) and Federal Electoral Tribunal (TEPJF) were well-regarded going into the 2006...Investiga PGR Crímenes Cometidos durante Conflicto en Oaxaca,” Notimex, January 4, 2007; Gerardo Soriano and Paulina I. Valencia, “Asegura APPO que

  12. Analysis of steady state creep of southeastern New Mexico bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, W.; Wawersik, W.R.; Lauson, H.S.

    1980-03-01

    Steady state creep rates have been obtained from a large suite of existing experimental creep data relating to bedded rock salt from the Salado formation of S.E. New Mexico. Experimental conditions covered an intermediate temperature range from 22 0 C to 200 0 C, and shear stresses from 1000 psi (7 MPa) to 6000 psi (31 MPa). An expression, based on a single diffusion controlled dislocation climb mechanism, has been found to fit the observed dependence of steady state creep rate on shear stress and temperature, yielding an activation energy of 12 kcal/mole (50 kJ/mole) and a stress exponent of 4.9. Multiple regression analysis revealed a dependence on stratigraphy, but no statistically significant dependence on pressure of specimen size. No consistent dilatancy or compaction associated with steady state creep was found, although some individual specimens dilated or compacted during creep. The steady state creep data were found to agree very well with creep data for both bedded and dome salt from a variety of other locations

  13. Persistence of DACA-Mexico Origin College Students in the United States-Mexican Borderlands: A Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Marguerite Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This was a correlational study of 30 Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals-Mexico origin (D-MO) students at 2- and 4-year higher education institutions in the 4-state United States-Mexican Borderlands region (California, Arizona, Texas, and New Mexico). The study used an online survey to gain a better understanding of the relationship of four…

  14. Injuries sustained after falls from bridges across the United States-Mexico border at El Paso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Susan F; Tyroch, Alan H

    2012-05-01

    To compare demographics and motivations for falls from bridges at the United States-Mexico border and in El Paso County, Texas, and to analyze injuries and injury patterns to support intentionality and to provide treatment recommendations. A retrospective observational review was conducted of hospital admissions to a trauma center after falls from bridges from 1995 to 2009. Statistical methods used were chi-square testing, T-test for means comparison, univariate correlations, and regression analysis. Of the 97 evaluated patients, 81.4% fell from U.S.-Mexico border bridges, including one patient who fell from a railway bridge; 74.7% of those falling from border bridges had a non-U.S. address, contrasting with 22.2% of those who fell within the United States. Falls over the border were associated with more immigration-related motivations and fewer suicide attempts. Injuries included lower extremities in 76 (78.4%) and thoracolumbar spine in 27 (27.8%) patients; 16 patients with a thoracolumbar spine fracture (59.3%) also had a lower extremity injury. Mean hospital length of stay was 7.2 days. Mean injury severity score was 8.45 (range 1-43). Age, injury severity score, and pelvic fracture increased the hospital length of stay. Patients fell while emigrating-immigrating based on residence and motivating factors. A dyad of lower extremity and thoracolumbar spine injuries coincided in 59.3% of those with a thoracolumbar spine injury; thoracolumbar spine imaging of patients evaluated after falls from bridges is recommended. Proposed prevention strategies include posting signs on bridges and installing catch-net safety barriers.

  15. [State strategy for Cycad (Zamiaceae) conservation: a proposal for the State of Hidalgo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vite, Aurelia; Pulido, María T; Flores-Vázquez, Juan C

    2013-09-01

    Mexico has the second largest cycad diversity in the world, and the Sierra Madre Oriental (SMO) is one of the richest biogeographic regions for these plants. Despite there is a general Cycad National Program in the country, there are no state-level cycad conservation strategies or programs. Thus the aim of this study was to propose a cycad conservation strategy for the state of Hidalgo, which is located in the Southern part of the SMO. For this, a cycad species inventory was made in the state, for which three methods were used: review of published literature; consultation in the main Mexican herbaria to verify botanical specimens; and exhaustive field research to compare findings with previously reported species and to recognize new records at the county and state level. The proposed research work strategy combined the following elements: prioritize the county and local areas with greatest cycad species richness; prioritize the species least resistant to environmental change and/or having restricted geographic distribution; and to consider the main uses of these plants by local residents. The results showed that Hidalgo has three genera and eight species ofcycads: Ceratozamia fuscoviridis, C. latifolia, C. mexicana, C. sabatoi, Dioon edule, Zamia fischeri, Z. loddigesii and Z. vazquezii, all of which are considered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). This study added two new species records for Hidalgo and 21 at the county level. The species are distributed in 26 counties, of which Chapulhuacán and Pisaflores are notable for their high species richness. Hidalgo has the fourth-greatest cycad species richness among Mexican states, although its area accounts for only 1.07% of the country. The state's diversity is greater than in other states with larger area, and even than in some other entire countries in Mesoamerica. The presented state cycad conservation strategy proposes that a total of some 11,325 ha to be conserved in nine zones

  16. Black bear population and connectivity in the Sky Islands of Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. E. Lara-Diaz; C. A. Lopez-Gonzalez; H. Coronel-Arellano; A. Gonzalez-Bernal

    2013-01-01

    The Sky Island region is a mountainous region surrounded by grasslands, deserts and intermountain valleys, located between Mexico and the United States. However, different land management and human impact can have an effect on its wildlife populations. Currently, the border wall poses an immediate threat to the survival of black bears (Ursus americanus), considered an...

  17. National wildlife refuge management on the United States/Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Radke

    2013-01-01

    Many conservation strategies have been developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in cooperation with others to protect habitat and enhance the recovery of fish and wildlife populations in the San Bernardino Valley, which straddles Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico. Habitats along this international border have been impacted by illegal activities,...

  18. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on New Mexico's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  19. 77 FR 14042 - Notice of Proposed Audit Delegation Renewal for the State of New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ...: For questions on technical issues, contact Paul Tyler, State and Indian Coordination, Coordination and Enforcement Management, ONRR, telephone (303) 231-3704. For comments or questions on procedural issues... Department Contact information New Mexico Taxation and Revenue Valdean Severson, Department, Oil and 1200...

  20. The problem of nuclear wastes. A possible point of conflict between Mexico and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas Poblano, A.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this research were: a) To analyse the problem of nuclear wastes, and the importance of their safe handling; b) To investigate the best and safest technologies for the treatment of radioactive wastes and two relevant international laws or regulations; c) To study whether the wastes produced in the United States represent an environmental problem for Mexico

  1. Thermodynamic state updated of the volcanic caldera and geothermal reservoir of Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Reyes, Jose; Gonzalez Partida, Eduardo; Jorge, A [Centro de Geociencias, Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico Campo de Juriquilla, Qro., Mexico, apartado postal 76230 (Mexico); Perez, Renee J [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary, 500 University Drive, Calgary Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Tinoco, Michel

    2008-10-01

    Based on information of enthalpies of the fluids of wells from the geothermal reservoir of Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico, we determined the thermodynamic conditions of the reservoir comparing the values of enthalpies of the fluids of discharge of the wells with the values published in the literature for different thermodynamic state of fluids.

  2. CHIPS: A New Way to Monitor Colonias Along the United States-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Humberson, Delbert G.

    2007-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border settlements in the United States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. Colonia residents live in poverty and lack adequate health care, potable water, and sanitation systems. These conditions create substantial health risks for colonias and surrounding communities. By 2001, more than 1,400 colonias were identified in Texas. Cooperation with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Offices of the Texas Attorney General, Secretary of State, and the Texas Water Development Board has allowed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to improve colonia Geographic Information System (GIS) boundaries and develop the Colonia Health, Infrastructure, and Platting Status tool (CHIPS). Together, the GIS boundaries and CHIPS aid the Texas government in prioritizing the limited funds that are available for infrastructure improvement. CHIPS's report generator can be tailored to the needs of the user, providing either broad or specific output. For example, a congressman could use CHIPS to list colonias with wastewater issues in a specific county, whereas a health researcher could list all colonias without clinical access. To help cities along the United States-Mexico border manage issues related to colonias growth, CHIPS will become publicly available in an Internet-enabled GIS as part of a cooperative study between the USGS, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica.

  3. Cuba's opening to oil in the Gulf of Mexico: between Mexico's opposition to change and the United States' Blockade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Vega Navarro, A.

    2007-01-01

    The future of oil for Cuba, Mexico and the United States, which have common maritime borders, lies in the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Cuba faces an energy transition where that source of energy still lays a role, considering the economic and technological structures from the past. Among others, it has opened its territory to international companies, providing them with access to carbon hydride resources in an area of strategic importance, in the midst of a world energy situation where each barrel of oil counts. In addition to economic and technological factors, the Cuban oil opening is explained by the critical situation generated after the termination of the relationship that the country had maintained for several decades with the USSR. The out-come and credibility of such opening should be put into perspective with its ability to build an institutional and regulatory environment likely to attract foreign investments in high risk exploration and production activities. At the same time, Cuba has managed to complete the internal effort conducted with the help of international companies, by engaging in a special relationship with Venezuela, as part of new regional integration programmes and energy cooperation initiated by that country. (author)

  4. The Blue-gray Tanager (Thraupis episcopus in the state of Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epifanio Blancas-Calva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We recorded the Blue-gray Tanager (Thraupis episcopus on the southeastern coastal plain of the state of Guerrero, Mexico, in urban areas with cover of scattered trees of native and introduced species. The current range known for this taxon comprises lowlands of eastern Mexico, from south-central Nuevo Leon to the Yucatan peninsula, including eastern Oaxaca and the Pacific slope on the coastal plain of Chiapas. However, there are no published previous records of the species in Guerrero. Possibly T. episcopus is a species that has expanded its range in episodes of active dispersal.

  5. Economic impact of milk production in the State of New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, V E; Hagevoort, R; Solís, D; Kirksey, R; Diemer, J A

    2008-05-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify the economic role of dairy farming in New Mexico and to identify its linkages with allied industries in terms of income, value added, and employment impacts. An input-output model was used to estimate the direct, indirect, and induced impacts of the dairy farm industry on the economy of New Mexico. The results showed that in 2005, New Mexico's dairy farm industry had a total economic impact of $1.98 billion and accounted for 14,313 jobs. Therefore, dairy farming in New Mexico had an output multiplier (income) of 1.92, a labor income multiplier of $248 thousand/$ million of gross sales, and an employment multiplier of 13.91 jobs/$ million of gross sales. Furthermore, the New Mexico dairy farms accounted for 13.1% of the total agricultural outputs, 20.5% of the agricultural jobs, 1.5% of total state economic activity, and $80 million in tax revenue. With the exception of Lea, Eddy, and Bernalillo counties, which are diversified, the dairy farms accounted for more than two-thirds of the agricultural outputs and for more than two-fifths of the agricultural employment in counties where dairy farms are concentrated.

  6. Implementation of state - federal agreements: observations and suggestions from New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canepa, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    State - federal agreements have been authorized by Congress under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (the Act). The process for reaching such agreements as well as their content have been modeled after the State of New Mexico's experience with its lawsuit and resulting Agreement for Consultation and Cooperation with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) over the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP). New Mexico has been through the entire process, beginning with litigation and ending with a formal, written agreement with the federal government which addresses all aspects of a major nuclear waste repository within its borders. The process for reaching and implementing such agreements is not unlike the process for negotiating a treaty between countries. States entering into negotiations for such agreements should be aware of several important considerations which New Mexico learned the hard way. Avoiding the pitfalls inherent in this process is the key to producing a meaningful, working and enforceable document that protects the state's interests and affords a state continuing control over a long-term nuclear waste project within the state

  7. 1944 Water Treaty Between Mexico and the United States: Present Situation and Future Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically and culturally, water has always been considered to be a critical issue in Mexico- USA agenda. Along the 3 140-km border between Mexico and the United States, there is intense competition over the adequate availability of water. Water uses in urban border areas have continued to increase exponentially due to steadily increasing levels of population growth. Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation have resulted in more intensive patterns of water consumption and use. Agricultural water demands continue to be high. Mexico and the United States have established institutions and agreements to manage and protect rivers in the border region. The Treaty between Mexico and the United States for the Utilisation of Waters of the Colorado and Tijuana Rivers and of the Rio Grande was signed in 1944. With the turn of the century, the growing urban centers along the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo, where the river becomes the international boundary, started increasingly to depend on groundwater. This situation was not specifically addressed in the 1944 Treaty, especially as groundwater use at that time was not so significant.

  8. Economic opportunity in Mexico and return migration from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D P

    1996-08-01

    I analyze the influence of the economic characteristics of origin area on trip duration for Mexican migrants in the United States. I argue that migrants from economically dynamic areas in Mexico with favorable opportunities for employment and small capital investment have a larger incentive to stay in the United States longer and to withstand the psychic costs of separation from family and friends than do migrants from economically stagnant areas in Mexico, where the productive uses of savings are severely limited. In line with this argument we should expect investment opportunities in migrants' origin areas to be associated positively with migrants' trip duration in the United States. To test this hypothesis I use individual- and household-level data on U.S. migration experience collected in 13 Mexican communities. Evidence from parametric hazards models supports the idea that economic characteristics of origin areas influence the motivations and strategies of Mexican migrants in the United States.

  9. Forecasting urban growth across the United States-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, L.M.; Feller, M.; Phillip, Guertin D.

    2009-01-01

    The sister-city area of Nogales, Arizona, and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, is known collectively as Ambos (both) Nogales. This area was historically one city and was administratively divided by the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. These arid-lands have limited and sensitive natural resources. Environmental planning can support sustainable development to accommodate the predicted influx of population. The objective of this research is to quantify the amount of predicted urban growth for the Ambos Nogales watershed to support future planning for sustainable development. Two modeling regimes are explored. Our goal is to identify possible growth patterns associated with the twin-city area as a whole and with the two cities modeled as separate entities. We analyzed the cross-border watershed using regression analysis from satellite images from 1975, 1983, 1996, and 2002 and created urban area classifications. We used these classifications as input to the urban growth model, SLEUTH, to simulate likely patterns of development and define projected conversion probabilities. Model results indicate that the two cities are undergoing very different patterns of change and identify locations of expected growth based on historical development. Growth in Nogales, Arizona is stagnant while the urban area in Nogales, Sonora is exploding. This paper demonstrates an application that portrays how future binational urban growth could develop and affect the environment. This research also provides locations of potential growth for use in city planning.

  10. Normalization of Relations between Spain and Mexico during the Porfiriato (1876-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Sánchez Andrés

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Spanish-Mexican relations entered a new phase during the Por­ finato. The changes in the intemational context and the issue of Cuba conditioned these relations and the end of Spanish interventionist plans in Mexico determined their shift towards of nor­malization. In this new atmosphere it was easier for the two coun­tries to start solving bilateral conflicts and it was possible for the strong Spanish community in Mexico to carry out its activities un­ der the protection of constitutional guarantees.

  11. 78 FR 17652 - Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Public Service Company of New Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Public Service Company of New Mexico; Notice of Complaint... CFR 385.206 and 18 CFR 385.212, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. (Complainant), filed a complaint against the Public Service Company of New Mexico (Respondent or PNM) alleging that...

  12. Hashtivism as Public Discourse: Exploring Online Student Activism in Response to State Violence and Forced Disappearances in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Gerardo Blanco; Metcalfe, Amy Scott

    2017-01-01

    Mexico has a long history of tensions between the government and student activists. This history dates back to student protests that ended with the State's violent repression of students in 1968. These tensions were reignited with the student occupation of Mexico's National Autonomous University from 1999 to 2000, which ended through intervention…

  13. Dengue occurrence relations and serology: cross-sectional analysis of results from the Guerrero State, Mexico, baseline for a cluster-randomised controlled trial of community mobilisation for dengue prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; Morales-Pérez, Arcadio; Balanzar-Martínez, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Ofelia; Jiménez-Alejo, Abel; Flores-Moreno, Miguel; Gasga-Salinas, David; Legorreta-Soberanis, José; Paredes-Solís, Sergio; Morales-Nava, Pedro Antonio; de Lourdes Soto-Ríos, María; Ledogar, Robert J; Coloma, Joséfina; Harris, Eva; Andersson, Neil

    2017-05-30

    The Mexican arm of the Camino Verde trial of community mobilisation for dengue prevention covered three coastal regions of Guerrero state: Acapulco, Costa Grande and Costa Chica. A baseline cross-sectional survey provided data for community mobilisation and for adapting the intervention design to concrete conditions in the intervention areas. Trained field teams constructed community profiles in randomly selected clusters, based on observation and key informant interviews. In each household they carried out an entomological inspection of water containers, collected information on socio-demographic variables and cases of dengue illness among household members in the last year, and gathered paired saliva samples from children aged 3-9 years, which were subjected to ELISA testing to detect recent dengue infection. We examined associations with dengue illness and recent dengue infection in bivariate and then multivariate analysis. In 70/90 clusters, key informants were unable to identify any organized community groups. Some 1.9% (1029/55,723) of the household population reported dengue illness in the past year, with a higher rate in Acapulco region. Among children 3-9 years old, 6.1% (392/6382) had serological evidence of recent dengue infection. In all three regions, household use of anti-mosquito products, household heads working, and households having less than 5 members were associated with self-reported dengue illness. In Acapulco region, people aged less than 25 years, those with a more educated household head and those from urban sites were also more likely to report dengue illness, while in Costa Chica and Costa Grande, females were more likely to report dengue illness. Among children aged 3-9 years, those aged 3-4 years and those living in Acapulco were more likely to have evidence of recent dengue infection. The evidence from the baseline survey provided important support for the design and implementation of the trial intervention. The weakness of

  14. Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and underwent questionnaires and testing for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), syphilis and TB (tuberculosis). Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing). Results Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32%) of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. Conclusions IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs. PMID:21477299

  15. Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson Thomas L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing among injection drug users (IDUs in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and underwent questionnaires and testing for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis and TB (tuberculosis. Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing. Results Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32% of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. Conclusions IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs.

  16. Deconstructing the risk for malaria in United States donors deferred for travel to Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Bryan; Kleinman, Steven; Custer, Brian; Cable, Ritchard; Wilkinson, Susan L; Steele, Whitney; High, Patrick M; Wright, David

    2011-11-01

    More than 66,000 blood donors are deferred annually in the United States due to travel to malaria-endemic areas of Mexico. Mexico accounts for the largest share of malaria travel deferrals, yet it has extremely low risk for malaria transmission throughout most of its national territory, suggesting a suboptimal balance between blood safety and availability. This study sought to determine whether donor deferral requirements might be relaxed for parts of Mexico without compromising blood safety. Travel destination was recorded from a representative sample of presenting blood donors deferred for malaria travel from six blood centers during 2006. We imputed to these donors reporting Mexican travel a risk for acquiring malaria equivalent to Mexican residents in the destination location, adjusted for length of stay. We extrapolated these results to the overall US blood donor population. Risk for malaria in Mexico varies significantly across endemic areas and is greatest in areas infrequently visited by study donors. More than 70% of blood donor deferrals were triggered by travel to the state of Quintana Roo on the Yucatán Peninsula, an area of very low malaria transmission. Eliminating the travel deferral requirement for all areas except the state of Oaxaca might result in the recovery of almost 65,000 blood donors annually at risk of approximately one contaminated unit collected every 20 years. Deferral requirements should be relaxed for presenting donors who traveled to areas within Mexico that confer exceptionally small risks for malaria, such as Quintana Roo. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. Transboundary pollution: Persistent organochlorine pesticides in migrant birds of the Southwestern United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    1997-01-01

    The hypothesis that migratory birds accumulate persistent organochlorine pesticides (POPs) during the winter in Latin America has been prevalent for many years, particularly since 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2–bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) was banned in the United States in 1972. It has been suggested that peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibises (Plegadis chihi), various migratory waterfowl and shorebirds, and other avian species accumulate higher concentrations of POPs while on migration or on their wintering grounds in Latin America. Nonetheless, the data obtained thus far are limited, and there is no clear pattern to suggest that such accumulation occurs on a widespread basis. In this review wildlife contaminant studies conducted along the U.S.-Mexico border and throughout Mexico are discussed. The results for the most part seem to indicate that no major accumulation of 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene) (DDE), the most persistent organochlorine compound, has occurred or been reported for most parts of Mexico. The majority of the DDE values in birds from Mexico were similar to those reported in birds from the southwestern United States during the same years. More work needs to be done, particularly in those cotton-producing areas of Mexico where DDT was applied heavily in the past (e.g., Chiapas and Michoacan). Because DDT is still used for malaria control and may still be used in agriculture in Chiapas, this state is probably the one where most migrant species would still be at a significant risk of increased accumulation of DDE and DDT.

  18. International migration and educational assortative mating in Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kate H; Mare, Robert D

    2012-05-01

    This paper examines the relationship between migration and marriage by describing how the distributions of marital statuses and assortative mating patterns vary by individual and community experiences of migration. In Mexico, migrants and those living in areas with high levels of out-migration are more likely to be in heterogamous unions. This is because migration increases the relative attractiveness of single return migrants while disproportionately reducing the number of marriageable men in local marriage markets. In the United States, the odds of homogamy are lower for migrants compared with nonmigrants; however, they do not vary depending on the volume of migration in communities. Migrants are more likely than nonmigrants to "marry up" educationally because the relatively small size of this group compels them to expand their pool of potential spouses to include nonmigrants, who tend to be better educated than they are. Among migrants, the odds of marrying outside of one's education group increase the most among the least educated. In Mexican communities with high rates of out-migration, the odds of marrying outside of one's education group are highest among those with the highest level of education. These findings suggest that migration disrupts preferences and opportunities for homogamy by changing social arrangements and normative climates.

  19. [Prevalence of rhinitis allergic in populations of several states of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Hernández, Eleazar; Medina-Ávalos, Miguel Alejandro; Barnica-Alvarado, Raúl Humberto; Soto-Candia, Diego; Guerrero-Venegas, Rosario; Zecua-Nájera, Yahvéh

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disorder of the nasal mucosa, characterized by symptoms of itching, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion and sneezing induced by an IgE-mediated response. In Mexico we have reports of prevalence, with fluctuations of 5.5% to 47.7% with the question of rhinitis symptoms the past 12 months. To determine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in schoolchildren from various states of Mexico. A descriptive study of prevalence in which a questionnaire was applied to preschool, elementary-, middle- and high-school population. It was performed in four cities in four states of Mexico: Puebla, Puebla, Tulancingo, Hidalgo, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala and Cancun, Quintana Roo. Parents answered questionnaires of preschool and elementary school and middle- and high-school students answered their questionnaires. The study was conducted from June 2014 to January 2015. The instrument used was: questionnaire diagnosis of allergic rhinitis for epidemiological studies. Of the surveys, 8,159 completed questionnaires were obtained, in the city of Puebla: 2,267, Tulancingo, Hidalgo: 2,478, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala: 2,574, Cancun, Quintana Roo: 840; total male: 4,190 (51%). The overall average rate of prevalence of allergic rhinitis among four states including all respondents ages was 15%. With the use of the questionnaire diagnosis of allergic rhinitis for epidemiological studies in the four cities in four different states, we found a prevalence of allergic rhinitis of 15% in ≥13 yearpopulation and 13% in ≤12 year-old children.

  20. The Politics of Drug Trafficking in Mexican and Mexico-Related Narconovelas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaversich, Diana

    2006-01-01

    This essay traces the emergence of the Mexican and Mexico-related narconovela. It examines perspectives on drug trafficking and traffickers expressed in novels by Elmer Mendoza, Leonides Alfaro, Gerardo Cornejo, Homero Aridjis, Arturo Perez-Reverte, and Paul Flores. The variety of positions taken refutes the tendency of the Mexican mainstream…

  1. EDITORIAL: Squeezed states and uncertainty relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregue-Renaud, Rocio; Kim, Young S.; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Moya-Cessa, Hector

    2004-06-01

    This special issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics is composed mainly of extended versions of talks and papers presented at the Eighth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations held in Puebla, Mexico on 9-13 June 2003. The Conference was hosted by Instituto de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. This series of meetings began at the University of Maryland, College Park, USA, in March 1991. The second and third workshops were organized by the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, Russia, in 1992 and by the University of Maryland Baltimore County, USA, in 1993, respectively. Afterwards, it was decided that the workshop series should be held every two years. Thus the fourth meeting took place at the University of Shanxi in China and was supported by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). The next three meetings in 1997, 1999 and 2001 were held in Lake Balatonfüred, Hungary, in Naples, Italy, and in Boston, USA, respectively. All of them were sponsored by IUPAP. The ninth workshop will take place in Besançon, France, in 2005. The conference has now become one of the major international meetings on quantum optics and the foundations of quantum mechanics, where most of the active research groups throughout the world present their new results. Accordingly this conference has been able to align itself to the current trend in quantum optics and quantum mechanics. The Puebla meeting covered most extensively the following areas: quantum measurements, quantum computing and information theory, trapped atoms and degenerate gases, and the generation and characterization of quantum states of light. The meeting also covered squeeze-like transformations in areas other than quantum optics, such as atomic physics, nuclear physics, statistical physics and relativity, as well as optical devices. There were many new participants at this meeting, particularly

  2. Population-based survey of taeniasis along the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton Behravesh, C; Mayberry, L F; Bristol, J R; Cardenas, V M; Mena, K D; Martínez-Ocaña, J; Flisser, A; Snowden, K F

    2008-06-01

    Taenia solium and T. saginata are zoonotic tapeworms of substantial medical and economic importance. Although human taeniasis is widely recognised as an endemic problem in Mexico, its presence in the United States is poorly understood. The first population-based study to estimate the prevalence of human infection with Taenia tapeworms along the Texas-Mexico border has recently been conducted. Households were interviewed in the Texan city of El Paso and in the neighbouring Ciudad Juárez, in Mexico. Faecal samples from household members were then checked for Taenia eggs by flotation and/or for Taenia copro-antigens in an ELISA. The overall prevalence of taeniasis in this border region was found to be 3% but, compared with the residents of Juárez, El Paso residents were 8.6-fold more likely to be tapeworm carriers. The interviews revealed some important differences between the two study sites, particularly the more frequent use of anthelminthic drugs on the Mexican side of the border. These findings have implications in terms of the planning of effective health-education campaigns to decrease the prevalence of taeniasis in the human populations along the Texas-Mexico border.

  3. The opening of the Pan American Highway. Tourism and stereotypes between Mexico and United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Gruel Sández

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of the article is to explore the geopolitical context at the time of inaugurating the first direct road between the national capital and the border with the United States. In addition to considering the specific weight of this event within the media sphere, the text tries to contribute the historical study of cultural stereotypes and tourism promotion between both countries. Through access to documentary sources and official correspondence of the time, the findings concern the meanings that were built about the road and Mexico itself. We also discussed political and economic tensions between the National Northeast and Northwest regions. The historical context reconstruction describes the border region as a space for cultural exchanges where precise stereotypes about Mexico and the United States arose. The fact that the road inaugurated had the name "Pan American" had ideological and diplomatic implications that in this work are crumbled.

  4. Health-Related Conditions and Depression in Elderly Mexican American and Non-Hispanic White Residents of a United States-Mexico Border County: Moderating Effects of Educational Attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Briones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prevalence of “high” levels of depressive symptomatology and 13 health-related medical conditions in elderly Mexican American (MA and non-Hispanic white (NHW residents of El Paso County, Texas. We analyzed the extent to which depressive symptoms in this population are associated with these conditions. Elderly MA residents possessed a higher prevalence of current depression, a relatively unique health-related condition profile, and were more likely to experience a set of conditions that impede participation in daily life—conditions that we found to be strongly associated with high depressive symptomatology in the elderly. After adjusting for educational attainment, using multiple regression analyses, depression was not associated with ethnicity and only six of the health related conditions showed significant differences between MA and NHW subjects. We believe these results provide an important insight into the mechanism of health-related conditions and depressive symptomatology in a large sample of elderly MAs; and how conditions typically attributed to MA ethnicity may in actuality be an artifact of socioeconomic status variables such as educational-attainment.

  5. SEROLOGIC EVIDENCE OF WEST NILE VIRUS INFECTION IN BIRDS, TAMAULIPAS STATE, MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    beaty, barry; FERNANDEZ, ILDEFONSO; contreras, juan francisco; blitvich, bradley; gonzalez, jose ignacio; cavazos, amanda a; loroño, maria alba; gluber, duante j.; Cropp, bruce; Calisher , Charles

    2003-01-01

    Following the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America in 1999, surveillance for WNV in migratory and resident birds was established in Tamaulipas State, northern Mexico in December 2001. Overall, 796 birds representing 70 species and 10 orders were captured and assayed for antibodies to WNV. Nine birds had flavivirus-specific antibodies by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; four were confirmed to have antibody to WNV by plaque reduction neutralization test. T...

  6. Study of gases and volatiles in samples of underground water bodies in the State of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez R, N.; Segovia, N.; Cisniega, G.; Tamez, E.

    2000-01-01

    It was realized a preliminary study of radon and volatile organic compounds (VOC ) in spring water of the State of Mexico. The radon was determined by the liquid scintillation method and the VOC by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy. The radon concentration range was between 0.50 - 4.42 KBq/m 3 . Its were found some VOC of probably anthropogenic origin. (Author)

  7. Toward a New Trilateral Strategic Security Relationship: United States, Canada, and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Kilroy, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "perimeter defense" has come back into vogue recently, with regard to security strategies for North America. The United States' concern primarily with the terrorist threat to its homeland subsequent to September 11, 2001 (9/11 is generating this discussion with its immediate neighbors of Mexico and Canada (and to some extent some Caribbean nations—the "third border". The concept is simply that by pushing defenses out to the "perimeter" nations, then security will be enhanced, since the United States visions itself as more vulnerable to international terrorism than its neighbors. However, Canada and Mexico have not been very happy about the perimeter defined by Washington since 9/11. These nations have sought to define the trilateral relationship beyond just discussions of terrorism to include natural disasters and international organized crime as a component of a broader trilateral agenda. Eight years later these three nations continue to look for some convergence of security interests, although there remains a degree of tension and hesitancy towards achieving a "common security agenda" in the Western Hemisphere.This article examines the concept of "perimeter defense" within the context of the new security challenges that the United States, Mexico, and Canada face today. Questions to be addressed in the article include: Do all these nations share the same "threat" perception? Where exactly is the "perimeter?" What security arrangements have been tried in the past? What are the prospects for the future for increased security cooperation? The main focus of this article is at the sub-regional level in North America and whether a new "trilateral" strategic security relationship between the United States, Canada, and Mexico can emerge in North America.

  8. Controlling society/ Controlling the state: crime and corruption with a focus on Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Morris Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    At a fundamental level, crime and corruption represent the failure to effectively control society (crime) and the state (corruption). Despite the fact that many countries like Mexico face problems in both areas, the literature exploring the links between the two remains limited. This paper explores the intersection of crime and corruption, drawing on the Mexican case for examples and discussion. After defining and differentiating the two concepts to broadly encompass violations of the rule of...

  9. The ambivalent relation between state and illegal actors: piracy retail in Mexico A relação ambígua entre o Estado e os atores ilegais: o mercado da pirataria no México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos G. Aguiar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the rise of democratic governments across Latin America, the neoliberal law-and-order perspective has been the most influential model of security in the region. This approach is based on the opposition between state and illegal agents, as if they were two different sets of actors. Influenced by this model, Mexican president Vicente Fox launched an extensive anti-piracy programme to eradicate retail of counterfeit. Based on ethnographic material gathered in the San Juan de Dios market in Guadalajara, I discuss on the exchanges between piracy sellers and police officers. My argument is that law enforcement programmes have not affected the political economy of corruption, they overlook the net of ambiguous loyalties where state and illegal actors are entrenched. The anthropology of the state provides the rationale for a critique on neoliberal security policies.Quando surgiram os governos democráticos na América Latina, a perspetiva neoliberal da lei e da ordem constituiu-se como o modelo de segurança dominante na região. Esta abordagem baseia-se na oposição entre o Estado e os agentes da ilegalidade, como se fossem dois conjuntos de atores distintos. Influenciado por este modelo, o presidente mexicano Vicente Fox lançou um programa alargado contra a pirataria, pretendendo erradicar a venda da contrafação. A partir de material etnográfico recolhido no mercado de San Juan de Dios, em Guadalajara, examino as interações entre vendedores de mercadoria pirata e agentes da polícia. Argumento que os programas para a aplicação da lei não afetaram a economia política da corrupção e que ignoram a rede de lealdades ambíguas que envolvem o Estado e os atores ilegais. A antropologia do Estado oferece os princípios para uma crítica sobre as políticas de segurança neoliberais.

  10. Social Aspects of Maternal Mortality: A Case Study of the State of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Campuzano González

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We now have evidence that maternal deaths result from a set of social, economic, biological and logistical problems in health services. However, the approach used to address these problems is still essentially medical. In this study we examined some of the social determinants of maternal deaths between 2004 and 2006 in the State of Mexico. To do this we reviewed clinical files and used verbal autopsies. The medical causes of maternal death were similar to those reported in previous studies. 80% were a result of direct causes: the low socio-economic level of the deceased women was the fundamental determinant of mortality, in that it limits access to education, income, adequate nutrition, and medical care. This situation negatively affects a woman's ability to make health related decisions. It is important to consider that when a young woman becomes pregnant, it is the beginning of a long term social and economic responsibility for which they lack appropriate resources. In conjunction with limited work opportunities, this situation perpetuates a vicious circle of poverty.

  11. Evaluation of mesopores and characterization of clays of the State of Puebla, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, M.A.; Velasco, J.A.; Rojas, F.; Lara, V.H.; Salgado, M.A.; Tamariz, V.

    2003-01-01

    The crystalline properties of natural clays are related to the different crystallographic phases that are present in the structure of these substrates. Clays from the zone of Tehuacan, in the state of Puebla, Mexico, have been studied by means of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Absorption (AA), and N 2 Adsorption at 76 K. XRD analysis indicates the presence in the clay adsorbents of montmorillonite, quartz and, in some cases, of calcium carbonate. The textural properties of these porous materials of natural origin have been evaluated through the BET equation, the Langmuir equation, the single point BET method and the Gurvitsch Rule. The meso porosity that is present in each substrate has been measured via the methods of Kelvin, Barret, Jovner, and Halenda (BJH), and Kruk, Jaroniec, and Sayari as well as by the so-called differential curves of t-plots. The N 2 adsorption isotherms at 76 K that were measured on our clay adsorbents indicate that the adsorption process is carried out through a multilayer formation mechanism. The sorption hysteresis loops confirm characteristic aspects of this type of clay materials. Plots of the adsorbed volume versus the statistical thickness (t-plots) of N 2 layers adsorbed on the clay surface were also evaluated. The latter curves comprise three zones of behavior; each zone representing a different filling mechanism of the pore space. (Author)

  12. Host-Feeding Preference of the Mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, in Yucatan State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rejon, Julian E.; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Farfan-Ale, Jose A.; Loroño-Pino, Maria A.; Chi Chim, Wilberth A.; Flores-Flores, Luis F.; Rosado-Paredes, Elsy; Baak-Baak, Carlos; Perez-Mutul, Jose; Suarez-Solis, Victor; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Beaty, Barry J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the host-feeding preference of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to the availability of human and domestic animals in the city of Merida, Yucatan State, Mexico. Mosquitoes were collected in the backyards of houses using resting wooden boxes. Collections were made five times per week from January to December 2005. DNA was extracted from engorged females and tested by PCR using universal avian- and mammalian-specific primers. DNA extracted from avian-derived blood was further analyzed by PCR using primers that differentiate among the birds of three avian orders: Passeriformes, Columbiformes and Galliformes. PCR products obtained from mammalian-derived blood were subjected to restriction enzyme digestion to differentiate between human-, dog-, cat-, pig-, and horse-derived blood meals. Overall, 82% of engorged mosquitoes had fed on birds, and 18% had fed on mammals. The most frequent vertebrate hosts were Galliformes (47.1%), Passeriformes (23.8%), Columbiformes (11.2%) birds, and dogs (8.8%). The overall human blood index was 6.7%. The overall forage ratio for humans was 0.1, indicating that humans were not a preferred host for Cx. quinquefasciatus in Merida. PMID:20578953

  13. Children's mental health and collective violence: a binational study on the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Marie; Puertas, Hector; Caratachea, Raúl; Avila, Carmen; Atluru, Aparna; Briones, David; Vargas, Cecilia de

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the risk effects of poverty and exposure to collective violence attributed to organized crime on the mental health of children living on the United States-Mexico border. A repeated, cross-sectional study measured risk effects by comparing scores of psychosocial and behavioral problems among children and adolescents living on the border in the United States or Mexico in 2007 and 2010. Patients living in poverty who responded once to the Pictorial Child Behavior Checklist (P+CBCL) in Spanish were randomly selected from clinics in El Paso, Texas, United States (poverty alone group), and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico (poverty plus violence group). Only children of Hispanic origin (Mexican-American or Mexican) living below the poverty level and presenting at the clinic for nonemergency visits with no history of diagnosed mental, neurological, or life-threatening disease or disability were included. Exposure to collective violence and poverty seemed to have an additive effect on children's mental health. Children exposed to both poverty and collective violence had higher problem scores, as measured by the P+CBCL, than those exposed to poverty alone. It is important to consider that children and adolescents exposed to collective violence and poverty also have fewer chances to receive treatment. Untreated mental health problems predict violence, antisocial behaviors, and delinquency and affect families, communities, and individuals. It is crucial to address the mental health of children on the border to counteract the devastating effects this setting will have in the short term and the near future.

  14. Spatial variability of soil carbon across Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, R.; Guevara, M.; Cruz Gaistardo, C.; Paz, F.; de Jong, B.; Etchevers, J.

    2015-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is directly linked to soil quality, food security, and land use/global environmental change. We use publicly available information on SOC and couple it with digital elevation models and derived terrain attributes using a machine learning approach. We found a strong spatial dependency of SOC across the United States, but less spatial dependency of SOC across Mexico. Using High Performance Computing (HPC) we derived a 1 km resolution map of SOC across Mexico and the United States. We tested different machine learning methods (e.g., kernel based, tree based and/or Geo-statistics approaches) for computational efficiency and statistical accuracy. Using random forest combined with geo-statistics we were able to explain >70% of SOC variance for Mexico and >40% in the case of the United States via cross validation. These results compare with other published estimates of SOC at 1km resolution that only explain <30% of SOC variance across the world. Topographic attributes derived from digital elevation models are freely available globally at fine spatial resolution (<100 m), and this information allowed us to make predictions of SOC at fine scales. We further tested this approach using SOC information from the International Soil Carbon Network to predict SOC in other regions of the world. We conclude that this approach (using public information and open source platforms for data analysis) could be implemented to predict detailed explicit information of SOC across different spatial scales.

  15. New Mexico state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of New Mexico. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  16. New Mexico state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Informaion Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of New Mexico. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  17. New Mexico state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of New Mexico. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  18. New Mexico state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Informaion Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of New Mexico. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  19. Mexico's commercial relations with asiatic southeast: agreements and social agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Carlos Zottele Allende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican state built a complex and thorough system of agreements with the countries that integrate the Pacific Basin. Despite this effort, there is an important and increasing deficit in commercial exchange with the Asian Southeast Nations. The global balance trade compensates this inequity with the sur-plus set up with the United States of America. There are a lot of aspects that contribute to the explanation of these phenomena, but here it will be take into consideration just the important matters, in order to explain why the Mexican exports have the "natural" tendency to satisfy some UsA demands, which is still the mayor world importer.

  20. Bioaccumulation of chemical elements by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) found in 'Jose Antonio Alzate' dam samples in the State of Mexico, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, S.A.; Avila-Perez, P.; Barcelo-Quintal, I.D.

    1998-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine experimentally the uptake of pollutants into of the different parts of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) found in 'Jose Antonio Alzate' dam in the State of Mexico, Mexico. There is evidence for efficient and significant root accumulation of Ti, Mn, Fe, and Ba; but in the upper parts concentrations was consistently determined by the degree of watering. However, a significant input could be derived from a common generic source, such as the atmospheric deposition. The experimental study would, therefore, indicate that water hyacinth species can be highly effective in providing a control and treatment buffer for toxic discharges to the dam. (author)

  1. Traffic related deaths in Nuevo Leon, Mexico: causes and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola-Rissa, Carlos; Santos-Guzmán, Jesús; Esquivel-Guzmán, Adol; Mock, Charles N

    2008-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on mortality due to motor vehicle accidents was studied. During the first semester of 2003, a sample of 243 fatality victims of traffic-related accidents and their blood alcohol levels were analyzed in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The age-adjusted mortality rate for traffic accidents was 8.9/100000 pop. (13.2 for males and 3.21 for females, per 100000). Fatal accidents were more common in the Metropolitan Area (MA). Fatalities were four times greater in males and the mean age was 34.7+/-18.2 years. Blood alcohol was detected in almost half of the victims who were drivers of the vehicles; the other cases of fatalities may be associated with road/car condition, weather and other factors. Alcohol intoxication levels were primarily associated with male drivers ages 16 to 45 (p=0.029); levels increased with age. In females, alcohol played a lesser role, affecting mostly ages 31 to 45 y (p=0.055).

  2. Radon survey related to construction materials and soils in Zacatecas, Mexico using LR-115

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mireles, F.; Garcia, M.L.; Quirino, L.L.; Davila, J.I.; Pinedo, J.L.; Rios, C.; Montero, M.E.; Colmenero, L.; Villalba, L.

    2007-01-01

    Indoor radon gas ( 222 Rn), present in the air inside buildings, is one of the most important sources of radiation exposure to the population. This gas originates in the 238 U radioactive decay chain, which is contained in rock and solid soil particles. Radon accumulation in confined spaces, inside buildings, depends on several factors such as the type of soils, type of constructions, building materials, and ventilation. The aim of this work is to present indoor and outdoor radon concentrations for 202 dwellings and indoor concentrations for 148 public clinics; and the radon concentrations relate to the type of predominant soils, the construction years; and building materials used in the ceilings, walls and floors, for cities and towns of the 57 municipalities in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. The 222 Rn concentrations were measured with a passive-type radon monitor, with LR-115 as detector material; and the radon survey was made during four stages of three months each throughout Zacatecas from 2001 to 2002. The indoor and outdoor radon concentration averages in dwellings were 55.6±4.9Bqm -3 and 46.5±5.3Bqm -3 , respectively. The indoor radon concentration average in public clinics was 57.8±5.4Bqm -3 . These values were lower than the US EPA action limit of 148Bqm -3

  3. Urban-Rural Relations in the Central Region of Mexico: A Viewpoint from Tlaxcala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Rosales Ortega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 90’s there was an important expansion of outsourcing industries all around the country and particularly on central region of Mexico, which enhanced an industrial diffusion that transformed the relation between rural an urban areas of the region. Labor and social practices around the textile industry on the region and particularly on the Tlaxcala state, enhanced the organization of a complex local-global network that was built on the context of the Nafta Agreement. Now a day, the local-global network around the textile industry has fall down due to the growing Chinese textile goods on the local and national market. The answer to this economic change has generated a wide range of changes among the different social actors that participated on the local-global network created by de textile industry during the golden years of the Nafta Agreement. Our research analyze the experience and strategies of a group of families from Tlaxcala, organized around the mixture of agricultural, manufacturing and service activities in order to reorganize the economic activities of their localities.

  4. The Currency Substitution Hypothesis and Relative Money Demand in Mexico and Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, John H

    1992-01-01

    The author estimates demand for dollars relative to domestic currency in Mexico and Canada using (1) a multivariate model with a relative money demand equation, and (2) single- equation models, including an error-correction representation. He also analyzes the models' encompassing properties. The anomalous correlation between the Mexican dollarization ratio and expected peso depreciation implies that "convertibility risk" was associated with holding Mexidollars. Under this interpretation, hig...

  5. Environmental health and hazardous waste issues related to the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, D E; Peña, C; Varady, R; Suk, W A

    1996-06-01

    Environmental health and environmental quality issues along the U.S.-Mexico border have been of concern for several years. The enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement and the presence of the maquiladoras (foreign-owned industries using imported raw materials) have intensified those concerns recently. Efforts to assess these issues are complicated by the fact that many of the issues affecting the border region are within federal jurisdiction, but the problems are regional and local in nature. Thus, state and local governments become involved with public concerns about real and potential problems. One major problem is that environmental health data from this region are lacking, particularly from Mexico. Some new agencies such as the Border Environment Cooperation Commission, the United States-Mexico Border Health Commission, and the North American Commission on Environmental Cooperation have joined several existing agencies at the federal and state level to address environmental quality and health. Several studies have been initiated to determine air and water quality, but little is being done in the areas of hazardous waste and health assessment. Several problems are anticipated in the generation of such data, such as its format and accessibility. Data gaps and research needs are discussed.

  6. Development of a Surveillance Definition for United States-Mexico Binational Cases of Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Rachel S Yelk; Miner, Mark C; Miramontes, Roque

    Consistently collected binational surveillance data are important in advocating for resources to manage and treat binational cases of tuberculosis (TB). The objective of this study was to develop a surveillance definition for binational (United States-Mexico) cases of TB to assess the burden on US TB program resources. We collaborated with state and local TB program staff members in the United States to identify characteristics associated with binational cases of TB. We collected data on all cases of TB from 9 pilot sites in 5 states (Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas) during January 1-June 30, 2014, that had at least 1 binational characteristic (eg, "crossed border while on TB treatment" and "received treatment in another country, coordinated by an established, US-funded, binational TB program"). A workgroup of US state, local, and federal partners reviewed results and used them to develop a practical surveillance definition. The pilot sites reported 87 cases of TB with at least 1 binational characteristic during the project period. The workgroup drafted a proposed surveillance definition to include 2 binational characteristics: "crossed border while on TB treatment" (34 of 87 cases, 39%) and "received treatment in another country, coordinated by an established, US-funded, binational TB program" (26 of 87 cases, 30%). Applying the new proposed definition, 39 of 87 pilot cases of TB (45%) met the definition of binational. Input from partners who were responsible for the care and treatment of patients who cross the United States-Mexico border was crucial in defining a binational case of TB.

  7. Local evolution of pyrethroid resistance offsets gene flow among Aedes aegypti collections in Yucatan State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Beaty, Meaghan; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Denham, Steven; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Loroño-Pino, Maria Alba; Flores-Suarez, Adriana; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Beaty, Barry; Eisen, Lars; Black, William C

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4). Previous studies have shown that Ae. aegypti in Mexico have a high effective migration rate and that gene flow occurs among populations that are up to 150 km apart. Since 2000, pyrethroids have been widely used for suppression of Ae. aegypti in cities in Mexico. In Yucatan State in particular, pyrethroids have been applied in and around dengue case households creating an opportunity for local selection and evolution of resistance. Herein, we test for evidence of local adaptation by comparing patterns of variation among 27 Ae. aegypti collections at 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): two in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene para known to confer knockdown resistance, three in detoxification genes previously associated with pyrethroid resistance, and eight in putatively neutral loci. The SNPs in para varied greatly in frequency among collections, whereas SNPs at the remaining 11 loci showed little variation supporting previous evidence for extensive local gene flow. Among Ae. aegypti in Yucatan State, Mexico, local adaptation to pyrethroids appears to offset the homogenizing effects of gene flow. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Phylogeographic characteristics of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey viruses circulating in Mexico from 2005 to 2011 and their relationship to epidemics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Salinas, Lauro; Pauszek, Steven J; Zarate, Selene; Basurto-Alcantara, Francisco J; Verdugo-Rodriguez, Antonio; Perez, Andres M; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2014-01-20

    We analyzed the phylogenetic and time-space relationships (phylodynamics) of 181 isolates of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) causing disease in Mexico and the United States (US) from 2005 through 2012. We detail the emergence of a genetic lineage in southern Mexico causing outbreaks in central Mexico spreading into northern Mexico and eventually into the US. That emerging lineage showed higher nucleotide sequence identity (99.5%) than that observed for multiple lineages circulating concurrently in southern Mexico (96.8%). Additionally, we identified 58 isolates from Mexico that, unlike previous isolates from Mexico, grouped with northern Central America clade II viruses. This study provides the first direct evidence for the emergence and northward migration of a specific VSNJV genetic lineage from endemic areas in Mexico causing VS outbreaks in the US. In addition we document the emergence of a Central American VSNJV genetic lineage moving northward and causing outbreaks in central Mexico. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Religion, State and Nation in Spain and Mexico in the 19th Century: A Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Suárez Cortina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the relationships between religion, state and nation in Spain and Mexico in the 19th Century. The comparison between the Mexican and Spanish experiences illustrates two approaches to the reaccommodation of the Catholic Church in societies that questioned the role of the church in a new political order but not the Catholic faith of their citizens. It also examines the role given to religion in the construction of national identity by both liberals and conservatives. Parallels can be observed among Spanish and Mexican conservatives in terms of identifying the nation with the colonial past, Catholic tradition and the monarchy. On the other hand, Spanish progressives and Mexican federalists both sided with an anticlericalism that nevertheless distanced itself from antireligious positions. Readings of the past and projects for the future in both Spain and Mexico established affinities and distances between the conservative and liberal wings of Spanish and Mexican liberalism.

  10. Pollution by petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from continental shelf of Tabasco State, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botello, A.V.; Gonzalez, C.; Diaz, G.

    1991-01-01

    The Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil producing areas in the world. Major petroleum production areas include Louisiana and Texas, USA; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and Gulf of Paria, Trinidad; all of which are classified as production accident high-risk zones. About 5 million of barrels are transported every day in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 million barrels/year. For all those reasons petroleum pollution is considered as the major environmental problem in the Wider Caribbean area and increasing day to day due to the use of petroleum as the main energy source. On the other hand, the continental shelf of Tabasco state actually represents one of the most productive areas for crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico. Sediments were collected from this area and analyzed for hydrocarbons

  11. Authorities and organizations involved with geographic names - 1989: United States, Canada, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    There is a need for accurate and standard geographic names usage in all levels of government, industry, commerce, communications, education, and research. There is also a growing number of organizations in North America that are, fully or partly, involved in the scholarly study of geographic names. This report is a list of official national, State/Provincial, and regional provincial authorities concerned with name standardization, and of organizations involved with the study of geographic names, in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The appendixes are copies of documents that provide additional information about the organization, policies, procedures, and publications of some of these organizations.

  12. Risk Factors Associated with Triatomines and Its Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in Rural Communities from the Southern Region of the State of Mexico, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Torres, Imelda; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan C.; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger I.; de Oca-Jiménez, Roberto Montes

    2010-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi prevalence in triatomines and risk factors associated to the presence of the insect were studied in 990 rural houses in the southern region of the State of Mexico, Mexico. In each house, triatomines were collected, and information related to house construction material was obtained. T. cruzi infection was diagnosed in all triatomines. A primary screening was performed using 2 × 2 contingency tables of exposure variables. All variables with P ≤ 0.20 were analyzed by logistic regression. Triatomines (N = 125) were collected from 822 houses and analyzed for T. cruzi infection. Triatoma pallidipennis (97.4%) and Triatoma dimidiata (2.6%) were identified in 52.1% of the localities and in 6.1% of the houses. Infection was found in 28.0% of triatomines, from which 28.9% were nymphs. Factors associated with triatomine infestation were flooring construction material (dirt floor: odds ratio [OR], 10.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.31–18.04; P = 0.0001), house rooms (at least three rooms: OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.07–3.86; P = 0.028), and ceiling construction material (cardboard lamina tile: OR, 6.84; 95% CI, 1.49–31.31; P = 0.013). This study shows T. cruzi circulation in triatomines in the area of study, and because triatomines are adapted for living and reproducing in the domestic environment, there is a potential risk of Chagas disease transmission to humans. Also, we can conclude that the construction materials and house inhabitants are risk factors of triatomines infestation. PMID:20064995

  13. Is waist circumference per body mass index rising differentially across the United States, England, China and Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, S S; Gordon-Larsen, P; Stern, D; Popkin, B M

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about whether waist circumference (WC) has increased disproportionately relative to body mass index (BMI) around the world. Data came from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994 and 2007-2010), Health Survey for England (1992-1993 and 2008-2009); the Mexican Nutrition Survey (1999) and the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS 2012); and the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1993 and 2011). Country- and sex-stratified (for the United States, also race-/ethnicity-stratified) multivariable linear regressions were used to estimate mean difference in WC over time relative to BMI at specified overweight and obesity cutoff points, adjusting for age and survey year. Although mean WC and BMI shifted upward over time in all age-sex subpopulations in all four countries, trends in overweight prevalence were less consistent. However, WC relative to BMI increased at varying magnitudes across all countries and subpopulations, except US Black men. The magnitude of increase was largest for women in the youngest age group (20-29 years), particularly for women in Mexico (+6.6 cm, PChina (+4.6 cm, PMexico and China, particularly among young women, with the largest increases occurring in the middle-income countries of Mexico and China. These patterns are potentially a cause for concern especially for countries undergoing rapid economic and nutritional transitions.

  14. Hepatitis A in Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border: the role of international travel and food-borne exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Michelle; Hopkins, Jackie; Farrington, Leigh; Gresham, Louise; Ginsberg, Michele; Bell, Beth P

    2004-07-01

    Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border historically have had among the highest hepatitis A rates in the United States, but risk factors have not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to examine risk factors associated with acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border in San Diego County, California. In this case-control study, hepatitis A cases among Hispanic children who were younger than 18 years reported from June 1998 through August 2000 were matched by age group and exposure period to Hispanic children who were susceptible to HAV infection. Participants and their families were interviewed about demographic information and potential sources of HAV infection, including attending child care, food and waterborne exposures, cross-border and other international travel, and travel-related activities. Participants included 132 children with hepatitis A and 354 control subjects. The median age of study participants was 7 years (range: 1-17). Sixty-seven percent of case-patients traveled outside the United States during the incubation period, compared with 25% of the children without hepatitis A (odds ratio [OR]: 6.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.0-9.7); all children, except 1, had traveled to Mexico. In multivariate analysis, hepatitis A was associated with having eaten food from a taco stand or street food vendor (adjusted OR: 17.0; 95% CI: 4.1-71.1) and having eaten salad/lettuce (adjusted OR: 5.2; 95% CI: 1.3-20.1) during travel. Hepatitis A among Hispanic children who live in an urban area of the United States-Mexico border is associated with cross-border travel to Mexico and food-borne exposures during travel. Travelers to areas where hepatitis A is endemic should receive hepatitis A vaccine before travel.

  15. The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the state of New Mexico fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, R.R.; Nielsen, T.G.; Schultz, J. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Adcock, L.D.; Gentry, L.M. [Dept. of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Albuquerque Operations Office; Ben-David, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Economics; Temple, J. [Temple (John), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-05-29

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico. The agency`s far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both DOE and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 50 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE`s impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. The information on which the models are based is updated periodically to ensure the most accurate depiction possible of the economy for the period of reference. For this report, the reference periods are Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 and FY 1997. Total impacts represents both direct and indirect impacts (respending by business), including induced (respending by households) effects. The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models uniquely developed for New Mexico. This report includes seven main sections: (1) introduction; (2) profile of DOE activities in New Mexico; (3) DOE expenditure patterns; (4) measuring DOE/New Mexico`s economic impact; (5) technology transfer within the federal labs funded by DOE/New Mexico; (6) glossary of terms; and (7) technical appendix containing a description of the model. 9 figs., 19 tabs.

  16. Gulf of Mexico Air Quality: CALIPSO Support for Gulf of Mexico Air Quality Relating to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Myngoc T.; Lapointe, Stephen; Jennings, Brittney; Zoumplis, Angela

    2011-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, an oil platform belonging to BP exploded and leaked a huge volume of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. In an effort to control the spread of the oil, BP applied dispersants such as Corexit and conducted in-situ burnings of the oil. This catastrophe created a complex chain of events that affected not only the fragile water and land ecosystems, but the humans who breathe the air every day. Thousands of people were exposed to fumes associated with oil vapors from the spill, burning of the oil, and the toxic mixture of dispersants. While aiding in clean-up efforts, local fishermen were directly exposure to fumes when working on the Gulf. A notable amount of Gulf Coast residents were also exposed to the oil fumes as seasonal southeasterly winds blew vapors toward land. The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) found in oil vapors include: benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, naphthalene, hydrogen sulfide and particulate matter (PM). Increases in water temperature and sunlight due to the summer season allow for these VOCs and PM to evaporate into the air more rapidly. Aside from the VOCs found in oil vapors, the dispersant being used to break up the oil is highly toxic and is thought to be even more toxic than the oil itself (EPA website, 2010). To protect human health, the environment, and to make informed policy decisions relevant to the spill, the EPA Region 6 has continuously monitored the affected areas carefully for levels of pollutants in the outdoor air that are associated with petroleum products and the burning of oil along the coast. In an effort to prevent, prepare for, and respond to future oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States, the EPA has been working with local, state, and federal response partners. Air quality measurements were collected by the EPA at five active monitoring systems stationed along the coast.

  17. The economic impact of Los Alamos National Laboratory on north-central New Mexico and the state of New Mexico fiscal year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansford, R.R.; Nielsen, T.G.; Schultz, J.; Adcock, L.D.; Gentry, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a multidisciplinary, multiprogram laboratory with a mission to enhance national military and economic security through science and technology. Its mission is to reduce the nuclear danger through stewardship of the nation's nuclear stockpile and through its nonproliferation and verification activities. An important secondary mission is to promote US industrial competitiveness by working with US companies in technology transfer and technology development partnerships. Los Alamos is involved in partnerships and collaborations with other federal agencies, with industry (including New Mexico businesses), and with universities worldwide. For this report, the reference period is FY 1997 (October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997) and includes two major impact analysis: the impact of LANL activities on north-central New Mexico and the economic impacts of LANL on the state of New Mexico. Total impact represents both direct and indirect respending by business, including induced effects (respending by households). The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models developed for the three-county region and the state of New Mexico. 5 figs., 12 tabs

  18. The economic impact of Los Alamos National Laboratory on north-central New Mexico and the state of New Mexico fiscal year 1998; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansford, R.R.; Adcock, L.D.; Gentry, L.M.; Ben-David, S.

    1999-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a multidisciplinary, multiprogram laboratory with a mission to enhance national military and economic security through science and technology. Its mission is to reduce the nuclear danger through stewardship of the nation's nuclear stockpile and through its nonproliferation and verification activities. An important secondary mission is to promote US industrial competitiveness by working with US companies in technology transfer and technology development partnerships. Los Alamos is involved in partnerships and collaborations with other federal agencies, with industry (including New Mexico businesses), and with universities worldwide. For this report, the reference period is FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998). It includes two major impact analysis: the impact of LANL activities on north-central New Mexico and the economic impacts of LANL on the state of New Mexico. Total impact represents both direct and indirect responding by business, including induced effects (responding by households). The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models developed for the three-county region and the state of New Mexico

  19. The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansford, R.R.; Adcock, L.D.; Gentry, L.M.; Ben-David, S.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency's far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 45 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE's impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy

  20. The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, R.R. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station; Adcock, L.D.; Gentry, L.M. [Dept. of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Office of Energy, Science and Technology; Ben-David, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Economics

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency`s far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 45 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE`s impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy.

  1. Legal Organizations: Communicative Actions the Attorney General of the State of Tamaulipas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Cancelo Sanmartin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This text provides a descriptive study of the communicative exercise of the main legal body in Mexico, specifically in the State of Tamaulipas. Tamaulipas is a State located in the North of the country on border with United States of America. By its geographical location it is a territory with a special legal situation, specifically with regard to safety aspects refers. Faced with this reality the social bodies, and specifically the people have a certain perception of public institutions operating in the field of safety and the prevention of crime, with special attention to the State Attorney. The aforementioned body is charged with managing all complaints and actions involving the citizen. Its effective communication, and their careful image, will depend on the credibility in the development of its public action and therefore its social legitimacy.

  2. Improvement of uncertainty relations for mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Moon

    2005-01-01

    We study a possible improvement of uncertainty relations. The Heisenberg uncertainty relation employs commutator of a pair of conjugate observables to set the limit of quantum measurement of the observables. The Schroedinger uncertainty relation improves the Heisenberg uncertainty relation by adding the correlation in terms of anti-commutator. However both relations are insensitive whether the state used is pure or mixed. We improve the uncertainty relations by introducing additional terms which measure the mixtureness of the state. For the momentum and position operators as conjugate observables and for the thermal state of quantum harmonic oscillator, it turns out that the equalities in the improved uncertainty relations hold

  3. Fascioliasis and Intestinal Parasitoses Affecting Schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: Epidemiology and Treatment with Nitazoxanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumaquero-Ríos, José Lino; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Rojas-García, Raúl; Rojas-Rivero, Lázara; Martínez-Tovilla, Yaneth; Valero, María Adela; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Background The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude) through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. Methodology and Findings A total of 865 6–14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94–13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%). Intensities were however low (24–384 epg). The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. Conclusions Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate

  4. Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumaquero-Ríos, José Lino; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Rojas-García, Raúl; Rojas-Rivero, Lázara; Martínez-Tovilla, Yaneth; Valero, María Adela; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2013-11-01

    The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude) through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. A total of 865 6-14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94-13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%). Intensities were however low (24-384 epg). The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate alternative to triclabendazole, the present drug of choice

  5. Analysis of spatial mobility in subjects from a Dengue endemic urban locality in Morelos State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón-Lezama, Jorge Abelardo; Santos-Luna, René; Román-Pérez, Susana; Martínez-Vega, Ruth Aralí; Herrera-Valdez, Marco Arieli; Kuri-Morales, Ángel Fernando; Adams, Ben; Kuri-Morales, Pablo Antonio; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Ramos-Castañeda, José

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models and field data suggest that human mobility is an important driver for Dengue virus transmission. Nonetheless little is known on this matter due the lack of instruments for precise mobility quantification and study design difficulties. We carried out a cohort-nested, case-control study with 126 individuals (42 cases, 42 intradomestic controls and 42 population controls) with the goal of describing human mobility patterns of recently Dengue virus-infected subjects, and comparing them with those of non-infected subjects living in an urban endemic locality. Mobility was quantified using a GPS-data logger registering waypoints at 60-second intervals for a minimum of 15 natural days. Although absolute displacement was highly biased towards the intradomestic and peridomestic areas, occasional displacements exceeding a 100-Km radius from the center of the studied locality were recorded for all three study groups and individual displacements were recorded traveling across six states from central Mexico. Additionally, cases had a larger number of visits out of the municipality´s administrative limits when compared to intradomestic controls (cases: 10.4 versus intradomestic controls: 2.9, p = 0.0282). We were able to identify extradomestic places within and out of the locality that were independently visited by apparently non-related infected subjects, consistent with houses, working and leisure places. Results of this study show that human mobility in a small urban setting exceeded that considered by local health authority's administrative limits, and was different between recently infected and non-infected subjects living in the same household. These observations provide important insights about the role that human mobility may have in Dengue virus transmission and persistence across endemic geographic areas that need to be taken into account when planning preventive and control measures. Finally, these results are a valuable reference when setting the

  6. Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lino Zumaquero-Ríos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries.A total of 865 6-14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94-13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%. Intensities were however low (24-384 epg. The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids.Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate alternative to triclabendazole, the present

  7. Detection of a typhus group Rickettsia in Amblyomma ticks in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Sanchez, Aaron; Bouyer, Donald H; Alcantara-Rodriguez, Virginia; Mafra, Claudio; Zavala-Castro, Jorge; Whitworth, Ted; Popov, Vsevolod L; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Walker, David H

    2005-12-01

    The state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico has had outbreaks of typhus group rickettsiosis, most recently recognized in 1997. Evaluation of the sera of 345 patients with a dengue-like illness revealed that 25.5% had antibodies reactive with typhus group rickettsiae and 16% had antibodies to Rickettsia parkeri. Rickettsiae were detected by PCR and shell-vial isolations in the field-collected Amblyomma ticks. Molecular characterization by DNA sequence analysis of the gltA, ompB, and 17-kDa gene identified the organisms to be R. prowazekii.

  8. Radon concentrations in ground and drinking water in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, L.; Colmenero Sujo, L.; Montero Cabrera, M.E.; Cano Jimenez, A.; Renteria Villalobos, M.; Delgado Mendoza, C.J.; Jurado Tenorio, L.A.; Davila Rangel, I.; Herrera Peraza, E.F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports 222 Rn concentrations in ground and drinking water of nine cities of Chihuahua State, Mexico. Fifty percent of the 114 sampled wells exhibited 222 Rn concentrations exceeding 11 Bq/L, the maximum contaminant level (MCL) recommended by the USEPA. Furthermore, around 48% (123 samples) of the tap-water samples taken from 255 dwellings showed radon concentrations over the MCL. There is an apparent correlation between total dissolved solids and radon concentration in ground-water. The high levels of 222 Rn found may be entirely attributed to the nature of aquifer rocks

  9. Radon concentrations in ground and drinking water in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalba, L. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, CP 31109 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Colmenero Sujo, L. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, CP 31109 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Instituto Tecnologico de Chihuahua II, Ave. de las Industrias 11101, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Montero Cabrera, M.E. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, CP 31109 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)]. E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx; Cano Jimenez, A. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, CP 31109 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Renteria Villalobos, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, CP 31109 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Delgado Mendoza, C.J. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Ciudad Universitaria S/N, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Jurado Tenorio, L.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Ciudad Universitaria S/N, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Davila Rangel, I. [Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Cipres 20, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Herrera Peraza, E.F. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, CP 31109 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports {sup 222}Rn concentrations in ground and drinking water of nine cities of Chihuahua State, Mexico. Fifty percent of the 114 sampled wells exhibited {sup 222}Rn concentrations exceeding 11 Bq/L, the maximum contaminant level (MCL) recommended by the USEPA. Furthermore, around 48% (123 samples) of the tap-water samples taken from 255 dwellings showed radon concentrations over the MCL. There is an apparent correlation between total dissolved solids and radon concentration in ground-water. The high levels of {sup 222}Rn found may be entirely attributed to the nature of aquifer rocks.

  10. Planning responds to gender violence: evidence from Spain, Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Elizabeth L; Escalante, Sara Ortiz

    2010-01-01

    Urban planning has been largely ineffective in addressing urban violence and particularly slow in responding to gender violence. This paper explores the public and private divide, structural inequalities, and issues of ethnicity and citizenship, in terms of their planning implications for gender violence. Drawing on evidence from Spain, Mexico and the United States, it examines how economic and social planning and gender violence intertwine. The three case studies demonstrate that the challenge is not only to break constructed structural inequalities and divisions between public and private spheres, but also to promote changes in the working models of institutions and organisations.

  11. Radon concentrations in ground and drinking water in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, L; Colmenero Sujo, L; Montero Cabrera, M E; Cano Jiménez, A; Rentería Villalobos, M; Delgado Mendoza, C J; Jurado Tenorio, L A; Dávila Rangel, I; Herrera Peraza, E F

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports (222)Rn concentrations in ground and drinking water of nine cities of Chihuahua State, Mexico. Fifty percent of the 114 sampled wells exhibited (222)Rn concentrations exceeding 11Bq/L, the maximum contaminant level (MCL) recommended by the USEPA. Furthermore, around 48% (123 samples) of the tap-water samples taken from 255 dwellings showed radon concentrations over the MCL. There is an apparent correlation between total dissolved solids and radon concentration in ground-water. The high levels of (222)Rn found may be entirely attributed to the nature of aquifer rocks.

  12. Current Knowledge of Leishmania Vectors in Mexico: How Geographic Distributions of Species Relate to Transmission Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Camila; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Becker-Fauser, Ingeborg; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne diseases with different clinical manifestations caused by parasites transmitted by sand fly vectors. In Mexico, the sand fly Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca is the only vector proven to transmit the parasite Leishmania mexicana to humans, which causes leishmaniasis. Other vector species with potential medical importance have been obtained, but their geographic distributions and relation to transmission areas have never been assessed. We modeled the ecological niches of nine sand fly species and projected niches to estimate potential distributions by using known occurrences, environmental coverages, and the algorithms GARP and Maxent. All vector species were distributed in areas with known recurrent transmission, except for Lu. diabolica, which appeared to be related only to areas of occasional transmission in northern Mexico. The distribution of Lu. o. olmeca does not overlap with all reported cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, suggesting that Lu. cruciata and Lu. shannoni are likely also involved as primary vectors in those areas. Our study provides useful information of potential risk areas of leishmaniasis transmission in Mexico. PMID:22049037

  13. BOVINE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS ON CATTLE HERDS OF CAMPECHE STATE, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Alberto Encalada Mena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available High seroprevalence in Yucatan and proximity to the state of Campeche make it necessary to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (VRSB in the state of Campeche, Mexico. Thus the objective of the present work was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV of the state of Campeche, Mexico. The sampled of 36 cattle herds (842 sera were analyzed by indirect ELISA kit, in the 11 municipalities of Campeche. A survey to obtain risk factors (sex, age of animals, number of animals grazing density, management system, presence of sheep on the farm and access to the roadside was applied and calculated X2 for each variable considered. Of the total number of samples analyzed (842, 273 were positive (32.47%. The prevalence ranges found ranged from 0% to 84%, so in 9 of the herds there were no positive samples, indicating a 75% (27/36 of dispersion of this virus. X2 analysis indicated that all variables were significant and are risk factors regarding with respect to the variable seroprevalence of BRSV. The results indicate a wide circulation of BRSV and we suggest implement recommendations that will enable a lower spread of this virus in the cattle population.

  14. Guide to federal regulation of sales of imported electricity in Canada, Mexico and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Guide to Federal Regulation of Sales of Imported Electricity in Canada, Mexico, and the United States promotes cross-border electricity trade. It provides information on federal regulation of cross-border electricity trade and is intended to be used together with a companion guide called the North American Regulation of International Electricity Trade which outlines regulations for the construction and operation of cross-border power lines and the permitting requirements for electricity exports and imports between Canada, Mexico and the United States. The guide outlines the basic elements of the general federal regulatory process that applies to a given North American cross-border electricity trade. It offers an improved understanding of the applicable country's federal regulatory regime. Different federal government agencies within each country may regulate different aspects of a particular cross-border electricity trade. This guide does not examine the requirements that may apply at the state or provincial government levels. Rather, it is a collaborative effort of the 3 national energy departments and energy regulators that support the Experts Group on Electricity Regulatory Issues, a specialized unit assembled by the North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG). It was noted that the energy policies and regulations of each nation can change periodically

  15. Reassessment of the Paleogene position of the Chortis block relative to southern Mexico: hierarchical ranking of data and features

    OpenAIRE

    Morán-Zenteno, Dante J.; Keppie, Duncan J.; Martiny, Barbara; González-Torres, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    The Paleogene location of the Chortis block relative to southern Mexico is presently a hotly debated topic, with various types and qualities of data brought to bear on the topic. There are currently three competing Cenozoic reconstructions: (i) the traditional model that places the Chortis block adjacent to southern Mexico, (ii) the near in situ model in which the Chortis block is located relatively near to its present position, and (iii) the Pacific model that places the Chortis block WSW of...

  16. The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, Robert R.; Adcock, Larry D.; Gentry, Lucille M.; Ben-David, Shaul; Temple, John

    1999-08-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency's far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 50 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE's impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as Federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. The information on which the models are based is updated periodically to ensure the most accurate depiction possible of the economy for the period of reference. For this report, the reference periods are Fiscal Year (FY) 1997 (October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997), and FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998). Total impact represents both direct and indirect impacts (resending by business), including induced (resending by households) effects. The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models uniquely developed for New Mexico. This report includes seven main sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Profile of DOE Activities in New Mexico; (3) DOE Expenditure Patterns; (4) Measuring DOE/New Mexico's Economic Impact: (5) Technology Transfer within the Federal Labs funded by DOE/New Mexico; (6) Glossary of Terms; and (7) Technical Appendix containing a description of the model.

  17. The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansford, Robert R.; Adcock, Larry D.; Gentry, Lucille M.; Ben-David, Shaul; Temple, John

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency's far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 50 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE's impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as Federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. The information on which the models are based is updated periodically to ensure the most accurate depiction possible of the economy for the period of reference. For this report, the reference periods are Fiscal Year (FY) 1997 (October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997), and FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998). Total impact represents both direct and indirect impacts (resending by business), including induced (resending by households) effects. The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models uniquely developed for New Mexico. This report includes seven main sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Profile of DOE Activities in New Mexico; (3) DOE Expenditure Patterns; (4) Measuring DOE/New Mexico's Economic Impact: (5) Technology Transfer within the Federal Labs funded by DOE/New Mexico; (6) Glossary of Terms; and (7) Technical Appendix containing a description of the model

  18. The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the state of New Mexico fiscal year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansford, R.R.; Nielsen, T.G.; Schultz, J.; Adcock, L.D.; Gentry, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico. The agency's far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both DOE and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 50 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE's impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. The information on which the models are based is updated periodically to ensure the most accurate depiction possible of the economy for the period of reference. For this report, the reference periods are Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 and FY 1997. Total impacts represents both direct and indirect impacts (respending by business), including induced (respending by households) effects. The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models uniquely developed for New Mexico. This report includes seven main sections: (1) introduction; (2) profile of DOE activities in New Mexico; (3) DOE expenditure patterns; (4) measuring DOE/New Mexico's economic impact; (5) technology transfer within the federal labs funded by DOE/New Mexico; (6) glossary of terms; and (7) technical appendix containing a description of the model. 9 figs., 19 tabs

  19. Trypanosoma cruzi in dogs: electrocardiographic and echocardiographic evaluation, in Malinalco, State of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Vieyra SD

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sandra Díaz González-Vieyra1, Ninfa Ramírez-Durán2, Ángel H Sandoval-Trujillo3, Juan C Vázquez-Chagoyán1, Humberto G Monroy-Salazar1, Alberto Barbabosa-Pliego11Research Center of Advanced Studies in Animal Health, Veterinary Husbandry School, 2Medical and Ambiental Microbiology, Research Center of Advanced Studies in Health Science, School of Medicine, Autonomous University of the State of Mexico, Toluca, Mexico; 3Department of Biological Systems, Metropolitan Autonomous University, Xochimilco, Mexico City, MexicoAbstract: Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is an important public health problem in Latin America. Dogs are considered a risk factor for human Chagas disease, a sentinel for T. cruzi infection in endemic regions and an animal model to study pathological aspects of the disease. The potential use of dogs as indicators of human cardiac pathogenicity of local T. cruzi strains has been studied insufficiently. We studied electrocardiographic (EKG and echocardiographic (ECG alteration frequencies observed in an open population of dogs in Malinalco, Mexico, and determined if such frequencies were statistically associated with T. cruzi infection in dogs. Animals (n = 139 were clinically examined and owners were asked to answer a questionnaire about dogs’ living conditions. Two commercial serological tests (IHA, ELISA were conducted to detect anti-T. cruzi serum antibodies. Significant differences between seropositive and seronegative animals in cardiomyopathic frequencies were detected through EKG and ECG (P < 0.05. Thirty dogs (21.58% were serologically positive to anti-T. cruzi antibodies (to ELISA and IHA assays, of which nine (30% had EKG and/or ECG alterations. From the remaining 104 (78.42% seronegative animals, five (4.5% had EKG and/or ECG abnormalities. Our data support the hypothesis that most EKG and ECG alterations found in dogs from Malinalco could be associated with T. cruzi infection. Considering the dog as a

  20. State information needs related to onshore and nearshore effects of OCS petroleum development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.C.; Stang, P.R.; Hyde, B.

    1977-01-01

    The United States currently has underway a program to develop tracts on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for their petroleum resources that can have significant impact on and near the shore. The potentially affected States bordering the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the Gulf of Mexico have expressed serious concerns about the availability and adequacy of the information they need to make planning and management decisions about onshore activities and impacts related to OCS petroleum development. This report discusses state policies, major concerns, organization, planning approaches and relation to other state planning efforts.

  1. Evaluation of mesopores and characterization of clays of the State of Puebla, Mexico; Evaluacion de materiales mesoporosos y caracterizacion de las arcillas en el Estado de Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M.A.; Velasco, J.A. [Departamento de Investigaci en Zeolitas, Instituto de Ciencias de la Universidad Autonoma de Puebla. Edif. 76, Complejo de Ciencias, C. U., San Manuel, Puebla 72570 Puebla (Mexico); Rojas, F.; Lara, V.H. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa. Apartado Postal 55-434, M ico, D.F. (Mexico); Salgado, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Tamariz, V. [Posgrado de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto de Ciencias de la Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The crystalline properties of natural clays are related to the different crystallographic phases that are present in the structure of these substrates. Clays from the zone of Tehuacan, in the state of Puebla, Mexico, have been studied by means of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Absorption (AA), and N{sub 2} Adsorption at 76 K. XRD analysis indicates the presence in the clay adsorbents of montmorillonite, quartz and, in some cases, of calcium carbonate. The textural properties of these porous materials of natural origin have been evaluated through the BET equation, the Langmuir equation, the single point BET method and the Gurvitsch Rule. The meso porosity that is present in each substrate has been measured via the methods of Kelvin, Barret, Jovner, and Halenda (BJH), and Kruk, Jaroniec, and Sayari as well as by the so-called differential curves of t-plots. The N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms at 76 K that were measured on our clay adsorbents indicate that the adsorption process is carried out through a multilayer formation mechanism. The sorption hysteresis loops confirm characteristic aspects of this type of clay materials. Plots of the adsorbed volume versus the statistical thickness (t-plots) of N{sub 2} layers adsorbed on the clay surface were also evaluated. The latter curves comprise three zones of behavior; each zone representing a different filling mechanism of the pore space. (Author)

  2. Spatial analysis techniques applied to uranium prospecting in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa de la Garza, Octavio R.; Montero Cabrera, María Elena; Sanín, Luz H.; Reyes Cortés, Manuel; Martínez Meyer, Enrique

    2014-07-01

    To estimate the distribution of uranium minerals in Chihuahua, the advanced statistical model "Maximun Entropy Method" (MaxEnt) was applied. A distinguishing feature of this method is that it can fit more complex models in case of small datasets (x and y data), as is the location of uranium ores in the State of Chihuahua. For georeferencing uranium ores, a database from the United States Geological Survey and workgroup of experts in Mexico was used. The main contribution of this paper is the proposal of maximum entropy techniques to obtain the mineral's potential distribution. For this model were used 24 environmental layers like topography, gravimetry, climate (worldclim), soil properties and others that were useful to project the uranium's distribution across the study area. For the validation of the places predicted by the model, comparisons were done with other research of the Mexican Service of Geological Survey, with direct exploration of specific areas and by talks with former exploration workers of the enterprise "Uranio de Mexico". Results. New uranium areas predicted by the model were validated, finding some relationship between the model predictions and geological faults. Conclusions. Modeling by spatial analysis provides additional information to the energy and mineral resources sectors.

  3. BOVINE NEOSPOROSIS IN CATTLE FARMS FROM THE NORTHERN REGION OF THE STATE OF VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Montiel-Peña

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the presence of antibodies against Neospora caninum and its DNA in blood samples from bovine females from the northern region of the state of Veracruz, Mexico. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out in 13 municipalities, with a sample size of 821 animals. Blood and serum samples were analyzed through ELISA and PCR, respectively. Overall prevalence was 20.8 %; the highest specific prevalences were obtained in breeding cows (27.4 %, crossbred cows (20.9 %, second-calving cows (23.2 %, three year-old cows (20.6 % and cows with abortion history (20 %. The risk factors associated with seropositivity were dairy cattle (OR = 1.9; IC95 %: 1.1-3.4 and dog presence in the farms (OR = 5.3; IC95 %: 1.3-22.3. The presence of N. caninum DNA was demonstrated in 4 out of 12 blood samples tested, which evidenced the existence of active infection. In conclusion, there were risk factors associated with bovine neosporosis, which proved the existence of active infection by N. caninum in cows from the state of Veracruz, Mexico.

  4. Binational Dengue Outbreak Along the United States-Mexico Border - Yuma County, Arizona, and Sonora, Mexico, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jefferson M; Lopez, Benito; Adams, Laura; Gálvez, Francisco Javier Navarro; Núñez, Alfredo Sánchez; Santillán, Nubia Astrid Hernández; Plante, Lydia; Hemme, Ryan R; Casal, Mariana; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge; Acevedo, Veronica; Ernst, Kacey; Hayden, Mary; Waterman, Steve; Gomez, Diana; Sharp, Tyler M; Komatsu, Kenneth K

    2016-05-20

    Dengue is an acute febrile illness caused by any of four dengue virus types (DENV-1-4). DENVs are transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes (1) and are endemic throughout the tropics (2). In 2010, an estimated 390 million DENV infections occurred worldwide (2). During 2007-2013, a total of three to 10 dengue cases were reported annually in Arizona and all were travel-associated. During September-December 2014, coincident with a dengue outbreak in Sonora, Mexico, 93 travel-associated dengue cases were reported in Arizona residents; 70 (75%) cases were among residents of Yuma County, which borders San Luis Río Colorado, Sonora, Mexico. San Luis Río Colorado reported its first case of locally acquired dengue in September 2014. To investigate the temporal relationship of the dengue outbreaks in Yuma County and San Luis Río Colorado and compare patient characteristics and signs and symptoms, passive surveillance data from both locations were analyzed. In addition, household-based cluster investigations were conducted near the residences of reported dengue cases in Yuma County to identify unreported cases and assess risk for local transmission. Surveillance data identified 52 locally acquired cases (21% hospitalized) in San Luis Río Colorado and 70 travel-associated cases (66% hospitalized) in Yuma County with illness onset during September-December 2014. Among 194 persons who participated in the cluster investigations in Yuma County, 152 (78%) traveled to Mexico at least monthly during the preceding 3 months. Four (2%) of 161 Yuma County residents who provided serum samples for diagnostic testing during cluster investigations had detectable DENV immunoglobulin M (IgM); one reported a recent febrile illness, and all four had traveled to Mexico during the preceding 3 months. Entomologic assessments among 105 households revealed 24 water containers per 100 houses colonized by Ae. aegypti. Frequent travel to Mexico and Ae. aegypti colonization indicate risk for local

  5. Acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits among Hispanics in United States-Mexico border communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Suad; Brown, Cynthia J; Pagán, José A; Díaz, Violeta

    2010-09-01

    To explore the relationship between acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits in the largely Hispanic populations living in underserved communities in the United States of America along the U.S.-Mexico border. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2006 to June 2008 using survey data from the Alliance for a Healthy Border, a program designed to reduce health disparities in the U.S.-Mexico border region by funding nutrition and physical activity education programs at 12 federally qualified community health centers in Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas. The survey included questions on acculturation, diet, exercise, and demographic factors and was completed by 2,381 Alliance program participants, of whom 95.3% were Hispanic and 45.4% were under the U.S. poverty level for 2007. Chi-square (χ2) and Student's t tests were used for bivariate comparisons between acculturation and dietary and physical activity measures. Linear regression and binary logistic regression were used to control for factors associated with nutrition and exercise. Based on univariate tests and confirmed by regression analysis controlling for sociodemographic and health variables, less acculturated survey respondents reported a significantly higher frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and healthier dietary habits than those who were more acculturated. Adjusted binary logistic regression confirmed that individuals with low language acculturation were less likely to engage in physical activity than those with moderate to high acculturation (odds ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.59-0.95). Findings confirmed an association between acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits and supported the hypothesis that acculturation in border community populations tends to decrease the practice of some healthy dietary habits while increasing exposure to and awareness of the importance of other healthy behaviors.

  6. The development relation: University-government-enterprise. Comparative case Mexico, Korea and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Martín Moreno Zacarías

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Over global world, the competitive of the nations must be an internal structure for increase and sustainable the rich of the people. This structure should make sustained growth through the generation of proprietary technology; have a facilitator for the creation and enterprise development. A university linked with companies to solve problems and a firm that helps companies to grow new businesses. A whole system (Government-University-Industry is called the Triple Helix of Development (THD. This paper reviews the actions of the Thd in recent years, in countries of Korea, China and Mexico. Korea have durable support of United States over the Civil War. At the end United States and Japan make cooperation for the creation of technology and export products to these countries. Providing capital to Korea to generate their own technology resources through foreign investment. China creates a model, which aims by 2020 to generate 30% of its own resources in basic research. Mexico begins to generate emerging technology products by supporting the Fund for Small and Medium Enterprises established the National System of Incubators and generates programs with universities and business entrepreneurs with the federal government creates financial support for the creation of industrial clusters.

  7. Estimation of the seismic hazards of the possible rupture of the Pastores and Venta de Bravo faults in the Acambay grabens, state of Mexico, Mexico, using the Empirical Green's Function Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, O. A.; Lermo, J.; Aguirre, J.

    2003-04-01

    Even though the majority of earthquakes in Mexico and in the world are in direct relation with the movement of tectonic plates, there are less frequent tremors which take place in the continents, within the plates. This is the case with the earthquakes which occur in Mexico along the Neovolcanic Axis. Despite the fact that these quakes in the Neovolcanic Axis are, in general, of small magnitude, there are occassional events of greater magnitude. For instance, in 1912, an earthquake with an approximate magnitude of M=6.9 took place in Acambay, state of Mexico, 80 km. from Mexico City. The reported damage areas for these earthquakes suggest that they were originated in surface faults probably associated with tensional geological structures which exist in the area (grabens). This region stretches along 400 km. between the cities of Mexico and Guadalajara. The faults are normal, extending tens of kilometers, with a dip of up to 80o and vertical differences of several hundred meters. The faults in this part of the country can be classified as "active" or "potentially active", with an important seismic expression. The faulting, volcanism and seismicity manifested in the region studied constitute geological effects of the more recent tectonic activity of the central part of Mexico. The present activity of these faults represent the major part of the natural hazards (geological hazards) for this region, taking account of its high demographic density make it a zone of great vulnerability. We will be primarily interested in two of the faults which constitute the fault system of the Acambay graben, eastern sector of the Mexican Neovolcanic Axis, at approximately 80 km. northwest of Mexico City: the Pastores fault and the Venta de Bravo fault system. We will estimate the resultant seismic movement at the University campus (CU) station, in Mexico DF, utilizing the record of the main earthquake (M=4.0) of Tlaxcoapan, Hgo., of March 18 1998 and formulating the scenario of the

  8. Prevalence of endoparasitic infection in children and its relation with cholera prevention efforts in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Charles T; Garcia, Benito Borrego; Logan, Michael H; New, John C; Patton, Sharon

    2003-07-01

    To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis). Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%), who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42%) that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts promoted for prevention of cholera. The occurrence of

  9. Prevalence of endoparasitic infection in children and its relation with cholera prevention efforts in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T. Faulkner

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. METHODS: Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis. RESULTS: Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%, who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42% that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. CONCLUSIONS: The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts

  10. 76 FR 1431 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Public Water System Supervision Program. New Mexico has adopted the Ground Water Rule (GWR), the Long... the following offices: New Mexico Environment Department, Drinking Water Bureau, 525 Camino De Los... of New Mexico proposes to revise its approved Public Water System Supervision Primacy Program. This...

  11. 76 FR 69734 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Water System Supervision Program. New Mexico has adopted the Lead and Copper Rule Short Term Revisions... water. EPA has determined that this rule revision submitted by New Mexico is no less stringent than the... the following offices: New Mexico Environment Department, Drinking Water Bureau, 525 Camino De Los...

  12. Unpacking the social construction of 'natural' disaster through policy discourses and institutional responses in Mexico: the case of Chalco Valley's floods, State of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Aragón-Durand, F. d. J.

    2009-01-01

    This research analyses 'natural' disaster policies for Mexico. The objective is to demonstrate that 'natural' disaster and the policies oriented to prevent them are socially constructed. It adopts a constructionist perspective because it is concerned with the understanding of collective social constructions of meaning and knowledge that are determined by political and social processes. This study focuses on the relation between the discourses of disaster causality, policy problem construction...

  13. Spatial and Temporal Variations of the Indidura Formation (Cenomanian-Turonian) in Northeastern Mexico, Coahuila State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque-Botero, F.; Maurrasse, F. J.

    2002-12-01

    Rock sequences of Cenomanian-Turonian age commonly assigned to the Indidura Formation in northeastern Mexico, Coahuila State, are shown to include distinct facies indicative of significant spatial variability over the carbonate platform of that region. The type section at Las Delicias is characterized by very-pale orange (10YR8/2) bedded biocalcirudites (10-30 cm thick), without internal structures, and comprises fossil assemblages rich in epifaunal groups, as well as nektonic and planktic taxa. Total inorganic carbon (TIC) varies between 48 % and 94 %, with fluctuation in total organic carbon (TOC) between 0.73 % and 1.58 %. The section at la Casita Canyon, farther southeast, consists of pale yellowish brown (10YR6/2) interbedded biocalcilutites and olive gray (5Y3/2) shales between 3 and 30 cm thick. They also show no apparent original internal structures, and allochems consist essentially of sparse fragments of planktonic foraminifera and radiolarian. TIC content varies between 0.84 % and 59.3 %, whereas TOC changes between 0.17 % and 5.85 %. In contrast, in the Parras Mountains, located south of La Delicias and northwest of la Casita, the succession occurs under a characteristic sequence showing interbeds of light olive gray (5Y6/1) and brownish black to olive black (5YR2/1 - 5Y2/1) shales and marly biocalcilutites 30 to 100 cm thick. They display distinct internal structures arranged in nearly even parallel varve-like dual lamina (TIC content varies from 43 % to 78.3 %, while TOC content remains relatively high with values between 7.35 % and 24.39 %, but more consistently higher than 20 %. Assuming that these facies are coeval, microfacies studies of these rocks as well as acid etched polished rocks, and scanning electron microscope examination (secondary and backscatter imaging) further substantiate these spatial differences. TOC-rich black shales in the Parras region further document unique paleoceanographic conditions, which was also characterized by

  14. Psychological and Related Factors Associated with Drunkenness Episodes in Adolescent Students in Guadalajara, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Lidia Nuño Gutiérrez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify psychological and related factors linked with drunkenness episodes in 1134 adoles-cent students in Guadalajara, Mexico. The study evaluated ten psychological and related factors. The outcome variable was the number of episodes of drunkenness in the last month. We found 26.5% more episodes of drunkenness in men. A logistic regression analysis indicated that factors associated with drunkenness were smoking, high self-esteem, high impulsiveness, low self-control, presence of daily stress and distant relationship with father. The study concluded that the psychological and related factors associated with drunkenness episodes were related to a highly impressionable omnipo-tence profile and emotional indifference, with excessive consumption of alcohol as a safety strategy.

  15. Russia and Mexico in the 19th – Beginning of the 20th Century: on the Crimean War’s Influence on Russia-Mexico Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yu. Redkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the prerequisites and establishment of the first Russia-Mexico contacts, which took place after the Crimean War (1853-1856. It was revealed that Mexico’s interest in the collaboration with Russia began to reveal in a higher degree after the Crimean War. The factors, which had led to the diplomatic rapprochement of the two states, include the Mexico’s search for allies in the contradiction to increased aggression of European states and the USA in the Central American region, and the increase of Russian intellectuals’ emigration, resettlement of religious groups of the Old Russian sectarians to the region. At the turn of 19th – 20th centuries many Russian travelers and writers, such as S.D. Protopopov and K.D. Balmont, visited Mexico for the purpose of studying the culture of ancients Indians, who lived in Central America during many centuries before the Spanish colonization. Besides of the impressions on ancient Indian culture, these travelers described the life of ordinary Mexican people of that time. They mentioned their poverty and hopelessness in the years of Porfirio Dias’s dictatorship. Nevertheless, political and cultural contacts had begun to established in the late 19th century between the Russian Empire and Mexico, because after the Crimean War the Mexico’s interest to Russians increased. In addition, Russia tried to strengthen its position in Central American region. In total, these factors had led to the strengthening of political, social and cultural contacts between Russia and Mexico.

  16. Distribución del género Bursera en el estado de Morelos, México y su relación con el clima Distribution of the genus Bursera in Morelos state (Mexico and its relation to climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Hernández-Pérez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la influencia de las variables climáticas en la distribución de 15 especies del género Bursera en Morelos, México. Se obtuvieron datos de presencia de especies y de variables climáticas de 47 estaciones meteorológicas, y se elaboraron mapas de distribución real y potencial de cada especie, por medio de un SIG; la influencia de las variables climáticas en la distribución se evaluó mediante análisis de componentes principales y de conglomerados. Las especies se distribuyen en un intervalo altitudinal de 800 a 2 800 m; la riqueza es mayor en las áreas más cálidas y relativamente más secas del sur del estado. Se identificaron 2 grandes grupos de especies: a, las de distribución restringida a sitos relativamente cálidos y b, las de distribución más amplia, incluyendo sitios menos cálidos. La precipitación, las temperaturas máxima y mínima, la evapotranspiración y su estacionalidad influyeron en la distribución de las especies. Bursera bicolor, B. bipinnata, B. cuneata, B. copallifera, B. fagaroides, B. grandifolia y B. glabrifolia se presentan en sitios con temperatura mínima relativamente baja (5-10° C y más húmedos, mientras que B. aptera, B. ariensis, B. lancifolia, B. linanoe, B. longipes, B. morelensis, B. schlechtendalii y B. submoniliformis se encuentran en zonas con temperaturas mínimas más altas (≥ 14° C y condiciones más secas.The influence of climatic variables on the distribution of 15 species of Bursera in Morelos Mexico, was analyzed. Data on the presence of species and climatic variables from 47 meteorological stations were obtained, and maps of actual and potential distribution were made using a GIS; the influence of the main climatic variables on the distribution was analyzed by principal component and cluster analyses. The species of Bursera are found in an altitudinal range of 800-2 800 m; species richness is higher in the warm, relatively dry areas south of the state. Two main groups

  17. COMPETITIVENESS AND PROFITABILITY OF BEEF CATTLE FEEDLOT IN THE SOUTH OF THE STATE OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Rebollar-Rebollar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the South of the State of Mexico during the period of January to June of 2009, it was based on information provided by 24 producers beef cattle feedlot, classified in small, medium and great according to the number of finalized animals. The Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM method was used, consisting of a set of matrices of technical coefficients and input prices, from which a private budget matrix was derived. The three layers of producers showed a positive profitability on private prices that varied from 4 to 16 %. The private cost relationships varied between 0.50 and 0.79 that suggests a high competitiveness. It was concluded that for 2009 the production of beef cattle feedlot is possible to pay the market price of internal factors, including the rate of normal capital return, as a result of a positive net income margin obtained, reason why this activity is considered as profitable.

  18. Floods, civil protection and inhabitants of San Mateo Atenco, State of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Toscana Aparicio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the national civil protection and the State of Mexico´s civil protection systems, the municipality order is the first instance on attending the emergency situations; in order to do it, each municipality must have a civil protection system. In this essay it is exposed the case of the municipality San Mateo Atenco, constantly affected by floods that are produced by the physical characteristics of the zone, the anthropic transformations to the natural environment and the government decisions and omissions. It is analyzed the discrepancies between municipality authorities and the population affected by floods; in order to do it, a flood map based on testimonies was made, a vulnerability map, and a survey of the opinion of the San Mateo Atenco´s population about the civil protection municipality authorities´ performance.

  19. Patterns, Trends and Policy Implications of Private Spending on Skills Development in Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Miguel; Mendoza, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores families' investment in skills development through education in a high-inequality, low-education quality country such as Mexico, comparing it to a lower-inequality, higher-quality education country such as the United States. The paper uses a series of Household Income and Expenditure Surveys for both countries spanning around…

  20. Looking back on NAFTA’s promises and realities from a local perspective. The state of Coahuila, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. de Bell

    2008-01-01

    The effectuation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994 between Mexico, the United States, and Canada, can be considered one of the most radical trade experiments in history, representing a new phase in global trade policy. Perhaps the most significant aspect of NAFTA was the

  1. Biodiversity and management of the Madrean Archipelago: The Sky Islands of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard H. DeBano; Peter H. Ffolliott; Alfredo Ortega-Rubio; Gerald J. Gottfried; Robert H. Hamre; Carleton B. Edminster

    1995-01-01

    This conference brought together scientists and managers from government, universities, and private organizations to examine the biological diversity and management challenges of the unique "sky island" ecosystems of the mountains of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Session topics included: floristic resources, plant ecology,...

  2. Education Reform and Decentralization in Mexico and the Creation of "Educacion Civica" in the State of Jalisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Gloria; Rice, Marion J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate Mexican education reform and decentralization and how the state of Jalisco focused in the early twenty-first century on developing a sequential curriculum for teaching civics in grades 1-6. The authors use the term "educacion civica" because in Mexico the curriculum emphasizes the acquisition of…

  3. Five-year interim report of the United States-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Program: 2007--2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary aquifers are an essential, and in many cases, singular source of water for United StatesMexico border communities, particularly in arid regions. Declining water levels, deteriorating water quality, and increasing use of groundwater resources by municipal, industrial, and agricultural water users on both sides of the international border have raised concerns about the long-term availability of this supply. Water quantity and quality are determining and limiting factors that ultimately control agriculture, future economic development, population growth, human health, and ecological conditions along the border. Knowledge about the extent, depletion rates, and quality of transboundary aquifers, however, is limited and, in some areas, completely absent. The U.S. – Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Act (Public Law 109-448), referred to in this report as “the Act,” was signed into law by the President of the United States on December 22, 2006, to conduct binational scientific research to systematically assess priority transboundary aquifers and to address water information needs of border communities. The Act authorizes the Secretary of the Interior, through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), to collaborate with the States of Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas through their Water Resources Research Institutes (WRRIs) and with the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC), stakeholders, and Mexican counterparts to provide new information and a scientific foundation for State and local officials to address pressing water-resource challenges along the U.S. – Mexico border.

  4. A Feasibility Study on the Establishment of a Fire Fighting Academy for the State of New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Alex A.

    The report on the desirability and feasibility of establishing the New Mexico State Fire Academy and firemen training program is presented in three parts: (1) the result of a survey of firemen training, (2) a proposal for a total system of firemen training, and (3) an analysis of the cost of implementing this program of training and education. The…

  5. Subjective probability appraisal of uranium resources in the state of New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.R.; Harris, D.P.; VanWie, N.H.

    1975-12-01

    This report presents an estimate of undiscovered uranium resources in New Mexico of 226,681,000 tons of material containing 455,480 tons U 3 O 8 . The basis for this estimate was a survey of expectations of 36 geologists, in terms of subjective probabilities of number of deposits, ore tonnage, and grade. Weighting of the geologists' estimates to derive a mean value used a self-appraisal index of their knowledge within the field. Detailed estimates are presented for the state, for each of 62 subdivisions (cells), and for an aggregation of eight cells encompassing the San Juan Basin, which is estimated to contain 92 percent of the undiscovered uranium resources in New Mexico. Ore-body attributes stated as probability distributions enabled the application of Monte Carlo methods to the analysis of the data. Sampling of estimates of material and contained U 3 O 8 which are provided as probability distributions indicates a 10 percent probability of there being at least 600,000 tons U 3 O 8 remaining undiscovered in deposits virtually certain to number between 500 and 565. An indicated probability of 99.5 percent that the ore grade is greater than 0.12 percent U 3 O 8 suggests that this survey may not provide reliable estimates of the abundance of material in very low-grade categories. Extrapolation to examine the potential for such deposits indicates more than 1,000,000 tons U 3 O 8 may be available down to a grade of 0.05 percent U 3 O 8 . Supplemental point estimates of ore depth and thickness allowed derivative estimates of cost of development, extraction, and milling. 80 percent of the U 3 O 8 is estimated to be available at a cost less than dollars 15/lb (1974) and about 98 percent at less than dollars 30/lb

  6. Prevalence of Dementia, Emotional State and Physical Performance among Older Adults in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma E. Velázquez-Brizuela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dementia affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior. Depression, is common in older adults with dementia. The concomitance of dementia and depression increases disability with impaired activities of daily living (ADL, increasing the chances of institutionalization and mortality. Methods. Cross-sectional study of a population 60 years and older who live in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. A total of 1142 persons were assessed regarding their cognitive function, emotional state, and physical performance. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling. Cognitive function, depression and functional disability were assessed by applying standardized Minimental State Examination (Folstein, Geriatric Depression Scale, and the Katz index, respectively. Diagnosis of dementia was performed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the Fourth Edition. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Prevalence of demency was 9.5% (63.35% women, and 36.7% men. Demency was associated with being woman, being older than 70 years, low level of education, not having the economic benefit of retirement, being single or living without a partner, low level of education, suffering from depression and have functional disability in ADL. Conclusion. Dementia is more common in women and is related to depression and disability.

  7. An Analysis of Current Energy Policy Initiatives in New Mexico. What are the Potential Impacts to the State's Water Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klise, G. T.; Hart, W. E.; Kobos, P. H.; Malczynski, L. A.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2008-12-01

    Population in New Mexico is increasing rapidly with recent projections showing that the state will add more than 1 million people by 2035. This growth will create a demand for additional energy and water supplies that have yet to be developed. New Mexico currently exports about 50% of the energy generated within the state to neighboring states, and existing power plants predominately utilize traditional fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Because traditional electric generation technologies utilize large quantities of water, New Mexico can also be seen as exporting water for the benefit of electricity consumed in neighboring states. As it is, both surface water and groundwater supplies are stretched thin and these internal and external stresses stemming from population growth will have a substantial impact on the state's water resources. In 2004, the Governor laid out a plan to make New Mexico a "Clean Energy State" by implementing renewable portfolio standards, developing renewable energy transmission infrastructure, creating an alternative energy innovation fund and creating state specific tax credits for renewable energy production and manufacturing. Recent work in the National Energy-Water Roadmap has pointed out that certain renewable sources of energy utilize less water than traditional power plants, and technological fixes to existing power plants will result in less water consumption. If New Mexico carries out its energy initiative, what will be the impacts to the state's water resources? Will it be possible to meet competing demands for this water? These questions and others will be analyzed in a decision-support tool that can look at the connection between both the physical and economic systems to see what the tradeoffs might be as a result of specific policy decisions. The ability to plan for future energy needs and understanding potential impacts to the state's limited water resources will be an invaluable tool for decision-makers in New

  8. The economic impact of Los Alamos National Laboratory on North-Central New Mexico and the state of New Mexico. Fiscal Year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansford, R.R.; Ben-David, S.

    1996-08-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a multidisciplinary, multiprogram laboratory with a mission to enhance national military and economic security through science and technology. Its mission is to reduce the nuclear danger through stewardship of the nation's nuclear stockpile and through its nonproliferation and verification activities. An important secondary mission is to promote U.S. industrial competitiveness by working with U.S. companies in technology transfer and technology development partnerships. Los Alamos has provided technical assistance to over 70 small New Mexico businesses enabling economic development activities in the region and state

  9. Majorization uncertainty relations for mixed quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchała, Zbigniew; Rudnicki, Łukasz; Krawiec, Aleksandra; Życzkowski, Karol

    2018-04-01

    Majorization uncertainty relations are generalized for an arbitrary mixed quantum state ρ of a finite size N. In particular, a lower bound for the sum of two entropies characterizing the probability distributions corresponding to measurements with respect to two arbitrary orthogonal bases is derived in terms of the spectrum of ρ and the entries of a unitary matrix U relating both bases. The results obtained can also be formulated for two measurements performed on a single subsystem of a bipartite system described by a pure state, and consequently expressed as an uncertainty relation for the sum of conditional entropies.

  10. Trilobite-based biostratigraphy (arthropoda-trilobita) and related faunas of the Cambrian from Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuen-Romero, F. J.; Valdez-Holguín, J. E.; Buitrón-Sánchez, B. E.; Monreal, R.; Enríquez-Ocaña, L. F.; Aguirre-Hinojosa, E.; Ochoa-Granillo, J. A.; Palafox-Reyes, J. J.

    2018-04-01

    A biostratigraphic analysis based on trilobites of the main Cambrian outcrops from Sonora, Mexico is performed. The data are based on a combination of field work and published sources, including four previously studied locations from northern and eastern Sonora (Caborca, Cananea, Mazatán, and Arivechi) as well as a new location in the central part of the state of Sonora (San José de Gracia). Chronostratigraphic positions are assigned to the Cambrian outcrops according to Peng et al., 2012 and Cohen et al., 2017. In the Caborca area, the Puerto Blanco, Proveedora, Buelna, Cerro Prieto, Arrojos and El Tren formations comprise a wide range of biozones, which starts from the Fritzaspis Zone until the Glossopleura walcotti Zone (Begadean-Lincolnian Series, global Stage 3-Stage 5, Series 2-Series 3). The Bolsa Quartzite and the Abrigo Limestone exposed in Cananea area are assigned to the Cedaria/Cedarina dakotaensis Zone until the Crepicephalus Zone (Lincolnian Series-Marjuman Stage, global Series 3-Guzhangian). In the San José de Gracia area, The Proveedora, Buelna, Cerro Prieto and El Gavilán formations range from the ?Bristolia mohavensis or ?Bristolia insolens zones until the upper part of Mexicella mexicana Zone, Albertella highlandensis Subzone (Series 2-Series 3, Stage 4-Stage 5). In the Arivechi area, the La Sata, El Mogallón, La Huerta and the Milpillas formations range from Poliella denticulata Zone to the Elvinia Zone (Lincolnian-Millardan, Delamaran-Steptoean, global Series 3-Furongian, Stage 5-Paibian). Paleozoic marine fauna distribution in northwest Mexico and the southwest United States of America, suggest that during this time an extensive faunal province existed, containing a great variety of marine invertebrates with notorious intraspecific affinity. The biotic association includes poriferans, archaeocyathids, brachiopods, mollusks, arthropods and echinoderms as predominant elements.

  11. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of New Mexico. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  12. The Integration of Mexico into NAFTA: Neoliberal Restructuring and the Crisis of the Party/State System

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Cuijpers; Alex Fernández Jilberto

    1995-01-01

    The incorporation of Mexico into NAFTA is considered a determining reference between two ways of understanding the economic structures and political models of the State. The identification between State and single party, and a certain idea of protectionism, sustained by the premise “industrialization sustituting imports” (ISI) went into crisis beginning with the neoliberal reforms introduced by President Miguel de la Madrid and was continued throughout the mandate of Carlos Salinas de Gortari...

  13. Corima: A Bilingual Experiment in the Tarahumara Region in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico. How Does It Measure against Transitional Bilingual Programs in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Mario A.

    This report explores two bilingual educational approaches currently in use in Mexico and the United States. The study pursues a limited comparison between two modalities of bilingual instruction, as observed and reported in the consulted literature. The U.S. model featured is known as the two-way bilingual model, an additive approach to…

  14. Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, D.; Kim, Y.S.; Zachary, W.W.

    1992-02-01

    The proceedings from the workshop are presented, and the focus was on the application of squeezed states. There are many who say that the potential for industrial applications is enormous, as the history of the conventional laser suggests. All those who worked so hard to produce squeezed states of light are continuing their efforts to construct more efficient squeezed-state lasers. Quite naturally, they are looking for new experiments using these lasers. The physical basis of squeezed states is the uncertainty relation in Fock space, which is also the basis for the creation and annihilation of particles in quantum field theory. Indeed, squeezed states provide a unique opportunity for field theoreticians to develop a measurement theory for quantum field theory

  15. Inferring the relative resilience of alternative states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Rojo, Carmen; Alvarez-Cobelas, Miguel; Rodrigo, Maria A.; Sanchez-Carrillo, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Ecological systems may occur in alternative states that differ in ecological structures, functions and processes. Resilience is the measure of disturbance an ecological system can absorb before changing states. However, how the intrinsic structures and processes of systems that characterize their states affects their resilience remains unclear. We analyzed time series of phytoplankton communities at three sites in a floodplain in central Spain to assess the dominant frequencies or “temporal scales” in community dynamics and compared the patterns between a wet and a dry alternative state. The identified frequencies and cross-scale structures are expected to arise from positive feedbacks that are thought to reinforce processes in alternative states of ecological systems and regulate emergent phenomena such as resilience. Our analyses show a higher species richness and diversity but lower evenness in the dry state. Time series modeling revealed a decrease in the importance of short-term variability in the communities, suggesting that community dynamics slowed down in the dry relative to the wet state. The number of temporal scales at which community dynamics manifested, and the explanatory power of time series models, was lower in the dry state. The higher diversity, reduced number of temporal scales and the lower explanatory power of time series models suggest that species dynamics tended to be more stochastic in the dry state. From a resilience perspective our results highlight a paradox: increasing species richness may not necessarily enhance resilience. The loss of cross-scale structure (i.e. the lower number of temporal scales) in community dynamics across sites suggests that resilience erodes during drought. Phytoplankton communities in the dry state are therefore likely less resilient than in the wet state. Our case study demonstrates the potential of time series modeling to assess attributes that mediate resilience. The approach is useful for assessing

  16. Using litigation to defend women prosecuted for abortion in Mexico: challenging state laws and the implications of recent court judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Jennifer; Noriega, Regina Tamés; Puga, Alma Luz Beltrán Y

    2014-11-01

    While women in Mexico City can access free, safe and legal abortion during the first trimester, women in other Mexican states face many barriers. To complicate matters, between 2008 and 2009, 16 state constitutions were amended to protect life from conception. While these reforms do not annul existing legal abortion indications, they have created additional obstacles for women. Health providers increasingly report women who seek life-saving care for complications such as haemorrhage to the police, and some cases eventually end up in court. The Grupo de Información en Reproducción Elegida (GIRE) has successfully litigated such cases in state courts, with positive outcomes. However, state courts have mainly focused on procedural issues. The Mexican Supreme Court ruling supporting Mexico City's law has had a positive effect, but a stronger stance is needed. This paper discusses the constitutional framework and jurisprudence regarding abortion in Mexico, and the recent Costa Rica decision of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. We assert that Mexican states must guarantee women's access to abortion on the legal grounds established in law. We continue to support litigation at the state level to oblige courts to exonerate women prosecuted for illegal abortion. Advocacy should, of course, also address the legislative and executive branches, while working simultaneously to set legal precedents on abortion. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New Mexico Ghost Towns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data provides locations and non-spatial attributes of many ghost towns in the State of New Mexico, compiled from various sources. Locations provided with...

  18. Proposed waste isolation pilot project (WIPP) and impacts in the state of New Mexico: a socio-economic analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, R.D.; Burness, H.S.; Norton, R.D.

    1981-04-01

    This document is a final report for research conducted concerning the socio-economic impacts in the State of New Mexico that might attend the construction and operation of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The proposed site for the WIPP, known as the Los Medanos site, is in Southeastern New Mexico's Eddy County, some 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico and some 40 miles from Hobbs, New Mexico, in adjacent Lea County. The purpose as set out in the US Department of Energy's environmental impact statements is for storage of TRU waste from the US defense program and the construction of a research and development area for experiments concerning the isolation of all types of nuclear waste in salt. The intended purpose of the study is to identify, measure (when possible) and assess the range of potential socio-economic impacts in the State that may be attributable to the WIPP. Every effort has been made by the authors to approach this task in an objective manner. In efforts to provide an objective analysis of the WIPP, however, particular attention was required in providing a comprehensive review of potential impacts. This means that however unlikely an impact might seem, the authors have purposely avoided pre-judging the potential magnitude of the impact and have applied their best efforts to measure it. On the other hnd, this study is not intended to provide a definitive calculation regarding the net balance of WIPP-related benefits and costs. To help ensure objectivity, two advisory boards, Technical Advisory Board and Public Advisory Board, were formed at the outset of the project for the purpose of providing periodic reviews of research efforts

  19. State policies and requirements for management of uranium mining and milling in New Mexico. Volume V. State policy needs for community impact assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandevender, S.G.

    1980-04-01

    The report contained in this volume describes a program for management of the community impacts resulting from the growth of uranium mining and milling in New Mexico. The report, submitted to Sandia Laboratories by the New Mexico Department of Energy and Minerals, is reproduced without modification. The state recommends that federal funding and assistance be provided to implement a growth management program comprised of these seven components: (1) an early warning system, (2) a community planning and technical assistance capability, (3) flexible financing, (4) a growth monitoring system, (5) manpower training, (6) economic diversification planning, and (7) new technology testing

  20. Organized social involvement in the battle against poverty: PRONASOL’s experiences in three states in the north of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Ordóñez Barba

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to show, through the analysis of empirical data of three states of the north of Mexico, an approximation to the study of neighbour organizations incorporated or originated by the shelter of the Solidarity National Program (Pronasol in order to cooperate in the tasks related with the application and operation of projects for collective benefit.Considering the importance this organizations obtained in the strategy of the program and in the social context, different analysts of that time began to doubt about the arguments that justified the creation of the Solidarity Committees, arguing possible bonds with neocorporative control plans or noticing their limitations for overcoming a merely instrumental participation. Independently of their peculiarities, this critics coincided in a general hypothesis: organised participation in the context of the Solidarity Program doesn’t represent an effective alternative for a change in the process for a democratic reform of the Mexican State.In the present paper, we pretend to explore some answers to that hypothesis dividing Committees in two levels: as instances of communitary participation and management, and as organisations linked with possible schemes of corporative control.

  1. Do Mexican immigrants substitute health care in Mexico for health insurance in the United States? The role of distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Henry Shelton

    2008-12-01

    Although language and culture are important contributors to uninsurance among immigrants, one important contributor may have been overlooked - the ability of immigrants to return to their home country for health care. This paper examines the extent to which uninsurance (private insurance and Medicaid) is related to the ability of immigrants to return to Mexico for health care, as measured by spatial proximity. The data for this study are from the Mexican Migration Project. After controlling for household income, acculturation and demographic characteristics, arc distance to the place of origin plays a role in explaining uninsurance rates. Distance within Mexico is quite important, indicating that immigrants from the South of Mexico are more likely to seek care in their communities of origin (hometowns).

  2. Politics, religion and gender equality in contemporary Mexico: women's sexuality and reproductive rights in a contested secular state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuchástegui, Ana; Cruz, Guadalupe; Aldaz, Evelyn; Mejía, María Consuelo

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the complexities of the interaction between politics, religion and gender equality in contemporary Mexico, by analysing recent developments in public debate, legal changes and implementation of government policies in two areas: 1) the inclusion of emergency contraception in public health services in 2004; and 2) the decriminalisation of abortion in Mexico City in 2008, which was followed by a massive campaign to re-criminalise abortion in the federal states. Three main findings emerge from our analysis: first, that women's sexual and reproductive autonomy has become an issue of intense public debate that is being addressed by both state-public policy and society; second, that the gradual democratisation of the Mexican political system and society is forcing the Catholic Church to play by the rules of democracy; and third, that the character and nature of the Mexican (secular) state has become an arena of intense struggle within which traditional political boundaries and ideologies are being reconfigured.

  3. Canada-United States-Mexico Trilateral Cooperation on Childhood Obesity Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rabadán-Diehl

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Childhood obesity is an important public health problem that affects countries in the Americas. In 2014, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO Member States agreed on a Plan of Action for the Prevention of Obesity in Children and Adolescents in an effort to address the impact of this disorder in the Americas region. The interventions laid out in this regional plan are multi-faceted and require multi-sectoral partnerships. Building on a strong history of successful trilateral collaboration, Canada, Mexico, and the United States formed a partnership to address the growing epidemic of childhood obesity in the North American region. This collaborative effort, known as the Trilateral Cooperation on Childhood Obesity Initiative, is the first initiative in the region to address chronic noncommunicable diseases by bringing together technical and policy experts, with strong leadership and support from the secretaries and ministers of health. The Initiative’s goals include increasing levels of physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior through 1 increased social mobilization and citizen engagement, 2 community- based outreach, and 3 changes to the built (man-made environment. This article describes the background and development process of the Initiative; specific goals, activities, and actions achieved to date; and opportunities and next steps. This information may be useful for those forming other partnerships designed to address childhood obesity or other complex public health challenges in the region.

  4. Impacts of Participatory Modeling on Climate Change-related Water Management Impacts in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, K. E.; Kossak, D. J.; Mayer, A. S.; Vivoni, E. R.; Robles-Morua, A.; Gamez Molina, V.; Dana, K.; Mirchi, A.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change-related impacts on water resources are expected to be particularly severe in the arid developing world. As a result, we conducted a series of participatory modeling workshops on hydrologic and water resources systems modeling in the face of climate change in Sonora, Mexico. Pre-surveys were administered to participants on Day 1 of a series of four workshops spaced out over three months in 2013. Post-surveys repeated many pre-survey questions and included questions assessing the quality of the workshops and models. We report on significant changes in participant perceptions of water resource models and problems and their assessment of the workshops. These findings will be of great value to future participatory modeling efforts, particularly within the developing world.

  5. [Factors related to self-care in diabetes mellitus patients attended at emergency service in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquedano, Irasema Romero; dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Teixeira, Carla Regina de Souza; Martins, Tatiane Aparecida; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia

    2010-12-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the self-care ability of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to relate this capacity with some sociodemographic and clinical variables. Participants were 251 patients who attended the Emergency Service at the Mérida Regional Hospital in Yucatán, Mexico, in 2006. Data were obtained through directed home interviews, using a form, a questionnaire and the Self-Care Capacity Scale. Descriptive and correlation statistics were used for data analysis. The results showed 83 (33.5%) subjects with good and 168 (66.5%) subjects with regular ability. A directly proportional correlation was found between self-care ability and years of study (r = 0.124; p diabetes patients, and further research needs to be developed with a focus on other variables involved in the behavior adopted to benefit their health.

  6. Narcotics-Fueled Violence in Mexico: Crisis for the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    cartels in Mexico which operate on a highly geographic basis. The DTOs responsible for the majority of violence in Mexico are the Tijuana, Gulf, Sinaloa ...infrastructure along the border region to deal with problems such as a mass migration . The Army maintains large facilities at Fort Bliss in El Paso, Texas and

  7. Testing Predictive Models of Technology Integration in Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Cesareo Morales

    2008-01-01

    Data from Mexico City, Mexico (N = 978) and from Texas, USA (N = 932) were used to test the predictive validity of the teacher professional development component of the Will, Skill, Tool Model of Technology Integration in a cross-cultural context. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the model. Analyses of these data yielded…

  8. Waterborne disease-related risk perceptions in the Sonora River basin, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morua, Agustin Robles; Halvorsen, Kathleen E; Mayer, Alex S

    2011-05-01

    Waterborne disease is estimated to cause about 10% of all diseases worldwide. However, related risk perceptions are not well understood, particularly in the developing world where waterborne disease is an enormous problem. We focus on understanding risk perceptions related to these issues in a region within northern Mexico. Our findings show how waterborne disease problems and solutions are understood in eight small communities along a highly contaminated river system. We found major differences in risk perceptions between health professionals, government officials, and lay citizens. Health professionals believed that a high level of human-waste-related risk existed within the region. Few officials and lay citizens shared this belief. In addition, few officials and lay citizens were aware of poor wastewater-management-related disease outbreaks and water contamination. Finally, aside from health professionals, a few interviewees understood the importance of basic hygiene and water treatment measures that could help to prevent disease. Our results add to the literature on environmentally-related risk perceptions in the developing world. We discuss recommendations for improving future human-wastewater-related risk communication within the region. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Fatal Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever along the United States-Mexico Border, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Naomi A; Yaglom, Hayley; Casal, Mariana; Fierro, Maria; Kriner, Paula; Murphy, Brian; Kjemtrup, Anne; Paddock, Christopher D

    2017-10-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is an emerging public health concern near the US-Mexico border, where it has resulted in thousands of cases and hundreds of deaths in the past decade. We identified 4 patients who had acquired RMSF in northern Mexico and subsequently died at US healthcare facilities. Two patients sought care in Mexico before being admitted to US-based hospitals. All patients initially had several nonspecific signs and symptoms, including fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, or myalgia, but deteriorated rapidly without receipt of a tetracycline-class antimicrobial drug. Each patient experienced respiratory failure late in illness. Although transborder cases are not common, early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate treatment are vital for averting severe illness and death. Clinicians on both sides of the US-Mexico border should consider a diagnosis of RMSF for patients with rapidly progressing febrile illness and recent exposure in northern Mexico.

  10. THE UNITED STATES AND NIGERIAN RELATIONS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs. I.D

    2009-12-25

    Dec 25, 2009 ... Peru. Venezuela. Mexico. New Zealand. Virgin Island. Europe. Germany. France. Italy. Netherlands. Portugal. Spain. Sweden. United Kingdom. Switzerland. Asia & far East. Japan. Singapore. India. Indonesia. Korea. Taiwan. China. Thailand. 321,797.8. 12,782.7. 309,015.1. 56,421.7. 2,413.7. 44,448.1.

  11. Geology of the State of Morelos and contiguous areas in south-central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Carl F.

    1959-01-01

    The area described lies in south-central Mexico and embraces all but the southeastern corner and easternmost border of the State of Moreles, the second smallest State in the Mexican Republic. It includes small contiguous parts of the State of Mexico, in the northeastern corner, and of the State of Guerrero in the southwestern corner. Limiting geographic coordinates are 98 45 to 99 39 west longitude and 18 18 to 19 08 north latitude, the northern boundary being only 35 km south of Mexico City, capital of the Republic. The geological map does not cover the entire rectangle outlined, but is irregular in form and measures roughly 4150 sq. km, three-quarters of it representing two0thirds of the State of Moreles and the rest lying outside the State. The region ranges in altitude from 730 m above sea level at Iguala near the south edge of the map, to a general level of about 3000 m at the north edge, although individual peaks rise to 3900 m and Popocatepetl Volcano, a few kilometers east of the northeastern border of the map, rises to 5452 m above sea level. Annual rainfall ranges from a minimum of about 640 mm in the low country, to 1200 mm and more at altitudes above 2000 m. Most of it falls in summer between June and September. Winter frosts are rare below 1800 m. The climate is of savanna to steppe type; soils are thin and may be classified as belonging to the tachernoses group, with strong development of calcareous evaporates (caliche) at altitudes below 1800 m. The northern border of the area forms the southern half of the late Pliocene to Recent Neo-volcanic Belt of basic volcanism that crosses Mexico in the direction N. 80 W., and thus has constructional topography. The rest of the area belongs to the Balsas Basin physiographic province, which is characterized by maturely dissected terrain tributary to the large Balsas River. All but the southwestern corner of the area drains southward via the Amacuzac River into the Mexcala-Balsas River, and thence westward into

  12. Arizona/New Mexico Mountains Ecoregion: Chapter 10 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlman, Jana; Gass, Leila; Middleton, Barry

    2012-01-01

    As the name suggests, the Arizona/New Mexico Mountains Ecoregion includes much of the mountainous regions of these two states, plus a very small part in the Guadalupe Mountains of northwestern Texas. Several isolated areas of higher terrain in Arizona and New Mexico are also included in the ecoregion, which occupies approximately 108,432 km2 (41,866 mi2) (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). The ecoregion is bounded on the south by the Sonoran Basin and Range, Madrean Archipelago, and Chihuahuan Deserts Ecoregions; to the north, the ecoregion is both bounded and surrounded by the Arizona/New Mexico Plateau Ecoregion (fig. 1). The ecoregion encompasses the largest contiguous ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest in the United States (Strom and Fulé, 2007), which stretches from Williams, Arizona, along the Mogollon Rim, Arizona, into southwestern New Mexico, north and west of Silver City, New Mexico.

  13. The Integration of Mexico into NAFTA: Neoliberal Restructuring and the Crisis of the Party/State System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Cuijpers

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of Mexico into NAFTA is considered a determining reference between two ways of understanding the economic structures and political models of the State. The identification between State and single party, and a certain idea of protectionism, sustained by the premise “industrialization sustituting imports” (ISI went into crisis beginning with the neoliberal reforms introduced by President Miguel de la Madrid and was continued throughout the mandate of Carlos Salinas de Gortari, a consequence of the 1982 crisis which brought about the unilateral suspension of debt services, inflation,a strong devaluation of the peso and the nationalization of the bank.The globalization of the world economy, along with Mexico’s adoption of the neoliberal economic model, makes the maintenance of a state system based on economic keynesianism of a populist and authoritarian type, impossible. The authors of this article ask why Mexico, in spite of its long tradition of authoritarianism, corruption and repression has been able to integrate itself into the North American Free Trade Agreement and analyse the future perspectives that this incorporation holds not only for Mexico but also for the United States and for other Latin American countries who see in this initiative a shift from the traditional areas of Latinamerican economic integration and place them on the waiting list for possible adhesion.

  14. Meeting Report: Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers (ISSSTE on Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia, Mexico City, Mexico, 3rd to 4th October 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado Ibarra Martha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available From October 3 to 4, 2016, the fourth meeting of haematologists who belonged to the institute for social security and services for state workers (ISSSTE was held, the meeting was held in Mexico City, Mexico. Attending this working meeting, medical fellows of the specialty of Haematology and Paediatric Haematology, as well as attached doctors of both specialties that work in different hospitals in Mexico City and the rest of the country, the purpose of the attendees to this consensus was discuss, update, and homogenize the protocols of diagnostic and therapeutic approach in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia of all ages. All participants appreciated the opportunity to participate in one of the most important cooperation projects of the ISSSTE and to be able to offer updated treatment protocols to this population or, failing that, to send them a Medical Center that can provide hospital care as soon as possible. Physicians took advantage of this meeting for the scientific exchange, the discussion on projects in course and were planned the development of other consensuses being the closest the one of lymphomas. As in the previous consensuses that were published in a National magazine. The coordinator of this project raised to the attendees the possibility of a publication in magazines of greater prestige international since in countries like Mexico the cooperative work is not frequent and the group of haematologists belonging to ISSSTE are working towards this goal. This consensus was considered as a very well-organized platform to support the research of young fellows in the specialty to stimulate the team work in protocols of the different haematological pathologies and to inform the world the results achieved in a population of patients attended by the ISSSTE. In agreement with the main objective of this consensus on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia once finished and discussed throughout the haematological group, the coordinator for the

  15. [Mammals' camera-trapping in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico: relative abundance and activity patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Rodríguez-Soto, Clarita; Soria-Díaz, Leroy; Urios, Vicente

    2011-03-01

    Species conservation and their management depend on the availability of their population behavior and changes in time. This way, population studies include aspects such as species abundance and activity pattern, among others, with the advantage that nowadays new technologies can be applied, in addition to common methods. In this study, we used camera-traps to obtain the index of relative abundance and to establish activity pattern of medium and large mammals in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico. The study was conducted from December 2003 to May 2006, with a total sampling effort of 4 305 trap-days. We obtained 897 photographs of 19 different species. Nasua narica, Sylvilagus floridanus and Urocyon cinereoargenteus were the most abundant, in agreement with the relative abundance index (RAI, number of independent records/100 trap-days), and according to previous studies with indirect methods in the area. The activity patterns of the species showed that 67% of them are nocturnal, except Odocoileus virginianus, Nasua narica and others. Some species showed differences with previously reported patterns, which are related with seasonality, resources availability, organism sex, principally. The applied method contributed with reliable data about relative abundance and activity patterns.

  16. PRESENCE OF BCMV AND BCMNV IN FIVE DRY BEAN-PRODUCING STATES IN MEXICO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lepe-Soltero

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to assess the frequency of BCMV and BCMNV in five of the main dry bean producing states in Mexico during the spring-summer 2009 and fall-winter growing seasons 2009-2010. States included in the survey were Nayarit, Sinaloa and Sonora in the pacific west coast, Veracruz in the gulf coast and Guanajuato in central Mexico. A total of 338 samples were collected and analyzed by RT-PCR with specific primers for each viral species. Forty-four samples (13% gave positive reaction for BCMV, 70 (21% for BCMNV and 30 (9% were positive for both viral species, 164 (48% were negative for both viruses and 30 (9% could not be defined as of yet. As for cultivars, Azufrado Higuera (Nueva Granada race grown at Sinaloa showed the highest frequency (33% of BCMV, whereas Negro Jamapa (Mesoamerica race from Nayarit displayed highest frequency (50% of BCMNV. In these two states the percentage of positive samples for either viral species was 80%. In addition, in cultivar Negro Jamapa mixed infections of both viruses were detected. Results point out a high risk of viral infection with seed movement across states, particularly since both viral species are seed transmitted and in the states at the pacific west coast, large seed lots are produced during the fall-winter season. Key words: BCMV, BCMNV, bean plants viruses RESUMEN Se llevó a cabo un muestreo en campo para estimar la frecuencia de la ocurrencia de BCMV y BCMNV en cinco estados productores de frijol en México durante los periodos de cultivo primavera-verano y otoño-invierno en el 2009 y 2009/2010. Los estados incluidos en el estudio fueron Nayarit, Sinaloa y Sonora en la costa del pacifico, Veracruz en la costa del golfo y Guanajuato en el centro de México. Se colectó un total de 338 muestras que se analizaron por RT-PCR con iniciadores específicos para cada una de las dos especies virales. Cuarenta y cuatro muestras (13% resultaron positivas para el BCMV, 70 (20% para el

  17. Marketing of meat sheep with intensive finishing in southern state of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón-Ancelmo, Jaime; Hernández-Martínez, Juvencio; Rebollar-Rebollar, Samuel; Salem, Abdelfattah Zeidan Mohamed; Rojo-Rubio, Rolando; Domínguez-Vara, Ignacio Arturo; García-Martínez, Anastacio

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to quantify the marketing margins of cold sheep carcass and barbacoa meat in the southern state of Mexico. Data were obtained from the production chain links (production, industrialization, and marketing) where the marketing margins were calculated along with the benefit/cost (B/C) ratio. In the absolute marketing margin of the final consumer price per kilogram of carcass meat, the producer obtained US$2.7/kg (47 %) of the utilities, while the intermediaries obtained US$3.1/kg (53 %). Considering the final cooked product in barbacoa (typical dish), the margin was US$6.3/kg (29 %) for the producer and US$15.2/kg (71 %) for the intermediaries. The B/C ratio was 1.0, 1.1, 2, and 1.3 for the producer, stocker, butcher, and barbacoa seller, respectively. It is concluded that the best marketing channel for the producer was the producer-stocker-processor (butcher and barbacoa seller). The highest marketing margin was for the intermediaries followed by the producer. The order of importance of the B/C kilogram ratio of meat was for the butcher first, then barbacoa seller, and lastly stocker and producer.

  18. Reallocation of water in the state of New Mexico based on cooperative game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhi Rad, M.

    2011-12-01

    Water allocation models often aim to maximize net benefits in the river basin based on the water rights, thus there is no motivation to use water efficiently by the users with lower marginal value for water. Water markets not only could help increase the net benefits over the basin but also will encourage the stakeholders to save the water and use it in transfer markets and increase their income. This issue can be viewed as a game in which stakeholders can play non-cooperatively and try to increase their own benefits using the amount of water assigned to them or they could cooperate and make coalitions in order to increase the total benefits in the coalition and the whole basin. The aim of this study is to reallocate the water based on cooperation among different stakeholders, namely agricultural, municipal and industrial and environmental, in the Upper Rio Grande river basin in the state of New Mexico in order to increase efficiency, sustainability and equity of water distribution in the basin using different game theory schemes such as Nucleolus and the Shapley Value.

  19. Manganese survey in airborne particulate matter from a mining area at Hidalgo State, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape, F.; Hernandez-Mendez, B.; Flores M, J.

    1999-01-01

    A manganese (Mn) survey in airborne particulate matter from a mining area located in Hidalgo State (Mexico) was performed using PIXE. Deposits of Mn ore, first discovered in 1959 and under continuous exploitation since 1962, are nowadays considered as one of the most important of their kind in the American Continent. Afterwards, local inhabitants have been under continuous overexposure to dusts and water highly enriched with Mn. Since no information was available about Mn content in airborne particulate matter in that area, especially in the respirable fraction PM 2.5 , airborne particles were collected simultaneously at two sites located on opposite sides of the rim of the mining valley, and along the line of prevailing local winds. The sample collection was performed on eight alternate days, taking two samples per day (day-time and night-time) at each sampling site, using Stacked Filter Units (SFUs) of the Davis design to separate particles into fine (PM 2.5 ) and coarse (PM 15 ) sizes. The samples were PIXE analyzed and the results of this study revealed that Mn content, in both fine and coarse fractions, were in excess of the general urban background level of 40 ng/m 3 (US Environmental Protection Agency, 1990) in more than 50% of the samples, which indicate severe environmental deterioration in the place under study

  20. Societies of Control: State techno-surveillance and Civic Resistance in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Ricaurte Quijano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to discuss the global and local implications of State surveillance in the light of the theoretical approach around control societies. We hold that the systematic, continuous and total techno-surveillance is an undeniable fact that promotes and requires multivaried forms of civil resistance. To demonstrate our position, we conducted a brief count of the actions undertaken by the Mexican civil society against the laws that promote the use of technology as a monitoring tool in Mexico, and the presence of spyware in Mexican operators. Finally, we present the consequences of techno-surveillance for journalists, activists and human rights advocates. This article concludes that monitoring practices in control societies are implemented by means of socio-technical mechanisms which articulate the public with the private sphere and are carried out with the civilian consent. However, various forms of civic resistance emerge in the continuity of the private and the public, the virtual and the physical, the local and the global.

  1. Drinking water microbiological survey of the Northwestern State of Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidez, Cristobal; Soto, Marcela; Martinez, Celida; Keswick, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    A potable water survey, in two important municipalities of the state of Sinaloa, Mexico was conducted. Culiacan, capital city of Sinaloa and its neighboring municipality, Navolato were selected to enumerate Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, fecal and total coliforms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Heterotrophic plate count bacteria from 100 households' taps. Manganese; residual chlorine; pH; temperature and turbidity were also examined. Overall, Aeromonas hydrophila was not detected in any of the samples, 3% contained Escherichia coli, 28% had fecal and 46 total coliforms, P. aeruginosa was present in 15% of the samples. HPC bacteria were found in all of the samples but 43% had numbers greater than 500 CFU per ml. The average numbers obtained for the physico-chemical parameters were 0.15 mg/L; 0.32 mg/L; 6.5; 28.7 degrees C and 2.92 NTU for manganese, residual chlorine, pH, temperature and turbidity, respectively. The findings of the current study demonstrate that potable water from both municipalities can harbor substantial numbers of indicator and opportunistic pathogens suggesting that additional treatment in the household may be needed.

  2. Posse Comitatus and the Use of the Military in Denying Terrorist Access to the United States Along the Border with Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Greg A

    2005-01-01

    .... The largely unsecured border we share with Mexico is an enticing avenue for illegal immigrants and drug smugglers but also, and more importantly, for potential terrorists hostile to the United States...

  3. Assessing the potential to sequester carbon within state highway rights-of-way in New Mexico phase 2: development of a right-of-way carbon sequestration program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    The New Mexico Department of Transportation (NMDOT) was selected by the Federal Highway : Administration (FHWA) to determine the feasibility of maximizing carbon sequestration within state : highway rightsofway (ROW). Golder Associates Inc. was...

  4. English Teaching in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses teaching English in Mexico, a country with important social, cultural, and economic ties to the United States. Looks at the various English teaching situations as well as teacher education for teachers in Mexico. Concludes that the English teaching situation in Mexico reflects great diversity and growth, and that the knowledge of English…

  5. Current State Senate Districts for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. Current State Senate Districts for Curry County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Current State Senate Districts for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. Current State House Districts for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. Current State House Districts for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. Current State House Districts for San Miguel County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Current State House Districts for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Current State House Districts for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Current State House Districts for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. Current State Senate Districts for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Current State Senate Districts for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Current State House Districts for Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Methylmercury in the Gulf of Mexico: State of Knowledge and Research Needs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    The Interagency Working Group on Methylmercury was formed in response to concern about potential adverse effects on human health associated with consumption of fish and shellfish in the Gulf of Mexico...

  18. Current State Senate Districts for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Negotiating Formal Membership in Mexico and the United States: The case of Federations of Mexican Hometown Associations in Los Angeles County

    OpenAIRE

    Noriega Gonzalez, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on how Mexican Federations of HTAs have negotiated their formal membership in Mexico and the United States. In Mexico, migrants’ market citizenship opened the channels of communication between Federations of HTAs, and the Mexican government. Once those channels were established; HTA Federation leaders were able to negotiate their passage from market to formal membership. In the case of the United States, HTA Federations have advocated for a formal inclusion in the United St...

  20. A Cross-National Comparison of Risk Factors for Teen Dating Violence in Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludin, Samantha; Bottiani, Jessika H; Debnam, Katrina; Solis, Mercedes Gabriela Orozco; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2018-03-01

    Involvement in dating violence has been linked with negative health outcomes including depressive symptomology, substance use, and later expressions of aggressing and victimizing behaviors. Less is known about the prevalence and mental health correlates of teen dating violence in countries like Mexico where adult partner violence is high. Additional research on teen dating violence is also needed, as it may be an important precursor to adult partner violence and linked to other mental health problems. The current study used self-report ratings to assess the similarities and differences in risk factors associated with dating violence among middle school students in Mexico and the United States. The US sample (N us  = 15,099; M us  = 12.8; 49.5% female) included non-Hispanic Caucasian (24.9%), Hispanic American (20.3%), and African American (24.2%) adolescents. The Mexican sample (N Mexico  = 2211; M Mexico  = 13.67; 51% female) included 93.1% adolescents of Hispanic or Latin descent. Logistic regressions showed that dating violence victimization was reported at similar rates in the cross-national samples, though exposure to risk factors like deviant peers and substance use differed significantly by country. Our analyses indicated that, although the country of residence was not significantly associated with dating violence victimization, the strength of the association between some known risk factors and dating violence victimization varied as a function of nationality, such that there was a significant interaction between country of residence, Mexico or the US, and experiencing internalizing symptoms on experiencing physical dating violence victimization. This study contributes to the growing body of literature on dating violence, both inside and outside the US.

  1. [Harassment experiences among students of health-related professional careers in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Compeán-Dardón, María Sandra; Gallardo-Hernández, Georgina; Támez-González, Silvia; Pérez-Salgado, Diana; Verde-Flota, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the frequency with which students of health-related professional careers have perceived themselves as victims of sexual harassment, how this has occurred, and the characteristics of those students associated with that experience. Cross-sectional descriptive study, with a sample of 530 students from health-related schools at the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Xochimilco in Mexico City. Statistical analysis was stratified by sex, age, race, perception of physical attractiveness, transgression of gender stereotypes, and sexual orientation. Experiences of sexual harassment were assessed based on a scale of 19 questions. Five components were identified by factor analysis: verbal and/or physical harassment by inadequate staring/glancing, inadequate proposals, and comments. In general, women were more harassed by inadequate staring/glancing; those who perceived themselves as being more physically attractive were more verbally harassed, whereas those who transgressed gender stereotypes were more exposed to physical harassment and harrassing glances as compared to men who were seen themselves as being less attractive and who did not transgressed the gender stereotype. Sexual harassment is an existing situation occurring among students. It is necessary to detect and recognize the forms of presentation of gender inequalities to avoid imposing sanctions on conducts that are not adhered to gender stereotypes.

  2. Depression among diabetic women in urban centers in Mexico and the United States of America: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara Muñoz, María del Carmen; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Escamilla, Marco Antonio; Mendenhall, Emily

    2014-10-01

    To compare the prevalence and patterns of depressive symptoms among women with type 2 diabetes in Puebla, Mexico, and Chicago, United States. Two cross-sectional studies were conducted independently, in Puebla (September 2010-March 2011) and in Chicago (January-July 2010). Depression symptomatology was evaluated in a random sample of 241 women self-reporting type 2 diabetes in Puebla and a convenience sample of 121 women of Mexican descent seeking care for type 2 diabetes in Chicago. Depressive symptomatology was measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale administered in either English or Spanish. Women were similarly socioeconomically disadvantaged with low education levels in both locations. The Chicago sample of women reported higher levels of depression than the Puebla sample (38% versus 17%, P depression and diabetes in both sites, minimal variations in symptoms were observed. Depressive symptoms, specifically the subjective element (feeling sad) and symptoms associated with diabetes (fatigue and sleep problems) were heightened in both groups. More frequent reporting of "feeling fearful" was statistically significant in Puebla. Despite a higher prevalence of depression among Mexican immigrant women with diabetes in the United States compared to Mexico, there was little variation in their depressive symptoms, regardless of residence. However, women in Mexico did report a higher incidence of fear. Screening for depression in patients with diabetes should take into account symptoms of fatigue and sleep and the bi-directional relationship of depression and diabetes.

  3. Depression among diabetic women in urban centers in Mexico and the United States of America: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Lara Muñoz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence and patterns of depressive symptoms among women with type 2 diabetes in Puebla, Mexico, and Chicago, United States. METHODS: Two cross-sectional studies were conducted independently, in Puebla (September 2010-March 2011 and in Chicago (January-July 2010. Depression symptomatology was evaluated in a random sample of 241 women self-reporting type 2 diabetes in Puebla and a convenience sample of 121 women of Mexican descent seeking care for type 2 diabetes in Chicago. Depressive symptomatology was measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale administered in either English or Spanish. Women were similarly socioeconomically disadvantaged with low education levels in both locations. RESULTS: The Chicago sample of women reported higher levels of depression than the Puebla sample (38% versus 17%, P < 0.0001. Among those with comorbid depression and diabetes in both sites, minimal variations in symptoms were observed. Depressive symptoms, specifically the subjective element (feeling sad and symptoms associated with diabetes (fatigue and sleep problems were heightened in both groups. More frequent reporting of "feeling fearful" was statistically significant in Puebla. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a higher prevalence of depression among Mexican immigrant women with diabetes in the United States compared to Mexico, there was little variation in their depressive symptoms, regardless of residence. However, women in Mexico did report a higher incidence of fear. Screening for depression in patients with diabetes should take into account symptoms of fatigue and sleep and the bi-directional relationship of depression and diabetes.

  4. Knowledge about useful entomofauna in the county of La Purísima Palmar de Bravo, Puebla State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Zetina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen species of edible insects belonging to 15 families of six orders of Insecta were recorded in the county of La Purísima Palmar de Bravo in Puebla State, Mexico. They had the following taxonomic distribution among the different families: Lygaeidae, Pentatomidae, Membracidae, Cercopidae, Psocidae, Melolonthidae, Curculionidae, Cossidae, Megathymidae, Pyralidae, Geometridae and Apidae, all with a single recorded species; the families Acrididae, Formicidae and Vespidae with two species in each family. The latter were the most abundant families, and Hymenoptera was the most salient order with five species. Three species were reported as new registers of edible insects for Mexico and also for the world. The nutritive value of insects in terms of macro and micronutrients is discussed.

  5. A comparative approach to the economic participation of older adults: the case of the city of Monterrey and Mexico State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl E. López

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of economic participation of over 65 years in Mexico has attracted particular interest due mainly to high rates of participation that holds this age group. Most national and regional research agrees that the social protection system is a key determinant for the decision to participate or not in the labor market by older adults. However, the comparison of different scenarios is not yet widely used practice in this area and do not know deeply the dynamics of this phenomenon. Using two different data sources, this paper intends to compare the employment status of older adults in the state of Mexico and Monterrey, with the ultimate aim of inquiring about the specifics of the phenomenon.

  6. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of New Mexico and Wyoming. Volume 4, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of New Mexico and Wyoming. Individual reports for six other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to New Mexico's known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD ampersand D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD ampersand D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the states of New Mexico and Wyoming and the nation as a whole

  7. Glaucoma Medication Preferences among Glaucoma Specialists in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Lazcano-Gomez, Gabriel; Alvarez-Ascencio, Daniela; Haro-Zuno, Cindy; Turati-Acosta, Mauricio; Garcia-Huerta, Magdalena; Jimenez-Arroyo, Jesus; Castañeda-Diez, Rafael; Castillejos-Chevez, Armando; Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto; Dominguez-Dueñas, Francisca; Jimenez-Roman, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Aim To determine the glaucoma specialists’ preferences for the different brands of topical glaucoma medications available in Mexico. Materials and methods A web-based survey was sent to 150 board-certified glaucoma specialists in Mexico, with 14 questions related to brand preferences for all glaucoma medications available in Mexico. Participants were asked to select each glaucoma medication class by brand and to state the factors leading to their choice. Results Data from 111 (74%) glaucoma s...

  8. The Romanomermis iyengari parasite for Anopheles pseudopunctipennis suppression in natural habitats in Oaxaca State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamarina Mijares Alberto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In September and November 1996 Romanomermis iyengari Welch, a parasite of larval mosquitoes, was released in 44 natural larval habitat sites of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald in an attempt to reduce the larval populations of this important malaria vector. The selected treatment sites ranged in size from 5 to 500 m². The study was carried out in Pochutla District of Oaxaca State, on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Chemical pesticides to reduce vector populations have been the principal tool in malaria suppression campaigns. However, the excessive use of these chemicals has created pesticide resistance and other serious collateral problems. Therefore, a biological control project using agents that are pathogens of Anopheles larvae was initiated in 1996. The principal objective was to establish mass rearing capacities for R. iyengari. Detailed methodology for rearing and introducing these nematodes into mosquito larval habitats was established at the National Polytechnic Institute of Oaxaca State. Before application of the parasites to larval habitats, site characteristics were determined, including size, depth, aquatic vegetation, salinity, pH, conductivity, temperature, and pretreatment larval density. With a compressed air sprayer, infective mermithid parasites were released at rates of either 2000 or 3000/m², and the parasites produced high levels of infection. Anopheles populations were sampled 72 h posttreatment, and the larvae obtained were taken to the laboratory and examined through microscopic dissection to determine infection levels and mean parasitism. Nematode parasitism ranged from 85 to 100% at all the treatment sites, even though no previous information concerning field parasitism of An. pseudopunctipennis by R. iyengari has been reported. In addition, a significant reduction of mosquito larval density at the treatment sites was found five days after the nematode application. Levels of parasitism were indicative of the number

  9. Risk factors for prevalent hepatitis C virus-infection among inmates in a state prison system in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo F Belaunzarán-Zamudio

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence of HCV-infection and identify associated factors among inmates in the State Prison System of Guanajuato in Mexico (Sep-2011 to Feb-2012.Cross-sectional, observational study in 10 prisons in the State of Guanajuato in Mexico (2011-2012. We offered HCV-testing and applied audio computer-assisted self-interviews to all adults imprisoned in the State Prison System. We used a complex survey analysis to estimate the distribution of variables and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals, taking into consideration the expected cluster effect by common characteristics within prisons. Inverse probability weights were applied to correct potential biased estimates arising from non-participation in accrual activities and non-response rates. We fitted multivariate logistic regression models to identify risk-behaviors associated to HCV-infection.We included data of 2,519 participating inmates. Prevalence of HCV-infection was 4.9 (95%CI = 3.6-5.9. Most HCV-infected inmates were male (99%. Before being incarcerated, inmates with HCV-infection were more frequently tattooed, used and injected drugs more frequently, and were more likely to share materials for injecting, when compared with those non-infected. During incarceration, HCV-infected inmates got tattoos and used drugs more often than non-infected, including injecting-drugs and sharing materials. Injecting-drug use (OR = 7.6, 95%CI, 2.5-23.4, sharing materials for injecting-drugs (OR = 19.6, 95%CI, 4.7-81.7 and being tattooed at least once before incarceration (OR = 2.1, 95%CI, 1.1-3.9, but not during incarceration, were independently associated to HCV-infection.The prevalence of HCV-infection among inmates in the State of Guanajuato in Mexico is considerably higher than in the general population. The most important risk factors for HCV in this inmate population were injecting-drugs and sharing materials for injections before incarceration. High-risk behaviors during

  10. Benzoates intakes from non-alcoholic beverages in Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika; Lau, Annette; Darch, Maryse; Roberts, Ashley

    2017-09-01

    Food consumption data from national dietary surveys were combined with brand-specific-use levels reported by beverage manufacturers to calculate the exposure to benzoic acid and its salts (INS Nos 210-213) from non-alcoholic beverages in Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States. These four jurisdictions were identified as having some of the most prevalent use of benzoates in beverages globally. Use levels were weighted according to the brand's market volume share in the respective countries. Benzoates were reported to be used primarily in 'water-based flavoured drinks' (Codex General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) category 14.1.4). As such, the assessments focused only on intakes from these beverage types. Two different models were established to determine exposure: probabilistic (representing non-brand loyal consumers) and distributional (representing brand-loyal consumers). All reported-use levels were incorporated into both models, including those above the Codex interim maximum benzoate use level (250 mg kg -1 ). The exception to this was in the brand-loyal models for consumers of regular carbonated soft drinks (brand loyal category) which used (1) the interim maximum use level for beverages with a pH ≤ 3.5 and (2) all reported use levels for beverages pH > 3.5 (up to 438 mg kg -1 ). The estimated exposure levels using both models were significantly lower than the ADI established for benzoates at the mean level of intake (4-40% ADI) and lower than - or at the ADI only for toddlers/children - at the 95th percentile (23-110% ADI). The results rendered in the models do not indicate a safety concern in these jurisdictions, and as such provide support for maintaining the current Codex interim maximum benzoate level of 250 mg kg -1 in water-based beverages.

  11. Genetic Diversity in Jatropha curcas Populations in the State of Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Salvador-Figueroa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L. has become an important source of oil production for biodiesel fuel. Most genetic studies of this plant have been conducted with Asian and African accessions, where low diversity was encountered. There are no studies of this kind focusing in the postulated region of origin. Therefore, five populations of J. curcas were studied in the state of Chiapas, Mexico, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers. One hundred and fifty-two useful markers were obtained: overall polymorphism = 81.18% and overall Nei’s genetic diversity (He = 0.192. The most diverse population was the Border population [He: 0.245, Shanon’s information index (I: 0.378]. A cluster analysis revealed the highest dissimilarity coefficient (0.893 yet to be reported among accessions. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed that the greatest variation is within populations (87.8%, followed by the variation among populations (7.88%. The PhiST value (0.121 indicated moderate differentiation between populations. However, a spatial AMOVA (SAMOVA detected a stronger genetic structure of populations, with a PhiST value of 0.176. To understand the fine structure of populations, an analysis of data with Bayesian statistics was conducted with software Structure©. The number of genetic populations (K was five, with mixed ancestry in most individuals (genetic migrants, except in the Soconusco, where there was a tiny fraction of fragments from other populations. In contrast, SAMOVA grouped populations in four units. To corroborate the above findings, we searched for possible genetic barriers, determining as the main barrier that separating the Border from the rest of the populations. The results are discussed based on the possible ancestry of populations.

  12. [General surgery in a rural hospital in the State of Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón-Arredondo, Guillermo

    2006-01-01

    The general surgeon maintains extraordinary validity worldwide, especially in countries like the United States, Canada, India, and continents such as Australia and Africa. In addition to their role as a general surgeon, they assist with surgical pathologies in rural areas where there is generally a lack of technology to carry out complicated procedures. Therefore, we undertook this study to determine the number and type of surgical procedures carried out in a rural hospital with three general surgeons, as well as to determine morbidity and respective mortality. The study was retrospective and longitudinal, using descriptive statistics during a 5.5-year period. During the period of June 1999 to December 2004, a total of 651 (100%) surgical procedures were carried out. There were 351 males (53%) and 300 females (47%) with average age of 28.5 +/- 16.0 years. There were 408 (63%) minor surgical procedures accomplished in the operating room: 150 (45%) for females with average age of 25.8 +/- 13.8 years old and 258 (55%) for males with average age of 27.7 +/- 15.5 years old. There were 243 major surgical procedures (37%): for females there were 150 (60%) with average age of 28.4 +/- 11.8 years old and for males there were 93 (40%) with average age of 29.5 +/- 16.6 years old [morbidity, six cases (0.9%) and mortality, two cases (0.3%)]. The demand for surgery in rural areas is not different from the surgery carried out in large cities, although there are limitations. It is important in this regard to adequately prepare the general surgeon in Mexico.

  13. Exposure and Knowledge of Sharps Injuries among Medical Students in Seven States of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Camacho-Ortiz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students are vulnerable to accidental exposure to blood-borne pathogens when performing clinical activities. Knowle­dge of both the prevalence of exposure and necessary reporting procedures is important to minimize the risk of harm to medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey of medical students from 19 universities from seven states in Mexico was utilized to determine the prevalence of needle stick injuries amongst medical students and the associated reporting procedures. Results: We included 312 res­pondents; of these, 52.24% were men and 47.76% were women, with a mean age of 23.19 years (SD ± 2.11 years. Nearly all of them (94.23% were medical students doing clerkships in public hospitals. Mean knowledge score of blood-borne pathogens was 3.6 (SD ± 1.16 on a scale of 0-10 designed specifically for this study. Thirty-five per cent of the respondents had sustained a needle stick injury at some point during their medical school training, and 33.97% reported some type of mucocutaneous exposure. Overall, the non-reporting rate of needle stick injury was 48.34%. Approximately 25% of the respondents were not familiar with reporting procedures in the event of a needle stick injury or mucocutaneous exposure; 61.50% had received information from their hospital about the standard protocol to follow after a blood or body fluid exposure. Conclusion: In this Mexican population of medical students, there is a high risk of suffering needle stick injuries during medical training. Furthermore, knowledge regarding prevention, evaluation, and reporting of needle stick injuries is suboptimal.

  14. Diversity, abundance, and host relationships of avian malaria and related haemosporidians in New Mexico pine forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario A. Marroquin-Flores

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Avian malaria and related haemosporidian parasites (genera Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon affect bird demography, species range limits, and community structure, yet they remain unsurveyed in most bird communities and populations. We conducted a community-level survey of these vector-transmitted parasites in New Mexico, USA, to describe their diversity, abundance, and host associations. We focused on the breeding-bird community in the transition zone between piñon-juniper woodland and ponderosa pine forests (elevational range: 2,150–2,460 m. We screened 186 birds representing 49 species using both standard PCR and microscopy techniques to detect infections of all three avian haemosporidian genera. We detected infections in 68 out of 186 birds (36.6%, the highest proportion of which were infected with Haemoproteus (20.9%, followed by Leucocytozoon (13.4%, then Plasmodium (8.0%. We sequenced mtDNA for 77 infections representing 43 haplotypes (25 Haemoproteus, 12 Leucocytozoon, 6 Plasmodium. When compared to all previously known haplotypes in the MalAvi and GenBank databases, 63% (27 of the haplotypes we recovered were novel. We found evidence for host specificity at the avian clade and species level, but this specificity was variable among parasite genera, in that Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon were each restricted to three avian groups (out of six, while Plasmodium occurred in all groups except non-passerines. We found striking variation in infection rate among host species, with nearly universal infection among vireos and no infection among nuthatches. Using rarefaction and extrapolation, we estimated the total avian haemosporidian diversity to be 70 haplotypes (95% CI [43–98]; thus, we may have already sampled ∼60% of the diversity of avian haemosporidians in New Mexico pine forests. It is possible that future studies will find higher diversity in microhabitats or host species that are under-sampled or unsampled in the

  15. Ozone and PM related health co-benefits of climate change policies in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Barker, Terry; Anger, Annela; Dessens, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of extending a previous analysis of reductions in ozone exposures resulting from greenhouse gas reduction policies in Mexico, to the case of estimating reductions in premature death and risks of non-fatal diseases following reductions in both ozone and particulate matter exposures. The results show that a policy of greenhouse gas reduction in the Mexican economy by 77% relative to a baseline growth scenario results in reduced mortality loss of almost 3000 lives per year. The benefit in terms of non-fatal disease is 417,000 cases reduced per year, at a savings of $0.6B per year in cost of illness. These reductions in human health risk, stemming from co-benefits of climate change policies, are significant in light of targets of risk reduction typically used in environmental regulatory decisions, and would be considered important drivers of policy choice if climate policy were harmonised with other areas of risk-based environmental policy.

  16. Strategic Environmental Education Plan for the State of Sinaloa (SEEPSIN), Mexico, 2011-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecillas Nunez, C.; Miguel-rodriguez, A.

    2012-12-01

    SEEPSIN is based on the principles of action research (Kurt Lewin), a comparative research on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action and research leading to social action that uses a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of a circle of planning, action, and fact-finding about the result of the action. It was designed and implemented by the Autonomous University of Sinaloa, Mexico, for the Human and Social Development Secretariat (SEDESHU) with funding from SEMARNAT and Sinaloa State. The objective of SEEPSIN is to foster an environmental culture of the population living in the catchment - subject to intervention - through non-formal educational process, using the model of environmental education developed by Torrecillas et al 2008. Non-formal education and continuing education are factors that should be in constant development, evolving along with all the changes that are occurring in the context, thus they are a suitable instrument to promote change and improve the cultural, social, economic and environmental well-being of the population. In turn this contributes to the development of skills in children, youth and the general public considering the watershed and community involvement as central to restoring the balance of man and nature, based on the implementation of sustainable development models. The tools and program for SEEPSIN include: dissemination of the project; acquisition of a mobile environmental education unit; developing and distributing educational materials including books, pamphlets, brochures, manuals, calendars, posters, guides and CD's; installation in the webpage of the State Government through a specially designed software to provide access for all Sinaloa; forming a network of trainers and promoters, including staff of the 18 municipalities and students at all levels; media intervention; creation of a State Environmental Education Forum and evaluation/analysis of the results. Training is provided through

  17. Radioactive wastes repository in Temascalapa, State of Mexico, public opinion. Determination of health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis Tinoco, E.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear waste usually concerns public about the impact on public health and the environment. In Mexico, such interest exists, particularly in the Temascalapa Municipality, Mexico where a low level waste repository recognized by the IAEA, has been functioning since 1972. Maquixco repository is located at 42 Kilometers northeast of Mexico City. Although the environmental radiological monitoring records have demonstrated negligible impact on the environment, in 1998 an unusual public polemic on radioactive health effects appeared among Temascalapa residents. This paper presents a research performed during 1998 with the participation of the National Nuclear Research Institute of Mexico and the National Autonomous University of Mexico. The research design allowed the involvement of local authorities, as a way of stimulate public participation. The research was performed in nine locations of the Temascalapa Municipality, it was focused on public polemics, associated to Maquixco repository as well as trying to identify demographic factors that exert influence on public attitudes. There are also presented the results of personal dosimetry analysis performed on a four hundred residents sample of this Municipality. (Author)

  18. A multi-tracer approach to delineate groundwater dynamics in the Rio Actopan Basin, Veracruz State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Quezadas, Juan; Heilweil, Victor M.; Cortés Silva, Alejandra; Araguas, Luis; Salas Ortega, María del Rocío

    2016-12-01

    Geochemistry and environmental tracers were used to understand groundwater resources, recharge processes, and potential sources of contamination in the Rio Actopan Basin, Veracruz State, Mexico. Total dissolved solids are lower in wells and springs located in the basin uplands compared with those closer to the coast, likely associated with rock/water interaction. Geochemical results also indicate some saltwater intrusion near the coast and increased nitrate near urban centers. Stable isotopes show that precipitation is the source of recharge to the groundwater system. Interestingly, some high-elevation springs are more isotopically enriched than average annual precipitation at higher elevations, indicating preferential recharge during the drier but cooler winter months when evapotranspiration is reduced. In contrast, groundwater below 1,200 m elevation is more isotopically depleted than average precipitation, indicating recharge occurring at much higher elevation than the sampling site. Relatively cool recharge temperatures, derived from noble gas measurements at four sites (11-20 °C), also suggest higher elevation recharge. Environmental tracers indicate that groundwater residence time in the basin ranges from 12,000 years to modern. While this large range shows varying groundwater flowpaths and travel times, ages using different tracer methods (14C, 3H/3He, CFCs) were generally consistent. Comparing multiple tracers such as CFC-12 with CFC-113 indicates piston-flow to some discharge points, yet binary mixing of young and older groundwater at other points. In summary, groundwater within the Rio Actopan Basin watershed is relatively young (Holocene) and the majority of recharge occurs in the basin uplands and moves towards the coast.

  19. Quality traits of pork semimembranosus and triceps brachii muscles sourced from the United States and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Suárez, E J; Rubio-Lozano, M S; Toledo-López, V M; Torrescano-Urrutia, G R; Ponce-Alquicira, E; Huerta-Leidenz, N

    2016-12-01

    The study included fresh pork semimembranosus (SM, n=289) and triceps brachii (TB, n=283) muscles sourced from meat packers of Mexico and the USA. Samples were analyzed for moisture, protein, and fat content, pH, shear force (WBSF), cook loss, water holding capacity (WHC), instrumental color, emulsion capacity (EC) and stability (ES), and consumer sensory ratings. SM from the USA had lower WBSF (P0.05) across countries. TB from Mexico had higher (Ppork exhibits better technological properties, while country of origin has less effect on consumer acceptability. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Moving from a Predominantly Teaching Oriented Culture to a Research Productivity Mission: The Case of Mexico and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gregorutti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study qualitatively analyzes the culture conflicts professors in the United States and Mexico are experiencing with the increasing pressures to produce more research about higher education. The first dataset was collected from 36 faculty members from 12 small and medium sized private, doctorate-granting universities. These universities are located in 11 states across the United States. The remaining data came from 44 faculty members employed at four small and medium sized private, doctoral granting universities in four states across Mexico. Results showed that universities in the US are transitioning from a predominantly teaching college culture to a more research orientation. Although the sampled universities continue to offer established graduate programs, faculty members continue to struggle with their teaching requirements and conflicts research productivity pressures place on their teaching and mentoring time with students. Participating faculty members employed in the US were not evenly interested in research opportunities due to the diverse mission objectives promoted by their respective institutions. On the other hand, faculty members employed in Mexico were generally more concerned with their research productivity and subsequent factors, which negatively impact their research productivity. Mexican faculty members rarely cited conflicts between their institutional missions and teaching objectives. This study is highly relevant to policy makers, higher education administrators, and scholars interested in comparative and international higher education. Administrators can benefit from the findings in this study, which provides faculty members’ perceptions and describes departmental structures and organizational dynamics employed to advance greater research and development opportunities. This study concludes with a discussion on how administrators and faculty members should handle the pressures for research productivity and

  1. Water Awareness Strategy for Sinaloa State, Mexico, as a Tool to Mitigate the Imbalance of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecillas Nunez, C.; Miguel-Rodriguez, A.

    2013-05-01

    Agriculture is extremely important to Sinaloa contributing 32.31% of the value of all national agricultural production, while the state occupies only 2.9% of the Mexico's area. However it has caused an imbalance in nature due to the low efficiency of irrigation being 49% and using 93% of the surface waters of the region, hence the importance of promoting water awareness. The Water Awareness Strategy for Sinaloa (PLECASIN) 2013- 2015 is a product of the workshop held with water advisers representing 14 utilities, and sponsored by CEAPAS and CONAGUA to address water resources issues in the state, low dam levels and the high level of non-payment, through involving society in the management of water resources. The workshop established strategies to achieve the objective of the National Water Awareness Program (PCA): "Contribute to strengthening the participation of users, organized society and citizens in water management and promote the culture of its good use, through consultation and promotion of cultural and educational activities in coordination with the states, to promote the importance of water resources in social welfare, economic development and the preservation of the ecological wealth, to achieve development sustainable of the nation". PLECASIN was developed using the methodology of strategic planning, beginning with a diagnosis of PCA and the development of strategies pertinent to the current environment in Sinaloa. Activities in the workshop included: defining the vision, mission and objectives, stakeholder analysis, SWOT Matrix, and finally the development of the Logical Framework Analysis Matrix. In addition, the workshop applied the PEEAES tools, using primarily the book of the 5 Waters and application of innovative technologies. The Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa designed and implemented an Environmental Education Strategy (PEEAES) to foster an environmental awareness through non-formal educational process and includes: a mobile environmental

  2. A participatory approach to integrated aquifer management: The case of Guanajuato State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Ricardo

    Guanajuato State, located in central Mexico, with less than 2% of the country's area, has almost 17,000 deep water wells, from which nearly 4,000 cubic hectometers (hm3) per year are being extracted, more than 1,000 hm3 over the estimated renewable yield. Since, in Mexico, water is administered under federal jurisdiction by the National Water Commission (CNA, for its Spanish acronym), the state government faces the challenge of ensuring its population's economic development without formal means of intervention. Being thus limited to apply mandatory policies and measures, the state water program has focused on the implementation of a two-sided strategy. First, basic hydrogeological studies and mathematical groundwater hydrodynamic models were developed upon a comprehensive survey of existing wells and a general revision of the state's geological framework. Second, a structure for water user's participation in water management actions was promoted (from the dissemination of information to the implementation of pilot efficient water use projects) with financial, technical and political support from the state. Simultaneously, a coordinated effort towards the completion of the water user's registry was performed with the federal authority along with other supporting measures such as training and monitoring programs. In this paper, a general overview of the project's achievements and challenges is presented. L'État de Guanajuato, situé dans la partie centrale du Mexique, avec moins de 2% de la surface du pays, a près de 17 000 puits profonds, d'où sont extraits près de 4 000 hm3 par an, soit plus de 1 000 hm3 de plus que le débit renouvelable estimé. Comme au Mexique l'eau est administrée dans le cadre d'une juridiction fédérale, le gouvernement de l'État fait tout son possible pour assurer le développement de sa population sans moyens formels d'intervention. Étant ainsi limité à appliquer des politiques et des mesures de recommandations, le programme Eau

  3. The Economics of Gender in Mexico: Work, Family, State, and Market. Directions in Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Elizabeth G., Ed.; Correia, Maria C., Ed.

    The studies compiled in this book analyze the effects of gender on the well-being of individuals and households in Mexico. Analyses examine gender issues over the life cycle, including education and child labor, adult urban and rural labor participation, and the situation of elderly Mexican men and women. Following an introduction by Elizabeth…

  4. Emerging Threat to America: Non-State Entities Fighting Fourth Generation Warfare in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    warfare in Juarez, Mexico contrasts with the “peaceful” cities of Ciudad Acuña and Piedras Negras controlled by the Zetas who demonstrate 4GW tactics...Vulliamy, 2009). Within the cities of Acuna and Piedra Negras where one Pack Virus (the Zetas) has effective control of these limited geographic

  5. The United States of America and Mexico-NAFTA or Trump?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Năstase Luiza Loredana

    2017-01-01

    The US-Mexico trade for the 18-year period (1999-2016 will also be discussed, as well as theopinion of the politician and businessman Donald Trump as the official US official. All this will beshown in the following rows.

  6. 78 FR 35103 - Extension of Border Zone in the State of New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ..., established in 1953, was intended to promote the economic stability of the border region by allowing for freer... having to obtain a Form I-94. Although the border zone was intended to promote the economic stability of... maintain security of the border while increasing economic activity in New Mexico's border region and...

  7. New Mexico Math Pathways Taskforce Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Higher Education Department, 2016

    2016-01-01

    In April 2015 New Mexico faculty, Dana Center staff, and New Mexico Higher Education (NMHED) co-presented the need for better math pathways statewide. Faculty from 6 institutions (New Mexico State University, New Mexico Highlands University, Dine College, Eastern New Mexico University, El Paso Community College, and San Juan College) participated…

  8. ocial representation of family support for diabetic patients in users of a family medicine unit in Chalco, State of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Rodríguez Torres

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE The goal of this study is to compare and interpret the meaning of family support for diabetic patients and their families using social representations according to a structural approach of Abric’s theory. METHODS The study was carried out in a Family Medicine Center of the Chalco Municipality in Mexico State. The population studied comprised ten diabetic patient-family pairs. The first part of the study was a simple word association test that aimed to find terms or statements related to the concept of “family support”, as well as its frequency of appearance and range of association. Once the terms or statements were obtained, they were categorized according to their “support” capabilities. A semi-structured interview for each category was conducted as well as a graphic analysis of Friedman’s meanings. The discourse of diabetic patients was compared to that of the families in order to find similarities and differences. RESULTS Evocation of terms was done in the first part of the study, and it was found that the emotional domain was central to the discourse. However, in the second part of the study, when categorization and analysis of discourse is performed, there are differences in the centrality of terms and statements. The family tends to center in the active domain, whereas the patient centers in the emotional domain. CONCLUSIONS This study brings up the emotional needs of the patient as essential components of support efforts. This promotes reflection about changing strategies in the design of public healthcare programs in that they may include family support from the viewpoint of otherness.

  9. [Social representation of family support for diabetic patients in users of a family medicine unit in Chalco, State of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandra; Camacho, Esteban Jaime; Escoto, María Del Consuelo; Contreras, Georgina; Casas, Donovan

    2014-08-27

    The goal of this study is to compare and interpret the meaning of family support for diabetic patients and their families using social representations according to a structural approach of Abric's theory. The study was carried out in a Family Medicine Center of the Chalco Municipality in Mexico State. The population studied comprised ten diabetic patient-family pairs. The first part of the study was a simple word association test that aimed to find terms or statements related to the concept of "family support", as well as its frequency of appearance and range of association. Once the terms or statements were obtained, they were categorized according to their "support" capabilities. A semi-structured interview for each category was conducted as well as a graphic analysis of Friedman's meanings. The discourse of diabetic patients was compared to that of the families in order to find similarities and differences. Evocation of terms was done in the first part of the study, and it was found that the emotional domain was central to the discourse. However, in the second part of the study, when categorization and analysis of discourse is performed, there are differences in the centrality of terms and statements. The family tends to center in the active domain, whereas the patient centers in the emotional domain. This study brings up the emotional needs of the patient as essential components of support efforts. This promotes reflection about changing strategies in the design of public healthcare programs in that they may include family support from the viewpoint of otherness.

  10. [Molecular detection of hepatitis E virus in pig livers destined for human consumption in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantú-Martínez, Marco Antonio; Roig-Sagués, Artur Xavier; Cedillo-Rosales, Sibilina; Zamora-Ávila, Diana Elisa; Avalos-Ramírez, Ramiro

    2013-04-01

    Molecular detection of HEV in pig livers destined for human consumption in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 87 livers were collected from pigs slaughtered in TIF and 40 livers from butchers. A 212 pb fragment of HEV ORF2 gene was amplified by semi-nested RT-PCR. 19.54% (17) of tif's and 22.5% (9) of butcher's livers were positive for HEV. Sequencing of the amplified products showed a 94%-95% homology with the sequences reported for genotype 3. Our results indicate that HEV is circulating in swine herds in the state, constituting a probable source of contamination of pig meat products.

  11. Higher Education Faculty in Mexico and the United States: Characteristics and Policy Issues. Understanding the Differences: A Working Paper Series on Higher Education in the U. S. and Mexico. Working Paper Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Cheryl D.; Sanchez, Maria Dolores Soler

    This working paper analyzes higher education faculty characteristics in Mexico and the United States. The first section describes and compares Mexican and U.S. faculty characteristics and conditions, including total number of faculty, student-teacher ratios, full- versus part-time status, rank, tenure, average salaries, gender and ethnicity, and…

  12. Interferon Gamma-Based Detection of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in the Border States of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Eyal; Alatorre-Izaguirre, Gabriela; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Moreno-Treviño, Maria Guadalupe; Garcialuna-Martinez, Javier; Gonzalez-Salazar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Nearly one-third of the world's population is infected with latent tuberculosis (LTBI). Tuberculosis (TB) rates in the border states are higher than national rates in both the US and Mexico, with the border accounting for 30% of total registered TB cases in both countries. However, LTBI rates in the general population in Mexican border states are unknown. In this region, LTBI is diagnosed using the tuberculin skin test (TST). New methods of detection more specific than TST have been developed, although there is currently no gold standard for LTBI detection. Our objective is to demonstrate utility of the Quantiferon TB gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test compared with the TST to detect LTBI among border populations. This is an observational, cross-sectional study carried out in border areas of the states of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, Mexico. Participants (n = 210) provided a TST and blood sample for the QFT-GIT. Kappa coefficients assessed the agreement between TST and QFT-GIT. Participant characteristics were compared using Fisher exact tests. Thirty-eight percent of participants were diagnosed with LTBI by QFT-GIT. The proportion of LTBI detected using QFT-GIT was almost double [38% (79/210)] that found by TST [19% (39/210)] (P < 0.001). Concordance between TST and QFT-GIT was low (kappa = 0.37). We recommend further studies utilizing the QFT-GIT test to detect LTBI among border populations.

  13. Global Operational Remotely Sensed Evapotranspiration System for Water Resources Management: Case Study for the State of New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, G. H.; Fisher, J.; Magnuson, M.; John, L.

    2017-12-01

    An operational system to produce and disseminate remotely sensed evapotranspiration using the PT-JPL model and support its analysis and use in water resources decision making is being integrated into the New Mexico state government. A partnership between the NASA Western Water Applications Office (WWAO), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer (NMOSE) has enabled collaboration with a variety of state agencies to inform decision making processes for agriculture, rangeland, and forest management. This system improves drought understanding and mobilization, litigation support, and economic, municipal, and ground-water planning through interactive mapping of daily rates of evapotranspiration at 1 km spatial resolution with near real-time latency. This is facilitated by daily remote sensing acquisitions of land-surface temperature and near-surface air temperature and humidity from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on the Terra satellite as well as the short-term composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and albedo provided by MODIS. Incorporating evapotranspiration data into agricultural water management better characterizes imbalances between water requirements and supplies. Monitoring evapotranspiration over rangeland areas improves remediation and prevention of aridification. Monitoring forest evapotranspiration improves wildlife management and response to wildfire risk. Continued implementation of this decision support system should enhance water and food security.

  14. Real, Regulated and Relative Poverty in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Ellwyn R.

    The essay explores the extent to which poverty exists among the residents of the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands. The sequence followed in this analysis is an initial clarification of some conceptual perspectives surrounding the problem followed by a survey of current economic conditions and growth potential for the Borderlands region. Following a brief…

  15. Traumatic Events and Suicide-Related Outcomes among Mexico City Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Orozco, Ricardo; Molnar, Beth E.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: We report the prevalence and associations between traumatic events and suicidal ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts among Mexican adolescents. Methods: The data are from a representative multistage probability household survey of 3,005 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years residing in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area that was…

  16. Special Interests and Transnational Relations in Agricultural Trade: Implications for United States-Mexico Relations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    to -- oi )A. ~ o.~ ~.;:ve, i LA ot octn abTe ’,o Jta. -,a. it a n it, ;’u:s *:j :,:~ to ~ a*i t... r;:l ~e4cta 4oaj. acs. - -2- vWe have had ieetings...noviembre de 1977, p. 22. 9. For a discussion of this issue, cf. Comercio Exterior, special issue "Alimentacicn, crisis agricola y economia campesina," vol...via telefonia," AARC Tomato File. 15. CAADES to -Aifredo Valdez Montoya, Gobernador Constitucional del Estado de Sinaloa, 13 enero de 1969. 16. " Las

  17. Multiparticle states in deformed special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossenfelder, S.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the properties of multiparticle states in deformed special relativity (DSR). Starting from the Lagrangian formalism with an energy dependent metric, the conserved Noether current can be derived which is additive in the usual way. The integrated Noether current had previously been discarded as a conserved quantity, because it was correctly realized that it does no longer obey the DSR transformations. We identify the reason for this mismatch in the fact that DSR depends only on the extensive quantity of total four momentum instead of the energy-momentum densities as would be appropriate for a field theory. We argue that the reason for the failure of DSR to reproduce the standard transformation behavior in the well established limits is due to the missing sensitivity to the volume inside which energy is accumulated. We show that the soccer-ball problem is absent if one formulates DSR instead for the field densities. As a consequence, estimates for predicted effects have to be corrected by many orders of magnitude. Further, we derive that the modified quantum field theory implies a locality bound

  18. Development of a United States-Mexico Emissions Inventory for the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Hampden; Knipping, Eladio M; Vukovich, Jeffrey M

    2005-05-01

    The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study was commissioned to investigate the sources of haze at Big Bend National Park in southwest Texas. The modeling domain of the BRAVO Study includes most of the continental United States and Mexico. The BRAVO emissions inventory was constructed from the 1999 National Emission Inventory for the United States, modified to include finer-resolution data for Texas and 13 U.S. states in close proximity. The first regional-scale Mexican emissions inventory designed for air-quality modeling applications was developed for 10 northern Mexican states, the Tula Industrial Park in the state of Hidalgo, and the Popocatépetl volcano in the state of Puebla. Emissions data were compiled from numerous sources, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission (now Texas Commission on Environmental Quality), the Eastern Research Group, the Minerals Management Service, the Instituto Nacional de Ecología, and the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografía y Informática. The inventory includes emissions for CO, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, particulate matter (PM) < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, and PM < 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter. Wind-blown dust and biomass burning were not included in the inventory, although high concentrations of dust and organic PM attributed to biomass burning have been observed at Big Bend National Park. The SMOKE modeling system was used to generate gridded emissions fields for use with the Regional Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition (REMSAD) and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model modified with the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution (CMAQ-MADRID). The compilation of the inventory, supporting model input data, and issues encountered during the development of the inventory are documented. A comparison of the BRAVO emissions

  19. Pesticide residues in orange fruit from citrus orchards in Nuevo Leon State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Jacobo, Angela; Alcantar-Rosales, Victor Manuel; Alonso-Segura, Diana; Heras-Ramírez, Maria; Elizarragaz-De La Rosa, Dalau; Lugo-Melchor, Ofelia; Gaspar-Ramirez, Octavio

    2017-09-01

    Some international organisations established maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food to protect human health. Mexico lacks regulations in this matter, affecting national and international trade from agroindustry. The aim of this study was to diagnose pesticide residues in oranges from Nuevo Leon, México, in citrus orchards. In May 2014, 100 orange fruit samples were taken randomly from orchards and subjected to analysis for 93 pesticides at residual level by GC/QQQ-MS and LCQ-TOF-MS. Results showed the presence of 15 pesticide residues in the samples. The comparison of the residual levels of pesticides found in orange samples among the MRLs allowed by USA, EU and Japanese regulations demonstrated that all samples were below MRLs issued by USA and Japan. Some orange samples were above MRLs issued by the EU. This provides a basis to establish strategies in order to satisfy International Standards to protect human health and encourage Food Safety in Mexico.

  20. Illicit tobacco trade between the United States and Mexico El comercio ilícito de tabaco entre los Estados Unidos y México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Colledge III

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide a brief history of the illicit tobacco trade between Mexico and the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Research included a previously published study: "Cigarette taxes and smuggling: A statistical analysis and historical review", published by the Mackinac Center for Public Policy; US Customs and Border Protection data; various US court documents; General Accountability Office reporting; media reports; other historical material, and a personal interview. RESULTS: The research revealed that there is no credible evidence of organized criminal activity related to the illicit trade in tobacco products from Mexico into the United States. However, there is clear and convincing evidence of organized criminal activity in smuggling tobacco products from the United States into Mexico for at least 167 years. CONCLUSION: Historical records from 1845 into the 21st century clearly demonstrate that the United States was usually the source country for tobacco products moving illegally between the two countries.OBJETIVO: Describir brevemente la historia del comercio ilícito de tabaco entre Estados Unidos y México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La investigación incluye publicaciones previas, como "Impuestos sobre los cigarrillos y el contrabando: Un análisis histórico y estadístico"; datos de la Agencia de Aduanas y Protección Fronteriza; varios documentos de la Corte; los informes de la Oficina General de Rendición de Cuentas de EU; notas de prensa; materiales históricos, y una entrevista personal. RESULTADOS: La investigación reveló que no hay pruebas creíbles de actividad delictiva organizada relacionada con el comercio ilícito de productos de tabaco de México a EU. Sin embargo, hay pruebas claras y convincentes de que esta actividad se ha realizado de EU a México por lo menos durante 167 años. CONCLUSIÓN: Los registros históricos desde el año 1845 claramente demuestran que EU solía ser el país de origen del tabaco ilegal

  1. Tuberculosis along the United States-Mexico border, 1993-2001 La tuberculosis en la frontera mexicanoestadounidense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Schneider

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB is a leading public health problem and a recognized priority for the federal Governments of both Mexico and the United States of America. The objectives of this research, primarily for the four states in the United States that are along the border with Mexico, were to: (1 describe the epidemiological situation of TB, (2 identify TB risk factors, and (3 discuss tuberculosis program strategies. METHODS: We analyzed tuberculosis case reports collected from 1993 through 2001 by the tuberculosis surveillance system of the United States. We used those data to compare TB cases mainly among three groups: (1 Mexican-born persons in the four United States border states (Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas, (2 persons in those four border states who had been born in the United States, and (3 Mexican-born persons in the 46 other states of the United States, which do not border Mexico. RESULTS: For the period from 1993 through 2001, of the 16 223 TB cases reported for Mexican-born persons in the United States, 12 450 of them (76.7% were reported by Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas. In those four border states overall in 2001, tuberculosis case rates for Mexican-born persons were 5.0 times as high as the rates for persons born in the United States; those four states have 23 counties that directly border on Mexico, and the ratio in those counties was 5.8. HIV seropositivity, drug and alcohol use, unemployment, and incarceration were significantly less likely to be reported in Mexican-born TB patients from the four border states and the nonborder states than in patients born in the United States from the four border states (P OBJETIVOS: La tuberculosis es un problema de salud pública importante y es una prioridad reconocida por los gobiernos federales de México y Estados Unidos de América. Los objetivos de la presente investigación fueron los siguientes, atendiendo específicamente a los cuatro estados de los

  2. Evaluating the impact of Mexico's drug policy reforms on people who inject drugs in Tijuana, B.C., Mexico, and San Diego, CA, United States: a binational mixed methods research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M; Garfein, Richard S; Wagner, Karla D; Mehta, Sanjay R; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Moreno-Zuniga, Patricia Gonzalez; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-02-12

    Policymakers and researchers seek answers to how liberalized drug policies affect people who inject drugs (PWID). In response to concerns about the failing "war on drugs," Mexico recently implemented drug policy reforms that partially decriminalized possession of small amounts of drugs for personal use while promoting drug treatment. Recognizing important epidemiologic, policy, and socioeconomic differences between the United States-where possession of any psychoactive drugs without a prescription remains illegal-and Mexico-where possession of small quantities for personal use was partially decriminalized, we sought to assess changes over time in knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and infectious disease profiles among PWID in the adjacent border cities of San Diego, CA, USA, and Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. Based on extensive binational experience and collaboration, from 2012-2014 we initiated two parallel, prospective, mixed methods studies: Proyecto El Cuete IV in Tijuana (n = 785) and the STAHR II Study in San Diego (n = 575). Methods for sampling, recruitment, and data collection were designed to be compatible in both studies. All participants completed quantitative behavioral and geographic assessments and serological testing (HIV in both studies; hepatitis C virus and tuberculosis in STAHR II) at baseline and four semi-annual follow-up visits. Between follow-up assessment visits, subsets of participants completed qualitative interviews to explore contextual factors relating to study aims and other emergent phenomena. Planned analyses include descriptive and inferential statistics for quantitative data, content analysis and other mixed-methods approaches for qualitative data, and phylogenetic analysis of HIV-positive samples to understand cross-border transmission dynamics. Investigators and research staff shared preliminary findings across studies to provide feedback on instruments and insights regarding local phenomena. As a result, recruitment and data

  3. [Risk factors associated with work-related accidents in the construction industry in the Valley of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento-Salinas, Rodrigo; López-Rojas, Pablo; Marín-Cotoñieto, Irma Araceli; Godínez-Rocha, Arturo; Haro-García, Luis; Salinas-Tovar, Santiago

    2004-01-01

    Our aim was to describe construction-industry, work-related accident prevalence in, associated factors in, and potential impact on affiliated workers of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS) in the Valley of Mexico. Prevalent cases in a retrospective case-control design. These include 385 construction-industry workers who were found to have construction work-related accidents in 2001. Controls comprised 385 active construction-industry workers without work-related accident background paired by gender, workplace, and worksite. Work-related accident prevalence in construction workers was 5.5%; most important risk factors and etiology fraction (Ef) included the following: age 16-20 years odds ratio, OR = 1.58, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.40-10.7, p = 0.001, Ef 0.36; eventual insurance, OR = 3.7, 95% CI, 2.16-26.45, p = 0.001), Ef, 0.72, and no training for job, OR = 5.3, 95% CI, 4.9-69.2, p = 0.01), Ef: 0.81. Variables not showing significance were included salary, work shift, and workday. Work-related accident prevalence maintains its preponderance in the Valley of Mexico construction industry; identified risk factors are potentially modifiable, among which job training acquires unquestionable relevance.

  4. Absorptive Capacities of Local Enterprises from the Electric-Electronics Sector In the State of Tamaulipas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco García Fernández

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the absorptive capacities of a group of enterprises from the electric-electronics sector in the state of Tamaulipas Mexico. First, the literature on absorptive capabilities is reviewed, adopting an evolutionist approach. Then, an analysis of the sector is carried out in order to verify the recent changes made in various indicators – value of the total products by the selected states, job generation and productivity rates – based on data from the last three economic censuses. Finally, an analysis of the three selected enterprises’ absorptive capacities is addressed from a case study perspective, making our own interpretation of the construct based on the integration of the different analyzed proposals.

  5. Facilitating and Inhibiting Factors of Sexual Behavior among Migrants in Transition from Mexico to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Ordoñez, Jesús Alejandro; Benavides-Torres, Raquel A; Zapata-Garibay, Rogelio; Onofre-Rodríguez, Dora Julia; Márquez-Vega, María Aracely; Zamora-Carmona, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the border region of Mexico due to the flow of migrants under desperate conditions, encouraging casual and unprotected sex. Since this has become a binational public health problem, it is important to understand the factors that predict these sexual behaviors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the facilitators and inhibitors of transition in the sexual behavior of migrants from two border regions on the Mexico-United States (US) border. This was a predictive and cross-sectional study. A sample of 256 migrants in shelters for migrants on the border between Mexico and US were selected through systematic random sampling. Predictor variables investigated for effect on the safe sexual behavior (SSB) of the migrant were reasons for having sex; sexual attitudes; sexual machismo; knowledge about HIV; access to health services; and social discrimination. The sample was predominantly male (89.5%), with 46.1% reporting being single. The average age was 33.38 years (SD = 9.73) and the average number of years of education reported was 8.05 (SD = 3.37). A permissive sexual attitude and sexual machismo both correlated with condom use ( r s  = 0.130, p  machismo (β = -0.28, t  = -4.83, p  machismo, and HIV knowledge were all variables capable of predicting SSB. It is recommended that the study is extended to study migrant populations from other parts of the border, as well undertaking as a qualitative approach to explore new variables.

  6. [Primary immune thrombocytopenia in adults in Mexico: national characteristics and the relation to international literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillón-García, Luis Antonio; García-Chávez, Jaime; Gómez-Almaguer, David; Gutiérrez-Espíndola, Guillermo R; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify the clinical approach of a sample of Mexican hematologists for primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in adults in Mexico, we applied an electronic survey via the internet to identify common practices for the diagnosis and treatment of ITP and draw a comparison between the information from these hematologists with international guidelines or the international literature. The results were analyzed using measures of central tendency. The sample was 21 medical hematologists, predominantly from Mexico City (average age: 51.4 years). A total of 66.7% of the surveyed physicians use international guidelines to make therapeutic decisions, and 43% defined ITP including the numerical concept (< 100 x 10(9)/l). We found some differences between requested clinical exams and tests indicated by the guidelines. In first-line treatment (except emergency), 91% of the participants start with prednisone and 24% use dexamethasone. Danazol is used in persistent ITP by most (41%) of the specialists. In second-line treatment, 67% would indicate splenectomy. Some differences were found between clinical practice of the hematologists in Mexico versus guidelines recommendations.

  7. Relative entropy as a measure of entanglement for Gaussian states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Huai-Xin; Zhao Bo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we derive an explicit analytic expression of the relative entropy between two general Gaussian states. In the restriction of the set for Gaussian states and with the help of relative entropy formula and Peres-Simon separability criterion, one can conveniently obtain the relative entropy entanglement for Gaussian states. As an example,the relative entanglement for a two-mode squeezed thermal state has been obtained.

  8. The politics of federal-state relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dravo, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    States' ability to reject siting of high-level waste repositories has rested on politics, technical judgement and the potential that procedural error could disqualify a project. Prior to enactment of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, sites were rejected through parochial political action in Congress. The NWPA limited the ability of states to receive parochial assistance, but did not eliminate the potential for Congressional politics to dominate programmatic decisions. Technical and procedural opportunity for affecting siting have, however, increased

  9. Health-related quality of life in a binational population with diabetes at the Texas-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Nelda; Bocanegra-Alonso, Anabel; Zhan, Dongling; Zuniga, Miguel A; Acosta, Rosa I

    2008-03-01

    To examine physical and mental health domains of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in a binational adult population with type 2 diabetes at the Texas-Mexico border, and to explore individual and social correlates to physical and mental health status. Adults 18 years and older with type 2 diabetes residing in the South Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley and in Reynosa, Tamaulipas, Mexico, were recruited using a convenience sampling technique and interviewed face-to-face with a structured survey. HRQL was measured using physical and mental health summary components of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form. HRQL correlates included demographic characteristics, health factors, access to healthcare, and family support. Samples characteristics were compared using the Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test. Associations between dependent and independent variables were examined using unadjusted and adjusted (multiple variable) logistic regression models. There were no significant differences between Valley and Reynosa respondents in physical or mental health status scores. Valley participants with lower socioeconomic status and those perceiving their supportive relative's level of diabetes-related knowledge as "low" were more likely to report worse physical health than those lacking those characteristics. In the Reynosa group, lower physical health status was associated with duration of diabetes and insulin use. Both sample populations with clinical depressive symptoms were more likely to have worse physical and mental health than those without such symptoms. HRQL is an important outcome in monitoring health status. Understanding the levels and influences of HRQL in U.S.-Mexico border residents with diabetes may help improve diabetes management programs.

  10. Amphibians and Reptiles of the state of Nuevo Le?n, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos-Espinal, Julio A.; Smith, Geoffrey R.; Cruz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We compiled a check list of the herpetofauna of Nuevo Le?n. We documented 132 species (23 amphibians, 109 reptiles), representing 30 families (11 amphibians, 19 reptiles) and 73 genera (17 amphibians, 56 reptiles). Only two species are endemic to Nuevo Le?n. Nuevo Le?n contains a relatively high richness of lizards in the genus Sceloporus . Overlap in the herpetofauna of Nuevo Le?n and states it borders is fairly extensive. Of 130 native species, 102 are considered species of Least C...

  11. 12 CFR 202.11 - Relation to state law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other interested party may request that the Board determine whether a state law is inconsistent with the.... (e) Exemption for state-regulated transactions—(1) Applications. A state may apply to the Board for... OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) § 202.11 Relation to state law. (a) Inconsistent state laws. Except as...

  12. 12 CFR 213.9 - Relation to state laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... interpretative responsibilities for the state consumer leasing law, may apply to the Board for a preemption determination. (b) Exemptions—(1) Application. A state may apply to the Board for an exemption from the... LEASING (REGULATION M) § 213.9 Relation to state laws. (a) Inconsistent state law. A state law that is...

  13. Narco-Crime in Mexico: Indication of State Failure or Symptoms of an Emerging Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    16, 2010). 91 The Fund for Peace, “Country Profiles: Mexico,” http://www.fundforpeace.org/ web /index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=442&Itemid... sistemas /cgpv2000/religion/rel01.asp?s=est&c=11938, (accessed May 3, 2010). 36 underworld of illicit activities support the emerging concepts of Santa...Porcentaje de la Poblacíon Católica, 1895 a 2000.” http://www.inegi.org.mx/est/contiendos/espanol/ sistemas /cgpv2000/religion/rel01.asp?s= est&c

  14. Ungoverned Spaces in Mexico: Autodefensas, Failed States, and the War on Drugs in Michoacan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    to the negotiated transition: The case of Mexico in comparative perspective],” Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Politicas y Sociales 40, no. 162 (December...2012 [Mexican ports in the XXI century: Situation and debate 1991–2012],” Ciencia y Mar 15, no. 45 (2011): 25, 19–62 99 According to Wikipedia, a...2012 [Mexican ports in the XXI century: Situation and debate 1991– 2012].” Ciencia y Mar 15, no. 45 (2011): 19–62. Oyarvide, Cesar Morales. “La Guerra

  15. Characterization of the dengue outbreak in Nuevo Leon state, Mexico, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc-Galindo, D; Gloria-Herrera, U; Rincón-Herrera, U; Ramos-Jiménez, J; Garcia-Luna, S; Arellanos-Soto, D; Mendoza-Tavera, N; Tavitas-Aguilar, I; Garcia-Garcia, E; Galindo-Galindo, E; Villarreal-Perez, J; Fernandez-Salas, I; Santiago, G A; Muñoz-Jordan, J; Rivas-Estilla, A M

    2015-04-01

    We studied serotypes circulating dengue virus (DENV) cases, entomological Breteau index, rain-fall index and epidemiology of groups affected during the 2010 outbreak in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. From 2,271 positive cases, 94% were dengue classic and 6% dengue hemorrhagic fever; DENV1 was mainly isolated (99%) (Central-American lineage of American-African-genotype). We found correlation between two environmental phenomena (Increment of rainfall and vector-indexes) (p ≤ 0.05) with epidemiological, clinical and risk of DENV-1 ongoing transmission.

  16. Putative extinction of two sawfish species in Mexico and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo del Monte-Luna

    Full Text Available All species of sawfish are listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN as endangered or critically endangered. In fact, the smalltooth sawfish Pristis pectinata, and the largetooth sawfish Pristis pristis, have been declared to be regionally and locally extinct from the US Atlantic coast and the Gulf of California, Mexico, respectively, likely due to overfishing. However, here we dispute these claims by illustrating how lack of existence of a given species within a region can be misconstrued as evidence for extinction.

  17. Microbiological characteristics of four ‘chorizo’ types commercialized in Hidalgo State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gonzalez-Tenorio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chorizo is a raw sausage commercialized in almost all Mexico, mainly in the central region. Chorizo is elaborated from small producers’ craftsman who sold their products in local markets, to big meat processors who distribute their products in supermarkets. These differences in elaboration affect chorizo quality. In this work commercial chorizo bought in four different points (local butchers, rural markets, supermarkets and supply centers. Mainly microbiological groups were determined. Techno-sanitary conditions regulation should be improved in order to establish quality criteria.

  18. Agent-based modeling of deforestation in southern Yucatán, Mexico, and reforestation in the Midwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Steven M.; Evans, Tom

    2007-01-01

    We combine mixed-methods research with integrated agent-based modeling to understand land change and economic decision making in the United States and Mexico. This work demonstrates how sustainability science benefits from combining integrated agent-based modeling (which blends methods from the social, ecological, and information sciences) and mixed-methods research (which interleaves multiple approaches ranging from qualitative field research to quantitative laboratory experiments and interpretation of remotely sensed imagery). We test assumptions of utility-maximizing behavior in household-level landscape management in south-central Indiana, linking parcel data, land cover derived from aerial photography, and findings from laboratory experiments. We examine the role of uncertainty and limited information, preferences, differential demographic attributes, and past experience and future time horizons. We also use evolutionary programming to represent bounded rationality in agriculturalist households in the southern Yucatán of Mexico. This approach captures realistic rule of thumb strategies while identifying social and environmental factors in a manner similar to econometric models. These case studies highlight the role of computational models of decision making in land-change contexts and advance our understanding of decision making in general. PMID:18093928

  19. Evaluation of the Institutional Tutoring Program in a Polytechnic University of the State of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alejandra Hernandez Herrera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to evaluate the perception of the alumni on tutoring in a public university in Mexico to analyze the way tutoring has contributed to the integral development of students. A questionnaire was applied to a sample of 312 students; the data obtained were analyzed with the IBM SPSS software. In the results, it was found that the students perceive positively the professors’ competences for tutoring. However, just over 50% of the students feel satisfied with the assigned tutor; in so far as 60% consider that their tutor canalize them to regularization courses; in addition, only 50% admit to have a major and life project, also half of the students believe that tutoring has supported to increase their performance and integration to university; and only two thirds think that their professor has pedagogic knowledge. In conclusion, the data indicate that it must be worked on the implementation of educational policies which contribute to strengthen tutoring programs that encourage the youth in Mexico to successfully complete school, thus, prevent scholar underachievement.

  20. Genotoxic biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticides in the north of Sinaloa State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Waliszewski, Stefan; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Alvarez-Torres, Armando

    2009-11-01

    Genotoxic damage was evaluated in 70 agricultural workers, 25 women and 45 men, exposed to pesticides in Las Grullas, Ahome, Sinaloa, Mexico, with an average of 7 years of exposure. The effect was detected through the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in lymphocytes of peripheral blood and micronuclei (MN) and other nuclear anomalies (NA) in buccal exfoliated cells. Also, the influence on cellular proliferation kinetics (CPK) was studied by means of the replication index (RI) and the cytotoxic effect was examined with the mitotic index (MI). The non-exposed group consisted of 70 other persons, 21 women and 47 men from the city of Los Mochis, Sinaloa, Mexico. Significant differences between the exposed and the non-exposed groups were observed in SCE, CPK, MI, MN and NA. Analysis of variance revealed that age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption did not have a significant effect on genetic damage. However, there was a correlation between exposure time to pesticides and SCE frequency. These results could have been due to the exposure of workers to pesticides containing different chemical compounds. This study afforded valuable data to estimate the possible risk to health associated with pesticide exposure.

  1. [Depression: state of the art and the need for public policy and action plans in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenzon, Shoshana; Lara, María Asunción; Robles, Rebeca; Medina-Mora, María Elena

    2013-01-01

    Depression is an important public health problem. It is the fourth cause of disease in the world in terms of lost years of healthy life. In Mexico, it ranks first in terms disability for women and ninth for men. There is a high comorbidity between depression and other mental disorders such as anxiety and substance abuse, as well as other serious and chronic physical conditions (e.g. diabetes, and heart disease). Despite the impact of depressive disorders in the quality of life of the population, there is a large proportion of people who don't get treatment, delaying seeking help and thus don't receive adequate assistance. The aim of this paper is to present an analysis of depression status in the Mexican population from a public health perspective; it includes prevalence and associated factors, gaps in care, characteristics of the use of services and treatments available. The paper concludes with a presentation of the implications for research and mental health policy in Mexico.

  2. [Violence and pregnancy in female users of Ministry of Health care services in highly deprived states in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Sofía; Blanco, Julia; Juárez, Clara; Palma, Oswaldo; Valdez-Santiago, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    To characterize intimate partner abuse and identify the main factors associated with violence in pregnancy in four highly deprived States in Mexico. The data were taken from the National Survey on Violence against Women 2003 (ENVIM per its abbreviation in Spanish). Based on it a cross-sectional study was conducted on 1 949 women between 15 and 50 years of age, who were once pregnant and who utilized primary and secondary health care services from the Ministry of Health, Mexican Institute of Social Security, and the Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers in Guerrero, Hidalgo, Oaxaca and Chiapas states, between November 2002 and March 2003. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between independent variables and violence during pregnancy. 250 women (13%) suffered a type of violence (physical, psychological, sexual or economical) during any of their pregnancies. Of these women 76 (30.40%) were battered on their abdomen. In most of these cases (91.39%) the husband was the aggressor. The variables significantly associated with violence in pregnancy were: woman's illiteracy (OR 2.2; CI 95:% .1,4.4); history of violence in childhood (OR 3.2; CI 95% 1.9, 5.4) as well as sexual abuse in her childhood (OR 2.4, CI 95% 1.3, 4.4) and her partner's daily alcohol consumption (OR 6.5; CI 95% 3.3, 12.9). The results show that violence during pregnancy is a regular event in the impoverished context and that its expression is more severe. These results point to the importance of continued study of the problem of violence against pregnant women in Mexico and the importance of identifying battered women in prenatal care.

  3. [Water resource quality as related to economic activity and health patterns in Sonora, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares Rivera, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the spatial distribution of potential pollution pathways of water resources given the economic activity in the Mexican border state of Sonora and propose a regional distribution in relation to cancer mortality rates across the state. The methodology is based in an exploratory and inferential data analysis using two sources of primary data: wastewater discharge concessions registered in the Public Registry on Water Rights [Registro Público de Derechos de Agua] (REPDA) and the records generated by the National Health Information System [Sistema Nacional de Información en Salud] (SINAIS) in the period 1998-2011 based on the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10). The spatial concentration analysis allows for the identification of specific cancer mortality causes at the regional level. Results indicate that the projected adjustments to the regulation NOM-250-SSA1-2014, which controls a subset of pollutants common in mining activity surroundings, is a matter of regional concern.

  4. THE UNITED STATES AND NIGERIAN RELATIONS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs. I.D

    2009-12-25

    Dec 25, 2009 ... response from the Nigerian government. ... domestic crises that negatively impacts state stability, the US government ... Harrison C. Ajebon, Department of Political Science, University of Calabar, ..... Sweden. United Kingdom. Switzerland. Asia & far East. Japan ..... case Study of Nigeria, in Ikonnechidi and.

  5. Blueprint for Change in New Mexico: State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" provided a comprehensive review of states' policies that impact the teaching profession. As a companion to last year's comprehensive state-by-state analysis, the 2010 edition provides each state with an individualized "Blueprint for Change," building off last year's "Yearbook"…

  6. Facility-based care for delivery and management of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hernández

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence and management of severe maternal and newborn complications in selected health facilities in Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As part of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn health, information was collected from medical records of women with deliveries and/or severe maternal complications during pregnancy or puerperium in 14 hospitals in Mexico City and the state of Guanajuato, Mexico. RESULTS: Of 13 311 women, 157 (12 per 1 000 live births had severe maternal complications including 4 maternal deaths. The most frequent complications were preeclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, and chronic hypertension. Adverse perinatal outcomes were more frequent among women with severe maternal complications. A high use of uterotonics and parenteral antibiotics was found. A small proportion of women with eclampsia received magnesium sulfate. CONCLUSION: This study provides indicators on the incidence and management of maternal and neonatal complications in Mexico, which may be useful in studying and evaluating the performance of obstetric services.OBJETIVO: Describir la incidencia y manejo de complicaciones maternas y neonatales severas en hospitales seleccionados de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En el marco de la Encuesta Multipaís de la OMS sobre Salud Materna y Neonatal, se recolectó información de los expedientes médicos de las mujeres que tuvieron su parto o experimentaron complicaciones maternas severas durante el embarazo o puerperio en 14 hospitales de la Ciudad de México y el estado de Guanajuato, México. RESULTADOS: De 13 311 mujeres, 157 (12/1 000 nacidos vivos tuvieron complicaciones maternas severas, incluyendo 4 muertes maternas. Las complicaciones más frecuentes fueron preeclampsia, hemorragia postparto e hipertensión crónica. Los resultados perinatales adversos fueron más frecuentes en las mujeres con complicaciones severas. Hubo un uso amplio de uterotónicos y antibi

  7. [Relative abundance, population structure, habitat preferences and activity patterns of Tapirus bairdii (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae), in Chimalapas forest, Oaxaca, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira-Torres, Iván; Briones-Salas, Miguel; Sánchez-Rojas, Gerardo

    2014-12-01

    Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is endangered primarily because of habitat loss and fragmentation, and overhunting throughout its distribution range. One of the priority land areas for the conservation of this species is the Northern part of its range in the Chimalapas forest, Oaxaca. The aim of this research was to determine the relative abundance, population struc- ture, habitat preferences and activity patterns of Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) in the Chimalapas forest, Oaxaca, Mexico, through the non-invasive technique of camera-trap sampling. A total of five sampling sessions were undertaken among 2009-2013, and used a total of 30 camera-traps in each period. The determinant factor of the sampling design was the hunting between two study areas. A total sampling effort of 9000 trap-days allowed to estimate an index of relative abundance (IRA) of 6.77 tapir photographs/1,000 trap-days (n = 61). IRA varied significantly between sampling stations (Mann-Whitney, p dry season in tropical rain forest without hunting (χ2, p tropical rain forest and secondary vegetation habitats showed higher photo frequency than expected from random (χ2, p forest appears to be the second most important terrestrial priority ecoregion, just after the Mayan Forest (Campeche, Chiapas, Quintana Roo), for the conservation of tapir populations, not only for Mexico but also for Central America.

  8. Multivariate statistical approximation of the in situ gamma-ray spectrometry of the State of Zacatecas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez I, J. F.; Rios M, C.; Mireles G, F.; Saucedo A, S.; Davila R, I.; Pinedo, J.L.

    2017-09-01

    The environmental radioactivity evaluation is a key point in the assessment of the environmental quality. Through this, it can be found possible radioactive contamination, locate possible Uranium and Thorium deposits and evaluate the primordial isotopes concentration due to human activities. A radioactive map of the Zacatecas State, Mexico is under construction based on in situ gamma-ray spectrometry. The present work reports the results of the multivariate statistical approximation of the measured activity data. Based on Pearson correlation, the 228 Ac and 208 Tl activities are statistically significant, while the 214 Bi and 214 Pb activities are not statistically significant. These can be due to the existence or not of secular equilibrium in the Thorium and Uranium series. (Author)

  9. Multivariate statistical approximation of the in situ gamma-ray spectrometry of the State of Zacatecas, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez I, J. F.; Rios M, C.; Mireles G, F.; Saucedo A, S.; Davila R, I.; Pinedo, J.L., E-mail: fernandolf498@gmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    The environmental radioactivity evaluation is a key point in the assessment of the environmental quality. Through this, it can be found possible radioactive contamination, locate possible Uranium and Thorium deposits and evaluate the primordial isotopes concentration due to human activities. A radioactive map of the Zacatecas State, Mexico is under construction based on in situ gamma-ray spectrometry. The present work reports the results of the multivariate statistical approximation of the measured activity data. Based on Pearson correlation, the {sup 228}Ac and {sup 208}Tl activities are statistically significant, while the {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb activities are not statistically significant. These can be due to the existence or not of secular equilibrium in the Thorium and Uranium series. (Author)

  10. Current state of the auto-evaluation process of the behaviour code in the safety of research reactors in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamani A, Y. R.; Salgado G, J. R.

    2011-11-01

    In Mexico, the regulator organism in nuclear matter is the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards, and a nuclear research reactor exists, the TRIGA Mark III, operated by the National Institute of Nuclear Research. In this work the main aspects of the current state and the future challenges are presented with relationship to the installation of the auto-evaluation process of the behaviour code in the safety of research reactors for the TRIGA reactor case. Additionally, the legal mark of the licensing process for the nuclear activities in a research reactor is described in a brief way, and the main characteristics of the reactor, the uses for the isotopes production, the administration and the verification of the safety, the administration program of the radiological protection, the emergency plan and the operation personnel qualification are emphasized. (Author)

  11. Stereotypes of women in different stages of their reproductive life: data from Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marván, Ma Luisa; Islas, Martha; Vela, Laura; Chrisler, Joan C; Warren, Elyse A

    2008-08-01

    College students from Mexico and the United States (n = 349) were surveyed to explore stereotypes regarding women in different menstrual cycle phases and other stages of reproductive life. Participants from both countries defined a premenstrual or menstrual woman as irritable and moody and a menopausal woman as old and irritable. A woman with a hysterectomy was defined as sad, and only Americans used other words that did not have any negative connotation. Participants used some positive adjectives to describe other stages. For example, a pregnant woman was defined as happy, but only by Mexicans. Finally, a woman with a young baby was defined in both countries as happy; however, Americans implied that having a baby is complicated. The findings are discussed in light of sociocultural differences and similarities.

  12. Study of gases and volatiles in samples of underground water bodies in the State of Mexico; Estudio de gases y volatiles en muestras de cuerpos de agua subterranea en el Estado de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, N.; Segovia, N.; Cisniega, G.; Tamez, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, A.P. 18-1027, C.P. 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    It was realized a preliminary study of radon and volatile organic compounds (VOC ) in spring water of the State of Mexico. The radon was determined by the liquid scintillation method and the VOC by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy. The radon concentration range was between 0.50 - 4.42 KBq/m{sup 3}. Its were found some VOC of probably anthropogenic origin. (Author)

  13. The state of the management process of microenterprises in the south Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Luna Espinoza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and application of the management process in microenterprises of the southern Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico. This is intended to generate inputs to the transformation of microenterprises into better equipped, innovative and job-generating organizations in a highly competitive global context. The methodological strategy of this research was to gather information via a stratified sample of the management functions: planning, organizing, directing and controlling. The results indicate that the level of education and age of microentrepreneurs are the most significant variables to explain the different levels of the management process. In addition, the detected deficiencies in the administrative functions within the microenterprises of the southern Isthmus of Tehuantepec are consistent with their life expectancies, which do not exceed four years.

  14. Medical knowledge related to Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Hernandez, Gerardo; Ernst, Kacey; Acuña-Melendrez, Natalia Haydee; Vargas-Ortega, Anabel Patricia; Candia-Plata, Maria Del Carmen

    2018-03-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a tick-borne disease with a high case-fatality rate unless diagnosed promptly and treated timely with doxycycline. Physician knowledge about presentation and treatment can improve outcomes of RMSF in endemic regions, such as Sonora in northern Mexico, where RMSF has caused 1348 non-fatal cases and 247 deaths from 2003 to 2016. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 343 physicians working in medical facilities in Sonora, Mexico. A 25-item questionnaire explored physician knowledge of clinical, epidemiological and preventive aspects of RMSF. Only 62% of physicians agreed that doxycycline should be used as the first choice treatment for children under 8 years with suspected RMSF. Additionally, 40% of primary care physicians correctly identified the time to initiate doxycycline, and 32% correctly identified the case-fatality rate of untreated RMSF in all patients. Inadequate medical knowledge may adversely affect how patients infected with Rickettsia rickettsii are diagnosed and treated. Educational programs that improve the risk perception and medical knowledge about RMSF should be targeted at physicians most likely to have initial contact with diseased patients.

  15. Mesoscale air-sea interactions related to tropical and extratropical storms in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James K.; Hsu, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the lower atmosphere of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico from November 1982 to mid-February 1983 were studied in which seven significant cyclones were generated in the northwestern gulf. It was found that all seven storms occurred when the vorticity correlate of the horizontal air temperature difference was about 3-5 C above the climatological mean difference. It is shown that a maximum in the frequency of tropical storms within the Gulf of Mexico exists some 275 km south of the Mississippi delta at 27 deg N, 90 deg W. This maximum is a result of only those storms which originate within the gulf. Two plausible effects of the Loop Current and its rings on tropical storms are discussed. One is that these ocean features are large and consolidated heat and moisture sources from which a nearby slowly moving atmospheric disturbance can extract energy. The second is that of the cyclonic vorticity that can be generated in the lower atmosphere by such oceanographic features.

  16. Canada-United States-Mexico Trilateral Cooperation on Childhood Obesity Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabadán-Diehl, Cristina; Safdie, Margarita; Rodin, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Childhood obesity is an important public health problem that affects countries in the Americas. In 2014, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Member States agreed on a Plan of Action for the Prevention of Obesity in Children and Adolescents in an effort to address the impact of this disorder in the Americas region. The interventions laid out in this regional plan are multi-faceted and require multi-sectoral partnerships. Building on a strong history of successful trilateral collaboration, Canada, Mexico, and the United States formed a partnership to address the growing epidemic of childhood obesity in the North American region. This collaborative effort, known as the Trilateral Cooperation on Childhood Obesity Initiative, is the first initiative in the region to address chronic noncommunicable diseases by bringing together technical and policy experts, with strong leadership and support from the secretaries and ministers of health. The Initiative's goals include increasing levels of physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior through 1) increased social mobilization and citizen engagement, 2) community- based outreach, and 3) changes to the built (man-made) environment. This article describes the background and development process of the Initiative; specific goals, activities, and actions achieved to date; and opportunities and next steps. This information may be useful for those forming other partnerships designed to address childhood obesity or other complex public health challenges in the region. RESUMEN La obesidad infantil es un problema de salud pública importante que afecta a los países de las Américas. En el 2014, los Estados Miembros de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) acordaron un Plan de acción para la prevención de la obesidad en la niñez y la adolescencia con el fin de hacer frente a las repercusiones de este trastorno en la Región de las Américas. Las intervenciones que componen este plan regional son multifacéticas y

  17. Seroepidemiology of infection with Neospora caninum, Leptospira, and bovine herpesvirus type 1 in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Veracruz State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    We aimed to determine the seroprevalence of infection with N. caninum, Leptospira, and bovine herpesvirus type 1 and risk factors associated with these infections in water buffaloes in Veracruz State, Mexico. Through a cross-sectional study, 144 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) raised in 5 ranches ...

  18. Cross border waters: Fragile treasures for the 21st Century; Ninth U.S./Mexico Border States Conference on Recreation, Parks, and Wildlife; 1998, June 3-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. J. Gottfried; C. B. Edminster; Madelyn C. Dillon

    1998-01-01

    This conference brought together scientists and resource managers from government, universities, and private organizations in the United States and Mexico. In a continuing international forum, participants exchanged information on existing or potential cooperative projects, agency functions and programs, and issues were concerning natural and cultural resource...

  19. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Rey, Nora I.; Quintana, Rey M.; Nevarez, G. Virginia; Palacios, Oskar

    2011-01-01

    Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico. PMID:21776236

  20. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Rubio-Arias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lago de Colina (Colina Lake is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico, and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  1. Coliform and metal contamination in Lago de Colina, a recreational water body in Chihuahua State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Rey, Nora I; Quintana, Rey M; Nevarez, G Virginia; Palacios, Oskar

    2011-06-01

    Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  2. Tuberculosis Treatment Completion in a United States/Mexico Binational Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina I. Valencia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTuberculosis (TB remains a salient public health issue along the U.S./Mexico border. This study seeks to identify the social and structural factors, which are associated with TB disease burden in the binational geographic region. Identification of barriers of treatment completion provides the necessary framework for developing evidence-based interventions that are culturally relevant and context specific for the U.S./Mexico border region.MethodsRetrospective study of data extracted from medical charts (n = 439 from Yuma County Health Department (YCHD (n = 160 and Centro de Salud San Luis Río Colorado (n = 279. Patients currently accessing TB treatment at either facility were excluded from the study. Chi-square, unadjusted odds ratios, and logistic regression were utilized to identify characteristics associated with successful TB treatment in this population.FindingsThe study population was predominantly male (n = 327. Females were more likely to complete TB treatment (OR = 3.71. The absence of drug use and/or the absence of an HIV positive diagnosis were found to be predictors of TB treatment completion across both clinical sites. Forty-four percent (43.59% (n = 85 TB patients treated at CDS San Luis did not complete treatment versus 40.35% (n = 49 of TB patients who did not complete treatment at YCHD. Moving from the area or being deported was the highest category (20.78% for incomplete TB treatment in the population (n = 64 across both clinical sites.

  3. Interactions between the Laramide Foreland and the passive margin of the Gulf of Mexico: Tectonics and sedimentation in the Golden Lane area, Veracruz State, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alzaga-Ruiz, H.; Lopez, M.; Roure, F.; Séranne, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the analyses of the clastic sedimentary infill of the Coastal Plain of Eastern Mexico, which initiated synchronously with the Laramide orogeny in the vicinity of the Golden Lane. Results of these analyses are used as boundary conditions for calibrating/interpreting seismic

  4. ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN PROVIDERS OF FARMING PROFESSIONAL SERVICES OF THE STATE OF CAMPECHE, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Figueroa-Rodríguez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship, defined as the ability or competence to generate and create new business initiatives has its relevance on the economic and territorial development. Nowadays, state governments seek to support farmers in the development of their entrepreneurship skills based on a network of providers of farming professionals services (PSP. The objective of the article was to analyze the construction of the entrepreneurship concept based on self-perception affirmations (positive attitudes and the characteristics of the PSP (age and years on service. A questionnaire with 60 affirmations, using a 6-point Likert-type scale (0 to 6, was applied to 105 PSP of the state of Campeche, México; from which only 71 observations were complete and useful for creating an individual entrepreneurship index. The index was the product of the addition of the total of scores of each item, where 0 was the minimum and 360 the maximum possible (M= 279.23, DE= 35.30, Min= 62, Max= 339. With the aim to reduce the 60 variables, a factor analysis was carried out and 14 constructs were developed; only two phrases were left independent as well as the age and years of service as a PSP. This all were used to run a hierarchical regression analysis. Results show that the variables of persistence, innovation, self-esteem, independence, commitment and “I’d rather be alone”, as well as other characteristics, were positively and significantly related to higher levels of entrepreneurship (p<0.001, whilst the variables that did not explain it were undergoing risk and taking the initiative. Age and years of experience were not significant associated with the level of entrepreneurship. It was concluded that positive attitudes are important in explaining entrepreneur self-perception, on the contrary age or experience as a PSP seems to be irrelevant. The implication of the study for the states governments is to stimulate the development of projects that imply the use of business

  5. The effect of China exportations to the United States of America in the job demand of the manufacturing sector of Mexico 2004-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Mendoza Cota

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently the manufacturing sector of Mexico has experienced a reduced rate of growth. This study estimates the impact of the industrial activity of the U.S. and China on the demand for labor in the manufacturing sector of the northern border states of Mexico. With data on industrial activity, Chinese exports, wages and the peso-dollar exchange rate, a time series co-integration model is developed. The results show that exports from China to the Usa and manufacturing wages have affected labor demand negatively, while factors such as, the U.S. industrial production and the exchange rate tend to encourage manufacturing activity.

  6. Generalized uncertainty relations and characteristic invariants for the multimode states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Chiu, C.B.; Bhamathi, G.

    1995-01-01

    The close relationship between the zero-point energy, the uncertainty relation, coherent states, squeezed states, and correlated states for one mode is investigated. This group theoretic perspective of the problem enables the parametrization and identification of their multimode generalization. A simple and efficient method of determining the canonical structure of the generalized correlated states is presented. Implication of canonical commutation relations for correlations are not exhausted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relation, not even by the Schroedinger-Robertson uncertainty inequality, but there are relations in the multimode case that are the generalization of the Schroedinger-Robertson relation

  7. Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masahito, Hayashi; Reynaud, S.; Jaekel, M.Th.; Fiuraaek, J.; Garcia-Patron, R.; Cerf, N.J.; Hage, B.; Chelkowski, S.; Franzen, A.; Lastzka, N.; Vahlbruch, N.; Danzmann, K.; Schnabel, R.; Hassan, S.S.; Joshi, A.; Jakob, M.; Bergou, J.A.; Kozlovskii, A.V.; Prakash, H.; Kumar, R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the conference was to bring together people working in the field of quantum optics, with special emphasis on non-classical light sources and related areas, quantum computing, statistical mechanics and mathematical physics. As a novelty, this edition will include the topics of quantum imaging, quantum phase noise and number theory in quantum mechanics. This document gives the program of the conference and gathers the abstracts

  8. [A critical examination of public policies related to indigenous health, traditional medicine, and interculturality in Mexico (1990-2016)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Roberto Campos; Sánchez, Edith Yesenia Peña; Maya, Alfredo Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 26 years, the Mexican government has developed a number of activities and discourses around what has been called "intercultural health," directed especially at indigenous peoples in Mexico (some 62, according to linguistic criteria). In this way, the government has built health care institutions (rural centers, clinics, and hospitals) in states like Puebla, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Queretaro, and Jalisco, proposing the implementation of cultural pertinence indicators (which are minimal and inadequate). Nevertheless, the health conditions among indigenous populations and the quality of health care provided by public institutions continue to be precarious in terms of human and material resources (health personnel, drugs, etc.) and discriminatory with respect to the form and content of the provided services. This paper describes some of the governmental interventions that purport to be institutional improvements in the field of interculturality, but that actually represent the continuity of arbitrary and exclusive policies.

  9. S.83: A Bill to ensure the preservation of the Gulf of Mexico by establishing within the Environmental Protection Agency a Gulf of Mexico Program. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, January 21, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    S. 83 may be cited as the open-quotes Gulf of Mexico Preservation Act of 1993.close quotes This Bill discusses findings pertaining to resources in the Gulf of Mexico, describes the establishment of the Gulf of Mexico Program, defines the establishment and duties of the Gulf of Mexico Program Office, and proposes a study of international issues. This Bill also includes an assessment to be prepared by the Administrator, a monitoring, management, protection and restoration plan, a grant program, authorization of appropriations, administrative provisions, and the relationship of the Bill to existing federal and state laws and international treaties

  10. Water resource quality as related to economic activity and health patterns in Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Manzanares Rivera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the spatial distribution of potential pollution pathways of water resources given the economic activity in the Mexican border state of Sonora and propose a regional distribution in relation to cancer mortality rates across the state. The methodology is based in an exploratory and inferential data analysis using two sources of primary data: wastewater discharge concessions registered in the Public Registry on Water Rights [Registro Público de Derechos de Agua] (REPDA and the records generated by the National Health Information System [Sistema Nacional de Información en Salud] (SINAIS in the period 1998-2011 based on the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10. The spatial concentration analysis allows for the identification of specific cancer mortality causes at the regional level. Results indicate that the projected adjustments to the regulation NOM-250-SSA1-2014, which controls a subset of pollutants common in mining activity surroundings, is a matter of regional concern.

  11. The Second International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S.; Manko, V. I.

    1993-01-01

    This conference publication contains the proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations held in Moscow, Russia, on 25-29 May 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to study possible applications of squeezed states of light. The Workshop brought together many active researchers in squeezed states of light and those who may find the concept of squeezed states useful in their research, particularly in understanding the uncertainty relations. It was found at this workshop that the squeezed state has a much broader implication than the two-photon coherent states in quantum optics, since the squeeze transformation is one of the most fundamental transformations in physics.

  12. Chapter 4. Fayuca Hormiga: The Cross-border Trade of Used Clothing between the United States and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, Mélissa

    2017-01-01

    Borders, regardless of their location, represent lucrative zones of exchange and trade, often illicit and clandestine. Along the US-Mexico border there is a lively trade taking second-hand clothing into Mexico through a complex system of smuggling, which is locally known as fayuca. Although used clothing is a restricted import in Mexico, it is sold everywhere in urban markets. This chapter details the “unauthorized” flow of used clothing across the US-Mexico border in light of ethnographic fi...

  13. Estimating the Risk of Tropical Cyclone Characteristics Along the United States Gulf of Mexico Coastline Using Different Statistical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanier, J. C.; Ellis, K.; Jagger, T.; Needham, H.; Yuan, J.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical cyclones, with their high wind speeds, high rainfall totals and deep storm surges, frequently strike the United States Gulf of Mexico coastline influencing millions of people and disrupting off shore economic activities. Events, such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and Hurricane Isaac in 2012, can be physically different but still provide detrimental effects due to their locations of influence. There are a wide variety of ways to estimate the risk of occurrence of extreme tropical cyclones. Here, the combined risk of tropical cyclone storm surge and nearshore wind speed using a statistical copula is provided for 22 Gulf of Mexico coastal cities. Of the cities considered, Bay St. Louis, Mississippi has the shortest return period for a tropical cyclone with at least a 50 m s-1 nearshore wind speed and a three meter surge (19.5 years, 17.1-23.5). Additionally, a multivariate regression model is provided estimating the compound effects of tropical cyclone tracks, landfall central pressure, the amount of accumulated precipitation, and storm surge for five locations around Lake Pontchartrain in Louisiana. It is shown the most intense tropical cyclones typically approach from the south and a small change in the amount of rainfall or landfall central pressure leads to a large change in the final storm surge depth. Data are used from the National Hurricane Center, U-Surge, SURGEDAT, and Cooperative Observer Program. The differences in the two statistical approaches are discussed, along with the advantages and limitations to each. The goal of combining the results of the two studies is to gain a better understanding of the most appropriate risk estimation technique for a given area.

  14. Influenza A (H1N1pdm09)-Related Critical Illness and Mortality in Mexico and Canada, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Cherit, Guillermo; De la Torre, Alethse; Rishu, Asgar; Pinto, Ruxandra; Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio A; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Silva-Medina, Marco Antonio; Hernández-Cárdenas, Carmen; Martínez-Franco, Michel; Quesada-Sánchez, Alejandro; López-Gallegos, Guadalupe Celia; Mosqueda-Gómez, Juan L; Rivera-Martinez, Norma E; Campos-Calderón, Fernando; Rivero-Sigarroa, Eduardo; Hernández-Gilsoul, Thierry; Espinosa-Pérez, Lourdes; Macías, Alejandro E; Lue-Martínez, Dolores M; Buelna-Cano, Christian; Ramírez-García Luna, Ana-Sofía; Cruz-Ruiz, Nestor G; Poblano-Morales, Manuel; Molinar-Ramos, Fernando; Hernandez-Torre, Martin; León-Gutiérrez, Marco Antonio; Rosaldo-Abundis, Oscar; Baltazar-Torres, José Ángel; Stelfox, Henry T; Light, Bruce; Jouvet, Philippe; Reynolds, Steve; Hall, Richard; Shindo, Nikki; Daneman, Nick; Fowler, Robert A

    2016-10-01

    The 2009-2010 influenza A (H1N1pdm09) pandemic caused substantial morbidity and mortality among young patients; however, mortality estimates have been confounded by regional differences in eligibility criteria and inclusion of selected populations. In 2013-2014, H1N1pdm09 became North America's dominant seasonal influenza strain. Our objective was to compare the baseline characteristics, resources, and treatments with outcomes among critically ill patients with influenza A (H1N1pdm09) in Mexican and Canadian hospitals in 2014 using consistent eligibility criteria. Observational study and a survey of available healthcare setting resources. Twenty-one hospitals, 13 in Mexico and eight in Canada. Critically ill patients with confirmed H1N1pdm09 during 2013-2014 influenza season. None. The main outcome measures were 90-day mortality and independent predictors of mortality. Among 165 adult patients with H1N1pdm09-related critical illness between September 2013 and March 2014, mean age was 48.3 years, 64% were males, and nearly all influenza was community acquired. Patients were severely hypoxic (median PaO2-to-FIO2 ratio, 83 mm Hg), 97% received mechanical ventilation, with mean positive end-expiratory pressure of 14 cm H2O at the onset of critical illness and 26.7% received rescue oxygenation therapy with prone ventilation, extracorporeal life support, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, or inhaled nitric oxide. At 90 days, mortality was 34.6% (13.9% in Canada vs 50.5% in Mexico, p Mexico (odds ratio, 7.76 [95% CI, 2.02-27.35]). ICUs in Canada generally had more beds, ventilators, healthcare personnel, and rescue oxygenation therapies. Influenza A (H1N1pdm09)-related critical illness still predominantly affects relatively young to middle-aged patients and is associated with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. The local critical care system and available resources may be influential determinants of patient outcome.

  15. Amphibians and Reptiles of the state of Nuevo León, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos-Espinal, Julio A; Smith, Geoffrey R; Cruz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We compiled a check list of the herpetofauna of Nuevo León. We documented 132 species (23 amphibians, 109 reptiles), representing 30 families (11 amphibians, 19 reptiles) and 73 genera (17 amphibians, 56 reptiles). Only two species are endemic to Nuevo León. Nuevo León contains a relatively high richness of lizards in the genus Sceloporus. Overlap in the herpetofauna of Nuevo León and states it borders is fairly extensive. Of 130 native species, 102 are considered species of Least Concern in the IUCN red list, four are listed as Vulnerable, five are listed as Near Threatened, and four are listed as Endangered. According to SEMARNAT, 78 species are not of conservation concern, 25 are subject to Special Protection, 27 are Threatened, and none are listed as in Danger of Extinction. Given current threats to the herpetofauna, additional efforts to understand the ecology and status of populations in Nuevo León are needed.

  16. Presence of Anti-Toxocara Antibodies in Sheep from the State of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Romero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by the nematode Toxocara canis, and less frequently Toxocara cati, whose final hosts are the dog and cat, respectively. It is acquired by the ingestion of embryonated parasite eggs; the ingestion of meat from animals carrying cystic larvae plays a central role in this disease. The study was conducted in Ayapango, Mexico. Ninety-two sheep where used, of which 72 were females and 20 males. The total prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies was 15.21% (14/92, ranging from 17.24% in the one to six months age group to 14.28% in the group older sheep six months, with a higher percentage in females (19.44% compared to males (5.0%, with a significant difference between positive males and females older than six months of age (Chi-square test = 4.22, P < 0.05. The prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in sheep suggests that a high number of animals are infected with Toxocara spp. The consumption of meat from paratenic hosts, including sheep, is considered a means of transmission of toxocariasis to humans.

  17. Congenital malformations according to etiology in newborns from the floricultural zone of Mexico state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Cadena, Julieta; Mejia-Sanchez, Fernando; López-Arriaga, Jerónimo Amado

    2017-03-01

    Birth defects are the number one cause of child mortality worldwide and in 2010 it was the second cause in Mexico. Congenital malformations are a public health issue, because they cause infant mortality, chronic disease and disability. The origin can be genetic, environmental or unknown causes. Among environmental contaminants, pesticides stand out. In this study, we determine the frequency and etiology of congenital malformations in newborns (NBs) of a floricultural community and we compare it with that in the urban community. For 18 months, the NBs were monitored at the Tenancingo General Hospital and the Mother and Child Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospital (IMIEM) in Toluca. The identification of these malformations was carried out in accordance with the WHO. In Tenancingo, 1149 NBs were viewed, where 20% had some kind of congenital malformations. While in the IMIEM, 5069 were reviewed and 6% had some malformation. According to the etiology, in Tenancingo, 69% were multifactorial, 28% were monogenetic and 2% were chromosomal. In the IMIEM, 47% were multifactorial, then 18.3% were monogenetic and 2.8% were chromosomal. There was a significant difference between the global frequency of malformations and the multifactorial etiology of both institutions. Our results show that congenital malformations in the NBs occurred more frequently in the floricultural zone and that because the percentage of multifactorial etiology is higher, it is likely there is an association with exposure to pesticides.

  18. Study of arsenic removal with ionic exchange resins in drinking water from Zimapan, Hidalgo State, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Moreno, F.; Prieto-Garcia, F.; Rojas-Hernandez, A.; Marmolejo-Santillan, Y.; Salinas-Rodriguez, E.; Patino-Cardona, F.

    2006-01-01

    Anionic exchange resins were research with respect its capacity for removal arsenic content in water. Water of well V from Zimapan Hidalgo Mexico was used to make this research, because this water have a mean concentration of 480±11μg-L''-1 of arsenic and it is available as drinking water. The exchange resins employed were two strong anionic, one macroreticular (IRA-900) and other gel type (IRA-400), as soon as one third anionic weak macroreticular type (IRA-96). The experiments carried with this resins showing that IRA-900 has highest efficient in the process of arsenic removal from drinking water, because, it showed a treatment capacity of 700 V a gua. V r es''-1; while that capacities of IRA-400 e IRA-96 resins were 320 and 52 V a gua .V r es''-1 respectively. The mean concentration of arsenic residue in the treatise water was 24 μg.l''-1 and it is within the maximum level permissible by Mexican official norm for drinking water. (Author) 12 refs

  19. Ground-Water Flow Model of the Sierra Vista Subwatershed and Sonoran Portions of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona, United States, and Northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, D.R.; Dickinson, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    A numerical ground-water model was developed to simulate seasonal and long-term variations in ground-water flow in the Sierra Vista subwatershed, Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico, portions of the Upper San Pedro Basin. This model includes the simulation of details of the groundwater flow system that were not simulated by previous models, such as ground-water flow in the sedimentary rocks that surround and underlie the alluvial basin deposits, withdrawals for dewatering purposes at the Tombstone mine, discharge to springs in the Huachuca Mountains, thick low-permeability intervals of silt and clay that separate the ground-water flow system into deep-confined and shallow-unconfined systems, ephemeral-channel recharge, and seasonal variations in ground-water discharge by wells and evapotranspiration. Steady-state and transient conditions during 1902-2003 were simulated by using a five-layer numerical ground- water flow model representing multiple hydrogeologic units. Hydraulic properties of model layers, streamflow, and evapotranspiration rates were estimated as part of the calibration process by using observed water levels, vertical hydraulic gradients, streamflow, and estimated evapotranspiration rates as constraints. Simulations approximate observed water-level trends throughout most of the model area and streamflow trends at the Charleston streamflow-gaging station on the San Pedro River. Differences in observed and simulated water levels, streamflow, and evapotranspiration could be reduced through simulation of climate-related variations in recharge rates and recharge from flood-flow infiltration.

  20. Cross-national differences in clinically significant cannabis problems: epidemiologic evidence from 'cannabis-only' smokers in the United States, Mexico, and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posada-Villa Jose

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies show wide variability in the occurrence of cannabis smoking and related disorders across countries. This study aims to estimate cross-national variation in cannabis users' experience of clinically significant cannabis-related problems in three countries of the Americas, with a focus on cannabis users who may have tried alcohol or tobacco, but who have not used cocaine, heroin, LSD, or other internationally regulated drugs. Methods Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys Initiative and the National Latino and Asian American Study, with probability samples in Mexico (n = 4426, Colombia (n = 5,782 and the United States (USA; n = 8,228. The samples included 212 'cannabis only' users in Mexico, 260 in Colombia and 1,724 in the USA. Conditional GLM with GEE and 'exact' methods were used to estimate variation in the occurrence of clinically significant problems in cannabis only (CO users across these surveyed populations. Results The experience of cannabis-related problems was quite infrequent among CO users in these countries, with weighted frequencies ranging from 1% to 5% across survey populations, and with no appreciable cross-national variation in general. CO users in Colombia proved to be an exception. As compared to CO users in the USA, the Colombia smokers were more likely to have experienced cannabis-associated 'social problems' (odds ratio, OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 6.3; p = 0.004 and 'legal problems' (OR = 9.7; 95% CI = 2.7, 35.2; p = 0.001. Conclusions This study's most remarkable finding may be the similarity in occurrence of cannabis-related problems in this cross-national comparison within the Americas. Wide cross-national variations in estimated population-level cumulative incidence of cannabis use disorders may be traced to large differences in cannabis smoking prevalence, rather than qualitative differences in cannabis experiences. More research is needed to identify conditions that

  1. "We became sisters, not of blood but of pain" : Women's experiences of organization and empowerment in relation to enforced disappearances in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Enforced disappearances has been used as a repressive strategy by numerous Latin American states against tens of thousands of presumed political opponents and adversaries, starting in the 1960’s in Guatemala. In contemporary Latin America, Mexico holds the record for disappearances, both politically and non-politically motivated, with more than 30 000 cases reported since the beginning of the drug war in 2006. In response to the silence and impunity from the state, family members have been fo...

  2. New Mexico's Model for Funding School Facilities' Greatest Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrell, Robert; Salamone, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The New Mexico Public Schools Facilities Authority (NM-PSFA) is a relatively small state agency (50 staff members) that manages the allocation of funding for public school facilities in the state while assisting school districts and state-chartered charter schools in facility planning, construction, and maintenance. Like the majority of other…

  3. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  4. Evaluation of climatic forecasts of rainfall for the Tlaxcala State (Mexico): 1998-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay Garcia, C. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Hernandez Vazquez, M.; Jimenez Lopez, J. [Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Autonoma de Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Lezama Gutierrez, J. [Departamento de Agrobiologia, Universidad Autonoma de Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Magana Rueda, V.O.; Morales Acoltzi, T. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Orozco Flores, S. [Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Autonoma de Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    During the second semester of 1997 the Project Utilizacion de pronosticos climaticos para actividades agricolas de Tlaxcala was instrumented with the purpose of aiding decision making in agricultural activities in the estate of Tlaxcala, Mexico. The main objective of the project was to characterize extreme values of precipitation associated with El Nino/La Nina events, to produce useful forecasts for decision making. This was achieved through close contacts with the farmers whose specific needs were taken into account to the extent possible. In a sense such forecasts became forecasts watched over by producers. The method of ensemble of analogs was applied to historical data. The evaluation of annual and monthly forecasts is presented here. The results show that knowledge about the regional climate has been gained as it is reflected by the skill of the method to forecast. The forecast for the region, for the year 2003 is analyzed in terms of the precipitation anomalies. [Spanish] En el segundo semestre de 1997, se implemento el proyecto de investigacion Utilizacion de pronosticos climaticos para actividades agricolas en el estado de Tlaxcala. El objetivo principal del proyecto original fue el de caracterizar valores extremos de precipitacion asociados a los eventos El Nino/La Nina, producir pronosticos mensuales de precipitacion que fueran practicos en la toma de decisiones para los cultivos de temporal. Esto ultimo fue discutido con los productores cuyas necesidades y sugerencias fueron tomadas en cuenta, considerando un pronostico lo mas extendido posible. De esta manera los pronosticos se tornaron Pronosticos vigilados por los productores. El metodo de ensamble de analogos observados fue aplicado para generar los pronosticos de 1998-2002. La evaluacion de los pronosticos anuales y mensuales se presenta aqui. Los resultados muestran que se ha ganado conocimiento acerca del clima regional, como se refleja en la habilidad del metodo para pronosticar. Por ultimo, se

  5. Exposure to organophosphate pesticides and male hormone profile in floriculturist of the state of Morelos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Muñoz, Julia; Morales, Magally Mayanin; Lacasaña, Marina; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Bassol, Susana; Cebrián, Mariano E

    2010-07-01

    Studies on experimental animals have found that organophosphate (OP) pesticides may act as endocrine disruptors; however, their effects on the human hormonal profile have not yet been adequately characterized. We evaluate the association between exposure to OP pesticides, measured through dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites urinary levels, and the male hormone profile. A cross-sectional study was performed in 104 floriculturists of Morelos, Mexico. A structured questionnaire was applied to get information on sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometry, clinical history, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and work history. DAP metabolites [dimethylphosphate (DMP), dimethylthiophosphate, dimethyldithiophosphate, diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP) and diethyldithiophosphate] were determined using gas-liquid chromatography. Serum levels of FSH, LH, prolactin, testosterone, inhibin B and estradiol were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multiple linear regression was used to study the association between DAP metabolite levels and male hormonal profile. Data were adjusted by p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene serum levels and other potential confounders. There was a negative association between inhibin B and urinary levels of DMP, DEP, DETP and total DAP metabolites. DEP levels were negatively associated with serum FSH concentrations, but marginally and positively associated with those of testosterone. DETP was marginally associated with lower LH serum levels. There were no other significant associations among OP metabolites and serum hormone levels. Inhibin B and FSH vary according to levels of DAP metabolites in men occupationally exposed to OP pesticides. These results suggest that OP pesticides could act as endocrine disruptors in humans; however, most hormonal values fell within the wide normal range and associations were small. There is, therefore, a need for further investigation to elucidate their biological and clinical

  6. Sylvatic focus of American Trypanosomiasis in the State of Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Villegas-García

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild vectors and reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi were surveyed from February 1993 to June 1994 in Ticumán (18°46’N, 99°07’W, Mexico (Deciduous Tropical Forest. Direct faeces examination showed that 87% of Triatoma pallidipennis hosted the parasite; T. cruzi forms were present in cultures inoculated with faeces of fifty 67% triatomine bugs and thirty CD-1 strain mice (10 d old inoculated (peritoneum with faeces of positive insects T. cruzi amastigotes were found in heart 67%, kidneys 47%, liver 80%, lungs 50%, oesophagus 60%, skin 23%, spleen 73% and stomach 60%. T. cruzi was isolated by direct blood examination from seven 21% chiropterans and five 38% rodents and T. cruzi forms were present in cultures inoculated with blood of twenty-three 68% chiropterans and seven 54% rodents and T. cruzi amastigotes were seen in the kidneys of one 3% chiropterans and four 31% rodents and only in one Pteronotus parnellii mexicanus, organisms were seen in skin 2%. There was no association between organs and T. cruzi infection (p 0.05.Se determinó la infección por Trypanosoma cruzi en chinches triatóminas y mamíferos silvestres capturados de febrero de 1993 a junio de 1994 en Ticumán (18°46’N, 99°07’W, Tlaltizapán, Morelos, México. El 87% de los ejemplares de Triatoma pallidipennis tenía el parásito; T. cruzi fue aislado de la sangre de siete quirópteros y cinco roedores. No hubo dependencia significativa entre los órganos examinados de los mamíferos y la infección por T. cruzi.

  7. Modeling of the quality of water of River Tula, state of Hidalgo, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montelongo Casanova, Rosalba; Gordillo Martinez, Alberto Jose; Otazo Sanchez, Elena Maria; Villagomez Ibarra, Jose Roberto; Acevedo Sandoval, Otilio Arturo; Prieto Garcia, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The central objective of this work is to model the quality of the water of Tula River, from the central emitter to their confluence with the Endho Dam. It was evaluated during two years, considering a length of 50 km in 4 zones and 35 sites of sampling. The central emitter contributes to the greater amount of organic matter, water without treatment of the city of Mexico and co urbane zone. The values of DBO varied from 1.16 up to 486.81 mg O 2 /L; the oxygen dissolved between 1.52 and 5.82 mg/L. This implies affectation for the development of the aquatic life. The alkalinity exceeded the ecological criteria of quality as a source of potable water with value of 458.01 mg. the fats displayed variations from 0.9 mg/l up to 18.1 mg/l and ammoniacal nitrogen outside the limits established for protection of the aquatic life with values from 0.09 a 64 mg/L; nitrates (6.24 mg/L) and nitrites (0.5-1.304 mg/L) exceed the ecological criteria. The metals cadmium, lead, iron, manganese and zinc are in concentrations over the permissible rank and in some sections mercury presence was reported. The fecal coliforms were detected in values from 2.1x10 4 up to 2.40x10 1 1 NMP/100 milliliters. In general, the toxicity in the residual water unloading demonstrated that all appears of moderate to high. Only there were three monitored stations (19%) with excellent quality, 3 smaller or equal DBOs to mg/L, which is considered like water no contaminated by biodegradable organic matter

  8. Environmental state and tendencies of the Puerto Morelos CARICOMP site, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa E Rodríguez-Martínez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The CARICOMP site at Puerto Morelos, Mexico was monitored from 1993 to 2005. No significant changes in air temperature, wind patterns, periodicity and quantity of rainfall, sea-surface temperature and water transparency were observed between sampling years. During the study four hurricane impacts were registered. At the coral reef site overall mean cover of fleshy algae (47% and turf algae (36% were high, whereas cover of corals (2% and sponges (3%, and abundance of sea-urchins (0.04 org m-2 were consistently low. Gorgonians were dominant and showed changes in their community structure; the number of species increased from 1993 to 1995, their abundance decreased after Hurricane Roxanne (1995 and recovered by 2001. At four seagrass sites total community biomass remained constant (707.1-929.6 g dry m-2 but the above-ground biomass of the seagrass Syringodium filiforme and fleshy algae increased gradually. Total biomass (531-699 g dry m-2 and leaf productivity (0.89-1.56 g dry m-2 d-1 of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum remained constant, but the species invested proportionally more biomass in above-ground leaf tissues at the end of the study. The minor hurricanes from 1993 until 2005 had no detectable impacts on the seagrass beds, however, the major Hurricane Wilma (October 2005 changed the community composition at three stations and caused complete burial of the vegetation at a coastal station. The gradual changes in the seagrass and reef communities recorded in the 12 years of continuous monitoring of the CARICOMP site may reflect the increased pollution caused by the rapid augment in urban and tourist developments along the coasts and inland from Puerto Morelos, coupled with poor water management practices. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3: 23-43. Epub 2010 October 01.

  9. [Laws on gender violence and their effect on sexism in advertising: a comparative analysis of advertisements from Argentina, Mexico, Spain and the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Llaguno, Marta; Navarro-Beltrá, Marián

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of gender violence legislation on the incidence of sexism and gender bias in advertisements published in four countries: Argentina, Mexico, Spain, and the United States. The study focused on the content of 163 advertisements: 69 from Spain, 16 from Mexico, 50 from Argentina, and 28 from the United States. Data were gathered on the presence of bodies not associated with the product being advertised, to study the stereotypical presentation of men and women and gender biases in advertisements in Argentina, Mexico, Spain, and the United States. The following stereotypical findings were observed: (i) men were shown in public places more often than women in the ads from Argentina (P = 0.000), Spain (P = 0.000), and Mexico (P = 0.011); (ii) men were shown more often than women practicing neutral professions in the ads from Argentina (P = 0.004), Spain (P = 0.000), and Mexico (P = 0.025); and (iii) men were shown more often than women as workers and users (P = 0.000) and less often than women in a parenting role (P = 0.000). With regard to biases, (i) men were given greater visibility than women in all four countries, and (ii) only in the ads from Spain were there significant differences in terms of parity, with men appearing more often in the ads than women (P = 0.014), and empowerment, with men shown making decisions more often than women; P = 0.045). Those countries with legislation aimed at using communication to prevent gender violence do not have less sexism in their advertisements. To analyze the relationships between laws, sexism, and gender violence, it would be necessary to undertake a rigorous diachronic assessment of the instruments constructed and also to compare the results with other cultural and social indicators that are often difficult to isolate.

  10. Monitoring Colonias Development along the United States-Mexico Border: A Process Application using GIS and Remote Sensing in Douglas, Arizona, and Agua Prieta, Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Donelson, Angela J.; Pfeifer, Edwin L.; Lam, Alven H.; Osborn, Kenneth J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have developed a joint project to create Internet-enabled geographic information systems (GIS) that will help cities along the United States-Mexico border deal with issues related to colonias. HUD defines colonias as rural neighborhoods in the United States-Mexico border region that lack adequate infrastructure or housing and other basic services. They typically have high poverty rates that make it difficult for residents to pay for roads, sanitary water and sewer systems, decent housing, street lighting, and other services through assessment. Many Federal agencies recognize colonias designations and provide funding assistance. It is the intention of this project to empower Arizona-Sonora borderland neighborhoods and community members by recognizing them as colonias. This recognition will result in eligibility for available economic subsidies and accessibility to geospatial tools and information for urban planning. The steps to achieve this goal include delineation of colonia-like neighborhoods, identification of their urbanization over time, development of geospatial databases describing their infrastructure, and establishment of a framework for distributing Web-based GIS decision support systems. A combination of imagery and infrastructure information was used to help delineate colonia boundaries. A land-use change analysis, focused on urbanization in the cities over a 30-year timeframe, was implemented. The results of this project are being served over the Internet, providing data to the public as well as to participating agencies. One of the initial study areas for this project was the City of Douglas, Ariz., and its Mexican sister-city Agua Prieta, Sonora, which are described herein. Because of its location on the border, this twin-cities area is especially well suited to international manufacturing and commerce, which has, in turn, led to an uncontrolled spread of

  11. The effect of adult children living in the United States on the likelihood of cognitive impairment for older parents living in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, Brian; González-González, Cesar; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R; Wong, Rebeca

    2018-01-01

    The increased risk for poor physical and mental health outcomes for older parents in Mexico who have an adult child living in the United States may contribute to an increased risk for cognitive impairment in this population. The objective of this study was to examine if older adults in Mexico who have one or more adult children living in the United States are more or less likely to develop cognitive impairment over an 11-year period compared to older adults who do not have any adult children living in the United States. Data for this study came from Wave I (2001) and Wave III (2012) of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. The final sample included 2609 participants aged 60 and over who were not cognitively impaired in 2001 and had one or more adult children (age ≥15). Participants were matched using a propensity score that was estimated with a multivariable logistic regression model that included sociodemographic characteristics and migration history of the older parents. Having one or more adult children living in the United States is associated with lower socioeconomic status and higher number of depressive symptoms, but greater social engagement for older parents living in Mexico. No significant differences in the odds for developing cognitive impairment according to having one or more adult children living in the United States were detected. In summary, having one or more adult children living in the United States was associated with characteristics that may increase and decrease the risk for cognitive impairment. This may contribute to the non-significant relationship between migration status of adult children and likelihood for cognitive impairment for older parents living in Mexico.

  12. Aging in the Americas: Disability-free Life Expectancy Among Adults Aged 65 and Older in the United States, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin F

    2018-01-11

    To estimate and compare disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and current age patterns of disability onset and recovery from disability between the United States and countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Disability is measured using the activities of daily living scale. Data come from longitudinal surveys of older adult populations in Costa Rica, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the United States. Age patterns of transitions in and out of disability are modeled with a discrete-time logistic hazard model, and a microsimulation approach is used to estimate DFLE. Overall life expectancy for women aged 65 is 20.11 years in Costa Rica, 19.2 years in Mexico, 20.4 years in Puerto Rico, and 20.5 years in the United States. For men, these figures are 19.0 years in Costa Rica, 18.4 years in Mexico, 18.1 years in Puerto Rico, and 18.1 years in the United States. Proportion of remaining life spent free of disability for women at age 65 is comparable between Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the United States, with Costa Rica trailing slightly. Male estimates of DFLE are similar across the four populations. Though the older adult population of Latin America and the Caribbean lived many years exposed to poor epidemiological and public health conditions, their functional health in later life is comparable with the older adult population of the United States. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. State estimates and forecasts of the loop current in the Gulf of Mexico using the MITgcm and its adjoint

    KAUST Repository

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    2013-07-01

    An ocean state estimate has been developed for the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using the MIT general circulation model and its adjoint. The estimate has been tested by forecasting loop current (LC) evolution and eddy shedding in the GoM. The adjoint (or four-dimensional variational) method was used to match the model evolution to observations by adjusting model temperature and salinity initial conditions, open boundary conditions, and atmospheric forcing fields. The model was fit to satellite-derived along-track sea surface height, separated into temporal mean and anomalies, and gridded sea surface temperature for 2 month periods. The optimized state at the end of the assimilation period was used to initialize the forecast for 2 months. Forecasts explore practical LC predictability and provide a cross-validation test of the state estimate by comparing it to independent future observations. The model forecast was tested for several LC eddy separation events, including Eddy Franklin in May 2010 during the deepwater horizon oil spill disaster in the GoM. The forecast used monthly climatological open boundary conditions, atmospheric forcing, and run-off fluxes. The model performance was evaluated by computing model-observation root-mean-square difference (rmsd) during both the hindcast and forecast periods. The rmsd metrics for the forecast generally outperformed persistence (keeping the initial state fixed) and reference (forecast initialized using assimilated Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model 1/12° global analysis) model simulations during LC eddy separation events for a period of 1̃2 months.

  14. State estimates and forecasts of the loop current in the Gulf of Mexico using the MITgcm and its adjoint

    KAUST Repository

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Cornuelle, Bruce D.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Rudnick, Daniel L.; Owens, W. Brechner

    2013-01-01

    An ocean state estimate has been developed for the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using the MIT general circulation model and its adjoint. The estimate has been tested by forecasting loop current (LC) evolution and eddy shedding in the GoM. The adjoint (or four-dimensional variational) method was used to match the model evolution to observations by adjusting model temperature and salinity initial conditions, open boundary conditions, and atmospheric forcing fields. The model was fit to satellite-derived along-track sea surface height, separated into temporal mean and anomalies, and gridded sea surface temperature for 2 month periods. The optimized state at the end of the assimilation period was used to initialize the forecast for 2 months. Forecasts explore practical LC predictability and provide a cross-validation test of the state estimate by comparing it to independent future observations. The model forecast was tested for several LC eddy separation events, including Eddy Franklin in May 2010 during the deepwater horizon oil spill disaster in the GoM. The forecast used monthly climatological open boundary conditions, atmospheric forcing, and run-off fluxes. The model performance was evaluated by computing model-observation root-mean-square difference (rmsd) during both the hindcast and forecast periods. The rmsd metrics for the forecast generally outperformed persistence (keeping the initial state fixed) and reference (forecast initialized using assimilated Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model 1/12° global analysis) model simulations during LC eddy separation events for a period of 1̃2 months.

  15. Industrial subdivisions in Aguascalientes State [Mexico]: Valley Region, potential spaces for development in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Daniel García Díaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The planning policies of the Mexican urban development oriented to the industrial activities implemented regionally and locally, have responded in different ways. The commitment to the sector led to the need to regulate urban growth and development as a substantial factor in achieving government strategies in the search for equitable sharing of national wealth and potential. The publication in 1976 of the General Law of Human Settlements born with this fundamental purpose. Excessive administrative burden of the Mexican social property and the need to insert in an increasingly globalizing economic activities led, in 1992 and 1994, respectively, the amendments to the Land Act and the signing of the Free Trade Agreement between North America, Canada, United States and Mexico. In the West Central Region, consisting of the metropolitan areas of Guadalajara, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi, Queretaro, Guanajuato and Aguascalientes, spatial area in which a third of the country's inhabitants is based, and hosts the 100% extension territorial state of Aguascalientes, have been exploited discontinuously the natural and man-made resources available in the area. In the Valley of Aguascalientes, north-south strip of the state territory, have been authorized industrial subdivisions under plans and urban development programs that have accelerated or inhibited impulses, according to the vision and expectations of government power in turn; the different rhythms and changes of strategy applied to organize the disorder potential of the rural and urban environment express divergences in the reaches of consolidation and longed purposes. Research indicates and identifies the dynamics with which the last eight administrations of the Mexican State have acted in shaping the industrial potential of the Valley, which the south side hosts industrial city, Nissan I, Nissan II and Automotive Logistics Industrial Park, industrial settlements seeking to consolidate the region

  16. Isla Guadalupe, Mexico (GUAX, SCIGN/PBO) a Relative Constraint for California Borderland and Northern Gulf of California Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    Using ITRF2000 as a common reference frame link, I analyzed survey mode and permanent GPS published results, together with SOPAC public data and results (http://sopac.ucsd.edu), in order to evaluate relative present day crustal deformation in California and northern Mexico. The crustal velocity field of Mexico (Marquez-Azua and DeMets, 2003) obtained from continuous GPS measurements conducted by Instituto Nacional de Geografia e Informatica (INEGI) for 1993-2001, was partially used. The preferred model for an instantaneous rigid motion between North-America and Pacific plates (NAPA), is obtained using results of Isla Guadalupe GPS surveys (1991-2002) giving a new constraint for Pacific plate (PA) motion (Gonzalez-Garcia et al., 2003). It produces an apparent reduction of 1 mm/yr in the absolute motion in the border zone between PA and North-America (NA) plates in this region, as compared with other GPS models (v.g. Prawirodirdjo and Bock, 2004); and it is 3 mm/yr higher than NNRNUVEL-1A. In the PA reference frame, westernmost islands from San Francisco (FARB), Los Angeles (MIG1), and Ensenada (GUAX); give current residuals of 1.8, 1.7 and 0.9 mm/yr and azimuths that are consistent with local tectonic setting, respectively. In the NA reference frame, besides the confirmation of 2 mm/yr E-W extension for the southern Basin and Range province in northern Mexico; a present day deformation rate of 40.5 mm/yr between San Felipe, Baja California (SFBC) and Hermosillo, Sonora, is obtained. This rate agrees with a 6.3 to 6.7 Ma for the "initiation of a full sea-floor spreading" in the northern Gulf of California. SFBC has a 7 mm/yr motion in the PA reference frame, giving then, a full NAPA theoretical absolute motion of 47.5 mm/yr. For Puerto Penasco, Sonora (PENA) there is a NAPA motion of 46.2 mm/yr and a residual of 1.2 mm/yr in the NA reference frame, this site is located only 75 km to the northeast from the Wagner basin center. For southern Isla Guadalupe (GUAX) there

  17. Energy in Mexico: a profile of solar energy activity in its national context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, D.

    1980-04-01

    The geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the United States of Mexico are presented. Mexico's energy profile includes the following: energy policy objectives, government energy structure, organizations for implementation, indigeneous energy sources, imported energy sources, solar energy research and development, solar energy organizations and solar energy related legislation and administrative policies. International agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects are listed. (MRH)

  18. Interhospital transfer of liver trauma in New Mexico: a state of austere resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoka, Nova; Murray-Krezan, Cristina; Miskimins, Richard; Greenbaum, Alissa; Tobey, David; Faizi, Syed; West, Sonlee; Lu, Stephen; Howdieshell, Thomas; Demarest, Gerald; Nir, Itzhak

    2014-09-01

    There is debate in the trauma literature regarding the effect of prolonged prehospital transport on morbidity and mortality. This study analyzes the management of hepatic trauma patients requiring surgery and compares the outcomes of the group that was transferred to the University of New Mexico Hospital (UNMH) from outside institutions, to the directly admitted group. The UNMH Trauma Database was queried from 2005-2012. Of 674 patients who sustained liver injuries, 163 required surgery: 46 patients (28.2%) underwent interhospital transfer, and 117 (71.8%) were directly admitted. Variables examined included transfer status, trauma mechanism, transport type, injury severity score (ISS), liver injury grade, and associated injuries. Outcome variables included length of stay (LOS) and 30-day mortality. Outcomes of the transfer group (TG) and direct admit group (DAG) were compared. Both TG and DAG had the same median age (31 y, P = 0.33). The blunt-to-penetrating ratio was the same for each group (48% blunt: 52% penetrating, P = 1.0). Median ISS was 25 for the TG and 26 for the DAG. Grade III or higher injury occurred in 29 (63%) of the TG and in 68 (58%) of the DAG (P = 0.56). Median hospital LOS was 14 d for TG and 9 d for DAG (P = 0.15). Median intensive care unit LOS was 4 d for both groups (P = 0.71). Thirty-day mortality was 20% in each group (P = 0.27). Using a multiple logistic regression model for the outcome of mortality, only age, ISS, and liver injury grade, not transfer status or transport type, had a significant effect on mortality. There was no significant difference in liver injury grade, ISS, LOS, and mortality between TG and DAG. In the patient population of our study, transfer status did not affect outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Administrative Surveillance and Fear: Implications for U.S.-Mexico Border Relations and Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Correa-Cabrera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fear has struck the people along the U.S.-Mexico border. Government authorities of the two nations have implemented techniques to secure the Rio Grande against drug trafficking, immigration, and terrorism. This article explores the issues and policies that have led to the escalation of violence on the U.S.-Mexico border and the ‘politics of fear’. Firstly, Mexican and U.S. governmental authorities are examined in the context of their actions against the various drug cartels. Secondly, the impact of such actions on the nations’ publics is analysed. The authors combine the theoretical conceptions of the ‘media spectacle’ and the politics of fear that create a ‘spectacle of fear’ to explain events in the region. Finally, the authors provide a theoretical interpretation of the politics and administration of security policies regarding the impact of violence in this border region, employing primarily the works of Michel Foucault and Hannah Arendt, which are central to any discussion of the phenomena of politics and societal violence. Overall, this work seeks to interpret the ‘culture of fear’ forced on citizens and the conflict between power and violence. Resumen: Vigilancia Administrativa y Miedo: Implicaciones para la Gobernanza y las Relaciones Fronterizas México-Estados Unidos El miedo ha tomado por sorpresa a la población que habita en la región fronteriza México-Estados Unidos. Las autoridades han implementado acciones para combatir, en ambos lados del Río Bravo, el tráfico de drogas, la migración y el terrorismo. En este artículo se explican las causas de la violencia fronteriza que derivan en la ‘política del miedo’. Primeramente, se analizan las acciones de las autoridades mexicanas y estadounidenses en contra de los denominados cárteles de la droga. En segundo lugar, se evalúa el impacto de dichas acciones sobre la sociedad en ambas naciones. Los autores combinan las nociones teóricas de

  20. Emotional Testimonies:An Ethnographic Study of Emotional Suffering Related to Migration from Mexico to Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eCrocker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly argued that social and economic inequity poorly affect overall health. One of the means through which these inequities are translated to the body is via negative emotions, which carry known psychological and physiological responses. This paper examines migration-related psychosocial stressors impacting first generation Mexican immigrants in southern Arizona, and reports on the primary emotional experiences immigrants associate with these stressors. Data were drawn from a qualitative, ethnographic study conducted over the course of 14 months during 2013-2014 with first generation Mexican immigrants (N=40 residing in Tucson Arizona and service providers working directly in the immigrant community (N=32. Results indicate that the primary structural vulnerabilities that cause emotional hardship amongst immigrants are pre-migration stressors and adversity, dangerous border crossings, detention and deportation, undocumented citizenship status, family separation, and extreme poverty. Many of these factors have intensified over the past decade due to increased border security and state level anti-immigrant legislation in Arizona. Immigrants connected these hardships to the emotions of trauma (50%, fear (65%, depression (75%, loneliness (75%, sadness (80%, and stress (85%, and most respondents reported suffering from three or more of these emotions. Given the heavy emotional toll of migration and the direct impact that regional legislation and border security had on well-being, this paper argues that emotion be considered an important mechanism for health declines in the immigrant community. In order to stem the frequency and intensity of emotional stress in the Mexican immigrant community in Tucson, it is imperative to support organizations and policies that promote community building and support networks and also expand access to and availability of mental health services for immigrants regardless of documentation status.

  1. Emotional Testimonies: An Ethnographic Study of Emotional Suffering Related to Migration from Mexico to Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly argued that social and economic inequities poorly affect overall health. One of the means through which these inequities are translated to the body is via negative emotions, which carry known psychological and physiological responses. This paper examines migration-related psychosocial stressors impacting first-generation Mexican immigrants in southern Arizona, and reports on the primary emotional experiences immigrants associate with these stressors. Data were drawn from a qualitative, ethnographic study conducted over the course of 14 months during 2013–2014 with first-generation Mexican immigrants (N = 40) residing in Tucson Arizona and service providers working directly in the immigrant community (N = 32). Results indicate that the primary structural vulnerabilities that cause emotional hardship among immigrants are pre-migration stressors and adversity, dangerous border crossings, detention and deportation, undocumented citizenship status, family separation, and extreme poverty. Many of these factors have intensified over the past decade due to increased border security and state level anti-immigrant legislation in Arizona. Immigrants connected these hardships to the emotions of trauma (50%), fear (65%), depression (75%), loneliness (75%), sadness (80%), and stress (85%), and most respondents reported suffering from three or more of these emotions. Given the heavy emotional toll of migration and the direct impact that regional legislation and border security had on well-being, this paper argues that emotion be considered an important mechanism for health declines in the immigrant community. In order to stem the frequency and intensity of emotional stress in the Mexican immigrant community in Tucson, it is imperative to support organizations and policies that promote community building and support networks and also expand access to and availability of mental health services for immigrants regardless of documentation status. PMID

  2. State Confessional Relations: Problem of the Subject Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra A. Dorskaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article various existing definitions of the concept "state and confessional relations" are analyzed, also author's definition is offered. Three levels of the state and confessional relations are revealed: conceptual, legislative and administrative-managerial. In the article it is shown that in Russia a tradition of only two subjects of the state and confessional relations – government bodies and the religious organizations allocation exists. It is revealed that at the present stage many researchers are dissatisfied with such situation. Scientific sources of the problem of the state and church relations within the psychological school of the law, which are addressed to the personality and experiences in the legal sphere are studied and revealed. Special attention is paid to scientific heritage of the M.A. Reysner, who was one of the first to begin study of this problem. In the article the question of the school of three subjects of the state and confessional relations allocation formation, what adds the faithful or faithless personality in addition to two traditional subjects is analyzed. The state and confessional relations are considered in the context of the human rights development. The question of new type of the believer possessing high education level and knowledge formation is considered. In the article it is shown that at the present stage relations of any regulation between the state and religious organizations is based on the basis of international legal standards, domestic legislation and norms of canon law.

  3. 15 CFR Notes Applicable to State... - Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: applicable Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY,...

  4. Social Occupation of the space in the State of Tlaxcala, Mexico, 1980-2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Concepción Martínez Rodríguez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the state of Tlaxcala faces major challenges in terms of territorial planning and urban management. Since the last third of the last century, it has experienced a rapid population increase in the rural towns that make up the periphery of their cities, which translates into a rapid urbanization of the state, but also great challenges to face this demographic transition. This study aims to explain the process of urbanization of the metropolitan area of the state between 1980 and 2017 using the available statistical information and based on various theories of urban development, with the aim of carrying out a characterization of the territorial system with the existing information, and incorporate the analysis of the different interactions of the natural, social, economic and legal systems that influence the population dynamics of Tlaxcala, to subsequently make a diagnosis of the state and identify the main weaknesses of the current urban development model. Finally, a proposal is made to orient the territorial ordering of the state, which lands in the specific needs of infrastructure, services and development strategies required to achieve an efficient, orderly and sustainable integration of the rural localities to the metropolitan region of Tlaxcala.

  5. State-independent uncertainty relations and entanglement detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chen; Li, Jun-Li; Qiao, Cong-Feng

    2018-04-01

    The uncertainty relation is one of the key ingredients of quantum theory. Despite the great efforts devoted to this subject, most of the variance-based uncertainty relations are state-dependent and suffering from the triviality problem of zero lower bounds. Here we develop a method to get uncertainty relations with state-independent lower bounds. The method works by exploring the eigenvalues of a Hermitian matrix composed by Bloch vectors of incompatible observables and is applicable for both pure and mixed states and for arbitrary number of N-dimensional observables. The uncertainty relation for the incompatible observables can be explained by geometric relations related to the parallel postulate and the inequalities in Horn's conjecture on Hermitian matrix sum. Practical entanglement criteria are also presented based on the derived uncertainty relations.

  6. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Berk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Munkholm K, Vinberg M, Berk M, Kessing LV. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Bipolar Disord 2012: 14: 684-696. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Objective:  Alterations in gene expression in bipolar disorder...... have been found in numerous studies. It is unclear whether such alterations are related to specific mood states. As a biphasic disorder, mood state-related alterations in gene expression have the potential to point to markers of disease activity, and trait-related alterations might indicate...... vulnerability pathways. This review therefore evaluated the evidence for whether gene expression in bipolar disorder is state or trait related. Methods:  A systematic review, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline for reporting systematic reviews, based...

  7. Assistance to States on Policies Related to Wind Energy Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Matthew, H; Decesaro, Jennifer; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-07-15

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the US Department of Energy, related to wind energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on wind energy, with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of wind energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of meetings designed specifically for state legislators and legislative staff, responses to information requests on wind energy, and publications. The publications addressed: renewable energy portfolio standards, wind energy transmission, wind energy siting, case studies of wind energy policy, avian issues, economic development, and other related issues. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about wind information for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to wind energy in the states.

  8. Host records for Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae) from birds of North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, Wayne; Proctor, Heather

    2007-07-01

    The northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago, 1877) (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae) is a broadly distributed blood-feeding parasite that has been collected from many birds of temperate regions. Previously, the most complete host list was published in 1938, and it included 15 North American (Canada, United States, and Mexico) host species. In the process of a general survey of bird-associated mites in Alberta, Canada, we recovered many O. sylviarum specimens. Herein, we update the previous host list with these observations and records published since 1938. We collected mites by washing the bodies of salvaged birds and examining the filtrate. Northern fowl mites were collected from 26 host species, with 16 of these species being the first host records for North America. Including results from the current study, O. sylviarum has been reported from 72 species of North American birds from 26 families. This updated host list will be useful to anyone interested in the role of O. sylviarum in transmission of avian disease.

  9. Comparison of Health Examination Survey Methods in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, England, Scotland, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jennifer S; Moody, Alison; Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I; Alfaro, Tania; Frenz, Patricia; Scholes, Shaun; Gonzalez, Silvia A; Margozzini, Paula; de Oliveira, Cesar; Sanchez Romero, Luz Maria; Alvarado, Andres; Cabrera, Sebastián; Sarmiento, Olga L; Triana, Camilo A; Barquera, Simón

    2017-09-15

    Comparability of population surveys across countries is key to appraising trends in population health. Achieving this requires deep understanding of the methods used in these surveys to examine the extent to which the measurements are comparable. In this study, we obtained detailed protocols of 8 nationally representative surveys from 2007-2013 from Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, the United Kingdom (England and Scotland), and the United States-countries that that differ in economic and inequity indicators. Data were collected on sampling frame, sample selection procedures, recruitment, data collection methods, content of interview and examination modules, and measurement protocols. We also assessed their adherence to the World Health Organization's "STEPwise Approach to Surveillance" framework for population health surveys. The surveys, which included half a million participants, were highly comparable on sampling methodology, survey questions, and anthropometric measurements. Heterogeneity was found for physical activity questionnaires and biological samples collection. The common age range included by the surveys was adults aged 18-64 years. The methods used in these surveys were similar enough to enable comparative analyses of the data across the 7 countries. This comparability is crucial in assessing and comparing national and subgroup population health, and to assisting the transfer of research and policy knowledge across countries. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from vehicles in the United States-Mexico border region: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kerry; Wagner, David; Lighty, JoAnn; Quintero Núñez, Margarito; Vazquez, F Adrian; Collins, Kimberly; Barud-Zubillaga, Alberto

    2006-03-01

    The investigators developed a system to measure black carbon (BC) and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission factors during roadside sampling in four cities along the United States-Mexico border, Calexico/Mexicali and El Paso/Juarez. The measurement system included a photoacoustic analyzer for BC, a photoelectric aerosol sensor for particle-bound PAHs, and a carbon dioxide (CO2) analyzer. When a vehicle with measurable emissions passed the system probe, corresponding BC, PAH, and CO2 peaks were evident, and a fuel-based emission factor was estimated. A picture of each vehicle was also recorded with a digital camera. The advantage of this system, compared with other roadside methods, is the direct measurement of particulate matter components and limited interference from roadside dust. The study revealed some interesting trends: Mexican buses and all medium-duty trucks were more frequently identified as high emitters of BC and PAH than heavy-duty trucks or passenger vehicles. In addition, because of the high daily mileage of buses, they are good candidates for additional study. Mexican trucks and buses had higher average emission factors compared with U.S. trucks and buses, but the differences were not statistically significant. Few passenger vehicles had measurable BC and PAH emissions, although the highest emission factor came from an older model passenger vehicle licensed in Baja California.

  11. A lower bound on the relative error of mixed-state cloning and related operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastegin, A E

    2003-01-01

    We extend the concept of the relative error to mixed-state cloning and related physical operations, in which the ancilla contains some information a priori about the input state. The lower bound on the relative error is obtained. It is shown that this result provides further support for a stronger no-cloning theorem

  12. Beyond the Border: Mexico’s Internal Conflict Is the United States’ Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Modus Operandi NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement NCTC United States National Counterterrorism Center NDCS National Drug Control Strategy...especially since their economic relationship has grown more interdependent over recent years. The North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ...against all threats foreign and domestic.131 Hamilton wrote that the solution to the threat centers on the development of a “ constitution [that] prevents

  13. "The State of Chihuahua", Lesson Plan for "Cultural Unit: Focus on Mexico."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Marianne

    This lesson plan was designed for students in Montana schools. The objectives for this culture unit are having: (1) students recognize the similarities between their home stat of Montana and the Mexican state of Chihuahua; (2) students learn about features unique to Chihuahua; and (3) students create an advertising brochure marketing Chihuahua to…

  14. Buscando Trabajo: Social Networking among Immigrants from Mexico to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The growth of the Latino population in the United States has placed a sharp focus on immigration. Previous research on immigration has taken for granted the existence of immigrant networks. This is a significant oversight given their importance in both conveying social capital and their contribution to the growth of immigrant communities. Using…

  15. Environmental Security: What Environmental Issues Impact Regional Stability and Affect United States Foreign Policy with Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    extraregional sponsor of Alianza para el Desarrollo Sostenible (Sustainable Development Alliance - ALIDES), along with United States and Canada. ALIDES is...more stable the government the better the country will be able to solve its environmental problems. 42 Glossary ALIDES Alianza para el Desarrollo ... Sostenible (Sustainable Development Alliance) C Centigrade CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons BECC Border Environment Cooperation Commission BNC Binational

  16. REMOVAL EFFICIENCY OF ORGANIC MATTER OF PIG SLURRY WITH BIODIGESTERS IN YUCATAN STATE, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Trejo-Lizama

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the intensive pig production in the state of Yucatan, 62 biodigesters were installed in the last 10 years. However, the complexities of the anaerobic biodigestion enclose difficulties to reach the expected efficiency. The objective of the present study was to determine the removal efficiency of the organic matter in pig slurry using biodigesters in the state of Yucatan. There were visited 15 pig farms in the state of Yucatan to interview the farmer about the management of the farm and the waste disposal and to take samples of the influent of the collector of the pig slurry and the effluent of the biodigestor and evaluating the samples by laboratory analysis. The removal values found in the present study were 7 percentage points below the reference value of total volatile solids, which represent the organic matter fraction of the solids treated in the biodigestor. More than the 50 % of the farms evaluated were similar or higher than the parameters of reference. The removal efficiency of the organic matter in the pig slurry by biodigesters in the state of Yucatan is close to the reference values. However complementary treatments are necessary to continue the waste slurry treatment.

  17. Distribution Log Normal of 222 Rn in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.L.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.; Davila, I.; Rios, C.; Pinedo, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the evaluation of the concentration of 222 Rn in air for Zacatecas is shown. The Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors were used as the technique for the realization of the measurements in large scale with cellulose nitrate LR-115, type 2, in open chambers of 222 Rn. The measurements were carried out during three months in different times of the year. In the results it is presented the log normal distribution, arithmetic mean and geometric media for the concentration at indoor and outdoor of residence constructions, the concentration at indoor of occupational constructions and in the 57 municipal heads of the state of Zacatecas. The statistics of the values in the concentration showed variation according to the time of the year, obtaining high quantities in winter seasons for both cases. The distribution of the concentration of 222 Rn is presented in the state map for each one of the municipalities, representing the measurement places in the entire state of Zacatecas. Finally the places where the values in the concentration of 222 Rn in air are near to the one limit settled down by the EPA of 148 Bq/m 3 are presented. (Author)

  18. Prevalence of rhinitis allergic in populations of several states of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleazar Mancilla-Hernández

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: With the use of the questionnaire diagnosis of allergic rhinitis for epidemiological studies in the four cities in four different states, we found a prevalence of allergic rhinitis of 15% in ≥13 yearpopulation and 13% in ≤12 year-old children.

  19. Facilitating and Inhibiting Factors of Sexual Behavior among Migrants in Transition from Mexico to the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alejandro Guerra-Ordoñez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHuman immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the border region of Mexico due to the flow of migrants under desperate conditions, encouraging casual and unprotected sex. Since this has become a binational public health problem, it is important to understand the factors that predict these sexual behaviors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the facilitators and inhibitors of transition in the sexual behavior of migrants from two border regions on the Mexico–United States (US border.MethodsThis was a predictive and cross-sectional study. A sample of 256 migrants in shelters for migrants on the border between Mexico and US were selected through systematic random sampling. Predictor variables investigated for effect on the safe sexual behavior (SSB of the migrant were reasons for having sex; sexual attitudes; sexual machismo; knowledge about HIV; access to health services; and social discrimination.ResultsThe sample was predominantly male (89.5%, with 46.1% reporting being single. The average age was 33.38 years (SD = 9.73 and the average number of years of education reported was 8.05 (SD = 3.37. A permissive sexual attitude and sexual machismo both correlated with condom use (rs = 0.130, p < 0.01 and rs = −0.174, p < 0.01, respectively. Regression analysis showed that a permissive sexual attitude decreased the practice of safe sex (β = 0.17, t = 4.16, p < 0.001, as did sexual machismo (β = −0.28, t = −4.83, p < 0.001 and HIV knowledge (β = −0.11, t = −2.62, p = 0.006.DiscussionIt was found that access to health services did not influence the SSB of migrants, as suggested by the literature. However, a permissive sexual attitude, sexual machismo, and HIV knowledge were all variables capable of predicting SSB. It is recommended that the study is extended to study migrant

  20. Symbolism and ritual practices related to hunting in Maya communities from central Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Fita, Dídac; Naranjo, Eduardo J; Estrada, Erin I J; Mariaca, Ramón; Bello, Eduardo

    2015-09-29

    Some Mayan peasant-hunters across the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico still carry out a hunting ritual -Loojil Ts'oon, Loj Ts'oon or Carbine Ceremony- in which they renew the divine permission for hunting in order to continue deserving the gift of prey after a period of hunt. Thus they are granted access to game by the gods and the Lords of the Animals, particularly the spirit/evil-wind call. This paper focuses on the acts within the Loojil Ts'oon -which is performed in the X-Pichil community and surrounding area- that make it unique among the hunting rituals performed in other parts of the Peninsula. The Loojil Ts'oon hunting ritual was observed and registered in audiovisual format in two different occasions in X-Pichil (Friday 04/29/2011 and Friday 07/29/2011). Afterwards, we delivered digital videodisks (DVD) to hunters and their families and to the j-men (the magic-medic-ritual specialist) who participated in these ceremonies. This delivery produced confidence among participants to talk more openly and in-depth about the Loojil Ts'oon, revealing symbolic, psychological, and material details previously unknown to outsiders. Qualitative information was obtained through the ethnographic method using techniques such as participant observation and guided tours. Semi-structured interviews were carried out to obtain complementary information. On one hand, we describe the preparation and cleansing of the "Sip soup", as well as its parading and distribution -delivery to the spirit/evil-wind Sip- on the streets of the community (highlingting the role of the rooster as a counter-gift). On the other hand, the cleansing of the jaws (of deer: Odocoileus virginianus, Mazama spp.; and peccaries: Tayassuidae) and their return to the Lords of Animals in the hills so that they may give these animals new life. By performing the Loojil Ts'oon, the act of killing an animal is legitimized. The kill transforms into an exchange to perpetuate life, in which gods and Lords of animals grant

  1. Factors associated with work-related accidents and sickness among maquiladora workers: the case of Nogales, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcazar, H; Denman, C; Lara, F

    1995-01-01

    The health problems of maquiladora workers were explored in a sample of 497 workers of Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. The workers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire containing four sections: a sociodemographic profile, occupational history, working conditions, and a health profile. Overall, 12.6 percent of the workers reported having an accident while working in the maquila, more than 40 percent of these requiring at least one day of disability, and 18.3 percent of workers reported having an episode of sickness/disease. More than 60 percent perceived health-related risks associated with working conditions. The presence of a doctor or nurse in the plant (odds ratio = 0.30), a perception of risk associated with working conditions (odds ratio = 1.85), and the plant offering information about work-related risks (odds ratio = 0.39) were among the significant predictors of work-related accidents and disease/sickness. The authors discuss the implications of these results for programs and policies to improve safety conditions in the maquiladora industry.

  2. Improved Sensitivity Relations in State Constrained Optimal Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettiol, Piernicola; Frankowska, Hélène; Vinter, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity relations in optimal control provide an interpretation of the costate trajectory and the Hamiltonian, evaluated along an optimal trajectory, in terms of gradients of the value function. While sensitivity relations are a straightforward consequence of standard transversality conditions for state constraint free optimal control problems formulated in terms of control-dependent differential equations with smooth data, their verification for problems with either pathwise state constraints, nonsmooth data, or for problems where the dynamic constraint takes the form of a differential inclusion, requires careful analysis. In this paper we establish validity of both ‘full’ and ‘partial’ sensitivity relations for an adjoint state of the maximum principle, for optimal control problems with pathwise state constraints, where the underlying control system is described by a differential inclusion. The partial sensitivity relation interprets the costate in terms of partial Clarke subgradients of the value function with respect to the state variable, while the full sensitivity relation interprets the couple, comprising the costate and Hamiltonian, as the Clarke subgradient of the value function with respect to both time and state variables. These relations are distinct because, for nonsmooth data, the partial Clarke subdifferential does not coincide with the projection of the (full) Clarke subdifferential on the relevant coordinate space. We show for the first time (even for problems without state constraints) that a costate trajectory can be chosen to satisfy the partial and full sensitivity relations simultaneously. The partial sensitivity relation in this paper is new for state constraint problems, while the full sensitivity relation improves on earlier results in the literature (for optimal control problems formulated in terms of Lipschitz continuous multifunctions), because a less restrictive inward pointing hypothesis is invoked in the proof, and because

  3. Comparison of small mammal prevalence of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in five foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Campeche, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberghe, N R; Canto-Lara, S B; Sosa-Bibiano, E I; Rivero-Cárdenas, N A; Andrade-Narváez, F J

    2009-01-01

    In the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, 95% of the human cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana with an incidence rate of 5.08 per 100,000 inhabitants. Transmission is limited to the winter months (November to March). One study on wild rodents has incriminated Ototylomys phyllotis and Peromyscus yucatanicus as primary reservoirs of L. (L.) mexicana in the focus of La Libertad, Campeche. In the present study, the prevalence of both infection and disease caused by L. (L.) mexicana in small terrestrial mammals were documented during five transmission seasons (1994-2004) in five foci of Leishmaniasis in the state of Campeche. Foci separated by only 100 km, with similar relative abundances of small mammals, were found to differ significantly in their prevalence of both symptoms and infection. Transmission rates and reservoir species seemed to change in space as well as in time which limited the implementation of effective control measures of the disease even in a small endemic area such as the south of the Yucatan Peninsula.

  4. Exploiting differential vegetation phenology for satellite-based mapping of semiarid grass vegetation in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Dennis G.; Middleton, Barry R.; Vogel, John M.; Wu, Zhuoting; Velasco, Miguel G.

    2016-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a methodology for subpixel discrimination and large-area mapping of the perennial warm-season (C4) grass component of vegetation cover in mixed-composition landscapes of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. We describe the methodology within a general, conceptual framework that we identify as the differential vegetation phenology (DVP) paradigm. We introduce a DVP index, the Normalized Difference Phenometric Index (NDPI) that provides vegetation type-specific information at the subpixel scale by exploiting differential patterns of vegetation phenology detectable in time-series spectral vegetation index (VI) data from multispectral land imagers. We used modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI2) data from Landsat to develop the NDPI, and MSAVI2 data from MODIS to compare its performance relative to one alternate DVP metric (difference of spring average MSAVI2 and summer maximum MSAVI2), and two simple, conventional VI metrics (summer average MSAVI2, summer maximum MSAVI2). The NDPI in a scaled form (NDPIs) performed best in predicting variation in perennial C4 grass cover as estimated from landscape photographs at 92 sites (R2 = 0.76, p landscapes of the Southwest, and potentially for monitoring of its response to drought, climate change, grazing and other factors, including land management. With appropriate adjustments, the method could potentially be used for subpixel discrimination and mapping of grass or other vegetation types in other regions where the vegetation components of the landscape exhibit contrasting seasonal patterns of phenology.

  5. Attitudes toward physician-nurse collaboration: a cross-cultural study of male and female physicians and nurses in the United States and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, M; Nasca, T J; Cohen, M J; Fields, S K; Rattner, S L; Griffiths, M; Ibarra, D; de Gonzalez, A A; Torres-Ruiz, A; Ibarra, G; Garcia, A

    2001-01-01

    Inter-professional collaboration between physicians and nurses, within and between cultures, can help contain cost and insure better patient outcomes. Attitude toward such collaboration is a function of the roles prescribed in the culture that guide professional behavior. The purpose of the study was to test three research hypotheses concerning attitudes toward physician-nurse collaboration across genders, disciplines, and cultures. The Jefferson Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration was administered to 639 physicians and nurses in the United States (n = 267) and Mexico (n = 372). Attitude scores were compared by gender (men, women), discipline (physicians, nurses), and culture (United States, Mexico) by using a three-way factorial analysis of variance design. Findings confirmed the first research hypothesis by demonstrating that both physicians and nurses in the United States would express more positive attitudes toward physician-nurse collaboration than their counterparts in Mexico. The second research hypothesis, positing that nurses as compared to physicians in both countries would express more positive attitudes toward physician-nurse collaboration, was also supported. The third research hypothesis that female physicians would express more positive attitudes toward physician-nurse collaboration than their male counterparts was not confirmed. Collaborative education for medical and nursing students, particularly in cultures with a hierarchical model of inter-professional relationship, is needed to promote positive attitudes toward complementary roles of physicians and nurses. Faculty preparation for collaboration is necessary in such cultures before implementing collaborative education.

  6. Divergence of Lutzomyia (Psathyromyia) shannoni (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) is indicated by morphometric and molecular analyses when examined between taxa from the southeastern United States and southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin, David A; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A

    2013-11-01

    The medically important sand fly Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar 1929) was collected at eight different sites: seven within the southeastern United States and one in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. A canonical discriminant analysis was conducted on 40 female L. shannoni specimens from each of the eight collection sites (n = 320) using 49 morphological characters. Four L. shannoni specimens from each of the eight collection sites (n = 32) were sent to the Barcode of Life Data systems where a 654-base pair segment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) genetic marker was sequenced from each sand fly. Phylogeny estimation based on the COI segments, in addition to genetic distance, divergence, and differentiation values were calculated. Results of both the morphometric and molecular analyses indicate that the species has undergone divergence when examined between the taxa of the United States and Quintana Roo, Mexico. Although purely speculative, the arid or semiarid expanse from southern Texas to Mexico City could be an allopatric barrier that has impeded migration and hence gene flow, resulting in different morphology and genetic makeup between the two purported populations. A high degree of intragroup variability was noted in the Quintana Roo sand flies.

  7. Mariposas del estado de Morelos, México (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea Butterflies of the state of Morelos, Mexico (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea

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    Mercedes Luna-Reyes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se conjuntó la información disponible para obtener una lista exhaustiva de los ropalóceros del estado de Morelos: 331 taxones de nivel específico pertenecientes a 154 géneros; 18 subfamilias y 5 familias, a partir de 29 981 ejemplares provenientes de las colecciones mexicanas y extranjeras de lepidópteros en la megabase MARIPOSA, la hemerobibliografía especializada y los inventarios faunísticos previos. Con base en estos datos se trazó un esbozo histórico de las recolecciones y recolectores, destacando lo realizado en Morelos desde el siglo XVI. Se compara su riqueza con la de estados contiguos y se advierte mayor similitud con la de Guerrero, con más del 90%. Se encontró que Cuernavaca es la localidad más diversa del estado, puesto que contiene más de la mitad de las especies; en 21 localidades está representado el 95% de los papilionoideos, que han sido satisfactoriamente recolectadas. Los municipios mejor estudiados son Tepoztlán, Tlaquiltenango y Huitzilac. Destaca el estado de Morelos por el alto porcentaje de taxones endémicos de México que presenta, esto es, un tercio del total para el país.We set the information available for a comprehensive list of the state of Morelos Rhopalocera: 331 taxa specific level, contained in 154 genera, 18 subfamilies and 5 families from 29 981 lepidopterists specimens from Mexican and foreign collections contained in the megabase MARIPOSA, it is specialized in wildlife inventories. Based on this, we performed a historical sketch of collecting and collectors, highlighting the work in the state since the sixteenth century. We compared the richness with contiguous states, we found a greater similarity with the state of Guerrero, with more than 90%. We found that Cuernavaca is the town with more diversity, as it contains more than half of the species in the state, 21 sites have been successfully collected, they represented in 95% of the Papilionoidea. Municipalities best studied were Tepoztlan

  8. Report on the actual state of the basic, applied research and industrial applications of the radiation in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez V, H.

    1991-07-01

    In this report the main works of basic, applied research and industrial applications that are carried out in Mexico, about radiations (radiation chemistry, technology, applications, use and isotope production, etc.): infrastructure, radiation sources, groups and research programs are presented. (Author)

  9. Obesity and Excess Mortality Among the Elderly in the United States and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    MONTEVERDE, MALENA; NORONHA, KENYA; PALLONI, ALBERTO; NOVAK, BEATRIZ

    2010-01-01

    Increasing levels of obesity could compromise future gains in life expectancy in low- and high-income countries. Although excess mortality associated with obesity and, more generally, higher levels of body mass index (BMI) have been investigated in the United States, there is little research about the impact of obesity on mortality in Latin American countries, where very the rapid rate of growth of prevalence of obesity and overweight occur jointly with poor socioeconomic conditions. The aim ...

  10. Q2 anti Q2 states with relatively narrow widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Seiji.

    1978-09-01

    Using the mass formulas which correctly predict the mass of mesons and baryons the mass of diquark states is computed. From this mass spectrum the existance of the observed narrow baryonia and wide baryonia can be naturally understood. Other relatively narrow Q 2 anti Q 2 states are predicted to exist. (orig.) [de

  11. Natural Risks at the Bottom Side of Ameca River, in the State Limits of Jalisco and Nayarit, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, K. G.; Maciel, R.; Pena, L. E.; García García, E. X.; Ramos Chavez, C.

    2016-12-01

    At world-wide level, the population centers are exposed to natural risks and more those that are located to borders of the rivers, where hydrometeorological and geologic phenomenon are conjugated, and even increased by the action of the man. From 1911 to 2015, the disasters registered in the world due to flood by river overflowing were 2 701, with 2 545 affected 224 110, of which 60 229 747 lost their homes and 4 449 031 deads, causing therefore an economic loss of approximately $549 052 761 dollars. The case of study is the low part of the Ameca River, the one of the main rivers of the states of Jalisco and Nayarit in the west zone of Mexico. It is interesting, since it have its mouth near the tourist area (with considerable affluence at national level), with infrastructure (airport and bridges) and towns of both referred states; as well because at the pass of the years, this river have had overflows affecting municipalities, bridges and loss of mangrove swamp. In order to determine the feasible impacts to happen with the overflow of the Ameca River, the aerial photographs of area of study and satellite images were analyzed (historical and present), likewise information of the river basin physical environment generated by INEGI with special emphasis in the low part of the river basin and a campaign of work field, to delimit the zones that have shown some affectation. The objective of this investigation is to contribute to the risk analysis of the adjacent localities to the river, with the purpose of diminishing the impact in the population. As preliminary results appear maps with boundaries of paleo-channels, which mark the zone of influence during overflows of the Ameca River, the towns which can be affected and the population exposed.

  12. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of San Luis Potosí, Mexico, with comparisons with adjoining states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos-Espinal, Julio A.; Smith, Geoffrey R.; Woolrich-Piña, Guillermo A.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract A summary of the species of amphibians and reptiles of the state has been compiled, including their geographic distributions, habitats, and conservation statuses. The herpetofauna of San Luis Potosí consists of 41 species of amphibians and 141 species of reptiles. San Luis Potosí shares the highest number of species with Hidalgo and Tamaulipas, and the least number of species with Nuevo León. In San Luis Potosí, there are several taxa of particular conservation concern including salamanders, emydid and trionychid turtles, anguid and xenosaurid lizards, and natricid and colubrid snakes. PMID:29731682

  13. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of San Luis Potosí, Mexico, with comparisons with adjoining states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos-Espinal, Julio A; Smith, Geoffrey R; Woolrich-Piña, Guillermo A

    2018-01-01

    A summary of the species of amphibians and reptiles of the state has been compiled, including their geographic distributions, habitats, and conservation statuses. The herpetofauna of San Luis Potosí consists of 41 species of amphibians and 141 species of reptiles. San Luis Potosí shares the highest number of species with Hidalgo and Tamaulipas, and the least number of species with Nuevo León. In San Luis Potosí, there are several taxa of particular conservation concern including salamanders, emydid and trionychid turtles, anguid and xenosaurid lizards, and natricid and colubrid snakes.

  14. Environmental state and tendencies of the Puerto Morelos CARICOMP site, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa E Rodríguez-Martínez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The CARICOMP site at Puerto Morelos, Mexico was monitored from 1993 to 2005. No significant changes in air temperature, wind patterns, periodicity and quantity of rainfall, sea-surface temperature and water transparency were observed between sampling years. During the study four hurricane impacts were registered. At the coral reef site overall mean cover of fleshy algae (47% and turf algae (36% were high, whereas cover of corals (2% and sponges (3%, and abundance of sea-urchins (0.04 org m-2 were consistently low. Gorgonians were dominant and showed changes in their community structure; the number of species increased from 1993 to 1995, their abundance decreased after Hurricane Roxanne (1995 and recovered by 2001. At four seagrass sites total community biomass remained constant (707.1-929.6 g dry m-2 but the above-ground biomass of the seagrass Syringodium filiforme and fleshy algae increased gradually. Total biomass (531-699 g dry m-2 and leaf productivity (0.89-1.56 g dry m-2 d-1 of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum remained constant, but the species invested proportionally more biomass in above-ground leaf tissues at the end of the study. The minor hurricanes from 1993 until 2005 had no detectable impacts on the seagrass beds, however, the major Hurricane Wilma (October 2005 changed the community composition at three stations and caused complete burial of the vegetation at a coastal station. The gradual changes in the seagrass and reef communities recorded in the 12 years of continuous monitoring of the CARICOMP site may reflect the increased pollution caused by the rapid augment in urban and tourist developments along the coasts and inland from Puerto Morelos, coupled with poor water management practices. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3: 23-43. Epub 2010 October 01.El sitio CARICOMP en Puerto Morelos, México, se monitoreo de 1993 a 2005. No se registraron cambios significativos en la temperatura del aire, los patrones de viento, la

  15. Improving Pediatric Cancer Care Disparities Across the United States-Mexico Border: Lessons Learned from a Transcultural Partnership between San Diego and Tijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, Paula; Fuller, Spencer; Rivera, Rebeca; Beyda, David; Ribeiro, Raul C; Roberts, William

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the 5-year survival rate for children with acute leukemia in Baja California, Mexico was estimated at 10% (vs. 88% in the United States). In response, stakeholders at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Rady Children's Hospital San Diego, and the Hospital General de Tijuana (HGT) implemented a transcultural partnership to establish a pediatric oncology program. The aim was to improve clinical outcomes and overall survival for children in Baja California. An initial needs assessment evaluation was performed and a culturally sensitive, comprehensive, 5-year plan was designed and implemented. After six years, healthcare system accomplishments include the establishment of a fully functional pediatric oncology unit with 60 new healthcare providers (vs. five in 2007). Patient outcome improvements include a rise in 5-year survival for leukemia from 10 to 43%, a rise in new cases diagnosed per year from 21 to 70, a reduction in the treatment abandonment rate from 10% to 2%, and a 45% decrease in the infection rate. More than 600 patients have benefited from this program. Knowledge sharing has taken place between teams at the HGT and Rady Children's Hospital San Diego. Further, one of the most significant outcomes is that the HGT has transitioned into a regional referral center and now mentors other hospitals in Mexico. Our results show that collaborative initiatives that implement long-term partnerships along the United States-Mexico border can effectively build local capacity and reduce the survival gap between children with cancer in the two nations. Long-term collaborative partnerships should be encouraged across other disciplines in medicine to further reduce health disparities across the United States-Mexico border.

  16. POLICIES FOR PROMOTING THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY IN THE STATE OF SINALOA, MEXICO

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    Santos López-Leyva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a perspective for the formulation of public policy in science, technology and innovation (STI for the State of Sinaloa. Today, the productive processes of the regions are developed in what is called "knowledge economy". There are two main theoretical frameworks for the study of this subject. The neoclassical school explains the technological change using production functions and growth models; in second place is evolutionary thinking that builds national and regional categories of innovation systems, technological trajectories and paradigms in science and technology. For the construction of a regional policy in this field is more useful this second school of thought, which complemented an institutionalist vision adequately. A progressive verification method is used for checking each one of the components of the Regional Innovation System (RIS in the case of universities are taken each of the dimensions of quality set by Levin (2006 . The meaning and scope of a regional innovation system is shown and the categories of this construct are hard to visualize Sinaloa developing policy proposals for the development of the region. Stresses elements such as the need to strengthen the pillars of RIS; Sinaloa enroll in the knowledge economy; build the city of knowledge; improve visibility of the knowledge produced in the state, and strengthen the institutional base of the STI. The second element addresses are universities as knowledge producers. A theoretical framework is developed using the concepts of triple helix, two mode of knowledge production, innovative university, Pasteur's quadrant, and academic capitalism. In the qualification of higher education in the state twelve dimensions are used: excellence in research, academic freedom and proper intellectual atmosphere, capacity for self-government, to have adequate facilities and funding, to practice respect for diversity, to achieve internationalization activities, to exercise

  17. The evolution of groundwater rights and groundwater management in New Mexico and the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuMars, Charles T.; Minier, Jeffrie D.

    Historically, rights in water originated as public property and only later became individualized rights to utilize the public resource, in a manner consistent with the public welfare needs of society, but protected by principles of property law. Five basic regulatory systems for rights in groundwater in the United States have evolved to date. The problems raised by the hydrologic differences between groundwater hydraulically connected to stream systems and groundwater in non-replenished aquifers have been resolved to some extent by a couple of leading court cases. Numerical modeling and other technical methodologies have also evolved to evaluate the scientific issues raised by the different hydrologic conditions, but these are not immune from criticism. The current role of aquifers is evolving into that of storage facilities for recycled water, and their utilization in this manner may be expanded even further in the future. The policy implications of the choices relating to joint management of ground and surface water cannot be overstated. As this paper demonstrates, proactive administration of future groundwater depletions that affect stream systems is essential to the ultimate ability to plan for exploitation, management and utilization of water resources in a rational way that coordinates present and future demand with the reality of scarcity of supply. The examples utilized in this paper demonstrate the need for capacity building, not just to develop good measurement techniques, or to train talented lawyers and judges to write good laws, but also for practical professional water managers to keep the process on a rational course, avoiding limitless exploitation of the resource as well as conservative protectionism that forever precludes its use. Historiquement, les droits d'eau étaient à l'origine un bien public; ils sont devenus plus tard des droits individualisés pour utiliser la ressource publique conformément aux besoins de salut public de la soci

  18. Building Trust: The Challenge of Building Partnership Capacity in U.S.-Mexico Military Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    mirroring its training and development of those in the United States and Chile ,52 determined that the culture of this institution needed to change...illegal immigration have supplanted the Axis as the major threat, but curiously enough, the attitudes of both countries are still the same. The

  19. Wildfire and Spatial Patterns in Forests in Northwestern Mexico: The United States Wishes It Had Similar Fire Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. Stephens

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the ecological effect of wildfire is important to resource managers, especially from forests in which past anthropogenic influences, e.g., fire suppression and timber harvesting, have been limited. Changes to forest structure and regeneration patterns were documented in a relatively unique old-growth Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forest in northwestern Mexico after a July 2003 wildfire. This forested area has never been harvested and fire suppression did not begin until the 1970s. Fire effects were moderate especially considering that the wildfire occurred at the end of a severe, multi-year (1999-2003 drought. Shrub consumption was an important factor in tree mortality and the dominance of Jeffrey pine increased after fire. The Baja California wildfire enhanced or maintained a patchy forest structure; similar spatial heterogeneity should be included in US forest restoration plans. Most US forest restoration plans include thinning from below to separate tree crowns and attain a narrow range for residual basal area/ha. This essentially produces uniform forest conditions over broad areas that are in strong contrast to the resilient forests in northern Baja California. In addition to producing more spatial heterogeneity in restoration plans of forests that once experienced frequent, low-moderate intensity fire regimes, increased use of US wildfire management options such as wildland fire use as well as appropriate management responses to non-natural ignitions could also be implemented at broader spatial scales to increase the amount of burning in western US forests.

  20. Tuberculate ectomycorrhizae of angiosperms: The interaction between Boletus rubropunctus (Boletaceae) and Quercus species (Fagaceae) in the United States and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew E; Pfister, Donald H

    2009-09-01

    Tuberculate ectomycorrhizae (TECM) are unique structures in which aggregates of ectomycorrhizal roots are encased in a covering of fungal hyphae. The function of TECM is unknown, but they probably enhance the nitrogen nutrition and disease resistance of host plants. Trees in the Pinaceae form TECM with species of Rhizopogon and Suillus (Suillineae, Boletales). Similar tubercules are found with diverse angiosperms, but their mycobionts have not been phylogenetically characterized. We collected TECM in Mexico and the USA that were similar to TECM in previous reports. We describe these TECM and identify both the plant and fungal symbionts. Plant DNA confirms that TECM hosts are Quercus species. ITS sequences from tubercules and sclerotia (hyphal aggregations that serve as survival structures) matched sporocarps of Boletus rubropunctus. Phylogenetic analyses confirm that this fungus belongs to the suborder Boletineae (Boletales). This is the first published report of TECM formation in the Boletineae and of sclerotia formation by a Boletus species. Our data suggest that the TECM morphology is an adaptive feature that has evolved separately in two suborders of Boletales (Suillineae and Boletineae) and that TECM formation is controlled by the mycobiont because TECM are found on distantly related angiosperm and gymnosperm host plants.

  1. [Risk for congenital malformations in pregnant women exposed to pesticides in the state od Nayarit, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Carrilo, L; Rivas-Solis, F; Fernández-Argüelles, R

    2002-11-01

    To measure the association between the use of pesticides and congenital malformations. We studied 279 newborn from mothers living in rural area of Nayarit, a state in the northwest region of México. Cases (n = 93) were defined as newborn with central nervous, face, genital, hip, foot or finger congenital malformations. Controls (n = 186) were newborns without any malformation. We considered as exposure any type of contact with any of the agrochemicals used as pesticides. We evaluated other risk factors such as medical drugs, fever, exposure to radiation, obstetric and family factors, as confoundings. We registered 22 genital malformations, 20 from hip, 19 from the central nervous system, 18 from extremities and 14 cleft-lip or palate. Exposed mothers had high risk of having a malformed child (OR = 3.5, CI95% 2.05-6.34, p pesticides (OR = 6.33, CI95% 2.95-13.7, p pesticides treatment (OR = 3.47, CI95% 1.91-6.33, p pesticides and congenital malformation. This is a public health problem in Nayarit state and in other rural areas with similar exposure to pesticides.

  2. Bound entangled states violate a nonsymmetric local uncertainty relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Holger F.

    2003-01-01

    As a consequence of having a positive partial transpose, bound entangled states lack many of the properties otherwise associated with entanglement. It is therefore interesting to identify properties that distinguish bound entangled states from separable states. In this paper, it is shown that some bound entangled states violate a nonsymmetric class of local uncertainty relations [H. F. Hofmann and S. Takeuchi, Phys. Rev. A 68, 032103 (2003)]. This result indicates that the asymmetry of nonclassical correlations may be a characteristic feature of bound entanglement

  3. Rio Grande transboundary integrated hydrologic model and water-availability analysis, New Mexico and Texas, United States, and Northern Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Ritchie, Andre; Boyce, Scott E.; Ferguson, Ian; Galanter, Amy; Flint, Lorraine E.; Henson, Wesley

    2018-05-31

    Changes in population, agricultural development and practices (including shifts to more water-intensive crops), and climate variability are increasing demands on available water resources, particularly groundwater, in one of the most productive agricultural regions in the Southwest—the Rincon and Mesilla Valley parts of Rio Grande Valley, Doña Ana and Sierra Counties, New Mexico, and El Paso County, Texas. The goal of this study was to produce an integrated hydrological simulation model to help evaluate water-management strategies, including conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater for historical conditions, and to support long-term planning for the Rio Grande Project. This report describes model construction and applications by the U.S. Geological Survey, working in cooperation and collaboration with the Bureau of Reclamation.This model, the Rio Grande Transboundary Integrated Hydrologic Model, simulates the most important natural and human components of the hydrologic system, including selected components related to variations in climate, thereby providing a reliable assessment of surface-water and groundwater conditions and processes that can inform water users and help improve planning for future conditions and sustained operations of the Rio Grande Project (RGP) by the Bureau of Reclamation. Model development included a revision of the conceptual model of the flow system, construction of a Transboundary Rio Grande Watershed Model (TRGWM) water-balance model using the Basin Characterization Model (BCM), and construction of an integrated hydrologic flow model with MODFLOW-One-Water Hydrologic Flow Model (referred to as One Water). The hydrologic models were developed for and calibrated to historical conditions of water and land use, and parameters were adjusted so that simulated values closely matched available measurements (calibration). The calibrated model was then used to assess the use and movement of water in the Rincon Valley, Mesilla Basin

  4. New Mexico HUC-10 Boundaries - 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the watershed (10-digit) 10th level for the State of New Mexico. This data set consists of...

  5. New Mexico HUC-8 Boundaries - 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subbasin (8-digit) 8th level for the State of New Mexico. This data set consists of...

  6. Powering Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines Mexico's demand for electricity and the market for independent power generation. The topics discussed in the article include the outlook for the 1990s for growth in Mexico's economy and energy demand, renewable energy, energy conservation, small-scale, off-grid renewable energy systems, and estimates of Mexico's market for electric power generating equipment

  7. Doing Business in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Thomas A.

    2002-01-01

    On 1 July 2001, a far-reaching free trade agreement between the EFTA States and Mexico entered into force. ”Doing Business in Mexico” provides targeted assistance to Swiss Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME) that wish to tap the potential of Mexico as both an export destination and investment location. This comprehensive guide contains information and advice on market research, market entry, and investment in this fascinating country. Part I introduces the reader to this fascinating ...

  8. Physical-geographical landscape of the tourist circuit Chilpancingo-Azul, Guerrero State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Carbajal Monroy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the delimitation of physical-geographical landscapes of the territory of the Tourist Circuit Chilpancingo Azul, at Guerrero's State central region, from geo-ecological conception for the physical-geographical synthetic classification of territorial units. This approach obtained territorial units and its hierarchical classification using a taxonomic system of localities, neighborhoods and boroughs (smallest categories. Taking into account the 1:100 000 scale different geographical units were determined: 3 localities, 31 neighborhoods and 177 boroughs. The characterization of these territorial units include lithologic constitution, geomorphological conditions (morphogenesis and morphometrics and spatial distribution of major types of soils and vegetation and land uses in the territory.

  9. Current state of biosimilars in Mexico: The position of the Mexican College of Rheumatology, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xibille, Daniel; Carrillo, Sandra; Huerta-Sil, Gabriela; Hernández, Ramiro; Limón, Leonardo; Olvera-Soto, Guadalupe; Jara-Quezada, Luis Javier; Esquivel, Abdieel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Marcela

    The present document is a position statement of the Mexican College of Rheumatology on the use of biosimilars in rheumatic diseases. This position considers that biosimilars should be considered as interchangeable, that automatic substitution without previous notice in stable patients during follow-up is not ethical, that the approval of a biosimilar should only be given after exhaustive review of preclinical and clinical data marked by Mexican regulations, that it should be clearly stated in the nomenclature of biologic drugs which is the innovator and which is the biosimilar, that it is not correct to choose a biosimilar as treatment based only on economic reasons or extrapolate indications based only on the approval of the innovator and in the absence of safety and efficacy data for the biosimilar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlates of Abortion Related Maternal Mortality at the Lagos State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to highlight the probable correlates of mortality among patients managed for abortion related complications at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja. All patients managed for abortion related complications between 1st January 2000 and 31st December 2003 were studied. Certain ...

  11. Quality of well water at Toluca and Lerma, State of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, A.C.; Segovia, N.; Iturbe, J.L.; Lopez, B.; Martinez, V.; Armienta, M.A.; Seidel, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    With the purpose to determine the characteristics and quality of the well water located in Toluca City and Lerma which are related with the net of potable water, it is determined physicochemical parameters, bacteriological characteristics as well as the radionuclide concentration and trace elements in water samples. Those studies can get information about possible pollutants of anthropogenic origin. In this work also were determined the isotopes 222 Rn and 226 Ra in the water samples. (Author)

  12. Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...

  13. Evolving impact of environmental laws on cross-border power between Mexico and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barron, J.

    2005-01-01

    There has been a growing concern among some United States (US) residents that the increasing number of merchant power plants planned for the Mexican side of the US/Mexican border could contribute to increased air pollution and the misuse of finite water resources in the border region. The case of Border Power Plant Working Group v. DOE, et al. is examined in this paper, providing a focus for a discussion of the border region's future as US merchant power producers continue to position themselves to provide electricity in California. One of the factors in the push to develop power generation on the Mexican side of the border was California's electricity crisis of 2000-2001, and plans have been drawn up to build 22 plants between Mexicali and Ciudad Juarez. A history of the Border Power Plant Working Group (BPPWG) was presented, along with details of the government's granting of permits for the power plants after environmental assessments. By suing the government BPPWG hoped to set a standard for future power plant development in the area. The lawsuit addressed the following 4 primary concerns: air emissions; emission offsets; water cooling; and wastewater discharge. BPPWG aimed to achieve the 3 following results: protective legislation in the 4 U.S. border states that would preclude the use of massive amounts of water in border power plant cooling systems; a critical area designation with pollution limits set low enough to require catalytic control systems; and an overarching annex to the La Paz Agreement that would create a formal bi-national agreement governing the above actions for both countries. A review of environmental law in both countries was presented, along with a description of the proposed plants. A complete review of the lawsuit was provided, along with eventual rulings against the BPPWG. It was concluded that the case showed that power developers had proved that although the plants would contribute to the environmental degradation of the region, the

  14. [Potential coverage and real coverage of ambulatory health care services in the state of Mexico. The case of 3 marginal communities in Atenco and Chalco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nájera-Aguilar, P; Infante-Castañeda, C

    1990-01-01

    Less than a third of the non-insured population studied through a sample in the State of Mexico was covered by the Institute of Health of the State of México. This low coverage was observed in spite the fact that health services were available within 2 kilometer radius. 33 per cent of the non-insured preferred to utilize other services within their own community, and 24 per cent of them traveled to bigger localities to receive care. These results suggest that to attain adequate coverage, utilization patterns should be investigated so that health services can meet the needs of the target population.

  15. Carbon Sequestration under different land uses and soils in the State of Quintana Roo, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, Chang-Hong (M.Sc. Natural Resources Management and Development )

    2017-01-01

    Rising in global temperature is evidently related to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations; this has become an environmental problem. The use of renewable energy, the development of eco-friendly merchandise and the enforcement of biomass management have been proposed to mitigate the issue. In the ecosphere, the pedosphere stores 1,500 to 2,500 PgC, which is four times more than the carbon stored in biomass; hence, it is very important to carry out soil carbon studi...

  16. Fecal steroid hormones reveal reproductive state in female blue whales sampled in the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Molina, Marcia; Atkinson, Shannon; Mashburn, Kendall; Gendron, Diane; Brownell, Robert L

    2018-05-15

    Steroid hormone assessment using non-invasive sample collection techniques can reveal the reproductive status of aquatic mammals and the physiological mechanisms by which they respond to changes in their environment. A portion of the eastern North Pacific blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) population that seasonally visits the Gulf of California, Mexico has been monitored using photo-identified individuals for over 30 years. The whales use the area in winter-early spring for nursing their calves and feeding and it therefore is well suited for fecal sample collection. Using radioimmunoassays in 25 fecal samples collected between 2009 and 2012 to determine reproductive state and stress, we validated three steroid hormones (progesterone, corticosterone and cortisol) in adult female blue whales. Females that were categorized as pregnant had higher mean fecal progesterone metabolite concentrations (1292.6 ± 415.6 ng·g -1 ) than resting and lactating females (14.0 ± 3.7 ng·g -1 ; 23.0 ± 5.4 ng·g -1 , respectively). Females classified as pregnant also had higher concentrations of corticosterone metabolites (37.5 ± 9.9 ng·g -1 ) than resting and lactating females (17.4 ± 2.0 ng·g -1 ; 16.8 ± 2.8 ng·g -1 , respectively). In contrast, cortisol metabolite concentrations showed high variability between groups and no significant relationship to reproductive state. We successfully determined preliminary baseline parameters of key steroid hormones by reproductive state in adult female blue whales. The presence of pregnant or with luteal activity and known lactating females confirms that the Gulf of California is an important winter-spring area for the reproductive phase of these blue whales. The baseline corticosterone levels we are developing will be useful for assessing the impact of the increasing coastal development and whale-watching activities on the whales in the Gulf of California. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All

  17. Use of the paca, Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae in the Sierra de Tabasco State Park, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gallina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cuniculus paca is widely distributed throughout the Neotropics. Known as the paca, it is the largest rodent in the Mexican tropical forests, and one of the most used as a subsistence species for its meat. Since colonial times, this species has been subject of an unreported hunting pressure. For this reason, the aim of this work was to describe the use of the paca by the inhabitants of the Sierra de Tabasco State Park (STSP using sampling areas in a matrix of vegetation with different degrees of disturbance, and different types of land use. We included both preserved areas: owing to the presence of large continuous areas of fragmented rainforest and areas that are not preserved, with smaller rainforest fragments and more isolated. To obtain information about paca use, we interviewed 176 people (>18 years old who live in the STSP. All those interviewed had eaten paca meat, and indicated that this species is most frequently observed in the rainforest during the dry season. Hunting and trapping were the most common ways to obtain pacas, rather than gifting or purchasing, and firearms and dogs are used to hunt them. We estimated that these interviewed group had hunted a total of 488 paca in the year prior to the study.

  18. Use of the paca, Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae) in the Sierra de Tabasco State Park, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Sonia; Pérez-Torres, Jairo; Guzmán-Aguirre, Carlos César

    2012-09-01

    Cuniculus paca is widely distributed throughout the Neotropics. Known as the paca, it is the largest rodent in the Mexican tropical forests, and one of the most used as a subsistence species for its meat. Since colonial times, this species has been subject of an unreported hunting pressure. For this reason, the aim of this work was to describe the use of the paca by the inhabitants of the Sierra de Tabasco State Park (STSP) using sampling areas in a matrix of vegetation with different degrees of disturbance, and different types of land use. We included both preserved areas: owing to the presence of large continuous areas of fragmented rainforest and areas that are not preserved, with smaller rainforest fragments and more isolated. To obtain information about paca use, we interviewed 176 people (>18 years old) who live in the STSP. All those interviewed had eaten paca meat, and indicated that this species is most frequently observed in the rainforest during the dry season. Hunting and trapping were the most common ways to obtain pacas, rather than gifting or purchasing, and firearms and dogs are used to hunt them. We estimated that these interviewed group had hunted a total of 488 paca in the year prior to the study.

  19. Immigration, Work, and Health: A Literature Review of Immigration Between Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael A.; Carreón, Tania; Eggerth, Donald E.; Johnson, Antoinette I.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence someone’s job or career has on their health goes beyond the physical, emotional and social hazards, risks and conditions that they face at work. One’s job or career also exerts a significant influence over other aspects of life that contribute or detract from their health and that of their family. Work is the major incentive for Latin American migration to the United States. Latino immigrants experience increasingly poorer outcomes for physical health and chronic diseases the longer they remain in the U.S. The strong link between work and immigration suggests that, for many Latin Americans, immigration can be understood as a career path which puts them, and their family members, in situations that can change their physical, emotional, and social health as a condition of their employment. Given the large number of Latin Americans who emigrate for work, it is essential that the unique physical, mental and social impacts of emigration are accounted for when working with clients impacted by emigration at the individual, family and community level as well as those social workers practicing at the system level. This paper is a literature review that explores the impact that emigrating for work has on the health of those that emigrate and their family members that stay behind. PMID:28260831

  20. Evaluation of radon in hot spring waters in Zacatecas State, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favila R, E.; Lopez del Rio, H.; Davila R, I.; Mireles G, F.

    2010-10-01

    It is well know that radon is a potent human carcinogen. Because of the health concern of radon exposure, concentrations of 222 Rn were determined in ten hot spring water samples from the Mexican state of Zacatecas. The thermal water is collected in pools and used mainly for recreational purposes. In addition to radon level, the water samples were characterized for temperature, conductivity, and ph. Liquid scintillation spectrometry was used to measure 222 Rn and its decay products by mixing directly an aliquot of water with a commercial liquid scintillation. All measurements were carried out using a liquid scintillation counter (Wallac 1411). The water temperature ranged from 28 to 59 C, while the ph varied from 7.2 to 9.0, and the water conductivity was between 202.4 and 1072 μS/cm. The 222 Rn concentration varied in the range 3.9-32.6 Bq/L. In addition, the risk to radon exposure was assessed by considering three -real and possible- radon exposure scenarios: 1) ingestion of bottled thermal water, 2) direct ingestion of thermal water; and 3) vapor inhalation. The annual effective dose calculated for ingestion of bottled thermal water was 0.010-0.083 mSv/yr; for ingestion of water was 0.65-5.47 mSv/yr; and for inhalation was 0.28-2.81 mSv/yr. (Author)

  1. Preliminary United States-Mexico border watershed analysis, twin cities area of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Laura Margaret; Gray, Floyd; Castaneda, Mario; Bultman, Mark; Bolm, Karen Sue

    2002-01-01

    The United States - Mexico border area faces the challenge of integrating aspects of its binational physical boundaries to form a unified or, at least, compatible natural resource management plan. Specified geospatial components such as stream drainages, mineral occurrences, vegetation, wildlife, and land-use can be analyzed in terms of their overlapping impacts upon one another. Watersheds have been utilized as a basic unit in resource analysis because they contain components that are interrelated and can be viewed as a single interactive ecological system. In developing and analyzing critical regional natural resource databases, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal and non-governmental agencies have adopted a ?watershed by watershed? approach to dealing with such complicated issues as ecosystem health, natural resource use, urban growth, and pollutant transport within hydrologic systems. These watersheds can facilitate the delineation of both large scale and locally important hydrologic systems and urban management parameters necessary for sustainable, diversified land-use. The twin border cities area of Nogales, Sonora and Nogales, Arizona, provide the ideal setting to demonstrate the utility and application of a complete, cross-border, geographic information systems (GIS) based, watershed analysis in the characterization of a wide range of natural resource as well as urban features and their interactions. In addition to the delineation of a unified, cross-border watershed, the database contains sewer/water line locations and status, well locations, geology, hydrology, topography, soils, geomorphology, and vegetation data, as well as remotely sensed imagery. This report is preliminary and part of an ongoing project to develop a GIS database that will be widely accessible to the general public, researchers, and the local land management community with a broad range of application and utility.

  2. Fundamental discrepancies in abortion estimates and abortion-related mortality: A reevaluation of recent studies in Mexico with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Elard; Aracena, Paula; Gatica, Sebastián; Bravo, Miguel; Huerta-Zepeda, Alejandra; Calhoun, Byron C

    2012-01-01

    In countries where induced abortion is legally restricted, as in most of Latin America, evaluation of statistics related to induced abortions and abortion-related mortality is challenging. The present article reexamines recent reports estimating the number of induced abortions and abortion-related mortality in Mexico, with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). We found significant overestimations of abortion figures in the Federal District of Mexico (up to 10-fold), where elective abortion has been legal since 2007. Significant overestimation of maternal and abortion-related mortality during the last 20 years in the entire Mexican country (up to 35%) was also found. Such overestimations are most likely due to the use of incomplete in-hospital records as well as subjective opinion surveys regarding induced abortion figures, and due to the consideration of causes of death that are unrelated to induced abortion, including flawed denominators of live births. Contrary to previous publications, we found important progress in maternal health, reflected by the decrease in overall maternal mortality (30.6%) from 1990 to 2010. The use of specific ICD codes revealed that the mortality ratio associated with induced abortion decreased 22.9% between 2002 and 2008 (from 1.48 to 1.14 deaths per 100,000 live births). Currently, approximately 98% of maternal deaths in Mexico are related to causes other than induced abortion, such as hemorrhage, hypertension and eclampsia, indirect causes, and other pathological conditions. Therefore, only marginal or null effects would be expected from changes in the legal status of abortion on overall maternal mortality rates. Rather, maternal health in Mexico would greatly benefit from increasing access to emergency and specialized obstetric care. Finally, more reliable methodologies to assess abortion-related deaths are clearly required. PMID:23271925

  3. Comparison of anal HPV natural history among men by country of residence: Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudenga, Staci L; Nyitray, Alan G; Torres, B Nelson; Silva, Roberto; Villa, Luisa; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Abrahamsen, Martha; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R

    2017-07-01

    Globally, anal cancer incidence is rare, but is increasing in some world regions. Our objective was to assess differences in anal HPV natural history in three countries. Men aged 18-70 years were recruited from the US (n = 634), Mexico (n = 665), and Brazil (n = 731). Anal specimens were collected every six-months. HPV genotyping was assessed by Linear Array. Anal HPV prevalence was compared using the Fisher's exact test. HPV infection incidence rates (IR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Any anal HPV prevalence was highest among men from Brazil (24%) compared to Mexico (15%) and the US (15%). When stratified by sexual history, the prevalence of any HPV among MSM/MSMW was 43%, 37%, and 45% and 9%, 12%, and 10% for MSW from Brazil, Mexico, and US, respectively. Any HPV incidence was significantly higher among men from Brazil compared to US men (IRR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.7-3.4) and comparable between men from Mexico and the US (IRR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.8-1.8). Men in Brazil and Mexico often have similar, if not higher incidence of anal HPV compared to men from the U.S., and may benefit from gender neutral HPV vaccine policies. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Intimate partner violence against low-income women in Mexico City and associations with work-related disruptions: a latent class analysis using cross-sectional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jhumka; Willie, Tiara C; Harris, Courtney; Campos, Paola Abril; Falb, Kathryn L; Garcia Moreno, Claudia; Diaz Olavarrieta, Claudia; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2018-03-07

    Disrupting women's employment is a strategy that abusive partners could use to prevent women from maintaining economic independence and stability. Yet, few studies have investigated disruptions in employment among victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) in low-income and middle-income countries. Moreover, even fewer have sought to identify which female victims of IPV are most vulnerable to such disruptions. Using baseline data from 947 women in Mexico City enrolled in a randomised controlled trial, multilevel latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify women based on their reported IPV experiences. Furthermore, multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on a subsample of women reporting current work (n=572) to investigate associations between LCA membership and IPV-related employment disruptions. Overall, 40.6% of women who were working at the time of the survey reported some form of work-related disruption due to IPV. LCA identified four distinct classes of IPV experiences: Low Physical and Sexual Violence (39.1%); High Sexual and Low Physical Violence class (9.6%); High Physical and Low Sexual Violence and Injuries (36.5%); High Physical and Sexual Violence and Injuries (14.8%). Compared with women in the Low Physical and Sexual Violence class, women in the High Physical and Sexual Violence and Injuries class and women in the High Physical and Low Sexual Violence and Injuries class were at greater risk of work disruption (adjusted relative risk (ARR) 2.44, 95% CI 1.80 to 3.29; ARR 2.05, 95% CI 1.56 to 2.70, respectively). No other statistically significant associations emerged. IPV, and specific patterns of IPV experiences, must be considered both in work settings and, more broadly, by economic development programmes. NCT01661504. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. State policies and requirements for management of uranium mining and milling in New Mexico. Volume II. Water availability in the San Juan Structural Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandevender, S.G.

    1980-04-01

    This volume contains Two parts: Part One is an analysis of an issue paper prepared by the office of the New Mexico State Engineer on water availability for uranium production. Part Two is the issue paper itself. The State Engineer's report raises the issue of a scarce water supply in the San Juan Structural Basin acting as a constraint on the growth of the uranium mining and milling industry in New Mexico. The water issue in the structural basin is becoming an acute policy issue because of the uranium industry's importance to and rapid growth within the structural basin. Its growth places heavy demands on the region's scarce water supply. The impact of mine dewatering on water supply is of particular concern. Much of the groundwater has been appropriated or applied for. The State Engineer is currently basing water rights decisions upon data which he believes to be inadequate to determine water quality and availability in the basin. He, along with the USGS and the State Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, recommends a well drilling program to acquire the additional information about the groundwater characteristics of the basin. The information would be used to provide input data for a computer model, which is used as one of the bases for decisions concerning water rights and water use in the basin. The recommendation is that the appropriate DOE office enter into discussions with the New Mexico State Engineer to explore the potential mutual benefits of a well drilling program to determine the water availability in the San Juan Structural Basin

  6. Alkali-silica reaction of aggregates for concrete pavements in Chihuahua’s State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olague, C.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The concrete of pavements must resist the climatic conditions, heavy traffic, chemical agents or any other type of aggressive agent. A methodology for characterizing materials that would influence concrete durability was developed considering chemical and physical factors. This methodology allows the consideration of several factors like physiography, geology, and climate, among others that would be of great importance to prevent future durability problems of pavements. This methodology takes into account several tests and this paper presents the results of potential reactivity aggregates of the State of Chihuahua. The tests for evaluating the reactive siliceous aggregate and the potential alkali-silica reactivity were performed according to the: petrographic examination (ASTM C 295 and standard quick chemical test (ASTM C 289. 38% of the tested sites resulted innocuous, 48% potentially reactive and 13% reactive. It is discussed the benefit of applying a conscious methodology in order to obtain the best results with a representative quantity of tests.

    El hormigón de los pavimentos debe ser resistente a las condiciones climáticas, tránsito pesado, agentes químicos o cualquier otro tipo de agente agresivo. Se desarrolló una metodología para caracterización de materiales considerando factores físicos y químicos que influyen en la durabilidad del hormigón. Esta metodología se basa en la consideración de varios factores como: fisiografía, geología y clima, entre otros, que podrían ser de gran importancia para prevenir futuros problemas de durabilidad en pavimentos de hormigón. La metodología en cuestión considera varias pruebas, en este artículo se presentan los resultados de la reactividad potencial de los áridos del Estado de Chihuahua. Las pruebas para evaluar la reactividad de áridos silíceos y la reactividad potencial álcali-sílice fueron ejecutadas de acuerdo a: examen petrográfico (ASTM C 295 y la prueba qu

  7. Specific genetic markers for detecting subtypes of dengue virus serotype-2 in isolates from the states of Oaxaca and Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camacho-Nuez Minerva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue (DEN is an infectious disease caused by the DEN virus (DENV, which belongs to the Flavivirus genus in the family Flaviviridae. It has a (+ sense RNA genome and is mainly transmitted to humans by the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti. Dengue fever (DF and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF are caused by one of four closely related virus serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4. Epidemiological and evolutionary studies have indicated that host and viral factors are involved in determining disease outcome and have proved the importance of viral genotype in causing severe epidemics. Host immune status and mosquito vectorial capacity are also important influences on the severity of infection. Therefore, an understanding of the relationship between virus variants with altered amino acids and high pathogenicity will provide more information on the molecular epidemiology of DEN. Accordingly, knowledge of the DENV serotypes and genotypes circulating in the latest DEN outbreaks around the world, including Mexico, will contribute to understanding DEN infections. Results 1. We obtained 88 isolates of DENV, 27 from Oaxaca and 61 from Veracruz. 2. Of these 88 isolates, 16 were serotype 1; 62 serotype 2; 7 serotype 3; and 2 serotype 4. One isolate had 2 serotypes (DENV-2 and -1. 3. Partial nucleotide sequences of the genes encoding C- prM (14 sequences, the NS3 helicase domain (7 sequences, the NS5 S-adenosyl methionine transferase domain (7 sequences and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp domain (18 sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis showed that DENV-2 isolates belonged to the Asian/American genotype. In addition, the Asian/American genotype was divided into two clusters, one containing the isolates from 2001 and the other the isolates from 2005–2006 with high bootstrap support of 94%. Conclusion DENV-2 was the predominant serotype in the DF and DHF outbreak from 2005 to 2006 in Oaxaca State as well as in the 2006

  8. Mining space and industrial heritage in Mexico: the mineral from Tlalpujahua [Michoacán state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo Uribe Salas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the historical dimension of the economic and social space of Tlalpujahua and El Oro Mining District from the perspective of the Industrial Heritage. The exploration and exploitation in search for precious minerals along the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries articulated a culture of wage labour and facilitated the circulation of new knowledge, technical expertise and an impressive technological innovation in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. With the depletion of gold and silver in the mid-twentieth century, the socio-technical framework disappears but not the memory and industrial vestiges which represents long-term historical processes, and as a social laboratory allows to recognize and analyze the changes in the social relations of different human groups, different nationality and social status — workers, technicians, engineers, businessmen, traders, etc. —, who moved to the minerals in the quest to materialise their own life expectancy. The study and appreciation of the historical and cultural experience ensures the memory of the industrial heritage of Mexicans.

  9. Use of the paca, Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae in the Sierra de Tabasco State Park, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gallina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cuniculus paca is widely distributed throughout the Neotropics. Known as the paca, it is the largest rodent in the Mexican tropical forests, and one of the most used as a subsistence species for its meat. Since colonial times, this species has been subject of an unreported hunting pressure. For this reason, the aim of this work was to describe the use of the paca by the inhabitants of the Sierra de Tabasco State Park (STSP using sampling areas in a matrix of vegetation with different degrees of disturbance, and different types of land use. We included both preserved areas: owing to the presence of large continuous areas of fragmented rainforest and areas that are not preserved, with smaller rainforest fragments and more isolated. To obtain information about paca use, we interviewed 176 people (>18 years old who live in the STSP. All those interviewed had eaten paca meat, and indicated that this species is most frequently observed in the rainforest during the dry season. Hunting and trapping were the most common ways to obtain pacas, rather than gifting or purchasing, and firearms and dogs are used to hunt them. We estimated that these interviewed group had hunted a total of 488 paca in the year prior to the study.Cuniculus paca está ampliamente distribuido en el Neotrópico. El tepezcuintle o paca es el roedor más grande que se encuentra en las selvas tropicales de México. En cuanto a la cacería de subsistencia es una de las especies más buscadas por su carne. Como se desconoce el impacto de esta actividad, se describe el aprovechamiento que le dan las comunidades humanas en el Parque Estatal de la Sierra de Tabasco (PEST. También, se determinaron zonas de muestreo, las cuales se encontraban en una matriz perturbada en menor o mayor grado, con diferentes tipos de uso de suelo. Además, se consideraron zonas conservadas por la presencia continua de grandes extensiones de selvas fragmentadas y las zonas no conservadas por tener fragmentos

  10. United States - Japanese nuclear relations: implications for the pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttmeier, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    The initiation of a new approach to non-proliferation policy by the United States in 1977 was the most upsetting development in the history of US-Japanese nuclear relations. The policy has seemingly altered Japanese views of its own nuclear future very little, yet it has altered the tone of the nuclear relationship with the United States. Recent Japanese nuclear power developments, both technical and administrative, are outlined and the prospects for the future of the United States-Japanese nuclear relationship and for Pacific regional cooperation assessed. Issues of importance in the relationship include reprocessing - enrichment, plutonium management, spent fuel and waste management and uranium supplies

  11. Cauchy inequality and uncertainty relations for mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirokov, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    Cauchy inequality (CI) relates scalar products of two vectors and their norms. I point out other similar inequalities (SI). Starting with CI Schroedinger derived his uncertainty relation (UR). By using SI other various UR can be obtained. It is shown that they follow from the Schroedinger UR. Two generalizations of CI are obtained for mixed states described by density matrices. Using them two generalizations of UR for mixed states are derived. Both differ from the UR generalization known from the literature. The discussion of these generalizations is given

  12. Public Relations in the State Institutions from Galati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aurelia Tanase Popa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at identifying and analyzing specific public relations activities in various state institutions from Galati in order to shape a PR typological profile in this geographic area. From the methodological point of view, the paper is based on in-depth interview technique for data collection and content analysis as a method of interpretation. The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate the professional activity of the specialist in public relations in state institutions in Galati and achieving it was made possible through a structured interview guide on three indicators: professional environment, typological profile, professional responsibility.

  13. Social Representations of Latin American History and (PostColonial Relations in Brazil, Chile and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Alves Brasil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Social representations of history play an important role in defining the identity of national and supranational groups such as Latin America, and also influencing present-day intergroup relations. In this paper, we discuss a study that aimed to analyse and compare social representations of Latin American history among Brazilian, Chilean, and Mexican participants. We conducted a survey with 213 university students, aged 18 to 35 years old, from these three countries, through an online questionnaire with open-ended questions about important events and people in the region's history. Despite the reference to different historical events and the existence of national specificities, several common topics were noteworthy across the three samples. There was a centrality of events involving political issues, conflicts and revolutions, as well as a recency effect and a sociocentric bias, replicating previous research about social representations of world history in different countries. There was also a strong prominence of colonization and independence issues in all samples. Through an emphasis on a common narrative of struggle and overcoming difficulties, the participants’ social representations of Latin American history may favour mobilization and resistance, challenging the stability and legitimacy of the existing social order. Furthermore, the findings are discussed in terms of their potential connections with present-day intergroup relations within Latin America, and between Latin America and other parts of the world.

  14. Causal relations among events and states in dynamic geographical phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhaoqiang; Feng, Xuezhi; Xuan, Wenling; Chen, Xiuwan

    2007-06-01

    There is only a static state of the real world to be recorded in conventional geographical information systems. However, there is not only static information but also dynamic information in geographical phenomena. So that how to record the dynamic information and reveal the relations among dynamic information is an important issue in a spatio-temporal information system. From an ontological perspective, we can initially divide the spatio-temporal entities in the world into continuants and occurrents. Continuant entities endure through some extended (although possibly very short) interval of time (e.g., houses, roads, cities, and real-estate). Occurrent entities happen and are then gone (e.g., a house repair job, road construction project, urban expansion, real-estate transition). From an information system perspective, continuants and occurrents that have a unique identity in the system are referred to as objects and events, respectively. And the change is represented implicitly by static snapshots in current spatial temporal information systems. In the previous models, the objects can be considered as the fundamental components of the system, and the change is modeled by considering time-varying attributes of these objects. In the spatio-temporal database, the temporal information that is either interval or instant is involved and the underlying data structures and indexes for temporal are considerable investigated. However, there is the absence of explicit ways of considering events, which affect the attributes of objects or the state. So the research issue of this paper focuses on how to model events in conceptual models of dynamic geographical phenomena and how to represent the causal relations among events and the objects or states. Firstly, the paper reviews the conceptual modeling in a temporal GIS by researchers. Secondly, this paper discusses the spatio-temporal entities: objects and events. Thirdly, this paper investigates the causal relations amongst

  15. Detection of West Nile virus-specific antibodies and nucleic acid in horses and mosquitoes, respectively, in Nuevo Leon State, northern Mexico, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Juarez, L; Eisen, L; Bolling, B G; Beaty, B J; Blitvich, B J; Sanchez-Casas, R M; Ayala-Sulca, Y O; Fernandez-Salas, I

    2012-09-01

    In the last 5 years, there has been only one reported human case of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in northern Mexico. To determine if the virus was still circulating in this region, equine and entomological surveillance for WNV was conducted in the state of Nuevo Leon in northern Mexico in 2006 and 2007. A total of 203 horses were serologically assayed for antibodies to WNV using an epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA). Seroprevalences for WNV in horses sampled in 2006 and 2007 were 26% and 45%, respectively. Mosquito collections in 2007 produced 7365 specimens representing 15 species. Culex mosquitoes were screened for WNV RNA and other genera (Mansonia, Anopheles, Aedes, Psorophora and Uranotaenia) were screened for flaviviruses using reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR. Two pools consisting of Culex spp. mosquitoes contained WNV RNA. Molecular species identification revealed that neither pool included Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera:Culicidae) complex mosquitoes. No evidence of flaviviruses was found in the other mosquito genera examined. These data provide evidence that WNV is currently circulating in northern Mexico and that non-Cx. quinquefasciatus spp. mosquitoes may be participating in the WNV transmission cycle in this region. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Patterns of Tree Species Diversity in Relation to Climatic Factors on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Flores, Ramón; Pérez-Verdín, Gustavo; Wehenkel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Biological diversity can be defined as variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial organisms, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes which they are part of. This includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. Numerous diversity indices combine richness and evenness in a single expression, and several climate-based explanations have been proposed to explain broad-scale diversity patterns. However, climate-based water-energy dynamics appears to be an essential factor that determines patterns of diversity. The Mexican Sierra Madre Occidental occupies an area of about 29 million hectares and is located between the Neotropical and Holarctic ecozones. It shelters a high diversity of flora, including 24 different species of Pinus (ca. 22% on the whole), 54 species of Quercus (ca. 9–14%), 7 species of Arbutus (ca. 50%) and many other trees species. The objectives of this study were to model how tree species diversity is related to climatic and geographic factors and stand density and to test the Metabolic Theory, Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis, Mid-Domain Effect, and the Water-Energy Dynamic Theory on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango. The results supported the Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis and Water-Energy Dynamic Theory, but not the Mid-Domain Effect or Metabolic Theory. The annual aridity index was the variable most closely related to the diversity indices analyzed. Contemporary climate was found to have moderate to strong effects on the minimum, median and maximum tree species diversity. Because water-energy dynamics provided a satisfactory explanation for the patterns of minimum, median and maximum diversity, an understanding of this factor is critical to future biodiversity research. Quantile regression of the data showed that the three diversity parameters of tree species are generally higher in cold

  17. Patterns of tree species diversity in relation to climatic factors on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Flores, Ramón; Pérez-Verdín, Gustavo; Wehenkel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Biological diversity can be defined as variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial organisms, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes which they are part of. This includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. Numerous diversity indices combine richness and evenness in a single expression, and several climate-based explanations have been proposed to explain broad-scale diversity patterns. However, climate-based water-energy dynamics appears to be an essential factor that determines patterns of diversity. The Mexican Sierra Madre Occidental occupies an area of about 29 million hectares and is located between the Neotropical and Holarctic ecozones. It shelters a high diversity of flora, including 24 different species of Pinus (ca. 22% on the whole), 54 species of Quercus (ca. 9-14%), 7 species of Arbutus (ca. 50%) and many other trees species. The objectives of this study were to model how tree species diversity is related to climatic and geographic factors and stand density and to test the Metabolic Theory, Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis, Mid-Domain Effect, and the Water-Energy Dynamic Theory on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango. The results supported the Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis and Water-Energy Dynamic Theory, but not the Mid-Domain Effect or Metabolic Theory. The annual aridity index was the variable most closely related to the diversity indices analyzed. Contemporary climate was found to have moderate to strong effects on the minimum, median and maximum tree species diversity. Because water-energy dynamics provided a satisfactory explanation for the patterns of minimum, median and maximum diversity, an understanding of this factor is critical to future biodiversity research. Quantile regression of the data showed that the three diversity parameters of tree species are generally higher in cold

  18. Maintaining rigor in research: flaws in a recent study and a reanalysis of the relationship between state abortion laws and maternal mortality in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darney, Blair G; Saavedra-Avendano, Biani; Lozano, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    A recent publication [Koch E, Chireau M, Pliego F, Stanford J, Haddad S, Calhoun B, Aracena P, Bravo M, Gatica S, Thorp J. Abortion legislation, maternal healthcare, fertility, female literacy, sanitation, violence against women and maternal deaths: a natural experiment in 32 Mexican states. BMJ Open 2015;5(2):e006013] claimed that Mexican states with more restrictive abortion laws had lower levels of maternal mortality. Our objectives are to replicate the analysis, reanalyze the data and offer a critique of the key flaws of the Koch study. We used corrected maternal mortality data (2006-2013), live births, and state-level indicators of poverty. We replicate the published analysis. We then reclassified state-level exposure to abortion on demand based on actual availability of abortion (Mexico City versus the other 31 states) and test the association of abortion access and the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) using descriptives over time, pooled chi-square tests and regression models. We included 256 state-year observations. We did not find significant differences in MMR between Mexico City (MMR=49.1) and the 31 states (MMR=44.6; p=.44). Using Koch's classification of states, we replicated published differences of higher MMR where abortion is more available. We found a significant, negative association between MMR and availability of abortion in the same multivariable models as Koch, but using our state classification (beta=-22.49, 95% CI=-38.9; -5.99). State-level poverty remains highly correlated with MMR. Koch makes errors in methodology and interpretation, making false causal claims about abortion law and MMR. MMR is falling most rapidly in Mexico City, but our main study limitation is an inability to draw causal inference about abortion law or access and maternal mortality. We need rigorous evidence about the health impacts of increasing access to safe abortion worldwide. Transparency and integrity in research is crucial, as well as perhaps even more in

  19. Enhancing state-community relations through the ward development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary responsibility of the government is to develop communities under its jurisdiction through community development projects. The development of the rural areas creates conditions conducive for community living, enhances the legitimacy of government and promotes state-community relations. But the political ...

  20. Higher Education Relations: Iranian and the United States Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereshteh, M. Hussein

    This review examined the views of 35 higher education professionals in order to explore the history of higher education relations between Iran and the United States particularly before and after the revolution in Iran. The study used interviews with participants, correspondence, and published material from journals, monographs, and newspapers. All…