WorldWideScience

Sample records for mexico gom region

  1. Offshore Minerals Management Platforms for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Geographic NAD83, MMS (2006) [platforms_mms_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Platforms for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Identifies the location of platforms in GOM. All platforms existing in the database are included.

  2. 76 FR 50245 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... (BOEMRE), Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of a Final Supplemental Environmental Impact... sale's incremental contribution to the cumulative impacts on environmental and socioeconomic resources... Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sale for the...

  3. 76 FR 70478 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer... studies, NEPA analysis, resource evaluation, economic analysis, and renewable energy. BSEE is responsible... Program AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA...

  4. UT-GOM2-1: Prospecting, Drilling and Sampling a Coarse-Grained Hydrate Reservoir in Green Canyon 955, the Deepwater Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemings, P. B.; Phillips, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    In May 2017, a science team led by the University of Texas-Austin conducted drilling and coring operations from the Helix Q4000 targeting gas hydrates in sand-rich reservoirs in the Green Canyon 955 block in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The UT-GOM2-1 expedition goals were to 1) test two configurations of pressure coring devices to assess relative performance with respect to recovery and quality of samples and 2) gather sufficient samples to allow laboratories throughout the US to investigate a range of outstanding science questions related to the origin and nature of gas hydrate-bearing sands. In the first well (UT-GOM2-1-H002), 1 of the 8 cores were recovered under pressure with 34% recovery. In the second well (UT-GOM2-1-H005), 12 of 13 cores were recovered under pressure with 77% recovery. The pressure cores were imaged and logged under pressure. Samples were degassed both shipboard and dockside to interpret hydrate concentration and gas composition. Samples for microbiological and porewater analysis were taken from the depressurized samples. 21 3 ft pressure cores were returned to the University of Texas for storage, distribution, and further analysis. Preliminary analyses document that the hydrate-bearing interval is composed of two interbedded (cm to m thickness) facies. Lithofacies II is composed of sandy silt and has trough cross bedding whereas Lithofacies III is composed of clayey silt and no bedforms are observed. Lithofacies II has low density (1.7 to 1.9 g/cc) and high velocity (3000-3250 m/s) beds whereas Lithofacies 3 has high density ( 1.9-2.1g/cc) and low velocity ( 1700 m/s). Quantitative degassing was used to determine that Lithofacies II contains high hydrate saturation (66-87%) and Lithofacies III contains moderate saturation ( 18-30%). Gas samples were analyzed periodically in each experiment and were composed of primarily methane with an average of 94 ppm ethane and detectable, but not quantifiable, propane. The core data will provide a

  5. Automating CPM-GOMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Bonnie; Vera, Alonso; Matessa, Michael; Freed, Michael; Remington, Roger

    2002-01-01

    CPM-GOMS is a modeling method that combines the task decomposition of a GOMS analysis with a model of human resource usage at the level of cognitive, perceptual, and motor operations. CPM-GOMS models have made accurate predictions about skilled user behavior in routine tasks, but developing such models is tedious and error-prone. We describe a process for automatically generating CPM-GOMS models from a hierarchical task decomposition expressed in a cognitive modeling tool called Apex. Resource scheduling in Apex automates the difficult task of interleaving the cognitive, perceptual, and motor resources underlying common task operators (e.g. mouse move-and-click). Apex's UI automatically generates PERT charts, which allow modelers to visualize a model's complex parallel behavior. Because interleaving and visualization is now automated, it is feasible to construct arbitrarily long sequences of behavior. To demonstrate the process, we present a model of automated teller interactions in Apex and discuss implications for user modeling. available to model human users, the Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection (GOMS) method [6, 21] has been the most widely used, providing accurate, often zero-parameter, predictions of the routine performance of skilled users in a wide range of procedural tasks [6, 13, 15, 27, 28]. GOMS is meant to model routine behavior. The user is assumed to have methods that apply sequences of operators and to achieve a goal. Selection rules are applied when there is more than one method to achieve a goal. Many routine tasks lend themselves well to such decomposition. Decomposition produces a representation of the task as a set of nested goal states that include an initial state and a final state. The iterative decomposition into goals and nested subgoals can terminate in primitives of any desired granularity, the choice of level of detail dependent on the predictions required. Although GOMS has proven useful in HCI, tools to support the

  6. 78 FR 52562 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Central Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). SUMMARY: Consistent with the regulations... Supplemental EIS will update the environmental and socioeconomic analyses in the Gulf of Mexico OCS Oil and Gas... Area Lease Sales 227, 231, 235, 241, and 247, Final Environmental Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM...

  7. 78 FR 64242 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... (NOA) of the Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Public Meetings. SUMMARY: BOEM... Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2012-019) (2012- 2017 WPA/CPA Multisale EIS) and in the Gulf of Mexico... Lease Sale 231, Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2013-0118) (WPA 233...

  8. Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for an Underground Blowout Scenario in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, M.; Zulqarnain, M.

    2017-12-01

    Offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations, involve the use of some of the cutting edge and challenging technologies of the modern time. These technological complex operations involves the risk of major accidents as well, which have been demonstrated by disasters such as the explosion and fire on the UK production platform piper alpha, the Canadian semi-submersible drilling rig Ocean Ranger and the explosion and capsizing of Deepwater horizon rig in the Gulf of Mexico. By conducting Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA), safety of various operations as well as their associated risks and significance during the entire life phase of an offshore project can be quantitatively estimated. In an underground blowout, the uncontrolled formation fluids from higher pressure formation may charge up shallower overlying low pressure formations or may migrate to sea floor. Consequences of such underground blowouts range from no visible damage at the surface to the complete loss of well, loss of drilling rig, seafloor subsidence or hydrocarbons discharged to the environment. These blowouts might go unnoticed until the over pressured sands, which are the result of charging from higher pressure reservoir due to an underground blowout. Further, engineering formulas used to estimate the fault permeability and thickness are very simple in nature and may add to uncertainty in the estimated parameters. In this study the potential of a deepwater underground blowout are assessed during drilling life phase of a well in Popeye-Genesis field reservoir in the Gulf of Mexico to estimate the time taken to charge a shallower zone to its leak-off test (LOT) value. Parametric simulation results for selected field case show that for relatively high permeability (k = 40mD) fault connecting a deep over-pressured zone to a shallower low-pressure zone of similar reservoir volumes, the time to recharge the shallower zone up to its threshold LOT value is about 135 years. If the ratio of the

  9. Recovery and Lithologic Analysis of Sediment from Hole UT-GOM2-1-H002, Green Canyon 955, Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinash, N.; Cook, A.; Sawyer, D.; Heber, R.

    2017-12-01

    In May 2017 the University of Texas led a drilling and pressure coring expedition in the northern Gulf of Mexico, UT-GOM2-01. The holes were located in Green Canyon Block 955, where the Gulf of Mexico Joint Industry Project Leg II identified an approximately 100m thick hydrate-filled course-grained levee unit in 2009. Two separate wells were drilled into this unit: Holes H002 and H005. In Hole H002, a cutting shoe drill bit was used to collect the pressure cores, and only 1 of the 8 cores collected was pressurized during recovery. The core recovery in Hole H002 was generally poor, about 34%, while the only pressurized core had 45% recovery. In Hole H005, a face bit was used during pressure coring where 13 cores were collected and 9 cores remained pressurized. Core recovery in Hole H005 was much higher, at about 75%. The type of bit was not the only difference between the holes, however. Drilling mud was used throughout the drilling and pressure coring of Hole H002, while only seawater was used during the first 80m of pressure cores collected in Hole H005. Herein we focus on lithologic analysis of Hole H002 with the goal of documenting and understanding core recovery in Hole H002 to compare with Hole H005. X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) images were collected by Geotek on pressurized cores, mostly from Hole H005, and at Ohio State on unpressurized cores, mostly from Hole H002. The XCT images of unpressurized cores show minimal sedimentary structures and layering, unlike the XCT images acquired on the pressurized, hydrate-bearing cores. Only small sections of the unpressurized cores remained intact. The unpressurized cores appear to have two prominent facies: 1) silt that did not retain original sedimentary fabric and often was loose within the core barrel, and 2) dense mud sections with some sedimentary structures and layering present. On the XCT images, drilling mud appears to be concentrated on the sides of cores, but also appears in layers and fractures within

  10. Synthesis of Seafood Catch, Distribution, and Consumption Patterns in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimle and Associates, Inc.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this task was to gather and assemble information that will provide a synthesis of seafood catch, distribution and consumption patterns for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) region. This task was part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project entitled ''Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations.'' Personal interviews were conducted with a total of 905 recreational fishermen and 218 commercial fishermen (inclusive of shrimpers, crabbers, oystermen and finfishermen) in Louisiana and Texas using survey questionnaires developed for the study. Results of these interviews detail the species and quantities caught, location of catch, mode of fishing, distribution of catch, family consumption patterns and demographics of the fishermen

  11. Synthesis of Seafood Catch, Distribution, and Consumption Patterns in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimle and Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    The purpose of this task was to gather and assemble information that will provide a synthesis of seafood catch, distribution and consumption patterns for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) region. This task was part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project entitled ''Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations.'' Personal interviews were conducted with a total of 905 recreational fishermen and 218 commercial fishermen (inclusive of shrimpers, crabbers, oystermen and finfishermen) in Louisiana and Texas using survey questionnaires developed for the study. Results of these interviews detail the species and quantities caught, location of catch, mode of fishing, distribution of catch, family consumption patterns and demographics of the fishermen.

  12. 77 FR 34405 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Geophysical Survey, SEA M09- Planning Area of the 013. Gulf of Mexico. Energy Resource Technology GOM, South... Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... documents prepared for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region SUMMARY: BOEM, in accordance...

  13. Geophysical Data Define Boundaries and Sub-Regions of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Basin: Structural Histories and Causes are Hypothesized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsland, G. L.

    2017-12-01

    Within the last several years new types of geophysical data of the southern margin of the North American Craton and the Northern Gulf of Mexico Basin (NGoMB) have become available, e.g., results from the USArray experiment, high resolution satellite gravity data of the GoM itself and new heat flow data. These data when combined with previously existing geophysical data (gravity, magnetic and seismic) and shallow structural data offer new insights into the boundaries and sub-regions of the NGoMB. I offer hypotheses for the development of the structures of the buried crust and upper mantle which cause these features. Of particular interest might be my suggestion that the NGoMB might have extended in a southeasterly direction prior to the counter-clockwise rotation of the Yucatan Peninsula which ultimately resulted in the GoM.

  14. Molecular and biochemical responses of hypoxia exposure in Atlantic croaker collected from hypoxic regions in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Saydur; Thomas, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A major impact of global climate change has been the marked increase worldwide in the incidence of coastal hypoxia (dissolved oxygen, DOhypoxic waters as well as their molecular and physiological responses to environmental hypoxia exposure are largely unknown. A suite of potential hypoxia exposure biomarkers was evaluated in Atlantic croaker collected from hypoxic and normoxic regions in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), and in croaker after laboratory exposure to hypoxia (DO: 1.7 mg l-1). Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-α, hif-α; neuronal nitric oxide synthase, nNOS; and insulin-like growth factor binding protein, igfbp mRNAs and protein carbonyl (PC, an oxidative stress indicator) content were elevated several-fold in brain and liver tissues of croaker collected from nGOM hypoxic sites. All of these molecular and biochemical biomarkers were also upregulated ~3-10-fold in croaker brain and liver tissues within 1-2 days of hypoxia exposure in controlled laboratory experiments. These results suggest that hif-αs, nNOS and igfbp-1 transcripts and PC contents are useful biomarkers of environmental hypoxia exposure and some of its physiological effects, making them important components for improved assessments of long-term impacts of environmental hypoxia on fish populations.

  15. How do en route events around the Gulf of Mexico influence landbird populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emily B.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Buler, Jeffrey J.; Deppe, Jill L.; Farnsworth, Andrew; Marra, Peter P.; McWilliams, Scott R.; Mehlman, David W; Wilson, R. Randy; Woodrey, Mark S; Moore, Frank R.

    2017-01-01

    Habitats around the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) provide critical resources for Nearctic–Neotropical migratory landbirds, the majority of which travel across or around the GOM every spring and fall as they migrate between temperate breeding grounds in North America and tropical wintering grounds in the Caribbean and Central and South America. At the same time, ecosystems in the GOM are changing rapidly, with unknown consequences for migratory landbird populations, many of which are experiencing population declines. In general, the extent to which events encountered en route limit migratory bird populations is not well understood. At the same time, information from weather surveillance radar, stable isotopes, tracking, eBird, and genetic datasets is increasingly available to address many of the unanswered questions about bird populations that migrate through stopover and airspace habitats in the GOM. We review the state of the science and identify key research needs to understand the impacts of en route events around the GOM region on populations of intercontinental landbird migrants that breed in North America, including: (1) distribution, timing, and habitat associations; (2) habitat characteristics and quality; (3) migratory connectivity; and (4) threats to and current conservation status of airspace and stopover habitats. Finally, we also call for the development of unified and comprehensive long-term monitoring guidelines and international partnerships to advance our understanding of the role of habitats around the GOM in supporting migratory landbird populations moving between temperate breeding grounds and wintering grounds in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean.

  16. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Judd, Chaeli [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gulbransen, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Michael G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodruff, Dana L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thom, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guzy, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hardin, Danny [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Estes, Maury [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative (GoMRC), a year-long project funded by NASA. The GoMRC project was organized around end user outreach activities, a science applications team, and a team for information technology (IT) development. Key outcomes are summarized below for each of these areas. End User Outreach; Successfully engaged federal and state end users in project planning and feedback; With end user input, defined needs and system functional requirements; Conducted demonstration to End User Advisory Committee on July 9, 2007 and presented at Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA) meeting of Habitat Identification committee; Conducted significant engagement of other end user groups, such as the National Estuary Programs (NEP), in the Fall of 2007; Established partnership with SERVIR and Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System (HABSOS) programs and initiated plan to extend HABs monitoring and prediction capabilities to the southern Gulf; Established a science and technology working group with Mexican institutions centered in the State of Veracruz. Key team members include the Federal Commission for the Protection Against Sanitary Risks (COFEPRIS), the Ecological Institute (INECOL) a unit of the National Council for science and technology (CONACYT), the Veracruz Aquarium (NOAA’s first international Coastal Ecology Learning Center) and the State of Veracruz. The Mexican Navy (critical to coastal studies in the Southern Gulf) and other national and regional entities have also been engaged; and Training on use of SERVIR portal planned for Fall 2007 in Veracruz, Mexico Science Applications; Worked with regional scientists to produce conceptual models of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) ecosystems; Built a logical framework and tool for ontological modeling of SAV and HABs; Created online guidance for SAV restoration planning; Created model runs which link potential future land use trends, runoff and SAV viability; Analyzed SAV

  18. Offshore Pipeline Locations in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD27, MMS (2007) [pipelines_vectors_mms_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Pipeline Locations for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Contains the lines of the pipeline in the GOM. All pipelines existing in the databases...

  19. Offshore Pipeline Locations in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD27, MMS (2007) [pipelines_points_mms_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Pipeline Locations for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Contains the points of the pipeline in the GOM. All pipelines existing in the databases...

  20. Mercury Speciation at a Coastal Site in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Results from the Grand Bay Intensive Studies in Summer 2010 and Spring 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinrong Ren

    2014-04-01

    , which is located in a coastal environment of the Gulf of Mexico, experienced impacts from mercury sources that are both local and regional in nature.

  1. Level III Eco Regions for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  2. Level IV Eco Regions for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  3. Gulf of Mexico Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0123320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gulf of Mexico Regional Climatology is a set of objectively analyzed climatological fields of temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, silicate, and nitrate at...

  4. Gulf of Mexico development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenz, D.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has seen significant deepwater growth. An overview of the GOM deepwater leaseholds by Shell and developments by competing companies is presented. Deepwater GOM developments, total production from the shelf and from deepwater wells, new offshore pipeline capacity and ownership, and processing plant capacity are also discussed. Significant deepwater growth in the Gulf is anticipated. Despite significant economic and technological challenges, the area is judged to be the prime exploration and production opportunity in the lower 48 states of the USA. tabs., figs

  5. Performance Evaluation of HYCOM-GOM for Hydrokinetic Resource Assessment in the Florida Strait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neary, Vincent S [ORNL; Gunawan, Budi [ORNL; Ryou, Albert S [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) is assessing and mapping the potential off-shore ocean current hydrokinetic energy resources along the U.S. coastline, excluding tidal currents, to facilitate market penetration of water power technologies. This resource assessment includes information on the temporal and three-dimensional spatial distribution of the daily averaged power density, and the overall theoretical hydrokinetic energy production, based on modeled historical simulations spanning a 7-year period of record using HYCOM-GOM, an ocean current observation assimilation model that generates a spatially distributed three-dimensional representation of daily averaged horizontal current magnitude and direction time series from which power density time series and their statistics can be derived. This study ascertains the deviation of HYCOM-GOM outputs, including transport (flow) and power density, from outputs based on three independent observation sources to evaluate HYCOM-GOM performance. The three independent data sources include NOAA s submarine cable data of transport, ADCP data at a high power density location, and HF radar data in the high power density region of the Florida Strait. Comparisons with these three independent observation sets indicate discrepancies with HYCOM model outputs, but overall indicate that the HYCOM-GOM model can provide an adequate assessment of the ocean current hydrokinetic resource in high power density regions like the Florida Strait. Additional independent observational data, in particular stationary ADCP measurements, would be useful for expanding this model performance evaluation study. ADCP measurements are rare in ocean environments not influenced by tides, and limited to one location in the Florida Strait. HF radar data, although providing great spatial coverage, is limited to surface currents only.

  6. Mexico's four economies reflect regional differences, challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Canas, Jesus; Gutierrez, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The economic potential of Mexico’s four regions is defined by their industrial makeup, income per capita and how much of the labor force operates outside the formal economy. Recent government reforms could promote growth and reduce regional inequality.

  7. Geology of the border region between Coahuila and Zacatecas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vloten, van Roger

    1954-01-01

    The border region between Coahuila and Zacatecas is part of the mountainous country south of Parras in northeastern Mexico. It includes a thickness of about 2,600 meters of Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks that were deposited along the northern border of the Mexican geosyncline along the southern

  8. GOM Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Time Series Analysis of Variations in Spilled Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, C. M.; Yan, B.

    2013-12-01

    An estimated amount of 210 million gallons of crude oil was released into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from April 20th to July 15th 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion. The spill caused a tremendous financial, ecological, environmental and health impact and continues to affect the GOM today. Variations in hydrocarbons including alkanes, hopanes and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be analyzed to better understand the oil spill and assist in oil source identification. Twenty-one sediment samples*, two tar ball samples and one surface water oil sample were obtained from distinct locations in the GOM and within varying time frames from May to December 2010. Each sample was extracted through the ASE 200 solvent extractor, concentrated down under nitrogen gas, purified through an alumina column, concentrated down again with nitrogen gas and analyzed via GC X GC-TOF MS. Forty-one different hydrocarbons were quantified in each sample. Various hydrocarbon 'fingerprints,' such as parental :alkylate PAH ratios, high molecular weight PAHs: low molecular weight alkane ratios, and carbon preference index were calculated. The initial objective of this project was to identify the relative hydrocarbon contributions of petrogenic sources and combustion sources. Based on the calculated ratios, it is evident that the sediment core taken in October of 2010 was greatly affected by combustion sources. Following the first month of the spill, oil in the gulf was burned in attempts to contain the spill. Combustion related sources have quicker sedimentation rates, and hydrocarbons from a combustion source essentially move into deeper depths quicker than those from a petrogenic source, as was observed in analyses of the October 2010 sediment. *Of the twenty-one sediment samples prepared, nine were quantified for this project.

  9. Parametric Adjustments to the Rankine Vortex Wind Model for Gulf of Mexico Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Parametric Adjustments to the Rankine Vortex Wind Model for Gulf of Mexico Hurricanes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT ...may be used to construct spatially varying wind fields for the GOM region (e.g., Thompson and Cardone [12]), but this requires using a complicated...Storm Damage Reduc- tion, and Dredging Operations and Environmental Research (DOER). The USACE Headquarters granted permission to publish this paper

  10. Estimating evapotranspiration in the central mountain region of Veracruz, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ballinas, Mónica; Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel; Barradas, Víctor L

    2015-01-01

    The global, regional and local hydrological cycle is strongly linked to vegetation distribution. The hydrological cycle is composed by precipitation, infiltration, runoff, transpiration and evaporation. Evaporation is influenced by high temperatures, high winds and low relative humidity. This work is focused on the study of evapotranspiration (ET) as the main variable of water loss in the water balance in the central mountain region of Veracruz, Mexico. ET was estimated using the Penman-Monte...

  11. [Anthropoentomophagic biodiversity of the Zongolica region, Veracruz, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Landero-Torres, Ivonne; Murguía-González, Joaquín; Pino, José M M

    2008-03-01

    Anthropoentomophagic biodiversity of the Zongolica region, Veracruz, Mexico. During two and a half years (2003-2005) we recorded the insect species used as food at Zongolica, Veracruz State, Mexico. Interviews were made among people (200) of this municipality to know which insects they consumed. The total of registered species was 57 (Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera, Megaloptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera). The Orthoptera was the most frequently ingested. Twenty-four of these species were new records for edible insects of Mexico. They are eaten in immature stages or as adults, generally only roasted. Consumption is seasonal. Some species are commercialized in the "tianguis" (little town markets) and/or in the larger Zongolica market. There is a "protoculture" of three species, one cockroach (Periplaneta australasiae Fabricius) and two moths (Latebraria amphipyroides Guenée and Arsenura armida armida Cramer). In Zongolica, anthropoentomophagy is an ancestral habit.

  12. Trophic ecology of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus [corrected] larvae from the Gulf of Mexico and NW Mediterranean spawning grounds: A Comparative Stable Isotope Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Laiz-Carrión

    Full Text Available The present study uses stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon (δ15Nandδ13C as trophic indicators for Atlantic bluefin tuna larvae (BFT (6-10 mm standard length in the highly contrasting environmental conditions of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM and the Balearic Sea (MED. These regions are differentiated by their temperature regime and relative productivity, with the GOM being significantly warmer and more productive. MED BFT larvae showed the highest δ15N signatures, implying an elevated trophic position above the underlying microzooplankton baseline. Ontogenetic dietary shifts were observed in the BFT larvae from the GOM and MED which indicates early life trophodynamics differences between these spawning habitats. Significant trophic differences between the GOM and MED larvae were observed in relation to δ15N signatures in favour of the MED larvae, which may have important implications in their growth during their early life stages.These low δ15N levels in the zooplankton from the GOM may be an indication of a shifting isotopic baseline in pelagic food webs due to diatrophic inputs by cyanobacteria. Lack of enrichment for δ15N in BFT larvae compared to zooplankton implies an alternative grazing pathway from the traditional food chain of phytoplankton-zooplankton-larval fish. Results provide insight for a comparative characterization of the trophic pathways variability of the two main spawning grounds for BFT larvae.

  13. Mexico: a regional power or a failed State?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Derwich

    2015-10-01

    Caribbean region for many years. This opinion has strong foundations. Territory, geographical location, economy, and political influence are the key factors that predestine this country to the role of a regional power. The democratic transition that has taken place in Mexico in last decades and economic cooperation with the United States also allow it to play a role of regional leader. However, Mexico has significant problems that make it difficult for the country to play the role of a real leader. The most important one is the development of narcobusiness. This phenomenon brings not only the growing activity of drug cartels but also the eruption of narcoviolence in Mexico. This gives rise to grave problems for the Mexican authorities. The development of narcobusiness is partially the result of weakness of some of its institutions. For example, police forces do not carry out their tasks and are closely related to the drug cartels. As a result, the Mexican state is incapable of assuring security to its citizens – one of the most important functions of every state. Is it able to control its territory? It definitely does not have a monopoly for the use of violence on its territory. Huge corruption enables different non-state actors to influence decision making processes. All these problems make substantiated theses that the Mexican state is dysfunctional in some areas. Some analysts go much further in their opinions and describe Mexico as a failed state. The aim of the paper is to analyze the present position of Mexico in Latin America and the Caribbean region. Are the contemporary problems so big that they can lead to the collapse of the Mexican state or does Mexico have a real potential to play the role of a local leader and regional power? The author would like to analyze the impact of the present day internal problems in Mexico’s geopolitical position.

  14. Why is Coastal Community Resilience Important in the Gulf of Mexico Region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gulf of Mexico Program supports the regional collaborative approach and efforts of the Coastal Community Resilience Priority Issue Team of the Gulf of Mexico Governors’ Alliance and its broad spectrum of partners and stakeholders.

  15. The Role of Transforms in Gulf of Mexico Opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, E.; Doré, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    The curious pie-shaped Gulf of Mexico (GoM) may be considered a high-angle back-arc basin to the Pacific Ocean. Opening was strongly facilitated by transforms, including a terminal transform on its Pacific side. GoM also formed synchronously with the nearby Central Atlantic when Gondwanaland pulled away from Laurasia in the Jurassic. Notably, GoM's oceanic crust never connected with that of the Atlantic, and the isolated nature of this small ocean led to periodically confined conditions that influenced the petroleum system. Of particular importance are the deposition of Callovian age salt and Tithonian age source rocks. The central part of GoM is generally accepted as underlain by oceanic crust, but the position of the continent-ocean boundaries (COB) is debated, as well as the nature of intervening crust. We favor an interpretation of the COBs marked by the regional scale, large-amplitude Houston, Florida, and Campeche magnetic anomalies, in turn probably reflecting seaward dipping reflectors of magma-rich margins. GoM's unusual shape may indirectly represent utilization of pre-existing transforms during the break-up of Pangea. Transforms represent long, linear weaknesses where the crust and lithosphere is already broken. Transforms seem to have governed the break-up of several oceanic segments in the North Atlantic and Arctic. The Suwanne suture of the Rheic Ocean is a pronounced magnetic anomaly that crosses Georgia-Florida and becomes aligned with the Houston magnetic anomaly, which here is interpreted as the northern COB to GoM. The Suwanne suture is oriented at high angle to the rest of the Rheic suture along the Appalachians and probably experienced lateral motion during the transpressional closure of the Rheic Ocean. This transform arguably represents a weak element in the Ouachita-Marathon orogen that allowed the Yucatan microcontinent to easily be plucked from the North American margin during the dispersal of Pangea, forming the GoM in the process. This

  16. Using Apex To Construct CPM-GOMS Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Bonnie; Vera, Alonso; Matessa, Michael; Freed, Michael; Remington, Roger

    2006-01-01

    process for automatically generating computational models of human/computer interactions as well as graphical and textual representations of the models has been built on the conceptual foundation of a method known in the art as CPM-GOMS. This method is so named because it combines (1) the task decomposition of analysis according to an underlying method known in the art as the goals, operators, methods, and selection (GOMS) method with (2) a model of human resource usage at the level of cognitive, perceptual, and motor (CPM) operations. CPM-GOMS models have made accurate predictions about behaviors of skilled computer users in routine tasks, but heretofore, such models have been generated in a tedious, error-prone manual process. In the present process, CPM-GOMS models are generated automatically from a hierarchical task decomposition expressed by use of a computer program, known as Apex, designed previously to be used to model human behavior in complex, dynamic tasks. An inherent capability of Apex for scheduling of resources automates the difficult task of interleaving the cognitive, perceptual, and motor resources that underlie common task operators (e.g., move and click mouse). The user interface of Apex automatically generates Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) charts, which enable modelers to visualize the complex parallel behavior represented by a model. Because interleaving and the generation of displays to aid visualization are automated, it is now feasible to construct arbitrarily long sequences of behaviors. The process was tested by using Apex to create a CPM-GOMS model of a relatively simple human/computer-interaction task and comparing the time predictions of the model and measurements of the times taken by human users in performing the various steps of the task. The task was to withdraw $80 in cash from an automated teller machine (ATM). For the test, a Visual Basic mockup of an ATM was created, with a provision for input from (and measurement

  17. Reprint of - Deep-sea coral and hardbottom habitats on the west Florida slope, eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Steve W.; Rhode, Mike; Brooke, Sandra

    2017-09-01

    Until recently, benthic habitats dominated by deep-sea corals (DSC) appeared to be less extensive on the slope of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) than in the northeast Atlantic Ocean or off the southeastern US. There are relatively few bioherms (i.e., coral-built mounds) in the northern GOM, and most DSCs are attached to existing hard substrata (e.g., authigenically formed carbonate). The primary structure-forming, DSC in the GOM is Lophelia pertusa, but structure is also provided by other living and dead scleractinians, antipatharians (black corals), octocorals (gorgonians, soft corals), hydrocorals and sponges, as well as abundant rocky substrata. The best development of DSCs in the GOM was previously documented within Viosca Knoll oil and gas lease blocks 826 and 862/906 (north-central GOM) and on the Campeche Bank (southern GOM in Mexican waters). This paper documents extensive deep reef ecosystems composed of DSC and rocky hard-bottom recently surveyed on the West Florida Slope (WFS, eastern GOM) during six research cruises (2008-2012). Using multibeam sonar, CTD casts, and video from underwater vehicles, we describe the physical and oceanographic characteristics of these deep reefs and provide size or area estimates of deep coral and hardground habitats. The multibeam sonar analyses revealed hundreds of mounds and ridges, some of which were subsequently surveyed using underwater vehicles. Mounds and ridges in <525 m depths were usually capped with living coral colonies, dominated by L. pertusa. An extensive rocky scarp, running roughly north-south for at least 229 km, supported lower abundances of scleractinian corals than the mounds and ridges, despite an abundance of settlement substrata. Areal comparisons suggested that the WFS may exceed other parts of the GOM slope in extent of living deep coral coverage and other deep-reef habitat (dead coral and rock). The complex WFS region warrants additional studies to better understand the influences of oceanography and

  18. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Leslie

    The text explores Mexico's history, geography, art, religion, and lifestyles in the context of its complex economy. The text focuses on Mexico's economy and reasons for its current situation. Part I of this teaching unit includes: Teacher Overview, Why Study Mexico, Mexico Fact Sheet, Map of Mexico, the Land and Climate, History, Government,…

  19. Historical polycyclic aromatic and petrogenic hydrocarbon loading in Northern Central Gulf of Mexico shelf sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, E B; Ashton, B M; Miles, M S

    2004-10-01

    The distribution of selected hydrocarbons within ten dated sediment cores taken from the Mississippi River Bight off coastal Louisiana suggests a chronic contaminant loading from several sources including the river itself, oil and gas exploration in the central Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shelf area, and natural geologic hydrocarbon seeps. Data were grouped as either total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), which were indicative of pyrogenic PAH's; or estimated total hopanes (indicative of petrogenic hydrocarbons). The total PAH concentrations and estimated total hopanes begin increasing above background levels (approximately 200 ng g(-1)) after the 1950s. The distribution of these hydrocarbons and hopanes within the dated sediment cores suggests that the Mississippi River is a regional source of pyrogenic PAH's, and that the hopanes are from natural geologic hydrocarbon seeps, oil and gas exploration in the GOM, or both.

  20. Fertility determinants in the oil region of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, J B; Tellis, G L; Butler, E W

    1989-01-01

    This study analyzes fertility determinants in the oil region of Mexico, consisting of the states of Veracruz, Tabasco, and Campeche. Data are from the 1980 Mexican census and the unit of analysis is the municipio. The regression models, in which the dependent variables of children ever born and child-woman ratio are examined, reveal religious variables to be most significant, with greater fertility for non-Catholics and persons with no religion than for Catholics. Also of great importance are economic variables. Literacy and urbanization, both "classical" Mexican fertility variables, reduce fertility. There are major differences among three urban/rural and three indigenous language subsamples. Results are discussed vis-a-vis demographic theories and prior research.

  1. 76 FR 61695 - Gulf of Mexico Regional Ecosystem Restoration Strategy (Preliminary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OA-2011-0798; FRL-9475-6] Gulf of Mexico Regional... of Availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability of the Gulf of Mexico Regional... http://www.regulations.gov in the docket identified by Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OA-2011-0798. President...

  2. A GOMS model applied to a simplified control panel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, C.; Edwards, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    The design of the user interface for a new system requires many decisions to be considered. To develop sensitivity to user needs requires understanding user behavior. The how-to-do-it knowledge is a mixture of task-related and interface-related components. A conscientious analysis of these components, allows the designer to construct a model in terms of goals, operators, methods, and selection (GOMS model) rules that can be advantageously used in the design process and evaluation of a user interface. The emphasis of the present work is on describing the importance and use of a GOMS model as a formal user interface analysis tool in the development of a simplified panel for the control of a nuclear power plant. At Pennsylvania State University, a highly automated control system with a greatly simplified human interface has been proposed to improve power plant safety. Supervisory control is to be conducted with a simplified control panel with the following functions: startup, shutdown, increase power, decrease power, reset, and scram. Initial programming of the operator interface has been initiated within the framework of a U.S. Department of Energy funded university project for intelligent distributed control. A hypothesis to be tested is that this scheme can be also used to estimate mental work load content and predict human performance

  3. Effects of technological change in regional labor markets in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Elizabeth Rodríguez Pérez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological change has meant that organizations require workers with higher qualifications, development, implementation and adaptation of technology looking to stay at the forefront in international competitiveness. The aim of this paper is to analyze the changes that have occurred in regional labor markets in Mexico on occupational and wage and identify to what extent these changes may have resulted from technological change and if this behavior is spatially homogeneous. The information source is made up of microdata from the National Survey of Urban Employment (Employment Survey 2000–2004. The empirical analysis –considering workers officiating at high and low technological intensity and applying a Mincerian income function with different classification criteria: education, sex, age groups and regions– during the period indicate that there have been significant changes in the Mexican labor market as a result of biased technological change, as it provides statistical evidence indicating the existence of a higher wage premium for subordinates in the technological area, and different effects at the regional level, encouraging more to the border.

  4. Faculty Study: New Mexico Higher Education Institutions Compared with Regional Peers. Gap Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Beverlee J.

    2006-01-01

    This study addresses concerns regarding compensation disparities between New Mexico institutions and their peers. A recommended adjustment schedule with fiscal requirements is included, but not specific recommendations for faculty at individual institutions. The average salaries for New Mexico institutions were compared with regional peers to…

  5. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS IN THREE ECOLOGICAL REGIONS FROM THE CENTRAL REGION OF VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar O. Castelan-Hernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle from three ecological regions in the central area of the state of Veracruz, Mexico, was determined. A transversal study was conducted in 72 calves 3 to 12 months old from six production units from the municipalities of Zentla, Tlacotalpan and Manlio F. Altamirano. Fecal samples were collected from the calves and analyzed using the Kinyoun stain technique. Overall prevalence of cryptosporidiosis was 73.6 %, and by municipality it was 66.7 % in Zentla, 75 % in Tlacotalpan, and 79.2 % in Manlio F. Altamirano. Prevalence by age was 72.4 % in calves 3 months old and 74.4 % in calves 6 to 12 months old. Prevalence was higher in females (78.7 % than in males (45.5 %. Prevalence by breed was 78.8 % in Brown Swiss/Zebu, 83.3 % in Brown Swiss, 50 % in Holstein/Zebu, and 50 % in Brown Swiss/Holstein, with no difference among crosses (P > 0.05. There was no association among infection by Cryptosporidium spp. and sex, breed, age and ecological region. In conclusion, Cryptosporidium spp. is present in the dual purpose cattle production systems in the three municipalities studied located in the central region of Veracruz, Mexico.

  6. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: Gulf of Mexico Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0163993)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the original (1992) Gulf of Mexico regional component of NOAA's Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and...

  7. Mexico's challenges in the Asia-Pacific region: prospects in the XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia María Ramírez Meda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present article is to make a count of the actions taken by Mexico for its correct insertion in the Asia Pacific region and subsequently, to assess whether these strategies have been enhanced and promoted a real membership in the region. In the first part a theoretical and conceptual count of the term "region" and "regionalism" it's done. Second section deals with the question; can Asia Pacific be considered a region by addressing economic, political, social and cultural elements? Subsequently, in a third section the question; "in which region it's Mexico located?" its answered and in this way, finally we analyze if Asia Pacific is or not a mega (macro region unlikely to Mexico, where the latter could benefit if some recommendations that are seen at the end of the present work are applied.

  8. Extracting quasi-steady Lagrangian transport patterns from the ocean circulation: An application to the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, R; Beron-Vera, F J; Olascoaga, M J

    2018-03-26

    We construct a climatology of Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs)-the concealed skeleton that shapes transport-with a twelve-year-long data-assimilative simulation of the sea-surface circulation in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Computed as time-mean Cauchy-Green strain tensorlines of the climatological velocity, the climatological LCSs (cLCSs) unveil recurrent Lagrangian circulation patterns. The cLCSs strongly constrain the ensemble-mean Lagrangian circulation of the instantaneous model velocity, showing that a climatological velocity can preserve meaningful transport information. The quasi-steady transport patterns revealed by the cLCSs agree well with aspects of the GoM circulation described in several previous observational and numerical studies. For example, the cLCSs identify regions of persistent isolation, and suggest that coastal regions previously identified as high-risk for pollution impact are regions of maximal attraction. We also show that cLCSs are remarkably accurate at identifying transport patterns observed during the Deepwater Horizon and Ixtoc oil spills, and during the Grand LAgrangian Deployment (GLAD) experiment. Thus it is shown that computing cLCSs is an efficient and meaningful way of synthesizing vast amounts of Lagrangian information. The cLCS method confirms previous GoM studies, and contributes to our understanding by revealing the persistent nature of the dynamics and kinematics treated therein.

  9. Seismic Regionalization of Michoacan, Mexico and Recurrence Periods for Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña García, N.; Figueroa-Soto, Á.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; Zúñiga, R.

    2017-12-01

    Michoacán is one of the states with the highest occurrence of earthquakes in Mexico and it is a limit of convergence triggered by the subduction of Cocos plate over the North American plate, located in the zone of the Pacific Ocean of our country, in addition to the existence of active faults inside of the state like the Morelia-Acambay Fault System (MAFS).It is important to make a combination of seismic, paleosismological and geological studies to have good planning and development of urban complexes to mitigate disasters if destructive earthquakes appear. With statistical seismology it is possible to characterize the degree of seismic activity as well as to estimate the recurrence periods for earthquakes. For this work, seismicity catalog of Michoacán was compiled and homogenized in time and magnitude. This information was obtained from world and national agencies (SSN, CMT, etc), some data published by Mendoza and Martínez-López (2016) and starting from the seismic catalog homogenized by F. R. Zúñiga (Personal communication). From the analysis of the different focal mechanisms reported in the literature and geological studies, the seismic regionalization of the state of Michoacán complemented the one presented by Vázquez-Rosas (2012) and the recurrence periods for earthquakes within the four different seismotectonic regions. In addition, stable periods were determined for the b value of the Gutenberg-Richter (1944) using the Maximum Curvature and EMR (Entire Magnitude Range Method, 2005) techniques, which allowed us to determine recurrence periods: years for earthquakes upper to 7.5 for the subduction zone (A zone) with EMR technique and years with MAXC technique for the same years for earthquakes upper to 5 for B1 zone with EMR technique and years with MAXC technique; years for earthquakes upper to 7.0 for B2 zone with EMR technique and years with MAXC technique; and the last one, the Morelia-Acambay Fault Sistem zone (C zone) years for earthquakes

  10. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in the Gulf Coast Region of Mexico, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. Paige; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Irene; Leal, Grace; Flores-Mayorga, Jose M.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D.; Singh, Amber J.; Borland, Erin M.; Powers, Ann M.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.

    2012-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been the causative agent for sporadic epidemics and equine epizootics throughout the Americas since the 1930s. In 1969, an outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) spread rapidly from Guatemala and through the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, reaching Texas in 1971. Since this outbreak, there have been very few studies to determine the northward extent of endemic VEEV in this region. This study reports the findings of serologic surveillance in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico from 2003–2010. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed on viral isolates from this region to determine whether there have been substantial genetic changes in VEEV since the 1960s. Based on the findings of this study, the Gulf Coast lineage of subtype IE VEEV continues to actively circulate in this region of Mexico and appears to be responsible for infection of humans and animals throughout this region, including the northern State of Tamaulipas, which borders Texas. PMID:23133685

  11. Adjoint sensitivity studies of loop current and eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico

    KAUST Repository

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Cornuelle, Bruce D.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Adjoint model sensitivity analyses were applied for the loop current (LC) and its eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). The circulation in the GoM is mainly driven by the energetic LC and subsequent LC eddy separation. In order to understand which ocean regions and features control the evolution of the LC, including anticyclonic warm-core eddy shedding in the GoM, forward and adjoint sensitivities with respect to previous model state and atmospheric forcing were computed using the MITgcm and its adjoint. Since the validity of the adjoint model sensitivities depends on the capability of the forward model to simulate the real LC system and the eddy shedding processes, a 5 year (2004–2008) forward model simulation was performed for the GoM using realistic atmospheric forcing, initial, and boundary conditions. This forward model simulation was compared to satellite measurements of sea-surface height (SSH) and sea-surface temperature (SST), and observed transport variability. Despite realistic mean state, standard deviations, and LC eddy shedding period, the simulated LC extension shows less variability and more regularity than the observations. However, the model is suitable for studying the LC system and can be utilized for examining the ocean influences leading to a simple, and hopefully generic LC eddy separation in the GoM. The adjoint sensitivities of the LC show influences from the Yucatan Channel (YC) flow and Loop Current Frontal Eddy (LCFE) on both LC extension and eddy separation, as suggested by earlier work. Some of the processes that control LC extension after eddy separation differ from those controlling eddy shedding, but include YC through-flow. The sensitivity remains stable for more than 30 days and moves generally upstream, entering the Caribbean Sea. The sensitivities of the LC for SST generally remain closer to the surface and move at speeds consistent with advection by the high-speed core of

  12. Adjoint sensitivity studies of loop current and eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico

    KAUST Repository

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    2013-07-01

    Adjoint model sensitivity analyses were applied for the loop current (LC) and its eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). The circulation in the GoM is mainly driven by the energetic LC and subsequent LC eddy separation. In order to understand which ocean regions and features control the evolution of the LC, including anticyclonic warm-core eddy shedding in the GoM, forward and adjoint sensitivities with respect to previous model state and atmospheric forcing were computed using the MITgcm and its adjoint. Since the validity of the adjoint model sensitivities depends on the capability of the forward model to simulate the real LC system and the eddy shedding processes, a 5 year (2004–2008) forward model simulation was performed for the GoM using realistic atmospheric forcing, initial, and boundary conditions. This forward model simulation was compared to satellite measurements of sea-surface height (SSH) and sea-surface temperature (SST), and observed transport variability. Despite realistic mean state, standard deviations, and LC eddy shedding period, the simulated LC extension shows less variability and more regularity than the observations. However, the model is suitable for studying the LC system and can be utilized for examining the ocean influences leading to a simple, and hopefully generic LC eddy separation in the GoM. The adjoint sensitivities of the LC show influences from the Yucatan Channel (YC) flow and Loop Current Frontal Eddy (LCFE) on both LC extension and eddy separation, as suggested by earlier work. Some of the processes that control LC extension after eddy separation differ from those controlling eddy shedding, but include YC through-flow. The sensitivity remains stable for more than 30 days and moves generally upstream, entering the Caribbean Sea. The sensitivities of the LC for SST generally remain closer to the surface and move at speeds consistent with advection by the high-speed core of

  13. Free Trade and Regional Development in Northern Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leendert de Bell

    2010-01-01

    The impressive economic performance of Mexico during the first years after signing the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with Canada and the United States has generated much interest as an example for other Latin American countries in their transition towards market-led economies. However,

  14. Horizontal distribution of near-inertial waves in the western Gulf of Mexico: Eulerian vs Lagrangian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas Sanz, E.; García-Carrillo, P.; Garcia Gomez, B. I.; Lilly, J. M.; Perez-Brunius, P.

    2016-02-01

    The time-average horizontal distribution of the near-inertial waves (NIWs) on the western Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is investigated using horizontal velocity data obtained from Lagrangian trajectories of 200 surface drifters drogued at 50m and deployed between September 2008 and September 2012. Preliminary results suggest maximum time-averaged near-inertial circle radius of 2.6km located in the southern Campeche bay near [22N,95W]; implying an inertial velocity of about 0.14m/s. Similar conclusions are delineated using horizontal velocity data obtained from 21 moorings deployed in the western GoM during the same time period. Maximum near-inertial kinetic energy and clockwise spectral energy is found in the mooring LNK3500 located at 21.850N and 94.028W. Maximum inertial circles measured with mooring data, however, are of about 1.6km leading to inertial currents of 0.087m/s, approximately a 40% smaller. This discrepancy seems to be due to the different depth level of the measurements and the bandwidth used to extract the near-inertial oscillations from the total flow. The time-average horizontal distributions of wind work computed from Lagrangian and Eulerian data are compared and they are not consistent with the time-averaged NIW field. The differences are not well understood but we speculate they may be due to the different time scales of wind fluctuations in the northwestern GoM compared to those observed in the Bay of Campeche, together with the change of sign of the background vorticity in the region; being negative (anticyclonic) in the northern GoM and positive (cyclonic) in the Bay of Campeche.

  15. Stable isotopes provide new insights into vestimentiferan physiological ecology at Gulf of Mexico cold seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Erin Leigh; Macko, Stephen A.; Lee, Raymond W.; Fisher, Charles R.

    2011-02-01

    On the otherwise low-biomass seafloor of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) continental slope, natural oil and gas seeps are oases of local primary production that support lush animal communities. Hundreds of seep communities have been documented on the continental slope, and nutrition derived from seeps could be an important link in the overall GoM food web. Here, we present a uniquely large and cohesive data set of δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S compositions of the vestimentiferan tubeworms Escarpia laminata and Lamellibrachia sp. 1, which dominate biomass at GoM seeps and provide habitat for hundreds of other species. Our sampling design encompassed an entire region of the GoM lower slope, allowing us for the first time to assess spatial variability in isotope compositions and to robustly address long-standing hypotheses about how vestimentiferans acquire and cycle nutrients over their long lifespan (200+ years). Tissue δ13C values provided strong evidence that larger adult vestimentiferans use their buried roots to take up dissolved inorganic carbon from sediment pore water, while very small individuals use their plume to take up carbon dioxide from the seawater. δ34S values were extremely variable among individuals of the same species within one location (<1 m2 area), indicating high variability in the inorganic sulfur pools on a very small spatial scale. This finding supports the hypothesis that vestimentiferans use their roots to cycle sulfate and sulfide between their symbionts and free-living consortia of sulfate-reducing archaea in the sediment. Finally, consistent differences in δ15N between two cooccurring vestimentiferan species provided the first strong evidence for partitioning of inorganic resources, which has significant implications for the ecology and evolution of this taxonomic group.

  16. Characterization of emissions sources in the California-Mexico Border Region during Cal-Mex 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, M. A.; Lei, W.; Li, G.; Bei, N.; Barrera, H.; Tejeda, D.; Molina, L. T.; Cal-Mex 2010 Emissions Team

    2010-12-01

    The California-Mexico border region provides an opportunity to evaluate the characteristics of the emission processes in rapidly expanding urban areas where intensive international trade and commerce activities occur. Intense anthropogenic activities, biomass burning, as well as biological and geological sources significantly contribute to high concentration levels of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), air toxics, and ozone observed in the California-US Baja California-Mexico border region. The continued efforts by Mexico and US for improving and updating the emissions inventories in the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali has helped to understand the emission processes in the border region. In addition, the recent Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign included a series of measurements aimed at characterizing the emissions from major sources in the California-Mexico border region. In this work we will present our analyzes of the data obtained during Cal-Mex 2010 for the characterization of the emission sources and their use for the evaluation of the recent emissions inventories for the Mexican cities of Tijuana and Mexicali. The developed emissions inventories will be implemented in concurrent air quality modeling efforts for understanding the physical and chemical transformations of air pollutants in the California-Mexico border region and their impacts.

  17. Environmental neglect that fuels migration. Regional report 3: Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This article reports the impact of environmental neglect on the Mexican population. Despite its participation in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Mexico is experiencing an environmental crisis. Being the first developing country to engage in the Green Revolution during the 1950s, the country experienced a four-fold increase in grain production. The population increased rapidly from 27 million to 92 million in the 1990s. Due to the increase in population and because the government was too preoccupied with its economic endeavors, the environment suffered, which in a way counteracted the benefits of the Green Revolution. Furthermore, environmental degradation (like loss of forests, less water supply to agricultural lands) had a chain effect. Large farmers engaging in capital-intensive cash cropping for export are buying out small farmers, which leads to many landless or near-landless peasants. Also, many marginalized farmers have long been forced to migrate into marginal lands. Because of the increase in migration in addition to the present population of 92 million, Mexico is showing inadequacy in securing food, employment, and houses. A realistic prognosis is that many Mexicans in the year 2000 could be poorer than they were in 1985; but with the help of the NAFTA free-trade zone, Mexico is hopeful to increase its employment opportunities and reverse its present situation.

  18. Improved Specification of Transboundary Air Pollution over the Gulf of Mexico Using Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour Biazar, A.; Khan, M. N.; Park, Y. H.; McNider, R. T.; Cameron, B.

    2010-12-01

    The assessment of potential environmental impact of oil and gas operations in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) and in particular the onshore air quality impact of such operations is important to State and Federal regulatory agencies. In adapting sound policies for control strategies, it is crucial to assess the impact of local pollution versus transboundary air pollution, and in a region such as GoM with scarce monitoring capability over open waters such distinctions represents a challenge. Furthermore, GoM region can be impacted by the recirculation of pollution in the southeastern United States. The current study examines the efficacy of utilizing the newly available satellite observations of aerosols and trace gases in air quality impacts assessment for addressing these issues. In particular, ozone profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard Aura and aerosol products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Terra and Aqua satellites were utilized in a modeling study during August 2006. The satellite observations were used in the specification of the background and lateral boundary and also once daily for the re-adjustment of the concentration fields. The results were then evaluated against ozonesonde and surface observations. The utilization of OMI ozone profiles significantly improved model performance in the free troposphere and the use of MODIS aerosol products substantially enhanced model prediction of aerosols in the boundary layer. Neither OMI nor TES provide adequate information in the boundary layer with respect to O3 and as a result they can only marginally impact ozone predictions in the boundary layer. The utilization of the satellite data for lateral boundary condition (BC) was helpful in the realization of transboundary transport of pollution. The hypothesis that the recirculation of pollution from Northeast Corridor can play a role over the Gulf of Mexico was tested and

  19. New information on regional subsidence and soil fracturing in Mexico City Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Auvinet

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, updated information about regional subsidence in Mexico City downtown area is presented. Data obtained by R. Gayol in 1891, are compared with information obtained recently from surveys using the reference points of Sistema de Aguas de la Ciudad de México (2008 and on the elevation of a cloud of points on the ground surface determined using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR technology. In addition, this paper provides an overview of recent data obtained from systematic studies focused on understanding soil fracturing associated with regional land subsidence and mapping of areas susceptible to cracking in Mexico City Valley.

  20. [Migration to the northern frontier of Mexico and its relationship with the regional labor market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguiano Tellez, M E

    1998-01-01

    "This document tries to show the close relationship between the recent population growth in the northern border cities of Mexico and the dynamic demand of the regional market labor. First, it analyzes the evolution of demographic growth and the development of economic activities, in the Mexican borders in urban towns, then it reviews the data from the survey called Encuesta sobre Migracion en la Frontera Norte de Mexico in order to explore the connection between the regional labor market characteristics and the internal and international migration flows." (EXCERPT)

  1. Infectious disease morbidity in the US region bordering Mexico, 1990-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, T J; Bryan, R T

    2000-11-01

    The United States and Mexico share an international boundary approximately 3000 km long. This border separates 2 nations with great differences in health status. The objective of this study was to assess morbidity due to infectious diseases in the US region bordering Mexico. The incidence between 1990 and 1998 of 22 nationally notifiable infectious diseases was compared between border and nonborder regions. Disease rates, reflected as rate ratios, were higher in the border region for botulism, brucellosis, diphtheria, hepatitis A, measles, mumps, rabies, rubella, salmonellosis, and shigellosis than in either of 2 nonborder comparison regions. These data indicate that incidence rates for a variety of infectious diseases of public health importance are significantly higher in the United States along the Mexican border than in nonborder regions. These results suggest that an inadequate public health infrastructure may contribute to excess morbidity due to infectious diseases in the border region.

  2. Trade-off analysis for sustainability evaluation: a case study of the Purhepecha region, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, E.N.; Astier, M.; López Ridaura, S.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the use and role of trade-off analysis as a decision-making tool in the implementation of new technologies and sustainability evaluation. As an example, soils in the Purhepecha region in Mexico have been eroding for decades and crop residue retention has been suggested as an

  3. An overview of the floristic richness and conservation of the arid regions of northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Arriaga; Elizabeth Moreno; Claudia Aguilar

    2005-01-01

    The arid and semiarid regions of Northern Mexico harbor diverse, highly endemic, and geographically complex ecosystems. These share topographic and biogeographic similarities that can be used as an analytical framework to assess biodiversity patterns. This study presents the current status of vascular plant inventories for Mexican Aridamerica. The spatial distribution...

  4. Perceptions of Village Dogs by Villagers and Tourists in the Coastal Region of Rural Oaxaca, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, E.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of the village dog-keeping system, and of perceptions of dog-related problems by villagers and tourists, in the coastal region of Oaxaca, Mexico. We conducted a survey of the inhabitants of three villages (Mazunte, Puerto Angel, and Río Seco),

  5. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geissen, V.; Que Ramos, F.; Bastidas-Bastidas, de P.J.; Díaz-González, G.; Bello-Mendoza, R.; Huerta-Lwanga, E.; Ruiz-Suárez, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn— bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha-1week-1 for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the

  6. Genetic Connectivity in Scleractinian Corals across the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Oil/Gas Platforms, and Relationship to the Flower Garden Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Sammarco, Paul W.; Brazeau, Daniel A.; Sinclair, James

    2012-01-01

    The 3,000 oil/gas structures currently deployed in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) provide hard substratum for marine organisms in a region where such has been rare since the Holocene. The major exception to this are the Flower Garden Banks (FGB). Corals are known to have colonized oil/gas platforms around the FGB, facilitating biogeographic expansion. We ask the question, what are the patterns of genetic affinity in these coral populations. We sampled coral tissue from populations of two s...

  7. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations.

  8. Regionalization and classification of bioclimatic zones in the central-northeastern region of Mexico using principal component analysis (PCA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Martinez, L.F.; Carbajal, N.; Medina-Roldan, E. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, A. C., San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: lpineda@ipicyt.edu.mx

    2007-04-15

    Applying principal component analysis (PCA), we determined climate zones in a topographic gradient in the central-northeastern part of Mexico. We employed nearly 30 years of monthly temperature and precipitation data at 173 meteorological stations. The climate classification was carried out applying the Koeppen system modified for the conditions of Mexico. PCA indicates a regionalization in agreement with topographic characteristics and vegetation. We describe the different bioclimatic zones, associated with typical vegetation, for each climate using geographical information systems (GIS). [Spanish] Utilizando un analisis de componentes principales, determinamos zonas climaticas en un gradiente topografico en la zona centro-noreste de Mexico. Se emplearon datos de precipitacion y temperatura medias mensuales por un periodo de 30 anos de 173 estaciones meteorologicas. La clasificacion del clima fue llevada a cabo de acuerdo con el sistema de Koeppen modificado para las condiciones de Mexico. El analisis de componentes principales indico una regionalizacion que concuerda con caracteristicas de topografia y vegetacion. Se describen zonas bioclimaticas, asociadas a vegetacion tipica para cada clima, usando sistemas de informacion geografica (SIG).

  9. Using GOMS and NASA-TLX to Evaluate Human-Computer Interaction Process in Interactive Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramkumar, A.; Stappers, P.J.; Niessen, W.J.; Adebahr, S; Schimek-Jasch, T; Nestle, U; Song, Y.

    2016-01-01

    HCI plays an important role in interactive medical image segmentation. The Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection rules (GOMS) model and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire are different methods that are often used to evaluate the HCI

  10. Climate Change in U.S. South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Fisheries Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffer, M. A.; Hernandez, D. L.; Lamkin, J. T.; Pugliese, R.; Reichert, M.; Hall, C.

    2016-02-01

    A review of the recent evidence that climate change is affecting marine ecosystems in the U.S. fishery management zones of the South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean regions will be presented. This will include affects on the living marine resources (including fish, invertebrates, marine mammals and turtles), fisheries, habitat and people. Emphasis will be given on the effects that impact managed species and the likely new challenges that they present to fishery managers. The evidence is being derived from the results of the "Climate Variability and Fisheries Workshop: Setting Research Priorities for the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Regions," October 26-28, 2015 in St. Petersburg Beach, Florida. Commonalities and regional differences will be presented in terms of how climate variability is likely to impact distribution, catch, catchability, socioeconomics, and management.

  11. 4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder v5 Seasonal and Annual Day-Night Sea Surface Temperature Climatologies for 1982-2009 for the Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0072888)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains a set of sea surface temperature climatologies for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), derived from the AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5 sea surface...

  12. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Geissen, V.; Que Ramos, F.; Bastidas-Bastidas, de, P.J.; Díaz-González, G.; Bello-Mendoza, R.; Huerta-Lwanga, E.; Ruiz-Suárez, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn— bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha-1week-1 for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb (22.5 and 4.3 lg L-1, respective...

  13. Current depression among women in California according to residence in the California-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan-Ibarra, Suzanne; Epstein, Joan Faith; Induni, Marta; Wright, Michael A

    2012-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of current depression; examine the relationship between current depression and immigration, health status, health care access, and health behaviors; and assess differences by California-Mexico border region (Imperial and San Diego Counties) among women in California. Using a cross-sectional, representative sample of adult women from the California Women's Health Survey (n = 13 454), a statewide telephone survey, prevalence of current depression and predictors of depression were examined in California and according to border region residence. Depression was assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire. The prevalence of current depression for women in California was 12.0%. It was similar in the border (13.0%) and the nonborder (11.9%) regions. Odds of current depression in women were lower among recent immigrants (depression and health status, health care access, and binge drinking were larger in the border region than outside the border region. Similar prevalences of current depression were observed among those who live in the border region of California and in those who do not, but the relationship between depression and health status, health care access, and binge drinking varied by border region residence. Ideally, future surveillance of depression and its predictors along the Mexico-California border will be conducted binationally to inform interventions and tracking such as the Healthy Border Program's objectives.

  14. Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes the key energy data for Mexico: 1 - energy organizations and policy: Ministry of energy (SENER), Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), Ministry of Finances, Ministry of trade and industrial development (SECOFI), national commission for energy savings (CONAE); 2 - companies: federal commission of electricity (CFE), Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido (MICARE - coal), Pemex (petroleum); 3 - energy production: resources, electric power, petroleum, natural gas; 4 - energy consumption; 5 - stakes and perspectives. Some economic and energy indicators are summarized in a series of tables: general indicators, supply indicators (reserves, refining and electric capacity, energy production, foreign trade), demand indicators (consumption trends, end use, energy independence, energy efficiency, CO 2 emissions), energy status per year and per energy source. (J.S.)

  15. Seagrass blue carbon dynamics in the Gulf of Mexico: Stocks, losses from anthropogenic disturbance, and gains through seagrass restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorhaug, Anitra; Poulos, Helen M; López-Portillo, Jorge; Ku, Timothy C W; Berlyn, Graeme P

    2017-12-15

    Seagrasses comprise a substantive North American and Caribbean Sea blue carbon sink. Yet fine-scale estimates of seagrass carbon stocks, fluxes from anthropogenic disturbances, and potential gains in sedimentary carbon from seagrass restoration are lacking for most of the Western Hemisphere. To begin to fill this knowledge gap in the subtropics and tropics, we quantified organic carbon (C org ) stocks, losses, and gains from restorations at 8 previously-disturbed seagrass sites around the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) (n=128 cores). Mean natural seagrass C org stocks were 25.7±6.7MgC org ha -1 around the GoM, while mean C org stocks at adjacent barren sites that had previously hosted seagrass were 17.8MgC org ha -1 . Restored seagrass beds contained a mean of 38.7±13.1MgC org ha -1 . Mean C org losses differed by anthropogenic impact type, but averaged 20.98±7.14MgC org ha -1 . C org gains from seagrass restoration averaged 20.96±8.59Mgha -1 . These results, when combined with the similarity between natural and restored C org content, highlight the potential of seagrass restoration for mitigating seagrass C org losses from prior impact events. Our GoM basin-wide estimates of natural C org totaled ~36.4Tg for the 947,327ha for the USA-GoM. Including Mexico, the total basin contained an estimated 37.2-37.5Tg C org . Regional US-GoM losses totaled 21.69Tg C org . C org losses differed significantly among anthropogenic impacts. Yet, seagrass restoration appears to be an important climate change mitigation strategy that could be implemented elsewhere throughout the tropics and subtropics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Towards Defining the Ecological Niches of Novel Coastal Gulf of Mexico Bacterial Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, M. W.; Thrash, C.; Nall, E.

    2016-02-01

    The study of microbial contributions to biogeochemistry is critical to understanding the cycles of fundamental compounds and gain predictive capabilities in a changing environment. Such study requires observation of microbial communities and genetics in nature, coupled with experimental testing of hypotheses both in situ and in laboratory settings. This study combines dilution-to-extinction based high-throughput culturing (HTC) with cultivation-independent and geochemical measurements to define potential ecological niches of novel bacterial isolates from the coastal northern Gulf of Mexico (cnGOM). Here we report findings from the first of a three-year project. In total, 43 cultures from seven HTC experiments were capable of being repeatedly transferred. Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified these isolates as belonging to the phyla Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria. Eight are being genome sequenced, with two selected for further physiological characterization due to their phylogenic novelty and potential ecological significance. Strain LSUCC101 likely represents a novel family of Gammaproteobacteria (best blast hit to a cultured representative showed 91% sequence identity) and strain LSUCC96 belongs to the OM252 clade, with the Hawaiian isolate HIMB30 as its closest relative. Both are small (0.3-0.5 µm) cocci. The environmental importance of both LSUCC101 and LSUCC96 was illustrated by their presence within the top 30 OTU0.03 of cnGOM 16S rRNA gene datasets as well as within clone libraries from coastal regions around the world. Ongoing work is determining growth efficiencies, substrate utilization profiles, and metabolic potential to elucidate the roles of these organisms in the cnGOM. Comparative genomics will examine the evolutionary divergence of these organisms from their closest neighbors, and metagenomic recruitment to genomes will help identify strain-based variation from different coastal regions.

  17. Detection of soil moisture impact in convective initiation in the central region of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolores, Edgar; Caetano, Ernesto

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture is important for understanding hydrological cycle variability in many regions. Local surface heat and moisture fluxes represent a major source of convective rainfall in Mexico during the summer, driven by positive evaporation-precipitation feedback. The effects of soil moisture are directly reflected in the limitation of evapotranspiration, affecting the development of the planetary boundary layer and, therefore, the initiation and intensity of convective precipitation. This study presents preliminary analysis of the role of soil moisture in convective initiations in central Mexico, for which a methodology for the detection of convective initiations similar to Taylor (2015) has been considered. The results show that the moisture fluxes from the surface influence the development of convection favored by mesoscale circulations at low levels. Initiations are more frequent in regions less humid than their surroundings with the very strong signal during the month of September. The knowledge of the soil predisposition to allow the development of deep convection suggests an alternative tool for the prediction of convective rains in Mexico.

  18. Physical and chemical properties of the regional mixed layer of Mexico's Megapolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Arnott

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of gases and aerosol particles have been measured at the mountain site of Altzomoni, 4010 m in altitude, located 60 km southeast of Mexico City, 50 km east of Puebla and 70 km northeast of Cuernavaca. The objective of this study was to evaluate the properties of gases and particles in the Regional Mixed Layer (RML of Mexico's Megapolis. Altzomoni is generally above the RML from late evening until late morning at which time the arrival of the RML is marked by increasing concentrations of CO and aerosol particles that reach their maxima in mid-afternoon. The average diurnal cycles for fourteen days in March, 2006 were evaluated during which time the synoptic scale circulation had three principal patterns: from the east (E, southwest (SW and west northwest (WNW. The original hypothesis was that air arriving from the direction of Mexico City would have much higher concentrations of anthropogenic gases and particles than air from Puebla or Cuernavaca, due to the relatively large differences in populations. In fact, not only were the average, maximum concentrations of CO and O3 (0.3 and 0.1 ppmv approximately the same for air originating from the WNW and E, but the average maximum concentrations of Peroxyacyl nitrates (PAN,PPN and particle organic matter (POM in air from the E exceeded those in air from the WNW. Comparisons of measurements from the mountain site with those made by aircraft during the same period, using the same type of aerosol mass spectrometer, show that the total masses of POM, NO3−, SO42− and NH4+ were approximately the same from aircraft measurements made over Mexico City and when winds were from the east at the mountain site. In contrast 75% of the total aerosol mass at the mountain site was POM whereas over Mexico City the fraction of POM was less than 60%. The measurements suggest the occasional influence of emissions from the nearby volcano, Popocatepetl, as well as possible incursions of biomass

  19. Socio-economic vulnerability to climate change in the central mountainous region of eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel; Bonifacio-Bautista, Martín; Barradas, Víctor L

    2016-03-01

    Climate change effects are expected to be more severe for some segments of society than others. In Mexico, climate variability associated with climate change has important socio-economic and environmental impacts. From the central mountainous region of eastern Veracruz, Mexico, we analyzed data of total annual precipitation and mean annual temperature from 26 meteorological stations (1922-2008) and from General Circulation Models. We developed climate change scenarios based on the observed trends with projections to 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2100, finding considerable local climate changes with reductions in precipitation of over 700 mm and increases in temperature of ~9°C for the year 2100. Deforested areas located at windward were considered more vulnerable, representing potential risk for natural environments, local communities, and the main crops cultivated (sugarcane, coffee, and corn). Socio-economic vulnerability is exacerbated in areas where temperature increases and precipitation decreases.

  20. Environmental and economic assessment of discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettleson, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    Task 3 (Environmental Field Sampling and Analysis of NORM, Heavy Metals, and Organics) and 4 (Monitoring of the Recovery of Impacted Wetland and Open Bay Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana and Texas) activities involved continued data analysis and report writing. Task 5 (Assessment of Economic Impacts of Offshore and Coastal Discharge Requirements on Present and Future Operations in the Gulf of Mexico Region) was issued as a final report during the previous reporting period. Task 6 (Synthesis of Gulf of Mexico Seafood Consumption and Use Patterns) activities included the preparation of the final report. There were no Task 7 (Technology Transfer Plan) activities to report. Task 8 (Project Management and Deliverables) activities involved the submission of the necessary reports and routine management

  1. El Cardenal Isidro Gomá y la cuestión vasca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio Vivas, Miguel Ángel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the many areas of activity of Cardinal Isidro Goma during the Civil War was the attention to the Basque question. After, the controversy with lehendakari Aguirre A, the result of the alignment of Basque nationalism with the Republic. The primate was also a central role regarding the end of conflict in the Basque Country, with negotiations for the surrender of Bilbao. Finally had to face conflict with the national clergy, who remained in Spain, who was victimized who was exiled or those who criticized the position of Cardinal Goma.Uno de los múltiples campos de actuación del cardenal Isidro Gomá durante la guerra civil fue la atención a la cuestión vasca. En primer lugar los problemas derivados del enfrentamiento de las autoridades militares con el obispo de Vitoria, Mateo Múgica. Después la polémica entre el propio Gomá y el lehendakari Aguirre, consecuencia del alineamiento del nacionalismo vasco con la República. El primado tuvo, asimismo, un papel central en torno al fin del conflicto bélico en el Pais Vasco, con las negociaciones para la rendición de Bilbao. Por último debió afrontar los conflictos clero nacionalista, el que permaneció en España, el que fue represaliado y el que fue exiliado o aquellos que censuraron la posición del Cardenal Gomá.

  2. Spatial econometric model of natural disaster impacts on human migration in vulnerable regions of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña-Zorrilla, Sergio O; Sandberg, Krister

    2009-10-01

    Mexico's vast human and environmental diversity offers an initial framework for comprehending some of the prevailing great disparities between rich and poor. Its socio-economic constructed vulnerability to climatic events serves to expand this understanding. Based on a spatial econometric model, this paper tests the contribution of natural disasters to stimulating the emigration process in vulnerable regions of Mexico. Besides coping and adaptive capacity, it assesses the effects of economic losses due to disasters as well as the adverse production and trade conditions of the 1990s on emigration rates in 2000 at the municipality level. Weather-related disasters were responsible for approximately 80 per cent of economic losses in Mexico between 1980 and 2005, mostly in the agricultural sector, which continues to dominate many parts of the country. It is dramatic that this sector generates around only four per cent of gross domestic product but provides a livelihood to about one-quarter of the national population. It is no wonder, therefore, that most emigration from this country arises in vulnerable rural areas.

  3. Mortality trends from diabetes mellitus in the seven socioeconomic regions of Mexico, 2000-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Barriga, Juan Jesús

    2010-11-01

    To determine trends in mortality from diabetes mellitus nationwide according to federative entity, socioeconomic region, and sex and to establish the association between education level, federation entity of residence, and socioeconomic region and mortality from diabetes in Mexico during the years 2000-2007. Records of mortality associated with diabetes for 2000-2007 were obtained from the National Information System of the Secretariat of Health. This information is generated by the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics through death certificates. Codes of International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, that correspond to the basic cause of death from diabetes mellitus were identified. Rates of mortality by federative entity and socioeconomic region were calculated, along with the strength of association (obtained by Poisson regression) between federative entity of residence, socioeconomic region, and education level and mortality from diabetes. The seven socioeconomic regions elaborated by the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics include the 32 federative entities according to indicators related to well-being such as education, occupation, health, housing, and employment. Individuals who did not complete elementary school had a higher risk of dying from diabetes (relative risk [RR] 2.104, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.089-2.119). The federative entity and socioeconomic region with the strongest association with mortality from diabetes were Mexico City (RR 2.5, CI 2.33-2.68 for 2000; RR 2.06, CI 1.95-2.18 for 2007) and region 7 (RR 2.47, CI 2.36-2.57 for 2000; RR 2.05, CI 1.98-2.13 for 2007). Mortality rates increased from 77.9 to 89.2 per 100,000 inhabitants in the period 2000-2007. Women had higher mortality than men. Individuals who did not complete elementary school had a higher risk of dying from diabetes (RR 2.104, CI 2.089-2.119). Mexico City as federative entity and socioeconomic region 7 presented the

  4. Provenance of the lower Miocene of the Gulf of Mexico from detrital zircon double dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    xu, J.

    2013-12-01

    The lower Miocene interval of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has recently gained increasing attention from oil and gas industry due to its hydrocarbon potential below the salt canopy. However, it has been less well studied than both the underlying Oligocene and overlying middle Miocene strata. The lower Miocene worldwide is a transitional period of tectonic, climatic, and oceanographic change. In particular, it is a period of major tectonic reorganization in the western interior of North America (Rocky Mountains), involving a shift from the Oligocene thermal phase, with abundant volcanic activity recorded in the thick Frio/Vicksburg succession of the GOM, to the Miocene Basin-Range extensional phase. Climatic conditions also changed from a relatively arid Oligocene to wetter Miocene, resulting in increased sediment yields from exhumed tectonic structures. Previous provenance studies used proportions of quartz, feldspar and lithic fragments and consideration of likely river courses through known paleogeomorphological elements. Only limited detrital zircon (DZ) U-Pb studies on Paleocene strata have been undertaken and there has been no previous U-Pb and (U-Th)/He double dating in the GOM. In this study we apply the latest analytical approaches, such as DZ U-Pb dating to gain robust source terranes ages and more fully elucidate the complex sediment provenance and dispersal history of GOM. We also employ DZ (U-Th)/He (ZHe) dating, combined with DZ U-Pb, to not only define sedimentary provenance but also the exhumation histories of detrital source regions. Samples of lower Miocene outcrop exposures in Texas and Louisiana have been collected to discriminate the varied tectonic and drainage system changes across the basin in lateral. In addition, samples from the Eocene, Oligocene and middle Miocene have been obtained to reveal vertical shift of source terranes contributions. Our initial age data show detrital zircons of lower Miocene sediments come from a wide range of source

  5. Examining regional variability in work ethic within Mexico: Individual difference or shared value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega, Luis M; Woehr, David J; Del Rincón, Germán A

    2018-02-19

    Despite the acceptance of work ethic as an important individual difference, little research has examined the extent to which work ethic may reflect shared environmental or socio-economic factors. This research addresses this concern by examining the influence of geographic proximity on the work ethic experienced by 254 employees from Mexico, working in 11 different cities in the Northern, Central and Southern regions of the country. Using a sequence of complementary analyses to assess the main source of variance on seven dimensions of work ethic, our results indicate that work ethic is most appropriately considered at the individual level. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Evaluation of regional effects of effluents from uranium production in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    The Grants Uranium Region is a 2500 mile area of northcentral New Mexico which has produced about 40 percent of all domestic uranium, and holds over one-half of the current reserves. The increasing demand for uranium to fuel commercial nuclear power plants is resulting in rapid growth of the uranium industry and economic, social, and environmental changes are occurring. One of the environmental issues of this region is the concern for eventually unacceptable levels of air and water pollution from effluents from uranium mill tailings piles. This study addresses these potential impacts in relation to industrial environmental control practices, siting features, and other regional/temporal variables, including rates of production, locations and sizes of new mills, and population distributions

  7. Wetlands as principal zones of methylmercury production in southern Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, B.D. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Biology, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, SK, S4S 0A2 (Canada)], E-mail: britt.hall@uregina.ca; Aiken, G.R. [United States Geological Survey, 3215 Marine Street, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Krabbenhoft, D.P. [United States Geological Survey, 8505 Research Way, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Marvin-DiPasquale, M. [United States Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Swarzenski, C.M. [United States Geological Survey, Suite 120, 3535 S. Sherwood Forest Blvd., Baton Rouge, LA 70816 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    It is widely recognized that wetlands, especially those rich in organic matter and receiving appreciable atmospheric mercury (Hg) inputs, are important sites of methylmercury (MeHg) production. Extensive wetlands in the southeastern United States have many ecosystem attributes ideal for promoting high MeHg production rates; however, relatively few mercury cycling studies have been conducted in these environments. We conducted a landscape scale study examining Hg cycling in coastal Louisiana (USA) including four field trips conducted between August 2003 and May 2005. Sites were chosen to represent different ecosystem types, including: a large shallow eutrophic estuarine lake (Lake Pontchartrain), three rivers draining into the lake, a cypress-tupelo dominated freshwater swamp, and six emergent marshes ranging from a freshwater marsh dominated by Panicum hemitomon to a Spartina alterniflora dominated salt marsh close to the Gulf of Mexico. We measured MeHg and total Hg (THg) concentrations, and ancillary chemical characteristics, in whole and filtered surface water, and filtered porewater. Overall, MeHg concentrations were greatest in surface water of freshwater wetlands and lowest in the profundal (non-vegetated) regions of the lake and river mainstems. Concentrations of THg and MeHg in filtered surface water were positively correlated with the highly reactive, aromatic (hydrophobic organic acid) fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). These results suggest that DOC plays an important role in promoting the mobility, transport and bioavailability of inorganic Hg in these environments. Further, elevated porewater concentrations in marine and brackish wetlands suggest coastal wetlands along the Gulf Coast are key sites for MeHg production and may be a principal source of MeHg to foodwebs in the Gulf of Mexico. Examining the relationships among MeHg, THg, and DOC across these multiple landscape types is a first step in evaluating possible links between key zones for

  8. Wetlands as principal zones of methylmercury production in southern Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, B.D.; Aiken, G.R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M.; Swarzenski, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that wetlands, especially those rich in organic matter and receiving appreciable atmospheric mercury (Hg) inputs, are important sites of methylmercury (MeHg) production. Extensive wetlands in the southeastern United States have many ecosystem attributes ideal for promoting high MeHg production rates; however, relatively few mercury cycling studies have been conducted in these environments. We conducted a landscape scale study examining Hg cycling in coastal Louisiana (USA) including four field trips conducted between August 2003 and May 2005. Sites were chosen to represent different ecosystem types, including: a large shallow eutrophic estuarine lake (Lake Pontchartrain), three rivers draining into the lake, a cypress-tupelo dominated freshwater swamp, and six emergent marshes ranging from a freshwater marsh dominated by Panicum hemitomon to a Spartina alterniflora dominated salt marsh close to the Gulf of Mexico. We measured MeHg and total Hg (THg) concentrations, and ancillary chemical characteristics, in whole and filtered surface water, and filtered porewater. Overall, MeHg concentrations were greatest in surface water of freshwater wetlands and lowest in the profundal (non-vegetated) regions of the lake and river mainstems. Concentrations of THg and MeHg in filtered surface water were positively correlated with the highly reactive, aromatic (hydrophobic organic acid) fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). These results suggest that DOC plays an important role in promoting the mobility, transport and bioavailability of inorganic Hg in these environments. Further, elevated porewater concentrations in marine and brackish wetlands suggest coastal wetlands along the Gulf Coast are key sites for MeHg production and may be a principal source of MeHg to foodwebs in the Gulf of Mexico. Examining the relationships among MeHg, THg, and DOC across these multiple landscape types is a first step in evaluating possible links between key zones for

  9. School Social Workers in Texas: A Comparative Demographic Analysis of the Texas-Mexico Border and Non-Border Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Cecilia; Landeck, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the role of school social workers as potential agents of change in the educational system, with a special focus on their major demographic characteristics in Texas and along the Mexico border region. The border region of the state has chronic poverty and limited educational attainment levels and demonstrates a need for…

  10. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  11. Analysis of cooperative society and taxation in the Mixteca region, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analaura Medina Conde

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the richness of the cooperative that lies mainly in its principles constitutes an important alternative for local development, the overall research objective was an analysis of the situation of the Cooperative Society in the Mixteca region of Oaxaca, which is one of the poorest and most marginalized regions of Mexico and its taxation, is a mixed qualitative and quantitative research transectional exploratory approach, the method of legal doctrine and the analytical method for statistical review provided by the National Statistics Directory of Economic Units, National Institute of Statistics and Geography and the database is used of the Labor Secretary Oaxaca.Received: 08.05.2015 Accepted: 17.07.2015

  12. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissen, Violette; Ramos, Franzisco Que; de J Bastidas-Bastidas, Pedro; Díaz-González, Gilberto; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo; Huerta-Lwanga, Esperanza; Ruiz-Suárez, Luz E

    2010-10-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn-bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha⁻¹week⁻¹ for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb (22.5 and 4.3 μg L⁻¹, respectively), but not with manganese. In deep ground water, no ethylenethiourea was detected. The level of pollution in the region presents a worrisome risk for aquatic life and for human health.

  13. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to detect factors contributing to hypoxic events in the southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, R.; Johansen, A.; Mitchell, Å. R.; Caraballo Álvarez, I. O.; Taggart, M.; Smith, B.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring and analyzing harmful algal blooms (HABs) and hypoxic events in the southern coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is important for watershed management and mitigation of environmental degradation. This study uncovered trends and dynamic characteristics of chlorophyll-a (Chl) concentration, sea surface temperature (SST), colored dissolved organic matter index (CDOM), and photosynthetically available radiation (PAR); as evident in 8-day standard mapped image (SMI) products from the MODIS instrument on the Aqua platform from 2002-2015 using Clark Labs TerrSet Earth Trends Modeler (ETM). Predicted dissolved oxygen images were classified using a Multi-Layer Perceptron regression approach with in-situ data from the northern GoM. Additionally, sediment and nutrient loading values of the Grijalva-Usumacinta watershed were modeled using the ArcGIS Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Lastly, A Turbidity Index was generated using Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) scenes for 2014-2015. Results, tools, and products will assist local environmental and health authorities in revising water quality standards and mitigating the impacts of future HABs and hypoxic events in the region. This project uses NASA's earth observations as a viable alternative to studying a region with no in-situ data.

  14. Isolation on the West Florida Shelf with implications for red tides and pollutant dispersal in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olascoaga, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of year-long drifter trajectories and records of simulated surface Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) have suggested the presence of a resilient Cross-Shelf Transport Barrier (CSTB) on the West Florida Shelf (WFS). The CSTB was conjectured to provide a large degree of isolation, which is consequential for the fueling of red tides on the southern WFS by nutrients possibly released by rivers and canals directly on the region. Here this conjecture is thoroughly tested by identifying LCSs as well as performing tracer advection calculations based on seven-year-long records of surface and subsurface currents produced by a HYbrid-Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) simulation of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). The identified LCSs suggest that the CSTB extends downward in the water column. The tracer calculations suggest that, while the majority of the nutrients possibly released by rivers and canals directly on the southern WFS are retained within the region for long times, only a small fraction of the nutrients possibly released by rivers outside the WFS reach the southern WFS, mainly accompanying shoreward excursions of the CSTB. These results add importance to the role played by the CSTB in controlling red tide development on the WFS. Implications of the results for the dispersal of pollutants, such as oil, in the GoM are discussed. PMID:22287830

  15. The impact of weather and ocean forecasting on hydrocarbon production and pollution management in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 2 years, the vulnerability of offshore production in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has been brought to light by extensive damage to oil and gas facilities and pipelines resulting from Hurricanes Ivan, Katrina, and Rita. The occurrences of extreme weather regularly force operators to shut-down production, cease drilling and construction activities, and evacuate personnel. Loop currents and eddies can also impact offshore operations and delay installation and drilling activities and reduce the effectiveness of oil spill response strategies. The purpose of this paper is to describe how weather and ocean forecasting impact production activities and pollution management in the GOM. Physical outcome and decision models in support of production and development activities and oil spill response management are presented, and the expected economic benefits that may result from the implementation of an integrated ocean observation network in the region are summarized. Improved ocean observation systems are expected to reduce the uncertainty of forecasting and to enhance the value of ocean/weather information throughout the Gulf region. The source of benefits and the size of activity from which improved ocean observation benefits may be derived are estimated for energy development and production activities and oil spill response management

  16. Regional assessment of anthropogenic impacts on air, water and soil, case: Huasteca Hidalguense, Mexico; Evaluacion regional del impacto antropogenico sobre aire, agua y suelo, caso: Huasteca Hidalguense, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordillo Martinez, Alberto Jose; Cabrera Cruz, Rene Bernardo Elias; Hernandez Mariano, Marisol; Galindo, Erick; Otazo, Elena; Prieto, Francisco [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)]. E-mail: gordillo@uaeh.edu.mx; rcabreracruz@yahoo.com.mx

    2010-08-15

    The state of Hidalgo, Mexico presents an important environmental problem that manifests itself in different ways. To identify the sources, types and the magnitude of pollutants, an inventory of sources of industrial and domestic pollution for air, water and soil in ten municipalities of the Huasteca Region of the state was carried out using the technique of Rapid Assessment of Sources of Environmental Pollution and the results are reported in this paper. A total of combined pollutants emitted was 116 978.95 tons/year. Gasoline vehicles contributed 11 039 tons/year of air pollutants and diesel vehicles 1521 tons/year. For water, industrial sources contributed 22 496 tons/year and domestic effluents 15 776 tons/year. Soil pollution was a result of industrial solid waste, 4025 tons/year, and municipal solid waste, 62 121 tons/year. By municipality, Huejutla de Reyes is the most polluted in air, water and soil, with 53 % of the regional total. These results were evaluated in relation to environmental quality of each medium based on the Mexican regulations; these levels are above permissible limits for water and soil. A database with relevant information was prepared as a support for efficient management of pollutant emissions, provide base mark data for complementary studies, and to promote the future conservation of environmental quality and the biological richness of the area. [Spanish] El estado de Hidalgo, Mexico presenta una importante problematica ambiental que se manifiesta de manera heterogenea a lo largo de su territorio. Existe la necesidad de conocer las fuentes, tipos de agentes contaminantes y su magnitud. En este trabajo se realizo un inventario de la contaminacion emitida por fuentes de origen industrial y domestico en aire, agua y suelo en diez municipios de la region de la Huasteca por medio de la tecnica de Evaluacion Rapida de Fuentes de Contaminacion Ambiental (ERFCA). El total de la contaminacion emitida fue de 116 978.95 ton/ano. Las emisiones al

  17. Local and regional species diversity of benthic Isopoda (Crustacea) in the deep Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, George D. F.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies of deep-sea faunas considered the influence of mid-domain models in the distribution of species diversity and richness with depth. In this paper, I show that separating local diversity from regional species richness in benthic isopods clarifies mid-domain effects in the distribution of isopods in the Gulf of Mexico. Deviations from the randomised implied species ranges can be informative to understanding general patterns within the Gulf of Mexico. The isopods from the GoMB study contained 135 species, with a total of 156 species including those from an earlier study. More than 60 species may be new to science. Most families of deep-sea isopods (suborder Asellota) were present, although some were extremely rare. The isopod family Desmosomatidae dominated the samples, and one species of Macrostylis (Macrostylidae) was found in many samples. Species richness for samples pooled within sites ranged from 1 to 52 species. Because species in pooled samples were highly correlated with individuals, species diversity was compared across sites using the expected species estimator ( n=15 individuals, ES 15). Six depth transects had idiosyncratic patterns of ES 15, and transects with the greatest short-range variation in topography, such as basins and canyons, had the greatest short-range disparity. Basins on the deep slope did not have a consistent influence (i.e., relatively higher or lower than surrounding areas) on the comparative species diversity. ES 15 of all transects together showed a weak mid-domain effect, peaking around 1200-1500 m, with low values at the shallowest and deepest samples (Sigsbee Abyssal Plain); no longitudinal (east-west) pattern was found. The regional species pool was analyzed by summing the implied ranges of all species. The species ranges in aggregate did not have significant patterns across longitudes, and many species had broad depth ranges, suggesting that the isopod fauna of the Gulf of Mexico is well dispersed. The summed

  18. Geology and recognition criteria for uraniferous humate deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.S.; Saucier, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    The geology of the uraniferous humate uranium deposits of the Grants Uranium Region, northwestern New Mexico, is summarized. The most important conclusions of this study are enumerated. Although the geologic characteristics of the uraniferous humate deposits of the Grants Uranium Region are obviously not common in the world, neither are they bizarre or coincidental. The source of the uranium in the deposits of the Grants Uranium Region is not known with certainty. The depositional environment of the host sediments was apparently the mid and distal portions of a wet alluvial fan system. The influence of structural control on the location and accumulation of the host sediments is now supported by considerable data. The host sediments possess numerous important characteristics which influenced the formation of uraniferous humate deposits. Ilmenite-magnetite distribution within potential host sandstones is believed to be the simplest and most useful regional alteration pattern related to this type of uranium deposit. A method is presented for organizing geologic observations into what is referred to as recognition criteria. The potential of the United States for new districts similar to the Grants Uranium Region is judged to be low based upon presently available geologic information. Continuing studies on uraniferous humate deposits are desirable in three particular areas

  19. BOVINE NEOSPOROSIS IN CATTLE FARMS FROM THE NORTHERN REGION OF THE STATE OF VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Montiel-Peña

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the presence of antibodies against Neospora caninum and its DNA in blood samples from bovine females from the northern region of the state of Veracruz, Mexico. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out in 13 municipalities, with a sample size of 821 animals. Blood and serum samples were analyzed through ELISA and PCR, respectively. Overall prevalence was 20.8 %; the highest specific prevalences were obtained in breeding cows (27.4 %, crossbred cows (20.9 %, second-calving cows (23.2 %, three year-old cows (20.6 % and cows with abortion history (20 %. The risk factors associated with seropositivity were dairy cattle (OR = 1.9; IC95 %: 1.1-3.4 and dog presence in the farms (OR = 5.3; IC95 %: 1.3-22.3. The presence of N. caninum DNA was demonstrated in 4 out of 12 blood samples tested, which evidenced the existence of active infection. In conclusion, there were risk factors associated with bovine neosporosis, which proved the existence of active infection by N. caninum in cows from the state of Veracruz, Mexico.

  20. Volatile organic compound measurements in the California/Mexico border region during SCOS97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, B.; Sagebiel, J.; Harshfield, G.; Pasek, R.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were carried out in the California/Mexico border region during the Southern California Ozone Study in the summer of 1997 (SCOS97). Integrated 3-h samples were collected in Rosarito (south of Tijuana, Mexico) and in Mexicali during intensive operational periods (IOP), twice per IOP day. VOC were collected using stainless-steel 6-l canisters; carbonyl compounds were collected using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) impregnated C18 SepPak cartridges. The canister samples were analyzed for speciated volatile hydrocarbons (C 2 -C 12 ), CO, CO 2 , CH 4 , methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), and halogenated hydrocarbons. DNPH-impregnated cartridges were analyzed for 14 C 1 -C 7 carbonyl compounds. The concentrations of all species were higher at Mexicali than in Rosarito. A good correlation between total non-methane hydrocarbons (TNMHC), CO, and other pollutants associated with motor vehicle emissions observed for Mexicali indicates that the main source of TNMHC at this site is vehicular traffic

  1. Presence of Toxoplasma gondii in Drinking Water from an Endemic Region in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Cortazar, Ivonne B; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Segura-Correa, Jose C; Jimenez-Coello, Matilde

    2017-05-01

    Toxoplasmosis can be acquired through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii, highly resistant to the routinely disinfection processes; based on chlorination commonly used in the water supply industry. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of T. gondii DNA in samples of public drinking water from an endemic region of southern Mexico. In total 74 samples of water (5 L each) were collected from the three well fields (I, II, and III) and 71 independent wells, distributing public drinking water to the city of Merida Yucatan, after passing through the chlorination process. Water samples were filtered and concentrated by a sucrose solution, then DNA was extracted and evaluated through a nested-PCR (nPCR) specific for T. gondii. Positive samples were detected in 5.4% (4/74) of the water samples. This is the first report of the presence of T. gondii DNA in public drinking water from a large city in southern Mexico, where their consumption without any postpurification treatment could pose a risk for acquiring the infection in the urban population.

  2. Metabolic Roles of Uncultivated Bacterioplankton Lineages in the Northern Gulf of Mexico "Dead Zone".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, J Cameron; Seitz, Kiley W; Baker, Brett J; Temperton, Ben; Gillies, Lauren E; Rabalais, Nancy N; Henrissat, Bernard; Mason, Olivia U

    2017-09-12

    Marine regions that have seasonal to long-term low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, sometimes called "dead zones," are increasing in number and severity around the globe with deleterious effects on ecology and economics. One of the largest of these coastal dead zones occurs on the continental shelf of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), which results from eutrophication-enhanced bacterioplankton respiration and strong seasonal stratification. Previous research in this dead zone revealed the presence of multiple cosmopolitan bacterioplankton lineages that have eluded cultivation, and thus their metabolic roles in this ecosystem remain unknown. We used a coupled shotgun metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approach to determine the metabolic potential of Marine Group II Euryarchaeota , SAR406, and SAR202. We recovered multiple high-quality, nearly complete genomes from all three groups as well as candidate phyla usually associated with anoxic environments- Parcubacteria (OD1) and Peregrinibacteria Two additional groups with putative assignments to ACD39 and PAUC34f supplement the metabolic contributions by uncultivated taxa. Our results indicate active metabolism in all groups, including prevalent aerobic respiration, with concurrent expression of genes for nitrate reduction in SAR406 and SAR202, and dissimilatory nitrite reduction to ammonia and sulfur reduction by SAR406. We also report a variety of active heterotrophic carbon processing mechanisms, including degradation of complex carbohydrate compounds by SAR406, SAR202, ACD39, and PAUC34f. Together, these data help constrain the metabolic contributions from uncultivated groups in the nGOM during periods of low DO and suggest roles for these organisms in the breakdown of complex organic matter. IMPORTANCE Dead zones receive their name primarily from the reduction of eukaryotic macrobiota (demersal fish, shrimp, etc.) that are also key coastal fisheries. Excess nutrients contributed from anthropogenic activity

  3. Temporal variability of chlorophyll distribution in the Gulf of Mexico: bio-optical data from profiling floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqueron de Fommervault, Orens; Perez-Brunius, Paula; Damien, Pierre; Camacho-Ibar, Victor F.; Sheinbaum, Julio

    2017-12-01

    Chlorophyll concentration is a key oceanic biogeochemical variable. In the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), its distribution, which is mainly obtained from satellite surface observations and scarce in situ experiments, is still poorly understood. In 2011-2012, eight profiling floats equipped with biogeochemical sensors were deployed for the first time in the GOM and generated an unprecedented dataset that significantly increased the number of chlorophyll vertical distribution measurements in the region. The analysis of these data, once calibrated, permits us to reconsider the spatial and temporal variability of the chlorophyll concentration in the water column. At a seasonal scale, results confirm the surface signal seen by satellites, presenting maximum concentrations in winter and low values in summer. It is shown that the deepening of the mixed layer is the primary factor triggering the chlorophyll surface increase in winter. In the GOM, a possible interpretation is that this surface increase corresponds to a biomass increase. However, the present dataset suggests that the basin-scale climatological surface increase in chlorophyll content results from a vertical redistribution of subsurface chlorophyll and/or photoacclimation processes, rather than a net increase of biomass. One plausible explanation for this is the decoupling between the mixed-layer depth and the deep nutrient reservoir since mixed-layer depth only reaches the nitracline in sporadic events in the observations. Float measurements also provide evidence that the depth and the magnitude of the deep chlorophyll maximum is strongly controlled by the mesoscale variability, with higher chlorophyll biomass generally observed in cyclones rather than anticyclones.

  4. Regional well-log correlation in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.; Shaffer, S.E.

    1985-09-01

    Although well logs provide the most complete record of stratigraphy and structure in the northern Delaware Basin, regional interpretations of these logs generate problems of ambiguous lithologic signatures and on-hole anomalies. Interpretation must therefore be based on log-to-log correlation rather than on inferences from single logs. In this report, logs from 276 wells were used to make stratigraphic picks of Ochoan horizons (the Rustler, Salado, and Castile Formations) in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin. Current log correlation suggests that: (1) the Castile is characterized by lateral thickening and thinning; (2) some Castile thinnings are of Permian age; (3) irregular topography in the Guadalupian Bell Canyon Formation may produce apparent structures in the overlying Ochoan units; and (4) extensive dissolution of the Salado is not apparent in the area of the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) site. 13 refs., 37 figs

  5. Notes on the origin of extensive endorheic regions in central and northern Mexico, and some implications for paleozoogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-Gómez, José Jorge; Carranza-Castañeda, Oscar; Wang, Xiaoming; Tseng, Z. Jack; Pacheco-Castro, Adolfo

    2018-04-01

    The recent discovery of a fossil of Enhydritherium terraenovae in upper Miocene fluvial deposits in Juchipila (Mexico), nearly 200 km away from the nearest coast, together with other known occurrences of the same species in Florida and California, made possible to envision an alternative to the Panamanian and Polar routes of migration through fluvial systems in Mexico. In order to cross from one ocean to the other, individuals of E. terraenovae must have passed the continental divide, which is a physiographic feature that separates surface waters that flow into the Atlantic and Pacific versants. Two vast endorheic regions, which together span more than 400,000 km2 in area, currently dominate drainage systems in northern and central Mexico. The endorheic regions are broadly bounded by two mountain ranges and coincide with the arid and semi-arid regions of the Chihuahuan desert. These closed basins are an additional obstacle for migration. However, drainage systems are constantly varying and adjusting to changing conditions imposed by climate, tectonic activity, volcanism, and pronounced asymmetries in topography and rainfall distribution. The migration route across Mexico for Enhydritherium terraenovae in the late Miocene (≥6 Ma) could have been facilitated by one or more river captures that inverted the flow direction near the headwaters of a drainage system that debouched either into the Gulf of Mexico or the Pacific coast. Biologists studying fresh water fish faunas in the southern part of the United States and in northern and central Mexico have documented several living species that occur in both the Rio Grande and in the Mezquital rivers, two drainages that are not presently connected, drain in opposite directions (i.e. towards the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf of California, respectively) and are separated by the endorheic regions. Furthermore, systematic studies of fresh water fish faunas in the region has numerous examples of endemicity and allopatric

  6. 'La Fiebre de Malta': An interface of Farmers and Caprine Brucellosis Control Policies in the Bajio Region, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.; Udo, H.M.J.; Frankena, K.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2017-01-01

    This article shows that socio-economic factors, defined here as practices, knowledge, interests, beliefs and experiences have a role in the adoption of brucellosis control strategies in the Bajío region, Mexico. We combined qualitative and quantitative methods to show that socio-economic factors

  7. Assessment of undiscovered resources in calcrete uranium deposits, Southern High Plains region of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2017-11-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimates a mean of 40 million pounds of in-place uranium oxide (U3O8) remaining as potential undiscovered resources in the Southern High Plains region of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. This estimate used a geology-based assessment method specific to calcrete uranium deposits.

  8. REGIONAL HYDROLOGY OF THE NOPAL I SITE, SIERRA DE PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Rodriguez-Pineda; P. Goodell; P.F. Dobson; J. Walton; R. Oliver; De La Garza; S. Harder

    2005-07-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored the drilling of three wells in 2003 near the Nopal I uranium deposit at the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico. Piezometric information is being collected to understand groundwater flow at local and regional levels as part of an ongoing natural analogue study of radionuclide migration. Water level monitoring reported at these and other wells in the region is combined with archival data to provide a better understanding of the hydrology at Nopal I. Initial results suggest that the local hydrology is dependent on the regional hydrologic setting and that this groundwater system behaves as an unconfined aquifer. The region is dominated by an alternating sequence of highlands and basins that step down from west to east. The Sierra de Pena Blanca was downdropped from the cratonic block to the west during Cenozoic extension. The Nopal I area is near the intersection of two large listric faults, and the questa of ash flow tuffs that hosts the deposit has been subjected to complex structural events. The Pena Blanca Uranium District was originally characterized by 105 airborne radiometric anomalies, indicating widespread uranium mineralization. The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Sierra del Pena Blanca between the Encinillas Basin to the west, with a mean elevation of 1560 m, and the El Cuervo Basin to the east, with a mean elevation of 1230 m. The Nopal I + 10 level is at an intermediate elevation of 1463 m, with a corresponding groundwater elevation of approximately 1240 m. The regional potentiometric surface indicates flow from west to east, with the El Cuervo Basin being the discharge zone for the regional flow system. However, it appears that the local groundwater potential beneath the Nopal I site is more in accordance with the water table of the El Cuervo Basin than with that of the Encinillas Basin. This might indicate that there is limited groundwater flow between the Encinillas Basin and the Nopal I area.

  9. REGIONAL HYDROLOGY OF THE NOPAL I SITE, SIERRA DE PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Pineda, J.A.; Goodell, P.; Dobson, P.F.; Walton, J.; Oliver, R.; De La Garza; Harder, S.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored the drilling of three wells in 2003 near the Nopal I uranium deposit at the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico. Piezometric information is being collected to understand groundwater flow at local and regional levels as part of an ongoing natural analogue study of radionuclide migration. Water level monitoring reported at these and other wells in the region is combined with archival data to provide a better understanding of the hydrology at Nopal I. Initial results suggest that the local hydrology is dependent on the regional hydrologic setting and that this groundwater system behaves as an unconfined aquifer. The region is dominated by an alternating sequence of highlands and basins that step down from west to east. The Sierra de Pena Blanca was downdropped from the cratonic block to the west during Cenozoic extension. The Nopal I area is near the intersection of two large listric faults, and the questa of ash flow tuffs that hosts the deposit has been subjected to complex structural events. The Pena Blanca Uranium District was originally characterized by 105 airborne radiometric anomalies, indicating widespread uranium mineralization. The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Sierra del Pena Blanca between the Encinillas Basin to the west, with a mean elevation of 1560 m, and the El Cuervo Basin to the east, with a mean elevation of 1230 m. The Nopal I + 10 level is at an intermediate elevation of 1463 m, with a corresponding groundwater elevation of approximately 1240 m. The regional potentiometric surface indicates flow from west to east, with the El Cuervo Basin being the discharge zone for the regional flow system. However, it appears that the local groundwater potential beneath the Nopal I site is more in accordance with the water table of the El Cuervo Basin than with that of the Encinillas Basin. This might indicate that there is limited groundwater flow between the Encinillas Basin and the Nopal I area

  10. Urban-Rural Relations in the Central Region of Mexico: A Viewpoint from Tlaxcala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Rosales Ortega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 90’s there was an important expansion of outsourcing industries all around the country and particularly on central region of Mexico, which enhanced an industrial diffusion that transformed the relation between rural an urban areas of the region. Labor and social practices around the textile industry on the region and particularly on the Tlaxcala state, enhanced the organization of a complex local-global network that was built on the context of the Nafta Agreement. Now a day, the local-global network around the textile industry has fall down due to the growing Chinese textile goods on the local and national market. The answer to this economic change has generated a wide range of changes among the different social actors that participated on the local-global network created by de textile industry during the golden years of the Nafta Agreement. Our research analyze the experience and strategies of a group of families from Tlaxcala, organized around the mixture of agricultural, manufacturing and service activities in order to reorganize the economic activities of their localities.

  11. Multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis in Los Altos, Selva and Norte regions, Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, H J; Díaz-Vázquez, A; Nájera-Ortiz, J C; Balandrano, S; Martín-Mateo, M

    2010-01-01

    To analyse the proportion of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in cultures performed during the period 2000-2002 in Los Altos, Selva and Norte regions, Chiapas, Mexico, and to analyse MDR-TB in terms of clinical and sociodemographic indicators. Cross-sectional study of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) from the above regions. Drug susceptibility testing results from two research projects were analysed, as were those of routine sputum samples sent in by health personnel for processing (n = 114). MDR-TB was analysed in terms of the various variables of interest using bivariate tests of association and logistic regression. The proportion of primary MDR-TB was 4.6% (2 of 43), that of secondary MDR-TB was 29.2% (7/24), while among those whose history of treatment was unknown the proportion was 14.3% (3/21). According to the logistic regression model, the variables most highly associated with MDR-TB were as follows: having received anti-tuberculosis treatment previously, cough of >3 years' duration and not being indigenous. The high proportion of MDR cases found in the regions studied shows that it is necessary to significantly improve the control and surveillance of PTB.

  12. Reducing nitrogen export from the corn belt to the Gulf of Mexico: agricultural strategies for remediating hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Eileen; Robertson, Dale M.; Schilling, Keith; Tomer, Mark; Kostel, Jill; Smith, Douglas G.; King, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    SPAtially Referenced Regression on Watershed models developed for the Upper Midwest were used to help evaluate the nitrogen-load reductions likely to be achieved by a variety of agricultural conservation practices in the Upper Mississippi-Ohio River Basin (UMORB) and to compare these reductions to the 45% nitrogen-load reduction proposed to remediate hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Our results indicate that nitrogen-management practices (improved fertilizer management and cover crops) fall short of achieving this goal, even if adopted on all cropland in the region. The goal of a 45% decrease in loads to the GoM can only be achieved through the coupling of nitrogen-management practices with innovative nitrogen-removal practices such as tile-drainage treatment wetlands, drainage–ditch enhancements, stream-channel restoration, and floodplain reconnection. Combining nitrogen-management practices with nitrogen-removal practices can dramatically reduce nutrient export from agricultural landscapes while minimizing impacts to agricultural production. With this approach, it may be possible to meet the 45% nutrient reduction goal while converting less than 1% of cropland in the UMORB to nitrogen-removal practices. Conservationists, policy makers, and agricultural producers seeking a workable strategy to reduce nitrogen export from the Corn Belt will need to consider a combination of nitrogen-management practices at the field scale and diverse nitrogen-removal practices at the landscape scale.

  13. Amphibian diversity and threatened species in a severely transformed neotropical region in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Parral, Yocoyani; Pineda, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Many regions around the world concentrate a large number of highly endangered species that have very restricted distributions. The mountainous region of central Veracruz, Mexico, is considered a priority area for amphibian conservation because of its high level of endemism and the number of threatened species. The original tropical montane cloud forest in the region has been dramatically reduced and fragmented and is now mainly confined to ravines and hillsides. We evaluated the current situation of amphibian diversity in the cloud forest fragments of this region by analyzing species richness and abundance, comparing assemblage structure and species composition, examining the distribution and abundance of threatened species, and identifying the local and landscape variables associated with the observed amphibian diversity. From June to October 2012 we sampled ten forest fragments, investing 944 person-hours of sampling effort. A total of 895 amphibians belonging to 16 species were recorded. Notable differences in species richness, abundance, and assemblage structure between forest fragments were observed. Species composition between pairs of fragments differed by an average of 53%, with the majority (58%) resulting from species replacement and the rest (42%) explained by differences in species richness. Half of the species detected are under threat of extinction according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature, and although their distribution and abundance varied markedly, there were also ubiquitous and abundant species, along with rare species of restricted distribution. The evident heterogeneity of the ten study sites indicates that to conserve amphibians in a mountainous region such as this one it is necessary to protect groups of fragments which represent the variability of the system. Both individually and together cloud forest fragments are very important to conservation because each remnant is inhabited by several threatened species, some of

  14. Microbial respiration and extracellular enzyme activity in sediments from the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study explores the relationship between sediment chemistry (TC, TN, TP) and microbial respiration (DHA) and extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) across the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) hypoxic zone. TC, TN, and TP were all positively correlated with each other (r=0.19-0.68). DHA was ...

  15. Time-domain incomplete Gauss-Newton full-waveform inversion of Gulf of Mexico data

    KAUST Repository

    AlTheyab, Abdullah; Wang, Xin; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2013-01-01

    We apply the incomplete Gauss-Newton full-waveform inversion (TDIGN-FWI) to Gulf of Mexico (GOM) data in the space-time domain. In our application, iterative least-squares reverse-time migration (LSRTM) is used to estimate the model update at each

  16. Growth status of children 6-12 years from two different geographic regions of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Reyes, M E; Cárdenas Barahona, E E; Cahuich, M B; Barragán, A; Malina, R M

    2002-01-01

    The purposes of the study are to assess the growth status of urban Mexican children living in different geographic areas of the country, to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and to explore secular trends in body size. Cross-sectional surveys of 293 children 6-11 years from Sonora in the north-west of the country (155 boys, 138 girls), and 356 children 7-12 years from Veracruz on the Gulf Coast (194 boys, 162 girls) were undertaken in 1992 and 1993, respectively. Height and weight were measured; the body mass index (BMI, kg m(-2)) was calculated. Growth status was compared to USA reference data and to samples of Mexican children in 1926 and 1975. The prevalence of overweight (BMI > or = 85th and or = 95th percentile) was estimated. Girls and boys from Sonora and Veracruz do not differ in height, weight and the BMI. Mean heights are at (girls) or below (boys) the medians of USA growth charts, while mean weights are at (boys) or just below (girls) the 75th percentiles at most ages. As a result, mean BMIs are above (boys) and below (girls) the 75th percentiles over the age range studied. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is 40% in boys and 35% in girls, whereas the prevalence of obesity per se is 23% in boys and 17% in girls. Compared to urban Mexican children in the Federal District surveyed in 1926, children in the present sample are taller and heavier, but the secular trend in body weight is more pronounced since the mid-1960s. Heights of the current samples are similar to those of well-off children in Mexico City in the early 1970s, but weights are heavier. The gap in height between well-off and lower socioeconomic status children in different regions of Mexico has been reduced, but there is an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity.

  17. New developments in emissions inventory activity along the northern border region of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, W.R.; Dickson, R.J.; Creelman, L.W. [Radian International LLC, Sacramento, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The development and evaluation of emissions data for sources located along the Mexico/US border have accelerated over the past few years. This paper examines several new activities in emissions inventory development for the northern border of Mexico. Reviewed in this paper are the following recent developments that will lead to improved inventories for Mexico: development of inventory educational materials; creation of inventory manuals; estimation of emissions for unique sources; emissions-related studies; and identification of key research needs for Mexico inventories. Some of these activities are building a greater capacity in Mexico to construct emissions estimates. These topics are reviewed from the perspective of improving Mexico emissions inventories and emissions estimation capabilities.

  18. Regional differences in the composition of Fusarium Head Blight pathogens and mycotoxins associated with wheat in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón-Bustamante, Minely; Ward, Todd J; Kelly, Amy; Vaughan, Martha M; McCormick, Susan P; Cowger, Christina; Leyva-Mir, Santos G; Villaseñor-Mir, Héctor E; Ayala-Escobar, Victoria; Nava-Díaz, Cristian

    2018-05-20

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is a destructive disease of small grain cereals and a major food safety concern. Epidemics result in substantial yield losses, reduction in crop quality, and contamination of grains with trichothecenes and other mycotoxins. A number of different fusaria can cause FHB, and there are significant regional differences in the occurrence and prevalence of FHB pathogen species and their associated mycotoxins. Information on FHB pathogen and mycotoxin diversity in Mexico has been extremely limited, but is needed to improve disease and mycotoxin control efforts. To address this, we used a combination of DNA sequence-based methods and in-vitro toxin analyses to characterize FHB isolates collected from symptomatic wheat in Mexico during the 2013 and 2014 growing seasons. Among 116 Fusarium isolates, we identified five species complexes including nine named Fusarium species and 30 isolates representing unnamed or potentially novel species. Significant regional differences (P 90% of isolates from the Mixteca region in southern Mexico, whereas F. avenaceum and related members of the F. tricinctum species complex (FTSC) accounted for nearly 75% of isolates from the Highlands region in Central Mexico. F. graminearum, which is the dominant FHB pathogen in other parts of North America, was not present among the isolates from Mexico. F. boothii isolates had the 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol toxin type, and some of the minor FHB species produced trichothecenes, such as nivalenol, T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol. None of the FTSC isolates tested was able to produce trichothecenes, but many produced chlamydosporol and enniatin B. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. [The effect of contraception on fertility in the border region of Chiapas, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar-Beutelspacher, A; Halperin-Frisch, D; Salvatierra-Izaba, B

    1996-01-01

    To estimate the effect of contraception on fertility in the border region of Chiapas, Mexico. In 1994 an epidemiological cross-sectional study was carried out on a representative sample of 1,560 non-indigenous women between ages 15 and 49 in the border region of Chiapas. The prevalence of contraception practices and the total fertility rates (TFR) were obtained and stratified by rural, intermediate and urban communities. TFR were compared between women who had never used contraceptives and those who had used them. The estimated TFR was 3.67 and varied from 4.14 in rural areas to 3.36 in urban areas. There were no differences in the TFR (3.74 and 3.88) nor in the average live births (3.47 and 3.48) between women who had never used contraceptives and those who had used them. The major effect of contraception on fertility was observed in rural areas. Factors which influence the small impact of contraception on fertility include the late use of these methods and the early age of first union among users.

  20. Regional transport of a chemically distinctive dust: Gypsum from White Sands, New Mexico (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Warren H.; Hyslop, Nicole P.; Trzepla, Krystyna; Yatkin, Sinan; Rarig, Randy S.; Gill, Thomas E.; Jin, Lixin

    2015-03-01

    The White Sands complex, a National Monument and adjoining Missile Range in southern New Mexico, occupies the dry bed of an ice-age lake where an active gypsum dunefield abuts erodible playa sediments. Aerosols entrained from White Sands are sometimes visible on satellite images as distinct, light-colored plumes crossing the Sacramento Mountains to the east and northeast. The IMPROVE network (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) operates long-term aerosol samplers at two sites east of the Sacramento range. In recent years a spring pulse of sulfate aerosol has appeared at these sites, eclipsing the regional summer peak resulting from atmospheric reactions of sulfur dioxide emissions. A significant fraction of this spring sulfate is contributed by gypsum and other salts from White Sands, with much of the sulfur in coarse particles and concentrations of calcium and strontium above regional levels. The increase in these gypsiferous species coincides with a drought following a period of above-average precipitation. White Sands and the IMPROVE samplers together provide a natural laboratory: a climatically sensitive dust source that is both well characterized and chemically distinct from its surroundings, with a signature that remains identifiable at long-term observatories 100-200 km downwind.

  1. Statistical downscaling of IPCC sea surface wind and wind energy predictions for U.S. east coastal ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhigang; Xue, Zuo; He, Ruoying; Bao, Xianwen; Song, Jun

    2016-08-01

    A multivariate statistical downscaling method is developed to produce regional, high-resolution, coastal surface wind fields based on the IPCC global model predictions for the U.S. east coastal ocean, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), and the Caribbean Sea. The statistical relationship is built upon linear regressions between the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) spaces of a cross- calibrated, multi-platform, multi-instrument ocean surface wind velocity dataset (predictand) and the global NCEP wind reanalysis (predictor) over a 10 year period from 2000 to 2009. The statistical relationship is validated before applications and its effectiveness is confirmed by the good agreement between downscaled wind fields based on the NCEP reanalysis and in-situ surface wind measured at 16 National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoys in the U.S. east coastal ocean and the GOM during 1992-1999. The predictand-predictor relationship is applied to IPCC GFDL model output (2.0°×2.5°) of downscaled coastal wind at 0.25°×0.25° resolution. The temporal and spatial variability of future predicted wind speeds and wind energy potential over the study region are further quantified. It is shown that wind speed and power would significantly be reduced in the high CO2 climate scenario offshore of the mid-Atlantic and northeast U.S., with the speed falling to one quarter of its original value.

  2. The deepwater Gulf of Mexico : promises delivered?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    A summary review of deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) oil production was presented for the years 1989 to 1998. Trends and prospects in deepwater GOM production and leasing were assessed. Promises and forecasts made in the early 1990s were compared with what actually happened since then. Forecasts in the early 1990s promised deeper, faster and cheaper developments in the deepwater Gulf. Results of the comparison showed that the prognosticators were correct on all three counts. Regarding the future of the Gulf, one can be justified in being optimistic in so far as more experience, robust economics, more and cheaper rigs can be taken as reliable indicators of optimism. In contrast, there are certain negatives to consider, such as low commodity prices, budget constraints, lease expirations, technical challenges and increased competition. . 12 figs

  3. Habitat-specific density and diet of rapidly expanding invasive red lionfish, Pterois volitans, populations in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Kristen A; Patterson, William F

    2014-01-01

    Invasive Indo-Pacific red lionfish, Pterois volitans, were first reported in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) in summer 2010. To examine potential impacts on native reef fish communities, lionfish density and size distributions were estimated from fall 2010 to fall 2013 with a remotely operated vehicle at natural (n = 16) and artificial (n = 22) reef sites. Lionfish (n = 934) also were sampled via spearfishing to examine effects of habitat type, season, and fish size on their diet and trophic ecology. There was an exponential increase in lionfish density at both natural and artificial reefs over the study period. By fall 2013, mean lionfish density at artificial reefs (14.7 fish 100 m(-2)) was two orders of magnitude higher than at natural reefs (0.49 fish 100 m(-2)), and already was among the highest reported in the western Atlantic. Lionfish diet was significantly different among habitats, seasons, and size classes, with smaller (lionfish sampled from artificial reefs being composed predominantly of non-reef associated prey. The ontogenetic shift in lionfish feeding ecology was consistent with δ15N values of white muscle tissue that were positively related to total length. Overall, diet results indicate lionfish are generalist mesopredators in the nGOM that become more piscivorous at larger size. However, lionfish diet was much more varied at artificial reef sites where they clearly were foraging on open substrates away from reef structure. These results have important implications for tracking the lionfish invasion in the nGOM, as well as estimating potential direct and indirect impacts on native reef fish communities in this region.

  4. Habitat-specific density and diet of rapidly expanding invasive red lionfish, Pterois volitans, populations in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A Dahl

    Full Text Available Invasive Indo-Pacific red lionfish, Pterois volitans, were first reported in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM in summer 2010. To examine potential impacts on native reef fish communities, lionfish density and size distributions were estimated from fall 2010 to fall 2013 with a remotely operated vehicle at natural (n = 16 and artificial (n = 22 reef sites. Lionfish (n = 934 also were sampled via spearfishing to examine effects of habitat type, season, and fish size on their diet and trophic ecology. There was an exponential increase in lionfish density at both natural and artificial reefs over the study period. By fall 2013, mean lionfish density at artificial reefs (14.7 fish 100 m(-2 was two orders of magnitude higher than at natural reefs (0.49 fish 100 m(-2, and already was among the highest reported in the western Atlantic. Lionfish diet was significantly different among habitats, seasons, and size classes, with smaller (<250 mm total length fish consuming more benthic invertebrates and the diet of lionfish sampled from artificial reefs being composed predominantly of non-reef associated prey. The ontogenetic shift in lionfish feeding ecology was consistent with δ15N values of white muscle tissue that were positively related to total length. Overall, diet results indicate lionfish are generalist mesopredators in the nGOM that become more piscivorous at larger size. However, lionfish diet was much more varied at artificial reef sites where they clearly were foraging on open substrates away from reef structure. These results have important implications for tracking the lionfish invasion in the nGOM, as well as estimating potential direct and indirect impacts on native reef fish communities in this region.

  5. The Economics of Climate Change in Mexico: Implications for National/Regional Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrada, E.; Papyrakis, E.; Tol, R.S.J.; Gay-García, C.

    2013-01-01

    The recent Mexican government study, The Economics of Climate Change in Mexico (ECCM), which has largely influenced Mexico's stance on climate change issues and international negotiations, is critically reviewed. Whilst the importance of such government-supported national studies as a first attempt

  6. Adults Experiencing Homelessness in the US–Mexico Border Region: A Photovoice Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Eva Margarita; Chavez-Baray, Silvia M.; Loweree, Jacqueline; Mattera, Brian; Martinez, Nahomi

    2017-01-01

    Homelessness is a social, economic, and political crisis in the United States. In particular, the US–Mexico Border region has seen a surge of homelessness, specifically among veterans, women victims of intimate partner violence, and immigrants. In 2014, 12 persons in El Paso, TX, with experience of being homeless used the photovoice methodology to participate in a project titled, “The Voices and Images of the Residents of the Opportunity Center for the Homeless: A Visual Project on the Identity and Challenges Homeless Adults Face on the Border Region.” The project was led by faculty from the Department of Social Work and facilitated by graduate students from the Departments of Social Work, Sociology, and Anthropology at the University of Texas at El Paso. In partnership with the Opportunity Center for the Homeless, a community-based organization, a gallery of photographs with respective narratives was produced along with a video documentary. The participants identified four themes: broken systems, invisibility, opportunities and what works, and growth and determination. These themes represent participants’ life experiences with homelessness and their aspirations. In addition to the photo gallery, participants supported the development of a Call to Action asking the community, policy, and decision makers to commit to changing the current social, economic, and political conditions affecting individuals experiencing homelessness. The gallery, Call to Action, and overall participant experiences with photovoice were shared during local, regional, and national conferences and events, including three State of the Homeless Conferences led by the Opportunity Center for the Homeless in partnership with the university. PMID:28580355

  7. Adults Experiencing Homelessness in the US–Mexico Border Region: A Photovoice Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Margarita Moya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Homelessness is a social, economic, and political crisis in the United States. In particular, the US–Mexico Border region has seen a surge of homelessness, specifically among veterans, women victims of intimate partner violence, and immigrants. In 2014, 12 persons in El Paso, TX, with experience of being homeless used the photovoice methodology to participate in a project titled, “The Voices and Images of the Residents of the Opportunity Center for the Homeless: A Visual Project on the Identity and Challenges Homeless Adults Face on the Border Region.” The project was led by faculty from the Department of Social Work and facilitated by graduate students from the Departments of Social Work, Sociology, and Anthropology at the University of Texas at El Paso. In partnership with the Opportunity Center for the Homeless, a community-based organization, a gallery of photographs with respective narratives was produced along with a video documentary. The participants identified four themes: broken systems, invisibility, opportunities and what works, and growth and determination. These themes represent participants’ life experiences with homelessness and their aspirations. In addition to the photo gallery, participants supported the development of a Call to Action asking the community, policy, and decision makers to commit to changing the current social, economic, and political conditions affecting individuals experiencing homelessness. The gallery, Call to Action, and overall participant experiences with photovoice were shared during local, regional, and national conferences and events, including three State of the Homeless Conferences led by the Opportunity Center for the Homeless in partnership with the university.

  8. Three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model of the Rio Grande transboundary region of New Mexico and Texas, USA, and northern Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2017-09-08

    As part of a U.S. Geological Survey study in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, a digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model was constructed for the Rio Grande transboundary region of New Mexico and Texas, USA, and northern Chihuahua, Mexico. This model was constructed to define the aquifer system geometry and subsurface lithologic characteristics and distribution for use in a regional numerical hydrologic model. The model includes five hydrostratigraphic units: river channel alluvium, three informal subdivisions of Santa Fe Group basin fill, and an undivided pre-Santa Fe Group bedrock unit. Model input data were compiled from published cross sections, well data, structure contour maps, selected geophysical data, and contiguous compilations of surficial geology and structural features in the study area. These data were used to construct faulted surfaces that represent the upper and lower subsurface hydrostratigraphic unit boundaries. The digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model is constructed through combining faults, the elevation of the tops of each hydrostratigraphic unit, and boundary lines depicting the subsurface extent of each hydrostratigraphic unit. The framework also compiles a digital representation of the distribution of sedimentary facies within each hydrostratigraphic unit. The digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic model reproduces with reasonable accuracy the previously published subsurface hydrogeologic conceptualization of the aquifer system and represents the large-scale geometry of the subsurface aquifers. The model is at a scale and resolution appropriate for use as the foundation for a numerical hydrologic model of the study area.

  9. Effectiveness of a regional self-study perinatal education programme: a successful adaptation in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorno, Lorenzo R; Campos, Miriam C; Cook, Lynn J; Vela, Gabriela R; Dávila, Jorge R

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the Perinatal Continuing Education Programme (PCEP) in a Latin American country. We carried out a study within secondary and tertiary care, and rural Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) hospitals on the Yucatan Peninsula. Participants were doctors, nurses and nursing assistants working with pregnant women and newborns at each hospital. The PCEP was translated into Spanish and then implemented between January 1998 and December 2001. Two nurses at each hospital were trained to co-ordinate the programme and the personnel were invited to participate. Participation involved purchasing the self-teaching books, study outside work hours and participation in skills demonstration and practice sessions. Evaluation included the percentage of personnel who participated in and those who completed the programme, an opinion survey of the programme, level of pre- and post-intervention knowledge, and the quality of neonatal care according to expert-recommended routines. Results were analysed with chi-square and Student's t-tests. A total of 65.3% of the 1421 people in the study population began the programme and 72% of those completed it. Improvement was observed in 14 of 23 (Pevaluated neonatal care practices. Participants rated the written material as very clear and useful in daily practice. The PCEP is an effective strategy for improving the level of knowledge and perinatal care in all regional hospitals on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. This initial application of the PCEP in a Spanish-speaking country was successful.

  10. A representative survey of indoor radon in the sixteen regions in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, G; Gammage, R B

    2003-01-01

    Mexico City, also called Federal District, covers an area of 1504 km(2), and has more than 8 million inhabitants. It is located more than 2200 m above sea level in a zone of high seismic activity, and founded on an ancient lake. At present it is one of the most crowded and contaminated cities in the world, with thermal inversions. Chemical contaminants and aerosol particles in the environmental air are high most of the year. Due to these geological, environmental and socioeconomic conditions, Federal District presents very peculiar characteristics, which are important for understanding the distribution and measurements of indoor radon concentration. In this work the results of 3 year (1998-2000) measurements of indoor radon levels in the Federal District are presented. For the detector distribution and measurements, the actual political administrative divisions of the Federal District, consisting of 16 very well defined zones, was used. Nuclear track detection methodology was selected for the measurement, with a passive device close-end-cup system with CR-39 (Lantrack) polycarbonate as the detection material, with one step chemical etching, following a very well established protocol developed at the Instituto de Física, UNAM. Calibration was carried out at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and verification at the Instituto de Física chamber. The results show that the arithmetical mean values of the indoor radon concentration for each region of the Federal District follow a non-homogenous distribution.

  11. A representative survey of indoor radon in the sixteen regions in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.; Gammage, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Mexico City, also called Federal District, covers an area of 1504 km 2 , and has more than 8 million inhabitants. It is located more than 2200 m above sea level in a zone of high seismicactivity, and founded on an ancient lake. At present it is one of the most crowded and contaminated cities in the world with thermal inversions. Chemical contaminants and aerosol particles in the environmental air are high most of the year. Due to these geological, environmental and socioeconomic conditions, Federal District presents very peculiar characteristics, which are important for understanding the distribution and measurement zone of high seismic activity of indoor radon concentration. In this work the results of 3 year (1998-2000) measurements of indoor radon levels in the Federal District are presented. For the detector distribution and measurements, the actual political administrative divisions of the Federal District, consisting of 16 very well defined zones was used. Nuclear track detection methodology was selected for the measurement, with a passive device close-end-cup system with CR-39 (Lantrack(r)) polycarbonate as the detection material, with one step chemical etching, following a very well established protocol developed at the Instituto de Fisica, UNAM. Calibration was carried out at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and verification at the Instituto de Fisica chamber. The results show that the arithmetical mean values of the indoor radon concentration for each region of the Federal District follow a non-homogeneous distribution. (author)

  12. Arsenic in drinking water in the Los Altos de Jalisco region of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Jiménez, Roberto; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2006-10-01

    To establish the degree of contamination by arsenic in drinking water in the Los Altos de Jalisco (LAJ) region of west-central Mexico, and to estimate the levels of exposure that residents of the area face. Total arsenic concentration (the sum of all arsenic forms, organic and inorganic) was determined for 129 public water wells in 17 municipal capitals (cabeceras municipales) of the LAJ region, using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. For most of the wells, water samples were taken in both November 2002 and October 2003. The levels of exposure to arsenic were estimated for babies (10 kg), children (20 kg), and adults (70 kg). Mean concentrations of arsenic higher than the Mexican national guideline value of 25 micro g/L were found in 44 (34%) of the 129 wells. The mean concentration of total arsenic for the 129 wells ranged from 14.7 micro g/L to 101.9 micro g/L. The highest concentrations were found in well water samples collected in the cities of Mexticacán (262.9 micro g/L), Teocaltiche (157.7 micro g/L), and San Juan de los Lagos (113.8 micro g/L). Considering the global mean concentration for all the wells in each of the 17 cities, the mean concentration of arsenic exceeded the Mexican guideline value in 7 of the cities. However, the global mean concentration in all 17 cities was higher than the World Health Organization guideline value of 10 micro g/L for arsenic. The range of the estimated exposure doses to arsenic in drinking water was 1.1-7.6 micro g/kg/d for babies, 0.7-5.1 micro g/kg/d for children, and 0.4-2.7 micro g/kg/d for adults. At the exposure doses estimated in the LAJ region, the potential health effects from chronic arsenic ingestion include skin diseases, gastrointestinal effects, neurological damage, cardiovascular problems, and hematological effects. While all the residents may not be affected, an important fraction of the total population of the LAJ region is under potential health risk due to the ingestion of high

  13. Reflections on the Rural Land under Flexible Accumulation:the Case of the Coffee Producing Region of Coatepec, Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián González Luna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a debate about the territorial changes occurred in the coffee producing region of Coatepec, Veracruz, induced by the restructuring of the international agrifood market and by the change of agricultural policies in Mexico since the eighties, within the context of the new regime of flexible accumulation. Our work argues that the concept of territory is important to explain new realities in rural areas, particularly in a region of long coffee growing tradition, shaped by the regime of flexible accumulation. For this purpose, we use the results and experiences yielded by fieldwork in the region.

  14. Cervical Cancer Screening in the US–Mexico Border Region: A Binational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefelbein, Emily L.; Smith, Ruben; Rojas, Rosalba; Mirchandani, Gita G.; McDonald, Jill A.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer mortality is high along the US–Mexico border. We describe the prevalence of a recent Papanicolaou screening test (Pap) among US and Mexican border women. We analyzed 2006 cross-sectional data from Mexico’s National Survey of Health and Nutrition and the US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Women aged 20–77 years in 44 US border counties (n = 1,724) and 80 Mexican border municipios (n = 1,454) were studied. We computed weighted proportions for a Pap within the past year by age, education, employment, marital status, health insurance, health status, risk behaviors, and ethnicity and adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) for the US, Mexico, and the region overall. Sixty-five percent (95 %CI 60.3–68.6) of US women and 32 % (95 %CI 28.7–35.2) of Mexican women had a recent Pap. US residence (APR = 2.01, 95 %CI 1.74–2.33), marriage (APR = 1.31, 95 %CI 1.17–1.47) and insurance (APR = 1.38, 95 %CI 1.22–1.56) were positively associated with a Pap test. Among US women, insurance and marriage were associated (APR = 1.21, 95 %CI 1.05–1.38 and 1.33, 95 %CI 1.10–1.61, respectively), and women aged 20–34 years were about 25 % more likely to have received a test than older women. Insurance and marriage were also positively associated with Pap testing among Mexican women (APR = 1.39, 95 %CI 1.17–1.64 and 1.50; 95 %CI 1.23–1.82, respectively), as were lower levels of education (≤8th grade or 9th–12th grade versus some college) (APR = 1.74; 95 %CI 1.21–2.52 and 1.60; 95 %CI 1.03–2.49, respectively). Marriage and insurance were associated with a recent Pap test on both sides of the border. Binational insurance coverage increases and/or cost reductions might bolster testing among unmarried and uninsured women, leading to earlier cervical cancer diagnosis and potentially lower mortality. PMID:22965734

  15. Magnitude and extent of land subsidence in central Mexico revealed by regional InSAR ALOS time-series survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaussard, E.; Wdowinski, S.; Amelung, F.; Cabral-Cano, E.

    2013-05-01

    Massive groundwater extraction is very common in Mexico and is well known to result in land subsidence. However, most surveys dedicated to land subsidence focus on one single city, mainly Mexico City, and thus fail to provide a comprehensive picture of the problem. Here we use a space-based radar remote sensing technique, known as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) to detect land subsidence in the entire central Mexico area. We used data from the Japanese satellite ALOS, processed over 600 SAR images acquired between 2007-2011 and produced over 3000 interferograms to cover and area of 200,000 km2 in central Mexico. We identify land subsidence in twenty-one areas, including seventeen cities, namely from east to west, Puebla, Mexico city, Toluca de Lerdo, Queretaro, San Luis de la Paz, south of San Luis de la Paz, Celaya, south of Villa de Reyes, San Luis Potosi, west of Villa de Arista, Morelia, Salamanca, Irapuato, Silao, Leon, Aguascalientes, north of Aguascalientes, Zamora de Hidalgo, Guadalajara, Ahuacatlan, and Tepic. Subsidence rates of 30 cm/yr are observed in Mexico City, while in the other locations typical rates of 5-10 cm/yr are noticed. Regional surveys of this type are necessary for the development of hazard mitigation plans and efficient use of ground-based monitoring. We additionally correlate subsidence with land use, surface geology, and faults distribution and suggest that groundwater extraction for agricultural, urban, and industrial uses are the main causes of land subsidence. We also reveal that the limits of the subsiding areas often correlate with existing faults, motion on these faults being driven by water extraction rather than by tectonic activity. In all the subsiding locations we observe high ground velocity gradients emphasizing the significant risks associated with land subsidence in central Mexico. Averaged 2007-2011 ground velocity map from ALOS InSAR time-series in central Mexico, revealing land subsidence in 21

  16. Disability-Adjusted Life Years for Cancer in 2010–2014: A Regional Approach in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrén Murillo-Zamora

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The disability-adjusted life years (DALYs were used to estimate the regional (state of Colima, Mexico cancer burden in 2010–2014. The years of life lost (YLL were estimated with mortality data and years lived with disability (YLD using incidence data. The DALYs were calculated as the arithmetic addition of YLL and YLD. Sex and cancer site-specific estimations were made and DALY rates were used to identify the leading causes of disease burden. Data from 2532 deaths were analyzed and, for all malignant tumors combined, 18,712.9 DALYs and 20,243.3 DALYs were estimated in males and females respectively. The overall contribution of YLL in DALY estimates was higher among females (93.7% vs. 87.4%. Age-standardized DALY rates (and 95% confidence intervals, CI per 100,000 inhabitants were used to rank the leading causes of disease burden and, among males, malignant tumors from the prostate, lower respiratory tract, and colon and rectum accounted the highest rates (45.7, 95% CI 32.7–59.3; 37.6, 95% CI 25.7–49.9; and 25.9, 95% CI 16.0–36.1 DALYs. Breast, cervix uteri, and lower respiratory tract cancer showed the highest burden in females (66.0, 95% CI 50.3–82.4; 44.4, 95% CI 31.5–57.7; and 20.9, 95% CI 12.0–30.0 DALYs. The present study provides an indication of the burden of cancer at the regional level, underscoring the need to expand cancer prevention, screening, and awareness programs, as well as to improve early diagnosis and medical treatment.

  17. Miocene to Recent structural evolution of the Nevado de Toluca volcano region, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palomo, A.; Macías, J. L.; Garduño, V. H.

    2000-03-01

    Based on aerial photography, satellite imagery, and detailed field work, a geological and structural model of Nevado de Toluca and its surroundings is presented. The Nevado de Toluca volcano is built upon the intersection of three complex fault systems of different age, orientation, and kinematics. These systems from the older to the younger are: (a) The Taxco-Querétaro Fault System (NNW-SSE) with clear expression south of the volcano; (b) The San Antonio Fault System (NE-SW) that runs between the San Antonio and Nevado de Toluca volcanoes; and (c) The Tenango Fault System (E-W) located to the east of Nevado de Toluca volcano. Our field data, supported by previous studies, suggest that these systems have coexisted since the late Miocene. In addition, the stratigraphy, chronology, and kinematics of fault planes point to the existence of at least three main deformation events that have affected the region since the late Miocene. During the early Miocene, an extensional phase with the same deformation style as the Basin and Range tectonics of northern Mexico caused the formation of horsts and grabens south of Nevado de Toluca and allowed the intrusion of sub-vertical dikes oriented NW-SE and NNW-SSE. During the middle Miocene, a transcurrent episode generated NE-SW faults that presented two main motions: the first movement was left-lateral with a σ3 oriented NW-SE and later turned into normal through a counter-clockwise rotation of σ3 up to a N-S position. The latest deformation phase started during the late Pliocene and produced oblique extension ( σ3 oriented NE-SW) along E-W-trending faults that later changed to pure extension by shifting of σ3 to a N-S orientation. These faults appear to control the late Pleistocene to Holocene monogenetic volcanism, the flank collapses of Nevado de Toluca volcano and the seismic activity of the region.

  18. Crustal deformation and seismic measurements in the region of McDonald Observatory, West Texas. [Texas and Northern Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    The arrival times of regional and local earthquakes and located earthquakes in the Basin and Range province of Texas and in the adjacent areas of Chihuahua, Mexico from January 1976 to August 1980 at the UT'NASA seismic array are summarized. The August 1931 Texas earthquake is reevaluated and the seismicity and crustal structure of West Texas is examined. A table of seismic stations is included.

  19. Regional Specialization. The Middle Americas: Mexico, Panama, Central America and the Caribbean Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owen, Mark H; Inman, Kenneth A

    1997-01-01

    .... Generally viewed as lagging in efforts to develop stable governments and self-sustaining economies, Mexico, Central America to include Panama and the Caribbean, henceforth Middle America, have in the...

  20. Bottlenose dolphin age structure and growth in the Mississippi Sound region of the Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Teeth were collected from bottlenose dolphins that stranded within the north-central Gulf of Mexico between 1986-2003. These teeth were sectioned and growth rings...

  1. Backscatter Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Southern Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  2. Designing a reservoir flow rate experiment for the GOM hydrate JIP leg 2 LWD drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullapalli, I.; Silpngarmlert, S.; Reik, B.; Kamal, M.; Jones, E. [Chevron Energy Technology Co., San Ramon, CA (United States); Moridis, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, CA (United States); Collett, T. [United States Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Studies have indicated that the Gulf of Mexico may contain large deep sea hydrate deposits. This paper provided details of short-term production profiles obtained from a geological model of hydrate deposits located in the Gulf area. A well test analysis tool was used to obtain the production parameters. Pressure transients from numerical simulations of various well test designs were used to provide estimates of important flow parameters. The aim of the study was to determine the type and duration of a well test capable of providing data to support the accurate modeling of gas hydrate deposits. Parameters studied in the test included the effects of permeability and hydrate saturation as a function of the duration of the flow test. Results indicated that production using a constant bottom hole pressure is an appropriate method of impacting hydrate dissociation by depressurization. However, changes in transient pressure plots could not be characterized in order to identify regions of varying saturation levels. Results suggested that the rate of effective water to effective gas was higher than rates obtained from relative permeability relations due to low gas saturation levels. Fluid saturation regions were in areas of low confidence in relative permeability curves. However, it was not possible to calculate absolute permeability of the reservoir for systems with short production periods. Further studies are needed to determine effective permeability using history matching and a hydrate simulator. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 27 figs.

  3. 78 FR 12085 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... the Central Planning Area of the Gulf of Mexico. Energy Resource Technology GOM, Green Canyon, Block... on the Federal OCS. These SEAs examine the potential environmental effects of proposed activities and present BOEM conclusions regarding the significance of those effects. The SEAs are used as a basis for...

  4. Geochemistry and hydrodynamics of the Paradox Basin region, Utah, Colorado and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanshaw, B.B.; Hill, G.A.

    1969-01-01

    The Paradox Basin region is approximately bounded by the south flank of the Uinta Basin to the north, the Uncompahgre uplift and San Juan Mountains to the east, the Four Corners structural platform to the southeast, the north rim of the Black Mesa Basin and the Grand Canyon to the south and southwest, and the Wasatch Plateau and Hurricane fault system to the west. Some of these geologic features are areas of ground-water recharge or discharge whereas others such as the Four Corners platform do not directly influence fluid movement. The aquifer systems studied were: (1) Mississippian rocks; (2) Pinkerton Trail Limestone of Wengerd and Strickland, 1954; (3) Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation; (4) Honaker Trail Formation of Wengerd and Matheny, 1958; (5) Permian rocks. Recharge in the Paradox Basin occurs on the west flank of the San Juan Mountains and along the west side of the Uncompahgre uplift. The direction of ground-water movement in each analyzed unit is principally southwest-ward toward the topographically low outcrop areas along the Colorado River in Arizona. However, at any point in the basin, flow may be in some other direction owing to the influence of intrabasin recharge areas or local obstructions to flow, such as faults or dikes. A series of potentiometric surface maps was prepared for the five systems studied. Material used in construction of the maps included outcrop altitudes of springs and streams, drill-stem tests, water-well records, and an electric analog model of the entire basin. Many structurally and topographically high areas within the basin are above the regional potentiometric surface; recharge in these areas will drain rapidly off the high areas and adjust to the regional water level. With a few exceptions, most wells in formations above the Pennsylvanian contain fresh ( 35,000 mg/l T.D.S.) reported. Most water samples from strata below the Permian are brines of the sodium chloride type but with large amounts of calcium sulfate or

  5. Millennial- to century-scale variability in Gulf of Mexico Holocene climate records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, R.Z.; Dowsett, H.J.; Verardo, S.; Quinn, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Proxy records from two piston cores in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) provide a detailed (50-100 year resolution) record of climate variability over the last 14,000 years. Long-term (millennial-scale) trends and changes are related to the transition from glacial to interglacial conditions and movement of the average position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) related to orbital forcing. The ??18O of the surface-dwelling planktic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber show negative excursions between 14 and 10.2 ka (radiocarbon years) that reflect influx of meltwater into the western GOM during melting of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. The relative abundance of the planktic foraminifer Globigerinoides sacculifer is related to transport of Caribbean water into the GOM. Maximum transport of Caribbean surface waters and moisture into the GOM associated with a northward migration of the average position of the ITCZ occurs between about 6.5 and 4.5 ka. In addition, abundance variations of G. sacculifer show century-scale variability throughout most of the Holocene. The GOM record is consistent with records from other areas, suggesting that century-scale variability is a pervasive feature of Holocene climate. The frequency of several cycles in the climate records is similar to cycles identified in proxy records of solar variability, indicating that at least some of the century-scale climate variability during the Holocene is due to external (solar) forcing.

  6. Species boundaries of Gulf of Mexico vestimentiferans (Polychaeta, Siboglinidae) inferred from mitochondrial genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pia Miglietta, Maria; Hourdez, Stephane; Cowart, Dominique A.; Schaeffer, Stephen W.; Fisher, Charles

    2010-11-01

    At least six morphospecies of vestimentiferan tubeworms are associated with cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). The physiology and ecology of the two best-studied species from depths above 1000 m in the upper Louisiana slope (Lamellibrachia luymesi and Seepiophila jonesi) are relatively well understood. The biology of one rare species from the upper slope (escarpiid sp. nov.) and three morphospecies found at greater depths in the GOM (Lamellibrachia sp. 1, L. sp. 2, and Escarpia laminata) are not as well understood. Here we address species distributions and boundaries of cold-seep tubeworms using phylogenetic hypotheses based on two mitochondrial genes. Fragments of the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit rDNA (16S) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes were sequenced for 167 vestimentiferans collected from the GOM and analyzed in the context of other seep vestimentiferans for which sequence data were available. The analysis supported five monophyletic clades of vestimentiferans in the GOM. Intra-clade variation in both genes was very low, and there was no apparent correlation between the within-clade diversity and collection depth or location. Two of the morphospecies of Lamellibrachia from different depths in the GOM could not be distinguished by either mitochondrial gene. Similarly, E. laminata could not be distinguished from other described species of Escarpia from either the west coast of Africa or the eastern Pacific using COI. We suggest that the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes have little utility as barcoding markers for seep vestimentiferan tubeworms.

  7. Using Food Flow Data to Assess Sustainability: Land Use Displacement and Regional Decoupling in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Millones

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Food flow data provide unique insights into the debates surrounding the sustainability of land based production and consumption at multiple scales. Trade flows disguise the spatial correspondence of production and consumption and make their connection to land difficult. Two key components of this spatial disjuncture are land use displacement and economic regional decoupling. By displacing the environmental impact associated with food production from one region to another, environmental trajectories can falsely appear to be sustainable at a particular site or scale. When regional coupling is strong, peripheral areas where land based production occurs are strongly linked and proximate to consumption centers, and the environmental impact of production activities is visible. When food flows occur over longer distances, regional coupling weakens, and environmental impact is frequently overlooked. In this study, we present an analysis of a locally collected food flow dataset containing agricultural and livestock products transported to and from counties in Quintana Roo (QRoo. QRoo is an extensively forested border state in southeast Mexico, which was fully colonized by the state and non-native settlers only in the last century and now is home to some of the major tourist destinations. To approximate land displacement and regional decoupling, we decompose flows to and from QRoo by (1 direction; (2 product types and; (3 scale. Results indicate that QRoo is predominantly a consumer state: incoming flows outnumber outgoing flows by a factor of six, while exports are few, specialized, and with varied geographic reach (Yucatan, south and central Mexico, USA. Imports come predominantly from central Mexico. Local production in QRoo accounts for a small portion of its total consumption. In combining both subsets of agricultural and livestock products, we found that in most years, land consumption requirements were above 100% of the available land not under

  8. Evaporative concentration of arsenic in groundwater: health and environmental implications, La Laguna Region, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Guerrero, Adrián

    2017-10-01

    High arsenic concentrations in groundwater have been documented in La Laguna Region (LLR) in arid northern Mexico, where arsenic poisoning is both chronic and endemic. A heated debate has continued for decades on its origin. LLR consisted of a series of ancient connected lakes that developed at the end of a topographic depression under closed basin conditions. This study addresses the isotopic, chemical composition of the groundwater and geochemical modeling in the southeasternmost part of the LLR to determine the origin of arsenic. Groundwater samples were obtained from a carbonate and granular aquifers and from a clayey aquitard at terminal Viesca Lake. Results show that groundwater originated as meteoric water that reached the lakes mainly via abundant springs in the carbonate aquifer and perennial flooding of the Nazas-Aguanaval Rivers. Paleo-lake water underwent progressive evaporation as demonstrated by the enrichment of δ 18 O, δ 2 H and characteristic geochemical patterns in the granular aquifer and aquitard that resulted in highly saline (>90,000 mS/cm), arsenic-rich (up to 5000 μg/L) paleo-groundwater (>30,000 years BP). However, adsorption or co-precipitation on iron oxides, clay-mineral surfaces and organic carbon limited arsenic concentration in the groundwater. Arsenic-rich groundwater and other solutes are advancing progressively from the lacustrine margins toward the main granular aquifer, due to reversal of hydraulic gradients caused by intensive groundwater exploitation and the reduction in freshwater runoff provoked by dam construction on the main rivers. Desorption of arsenic will incorporate additional concentrations of arsenic into the groundwater and continue to have significant negative effects on human health and the environment.

  9. Adaptation of rainfed agriculture to climatic variability in the Mixteca Alta Region of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogé, P.; Friedman, A. R.; Astier, M.; Altieri, M.

    2015-12-01

    The traditional management systems of the Mixteca Alta Region of Oaxaca, Mexico offer historical lessons about resilience to climatic variability. We interviewed small farmers to inquire about the dynamics of abandonment and persistence of a traditional management systems. We interpret farmers' narratives from a perspective of general agroecological resilience. In addition, we facilitated workshops in small farmers described their adaptation to past climate challenges and identified 14 indicators that they subsequently used to evaluate the condition of their agroecosystems. The most recent years presented increasingly extreme climatic and socioeconomic hardships: increased temperatures, delayed rainy seasons, reduced capacity of soils to retain soil moisture, changing cultural norms, and reduced rural labor. Farmers reported that their cropping systems were changing for multiple reasons: more drought, later rainfall onset, decreased rural labor, and introduced labor-saving technologies. Examination of climate data found that farmers' climate narratives were largely consistent with the observational record. There have been increases in temperature and rainfall intensity, and an increase in rainfall seasonality that may be perceived as later rainfall onset. Farmers ranked landscape-scale indicators as more marginal than farmer management or soil quality indicators. From this analysis, farmers proposed strategies to improve the ability of their agroecosystems to cope with climatic variability. Notably, they recognized that social organizing and education are required for landscape-level indicators to be improved. Transformative change is required to develop novel cropping systems and complementary activities to agriculture that will allow for farming to be sustained in the face of these challenges. Climate change adaptation by small farmers involves much more than just a set of farming practices, but also community action to tackle collective problems.

  10. Community resilience and Chagas disease in a rural region of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Santana Rangel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore the pillars of community resilience in a region where Chagas disease is endemic, with the aim of promoting participatory processes to deal with this condition from the resilience of the population. METHODS Qualitative study using ethnographic record and six interviews of focus groups with young people, women and men. The research was carried out in a rural area of the state of Morelos, Mexico, between 2006 and 2007. We carried out educational sessions with the population in general, so that residents could identify the relationship between the vector Triatoma pallidipennis, the parasite (Trypanosoma cruzi, symptoms, and preventive actions for Chagas disease. The ethnographic record and groups were analyzed based on Taylor and Bogdan’s modification, and the focus was to understand the socio-cultural meanings that guide the speeches and activities of residents in relation to the pillars of community resilience. RESULTS The population felt proud of belonging to that location and three pillars of community resilience were clearly identified: collective self-esteem, cultural identity, and social honesty. Having these pillars as bases, we promoted the participation of the population concerning Chagas disease, and a Community Action Group was formed with young people, adult men and women, and social leaders. This Group initiated actions of epidemiological and entomological surveillance in the community to deal with this problem. CONCLUSIONS It is necessary to create more experiences that deepen the understanding of the pillars of community resilience, and how they contribute to enhance participation in health to deal with Chagas disease.

  11. Servicio de Mapas en Internet para la Salud Ambiental en la Region Fronteriza Entre los Estados Unidos y Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckler, Denny; Stefanov, Jim

    2004-01-01

    La region fronteriza de los Estados Unidos y Mexico abarca una gran diversidad de ambientes fisicos y habitaciones, entre los cuales estan los humedales, desiertos, pastos, montanas, y bosques. Estos a su vez son unicos en cuanto a su diversidad de recursos acuaticos minerales, y biologicos. La region se interconecta economica, politica, y socialmente debido a su herencia binacional. En 1995, cerca de 11 millones de habitantes vivian en la zona adyacente a la frontera. Un estudio sugiere que esa poblacion podria doblarse antes del ano 2020.

  12. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Renewable Energy Opportunity Assessment for USAID Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Andrea [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bracho, Ricardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Romero, Rachel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mercer, Megan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-13

    The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program is designing its second phase of assistance to the Government of Mexico (GOM). In preparation for program design, USAID has asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assist in identifying options for enabling renewable energy in Mexico and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the energy sector. The NREL team conducted a literature review and consulted with over 20 Mexican agencies and organizations during a two-week temporary duty assignment (TDY) to Mexico to identify gaps, opportunities, and program theme areas for Mexico.

  13. Regional amplification of ground motion in central Mexico. Results from coda-length magnitude data and preliminary modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Martín; Chávez-García, Francisco J.; Gusev, Alexander

    Seismic ground motion in central Mexico is amplified relative to ground motion observed at the same epicentral distance along the Pacific Coast in a frequency band that includes destructive ground motion at Mexico City. Although several hypothesis have been advanced, at present there is no generally accepted explanation of such amplification. We have analyzed coda-length magnitude data reported by Servicio Sismológico Nacional (SSN) for events recorded during 1993 to increase our understanding of the spatial distribution of this phenomenon. Our results indicate that regional amplification: (a) is detected by magnitude residual computed at each station, relative to the average of SSN network;and (b) is likely related to the crustal structure under the central portion of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB). Finally, preliminary wave propagation modelling (using SH wave, finite difference method) suggests that crustal heterogeneity is a possible cause of regional amplification. However, if this is so, it is required that both geometry and velocity distribution vary between the coast and Mexico City.

  14. Demand curves of electric energy in domestic sector in two regions of Mexico; Curvas de demanda de energia electrica en sector domestico de dos regiones de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqueda Zamora, Martin Roberto; Sanchez Viveros, Luis Agustin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    In this work, is presented the analysis of residential consumption, regarding the temperature of two areas and types of electrical appliances. A shape characteristic of the load of the electrical energy is obtained for two geographical areas in Mexico. The consumption information was obtained from measurements in residential consumers and from the Mexican Utility. It is also shown the demand profile of the main residential appliances, obtained from smart metering equipment to separate the residential users' load profiles. It is shown the effect of the different variables analyzed on the electrical power consumption, mainly the type of equipment, the geographical localization, the weather (temperature, humidity and vegetation type). With the results attained, the definition of effective energy-saving programs and its effectiveness can be obtained. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el analisis del consumo residencial considerando la temperatura de las dos areas y tipos de aparatos electricos. Se obtiene una forma caracteristica de la carga de energia electrica de dos areas geograficas de Mexico. La informacion sobre el consumo se obtuvo de mediciones en consumidores residenciales y de una empresa electrica mexicana. Tambien se muestra el perfil de demanda de los principales aparatos residenciales, derivado de equipos de medicion inteligentes para separar los perfiles de carga de usuarios residenciales. Se muestra el efecto de diferentes variables analizadas en el consumo de energia electrica, principalmente el tipo de equipo, la localizacion geografica, el clima (temperatura, humedad y tipo de vegetacion). Con los resultados alcanzados pueden definirse programas de ahorro de energia efectivos y lograr implantarlos.

  15. Cloud-to-ground lightning over Mexico and adjacent oceanic regions. A preliminary climatology using the WWLLN dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucienska, B.; Raga, G.B. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera; Rodriguez, O. [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    This work constitutes the first climatological study of lightning over Mexico and adjacent oceanic areas for the period 2005-2009. Spatial and temporal distributions of cloud to ground lightning are presented and the processes that contribute to the lightning variability are analysed. The data are retrieved from theWorldWide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) dataset. The current WWLL network includes 40 stations which cover much of the globe and detect very low frequency radiation (''spherics'') associated with lightning. The spatial distribution of the average yearly lightning over the continental region of Mexico shows the influence of orographic forcing in producing convective clouds with high lightning activity. However, a very high number of strikes is also observed in the States of Tabasco and Campeche, which are low-lying areas. This maximum is related to the climatological maximum of precipitation for the country and it may be associated with a region of persistent low-level convergence and convection in the southern portion of the Gulf of Mexico. The maps of correlation between rainfall and lightning provide insight into the microphysical processes occurring within the clouds. The maritime clouds close to the coastline exhibit similar properties to continental clouds as they produce very high lightning activity. The seasonal cycle of lightning registered by WWLLN is consistent with the LIS/OTD dataset for the selected regions. In terms of the annual distribution of cloud-to-ground strikes, July, August and September exhibit the highest number of strikes over continental Mexico. The diurnal cycle indicates that the maximum number of strikes over the continent is observed between 6 and 9 p.m. LT. The surrounding oceanic regions were subdivided into four distinct sectors: Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, Subtropical Pacific and Tropical Pacific. The Gulf of Mexico has the broadest seasonal distribution, since during winter lightning associated

  16. Blood lead concentrations in wild birds from a polluted mining region at Villa de La Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa-Vargas, Leonardo; Mejia-Saavedra, Jose J; Monzalvo-Santos, Karina; Puebla-Olivares, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the concentrations of lead in bird blood samples from a mining region in central Mexico and to compare concentrations among several different feeding guilds. The study took place in the Mexican state of San Luis Potosi in a region known as "Villa de la Paz." This is one of the most intensely exploited mining regions in central Mexico and has been actively mined for over four centuries. Lead concentrations from bird blood samples taken from four polluted sites were significantly higher than those from a control, unpolluted site (F = 6.3, P birds from a highly polluted site were higher than those from a site that has intermediate pollution levels (P birds had significantly lower lead concentrations compared to granivores, frugivores-insectivores, and omnivores (F = 4.86, P = 0.004), and a large proportion of all individuals had blood lead concentrations indicative of low, sub-lethal toxic effects. Finally, in two polluted sites, remarkably small numbers of insectivore-frugivores, and granivores were trapped, and in one polluted site a large number of insectivores was trapped (X(2) = 29.9, P = 0.03), and no differences in proportions of migrants and non-migrants were found among sampling sites (X(2) = 0.6, P = 0.96). To date, it has not been determined to what extent constant exposure to these levels of pollution can influence health at the individual level, lifespan, and, therefore, population demography of birds from this region.

  17. Detection of residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Antonio; Hernández, Sergio; Ramírez, Martha; Ortíz, Irmene

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides were intensively used in Mexico from 1950 until their ban and restriction in 1991. However, the presence of these compounds is commonly reported in many regions of the country. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region, San Luis Potosi state, which has been identified as possibly polluted by pesticides. Composed samples from 24 zones covering an area of approximately 5,440 ha were analyzed. The most frequently found pesticides were p,p'-DDT followed by ,p,p'-DDE, heptachlor, endosulfan and γ-HCH whose frequency rates were 100, 91, 83 and 54%, respectively. The concentration of p,p'-DDT in the crops grown in these soils was in the following order: chili > maize > tomato > alfalfa. The results obtained in this study show that p,p'-DDT values are lower or similar to those found in other agricultural regions of Mexico. Methyl and ethyl parathion were the most frequent organophosphate pesticide detected in 100% and 62.5% of the samples with average concentrations of 25.20 and 47.48 μg kg(-1), respectively. More research is needed to establish the background levels of pesticides in agricultural soils and their potential ecological and human health effects in this region.

  18. Mexico's summer rainfall patterns: an analysis of regional modes and changes in their teleconnectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englehart, P.J.; Douglas, A.V. [Department of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciencies, Creighton University, Omaha, N.E. (United States)

    2002-07-01

    This study explores the interanual variability in Mexico's warm season rainfall. It is based on historical rainfall data (1927-1997) from a grid of 130 long-term stations. The grid provides reasonable spatial coverage over most of the country. Using Principal Component Analysis, this study delimits five relatively large sub-areas of the country. Within each of these regions, monthly station rainfall exhibits high levels of spatial coherence. The regional structures are distinct and physically plausible with respect to the climatology of Mexico. The regional time series are expressed as departures from normal. In most of these series the intra seasonal, that is, month to month, persistence is minimal; in fact, only a few of the series display significant tendencies toward nonrandom serial behavior. This study evaluates the tele connectivity between the regional rainfall series and several different indices of large-scale ocean and atmosphere variability. These indices include an El Nino-Southern Oscillation index, indices that describe the strength and position of the subtropical anticyclone belt, as well as local SSTs in the Eastern Pacific and the Gulf of Mexico. All of the tele connections analyses consider the quasi-decadal mode of variability that is commonly referred to as the Pacific Decadal Oscillations (PDO). The study results generally agree with the findings of other researchers to the extent that they indicate differential tele connectivity as a function of PDO phase. However, unlike other studies, we see no compelling evidence for non-linear behavior in the tele connections within PDO phase. Instead, the more prominent feature of the tele connections is simply that they tend to be both more spatially extensive and stronger in the positive PDO phase. [Spanish] Este estudio explora la variabilidad interanual de la lluvia de verano en Mexico. Se basa en el analisis de datos historicos de la lluvia de 130 estaciones con un periodo largo de observacion

  19. Mortality trends and risk of dying from breast cancer in the 32 states and 7 socioeconomic regions of Mexico, 2002-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Sánchez-Barriga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine mortality trends from breast cancer in Mexico nationwide, by state, by socioeconomic region, and to establish an association between education, state of residence, and socioeconomic region with mortality from breast cancer in 2002–2011.Methods. Records of mortality associated with breast cancer were obtained. Rates of mortality nationwide, by state, and by socioeconomic region were calculated. The strength of association between states where women resided, socioeconomic regions, and education with mortality from breast cancer was determined.Results. Women who completed elementary school had a higher risk of dying from breast cancer than people with more education [relative risk (RR 2.58, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.49–2.67]. Mexico City had the strongest association with dying from breast cancer as state and as socioeconomic region 7 [Mexico City: RR 3.47, CI95% 2.7-4.46 (2002 and RR 3.33, CI95% 2.66-4.15 (2011 and region 7: RR 3.72, CI 95%: 3.15-4.38 (2002 and RR 2.87, CI 95%: 2.51-3.28 (2011].Conclusions. In Mexico, the raw mortality rates per 100 000 women who died from breast cancer increased. Mortality was higher in women who had elementary school than in those with more education. The strongest association was in Mexico City as state and as region 7. 

  20. Financial analysis of brucellosis control for small-scale goat farming in the Bajio Region, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.; Bruce, M.; Frankena, K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Rushton, J.

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in small-scale goat husbandry systems in Mexico. It is a zoonosis and the economic consequences can be large, although estimates are not available for the Mexican goat sector. Our objective was to conduct a financial analysis of brucellosis control in a prominent

  1. Risk Factors Associated with Triatomines and Its Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in Rural Communities from the Southern Region of the State of Mexico, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Torres, Imelda; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan C.; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger I.; de Oca-Jiménez, Roberto Montes

    2010-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi prevalence in triatomines and risk factors associated to the presence of the insect were studied in 990 rural houses in the southern region of the State of Mexico, Mexico. In each house, triatomines were collected, and information related to house construction material was obtained. T. cruzi infection was diagnosed in all triatomines. A primary screening was performed using 2 × 2 contingency tables of exposure variables. All variables with P ≤ 0.20 were analyzed by logistic regression. Triatomines (N = 125) were collected from 822 houses and analyzed for T. cruzi infection. Triatoma pallidipennis (97.4%) and Triatoma dimidiata (2.6%) were identified in 52.1% of the localities and in 6.1% of the houses. Infection was found in 28.0% of triatomines, from which 28.9% were nymphs. Factors associated with triatomine infestation were flooring construction material (dirt floor: odds ratio [OR], 10.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.31–18.04; P = 0.0001), house rooms (at least three rooms: OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.07–3.86; P = 0.028), and ceiling construction material (cardboard lamina tile: OR, 6.84; 95% CI, 1.49–31.31; P = 0.013). This study shows T. cruzi circulation in triatomines in the area of study, and because triatomines are adapted for living and reproducing in the domestic environment, there is a potential risk of Chagas disease transmission to humans. Also, we can conclude that the construction materials and house inhabitants are risk factors of triatomines infestation. PMID:20064995

  2. Forensic parameters and admixture in Mestizos from five geographic regions of Mexico based on 20 autosomal STRs (Powerplex 21 system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Velázquez, J A; Martínez-Cortés, G; Inclán-Sánchez, A; Favela-Mendoza, A F; Velarde-Félix, J S; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2018-03-01

    We analyzed Mestizo (admixed) population samples from different geographic regions of Mexico (n = 1283) with 20 autosomal STRs (PowerPlex® 21, Promega Corp.). Allele frequencies and forensic parameters from the Northwest, Northeast, West, Center, and Southeast regions are reported, as well as from the pooled Mexican population sample. The combined PD and PE for this 20 STR system were > 0.9999999999 and > 0.99999996593% in all five population samples, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of these Mexican population samples, plus Monterrey (Northeast) and Mexico (Center) Cities, showed low but significant differences among Mexican-Mestizos from the seven populations (Fst = 0.20%; p = 0.0000). Structure analysis showed the highest proportion of Native American ancestry in Mexico City, Center, and Southeast regions, respectively, which was in agreement with the estimated genetic distances represented in a MDS plot and a NJ tree. The best fit of population clusters (K = 4) obtained with the Structure software indicates that Mexican-Mestizos are mainly composed by European, African, and two Native American ancestries. The European and Native American ancestries displayed a contrary gradient, increasing toward the North-West and South-Southeast, respectively. These 20 autosomal STR loci improved the admixture estimation regarding previous studies with the 13 CODIS-STRs, as supported by the higher similarity with previous estimates based on genome-wide SNP. In brief, this study validates the confident use of the PowerPlex® 21 system for human identification purposes in Mestizo populations throughout the Mexican territory.

  3. 78 FR 14116 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Eastern Planning Area (EPA) Lease Sale 225...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... a limited number of paper copies. In keeping with the Department of the Interior's mission to.... However, if you require a paper copy, BOEM will provide one upon request if copies are still available. 1...:00 p.m. EDT; Panama City Beach, Florida: Wednesday, March 27, 2013, Wyndham Bay Point Resort, 4114...

  4. 76 FR 22139 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... EIS and the 2009-2012 SEIS and to consider the Deepwater Horizon event. This Draft SEIS provides... activities and accidental events, including a possible large-scale event, associated with the proposed WPA...

  5. 77 FR 2991 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... circumstances and information arising from, among other things, the Deepwater Horizon event. This Final... Supplemental EIS and in consideration of the Deepwater Horizon event, including scientific journals; interviews... resources and socioeconomic factors. This analysis considers both routine activities and accidental events...

  6. 77 FR 67394 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sale 233...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... information in light of the Deepwater Horizon event. This Draft Supplemental EIS provides updates on the... consideration of the Deepwater Horizon event, reviewing scientific journals, available scientific data, and... impacts of routine activities and accidental events, and the proposed lease sales' incremental...

  7. 78 FR 21969 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sale 233...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    .... ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of the Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... Environmental Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2012-019) (2012-2017 Multisale EIS), completed in July 2012, in... to the cumulative impacts on environmental and socioeconomic resources. The oil and gas resource...

  8. 78 FR 42544 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sale, Western Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) SUMMARY: Consistent with the regulations... 248; Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sales 227, 231, 235, 241, and 247, Final Environmental Impact... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2013-0118) (WPA 233/CPA 231 Supplemental EIS). The...

  9. 75 FR 69122 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western and Central Planning Areas, Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... focus on updating the baseline conditions and potential environmental effects of oil and natural gas.... Comments Public meetings will be held in locations near these areas in early to mid November 2010. The...

  10. 77 FR 65408 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Western Planning Area (WPA) Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and Gas Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... leases in depths less than 400 meters with an initial period longer than 5 years, royalty rates, minimum... $25.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths of less than 400 meters. $100.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths of 400 meters or deeper. Rental Rates Annual rental...

  11. 76 FR 70473 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Western Planning Area (WPA) Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and Gas Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... period of the lease term for blocks in water depths of 400 meters to less than 1,600 meters, (2) the minimum bonus bid has increased for blocks in water depths of 400 meters or deeper, (3) no deepwater... meters and (2) 400 meters or more. Successful Bidders: The BOEM requires each company that has been...

  12. 75 FR 6874 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Central Planning Area (CPA) Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and Gas Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-12

    ... for blocks in water depths of 400 meters to less than 1,600 meters. Blocks in 400 to less than 800... resulting from this lease sale. Leases in water depths of 400 meters to less than 800 meters will be offered... still may require the full 10-year term. In both the 400-800 and 800-1,600 meter cases, the lease...

  13. Residues of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of Alpine and Saanen goats from the central region of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Beatriz; Gutiérrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Urban, Georgina; Ramírez, Acacia

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated a suite of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of two breeds of goats raised in the central region of Mexico, where this agricultural production is of national (Mexican) economic importance. Forty milk samples from Alpine and Saanen goats were assessed. It was found that the concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides in milk samples were lower than those stipulated in Mexican and international regulation. The values in both breeds of goat exceeded the upper permissible limits of Codex Alimentarius for delta hexachloro cyclohexane (HCH) (17.3 of samples of Saanen) and heptachlor plus heptachlor epoxide (50 % and 13 % of samples). It may be concluded that milk from these goat breeds from central Mexico showed some risks of contamination in certain times of the year (dry season). However, under further assessment and use of pesticides the goat's milk will likely be safe for human consumption and for use in products such as cheeses, regional candies and desserts (cajeta). In recent years, goat milk production has increased in the central regions and it is an economic alternative to milk from livestock. It is necessary to continue the monitoring of goat's milk to assess the presence and control of HCHs through best management practices.

  14. Asset Decommissioning Risk Metrics for Floating Structures in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mark J

    2015-08-01

    Public companies in the United States are required to report standardized values of their proved reserves and asset retirement obligations on an annual basis. When compared, these two measures provide an aggregate indicator of corporate decommissioning risk but, because of their consolidated nature, cannot readily be decomposed at a more granular level. The purpose of this article is to introduce a decommissioning risk metric defined in terms of the ratio of the expected value of an asset's reserves to its expected cost of decommissioning. Asset decommissioning risk (ADR) is more difficult to compute than a consolidated corporate risk measure, but can be used to quantify the decommissioning risk of structures and to perform regional comparisons, and also provides market signals of future decommissioning activity. We formalize two risk metrics for decommissioning and apply the ADR metric to the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) floater inventory. Deepwater oil and gas structures are expensive to construct, and at the end of their useful life, will be expensive to decommission. The value of proved reserves for the 42 floating structures in the GOM circa January 2013 is estimated to range between $37 and $80 billion for future oil prices between 60 and 120 $/bbl, which is about 10 to 20 times greater than the estimated $4.3 billion to decommission the inventory. Eni's Allegheny and MC Offshore's Jolliet tension leg platforms have ADR metrics less than one and are approaching the end of their useful life. Application of the proposed metrics in the regulatory review of supplemental bonding requirements in the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf is suggested to complement the current suite of financial metrics employed. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Subsurface gas hydrates in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Ray; Collett, Timothy S.; Frye, Matthew; Shedd, William; McConnell, Daniel R.; Shelander, Dianna

    2012-01-01

    The northernGulf of Mexico (GoM) has long been a focus area for the study of gashydrates. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, work focused on massive gashydrates deposits that were found to form at and near the seafloor in association with hydrocarbon seeps. However, as global scientific and industrial interest in assessment of the drilling hazards and resource implications of gashydrate accelerated, focus shifted to understanding the nature and abundance of "buried" gashydrates. Through 2005, despite the drilling of more than 1200 oil and gas industry wells through the gashydrate stability zone, published evidence of significant sub-seafloor gashydrate in the GoM was lacking. A 2005 drilling program by the GoM GasHydrate Joint Industry Project (the JIP) provided an initial confirmation of the occurrence of gashydrates below the GoM seafloor. In 2006, release of data from a 2003 industry well in Alaminos Canyon 818 provided initial documentation of gashydrate occurrence at high concentrations in sand reservoirs in the GoM. From 2006 to 2008, the JIP facilitated the integration of geophysical and geological data to identify sites prospective for gashydrate-bearing sands, culminating in the recommendation of numerous drilling targets within four sites spanning a range of typical deepwater settings. Concurrent with, but independent of, the JIP prospecting effort, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) conducted a preliminary assessment of the GoM gashydratepetroleum system, resulting in an estimate of 607 trillion cubic meters (21,444 trillion cubic feet) gas-in-place of which roughly one-third occurs at expected high concentrations in sand reservoirs. In 2009, the JIP drilled seven wells at three sites, discovering gashydrate at high saturation in sand reservoirs in four wells and suspected gashydrate at low to moderate saturations in two other wells. These results provide an initial confirmation of the complex nature and occurrence of gashydrate-bearing sands in

  16. An Analysis of Stakeholder Engagement in Tourism Development in Mexico's Chiapas Region

    OpenAIRE

    Amaya Loustaunau, Rodolfo

    2007-01-01

    Tourism activity in Mexico has been one of the most important components of revenue generation as a proportion of GDP. Moreover, tourism has shown to increase economic growth, but the unmeasured exploitation of resources and inefficient planning of tourism development could lead to dyer consequences affecting local communities. The Mexican public and private sectors have to consider these limitations if they want to continue generating revenues from the tourism industry. Therefore, sustainabl...

  17. Modeling of Trans-boundary Transport of Air Pollutants in the California-Mexico Border Region during Cal-Mex 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, N.; Zavala, M. A.; Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.

    2010-12-01

    The US and Mexico share a common air basin along the ~200 km border between California and Baja California. The economical activities in this region are heavily influenced by the international trade and commerce between Mexico and the US that mainly occurs through the borders of the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali. The diversity and differences in the characteristics of emissions sources of air pollutants in the California-Mexico border region make this an important area for the study of the chemistry and trans-boundary transport of air pollutants. During May-June of 2010, the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign included a series of measurements aimed at characterizing the emissions from major sources in the California-Mexico border region and assessing the possible impacts of these emissions on local and regional air quality. In this work we will present the results of the use of the Comprehensive Air quality model with extensions (CAMx) in a modeling domain that includes the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali for studying events of trans-boundary transport of air pollutants during Cal-Mex 2010. The measurements obtained during the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign are used in the evaluation of the model performance and in the design of air quality improvement policies in the California-Mexico border region.

  18. Geology of the region of Guadalajara, Mexico, and its relationships with processes of subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Delgado-Argote, L. A.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.; Sanchez, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    The city of Guadalajara, Mexico, began an accelerated urban growth in early 1950. During a span of 25 years a large number of gullies were artificially filled, with the aim of incorporating new areas for urbanization, particularly in the areas north and west of the city. These gullies originally formed a complex dendritic-type system, whose evolution may be associated with faults or fracture zones whose current identification are only possible based on escarpments along the Canyon of the Rio Grande de Santiago (CRGS), north of Guadalajara. Reports of affectations documented in the 80's described subsidence in buildings and infrastructure, a process that has been continued during 2008. We present the results of work done in the CRGS, which is a tectonic erosive-depression with an average depth of 500 m and exhibits a sequence of volcanic and sedimentary deposits with rapid lateral facies changes. The stratigraphic column spans a 15 km-long section along the Matatlán-Arcediano road, and, from top to bottom contains: 1) Unconsolidated pumice and tuffs with an average thickness of 12 m; 2) basaltic lavas with average thickness of 60 m; 3) the San Gaspar ignimbrite; 4) fluvial- sedimentary deposits with a thickness of approximately 20 meters that include both sub-rounded and angular volcanic clasts, with sizes up to 0.15 m; 5) a thick sequence of ignimbrites and dacitic lavas. At a depth of 1200 m.a.s.l. in the town of Arcediano, the basal sequence is composed of dacites and andesites with interbedded pumice-rich ignimbrites with 10-20 m thickness. The Rio Grande de Santiago talweg to 1018 m.a.s.l. (apparently the base of the sequence) is formed by andesite lava. In the area of San Gaspar we identified oblique-normal left-lateral faults in lavas, with a strike 191° and a dip 89°. In the Colimilla dam, 1297 m.a.s.l., we observed normal faulting (strike 267° and dip 81°), with 20-30 m jumps with reference to a unit of tephra of 3-10 m thickness. The lavas in this

  19. Community resilience and Chagas disease in a rural region of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, José Antonio Santana; Monreal, Luz Arenas; Ramsey, Janine M

    2016-08-04

    To explore the pillars of community resilience in a region where Chagas disease is endemic, with the aim of promoting participatory processes to deal with this condition from the resilience of the population. Qualitative study using ethnographic record and six interviews of focus groups with young people, women and men. The research was carried out in a rural area of the state of Morelos, Mexico, between 2006 and 2007. We carried out educational sessions with the population in general, so that residents could identify the relationship between the vector Triatoma pallidipennis, the parasite (Trypanosoma cruzi), symptoms, and preventive actions for Chagas disease. The ethnographic record and groups were analyzed based on Taylor and Bogdan's modification, and the focus was to understand the socio-cultural meanings that guide the speeches and activities of residents in relation to the pillars of community resilience. The population felt proud of belonging to that location and three pillars of community resilience were clearly identified: collective self-esteem, cultural identity, and social honesty. Having these pillars as bases, we promoted the participation of the population concerning Chagas disease, and a Community Action Group was formed with young people, adult men and women, and social leaders. This Group initiated actions of epidemiological and entomological surveillance in the community to deal with this problem. It is necessary to create more experiences that deepen the understanding of the pillars of community resilience, and how they contribute to enhance participation in health to deal with Chagas disease. Explorar los pilares de la resiliencia comunitaria en una región en la que la enfermedad de Chagas es endémica, con la finalidad de partir de la resiliencia de la población para impulsar procesos participativos para enfrentar este padecimiento. Estudio cualitativo que utilizó registro etnográfico y seis entrevistas de grupos focales con j

  20. Regional-scale airborne electromagnetic surveying of the Yucatan karst aquifer (Mexico): geological and hydrogeological interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondwe, Bibi Ruth Neuman; Ottowitz, David; Supper, Robert

    2012-01-01

    -spectral remote sensing imagery, shuttle radar topography data and frequency-domain airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey data were used to map karst-aquifer structure on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Anomalous AEM responses correlated with topographic features and anomalous spectral reflectance of the terrain...... as ejecta from the Chicxulub impact (Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary), based on similar resistivity signatures found in borehole logs. Due to limited sensitivity of the AEM survey, the subsurface configuration beneath the low-resistivity layer could not be unambiguously determined. AEM measurements combined...

  1. Analysis of the Gran Desierto, Pinacte Region, Sonora, Mexico, via shuttle imaging radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Christensen, P. R.; Mchone, J. F.; Asmerom, Y.; Zimbelman, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The radar discriminability of geolian features and their geological setting as imaged by the SIR-A experiment is examined. The Gran Desierto and Pincate volcanio field of Sonora, Mexico was used to analyze the radar characteristics of the interplay of aeolian features and volcano terrain. The area in the Gran Desierto covers 4000 sq. km. and contains sand dunes of several forms. The Pincate volcanio field covers more than 2.000 sq. km. and consists primarily of basaltic lavas. Margins of the field, especially on the western and northern sides, include several maar and maar-like craters; thus obtaining information on their radar characteristics for comparison with impact craters.

  2. Chemical and isotopic variations of precipitation in the Los Alamos Region, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, A.I.; Goff, F.; Counce, D.

    1995-02-01

    Precipitation collectors were installed at 14 locations on the Pajarito Plateau and surrounding areas to study variations in chemistry, stable isotopes and tritium for the years 1990 to 1993. The volume of precipitation was measured and samples were collected and analyzed every three to four months. All precipitation samples contain 18 O) results record seasonal variations in precipitation as the weather patterns shift from sources in the Pacific Ocean to sources in the Gulf of Mexico. The stable isotope results also show isotopic variations due to elevation differences among the collection points. The tritium contents ( 3 H) in rain samples vary from 6.54 T.U. to 141 T.U. Contouring of high tritium values (e.g. >20 T.U.) from each collection period clearly shows that Laboratory activities release some tritium to the atmosphere. The effect of these releases are well below the limits set by the Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water (about 6200 T.U.). The magnitude of the releases is apparently greatest during the summer months. However, anomalous tritium values are detected as far north as Espahola, New Mexico for many collection periods. Tritium releases by the Laboratory are not constant; thus, the actual amount of tritium in each release has been diluted in the composite samples of our three to four month collection periods

  3. Development of a United States-Mexico Emissions Inventory for the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Hampden; Knipping, Eladio M; Vukovich, Jeffrey M

    2005-05-01

    The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study was commissioned to investigate the sources of haze at Big Bend National Park in southwest Texas. The modeling domain of the BRAVO Study includes most of the continental United States and Mexico. The BRAVO emissions inventory was constructed from the 1999 National Emission Inventory for the United States, modified to include finer-resolution data for Texas and 13 U.S. states in close proximity. The first regional-scale Mexican emissions inventory designed for air-quality modeling applications was developed for 10 northern Mexican states, the Tula Industrial Park in the state of Hidalgo, and the Popocatépetl volcano in the state of Puebla. Emissions data were compiled from numerous sources, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission (now Texas Commission on Environmental Quality), the Eastern Research Group, the Minerals Management Service, the Instituto Nacional de Ecología, and the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografía y Informática. The inventory includes emissions for CO, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, particulate matter (PM) < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, and PM < 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter. Wind-blown dust and biomass burning were not included in the inventory, although high concentrations of dust and organic PM attributed to biomass burning have been observed at Big Bend National Park. The SMOKE modeling system was used to generate gridded emissions fields for use with the Regional Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition (REMSAD) and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model modified with the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution (CMAQ-MADRID). The compilation of the inventory, supporting model input data, and issues encountered during the development of the inventory are documented. A comparison of the BRAVO emissions

  4. A promotora de salud model for addressing cardiovascular disease risk factors in the US-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcázar, Héctor; Alvarado, Matilde; Cantu, Frank; Pedregon, Veronica; Fulwood, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute partnered with the Health Resources and Services Administration's (HRSA's) Bureau of Primary Health Care and Office of Rural Health Policy to address cardiovascular health in the US-Mexico border region. From 2003 through 2005, the 2 agencies agreed to conduct an intervention program using Salud para su Corazón with promotores de salud (community health workers) in high-risk Hispanic communities served by community health centers (CHCs) in the border region to reduce risk factors and improve health behaviors. Promotores de salud from each CHC delivered lessons from the curriculum Your Heart, Your Life. Four centers implemented a 1-group pretest-posttest study design. Educational sessions were delivered for 2 to 3 months. To test Salud para su Corazón-HRSA health objectives, the CHCs conducted the program and assessed behavioral and clinical outcomes at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the intervention. A 2-sample paired t test and analyses of variance were used to evaluate differences from baseline to postintervention. Changes in heart-healthy behaviors were observed, as they have been in previous Salud para su Corazón studies, lending credibility to the effectiveness of a promotores de salud program in a clinical setting. Positive changes were also observed in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, triglyceride level, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, weight, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Results suggest that integrating promotores de salud into clinical practices is a promising strategy for culturally competent and effective service delivery. Promotores de salud build coalitions and partnerships in the community. The Salud para su Corazón-HRSA initiative was successful in helping to develop an infrastructure to support a promotores de salud workforce in the US-Mexico border region.

  5. Beyond SHARP-- Primary Formaldehyde from Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaguer, E. P.

    2010-12-01

    Formaldehyde has been named by the EPA as a hazardous air pollutant that may be carcinogenic and also cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat and lung. Moreover, it is a powerful radical and ozone precursor. The 2009 Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP) was conceived by the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) on behalf of the Texas Environmental Research Consortium (TERC) to examine the relative importance of primary and secondary formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrous acid (HONO) in ozone formation. SHARP confirmed that primary combustion sources of HCHO, such as flares end engines, may be underestimated (by an order of magnitude or more) in official emission inventories used for the purpose of air quality modeling in highly industrialized areas such as Houston. This presentation provides recently generated modeling and observational evidence that the same may be true in both rural and urban areas with oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) activities, such as the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming and the Barnett Shale of Texas. Oil and gas E&P is increasing in the Gulf of Mexico region, particularly in the Barnett, Haynesville, Eagle Ford, Cana-Woodford, and Fayetteville shale basins. In the Barnett Shale, E&P activities are moving into urban neighborhoods, and may affect the ability to bring the Dallas-Ft. Worth region into attainment of the federal ozone standard. Data concerning formaldehyde emissions from drill rig and pipeline compressor engines, flares, and glycol or amine reboilers, should be obtained in order to more accurately model air quality in the Gulf of Mexico region.

  6. Mortality trends and risk of dying from colorectal cancer in the seven socioeconomic regions of Mexico, 2000-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Sánchez-Barriga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Mexico, there has been an upward trend in mortality rates from colorectal cancer (CRC over the past three decades. This tumor is ranked among the ten most prevalent causes of morbidity from malignancies in Mexico. Aims: To determine the mortality trends by socioeconomic region and by state, and to establish the relative risk between both educational level and socioeconomic region with mortality from CRC within the time frame of 2000-2012. Materials and methods: Records of mortality associated with colorectal cancer were obtained. Rates of mortality by state and by socioeconomic region were calculated, along with the strength of association (obtained through the Poisson regression between both socioeconomic region and educational level and the mortality from CRC. Results: A total of 45,487 individuals died from CRC in Mexico from 2000 to 2012. Age-adjusted mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants increased from 3.9 to 4.8. Baja California, Baja California Sur, and Sonora had the highest mortality from CRC. Individuals with no school or incomplete elementary school had a higher risk of dying from this cancer (RR of 3.57, 95% CI: 3.46-3.68. Region 7 had the strongest association with mortality from CRC (Mexico City: RR was 2.84, 95% CI: 2.39-3.37 [2000] and 3.32, 95% CI: 2.89-3.82 [2012]. Conclusions: In Mexico, the age-adjusted mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants that died from CRC increased from 3.9 to 4.8 in the study period, using the world population age distribution as the standard. Baja California, Baja California Sur, and Sonora had the highest mortality from CRC. Mexico City, which was socioeconomic region 7, had the strongest association with mortality from CRC. Resumen: Introducción: En México ha habido una tendencia al alza en las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer colorrectal (CCR en las últimas 3 décadas. Esta neoplasia está clasificada dentro de las 10 causas más frecuentes de morbilidad por neoplasias malignas

  7. Demographic clusters identified within the northern Gulf of Mexico common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncates unusual mortality event: January 2010-June 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Venn-Watson

    Full Text Available A multi-year unusual mortality event (UME involving primarily common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates was declared in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM with an initial start date of February 2010 and remains ongoing as of August 2014. To examine potential changing characteristics of the UME over time, we compared the number and demographics of dolphin strandings from January 2010 through June 2013 across the entire GoM as well as against baseline (1990-2009 GoM stranding patterns. Years 2010 and 2011 had the highest annual number of stranded dolphins since Louisiana's record began, and 2011 was one of the years with the highest strandings for both Mississippi and Alabama. Statewide, annual numbers of stranded dolphins were not elevated for GoM coasts of Florida or Texas during the UME period. Demographic, spatial, and temporal clusters identified within this UME included increased strandings in northern coastal Louisiana and Mississippi (March-May 2010; Barataria Bay, Louisiana (August 2010-December 2011; Mississippi and Alabama (2011, including a high prevalence and number of stranded perinates; and multiple GoM states during early 2013. While the causes of the GoM UME have not been determined, the location and magnitude of dolphin strandings during and the year following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including the Barataria Bay cluster from August 2010 to December 2011, overlap in time and space with locations that received heavy and prolonged oiling. There are, however, multiple known causes of previous GoM dolphin UMEs, including brevetoxicosis and dolphin morbillivirus. Additionally, increased dolphin strandings occurred in northern Louisiana and Mississippi before the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Identification of spatial, temporal, and demographic clusters within the UME suggest that this mortality event may involve different contributing factors varying by location, time, and bottlenose dolphin populations that will be

  8. Environmental and economic assessment of discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region oil and gas operation. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 October--31 December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettleson, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Task 3 (Environmental Field Sampling and Analysis of NORM, Heavy Metals, and Organics) work included analyses of samples. Task 4 (Monitoring of the Recovery of Impacted Wetland and Open Bay Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana and Texas) activities involved the continued analyses of samples and field sampling at Bay de Chene. Task 5 (Assessment of Economic Impacts of Offshore and Coastal Discharge Requirements on Present and Future Operations in the Gulf of Mexico Region) activities included preparing a draft final report. Task 6 (Synthesis of Gulf of Mexico Seafood Consumption and Use Patterns) work also involved preparing a draft final report. Task 7 (Technology Transfer Plan) activities included a presentation at the Minerals Management Service Information Transfer Meeting for the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region. Task 8 (Project Management and Deliverables) activities involved the submission of the necessary reports and routine management

  9. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration from Mexican children living in the southeastern region in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N; Martínez-Salinas, Rebeca I; Pruneda Alvarez, Lucia G; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J

    2014-04-01

    Biomass combustion indoors has been associated with generation of various pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, respirable particles, toluene, benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), among others. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (as a biomarker exposure to PAHs) levels in children living in three states in Mexico. We evaluated children living in communities that use biomass fuels to cook and to heat homes in the next states: Chiapas, Oaxaca and Quintana Roo. We found similar levels of 1-OHP in urine of children living in the three studied states, with mean levels of 3.5 ± 1.0; 4.5 ± 2.8 and 4.4 ± 2.5 μg/L (geometric mean ± standard deviation), respectively for Chiapas, Oaxaca and Quintana Roo. In conclusion, our data indicate high exposure levels to PAHs in children living in the states studied in this work.

  10. Environmental and economic assessment of discharges from Gulf of Mexico region oil and gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettleson, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc. (CSA) was contracted to conduct a three-year study of the environmental and health related impacts of produced water and sand discharges from oil and gas operations. Data on naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), heavy metals, and hydrocarbons in water, sediment, and biota will be collected and evaluated. Health related impacts will be studied through field collections and analyses of commercially- and recreationally-important fish and shellfish tissues. Additionally, information on seafood catch, consumption, and use patterns for the Gulf of Mexico will be gathered and analyzed. The facilities to be studied will include both offshore and coastal facilities in the Gulf of Mexico. Coastal sites will be additionally studied to determine ecological recovery of impacted wetland and open bay areas. The economic impact of existing and proposed effluent federal and state regulations will also be evaluated. The primary objectives of the project are to increase the base of scientific knowledge concerning (1) the fate and environmental effects of organics, trace metals, and NORM in water, sediment, and biota near several offshore oil and gas facilities; (2) the characteristics of produced water and produced sand discharges as they pertain to organics, trace metals, and NORM variably found in association with the discharges; (3) the recovery of four terminated produced water discharge sites located in wetland and high-energy open bay sites of coastal Louisiana and Texas; (4) the economic and energy supply impacts of existing and anticipated federal and state offshore and coastal discharge regulations; and (5) the catch, consumption and human use patterns of seafood species collected from coastal and offshore waters. Accomplishments for this period are described

  11. Caterpillars of Eumaeus childrenae (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae feeding on two species of cycads (Zamiaceae in the Huasteca region, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Contreras-Medina

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available There are few genera of butterflies that feed on cycads. Among them the genus Eumaeus (Lycaenidae presents aposematic coloration in all its life stages. In this work we report for the first time the herbivory of young leaflets of Ceratozamia mexicana and Zamia fischeri (Zamiaceae by caterpillars of E. childrenae in their natural habitat in the Huasteca region, Mexico.Muy pocos géneros de mariposas se alimentan de cícadas. Entre ellos, el género Fumaeus (Lycaenidae presenta coloración aposemática en todos sus estadíos de vida. En este trabajo informamos por primera vez la herbivoría de folíolos jóvenes de Ceratozamia mexicana y Zamia fischeri (Zamiacecae por orugas de E. childrenae en su hábitat natural en la región Huasteca, México.

  12. Data reduction and tying in regional gravity surveys—results from a new gravity base station network and the Bouguer gravity anomaly map for northeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Cardador, Manuel; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2006-12-01

    Since 1947 Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) has conducted oil exploration projects using potential field methods. Geophysical exploration companies under contracts with Pemex carried out gravity anomaly surveys that were referred to different floating data. Each survey comprises observations of gravity stations along highways, roads and trails at intervals of about 500 m. At present, 265 separate gravimeter surveys that cover 60% of the Mexican territory (mainly in the oil producing regions of Mexico) are available. This gravity database represents the largest, highest spatial resolution information, and consequently has been used in the geophysical data compilations for the Mexico and North America gravity anomaly maps. Regional integration of gravimeter surveys generates gradients and spurious anomalies in the Bouguer anomaly maps at the boundaries of the connected surveys due to the different gravity base stations utilized. The main objective of this study is to refer all gravimeter surveys from Pemex to a single new first-order gravity base station network, in order to eliminate problems of gradients and spurious anomalies. A second objective is to establish a network of permanent gravity base stations (BGP), referred to a single base from the World Gravity System. Four regional loops of BGP covering eight States of Mexico were established to support the tie of local gravity base stations from each of the gravimeter surveys located in the vicinity of these loops. The third objective is to add the gravity constants, measured and calculated, for each of the 265 gravimeter surveys to their corresponding files in the Pemex and Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo database. The gravity base used as the common datum is the station SILAG 9135-49 (Latin American System of Gravity) located in the National Observatory of Tacubaya in Mexico City. We present the results of the installation of a new gravity base network in northeastern Mexico, reference of the 43 gravimeter surveys

  13. Spatial and temporal variation of intertidal nematodes in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannock, Pamela M; Sharma, Jyotsna; Bik, Holly M; Thomas, W Kelley; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2017-09-01

    Nematodes are an abundant and diverse interstitial component of sedimentary habitats that have been reported to serve as important bioindicators. Though the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster occurred 60 km offshore in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) at a depth of 1525 m, oil rose to the surface and washed ashore, subjecting large segments of coastline in the northern GOM to contamination. Previous metabarcoding work shows intertidal nematode communities were negatively affected by the oil spill. Here we examine the subsequent recovery of nematode community structure at five sites along the Alabama coast over a two-year period. The latter part of the study (July 2011-July 2012) also included an examination of nematode vertical distribution in intertidal sediments. Results showed nematode composition within this region was more influenced by sample locality than time and depth. The five sampling sites were characterized by distinct nematode assemblages that varied by sampling dates. Nematode diversity decreased four months after the oil spill but increased after one year, returning to previous levels at all sites except Bayfront Park (BP). There was no significant difference among nematode assemblages in reference to vertical distribution. Although the composition of nematode assemblages changed, the feeding guilds they represented were not significantly different even though some variation was noted. Data from morphological observations integrated with metabarcoding data indicated similar spatial variation in nematode distribution patterns, indicating the potential of using these faster approaches to examine overall disturbance impact trends within communities. Heterogeneity of microhabitats in the intertidal zone indicates that future sampling and fine-scale studies of nematodes are needed to examine such anthropogenic effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi from different agroecosystems of Coffea arabica L. in two regions of Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-García, Aurora; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Espinosa-García, Francisco J; González, María C

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the biodiversity associated with shaded coffee plantations and the role of diverse agroforestry types in biodiversity conservation and environmental services have been topics of debate. Endophytic fungi, which are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues in an asymptomatic manner, form a part of the biodiversity associated with coffee plants. Studies on the endophytic fungi communities of cultivable host plants have shown variability among farming regions; however, the variability in fungal endophytic communities of coffee plants among different coffee agroforestry systems is still poorly understood. As such, we analyzed the diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi inhabiting Coffea arabica plants growing in the rustic plantations and simple polycultures of two regions in the center of Veracruz, Mexico. The endophytic fungi isolates were identified by their morphological traits, and the majority of identified species correspond to species of fungi previously reported as endophytes of coffee leaves. We analyzed and compared the colonization rates, diversity, and communities of endophytes found in the different agroforestry systems and in the different regions. Although the endophytic diversity was not fully recovered, we found differences in the abundance and diversity of endophytes among the coffee regions and differences in richness between the two different agroforestry systems of each region. No consistent pattern of community similarity was found between the coffee agroforestry systems, but we found that rustic plantations shared the highest number of morphospecies. The results suggest that endophyte abundance, richness, diversity, and communities may be influenced predominantly by coffee region, and to a lesser extent, by the agroforestry system. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the relationships between agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation and provide information regarding some endophytic fungi and

  15. Lead exposure in children living in a smelter community in region Lagunera, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Vargas, G G; Rubio Andrade, M; Del Razo, L M; Borja Aburto, V; Vera Aguilar, E; Cebrián, M E

    2001-03-23

    Industrial growth has created the potential for environmental problems in Mexico, since attention to environmental controls and urban planning has lagged behind the pace of industrialization. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess lead exposure in children aged 6-9 yr attending 3 primary schools and living in the vicinity of the largest smelter complex in Mexico. One of the schools is located 650 m distant from a smelter complex that includes a lead smelter (close school); the second is located 1750 m away from the complex and at the side of a heavy traffic road (intermediate school) in Torreon, Coahuila. The third school is located in Comez Palacio, Durango, 8100 m away from the smelter complex and distant from heavy vehicular traffic or industrial areas (remote school). Lead was measured in air, soil, dust, and well water. Lead in blood (PbB) was determined in 394 children attending the above mentioned schools. Determinations were performed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Diet, socioeconomic status, hygienic habits, and other variables were assessed by questionnaire. Median (range) PbB values were 7.8 microg/dl (3.54-29.61) in the remote school, 21.8 microg/dl (8.37-52.08) in the intermediate school and 27.6 microg/dl (7.37-58.53) in children attending the close school. The percentage of children with PbB > 15 microg/dl was 6.80%, 84.9%, and 92.1% respectively. In this order, the geometric means (range) of Pb concentrations in air were 2.5 microg/m3 (1.1-7.5), 5.8 microg/m3 (4.3-8.5), and 6.1 microg/m3 (1.6-14.9). The Pb concentrations in dust from playgrounds areas in the intermediate and close school settings ranged from 1,457 to 4,162.5 mg/kg. Pb concentrations in drinking water were less than 5 microg/L. Soil and dust ingestion and inhalation appear to be the main routes of exposure. Our results indicate that environmental contamination has resulted in an increased body burden of Pb, suggesting that children living in the vicinity of the

  16. U.S.-MEXICO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER; BILATERAL TECHNICAL EXCHANGES FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE BORDER REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Richard, D., Dr.

    2007-10-01

    s challenging environmental issues. The results also brought focus to the potential contributions that DOE’s science and technology could make for solving the many difficult, multi-generational problems faced by hundreds of bi-national communities along the 2,000-mile shared border of the United States and Mexico. Efforts to address these U.S.-Mexico border issues were initially sponsored by the DOE’s Albuquerque and Carlsbad offices. In subsequent years, the U.S. Congress directed appropriations to DOE’s Carlsbad office to address public health, safety and security issues prevalent within U.S.-Mexico border communities. With ASL’s assistance, DOE’s Albuquerque office developed contacts and formed partnerships with interested U.S and Mexican government, academic, and commercial organizations. Border industries, industrial effluents, and public health conditions were evaluated and documented. Relevant technologies were then matched to environmental problem sets along the border. Several technologies that were identified and subsequently supported by this effort are now operational in a number of U.S.-Mexico border communities, several communities within Mexico’s interior states, and in other parts of Latin America. As a result, some serious public health threats within these communities caused by exposure to toxic airborne pollutants have been reduced. During this time, DOE’s Carlsbad office hosted a bilateral conference to establish a cross-border consensus on what should be done on the basis of these earlier investigative efforts. Participating border region stakeholders set an agenda for technical collaborations. This agenda was supported by several Members of Congress who provided appropriations and directed DOE’s Carlsbad office to initiate technology demonstration projects. During the following two years, more than 12 private-sector and DOE-sponsored technologies were demonstrated in partnership with numerous border community stakeholders. All technologies

  17. [Altitudinal distribution, richness and composition of bird assemblages in a mountainous region in Southern Nayarit, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-Escalante, Nidia Gissell; Figueroa-Esquivel, Elsa Margarita; Villaseñor Gómez, José Fernando; Jacobo-Sapien, Edwin Alberto; Puebla-Olivares, Fernando

    2016-12-01

    Elevation gradient studies have strengthened the evaluation of changes in richness and composition of bird assemblages. They also provide information on environmental variables that determine bird distribution, and the variables that define their population structure. Our aim was to describe their variation through an elevational cline in Southern Nayarit, Mexico. To analyze the behavior of richness across the gradient, we gathered information through point counts in nine elevational intervals (300 m from each other) from sea level to 2 700 m of elevation. With a standardized sampling effort, we produced rarefaction curves and analyzed changes in species composition by hierarchical classification using the TWINSPAN technique. In order to identify variables associated with richness changes, we examined the effect of precipitation and habitat structure via regression trees. An analysis of nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was implemented with the purpose to determine if the changes in composition correspond to changes in vegetation types. Species richness varied significantly across the gradient: high in the lower parts of the gradient, reached its peak in the middle, and decreased monotonically with elevation. Species responded to changes in the cline and were grouped in three elevational zones. Analyses suggest that changes in richness and species composition are influenced by vegetation, its structure and precipitation regime, as well as various aspects related to habitat features and disturbance. These aspects should be taken into account in order to design appropriate strategies for the conservation of the birds of Nayarit.

  18. Channel erosion in a rapidly urbanizing region of Tijuana, Mexico: Enlargement downstream of channel hardpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kristine; Biggs, Trent; Langendoen, Eddy; Castillo, Carlos; Gudiño, Napoleon; Yuan, Yongping; Liden, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    Urban-induced erosion in Tijuana, Mexico, has led to excessive sediment deposition in the Tijuana Estuary in the United States. Urban areas in developing countries, in contrast to developed countries, are characterized by much lower proportions of vegetation and impervious surfaces due to limited access to urban services such as road paving and landscaping, and larger proportions of exposed soils. In developing countries, traditional watershed scale variables such as impervious surfaces may not be good predictors of channel enlargement. In this research, we surveyed the stream channel network of an erodible tributary of the Tijuana River Watershed, Los Laureles Canyon, at 125 locations, including repeat surveys from 2008. Structure from Motion (SfM) and 3D photo-reconstruction techniques were used to create digital terrain models of stream reaches upstream and downstream of channel hardpoints. Channels are unstable downstream of hardpoints, with incision up to 2 meters and widening up to 12 meters. Coordinated channelization is essential to avoid piece-meal approaches that lead to channel degradation. Watershed impervious area is not a good predictor of channel erosion due to the overriding importance of hardpoints and likely to the high sediment supply from the unpaved roads which prevents channel erosion throughout the stream network.

  19. Parasites of two coexisting invasive sailfin catfishes (Siluriformes: Loricariidae in a tropical region of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Amparo Rodríguez-Santiago

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently many species of Amazon sailfin catfishes (Loricariidae have been introduced to wild environments outside their native range. There is, however, little knowledge about their role as vectors of parasites that can infect native fish or even humans through its consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the parasitic fauna of the invasive sailfin catfish species Pterygoplichthys pardalis (leopard pleco and P. disjunctivus (vermiculated pleco from freshwater systems in the southeast of Mexico. Four ectoparasite species were found in P. pardalis (1 protozoan: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis ; 2 monogeneans: Urocleidoides vaginoclastrum and Heteropriapulus heterotylus ; 1 digenean: Clinostomum sp., and only one in Heteropriapulus disjunctivus (H. heterotylus . No endoparasites were found. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis , U. vaginoclaustrum and Clinostomum sp. , were considered as rare species (prevalence <5% since they were found in a single individual of P. pardalis . H. heterotylus was the only species shared among both host species and it occurs throughout the year. This monogenean species represents 96% of total parasites recorded in P. pardalis and 100% in P. disjunctivus. Monthly values of prevalence, intensity and abundance of H. heterotylus in both host species showed important intra-annual variations, but not differ significantly between both hosts.

  20. Extinction Risk of Pseudotsuga Menziesii Populations in the Central Region of Mexico: An AHP Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier López-Upton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP framework, a hierarchical model was created considering anthropogenic, genetic and ecological criteria and sub-criteria that directly affect Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. risk of extinction in central Mexico. The sub-criteria values were standardized, weighted, and ordered by importance in a pairwise comparison matrix; the model was mathematically integrated to quantify the degree of extinction risk for each of the 29 populations present in the study area. The results indicate diverse levels of risk for the populations, ranging from very low to very high. Estanzuela, Presa Jaramillo, Peñas Cargadas and Plan del Baile populations have very low risk, with values less than 0.25. On the other hand, Vicente Guerrero, Morán, Minatitlán, La Garita and Tonalapa populations have very high risk (>0.35 because they are heavily influenced by anthropogenic (close to roads and towns, ecological (presence of exotic species and little or no natural regeneration and genetic (presence of mature to overmature trees and geographic isolation factors. In situ conservation activities, prioritizing their implementation in populations at most risk is highly recommended; in addition, germplasm collection for use of assisted gene flow and migration approaches, including artificial reforestation, should be considered in these locations.

  1. Native American lithic procurement along the international border in the boot heel region of southwestern New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Zeigler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary field projects can be very useful to a more fundamental understanding of the world around us, though these projects are not as common as they should be. In particular, the combination of archeology and geology combines our understanding of human behavior and human use of the landscape with an intimate knowledge of geologic processes and the materials available for human use in order to gain a broader understanding of human-Earth interaction. Here we present data from a cross-disciplinary project that uses a common dataset, archeological artifacts, to explore the anthropological and geologic implications of useage patterns. Archeological excavations and surveys conducted by the Office of Contract Archeology in 2007 along the route of the proposed international border fence reveal patterns of use of geologic materials by Archaic, Formative and Protohistoric Native Americans in the Boot Heel of southwestern New Mexico. Thousands of artifacts were recorded in multiple sites from Guadalupe Pass in the southern Peloncillo Mountains to the Carrizalillo Hills west of Columbus. We identified the lithologies of artifacts, ranging from projectile points to groundstones, and then constructed material movement maps based on either known procurement sites ("quarries" or outcrops identified as the closest source to a given site for each lithology. Not unexpectedly, the majority of the rock types utilized by native peoples are local siliceous volcanic materials. However, several artifacts constructed from obsidian were transported into the region from northern Mexico and eastern Arizona, indicating long-distance travel and/or trade routes. We also examine useage pattern difference between Archaic, Formative and Protohistoric sites. Additionally, a dramatic change in distribution of sources for geologic materials occurs between one pre-Spanish site and one post-Spanish site that are adjacent to one another.

  2. Paloma Fernández Gomá: latidos de poesía que unen orillas

    OpenAIRE

    Medrano, Susana de los Ángeles

    2010-01-01

    En la lírica española contemporánea ya no cabe duda de que la poesía de mujer constituye un aporte significativo. Dentro de su entramado, en la panorámica actual de la lírica femenina de Andalucía, Paloma Fernández Gomá se perfila como una de las poetas más interesantes y singulares. Nacida en Madrid y asentada en Algeciras (Cádiz) desde niña, su poesía se inicia tempranamente pero recién se da a conocer en 1991 con El ocaso del girasol, al que le siguen hasta el momento una decena de poemari...

  3. Characterization of Aerosols Containing Zn, Pb, and Cl from an Industrial Region of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffet, Ryan C.; Desyaterik, Yury; Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Gilles, Marry K.; Wang, Yan A.; Shutthanandan, V.; Molina, Luisa T.; Abraham, Rodrigo G.; Johnson, Kirsten S.; Mugica, Violeta; Molina, Mario J.; Laskin, Alexander; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    During the March, 2006 MILAGRO campaign, measurements in the Northern Mexico City Metropolitan Area revealed the frequent appearance of particles with a characteristically high content of internally mixed Zn, Pb, Cl, and P. A comprehensive study of the chemical and physical properties of these particles was performed using a complementary combination of aerosol measurement techniques. Individual particles were analyzed using Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS) and Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (CCSEM/EDX). Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of bulk aerosol samples provided time-resolved mass concentrations of individual elements. The PIXE measurements indicated that Zn is more strongly correlated with Cl than with any other element and that Zn concentrations are higher than other non-ferrous transition metals. The Zn- and Pb-containing particles have both spherical and non-spherical morphologies. Many metal rich particles had needle-like structures and were found to be composed of ZnO and/or Zn(NO3)2 6H2O as indicated by scanning transmission x-ray microscopy/near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). The Zn and Pb rich particles were primarily in the submicron size range and internally mixed with elemental carbon. The unique chemical associations most closely match signatures acquired for garbage incineration. This unique combination of complementary analytical techniques has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of Zn- and Pb- containing particles in a complex urban environment, highlighting unique characteristics that give powerful insight into their origin

  4. Map showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geologic provinces of the Gulf of Mexico region

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Christopher D.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    This map was created as part of a worldwide series of geologic maps for the U.S. Geological Survey's World Energy Project. These products are available on CD-ROM and the Internet. The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world. Two previously published digital geologic data sets (U.S. and Caribbean) were clipped to the map extent, while the dataset for Mexico was digitized for this project. Original attributes for all data layers were maintained, and in some cases, graphically merged with common symbology for presentation purposes. The world has been divided into geologic provinces that are used for allocation and prioritization of oil and gas assessments. For the World Energy Project, a subset of those provinces is shown on this map. Each province has a set of geologic characteristics that distinguish it from surrounding provinces. These characteristics may include dominant lithologies, the age of the strata, and/or structural type. The World Geographic Coordinate System of 1984 is used for data storage, and the data are presented in a Lambert Conformal Conic Projection on the OFR 97-470-L map product. Other details about the map compilation and data sources are provided in metadata documents in the data section on this CD-ROM. Several software packages were used to create this map including: Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) ArcGIS 8.3, ArcInfo software, Adobe Photoshop CS, Illustrator CS, and Acrobat 6.0.

  5. Operational considerations for implementing regional sediment management plans in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Steven G.; Khalil, Syed M.; Byrnes, Mark R.; Steyer, Gregory D.; Raynie, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    Development of a comprehensive and stakeholder-driven Regional Sediment Management plan can provide the basis for long-term sustainable resource use and protection. This paper highlights three operational components that can positively influence sediment management at a regional scale, including (1) integration of an operational sediment budget, (2) development of a monitoring and adaptive management plan, and (3) development of a regional sediment availability and allocation program. These components seek to incorporate science and adaptive management through implementation of an organized and well-documented decision making process. They represent a coordinated framework that could serve as a guide for unifying financial investments in regional sediment management plans. Collectively, they establish an integrated process for addressing uncertainties about future system change in light of shrinking federal and state budgets, competing demands for sediment resources within riverine and marine waters, and policy considerations related to sediment/water use (e.g., navigation and commerce versus environmental management).

  6. Spatial Dynamics of the Blue Crab Spawning Stock in the Gulf of Mexico: Local Processes Driving Regional Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, M. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Female blue crabs undertake a critical spawning migration seaward, migrating from low-salinity mating habitat to high-salinity waters of the lower estuaries and coastal ocean, where larval survival is highest. This migration occurs primarily through ebb tide transport, driven by an endogenous circatidal rhythm in vertical swimming that is modulated by behavioral responses to environmental cues. Blue crabs are typically considered an estuarine species and fisheries are managed on a state-by-state basis. Yet recent evidence from state and regional fishery independent survey programs suggests that the spawning migration can take females substantial distances offshore (>150 km), and that offshore waters are important spawning grounds for female blue crabs in the Gulf of Mexico. This is especially true in areas where freshwater inflow is high, resulting in low estuarine and coastal salinities. In low-salinity, high-inflow areas (e.g., Louisiana), spawning occurs further offshore while in high-salinity, low-inflow areas (e.g., South Texas), spawning takes place primarily within the estuary. Regional patterns in spawning locations both inshore and offshore are driven by interactions between behavioral mechanisms and local oceanographic conditions during the spawning migration. These environmentally driven differences in spawning locations have implications for larval survival and population connectivity, and emphasize the need for interjurisdictional assessment and management of the blue crab spawning stock.

  7. Climate Risk and Vulnerability in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico Region: Interactions with Spatial Population and Land Cover Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Levy, M.; Baptista, S.; Adamo, S.

    2010-12-01

    Vulnerability to climate variability and change will depend on dynamic interactions between different aspects of climate, land-use change, and socioeconomic trends. Measurements and projections of these changes are difficult at the local scale but necessary for effective planning. New data sources and methods make it possible to assess land-use and socioeconomic changes that may affect future patterns of climate vulnerability. In this paper we report on new time series data sets that reveal trends in the spatial patterns of climate vulnerability in the Caribbean/Gulf of Mexico Region. Specifically, we examine spatial time series data for human population over the period 1990-2000, time series data on land use and land cover over 2000-2009, and infant mortality rates as a proxy for poverty for 2000-2008. We compare the spatial trends for these measures to the distribution of climate-related natural disaster risk hotspots (cyclones, floods, landslides, and droughts) in terms of frequency, mortality, and economic losses. We use these data to identify areas where climate vulnerability appears to be increasing and where it may be decreasing. Regions where trends and patterns are especially worrisome include coastal areas of Guatemala and Honduras.

  8. Reactions and reaction rates in the regional aquifer beneath the Pajarito Plateau, north-central New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereford, Anne G.; Keating, Elizabeth H.; Guthrie, George D.; Zhu, Chen

    2007-05-01

    Reactions and reaction rates within aquifers are fundamental components of critical hydrological processes. However, reactions simulated in laboratory experiments typically demonstrate rates that are much faster than those observed in the field. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct more reaction rate analyses in natural settings. This study of geochemical reactions in the regional aquifer in the Pajarito Plateau near Los Alamos, New Mexico combines modeling with petrographic assessment to further knowledge and understanding of complex natural hydrologic systems. Groundwater geochemistry shows marked evolution along assumed flow paths. The flow path chosen for this study was evaluated using inverse mass balance modeling to calculate the mass transfer. X-ray diffraction and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy were used to identify possible reactants and products. Considering the mineralogy of the aquifer and saturation indices for the regional water refined initial interpretations. Calculations yielded dissolution rates for plagioclase on the order of 10-15 mol s-1 m-2 and for K-feldspar on the order of 10-17 mol s-1 m-2, orders of magnitude slower than laboratory rates. While these rates agree with other aquifer studies, they must be considered in the light of the uncertainty associated with geometric surface area estimates, 14C ages, and aquifer properties.

  9. Variable-density ground-water flow and paleohydrology in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) region, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    Variable-density groundwater flow was studied near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico. An analysis of the relative magnitude of pressure-related and density-related flow-driving forces indicates that density-related gravity effects are not significant at the plant and to the west but are significant in areas to the north, northeast, and south. A regional-scale model of variable-density groundwater flow in the Culebra Dolomite member of the Rustler Formation indicates that the flow velocities are relatively rapid west of the site and extremely slow east and northeast of the site. In the transition zone between those two extremes, which includes the plant, velocities are highly variable. Sensitivity simulations indicates that the central and western parts of the region, including the plant, are fairly well isolated from the eastern and northeastern boundaries. Vertical-flux simulations indicate that as much as 25% of total inflow to the Culebra could be entering as vertical flow, with most of this flow occurring west of the plant. A simple cross-sectional model was developed to examine the flow system as it drains through time following recharge during a past glacial pluvial. This model indicates that the system as a whole drains very slowly and that it apparently could have sustained flow from purely transient drainage following recharge of the system during the Pleistocene

  10. Investigations of subsurface flow constructed wetlands and associated geomaterial resources in the Akumal and Reforma regions, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekeler, Mark P. S.; Probst, Pete; Samsonov, Misha; Tselepis, Cynthia M.; Bates, William; Kearns, Lance E.; Maynard, J. Barry

    2007-12-01

    Subsurface flow constructed wetlands in the village of Akumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico were surveyed to determine the general status of the wetland systems and provide baseline information for long term monitoring and further study. Twenty subsurface flow wetlands were surveyed and common problems observed in the systems were overloading, poor plant cover, odor, and no secondary containment. Bulk mineral composition of aggregate from two subsurface flow constructed wetlands was determined to consist solely of calcite using bulk powder X-ray diffraction. Some soil structure is developed in the aggregate and aggregate levels in wetlands drop at an estimated rate between 3 and 10 cm/year for overloaded wetlands owing to dissolution. Mineral composition from fresh aggregate samples commonly is a mixture of calcite and aragonite. Trace amounts of Pb, Zn, Co, and Cr were observed in fresh aggregate. Coefficients of permeability ( k) varied from 0.006 to 0.027 cm/s with an average values being 0.016 cm/s. Grain size analysis of fresh aggregate samples indicates there are unimodal and multimodal size distributions in the samples with modes in the coarse and fine sand being common. Investigations of other geologic media from the Reforma region indicate that a dolomite with minor amounts of Fe-oxide and palygorskite is abundant and may be a better aggregate source that the current materials used. A Ca-montmorillonite bed was identified in the Reforma region as well and this unit is suitable to serve as a clay liner to prevent leaks for new and existing wetland systems. These newly discovered geologic resources should aid in the improvement of subsurface flow constructed wetlands in the region. Although problems do exist in these wetlands with respect to design, these systems represent a successful implementation of constructed wetlands at a community level in developing regions.

  11. Financial analysis of brucellosis control for small-scale goat farming in the Bajío region, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseguera Montiel, David; Bruce, Mieghan; Frankena, Klaas; Udo, Henk; van der Zijpp, Akke; Rushton, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in small-scale goat husbandry systems in Mexico. It is a zoonosis and the economic consequences can be large, although estimates are not available for the Mexican goat sector. Our objective was to conduct a financial analysis of brucellosis control in a prominent dairy goat production area of the Bajío region, Mexico. We used three models: (1) a brucellosis transmission model at village flock level (n=1000 head), (2) a flock growth model at smallholder flock level (n=23 head) using output of model 1 and (3) cost-benefit analysis of several brucellosis control scenarios based on output of model 2. Scenarios consisted of test-and-slaughter or vaccination or a combination of both compared to the base situation (no control). The average net present values (NPV) of using vaccination over a 5-year period was 3.8 US$ (90% CI: 1.3-6.6) and 20 US$ (90% CI: 11.3-28.6) over a 10-year period per goat. The average benefit-cost ratios over a 5-year period and 10-year period were 4.3 US$ (90% CI: 2.2-6.9) and 12.3 US$ (90% CI: 7.5-17.3) per goat, respectively. For the total dairy goat population (38,462 head) of the study area (the Bajío of Jalisco and Michoacán) the NPV's over a 5-year and 10-year period were 0.15 million US$ and 0.8 million US$. However, brucellosis prevalence was predicted to remain relatively high at about 12%. Control scenarios with test-and-slaughter predicted to reduce brucellosis prevalence to less than 3%, but this produced a negative NPV over a 5-year period ranging from -31.6 to -11.1 US$ and from -31.1 to 7.5 US$ over a 10-year period. A brucellosis control campaign based on vaccination with full coverage is economically profitable for the goat dairy sector of the region although smallholders would need financial support in case test-and-slaughter is applied to reduce the prevalence more quickly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Impacts of Land Cover and Land Use Change on the Hydrology of the US-Mexico Border Region, 1992-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, T. J.; Vivoni, E. R.; Mascaro, G.; White, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The semi-arid US-Mexico border region has been experiencing rapid urbanization and agricultural expansion over the last several decades, due in part to the lifting of trade barriers of the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), placing additional pressures on the region's already strained water resources. Here we examine the effects of changes in land cover/use over the period 1992-2011 on the region's hydrology and water resources, using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model with an irrigation module to estimate both natural and anthropogenic water fluxes. Land cover has been taken from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) over the US, and from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI) database over Mexico, for three snapshots: 1992/3, 2001/2, and 2011. We have performed 3 simulations, one per land cover snapshot, at 6 km resolution, driven by a gridded observed meteorology dataset and a climatology of land surface characteristics derived from remote sensing products. Urban water withdrawal rates were estimated from literature. The primary changes in the region's water budget over the period 1992-2011 consisted of: (1) a shift in agricultural irrigation water withdrawals from the US to Mexico, accompanied by similar shifts in runoff (via agricultural return flow) and evapotranspiration; and (2) a 50% increase in urban water withdrawals, concentrated in the US. Because groundwater supplied most of the additional agricultural withdrawals, and occurred over already over-exploited aquifers, these changes call into question the sustainability of the region's land and water management. By synthesizing the implications of these hydrologic changes, we present a novel view of how NAFTA has altered the US-Mexico border region, possibly in unintended ways.

  13. Effect of the US-Mexico border region in cardiovascular mortality: ecological time trend analysis of Mexican border and non-border municipalities from 1998 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Gabriel; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2017-05-06

    An array of risk factors has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, and developing nations are becoming disproportionately affected by such diseases. Cardiovascular diseases have been reported to be highly prevalent in the Mexican population, but local mortality data is poor. The Mexican side of the US-Mexico border has a culture that is closely related to a developed nation and therefore may share the same risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. We wanted to explore if there was higher cardiovascular mortality in the border region of Mexico compared to the rest of the nation. We conducted a population based cross-sectional time series analysis to estimate the effects of education, insurance and municipal size in Mexican border (n = 38) and non-border municipalities (n = 2360) and its association with cardiovascular age-adjusted mortality rates between the years 1998-2012. We used a mixed effect linear model with random effect estimation and repeated measurements to compare the main outcome variable (mortality rate), the covariates (education, insurance and population size) and the geographic delimiter (border/non-border). Mortality due to cardiovascular disease was consistently higher in the municipalities along the US-Mexico border, showing a difference of 78 · 5 (95% CI 58 · 7-98 · 3, p Insurance coverage showed an increase in cardiovascular mortality of 3 · 6 (95% CI 3 · 1-4 · 0, p Mexico border region is disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease mortality as compared to the non-border region of Mexico. This was not explained by education, population density, or insurance coverage. Proximity to the US culture and related diet and habits can be explanations of the increasing mortality trend.

  14. REGIONAL HYDROLOGY OF THE NOPAL 1 SITE, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Rodriguez-Pineda; P. Goodell; P. Dobson; J. Walton; R. Olver; R. de la Garza; S. Harder

    2005-10-01

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Determine the main source of the groundwater (GW) found within the DOE wells (PB-1, PB-2, and PB-3); and (2) Determine whether the Nopal I GW has any relationship to the connectivity between the regional Encinillas Aquifer to the west and the El Cuervo Aquifer to the east.

  15. Population structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley region of Central Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünwald, N.J.; Flier, W.G.; Sturbaum, A.K.; Garay-Serrano, E.; Bosch, van den G.B.M.; Smart, C.D.; Matuszak, J.M.; Turkensteen, L.J.; Fry, W.E.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the population of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca valley region is genetically differentiated according to habitat. Isolates were sampled in three habitats from (i) wild Solanum spp. (WILD), (ii) land-race varieties in low-input production systems (RURAL), and

  16. Industrial subdivisions in Aguascalientes State [Mexico]: Valley Region, potential spaces for development in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Daniel García Díaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The planning policies of the Mexican urban development oriented to the industrial activities implemented regionally and locally, have responded in different ways. The commitment to the sector led to the need to regulate urban growth and development as a substantial factor in achieving government strategies in the search for equitable sharing of national wealth and potential. The publication in 1976 of the General Law of Human Settlements born with this fundamental purpose. Excessive administrative burden of the Mexican social property and the need to insert in an increasingly globalizing economic activities led, in 1992 and 1994, respectively, the amendments to the Land Act and the signing of the Free Trade Agreement between North America, Canada, United States and Mexico. In the West Central Region, consisting of the metropolitan areas of Guadalajara, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi, Queretaro, Guanajuato and Aguascalientes, spatial area in which a third of the country's inhabitants is based, and hosts the 100% extension territorial state of Aguascalientes, have been exploited discontinuously the natural and man-made resources available in the area. In the Valley of Aguascalientes, north-south strip of the state territory, have been authorized industrial subdivisions under plans and urban development programs that have accelerated or inhibited impulses, according to the vision and expectations of government power in turn; the different rhythms and changes of strategy applied to organize the disorder potential of the rural and urban environment express divergences in the reaches of consolidation and longed purposes. Research indicates and identifies the dynamics with which the last eight administrations of the Mexican State have acted in shaping the industrial potential of the Valley, which the south side hosts industrial city, Nissan I, Nissan II and Automotive Logistics Industrial Park, industrial settlements seeking to consolidate the region

  17. Environmental evaluation of fluoride in drinking water at "Los Altos de Jalisco," in the central Mexico region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Roberto; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge

    Naturally occurring fluoride has been detected and quantified in drinking water in several cities of the "Los Altos de Jalisco" (LAJ) region. LAJ is located in the northeastern part of the state of Jalisco-Mexico, covering an area of 16,410 km2 with a population of 696,318 in 20 municipalities. Drinking water comes mainly from groundwater aquifers, located in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, which is a volcanic region characterized by hydrothermal activity. Results indicated that water supply from 42% of the municipalities had a fluoride concentration over the Mexican standards of 1.5 mg/L. It is important to notice that there are three cities, Lagos de Moreno (1.66-5.88 mg/L F(-)), Teocaltiche (3.82-18.58 mg/L F(-)), and Encarnación de Díaz (2.58-4.40 mg/L F(-)) where all water samples resulted in fluoride concentration over the maximum contaminant level. The total population from these three cities is over 122,000 inhabitants. Another important city with high levels of fluoride in the water supply was Tepatitlán de Morelos (2 wells with 6.54 and 13.47 mg/L F(-)). In addition to water supply, 30 samples of brand-name bottled water were tested. Surprisingly, 8 samples (27%) demonstrated fluoride level over the standards, mainly Agua de Lagos with 5.27 mg/L. Fluoridated table salt (200-300 mg/kg F(-)) is another important source of fluoride. A large number of people living in the region, mainly school children, might be under adverse health risk because they are consuming contaminated drinking water. It is well known that long-term exposure to water with high levels of fluoride produces severe health problems.

  18. Regional resource depletion and industry activity: The case of oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1986-01-01

    Stable and declining oil and gas prices have changed the industry's price expectations and, along with depletion of promising exploration prospects, has resulted in reduced exploration. Even with intensive additional exploration, production in most U.S. areas is expected to decline. What does this imply for the drilling and petroleum industry suppliers in particular regions? How should planners in government and the private sector project and incorporate the consequences of these changes in their strategies? This paper answers these questions for the industry operating in the offshore Gulf of Mexico. Future oil and gas production, as well as demand for offshore drilling and production facilities, are shown to depend on the size distribution of undiscovered fields, their associated production costs, and oil and gas prices. Declining well productivity is a consequence of development of progressively smaller fields so that long-run drilling demand should not decline in proportion to the expected production decline. Calculations show a substantial payoff to the drilling industry, in terms of potential demand increases, if it can develop and implement cost reducing technologies. Implications of these results for other offshore producing areas such as the North Sea are also discussed. ?? 1986.

  19. Acarine infracommunities associated with the Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in arid regions of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Cornejo, C; García-Prieto, L; Morales-Malacara, J B; Pérez-Ponce De León, G

    2003-11-01

    The Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana, is one of the most widely distributed bats, and its range includes the whole Mexican territory. Ectoparasites of this bat have been the subject of isolated reports, but no studies of its community ecology have been conducted. The acarine infracommunities associated with this bat were analyzed, comparing bat populations from three arid regions of Mexico: an abandoned factory in Nombre de Dios, Durango; a cave in Santiago, Nuevo León; and a church in Concepción del Oro, Zacatecas. The acarine infracommunity in Nuevo Le6n's bats exhibited the highest levels of diversity as reflected by a higher richness, a lower dominance, and a moderate and relatively homogeneous abundance in this locality in relation to the other two. This pattern is influenced by stable cave conditions relative to artificial habitats. Notwithstanding, further studies are required to determine whether or not different habitat conditions are a primary factor in the process of structuring the acari infracommunities.

  20. Evolution of patterns of regional groundwater flow in southeastern New Mexico: Response to post-Pleistocene changes in climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbet, T.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a potential repository for transuranic wastes generated by defense programs of the US Department of Energy. The repository site is located 42 km east of the city of Carlsbad, New Mexico in a thick, Permian-age deposit of bedded salt. One consideration in evaluating the performance of the repository is that a future society might inadvertently penetrate the repository with one or more drill holes. Given certain circumstances, these holes could provide a pathway for contaminated brine to move upward into relatively permeable strata located above the bedded salt. There is concern that flowing groundwater could then transport radionuclides laterally to the sub-surface portion of the accessible environment, currently defined by the disposal regulations as the region more than 5 kilometers from the radioactive waste. The simulations presented here are part of a numerical modeling study of the possible impact that a change in climate over the next 10,000 years could have on the pattern of groundwater flow and, consequently, on the migration of radionuclides in strata overlying the repository

  1. Effects of a wind farm installation on the understory bat community of a highly biodiverse tropical region in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Briones-Salas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy has rapidly become an important alternative among renewable energies, and it is generally considered clean. However, little is known about its impact at the level of ecological communities, especially in biodiversity hotspots. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is a highly biodiverse region in Mesoamerica, and has the highest potential for generating wind energy in Mexico. To assess the effects of installing a wind farm on the understory bat community in a landscape of fragmented habitat, we assessed its diversity and composition over four stages of installation (site preparation, construction, and two stages of operation. We captured 919 bats belonging to 22 species. Species richness, functional diversity and phylogenetic diversity decreased during construction and the first stage of operation. However, these components of biodiversity increased during the second stage of operation, and species composition began to resemble that of the site preparation stage. No species considered as sensitive to disturbance was recorded at any stage. This is the first study to reveal the diversity of a Neotropical bat community after wind turbines begin to operate.

  2. Use of brackish ground water resources for regional energy center development, Tularosa Basin, New Mexico: preliminary evaluation. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an impact and suitability profile for the use of the Tularosa Basin in south-central New Mexico as the potential location of an energy center. Underyling the Tularosa Basin is an aquifer system containing perhaps 40 million acre-feet of fresh and slightly saline (1-3 g/l) water that is theoretically recoverable and could be used for cooling and other energy-related or industrial purposes, particularly if energy development projects in other areas of the state and region are delayed, impeded, or cancelled because of uncertain availability or accessibility of water. This preliminary investigation of the Tularosa Basin reveals no outstanding features that would discourage further detailed analysis and planning for an energy complex. A major program of exploratory drilling, well logging, and testing is needed to determine aquifer characteristics and factors affecting well design. Since industrial development in the basin will necessarily involve Federal, state, and private lands, any serious plan will require collaboration of Federal, state, and local authorities

  3. Multivariate Statistical Analysis: a tool for groundwater quality assessment in the hidrogeologic region of the Ring of Cenotes, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, M.; Pacheco Castro, R. B.; Pacheco Avila, J.; Cabrera Sansores, A.

    2014-12-01

    The karstic aquifer of Yucatan is a vulnerable and complex system. The first fifteen meters of this aquifer have been polluted, due to this the protection of this resource is important because is the only source of potable water of the entire State. Through the assessment of groundwater quality we can gain some knowledge about the main processes governing water chemistry as well as spatial patterns which are important to establish protection zones. In this work multivariate statistical techniques are used to assess the groundwater quality of the supply wells (30 to 40 meters deep) in the hidrogeologic region of the Ring of Cenotes, located in Yucatan, Mexico. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis are applied in groundwater chemistry data of the study area. Results of principal component analysis show that the main sources of variation in the data are due sea water intrusion and the interaction of the water with the carbonate rocks of the system and some pollution processes. The cluster analysis shows that the data can be divided in four clusters. The spatial distribution of the clusters seems to be random, but is consistent with sea water intrusion and pollution with nitrates. The overall results show that multivariate statistical analysis can be successfully applied in the groundwater quality assessment of this karstic aquifer.

  4. Effects of a wind farm installation on the understory bat community of a highly biodiverse tropical region in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavariega, Mario C.; Moreno, Claudia E.

    2017-01-01

    Wind energy has rapidly become an important alternative among renewable energies, and it is generally considered clean. However, little is known about its impact at the level of ecological communities, especially in biodiversity hotspots. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is a highly biodiverse region in Mesoamerica, and has the highest potential for generating wind energy in Mexico. To assess the effects of installing a wind farm on the understory bat community in a landscape of fragmented habitat, we assessed its diversity and composition over four stages of installation (site preparation, construction, and two stages of operation). We captured 919 bats belonging to 22 species. Species richness, functional diversity and phylogenetic diversity decreased during construction and the first stage of operation. However, these components of biodiversity increased during the second stage of operation, and species composition began to resemble that of the site preparation stage. No species considered as sensitive to disturbance was recorded at any stage. This is the first study to reveal the diversity of a Neotropical bat community after wind turbines begin to operate. PMID:28630802

  5. Effects of a wind farm installation on the understory bat community of a highly biodiverse tropical region in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Salas, Miguel; Lavariega, Mario C; Moreno, Claudia E

    2017-01-01

    Wind energy has rapidly become an important alternative among renewable energies, and it is generally considered clean. However, little is known about its impact at the level of ecological communities, especially in biodiversity hotspots. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is a highly biodiverse region in Mesoamerica, and has the highest potential for generating wind energy in Mexico. To assess the effects of installing a wind farm on the understory bat community in a landscape of fragmented habitat, we assessed its diversity and composition over four stages of installation (site preparation, construction, and two stages of operation). We captured 919 bats belonging to 22 species. Species richness, functional diversity and phylogenetic diversity decreased during construction and the first stage of operation. However, these components of biodiversity increased during the second stage of operation, and species composition began to resemble that of the site preparation stage. No species considered as sensitive to disturbance was recorded at any stage. This is the first study to reveal the diversity of a Neotropical bat community after wind turbines begin to operate.

  6. Development of attractant systems for trapping female Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Soconusco region, Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, P.; Miranda, H.; Paxtian, J.; Celedonio, H.; Orozco, D.

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of developing a system of attractants and trapping to optimize the capture of female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) as well as other fruit flies, six experiments were carried out during the period 1994-1997, in a sterile-insect release zone in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. Relating to the system of attractants, the evaluation focused on the comparison of food attractants (i.e. ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine) with standard attractants, such as Trimedlure and liquid hydrolyzed protein. For the trapping system, dry traps (Jackson trap, Open bottom dry trap, etc.) as well as wet traps (McPhail trap, Tephri trap, etc.) were tested alternately with the different kinds of attractants. The experiments were performed in agrosystems of coffee and groves of citrus and mango. Results consistently showed that a combination of ammonium acetate + putrescine + trimethylamine was the best for the capture of female Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) when used in traps such as the OBDT and the plastic McPhail trap (IPMT), while for Anastrepha spp., the McPhail trap baited with liquid hydrolyzed protein still appears to be the best option, although the combination of ammonium acetate with putrescine was quite consistent in the trapping of A. obliqua and A. ludens in traps such as the IPMT. (author)

  7. Variability in age and size at maturation, reproductive longevity, and long-term growth dynamics for Kemp's ridley sea turtles in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshe, Lisa R.; Coggins, Lewis; Shaver, Donna J.; Higgins, Ben; Landry, Andre M.; Bailey, Rhonda

    2017-01-01

    Effective management of protected sea turtle populations requires knowledge not only of mean values for demographic and life-history parameters, but also temporal and spatial trends, variability, and underlying causes. For endangered Kemp’s ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), the need for baseline information of this type has been emphasized during attempts to understand causes underlying the recent truncation in the recovery trajectory for nesting females. To provide insight into variability in age and size at sexual maturation (ASM and SSM) and long-term growth patterns likely to influence population trends, we conducted skeletochronological analysis of humerus bones from 333 Kemp’s ridleys stranded throughout the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from 1993 to 2010. Ranges of possible ASMs (6.8 to 21.8 yr) and SSMs (53.3 to 68.3 cm straightline carapace length (SCL)) estimated using the “rapprochement” skeletal growth mark associated with maturation were broad, supporting incorporation of a maturation schedule in Kemp’s ridley population models. Mean ASMs estimated from rapprochement and by fitting logistic, generalized additive mixed, and von Bertalanffy growth models to age and growth data ranged from 11 to 13 yr; confidence intervals for the logistic model predicted maturation of 95% of the population between 11.9 and 14.8 yr. Early juvenile somatic growth rates in the GOM were greater than those previously reported for the Atlantic, indicating potential for differences in maturation trajectories between regions. Finally, long-term, significant decreases in somatic growth response were found for both juveniles and adults, which could influence recruitment to the reproductive population and observed nesting population trends. PMID:28333937

  8. Genetic connectivity in scleractinian corals across the Northern Gulf of Mexico: oil/gas platforms, and relationship to the Flower Garden Banks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W Sammarco

    Full Text Available The 3,000 oil/gas structures currently deployed in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM provide hard substratum for marine organisms in a region where such has been rare since the Holocene. The major exception to this are the Flower Garden Banks (FGB. Corals are known to have colonized oil/gas platforms around the FGB, facilitating biogeographic expansion. We ask the question, what are the patterns of genetic affinity in these coral populations. We sampled coral tissue from populations of two species occurring on oil and gas platforms: Madracis decactis (hermatype and Tubastraea coccinea (invasive ahermatype. We sampled 28 platforms along four transects from 20 km offshore to the continental shelf edge off 1 Matagorda Island, TX; 2 Lake Sabine, TX; 3 Terrebonne Bay, LA; and 4 Mobile, AL. The entire population of M. decactis was sampled between depths of 5 m and 37 m. T. coccinea populations were sub-sampled. Genetic variation was assessed using the PCR-based Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs. Data were analyzed via AFLPOP and STRUCTURE. Genetic connectivity among M. decactis platform populations was highest near the FGB and decreased to the east. Connectivity increased again in the eastern sector, indicating isolation between the populations from different sides of the Mississippi River (Transects 3 and 4. A point-drop in genetic affinity (relatedness at the shelf edge south of Terrebonne Bay, LA indicated a population differing from all others in the northern GOM. Genetic affinities among T. coccinea were highest in the west and decreased to the east. Very low genetic affinities off Mobile, AL indicated a dramatic difference between those populations and those west of the Mississippi River, apparently a formidable barrier to larval dispersal.

  9. Variability in age and size at maturation, reproductive longevity, and long-term growth dynamics for Kemp's ridley sea turtles in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Avens

    Full Text Available Effective management of protected sea turtle populations requires knowledge not only of mean values for demographic and life-history parameters, but also temporal and spatial trends, variability, and underlying causes. For endangered Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii, the need for baseline information of this type has been emphasized during attempts to understand causes underlying the recent truncation in the recovery trajectory for nesting females. To provide insight into variability in age and size at sexual maturation (ASM and SSM and long-term growth patterns likely to influence population trends, we conducted skeletochronological analysis of humerus bones from 333 Kemp's ridleys stranded throughout the Gulf of Mexico (GOM from 1993 to 2010. Ranges of possible ASMs (6.8 to 21.8 yr and SSMs (53.3 to 68.3 cm straightline carapace length (SCL estimated using the "rapprochement" skeletal growth mark associated with maturation were broad, supporting incorporation of a maturation schedule in Kemp's ridley population models. Mean ASMs estimated from rapprochement and by fitting logistic, generalized additive mixed, and von Bertalanffy growth models to age and growth data ranged from 11 to 13 yr; confidence intervals for the logistic model predicted maturation of 95% of the population between 11.9 and 14.8 yr. Early juvenile somatic growth rates in the GOM were greater than those previously reported for the Atlantic, indicating potential for differences in maturation trajectories between regions. Finally, long-term, significant decreases in somatic growth response were found for both juveniles and adults, which could influence recruitment to the reproductive population and observed nesting population trends.

  10. Genetic connectivity in scleractinian corals across the Northern Gulf of Mexico: oil/gas platforms, and relationship to the Flower Garden Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, Paul W; Brazeau, Daniel A; Sinclair, James

    2012-01-01

    The 3,000 oil/gas structures currently deployed in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) provide hard substratum for marine organisms in a region where such has been rare since the Holocene. The major exception to this are the Flower Garden Banks (FGB). Corals are known to have colonized oil/gas platforms around the FGB, facilitating biogeographic expansion. We ask the question, what are the patterns of genetic affinity in these coral populations. We sampled coral tissue from populations of two species occurring on oil and gas platforms: Madracis decactis (hermatype) and Tubastraea coccinea (invasive ahermatype). We sampled 28 platforms along four transects from 20 km offshore to the continental shelf edge off 1) Matagorda Island, TX; 2) Lake Sabine, TX; 3) Terrebonne Bay, LA; and 4) Mobile, AL. The entire population of M. decactis was sampled between depths of 5 m and 37 m. T. coccinea populations were sub-sampled. Genetic variation was assessed using the PCR-based Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs). Data were analyzed via AFLPOP and STRUCTURE. Genetic connectivity among M. decactis platform populations was highest near the FGB and decreased to the east. Connectivity increased again in the eastern sector, indicating isolation between the populations from different sides of the Mississippi River (Transects 3 and 4). A point-drop in genetic affinity (relatedness) at the shelf edge south of Terrebonne Bay, LA indicated a population differing from all others in the northern GOM. Genetic affinities among T. coccinea were highest in the west and decreased to the east. Very low genetic affinities off Mobile, AL indicated a dramatic difference between those populations and those west of the Mississippi River, apparently a formidable barrier to larval dispersal.

  11. Study of Seismic Clusters at Bahía de Banderas Region, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Rutz-Lopez, M.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Trejo-Gomez, E.

    2010-12-01

    Given that the coast in the states of Jalisco and south of the state of Nayarit is located within a region of high seismic potential and also because population is increasing, perhaps motivated by the development of tourism, the Civil Defense authorities of Jalisco and the Centro de Sismología y Volcanología de Occidente-SisVOc of Universidad de Guadalajara started in the year 2000 a joint project to study the seismic risk of the region, including the seismic monitoring of Colima volcano (located between the states of Jalisco and Colima). This work focuses on the study of seismicity in the area of Bahía de Banderas and northern coast of Jalisco. To this end, we perform an analysis of available seismograms to characterize active structures, their relationship to surface morphology, and possible reach of these structures into the shallow parts of the bay. The data used in this work are waveforms recorded during the year 2003 during which the seismograph network spanned the region of study. Our method is based on the identification of seismic clusters or families using cross-correlation of waveforms, earthquake relocation and modeling of fault planes. From an initial data set of 404 earthquakes located during 2003, 96 earthquakes could be related to 17 potentially active continental structures. A modeling of fault planes was possible for 11 of these structures. Subgroups of 7 structures are aligned parallel to the Middle America Trench, a possible consequence of oblique subduction. The magnitudes of earthquakes grouped into families is less than 3.6 (Ml), corresponding to fault dimensions of hundreds of meters.

  12. Variaciones regionales de la mortalidad por homicidios en Jalisco, México Regional variations in homicide mortality in Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Vega-López

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio busca describir las variaciones regionales de la mortalidad por homicidios en el estado de Jalisco, México, en 1989-1991, 1994-1996 y 1999-2000, analizando a su vez el comportamiento de la tasa de homicidios según género y estratos de bienestar socioeconómico. A partir de la información sobre mortalidad generada por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía y Informática, se calcularon tasas ajustadas por edad y género e índices de sobremortalidad masculina. Además, se calcularon razones de tasa y su intervalo de confianza (95%. Los resultados reflejan que la tasa de homicidios presenta una tendencia decreciente en los años 90; que existe un patrón regional de la mortalidad por homicidios, observándose las tasas más altas en regiones periféricas del estado consideradas entre las más pobres; que los municipios ubicados en el estrato de bienestar más bajo presentan un exceso de mortalidad por homicidios estadísticamente significativo, y que hay una evidente sobremortalidad masculina por esta causa. Aspectos como los antes descritos implican tareas y desafíos para la salud pública y para los organismos encargados de preservar la ley y el orden, entre ellos la necesidad de implementar políticas intersectoriales diferenciadas, que tomen en consideración las particularidades que rodean al homicidio y al crimen violento en Jalisco.The present study describes regional variations in homicide rates in Jalisco State, Mexico, in 1989-1991, 1994-1996, and 1999-2000, analyzing the trends by gender and socioeconomic stratum. Using mortality data generated by the National Institute for Statistics, Geography, and Information Technology, homicide rates adjusted by age and gender were calculated, along with rate/female rate ratios; rate ratios by socioeconomic stratum and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. According to the results, the homicide rate showed: a downward trend in the 1990s; a regional

  13. [Sodium, potassium and calcium content in regional dishes consumed in Sonora, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva Haro, M I; Valencia, M E; Wyatt, J

    1990-06-01

    The content of sodium, potassium and calcium was determined in 15 regional dishes, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Na:K ratio was high in most of the dishes due to the high sodium content and low content of potassium found. The higher sources of the studied minerals were "tortilla de harina" with 1,372.8 mg/100 g of sodium; "chorizo con papas" with 466 mg/100 g of potassium, and "calabacitas con queso" with 244.1 mg/100 g of calcium. Two of the dishes considered as desserts, "capirotada" and "arroz con leche" showed the lowest Na:K ratio (0.66 and 0.81, respectively).

  14. Mortality trends and risk of dying from pulmonary tuberculosis in the 7 socioeconomic regions and the 32 States of Mexico, 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Barriga, Juan Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a world public health problem that still has a high morbidity and mortality rate mainly in countries with significant wealth gaps. Poverty, malnutrition, HIV infection, drug resistance, diabetes and addictions (mainly alcoholism) have been seen to contribute to the persistence of TB as an important health problem in Mexico. Death certificates associated with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) for 2000-2009 were obtained from the National Information System of the Secretariat of Health. Rates of mortality nationwide, by state, and by socioeconomic region were calculated. The strength of association between states where individuals resided, socioeconomic regions, and education with mortality from PTB was determined. Age-adjusted mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants who died from PTB decreased from 4.1 to 2 between 2000 and 2009. Men (67.7%) presented higher mortality than women (32.3%). Individuals failing to complete elementary education presented a higher risk of dying from PTB (RR 1.08 [95%CI: 1.05-1.12]). The socioeconomic region and the entities with the strongest association were region 1, 5, Chiapas and Baja California. Region 1 in 2007 presented RR 7.34 (95%CI: 5.32-10.13), and region 5 in 2009 had RR 10.08 (95%CI: 6.83-14.88). In Mexico, the annual mortality rate from PTB decreased. Men presented higher mortality than women. Individuals failing to complete elementary education showed a higher risk of dying from PTB. The states and regions of Mexico that presented a stronger association with mortality from PTB were Chiapas and Baja California, region 1 and 5. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Organic matter in surface sediments from the Gulf of Mexico and South China Sea: Compositions, distributions and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiping; Jia, Weili; Wang, Dong; Song, Zhiguang

    2017-07-15

    Sediments from the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and the South China Sea (SCS) were analyzed. The low δ 13 C values of pentamethylicosane (PMIs) and fatty acids (-81.3 to -85.2‰) were found in only the S-1 sample collected from the GOM, indicating that methanogenic archaea associated with gas hydrate formation contributed to the sediment organic matter. Principle component analysis of fatty acids suggested that similar microbial biomass was found in the S-1, S-9, O-3 and O-5 samples. However, a comparison of the alkanes, fatty acids, and alcohols indicated that the percentage of n-alkan-2-ols in the S-1 sample from the GOM was the highest, while n-alkanes and n-fatty acids were the highest percentages in other samples from the GOM and SCS. This finding suggests that microbial species or the oxidation/reduction environment of the sample site of S-1 were different from those of the other samples. The present study provides a basis for detecting gas hydrate sites on the seafloor of the SCS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Nitrogen delivery from the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin to the Gulf of Mexico: magnitude, attribution, and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Xu, R.; Yang, J.; Zhang, B.; Yao, Y.; Pan, S.; Cai, W. J.; Lohrenz, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    The northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), as one of the largest hypoxic zone in the world, is near the outlet of the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) that contributed to the increased fluxes of agriculturally derived nitrogen (N) since the 1950s. This increase of N exports could be primarily attributed to anthropogenic N inputs into the MARB (e.g., N fertilizer application), climate (e.g., precipitation), and land use change. A long-term data of monthly/annual dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) exports from the MARB to the GOM had been released by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) since the 1970s. However, on one hand, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) also plays an active role in supplying N for phytoplankton and bacteria in aquatic ecosystems; on the other hand, monitoring data provided by the USGS could not attribute the contributions of various factors to this N increase in the northern GOM. Here, we used a coupled hydrological-biogeochemical model, the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model, to examine changes in DIN (ammonium and nitrate) and DON exports from the MARB to the GOM during 1901 2014. Meanwhile, we investigated how climate variability, land use change, land management, and atmospheric chemistry affected the annual and seasonal patterns of N export in the study area.

  17. Demographic patterns of sedentary and non-sedentary populations: Jesuit missions in lowland South America and Franciscan Missions in the Sierra Gorda Region of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Jackson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses demographic patterns on Jesuit missions in lowlandSouth America (Chiquitos, Guaraní and the Sierra Gorda region of Mexico, including the effects of epidemics of highly contagious diseases such as smallpox and measles. It examines the differences in the demographic profile of sedentary and non-sedentary indigenous groups, as well as other factors that determined demographic patterns. It concludes that there were meaningful differences in demographic patterns.

  18. Transience and persistence of natural hydrocarbon seepage in Mississippi Canyon, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pineda, Oscar; MacDonald, Ian; Silva, Mauricio; Shedd, William; Daneshgar Asl, Samira; Schumaker, Bonny

    2016-07-01

    Analysis of the magnitude of oil discharged from natural hydrocarbon seeps can improve understanding of the carbon cycle and the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) ecosystem. With use of a large archive of remote sensing data, in combination with geophysical and multibeam data, we identified, mapped, and characterized natural hydrocarbon seeps in the Macondo prospect region near the wreck site of the drill-rig Deepwater Horizon (DWH). Satellite image processing and the cluster analysis revealed locations of previously undetected seep zones. Including duplicate detections, a total of 562 individual gas plumes were also observed in multibeam surveys. In total, SAR imagery confirmed 52 oil-producing seep zones in the study area. In almost all cases gas plumes were associated with oil-producing seep zones. The cluster of seeps in the vicinity of lease block MC302 appeared to host the most persistent and prolific oil vents. Oil slicks and gas plumes observed over the DWH site were consistent with discharges of residual oil from the wreckage. In contrast with highly persistent oil seeps observed in the Green Canyon and Garden Banks lease areas, the seeps in the vicinity of Macondo Prospect were intermittent. The difference in the number of seeps and the quantity of surface oil detected in Green Canyon was almost two orders of magnitude greater than in Mississippi Canyon.

  19. Statistical analysis of wind power in the region of Veracruz (Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino-Solorzano, Yoreley [Departamento de Ing Electrica-Electronica, Instituto Tecnologico de Veracruz, Calzada Miguel A. de Quevedo 2779, 91860 Veracruz (Mexico); Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge [Departamento de Energia, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Independencia, 13, 2a Planta, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    The capacity of the Mexican electricity sector faces the challenge of satisfying the demand of the 80 GW forecast by 2016. This value supposes a steady yearly average increase of some 4.9%. The electricity sector increases for the next eight years will be mainly made up of combined cycle power plants which could be a threat to the energy supply of the country due to the fact that the country is not self-sufficient in natural gas. As an alternative wind energy resource could be a more suitable option compared with combined cycle power plants. This option is backed by market trends indicating that wind technology costs will continue to decrease in the near future as has happened in recent years. Evaluation of the eolic potential in different areas of the country must be carried out in order to achieve the best use possible of this option. This paper gives a statistical analysis of the wind characteristics in the region of Veracruz. The daily, monthly and annual wind speed values have been studied together with their prevailing direction. The data analyzed correspond to five meteorological stations and two anemometric stations located in the aforementioned area. (author)

  20. Active Travel Behavior in a Border Region of Texas and New Mexico: Motivators, Deterrents, and Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Ipek N; Lee, Richard J

    2017-08-01

    Active travel has been linked with improved transportation and health outcomes, such as reduced traffic congestion and air pollution, improved mobility, accessibility, and equity, and increased physical and mental health. The purpose of this study was to better understand active travel characteristics, motivators, and deterrents in the El Paso, TX, region. A multimodal transportation survey brought together elements of transportation and health, with a focus on attitudinal characteristics. The analysis consisted of an initial descriptive analysis, spatial analysis, and multivariate binary and ordered-response models of walking and bicycling behavior. The motivators and deterrents of active travel differed for walkers, bicyclists, and noncyclists interested in bicycling. The link between active travel and life satisfaction was moderated by age, with a negative association for older travelers. This effect was stronger for bicycling than it was for walking. Based on the findings, several interventions to encourage walking and bicycling were suggested. These included infrastructure and built environment enhancements, workplace programs, and interventions targeting specific subpopulations.

  1. Spectroscopic study of honey from Apis mellifera from different regions in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frausto-Reyes, C.; Casillas-Peñuelas, R.; Quintanar-Stephano, JL; Macías-López, E.; Bujdud-Pérez, JM; Medina-Ramírez, I.

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze by Raman and UV-Vis-NIR Spectroscopic techniques, Mexican honey from Apis Mellífera, using representative samples with different botanic origins (unifloral and multifloral) and diverse climates. Using Raman spectroscopy together with principal components analysis, the results obtained represent the possibility to use them for determination of floral origin of honey, independently of the region of sampling. For this, the effect of heat up the honey was analyzed in relation that it was possible to greatly reduce the fluorescence background in Raman spectra, which allowed the visualization of fructose and glucose peaks. Using UV-Vis-NIR, spectroscopy, a characteristic spectrum profile of transmittance was obtained for each honey type. In addition, to have an objective characterization of color, a CIE Yxy and CIE L*a*b* colorimetric register was realized for each honey type. Applying the principal component analysis and their correlation with chromaticity coordinates allowed classifying the honey samples in one plot as: cutoff wavelength, maximum transmittance, tones and lightness. The results show that it is possible to obtain a spectroscopic record of honeys with specific characteristics by reducing the effects of fluorescence.

  2. Statistical analysis of wind power in the region of Veracruz (Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancino-Solorzano, Yoreley; Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    The capacity of the Mexican electricity sector faces the challenge of satisfying the demand of the 80 GW forecast by 2016. This value supposes a steady yearly average increase of some 4.9%. The electricity sector increases for the next eight years will be mainly made up of combined cycle power plants which could be a threat to the energy supply of the country due to the fact that the country is not self-sufficient in natural gas. As an alternative wind energy resource could be a more suitable option compared with combined cycle power plants. This option is backed by market trends indicating that wind technology costs will continue to decrease in the near future as has happened in recent years. Evaluation of the eolic potential in different areas of the country must be carried out in order to achieve the best use possible of this option. This paper gives a statistical analysis of the wind characteristics in the region of Veracruz. The daily, monthly and annual wind speed values have been studied together with their prevailing direction. The data analyzed correspond to five meteorological stations and two anemometric stations located in the aforementioned area. (author)

  3. Species-specific and regional volume models for 12 forest species in Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Simental-Cano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La estimación del volumen de árboles individuales es un aspecto relevante en la dendrometría y en la realización de inventarios forestales. Objetivo: Se evaluaron diferencias significativas en sistemas de ecuaciones aditivas para la estimación de volumen total de árboles individuales en nueve especies de Pinus (P. cooperi, P. durangensis, P. arizonica, P. leiophylla, P. teocote, P. engelmannii, P. lumholtzii, P. strobiformis y P. herrerae, y tres de Quercus (Q. sideroxyla, Q. durifolia y Q. rugosa, y entre unidades de manejo forestal regional (UMAFOR cuando se trata de una misma especie. Materiales y métodos: Para evaluar si el sistema de ecuaciones difiere entre especies de un mismo género y entre las UMAFOR para una misma especie, se utilizaron dos análisis estadísticos complementarios basados en el ajuste de un sistema reducido y un sistema completo de ecuaciones: la prueba F asociada al método de la suma adicional de cuadrados no lineales y el análisis de significancia de los parámetros. Resultados y discusión: Para la mayoría de las especies estudiadas, los sistemas de ecuaciones son significativamente diferentes. Se reporta la necesidad de utilizar modelos regionales en 10 de las 12 especies, exceptuando a P. strobiformis y Q. rugosa. Conclusión: Se recomienda el empleo de un modelo estatal para P. strobiformis y Q. rugosa.

  4. Petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment from the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline, Texas to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Thomas, Burt; Wong, Florence L.

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons were extracted and analyzed from shoreline sediment collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) coastline that could potentially be impacted by Macondo-1 (M-1) well oil. Sediment was collected before M-1 well oil made significant local landfall and analyzed for baseline conditions by a suite of diagnostic petroleum biomarkers. Oil residue in trace quantities was detected in 45 of 69 samples. With the aid of multivariate statistical analysis, three different oil groups, based on biomarker similarity, were identified that were distributed geographically along the nGOM from Texas to Florida. None of the sediment hydrocarbon extracts correlated with the M-1 well oil extract, however, the similarity of tarballs collected at one site (FL-18) with the M-1 well oil suggests that some oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill may have been transported to this site in the Florida Keys, perhaps by a loop current, before that site was sampled.

  5. Ocean Data Assimilation in the Gulf of Mexico Using 3D VAR Approach - Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturi, S.; Garraffo, Z. D.; Cummings, J. A.; Rivin, I.; Mehra, A.; Kim, H. C.

    2016-12-01

    Approaches to ocean data assimilation vary widely, both in terms of the sophistication of the method and the observations assimilated.A three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system, part of the Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation (NCODA) system developed at Navy Research Laboratory (NRL), is used for assimilating Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Sea Surface Height (SSH) in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). The NCODA 3DVAR produces simultaneous analyses of temperature, salinity, and vector velocity and uses all possible sources of ocean data observations.The Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) is used for the simulations, at 1/25o grid resolution for July 2011 period. After successful implementation of NCODA 3DVAR in the GoM, the system will be extended to the global ocean with the intent of making it operational.

  6. Investigation of population structure in Gulf of Mexico Seepiophila jonesi (Polychaeta, Siboglinidae using cross-amplified microsatellite loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunya Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Vestimentiferan tubeworms are some of the most recognizable fauna found at deep-sea cold seeps, isolated environments where hydrocarbon rich fluids fuel biological communities. Several studies have investigated tubeworm population structure; however, much is still unknown about larval dispersal patterns at Gulf of Mexico (GoM seeps. As such, researchers have applied microsatellite markers as a measure for documenting the transport of vestimentiferan individuals. In the present study, we investigate the utility of microsatellites to be cross-amplified within the escarpiid clade of seep vestimentiferans, by determining if loci originally developed for Escarpia spp. could be amplified in the GoM seep tubeworm, Seepiophila jonesi. Additionally, we determine if cross-amplified loci can reliably uncover the same signatures of high gene flow seen in a previous investigation of S. jonesi. Methods Seventy-seven S. jonesi individuals were collected from eight seep sites across the upper Louisiana slope (<1,000 m in the GoM. Forty-eight microsatellite loci that were originally developed for Escarpia laminata (18 loci and Escarpia southwardae (30 loci were tested to determine if they were homologous and polymorphic in S. jonesi. Loci found to be both polymorphic and of high quality were used to test for significant population structuring in S. jonesi. Results Microsatellite pre-screening identified 13 (27% of the Escarpia loci were homologous and polymorphic in S. jonesi, revealing that microsatellites can be amplified within the escarpiid clade of vestimentiferans. Our findings uncovered low levels of heterozygosity and a lack of genetic differentiation amongst S. jonesi from various sites and regions, in line with previous investigations that employed species-specific polymorphic loci on S. jonesi individuals retrieved from both the same and different seep sites. The lack of genetic structure identified from these populations supports the

  7. Lithosphere Structure of the Rivera Plate - Jalisco Block Contact Zone: Septentrional Region of the Islas Marías (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Ávalos, L. A.; Nunez, D.; Escalona-Alcazar, F. D. J.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.; Barba, D. C., Sr.; Danobeitia, J.

    2017-12-01

    The western margin of Mexico is a tectonic complex region where large earthquakes occurred with very destructive consequences, including the generation of big tsunamis. This fact is mainly the result of the Rivera plate subduction beneath the North American plate and the Jalisco Block implying a high potential seismic risk. In the north, between the Tamayo Fracture Zone and the Mesoamerican Trench, the Islas Marías region is a complex tectonic limit within the interaction of the Rivera plate oceanic crust and the Jalisco Block continental crust. In order to know the shallow and deep structure of the Rivera plate - Jalisco Block contact zone and to be able to determine these potential seismic sources, the TSUJAL geophysical experiment was carried out from 2012 to 2016. As part of this project, we present the results of the processed and analyzed MCS and WAS data along the TS09 and RTSIM01 seismic transects, respectively, across the septentrional region of Islas Marías. These marine seismic lines are coincident with 110 km length for MCS and 240 km for WAS, and perpendicular to the coastline with SW-NE orientation. The seismic sources used in this work aboard RRS James Cook consisted of 12 guns with a total capacity for WAS data of 5800 in3 every 120 s and 3540 in3 every 50 m for MCS data. The MCS data were acquired with a 5.85 km length streamer with a 468 active channels, while the WAS data were recorded by a network of 4 OBS and 27 land seismic stations. After data processing and joint interpretation, it was possible to determine that shallow structure is mainly constituted by normal faults associated to graben structures forming sedimentary basins with non-deformed sediments in the basement. While the deep structure is characterized by depths from 9 to 12 km in the oceanic crust and 18 to 21 km in the continental crust. The deepest layers of the upper mantle were determined up to 35 km depth. In this study, it was possible to calculate a dip angle between 6

  8. Role of forest conservation in lessening land degradation in a temperate region: the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo-Delgado, Lilia; López-García, José; Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2014-06-01

    With international concern about the rates of deforestation worldwide, particular attention has been paid to Latin America. Forest conservation programmes in Mexico include Payment for Environmental Services (PES), a scheme that has been successfully introduced in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve. To seek further evidence of the role of PES in lessening land degradation processes in a temperate region, the conservation state of the Cerro Prieto ejido within the Reserve was assessed by an analysis of changes in vegetation cover and land-use between 1971 and 2013. There were no changes in the total forest surface area, but the relative proportions of the different classes of cover density had changed. In 1971, closed and semi-closed forest occupied 247.81 ha and 5.38 ha, 82.33% and 1.79% of the total area of the ejido, respectively. By 2013, closed forest had decreased to 230.38 ha (76.54% of the ejido), and semi-closed cover was 17.23 ha (5.72% of the ejido), suggesting that some semi-closed forest had achieved closed status. The final balance between forest losses and recovery was: 29.63 ha were lost, whereas 13.72 ha were recovered. Losses were mainly linked to a sanitation harvest programme to control the bark beetle Scolytus mundus. Ecotourism associated with forest conservation in the Cerro Prieto ejido has been considered by inhabitants as a focal alternative for economic development. Consequently, it is essential to develop a well-planned and solidly structured approach based on social cohesion to foster a community-led sustainable development at local level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Temperature, salinity, chlorophyll pigments, nutrients and other parameters as part of the ECOHAB-GOM: The Ecology and Oceanography of Toxic Alexandrium Blooms in the Gulf of Maine project (NODC Accession 0064309)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The subproject described here is one of several components of ECOHAB-GOM: The Ecology and Oceanography of Toxic Alexandrium Blooms in the Gulf of Maine, a multi-PI,...

  10. An oilspill risk analysis for the Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf lease area; regional environmental impact statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBelle, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    An oilspill risk analysis was conducted for the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)lease area region. Results of the analysis can be used to determine relative risks associated with oil production in different regions to be offered in OCS Lease Sales 72, 74, and 79. The analysis considered the probability of spill occurrences based on historical trends; likely movement of oil slicks based on a climatological model; and locations of major environmental resources which could be vulnerable to spilled oil. The times between spill occurrence and contact with resources were estimated to aid in estimating slick characteristics. Critical assumptions made for this particular analysis were (1) that oil exists in the lease area, and (2) that oil will be, found and produced from tracts sold in sales 72, 74, and 79. On the basis of a most likely resource estimate of 241 million barrels of oil to be produced over an 18-year production life from sales to be held in 1983 (sales 72, 74, 79), it was calculated that approximately one oilspill of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur. The estimated probability that one or more oilspills of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur and contact land after being at sea less than 30 days is 41-percent. For a high resource estimate case of sales to be held in 1983, 717 million barrels are estimated to be produced over an 18-year production life with an 83-percent chance of one or more spills of 1,000 barrels or larger occurring and contacting land within 30 days. These results depend upon the routes and methods chosen to transport oil from OCS platforms to shore. Given a total development scenario in which 5.6 billion barrels of oil are estimated to be present and produced, it was calculated that 18 oilspills of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur over the 40-year production life of the proposed lease area. The estimated probability that one or more oilspills of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur and contact land after being at sea less than

  11. Water Resources Sustainability in Northwest Mexico: Analysis of Regional Infrastructure Plans under Historical and Climate Change Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, D.; Robles-Morua, A.; Mayer, A. S.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    The arid state of Sonora, Mexico, has embarked on a large water infrastructure project to provide additional water supply and improved sanitation to the growing capital of Hermosillo. The main component of the Sonora SI project involves an interbasin transfer from rural to urban water users that has generated conflicts over water among different social sectors. Through interactions with regional stakeholders from agricultural and water management agencies, we ascertained the need for a long-term assessment of the water resources of one of the system components, the Sonora River Basin (SRB). A semi-distributed, daily watershed model that includes current and proposed reservoir infrastructure was applied to the SRB. This simulation framework allowed us to explore alternative scenarios of water supply from the SRB to Hermosillo under historical (1980-2010) and future (2031-2040) periods that include the impact of climate change. We compared three precipitation forcing scenarios for the historical period: (1) a network of ground observations from Mexican water agencies; (2) gridded fields from the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) at 12 km resolution; and (3) gridded fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 10 km resolution. These were compared to daily historical observations at two stream gauging stations and two reservoirs to generate confidence in the simulation tools. We then tested the impact of climate change through the use of the A2 emissions scenario and HadCM3 boundary forcing on the WRF simulations of a future period. Our analysis is focused on the combined impact of existing and proposed reservoir infrastructure at two new sites on the water supply management in the SRB under historical and future climate conditions. We also explore the impact of climate variability and change on the bimodal precipitation pattern from winter frontal storms and the summertime North American monsoon and its consequences on water

  12. Outbreak of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor strain--La Huasteca Region, Mexico, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Quiñonez, Alberto; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; Montes-Colima, Norma; Moreno-Pérez, Asunción; Galicia-Nicolás, Adriana; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Carmona-Ramos, Concepción; Sánchez-Mendoza, Miroslava; Rodríguez-Martínez, José Cruz; Suárez-Idueta, Lorena; Jiménez-Corona, María Eugenia; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo

    2014-06-27

    On September 2 and 6, 2013, Mexico's National System of Epidemiological Surveillance identified two cases of cholera in Mexico City. Rectal swab cultures from both patients were confirmed as toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and virulence gene amplification (ctxA, ctxB, zot, and ace) demonstrated that the strains were identical to one another but different from strains circulating in Mexico previously. The strains were indistinguishable from the strain that has caused outbreaks in Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Cuba. The strain was susceptible to doxycycline, had intermediate susceptibility to ampicillin and chloramphenicol, was less than fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin, and was resistant to furazolidone and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. An investigation failed to identify a common source of infection, additional cases, or any epidemiologic link between the cases. Both patients were treated with a single, 300-mg dose of doxycycline, and their symptoms resolved.

  13. Oil-Spill Analysis: Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Lease Sales, Eastern Planning Area, 2003-2007 and Gulfwide OCS Program, 2003-2042

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The Federal Government plans to offer U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lands in the Eastern Planning Area of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) for oil and gas leasing. This report summarizes results of that analysis, the objective of which was to estimate the risk of oil-spill contact to sensitive offshore and onshore environmental resources and socioeconomic features from oil spills accidentally occurring from the OCS activities.

  14. Water, land, climate change and agrarian livelihood in an arid region riparian corridor: Rayón, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R.; Scott, C. A.; Curl, K.; House-Peters, L.; Buechler, S.

    2012-12-01

    Results of recent fieldwork in Rayón, Sonora, Mexico (funded by NSF's "Strengthening Resilience of Arid Region Riparian Corridors") indicate that the coupled natural and human (CNH) system that has persisted since the town's founding in 1626 is being degraded and destabilised by a confluence of social and ecological pressures. System change or loss of key system services and products has important implications for ecological services and human economic activity in the riparian corridor. Less water quantity is the primary factor responsible for driving system degradation and change. Drought caused by climate change is widely perceived by agriculturists as responsible for reduced water quantity in the riparian area. Reductions in water quantity are so severe that the once perennial Rio San Miguel did not run during 2012's summer months for the first time in residents' memory. Ninety-percent of wells are dry. Fields irrigated by surface-water acequias were not planted. Starvation or dehydration has thinned herd sizes. Residents fear they will lose the ability to practice their traditional livelihoods: ranching, farming and cheese production. Drought conditions and resource management in response to climatic change have had a net negative impact on ecological services. Agriculturists have responded to less forage and pasture for cattle by clearing mesquite forests, putting land into production, and increasing water demand. From interviews it appears this process is cyclical: agriculturists widely believe access to more water or an end to the drought are the only ways to improve conditions. Interviews also reveal (a) agriculturists view technology, especially that which is able to improve water-use efficiency, as means to reduce stress in the CNH system and (b) a holistic view that couples natural well-being to human well-being is absent from the majority of respondents' worldviews. Technological and adoption of holistic perceptions are adaptations that may potentially

  15. A study on rotational augmentation using CFD analysis of flow in the inboard region of the MEXICO rotor blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of data from existing as well as new full-rotor computational fluid dynamics computations on the MEXICO rotor, with focus on the flow around the inboard parts of the blades. The boundary layer separation characteristics on the airfoil sections in the inboard parts...

  16. Hydrocarbon Migration from the Micro to Macro Scale in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, C.; Marty, E.; Silva, M.; Natter, M.; Shedd, W. W.; Hill, J. C.; Viso, R. F.; Lobodin, V.; Krajewski, L.; Abrams, M.; MacDonald, I. R.

    2016-02-01

    In the Northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) at GC600, ECOGIG has been investigating the processes involved in hydrocarbon migration from deep reservoirs to sea surface. We studied two individual vents, Birthday Candles (BC) and Mega-Plume (MP), which are separated by 1km on a salt supported ridge trending from NW-SE. Seismic data depicts two faults, also separated by 1km, feeding into the surface gas hydrate region. BC and MP comprise the range between oily, mixed, and gaseous-type vents. In both cases bubbles are observed escaping from gas hydrate out crops at the sea floor and supporting chemosynthetic communities. Fluid flow is indicated by features on the sea floor such as hydrate mounds, authigenic carbonates, brine pools, mud volcanoes, and biology. We propose a model to describe the upward flow of hydrocarbons from three vertical scales, each dominated by different factors: 1) macro (capillary failure in overlying cap rocks causing reservoir leakage), 2) meso (buoyancy driven fault migration), and 3) micro (hydrate formation and chemosynthetic activity). At the macro scale we use high reflectivity in seismic data and sediment pore throat radii to determine the formation of fractures in leaky reservoirs. Once oil and gas leave the reservoir through fractures in the cap rock they migrate in separate phases. At the meso scale we use seismic data to locate faults and salt diapirs that form conduits for buoyant hydrocarbons follow. This connects the path to the micro scale where we used video data to observe bubble release from individual vents for extended periods of time (3h-26d), and developed an image processing program to quantify bubble release rates. At mixed vents gaseous bubbles are observed escaping hydrate outcrops with a coating of oil varying in thickness. Bubble oil and gas ratios are estimated using average bubble size and release rates. The relative vent age can be described by carbonate hard ground cover, biological activity, and hydrate mound formation

  17. La forja de Isidro Gomá como adalid del antirrepublicanismo en la Iglesia de España (1927-1933 Comment le cardinal Gomá devint le fer de lance de l’antirépublicanisme au sein de l’Église d’Espagne (1927-1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ceamanos Llorens

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo investiga la labor realizada por Isidro Gomá y Tomás al frente del obispado de Tarazona y Tudela (1927-1933. Gomá, arzobispo de Toledo y primado de la Iglesia de España (1933-1940, es una de las principales figuras por la que se han interesado los historiadores de la Guerra Civil española a causa del apoyo que concedió a los sublevados. Sin embargo, el período previo a su nombramiento como Primado permanece desconocido. En estas líneas se muestra como, durante su estancia en Tarazona, Gomá dirigió con mano firme su diócesis y, llegada la República, se enfrentó con contundencia a las reformas laicas, consolidándose como un referente fundamental en los medios integristas y antirrepublicanos católicos. Esta circunstancia llevó al Vaticano a pensar en él cuando decidió cubrir la vacante sede de Toledo.Cet article porte sur le travail réalisé par Isidro Gomá y Tomás lorsqu’il était à la tête de l’évêché de Tarazona et Tudela (1927-1933. Gomá, archevêque de Tolède et primat de l’Église d’Espagne (1933-1940, est l’une des figures principales à laquelle se sont intéressés les historiens de la guerre civile espagnole, notamment en raison de l’appui qu’il fournit aux révoltés. La période qui précéda sa nomination comme Primat reste toutefois méconnue. Les lignes qui suivent montrent comment Gomá a dirigé d’une main de fer son diocèse durant son séjour à Tarazona et comment il s’est radicalement opposé –après l’avènement de la République– aux réformes laïques, devenant ainsi un référent fondamental parmi les milieux intégristes et antirrépublicains catholiques. C’est d’ailleurs pour cela que le Vatican a pensé à lui lorsqu’il fallut pourvoir le siège de Tolède resté vacant.This article examines the work of Isidro Gomá y Tomás in the see of Tarazona and Tudela (1927-1933. Gomá, the archbishop of Toledo (1933-1940, is one of foremost personalities

  18. Developing Models to Predict the Number of Fire Hotspots from an Accumulated Fuel Dryness Index by Vegetation Type and Region in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Vega-Nieva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the linkage between accumulated fuel dryness and temporal fire occurrence risk is key for improving decision-making in forest fire management, especially under growing conditions of vegetation stress associated with climate change. This study addresses the development of models to predict the number of 10-day observed Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS active fire hotspots—expressed as a Fire Hotspot Density index (FHD—from an Accumulated Fuel Dryness Index (AcFDI, for 17 main vegetation types and regions in Mexico, for the period 2011–2015. The AcFDI was calculated by applying vegetation-specific thresholds for fire occurrence to a satellite-based fuel dryness index (FDI, which was developed after the structure of the Fire Potential Index (FPI. Linear and non-linear models were tested for the prediction of FHD from FDI and AcFDI. Non-linear quantile regression models gave the best results for predicting FHD using AcFDI, together with auto-regression from previously observed hotspot density values. The predictions of 10-day observed FHD values were reasonably good with R2 values of 0.5 to 0.7 suggesting the potential to be used as an operational tool for predicting the expected number of fire hotspots by vegetation type and region in Mexico. The presented modeling strategy could be replicated for any fire danger index in any region, based on information from MODIS or other remote sensors.

  19. The effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on seabed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dynamics in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Siddhartha; Lalicata, Joseph J; Allison, Mead A; Dellapenna, Timothy M

    2009-06-01

    To assess the extent to which Hurricanes Katrina and Rita affected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), sediment cores were analyzed in late 2005 from: a shallow shelf, a deeper shelf, and a marsh station. Sediment geochronology, fabric, and geochemistry show that the 2005 storms deposited approximately 10cm of sediment to the surface of a core at 5-12A. Bulk carbon geochemistry and PAH isomers in this top layer suggest that the source of sediment to the top portion of core 5-12A was from a relatively more marine area. Particulate PAHs in the marsh core (04M) appeared unaffected by the storms while sediments in the core from Station 5-1B (deeper shelf) were affected minimally (some possible storm-derived deposition). Substantial amounts of PAH-laden particles may have been displaced from the seabed in shallow areas of the water column in the GOM by these 2005 storms.

  20. Deep-water oilfield development cost analysis and forecasting —— Take gulf of mexico for example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Mingyu; Wang, Jianjun; Yi, Chenggao; Bai, Jianhui; Wang, Jing

    2017-11-01

    Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is the earliest offshore oilfield which has ever been developed. It tends to breed increasingly value of efficient, secure and cheap key technology of deep-water development. Thus, the analyze of development expenditure in this area is significantly important the evaluation concept of deep-water oilfield all over the world. This article emphasizes on deep-water development concept and EPC contract value in GoM in recent 10 years in case of comparison and selection to the economic efficiency. Besides, the QUETOR has been put into use in this research processes the largest upstream cost database to simulate and calculate the calculating examples’ expenditure. By analyzing and forecasting the deep-water oilfield development expenditure, this article explores the relevance between expenditure index and oil price.

  1. 3rd Singularity Theory Meeting of Northeast region & the Brazil-Mexico 2nd Meeting on Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Aurélio; Mond, David; Saia, Marcelo; Snoussi, Jawad; BMMS 2/NBMS 3; ENSINO; Singularities and foliations geometry, topology and applications

    2018-01-01

    This proceedings book brings selected works from two conferences, the 2nd Brazil-Mexico Meeting on Singularity and the 3rd Northeastern Brazilian Meeting on Singularities, that were hold in Salvador, in July 2015. All contributions were carefully peer-reviewed and revised, and cover topics like Equisingularity, Topology and Geometry of Singularities, Topological Classification of Singularities of Mappings, and more. They were written by mathematicians from several countries, including Brazil, Spain, Mexico, Japan and the USA, on relevant topics on Theory of Singularity, such as studies on deformations, Milnor fibration, foliations, Catastrophe theory, and myriad applications. Open problems are also introduced, making this volume a must-read both for graduate students and active researchers in this field.

  2. Navigating and circumventing a fragmented health system: the patient's pathway in the Sierra Madre Region of Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Rose Leonard; Palazuelos, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Mexico has implemented several important reforms in how health care for its poorest is financed and delivered. Seguro Popular, in particular, a recently implemented social insurance program, aims to provide new funds for a previously underfunded state-based safety net system. Through in-depth ethnographic structured interviews with impoverished farmers in the state of Chiapas, this article presents an analysis of Seguro Popular from the perspective of a highly underserved beneficiary group. Specific points of tension among the various stakeholders--the government system (including public clinics, hospitals, and vertical programs), community members, private doctors, and pharmacies--are highlighted and discussed. Ethnographic data presented in this article expose distinct gaps between national health policy rhetoric and the reality of access to health services at the community level in a highly marginalized municipality in one of Mexico's poorest states. These insights have important implications for the structure and implementation of on-going reforms. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  3. Prevalence and molecular identification of Chlamydia abortus in commercial dairy goat farms in a hot region in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Hernández, Eleuterio; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Saltijeral-Oaxaca, Jorge Antonio; Escalante-Ochoa, Cristina; López-Heydeck, Sandra M; de Oca-Jiménez, Roberto Montes

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and presence of Chlamydia abortus in Saanen breed female goats from commercial dairy goat farms under intensive production in the municipality of Guanajuato, Mexico. Sera were collected to determine the prevalence of anti-C. abortus IgG antibodies using recombinant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (rELISA) and cell culture. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to prove the presence of the pathogen in swab samples collected from the vagina and rectum of selected animals. Additionally, foetal tissue samples from a sudden abortion were collected. C. abortus prevalence in female goats of commercial milking farms sampled in Guanajuato, Mexico, was 4.87% (n = 246). Seropositive animals were found in six out of nine (66.6%) dairy goat farms sampled, and prevalence among animals in individual farms ranged between 3.44 and 13.51%. C. abortus was detected using PCR in spleen tissue from the aborted foetus. PCR-based detection, as well as isolation from vaginal and rectal swabs, was not possible in the present study. Isolation through cell culture was also unsuccessful from aborted foetal tissue samples. In conclusion, the results from rELISA and PCR show that C. abortus is present in dairy goat farms in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico.

  4. Passive acoustic monitoring of beaked whale densities in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, John A; Baumann-Pickering, Simone; Frasier, Kaitlin E; Trickey, Jennifer S; Merkens, Karlina P; Wiggins, Sean M; McDonald, Mark A; Garrison, Lance P; Harris, Danielle; Marques, Tiago A; Thomas, Len

    2015-11-12

    Beaked whales are deep diving elusive animals, difficult to census with conventional visual surveys. Methods are presented for the density estimation of beaked whales, using passive acoustic monitoring data collected at sites in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from the period during and following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010-2013). Beaked whale species detected include: Gervais' (Mesoplodon europaeus), Cuvier's (Ziphius cavirostris), Blainville's (Mesoplodon densirostris) and an unknown species of Mesoplodon sp. (designated as Beaked Whale Gulf - BWG). For Gervais' and Cuvier's beaked whales, we estimated weekly animal density using two methods, one based on the number of echolocation clicks, and another based on the detection of animal groups during 5 min time-bins. Density estimates derived from these two methods were in good general agreement. At two sites in the western GOM, Gervais' beaked whales were present throughout the monitoring period, but Cuvier's beaked whales were present only seasonally, with periods of low density during the summer and higher density in the winter. At an eastern GOM site, both Gervais' and Cuvier's beaked whales had a high density throughout the monitoring period.

  5. A MITgcm/DART ensemble analysis and prediction system with application to the Gulf of Mexico

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF)-based ocean data assimilation system for prediction of the evolution of the loop current in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). The system integrates the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) assimilation package with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ocean general circulation model (MITgcm). The MITgcm/DART system supports the assimilation of a wide range of ocean observations and uses an ensemble approach to solve the nonlinear assimilation problems. The GoM prediction system was implemented with an eddy-resolving 1/10th degree configuration of the MITgcm. Assimilation experiments were performed over a 6-month period between May and October during a strong loop current event in 1999. The model was sequentially constrained with weekly satellite sea surface temperature and altimetry data. Experiments results suggest that the ensemble-based assimilation system shows a high predictive skill in the GoM, with estimated ensemble spread mainly concentrated around the front of the loop current. Further analysis of the system estimates demonstrates that the ensemble assimilation accurately reproduces the observed features without imposing any negative impact on the dynamical balance of the system. Results from sensitivity experiments with respect to the ensemble filter parameters are also presented and discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Challenge of urban sewage disposal in a karst region: Mérida, Yucátan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, E. C.; Villasuso, M.

    2013-05-01

    Four hydrogeologic factors influence urban sewage management on the northern Yucátan (Mexico) Peninsula: 1) lack of rivers capable of transporting and/or oxidizing sewage, 2) near-surface flat-lying, porous, permeable limestone and dolomite with shallow layers of variable permeability but without major subsurface aquitards, 3) rapid groundwater transmission, penetration of seawater inland beneath a fresh water lens, and a flat water table only a few meters below land surface and controlled by sea level, 4) near absence of soil cover. Mérida, Yucátan (population approaching one million, approximately the world's 450th most populous city) has no central sewage system. The water table beneath the city is consistently only 7-9 m below land surface, and the 40 m-thick fresh water lens, which is the sole source of municipal, industrial, and agricultural water, directly overlies a marine intrusion of modified seawater composition. The old city has an estimated 130,000 drains feeding untreated household waste directly into the permeable karst aquifer. Numerous storm drains send street runoff directly to the aquifer. In addition, industries, hotels, and some subdivisions have unmonitored injection wells that pump untreated wastewater into the underlying saline intrusion. Some injection wells have flow problems possibly because of low aquifer permeability within the saline intrusion. Deep injection is also problematic because density contrast with saline intrusion water can produce a gravity imbalance, and high sulfate water can react with organic waste to produce H2S. Some city water supply wells are reportedly affected by inflation of the water table beneath the city, by local upconing of saline water, and by nitrate contamination. Paradoxically, Mérida with an abundant, easily contaminated source of fresh water, lacks streams to transport sewage off-site, and thus shares some water supply/sewage treatment problems with cities in arid regions. Recently, compact

  7. Efficacy of Cancer Care Communication Between Clinicians and Latino Patients in a Rural US-Mexico Border Region: a Qualitative Study of Barriers and Facilitators to Better Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunjeong; Zúñiga, María Luisa; Peacher, Diana; Palomino, Helen; Watson, Mercedes

    2018-02-01

    Quality of clinician-patient cancer communication is vital to cancer care and survivorship. Racial/ethnic minority patients in rural regions may have unique characteristics including cultural beliefs, language barriers, and low health literacy which require effective cross-cultural cancer communication. Despite the growing US population of racial/ethnic minorities and widespread emphasis on culturally appropriate health communication, little is known about challenges and facilitators of cancer communication among underserved rural Latino cancer patients in the US-Mexico border region. This study conducted secondary data analysis of interview data collected from 22 individual cancer patients living on the US side of the US-Mexico border. Thematic analysis was conducted to explore a priori questions regarding patient experiences with cancer care communication with their providers. Emerging themes included lack of language concordance, patient perspectives on clarity and accuracy of information provided, patient perceptions on provider sensitivity in giving cancer diagnosis, and improving the clinical interpersonal relationship. Practice guidelines are suggested and discussed. These findings illuminate the importance of advancing improvement of cancer communication between clinicians and Spanish language-dominant Latinos.

  8. Prevalence of bovine subclinical mastitis, its etiology and diagnosis of antibiotic resistance of dairy farms in four municipalities of a tropical region of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Pérez, Jaime; Kholif, Ahmed Eid; Rojas-Hernández, Saul; Elghandour, Mona Mohamed Mohamed Yasseen; Salem, Abdelfattah Zeidan Mohamed; Bastida, Adrian Zaragoza; Velázquez-Reynoso, David; Cipriano-Salazar, Moisés; Camacho-Díaz, Luis Miguel; Alonso-Fresán, María Uxúa; DiLorenzo, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    A region-wide survey was conducted in the tropical area of Tierra Caliente, State of Guerrero, Mexico to estimate the prevalence of subclinical bovine mastitis (SCM), distribution of mastitis pathogens, and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of different mastitis pathogens in dairy farms. In total, 1036 quarter milk samples were obtained from 259 cows at 87 different dairy farms. Collected quarter milk samples were submitted for California Mastitis Test (CMT), bacteriological examination, and testing for antimicrobial susceptibility. Overall prevalence of SCM in the studied area was 20.5 %. Prevalence in the different regions was as follows: 28 % in Arcelia municipality, 21 % in Tlalchapa municipality, 19.4 % in Pungarabato municipality, and 14.3 % in Finch Cutzamala municipality. Of all positive isolates, 97.5 % were Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, of all positive isolates, 37.5 % were Proteus vulgaris, 25 % Salmonella spp., 12.5 % Enterobacter aerogenes, and 10 % Escherichia coli. Klebsiella pneumonia and E. coli were sensitive for netilmicin antimicrobial. However, E. coli was sensitive for pefloxacin and gentamicin with a sensitivity for pefloxacin for E. aerogenes, while Staphylococci were sensitive for gentamicin and dicloxacillin. It could be concluded that practices such as the implementation of mastitis control programs, improved milking hygiene together with an intramammary treatment with netilmicin, pefloxacin, and gentamicin antimicrobials should be considered for mastitis prevention in the study area of Tierra Caliente, in the tropical area of Guerrero, Mexico.

  9. Understanding Critical Socio-political and Hydro-climatic drivers behind Water Management and Increasing Dengue Disease Burden in Arid Regions of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Johnson, K.; Frost, M.; Serman, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Dengue is a significant public health problem in Mexico, with distribution of dengue throughout the country. Mexico is characterized by a number of attributes likely to contribute to the spread of dengue, including population growth, poor water management, urbanization, significant seasonal migration, and concentrated poverty. Understanding the socio-political and hydro-climatic drivers behind the increasing dengue disease burden in the central arid regions of Mexico is a vital component for modeling the distribution and spread of Aedes aegypti vector borne infections such as Dengue and Zika as more parts of the Americas is affected. Here, we focus on the critical socio-economic and environmental drivers behind water management, urbanization, and population migration in the arid Oaxaca region, situated in the rain shadow of the Sierra Madre Mountains at an altitude of 5000 feet. In contrast to the Pacific Coastal region which hosts climactic conditions conducive to the survival of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with a moist tropical environment, Oaxaca is arid and exists in a constant state of water insecurity. Within Oaxaca City, water is trucked in and stored in large roof tanks; many of which are failing, allowing for leaks or mosquito infestation. Alternate sources range from existing cisterns, sophisticated collection systems, to open-air rock pits. Few resources exist to improve water security, particularly in poor neighborhoods creating a disincentive to invite surveillance for disease or to move to safer and improved water systems. Meanwhile, the region has experienced significant socio-political and demographic shift including migration, economic reorganization and urbanization over the last decade. The rise in dengue incidence during the dry season suggests human intervention (through migration, water management, sanitation, cultural practices) as a potentially important predictive factor. In this study, we analyze associations of regional hydroclimatic

  10. Modeling and direct sensitivity analysis of biogenic emissions impacts on regional ozone formation in the Mexico-U.S. border area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Dominguez, A; Wilkinson, J G; Yang, Y J; Russell, A G

    2000-01-01

    A spatially and temporally resolved biogenic hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions inventory has been developed for a region along the Mexico-U.S. border area. Average daily biogenic non-methane organic gases (NMOG) emissions for the 1700 x 1000 km2 domain were estimated at 23,800 metric tons/day (62% from Mexico and 38% from the United States), and biogenic NOx was estimated at 1230 metric tons/day (54% from Mexico and 46% from the United States) for the July 18-20, 1993, ozone episode. The biogenic NMOG represented 74% of the total NMOG emissions, and biogenic NOx was 14% of the total NOx. The CIT photochemical airshed model was used to assess how biogenic emissions impact air quality. Predicted ground-level ozone increased by 5-10 ppb in most rural areas, 10-20 ppb near urban centers, and 20-30 ppb immediately downwind of the urban centers compared to simulations in which only anthropogenic emissions were used. A sensitivity analysis of predicted ozone concentration to emissions was performed using the decoupled direct method for three dimensional air quality models (DDM-3D). The highest positive sensitivity of ground-level ozone concentration to biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions (i.e., increasing biogenic VOC emissions results in increasing ozone concentrations) was predicted to be in locations with high NOx levels, (i.e., the urban areas). One urban center--Houston--was predicted to have a slight negative sensitivity to biogenic NO emissions (i.e., increasing biogenic NO emissions results in decreasing local ozone concentrations). The highest sensitivities of ozone concentrations to on-road mobile source VOC emissions, all positive, were mainly in the urban areas. The highest sensitivities of ozone concentrations to on-road mobile source NOx emissions were predicted in both urban (either positive or negative sensitivities) and rural (positive sensitivities) locations.

  11. Regional climate on the breeding grounds predicts variation in the natal origin of monarch butterflies overwintering in Mexico over 38 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Brower, Lincoln P; Ramirez, M Isabel; Hobson, Keith A; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Altizer, Sonia; Norris, D Ryan

    2017-07-01

    Addressing population declines of migratory insects requires linking populations across different portions of the annual cycle and understanding the effects of variation in weather and climate on productivity, recruitment, and patterns of long-distance movement. We used stable H and C isotopes and geospatial modeling to estimate the natal origin of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America using over 1000 monarchs collected over almost four decades at Mexican overwintering colonies. Multinomial regression was used to ascertain which climate-related factors best-predicted temporal variation in natal origin across six breeding regions. The region producing the largest proportion of overwintering monarchs was the US Midwest (mean annual proportion = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.36-0.41) followed by the north-central (0.17; 0.14-0.18), northeast (0.15; 0.11-0.16), northwest (0.12; 0.12-0.16), southwest (0.11; 0.08-0.12), and southeast (0.08; 0.07-0.11) regions. There was no evidence of directional shifts in the relative contributions of different natal regions over time, which suggests these regions are comprising the same relative proportion of the overwintering population in recent years as in the mid-1970s. Instead, interannual variation in the proportion of monarchs from each region covaried with climate, as measured by the Southern Oscillation Index and regional-specific daily maximum temperature and precipitation, which together likely dictate larval development rates and food plant condition. Our results provide the first robust long-term analysis of predictors of the natal origins of monarchs overwintering in Mexico. Conservation efforts on the breeding grounds focused on the Midwest region will likely have the greatest benefit to eastern North American migratory monarchs, but the population will likely remain sensitive to regional and stochastic weather patterns. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Beyond fuelwood savings. Valuing the economic benefits of introducing improved biomass cookstoves in the Purepecha region of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Frapolli, Eduardo; Schilmann, Astrid; Berrueta, Victor M.; Riojas-Rodriguez, Horacio; Edwards, Rufus D.; Johnson, Michael; Guevara-Sangines, Alejandro; Armendariz, Cynthia; Masera, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Half of the world population relies on biomass for cooking, with very significant health as well as climate change impacts. Improved cookstoves have been disseminated as an alternative to reduce these impacts. However, few detailed studies about the economic benefits of improved cookstoves (ICS) interventions, including environmental and health co-benefits, exist to date. In this paper we perform a comprehensive economic evaluation of a dissemination program of ICS in rural Mexico. The resulting cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of the Patsari improved cookstove is presented, utilizing estimation of direct costs and benefits, including fuelwood savings, income generation, health impacts, environmental conservation, and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The analysis is based on comprehensive data obtained through monitoring studies carried out in the Study Area from 2003 to the present. Results show that Patsari cookstoves represent a viable economic option for improving living conditions of the poorest inhabitants of rural Mexico, with benefit/cost ratios estimated between 11.4:1 and 9:1. The largest contributors to economic benefits stemmed from fuelwood savings and reductions in health impacts, which constituted 53% and 28% of the overall benefit, respectively. (author)

  13. Effect of the US-Mexico border region in cardiovascular mortality: ecological time trend analysis of Mexican border and non-border municipalities from 1998 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Anaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An array of risk factors has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, and developing nations are becoming disproportionately affected by such diseases. Cardiovascular diseases have been reported to be highly prevalent in the Mexican population, but local mortality data is poor. The Mexican side of the US-Mexico border has a culture that is closely related to a developed nation and therefore may share the same risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. We wanted to explore if there was higher cardiovascular mortality in the border region of Mexico compared to the rest of the nation. Methods We conducted a population based cross-sectional time series analysis to estimate the effects of education, insurance and municipal size in Mexican border (n = 38 and non-border municipalities (n = 2360 and its association with cardiovascular age-adjusted mortality rates between the years 1998–2012. We used a mixed effect linear model with random effect estimation and repeated measurements to compare the main outcome variable (mortality rate, the covariates (education, insurance and population size and the geographic delimiter (border/non-border. Results Mortality due to cardiovascular disease was consistently higher in the municipalities along the US-Mexico border, showing a difference of 78 · 5 (95% CI 58 · 7-98 · 3, p < 0 · 001 more cardiovascular deaths after adjusting for covariates. Larger municipal size and higher education levels showed a reduction in cardiovascular mortality of 12 · 6 (95% CI 11 · 4-13 · 8, p < 0 · 001 deaths and 8 · 6 (95% CI 5 · 5-11 · 8, p < 0 · 001 deaths respectively. Insurance coverage showed an increase in cardiovascular mortality of 3 · 6 (95% CI 3 · 1-4 · 0, p < 0 · 001 deaths per decile point increase. There was an increase in cardiovascular mortality of 0 · 3 (95% CI −0 · 001-0 · 6

  14. The nuclear research in Mexico (1986-1994). Bibliometrics of papers published in journals outside of the Latin American region; La investigacion nuclear en Mexico (1986-1994). Bibliometria de trabajos publicados en revistas fuera de la region latinoamericana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido R, S A

    2007-07-01

    Mexican research in nuclear science during 1986-1994 has been studied through the bibliometric analysis of the output of scientific papers published by Mexican institutions in non Latin American journals of international circulation. Bibliographic references were compiled from the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) database as well as from proceedings and annual reports of Mexican research institutions within the field of interest. After careful normalization, data from the 920 detected papers were keyboarded and checked in a database used for the evaluation of the number of papers by discipline, source institutions and departments, authors, coauthors, publication year as well as publishing journals and their geographic origin, language of publication and the interactions of all these parameters. Results were expressed in reports, and summarized in tables and figures to visualize the state of this research field in Mexico. (Author)

  15. Gas Hydrate Characterization from a 3D Seismic Dataset in the Eastern Deepwater Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Dan

    2017-10-26

    The presence of a gas hydrate petroleum system and seismic attributes derived from 3D seismic data are used for the identification and characterization of gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater eastern Gulf of Mexico. In the central deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GoM), logging while drilling (LWD) data provided insight to the amplitude response of gas hydrate saturation in sands, which could be used to characterize complex gas hydrate deposits in other sandy deposits. In this study, a large 3D seismic data set from equivalent and distal Plio-Pleistocene sandy channel deposits in the deepwater eastern Gulf of Mexico is screened for direct hydrocarbon indicators for gas hydrate saturated sands.

  16. Performance Comparison of Four SolarWorld Module Technologies at the US DOE Regional Test Center in New Mexico: November 2016 - March 2017.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, Laurie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report provides a preliminary (three month) analysis for the SolarWorld system installed at the New Mexico Regional Test Center (RTC.) The 8.7kW, four-string system consists of four module types): bifacial, mono-crystalline, mono-crystalline glass-glass and polycrystalline. Overall, the SolarWorld system has performed well to date: most strings closely match their specification-sheet module temperature coefficients and Sandia 's f lash tests show that Pmax values are well within expectations. Although the polycrystalline modules underperformed, the results may be a function of light exposure, as well as mismatch within the string, and not a production flaw. The instantaneous bifacial gains for SolarWorld 's Bisun modules were modest but it should be noted that the RTC racking is not optimized for bifacial modules, nor is albedo optimized at the site. Additional analysis, not only of the SolarWorld installation in New Mexico but of the SolarWorld installations at the Vermont and Florida RTCs will be provide much more information regarding the comparative performance of the four module types.

  17. Process evaluation of a promotora de salud intervention for improving hypertension outcomes for Latinos living in a rural U.S.-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Victoria; Cacari Stone, Lisa; Moffett, Maurice L; Nguyen, PhoungGiang; Muhammad, Michael; Bruna-Lewis, Sean; Urias-Chauvin, Rita

    2014-05-01

    Hypertension is a growing public health problem for U.S.-Mexico border Latinos, who commonly experience low levels of awareness, treatment, and control. We report on a process evaluation that assessed the delivery of Corazón por la Vida, a 9-week promotora de salud-led curriculum to help Latinos manage and reduce hypertension risks in two rural/frontier counties in the New Mexico border region. Ninety-six adults participated in the program, delivered in three waves and in three communities. We assessed program delivery and quality, adherence, exposure, and participant responsiveness. Participant outcome measures included self-reported eating and physical activities and assessment of community resources. Findings suggest that the program was fully delivered (99%) and that most participants (81.7%) were very satisfied with the educational sessions. The average participant attendance for educational sessions was 77.47%. We found significant differences in self-reported behavioral changes depending on the number of sessions completed: The higher the dose of sessions, the better the self-reported outcomes. These findings suggest that a promotora-led curriculum may be useful for promoting self-management of chronic disease in rural/frontier border Latino populations. Future evaluation should focus on training and implementation adaptations within evidence-based chronic disease programs for diverse Latino communities.

  18. Powering Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines Mexico's demand for electricity and the market for independent power generation. The topics discussed in the article include the outlook for the 1990s for growth in Mexico's economy and energy demand, renewable energy, energy conservation, small-scale, off-grid renewable energy systems, and estimates of Mexico's market for electric power generating equipment

  19. Renewable Electricity Grid Integration Roadmap for Mexico. Supplement to the IEA Expert Group Report on Recommended Practices for Wind Integration Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Brian [Evergreen Renewable Consulting, Evergreen, CO (United States); Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Watson, Andrea [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Katz, Jessica [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bracho, Ricardo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-19

    As a recognized leader in efforts to mitigate global climate change, the Government of Mexico (GOM) works proactively to reduce emissions, demonstrating strong political will and capacity to comprehensively address climate change. Since 2010, the U.S. government (USG) has supported these efforts by partnering with Mexico under the Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program. Through the program, the USG has partnered with Mexico’s Ministry of Energy (SENER), as well as other government agencies, to support GOM in reaching its clean energy and climate change goals. Specifically, the EC-LEDS program is supporting GOM’s clean energy goal of generating 35% of its electricity from renewable energy (RE) by 2024. EC-LEDS, through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the U.S Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has been collaborating with SENER and GOM interagency working group—the Consejo Consultivo para las Energías Renovables (Consultative Council on Renewable Energy)—to create a grid integration roadmap for variable RE. 1 A key objective in creating a grid integration roadmap is assessing likely impacts of wind and solar energy on the power system and modifying planning and operations accordingly. This paper applies best practices in conducting a grid integration study to the Mexican context.

  20. Ectoparasites associated to two species of Corynorhinus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from the Guanaceví mining region, Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Guzman, Gabriel A; López-González, Celia; Vargas, Margarita

    2005-03-01

    As a part of an inventory of bats in abandoned mines at the municipality of Guanaceví, Durango, Mexico, a sample of long-eared bats (genus Corynorhinus) was collected and ectoparasites were taken. Twenty-three specimens of Corynorhinus mexicanus Allen, 1916, and 18 of Corynorhinus townsendii (Cooper, 1937) were collected in four sampling periods coincident with the seasons. In total, 98 ectoparasites of 10 species and seven families were examined. Five species are recorded for the first time on C. mexicanus and four on C. townsendii. Macronyssus cyclaspis and Trichobius corynorhini had the highest frequency of infestation in both bats. Differences in number of arthropods per bat among seasons were nonsignificant for both species.

  1. The nuclear research in Mexico (1986-1994). Bibliometrics of papers published in journals outside of the Latin American region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido R, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Mexican research in nuclear science during 1986-1994 has been studied through the bibliometric analysis of the output of scientific papers published by Mexican institutions in non Latin American journals of international circulation. Bibliographic references were compiled from the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) database as well as from proceedings and annual reports of Mexican research institutions within the field of interest. After careful normalization, data from the 920 detected papers were keyboarded and checked in a database used for the evaluation of the number of papers by discipline, source institutions and departments, authors, coauthors, publication year as well as publishing journals and their geographic origin, language of publication and the interactions of all these parameters. Results were expressed in reports, and summarized in tables and figures to visualize the state of this research field in Mexico. (Author)

  2. Amphibian and reptile biodiversity in the semi-arid region of the municipality of Nopala de Villagrán, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Monzón, Andrea J; Mendoza-Hernández, Andrés Alberto; Flores-Villela, Oscar

    2018-01-01

    Current global changes are putting both biodiversity and the processes that depend on it at risk. This is especially true for semi-arid regions and the flagship groups that inhabit them, such as amphibians and reptiles. Semi-arid regions are often thought to have lower biodiversity and thus have been overlooked, resulting in the underestimation of their biological richness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct an inventory of amphibians and reptiles in the semi-arid municipality of Nopala de Villagrán, Mexico, and analyze its biodiversity in relation to the seasons, vegetation and microhabitat. During a year of fieldwork, we found 24 species in the area, most of them of low abundance, and one of which was recorded for the first time for the state of Hidalgo. We documented five amphibian species and 19 reptile species. We also found that observed species richness was higher in the rainy season and in xeric scrub vegetation, although only the season differences were significant according to rarefaction curves. Our findings highlight the importance of seasonality and vegetation type for the species that inhabit this semi-arid region. This study broadens our understanding of the importance of semi-arid regions and, by extension, that of other areas with similar characteristics.

  3. Amphibian and reptile biodiversity in the semi-arid region of the municipality of Nopala de Villagrán, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J. Roth-Monzón

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Current global changes are putting both biodiversity and the processes that depend on it at risk. This is especially true for semi-arid regions and the flagship groups that inhabit them, such as amphibians and reptiles. Semi-arid regions are often thought to have lower biodiversity and thus have been overlooked, resulting in the underestimation of their biological richness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct an inventory of amphibians and reptiles in the semi-arid municipality of Nopala de Villagrán, Mexico, and analyze its biodiversity in relation to the seasons, vegetation and microhabitat. During a year of fieldwork, we found 24 species in the area, most of them of low abundance, and one of which was recorded for the first time for the state of Hidalgo. We documented five amphibian species and 19 reptile species. We also found that observed species richness was higher in the rainy season and in xeric scrub vegetation, although only the season differences were significant according to rarefaction curves. Our findings highlight the importance of seasonality and vegetation type for the species that inhabit this semi-arid region. This study broadens our understanding of the importance of semi-arid regions and, by extension, that of other areas with similar characteristics.

  4. Exploratory and spatial data analysis (EDA-SDA) for determining regional background levels and anomalies of potentially toxic elements in soils from Catorce-Matehuala, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiprés, J.A.; Castro-Larragoitia, J.; Monroy, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    The threshold between geochemical background and anomalies can be influenced by the methodology selected for its estimation. Environmental evaluations, particularly those conducted in mineralized areas, must consider this when trying to determinate the natural geochemical status of a study area, quantifying human impacts, or establishing soil restoration values for contaminated sites. Some methods in environmental geochemistry incorporate the premise that anomalies (natural or anthropogenic) and background data are characterized by their own probabilistic distributions. One of these methods uses exploratory data analysis (EDA) on regional geochemical data sets coupled with a geographic information system (GIS) to spatially understand the processes that influence the geochemical landscape in a technique that can be called a spatial data analysis (SDA). This EDA-SDA methodology was used to establish the regional background range from the area of Catorce-Matehuala in north-central Mexico. Probability plots of the data, particularly for those areas affected by human activities, show that the regional geochemical background population is composed of smaller subpopulations associated with factors such as soil type and parent material. This paper demonstrates that the EDA-SDA method offers more certainty in defining thresholds between geochemical background and anomaly than a numeric technique, making it a useful tool for regional geochemical landscape analysis and environmental geochemistry studies.

  5. Amphibian and reptile biodiversity in the semi-arid region of the municipality of Nopala de Villagrán, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Hernández, Andrés Alberto; Flores-Villela, Oscar

    2018-01-01

    Current global changes are putting both biodiversity and the processes that depend on it at risk. This is especially true for semi-arid regions and the flagship groups that inhabit them, such as amphibians and reptiles. Semi-arid regions are often thought to have lower biodiversity and thus have been overlooked, resulting in the underestimation of their biological richness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct an inventory of amphibians and reptiles in the semi-arid municipality of Nopala de Villagrán, Mexico, and analyze its biodiversity in relation to the seasons, vegetation and microhabitat. During a year of fieldwork, we found 24 species in the area, most of them of low abundance, and one of which was recorded for the first time for the state of Hidalgo. We documented five amphibian species and 19 reptile species. We also found that observed species richness was higher in the rainy season and in xeric scrub vegetation, although only the season differences were significant according to rarefaction curves. Our findings highlight the importance of seasonality and vegetation type for the species that inhabit this semi-arid region. This study broadens our understanding of the importance of semi-arid regions and, by extension, that of other areas with similar characteristics. PMID:29312825

  6. Homogenization and implementation of a 3D regional velocity model in Mexico for its application in moment tensor inversion of intermediate-magnitude earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Cardozo, Félix; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala; Caló, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Moment tensor inversions for intermediate and small earthquakes (M. < 4.5) are challenging as they principally excite relatively short period seismic waves that interact strongly with local heterogeneities. Incorporating detailed regional 3D velocity models permits obtaining realistic synthetic seismograms and recover the seismic source parameters these smaller events. Two 3D regional velocity models have recently been developed for Mexico, using surface waves and seismic noise tomography (Spica et al., 2016; Gaite et al., 2015), which could be used to model the waveforms of intermediate magnitud earthquakes in this region. Such models are parameterized as layered velocity profiles and for some of the profiles, the velocity difference between two layers are considerable. The "jump" in velocities between two layers is inconvenient for some methods and algorithms that calculate synthetic waveforms, in particular for the method that we are using, the spectral element method (SPECFEM3D GLOBE, Komatitsch y Tromp, 2000), when the mesh does not follow the layer boundaries. In order to make the velocity models more easily implementec in SPECFEM3D GLOBE it is neccesary to apply a homogenization algorithm (Capdeville et al., 2015) such that the (now anisotropic) layer velocities are smoothly varying with depth. In this work, we apply a homogenization algorithm to the regional velocity models in México for implementing them in SPECFEM3D GLOBE, calculate synthetic waveforms for intermediate-magnitude earthquakes in México and invert them for the seismic moment tensor.

  7. Las Islas de los Changos (the Monkey Islands): the economic impact of ecotourism in the region of Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos

    2006-05-01

    This study evaluates the popularity and economic impact of Las Islas de los Changos (the Monkey Islands) as an ecotourism site on Lake Catemaco in the Los Tuxtlas region of Veracruz, Mexico. Two small island colonies of exotic primates, stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides), have proved to be highly beneficial for the local economy as the main attraction for tourists in this region. From July 1991 to June 1992, data were collected on the number of tourists who took boat trips to visit the primates, and the amount of money spent on tours to the islands. The data suggest that at least 28,470 passengers visit these primate troops annually and spend approximately 88,970 U.S. dollars (USD). Follow-up questionnaires during July 1997 to June 2000 to hotelkeepers and tourist boat operators identified the Monkey Islands as the primary destination for tourists to this region. A comparison of the net income obtained by local ecotourism operators with wages earned through other types of employment in the Los Tuxtlas region, such as working in natural reserves, agriculture, or renting grazing land for cattle, show the relative importance of Las Islas de Los Changos in sustaining the local economy. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Risk screening for exposure to groundwater pollution in a wastewater irrigation district of the Mexico City region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, T J; Cifuentes-García, E; Suffet, I M

    1999-07-01

    Untreated wastewater from the Mexico City basin has been used for decades to irrigate cropland in the Mezquital Valley, State of Hidalgo, Mexico. Excess irrigation water recharges the near-surface aquifer that is used as a domestic water supply source. We assessed the groundwater quality of three key groundwater sources of domestic water by analyzing for 24 trace metals, 67 target base/neutral/acid (BNA) organic compounds, nontarget BNA organics, 23 chlorinated pesticides, 20 polychlorinated biphenyls, and nitrate, as well as microbiological contaminants--coliforms, Vibrio cholerae, and Salmonella. Study participants answered a questionnaire that estimated ingestion and dermal exposure to groundwater; 10% of the sample reported frequent diarrhea and 9% reported persistent skin irritations. Detection of V. cholerae non-01 in surface waters at all sites suggested a potential risk (surrogate indicator present) of diarrheal disease for canal and river bathers by accidental ingestion, as well as potential Vibrio contamination of near-surface groundwater and potential cholera risk, magnified by lapses in disinfection. High total coliform levels in surface water and lower levels in groundwater at all sites indicated fecal contamination and a potential risk of gastrointestinal disease in populations exposed to inadequately disinfected groundwater. Using chemical criteria, no significant risk from ingestion or dermal contact was identified at the method detection limits at any site, except from nitrate exposure: infants and young children are at risk from methemoglobinemia at all sites. Results suggest that pathogen risk interventions are a priority, whereas nitrate risk needs further characterization to determine if formal treatment is needed. The risks exist inside and outside the irrigation district. The method was highly cost-effective.

  9. Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...

  10. Acoustics Characterization of the Open Chapel´s St. Nicholas of Tolentino Ancient Monastery at Actopan [Hidalgo], Mexico. An example of regional heritage resignification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Javier García Alonso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the study of the acoustic behavior of the opened chapel from the “ex convento de San Nicolás de Tolentino”, located in the municipality of Actopan, state of Hidalgo, in Mexico. Such behavior is explained through the acoustic modeling; how at the time, a higher sound pressure level could be attained to cover a longer distance enabling to transmit the religious message to a multitude of parishioners. A collateral and brief historiographic analysis is made about the main function of the opened chapel, and has been complemented with this acustic analysis allowing us to pose new research horizons for this type of heritage buildings at the region.

  11. Impaired gamete production and viability in Atlantic croaker collected throughout the 20,000 km(2) hypoxic region in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Peter; Rahman, Md Saydur; Picha, Matthew E; Tan, Wenxian

    2015-12-15

    The long-term impacts of recent marked increases in the incidence and extent of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen Gulf of Mexico. Potential fecundity was significantly lower in croaker collected throughout the ~20,000 km(2) hypoxic region than in croaker from normoxic sites. In vitro bioassays of gamete viability showed reductions in oocyte maturation and sperm motility in croaker collected from the hypoxic sites in response to reproductive hormones which were accompanied by decreases in gonadal levels of membrane progestin receptor alpha, the receptor regulating these processes. The finding that environmental hypoxia exposure reduces oocyte viability in addition to decreasing oocyte production in croaker suggests that fecundity estimates need to be adjusted to account for the decrease in oocyte maturation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Patient-family EoL communication and its predictors: Reports from caregivers of Latino patients in the rural U.S.-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunjeong; Lee, Jaehoon; Ramirez, Carlos; Lopez, Denicka; Martinez, Stephanie

    2017-10-26

    Family caregivers play an important role in end-of-life (EoL) decision making when the patient is unable to make his/her own decisions. While communication about EoL care between patients and family is perhaps a first step toward advance care planning (ACP)/EoL decisions, not every culture puts great value on open communication about this topic. The aims of the present study were to explore EoL communication and the aspects of communication among caregivers of Latino patients in the rural United States (U.S.)-Mexico border region. This study analyzed data from a hospice needs assessment collected from 189 family caregivers of Latino patients at a home health agency in a rural U.S.-Mexico border region. Bivariate tests and logistic regression were used to address our aims. About half of the family caregivers (n = 96, 50.8%) reported to have ever engaged in EoL discussion with patients. Significant predictors of EoL discussion included life-sustaining treatment preference (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44, p EoL communication. Also, caregivers who worried that physicians might want to stop treatments (i.e., "pull the plug") too soon were less likely to do so. Conversely, caregivers who had knowledge about ADs were more likely to engage in EoL communication. EoL communication is a complex process influenced by individual, social, and cultural values and the beliefs of both the patient and his/her family. Inclusion of family caregivers in the ACP process and facilitating culturally tailored EoL communication between patients and family caregivers is important.

  13. Options to improve family income, labor input and soil organic matter balances by soil management and maize–livestock interactions. Exploration of farm-specific options for a region in Southwest Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Sanchez, D.; Groot, J.C.J.; Lantinga, E.A.; Kropff, M.J.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Farming systems in the Costa Chica region in Mexico face limitations linked to low yields and soil fertility degradation. Several alternative maize-based cropping systems have been proposed to improve current limitations. These field-level options need to be evaluated at farm level in order to

  14. La geopolítica de México en Centro América: ¿una hegemonía regional? Mexico's geopolitics in Central America: regional hegemony?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rocha

    2006-12-01

    analizar el Mecanismo de Diálogo y Concertación de Tuxtla-Gutiérrez y sus tres ámbitos de operación: 1. El ámbito político. 2. El ámbito del desarrollo. 3. El ámbito de la cooperación técnica regional. 4. El ámbito económico, comercial y financiero.Mexico as well as Brazil (first decade of 2000 started to release geo-economic and geo-political projections about their unmediated surroundings (their region of belonging and their mediated surroundings (their neighboring region, besides playing major political roles in their far surroundings (the Latin American and Caribbean region and their remote surroundings (the American continent. As a result, we have proposed and developed the idea that such situations and realities are those of processes of constitution of States with "sub-hegemonic" roles, with their respective functions of "sub-hegemony". We therefore ask the following question: Why are both Mexico and Brazil defining "sub-hegemonic" roles? Are such roles and functions possible within a continental space where a "superpower" exerts unquestionable "supremacy" besides seeking to redefine its "hegemony" (the one now undergoing a crisis? In order to work on the theme of Mexico's geopolitical relations with Central America, we have carried out four approximations: Mexico's current stance; historical background of the relations; process of institutionalization of cooperation; and field of action of the relations. Besides, the work is concluded with some ideas about Mexico's geopolitical view. The approximation to Mexico's structural stance in the world and in the American Continent seeks to highlight realities in its condition of semiperipheral and "sub-hegemonic" country. The historical approximation leads to the 1980s and the 1990s, when the background for Mexico's cooperation with Central America is established and that cooperation is started and strengthened. The institutional approximation, focused on the 1990s and the early 2000s, approaches the field of

  15. Large-scale deposition of weathered oil in the Gulf of Mexico following a deep-water oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Isabel C; Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Diercks, Arne-R; Schwing, Patrick; Muller-Karger, Frank; Murawski, Steven; Hollander, David J

    2017-09-01

    The blowout of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling rig in 2010 released an unprecedented amount of oil at depth (1,500 m) into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Sedimentary geochemical data from an extensive area (∼194,000 km 2 ) was used to characterize the amount, chemical signature, distribution, and extent of the DWH oil deposited on the seafloor in 2010-2011 from coastal to deep-sea areas in the GoM. The analysis of numerous hydrocarbon compounds (N = 158) and sediment cores (N = 2,613) suggests that, 1.9 ± 0.9 × 10 4 metric tons of hydrocarbons (>C9 saturated and aromatic fractions) were deposited in 56% of the studied area, containing 21± 10% (up to 47%) of the total amount of oil discharged and not recovered from the DWH spill. Examination of the spatial trends and chemical diagnostic ratios indicate large deposition of weathered DWH oil in coastal and deep-sea areas and negligible deposition on the continental shelf (behaving as a transition zone in the northern GoM). The large-scale analysis of deposited hydrocarbons following the DWH spill helps understanding the possible long-term fate of the released oil in 2010, including sedimentary transformation processes, redistribution of deposited hydrocarbons, and persistence in the environment as recycled petrocarbon. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutritional status and dental fluorosis among schoolchildren in communities with different drinking water fluoride concentrations in a central region in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irigoyen-Camacho, M E; García Pérez, A; Mejía González, A; Huizar Alvarez, R

    2016-01-15

    Poor water quality and under nutrition are important factors affecting the health of many communities in developing countries. The aims of this study were: i) to describe the fluoride water concentration and the hydrogeological conditions in a region of a state located in the central in Mexico ii) to measure the association between undernutrition and dental fluorosis in children living in communities with different drinking water fluoride concentrations in a state located in the central region of Mexico. Field work was performed in the region to identify the prevailing groundwater flow characteristics and water wells were sampled to analyze water fluoride concentration. Children were selected from three communities that had different drinking water fluoride concentrations (i.e., 0.56, 0.70 and 1.60 mg/l). Fluoridated salt was available in these communities. The Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index (TFI) was used to assess dental fluorosis. Categories four or higher of this index involve changes in the entire tooth surface (ITF ≥ 4). The weight and height of the children were measured. The assessment of undernutrition was based on the World Health Organization criteria: children were classified as being at risk of low-height (Height-for-Age Z score water captured by the wells is the result of a reaction with volcanic materials. The water fluoride concentration in the region ranged from 0.2 to 1.6 mg/l. A total of 734 schoolchildren participated in the study. The percentage of children in fluorosis categories (ITF ≥ 4) was 15.9%, 21.1% of the children were at risk of low height-for-age, and 8.0% had low height-for-age. The percentage of children with fluorosis (ITF ≥ 4) was 6.3%, 9.1% and 31.9% (p ˂ 0.001) and low high-for-age was 2.9%, 2.5% and 8.4% (p ˂ 0.001), for the communities with F concentrations of 0.56 mg/l, 0.70 mg/l and 1.6 mg/l, respectively. The logistic regression model showed an association between dental fluorosis (TFI ≥ 4) and low height-for-age (OR

  17. PREVALENCE OF Cryptosporidium spp. AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS IN FEMALE CALVES IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Romero Salas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and its associated risk factors in female calves in central Veracruz, Mexico. A cross-sectional study with a convenience sampling was conducted. One fecal sample was obtained from each of 120 female calves. The lateral flow immunochromatographic (LFIC and the Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN tests were performed. A questionnaire was applied in each farm to obtain individual and herd information. Overall prevalence was 3.33% (CI95% 1-8 through LFIC and 12.50% (CI95% 8-20 through ZN. Prevalence by municipality was 0 to 9.1% (CI95% 0.03-0.24 through LFIC and 0 to 30.43% (CI95% 16-51 through ZN. Prevalence by age was 0% at 31-45 days and 9.10% at 1-15 days through LFIC, and 0% at 31-45 days and 18.8% at 1-15 days through ZN. The calves with diarrhea had the highest prevalence, which was 14.3% (CI95% 3-51 through LFIC and 57.1% (CI95% 25-84 through ZN. The protective factors were calves housed in individual stalls, compared with those in common stalls but separated one from the other (OR=0.27; 0.09-0.85, P

  18. A Detailed Analysis of Aerosols Containing Zn, Pb, and Cl from an Industrial Region of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffet, R. C.; Desyaterik, Y.; Hopkins, R. J.; Tivanski, A. V.; Gilles, M. K.; Shutthanandan, V.; Molina, L. T.; Gonzalez-Abraham, R.; Johnson, K. S.; Mugica, V.; Molina, M. J.; Laskin, A.; Prather, K. A.

    2008-12-01

    Measurements in the Northern Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the March, 2006 MILAGRO campaign revealed the frequent appearance of particles with a characteristically high content of internally mixed Zn, Pb, Cl, and P. A detailed analysis of the chemical and physical properties of these particles was performed using a complementary combination of aerosol measurement techniques. Single particles were analyzed using Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS) and Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (CCSEM/EDX). Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of bulk aerosol samples provided time-resolved mass concentrations of individual elements. The PIXE measurements indicated that Zn is more strongly correlated with Cl than with any other element and that Zn concentrations are higher than other non-ferrous transition metals. The Zn- and Pb - containing particles have both spherical and non-spherical morphologies. Many metal rich particles had needle-like structures and were found to be composed of ZnO and/or Zn(NO3)2-6H2O as indicated by scanning transmission x-ray microscopy/near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). The Zn and Pb rich particles were primarily in the submicron size range and internally mixed with elemental carbon. The unique chemical associations most closely match signatures acquired for garbage incineration.

  19. Depression, Self-Esteem, and Childhood Abuse Among Hispanic Men Residing in the U.S.-Mexico Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Mata, Holly J; Tomaka, Joe; De Santis, Joseph P

    Hispanics experience health disparities in mental health and HIV infection when compared to non-Hispanic Whites, which may be related to childhood abuse. The purpose of our cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in a sample of Hispanic men (N = 103) living in a metropolitan U.S.-Mexico border area. Secondarily, we examined the role of self-esteem in mediating this relationship, and the moderating role of sexual orientation. Gay/bisexual men (n = 53) were more likely to report childhood abuse than heterosexual (n = 50) counterparts (47.2% vs. 32%). Self-esteem mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and depression for men who have sex with men, but not heterosexual men. Nurses should increase knowledge of mental health disparities that impact Hispanic men to ensure that appropriate treatment can be provided to reduce the risk of co-occurring health risks to these men, including risk for HIV infection. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Movement patterns of Antillean manatees in Chetumal Bay (Mexico) and coastal Belize: A challenge for regional conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Padilla-Saldivar, J.; Hernández-Arana, Héctor Abuid; Slone, D.H.; Reid, J.P.; Morales-Vela, B.

    2013-01-01

    Information from 15 satellite-tracked Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) was analyzed in order to assess individual movements, home ranges, and high-use areas for conservation decisions. Manatees were captured in Chetumal Bay, Mexico, and tagged with Argos-monitored satellite transmitters. Location of the manatees and physical characteristics were assessed to describe habitat properties. Most manatees traveled to freshwater sources. The Maximum Area Size (MAS) for each manatee was determined using the observation-area method. Additional kernel densities of 95% home range and 50% Center of Activity (COA) were also calculated, with manatees having 1–3 COAs. Manatees exhibited two different movement patterns: remaining in Chetumal Bay, and long-distance (up to 240 km in 89 d). The residence time in Chetumal Bay was higher for females (89.6% of time) than for males (72.0%), but the daily travel rate (0.4–0.5 km/d) was similar for both sexes. Most of the COAs fell within Natural Protected Areas (NPA). However, manatees also travel for long distances into unprotected areas, where they face uncontrolled boat traffic, fishing activities, and habitat loss. Conservation of movement corridors may promote long-distance movements and facilitate genetic exchange.

  1. Investigation into avian mortality in the Playa Lakes region of southeastern New Mexico: Final Report - June 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dein, F. Joshua; Baeten, Laurie A.; Moore, Melody K.; Samuel, Michael D.; Miller, Paul D.; Murphy, Christopher; Sissler, Steven; Jeske, Clinton W.; Jehl, Joseph R.; Yaeger, J. S.; Bauer, B.; Mahoney, Shiela A.

    1997-01-01

    This Final Report is a review of work on a cooperative study undertaken by the USGS Biological Resources Division's National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC; formerly the Southern Science Center) from 1994 through 1997. The study was initiated at the request of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), through a request to the former National Biological Service. The Southeastern New Mexico Playa Lakes Coordinating Committee (SENMPLCC) played an important role in outlining the research needs. The initial Study Plan document, which outlines the background, objectives and methods for the first two years is available as Appendix 1. A letter indicating modifications to the Study Plan was sent to the SENMPLCC chair on April 25,1995, and is Appendix 2. An Interim Report, covering this work was completed and submitted in September 1995. The Literature Review section of the study was completed and presented to SENMPLCC in August, 1995. Following SENMPLCC review, NWHC was asked to develop a series of questions that could be posed from information gained in the initial phase (Appendix 3). The NWHC and NWRC were then directed to begin work to answer the top three questions, within the available fiscal resources. NWRC could continue with work outlined under the original Study Plan (Appendix 1), however an additional Study Plan for experiments performed by NWHC and collaborators and is available as Appendix 4.

  2. Heavy oil reservoir evaluation : performing an injection test using DST tools in the marine region of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaiza, J.; Ruiz, P. [Halliburton, Mexico City (Mexico); Barrera, D.; Gutierrez, F. [Pemex, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    This paper described an injection test conducted to evaluate heavy oil reserves in an offshore area of Mexico. The drill-stem testing (DST) evaluation used a fluid injection technique in order to eliminate the need for artificial lift and coiled tubing. A pressure transient analysis method was used to determine the static pressure of the reservoir, effective hydrocarbon permeability, and formation damage. Boundary effects were also characterized. The total volume of the fluid injection was determined by analyzing various reservoir parameters. The timing of the shut-in procedure was determined by characterizing rock characteristics and fluids within the reservoir. The mobility and diffusivity relationships between the zones with the injection fluids and reservoir fluids were used to defined sweep fluids. A productivity analysis was used to predict various production scenarios. DST tools were then used to conduct a pressure-production assessment. Case histories were used to demonstrate the method. The studies showed that the method provides a cost-effective means of providing high quality data for productivity analyses. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  3. Black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from vehicles in the United States-Mexico border region: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kerry; Wagner, David; Lighty, JoAnn; Quintero Núñez, Margarito; Vazquez, F Adrian; Collins, Kimberly; Barud-Zubillaga, Alberto

    2006-03-01

    The investigators developed a system to measure black carbon (BC) and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission factors during roadside sampling in four cities along the United States-Mexico border, Calexico/Mexicali and El Paso/Juarez. The measurement system included a photoacoustic analyzer for BC, a photoelectric aerosol sensor for particle-bound PAHs, and a carbon dioxide (CO2) analyzer. When a vehicle with measurable emissions passed the system probe, corresponding BC, PAH, and CO2 peaks were evident, and a fuel-based emission factor was estimated. A picture of each vehicle was also recorded with a digital camera. The advantage of this system, compared with other roadside methods, is the direct measurement of particulate matter components and limited interference from roadside dust. The study revealed some interesting trends: Mexican buses and all medium-duty trucks were more frequently identified as high emitters of BC and PAH than heavy-duty trucks or passenger vehicles. In addition, because of the high daily mileage of buses, they are good candidates for additional study. Mexican trucks and buses had higher average emission factors compared with U.S. trucks and buses, but the differences were not statistically significant. Few passenger vehicles had measurable BC and PAH emissions, although the highest emission factor came from an older model passenger vehicle licensed in Baja California.

  4. Satisfaccion laboral en los tecnologicos nacionales de Mexico de la region snoreste: Un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Humberto Vela Quintero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine information regarding the level of job satisfaction of the Mexican Institutes of Technology (TecNM. in northeastern México with a structural equation model. The methodology designed to explain job satisfaction level consisted of a survey questioner with 37 questions applied to a sample of 485 professors and administrators from the National Institutes of Technology located in Tamaulipas Mexico (Cd. Victoria, Matamoros, Nuevo Laredo, Nuevo León (Linares City and Coahuila (Saltillo. The sample was random, stratified, and structured with questions mostly using a Likert scale. Six fundamental hypotheses were formulated for testing a structural equation model with job satisfaction as dependent variable. A database of cross section data was created with the sample, and processed with a statistical data analysis software called SmartPLS V. 2.0 (M3. The results of the structural model show that two of the five constructs are highly relevant and statistically significant on their impact on job satisfaction and they refer to the benefits received by employees and the working environment we live in institutions. It is concluded generally that the perception we have in relation to variables that influence job satisfaction are not significant as we think.

  5. Carlos García Gual, Javier Gomá Lanzón, Fernando Savater. Muchas felicidades. Tres visiones y más de la idea de felicidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Laguna Mariscal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carlos García Gual, Javier Gomá Lanzón, Fernando Savater. Muchas felicidades. Tres visiones y más de la idea de felicidad. Madrid: Ariel, 2015, 207 pp. ISBN: 978-84-344-1892-9.

  6. Southwestern Regional Partnership For Carbon Sequestration (Phase 2): Pump Canyon CO2-ECBM/Sequestration Demonstration, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Within the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP), three demonstrations of geologic CO 2 sequestration are being performed -- one in an oilfield (the SACROC Unit in the Permian basin of west Texas), one in a deep, unmineable coalbed (the Pump Canyon site in the San Juan basin of northern New Mexico), and one in a deep, saline reservoir (underlying the Aneth oilfield in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah). The Pump Canyon CO 2 -enhanced coalbed methane (CO 2 /ECBM) sequestration demonstration project plans to demonstrate the effectiveness of CO 2 sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams via a small-scale geologic sequestration project. The site is located in San Juan County, northern New Mexico, just within the limits of the high-permeability fairway of prolific coalbed methane production. The study area for the SWP project consists of 31 coalbed methane production wells located in a nine section area. CO 2 was injected continuously for a year and different monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) techniques were implemented to track the CO 2 movement inside and outside the reservoir. Some of the MVA methods include continuous measurement of injection volumes, pressures and temperatures within the injection well, coalbed methane production rates, pressures and gas compositions collected at the offset production wells, and tracers in the injected CO 2 . In addition, time-lapse vertical seismic profiling (VSP), surface tiltmeter arrays, a series of shallow monitoring wells with a regular fluid sampling program, surface measurements of soil composition, CO 2 fluxes, and tracers were used to help in tracking the injected CO 2 . Finally, a detailed reservoir model was constructed to help reproduce and understand the behavior of the reservoir under production and injection operation. This report summarizes the different phases of the project, from permitting through site closure, and gives the results of the different MVA techniques.

  7. 'La fiebre de Malta': An Interface of Farmers and Caprine Brucellosis Control Policies in the Bajío Region, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseguera Montiel, D; Udo, H M J; Frankena, K; van der Zijpp, A

    2017-02-01

    This article shows that socio-economic factors, defined here as practices, knowledge, interests, beliefs and experiences have a role in the adoption of brucellosis control strategies in the Bajío region, Mexico. We combined qualitative and quantitative methods to show that socio-economic factors with regard to goat husbandry and brucellosis control are not taken into account in the current policy to combat the disease in Mexico. Farmers ranked constraints like the price of goat milk more important than the control of the disease. The impact of brucellosis in goats is hidden to farmers, and the term brucellosis is still a strange name to them; it is better known as 'la fiebre de Malta' (Malta fever), which farmers are aware of and which they avoid by not drinking goat milk. Brucellosis control measures cause losses such as abortion due to vaccination and ear infections due to ear tagging. In the villages of the state of Michoacán, the uptake of a vaccination and testing programme was almost complete because it was offered for free, whereas in villages of Jalisco, vaccination was not adopted thoroughly because the cost of vaccination was high for farmers and because of a lack of veterinarians offering the service. Neither compensation for culling suspected infected goats does exist nor the infrastructure, like slaughterhouses, to ensure that goats that are brucellosis seropositive are not resold to neighbouring farmers. This article disputes the idea that brucellosis is confined to the lack of awareness and participation of farmers in control measures, but rather that policies are promulgated without a good knowledge of goat husbandry and farmers' perceptions. We claim that governmental authorities should reformulate the policy to take into account socio-economic factors shaping farmers' behaviour so that effective control measures will be adopted by goat farmers. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Southwestern Regional Partnership For Carbon Sequestration (Phase 2) Pump Canyon CO2- ECBM/Sequestration Demonstration, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Resources International

    2010-01-31

    Within the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP), three demonstrations of geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration are being performed -- one in an oilfield (the SACROC Unit in the Permian basin of west Texas), one in a deep, unmineable coalbed (the Pump Canyon site in the San Juan basin of northern New Mexico), and one in a deep, saline reservoir (underlying the Aneth oilfield in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah). The Pump Canyon CO{sub 2}-enhanced coalbed methane (CO{sub 2}/ECBM) sequestration demonstration project plans to demonstrate the effectiveness of CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams via a small-scale geologic sequestration project. The site is located in San Juan County, northern New Mexico, just within the limits of the high-permeability fairway of prolific coalbed methane production. The study area for the SWP project consists of 31 coalbed methane production wells located in a nine section area. CO{sub 2} was injected continuously for a year and different monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) techniques were implemented to track the CO{sub 2} movement inside and outside the reservoir. Some of the MVA methods include continuous measurement of injection volumes, pressures and temperatures within the injection well, coalbed methane production rates, pressures and gas compositions collected at the offset production wells, and tracers in the injected CO{sub 2}. In addition, time-lapse vertical seismic profiling (VSP), surface tiltmeter arrays, a series of shallow monitoring wells with a regular fluid sampling program, surface measurements of soil composition, CO{sub 2} fluxes, and tracers were used to help in tracking the injected CO{sub 2}. Finally, a detailed reservoir model was constructed to help reproduce and understand the behavior of the reservoir under production and injection operation. This report summarizes the different phases of the project, from permitting through site closure, and gives the

  9. Deepwater Horizon oil in Gulf of Mexico waters after 2 years: transformation into the dissolved organic matter pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Thomas S; Osburn, Christopher; Shields, Michael R; Yvon-Lewis, Shari; Young, Jordan; Guo, Laodong; Zhou, Zhengzhen

    2014-08-19

    Recent work has shown the presence of anomalous dissolved organic matter (DOM), with high optical yields, in deep waters 15 months after the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Here, we continue to use the fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) technique coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) modeling, measurements of bulk organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), oil indices, and other optical properties to examine the chemical evolution and transformation of oil components derived from the DWH in the water column of the GOM. Seawater samples were collected from the GOM during July 2012, 2 years after the oil spill. This study shows that, while dissolved organic carbon (DOC) values have decreased since just after the DWH spill, they remain higher at some stations than typical deep-water values for the GOM. Moreover, we continue to observe fluorescent DOM components in deep waters, similar to those of degraded oil observed in lab and field experiments, which suggest that oil-related fluorescence signatures, as part of the DOM pool, have persisted for 2 years in the deep waters. This supports the notion that some oil-derived chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) components could still be identified in deep waters after 2 years of degradation, which is further supported by the lower DIC and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) associated with greater amounts of these oil-derived components in deep waters, assuming microbial activity on DOM in the current water masses is only the controlling factor of DIC and pCO2 concentrations.

  10. Effect of Macondo Prospect 252 Oil on Microbiota Associated with Pelagic Sargassum in the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba, Manolito G; Franks, James S; Gomez, Andres; Yooseph, Shibu; Nelson, Karen E; Grimes, D Jay

    2017-01-01

    The environmental impact of major oil spills on marine microorganisms has yet to be thoroughly investigated using molecular biology techniques. The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling rig explosion of 2010 affected an approximately 176,000 km 2 surface area of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) when an estimated 210 million gallons of oil from the Macondo Prospect spilled into the environment. Pelagic Sargassum, a complex of two surface drifting species (Sargassum natans and Sargassum fluitans) of marine brown macroalgae and a critically important habitat in the GOM ecosystem, was suffused by Macondo Prospect 252 oil released during the DWH event. Using 16S rRNA PCR and Roche 454 pyrosequencing, the effect of the oil on the bacterial population associated with pelagic Sargassum and contiguous waters was examined by comparing sequence data generated from samples collected from oiled and non-oiled locations in the northern GOM. Sequence data showed similar microbial composition in Sargassum regardless of exposure to oil primarily dominated by five phyla; Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and unclassified bacteria. The microbial composition in water samples was significantly less diverse than for Sargassum and consisted primarily of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Due to the evenly distributed abundance of microbial species on oiled and non-oiled pelagic Sargassum, study findings indicate that DWH spilled oil had minimal effect on the composition and diversity of the microbial community associated with Sargassum and contiguous waters. However, higher abundances of Sulfitobacter and one species of Psychrobacter were found in oiled water samples when compared to non-oiled water samples indicating some effect of DHW oil in the microbial composition of seawater. Though there are a number of marine studies using molecular biology approaches, this is the first molecular examination of the impact of the DWH oil spill on bacterial communities

  11. Species distribution and population connectivity of deep-sea mussels at hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste Faure

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon seepage is widespread and patchy in the Gulf of Mexico, and six species of symbiont containing bathymodiolin mussels are found on active seeps over wide and overlapping depth and geographic ranges. We use mitochondrial genes to discriminate among the previously known and a newly discovered species and to assess the connectivity among populations of the same species in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM. Our results generally validate the morphologically based distribution of the three previously known GoM species of Bathymodiolus, although we found that approximately 10% of the morphologically based identifications were incorrect and this resulted in some inaccuracies with respect to their previously assigned depth and geographical distribution patterns. These data allowed us to confirm that sympatry of two species of Bathymodiolus within a single patch of mussels is common. A new species of bathymodiolin, Bathymodiolus sp. nov., closely related to B. heckerae was also discovered. The two species live at the same depths but have not been found in sympatry and both have small effective population sizes. We found evidence for genetic structure within populations of the three species of Bathymodiolinae for which we had samples from multiple sites and suggest limited connectivity for populations at some sites. Despite relatively small sample sizes, genetic diversity indices suggest the largest population sizes for B. childressi and Tamu fisheri and the smallest for B. heckerae and B. sp. nov. among the GoM bathymodiolins. Moreover, we detected an excess of rare variants indicating recent demographic changes and population expansions for the four species of bathymodiolins from the Gulf of Mexico.

  12. Nitrous oxide flux in maize and wheat cropped soils in the central region of Mexico during El nino year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longoria Ramirez, R. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Carbajal Benitez, G.; Mar Morales, B.E.; Ruiz Suarez, G. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-10-01

    Emissions of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were measured in agricultural lands used for farming wheat and maize during 1998 in the states of Hidalgo and Tlaxcala in Mexico. In an irrigated wheat field (El Tenhe, Hidalgo), an average flux of -10.85 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - N m{sup -}2 h{sup -}1 was obtained for the total cycle (155 days between December and May). There, high negative values were observed with Water Fill Porous Space (WFPS) close to 70%. The average flux of the complete cycle (269 days between March and December) in an irrigated maize field (El Progreso, Hidalgo) was 37.43 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - N m{sup -}2 h{sup -}1. In this case, more insignificant negative fluxes were found with WFPS close to 45% or less. These last results may have been influenced by the strong El Nino, which occurred in the middle of 1998. Twenty once percent of the measurements in the state of Hidalgo showed soil acting as a nitrous oxide sink. The samples from Tlaxcala showed that these fields acted as emitters. In the rain fed fields in the state of Tlaxcala, an average flux of 121 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - N m{sup -}2 h{sup -}1 was obtained for the wheat field. The farming season lasted 142 days, from July to December. In addition, for the maize field the averaged flux was 285.61 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - Nm{sup -}2h-1. The farming season lasted 246 days, from April to December. [Spanish] En 1998 se midieron las emisiones de oxido nitroso (N{sub 2}O) de suelos agricolas para cultivar trigo y maiz en los estados de Hidalgo y Tlaxcala, en Mexico. Para un campo irrigado de trigo (El Tenhe, Hidalgo), se obtuvo un flujo promedio de -10.85 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - N m{sup -}2 h{sup -}1 para el ciclo total (155 dias entre diciembre y mayo). En este caso se observaron valores negativos elevados en el espacio poroso relleno de agua (VFPS, pos sus siglas en ingles), cercanos a 70%. El flujo promedio para el ciclo completo (269 dias entre marzo y diciembre) en un campo irrigado de maiz fue de 37.43 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - N m

  13. Effect of Downscaled Forcings and Soil Texture Properties on Hyperresolution Hydrologic Simulations in a Regional Basin in Northwest Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, A.; Mascaro, G.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2017-12-01

    Hyper-resolution ( 10 km) scales. In this study, we address some of the challenges by applying a parallel version of the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN)-based Real Time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS) to the Rio Sonora Basin (RSB) in northwest Mexico. The RSB is a large, semiarid watershed ( 21,000 km2) characterized by complex topography and a strong seasonality in vegetation conditions, due to the North American monsoon. We conducted simulations at an average spatial resolution of 88 m over a decadal (2004-2013) period using spatially-distributed forcings from remotely-sensed and reanalysis products. Meteorological forcings were derived from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) at the original resolution of 12 km and were downscaled at 1 km with techniques accounting for terrain effects. Two grids of soil properties were created from different sources, including: (i) CONABIO (Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad) at 6 km resolution; and (ii) ISRIC (International Soil Reference Information Centre) at 250 m. Time-varying vegetation parameters were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) composite products. The model was first calibrated and validated through distributed soil moisture data from a network of 20 soil moisture stations during the monsoon season. Next, hydrologic simulations were conducted with five different combinations of coarse and downscaled forcings and soil properties. Outputs in the different configurations were then compared with independent observations of soil moisture, and with estimates of land surface temperature (1 km, daily) and evapotranspiration (1 km, monthly) from MODIS. This study is expected to support the community involved in hyper-resolution hydrologic modeling by identifying the crucial factors that, if available at higher resolution, lead to the largest improvement of the simulation prognostic capability.

  14. Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Northwest Gulf of Mexico Tidal Fringe Wetlands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shafer, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    ... in a region The approach was initially designed to be used in the context of the Clean Water Act Section 404 Regulatory Program permit review sequence to consider alternatives, minimize impacts, assess...

  15. Principal facts for gravity data collected in the southern Albuquerque Basin area and a regional compilation, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Cindy L.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Oshetski, Kim; Keller, Gordon R.

    2000-01-01

    Principal facts for 156 new gravity stations in the southern Albuquerque basin are presented. These data fill a gap in existing data coverage. The compilation of the new data and two existing data sets into a regional data set of 5562 stations that cover the Albuquerque basin and vicinity is also described. Bouguer anomaly and isostatic residual gravity data for this regional compilation are available in digital form from ftp://greenwood.cr.usgs.gov/pub/openfile- reports/ofr-00-490.

  16. Fast track developments, Gulf of Mexico -- options and organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Carruth, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The pressure continues to compress the 'idea to barrel' time period -- to get oil and gas from a discovery into the pipeline as quickly, cheaply and safely as possible. This paper discusses the range of development options presently available in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) to meet these goals, and a project organizational structure that allows for maximum implementation efficiency. The structural options range from a standard 4-pile to a single, freestanding caisson, and the spectrum of 'minimum structures' in between. Developments in water depths of 100 feet and 200 feet are addressed, as are each system's associated costs, relative risks and startup times. Project organization is also addressed in terms of an effective in-house and out-of-house project organizational structure, the necessary attributes of the key members of this organization, and the most effective types of contracting

  17. Economic considerations for deep water Gulf of Mexico development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.; O'Sullivan, J.; Bayazitoglu, Y.O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the economic drivers behind deep water development in the Gulf of Mexico. Capital costs are also examined versus water depth and required system. Cost categories are compared. The cost analysis was carried out by using the SEAPLAN computer program. The program is an expert system that identifies, conceptually defines, and economically compares technically feasible approaches for developing offshore oil and gas fields. The program's sizing logic and cost data base create physical and cost descriptions of systems representative of developments being planned in the deep water GOM. The examination was done separately for oil and gas developments. The material presented here is for only oil, it serves as a useful framework for viewing development economics and technology trends

  18. Remember when science was fun? Encountering 'nuclear fallout in your wood stove' and other mysteries at the Northwestern New Mexico regional and state science and engineering fairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylko, J.M.; Miller, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Rio Grande Chapter of the Health Physics Society is a proud supporter of the Northwestern New Mexico Regional and State Science and Engineering Fairs. In this role, the chapter provides judges and furnishes monetary awards to recognize those students, between grades 6-12, and their teachers whose projects include the utilization or investigation of ionizing (e.g., gamma) or non-ionizing (e.g., UV exposure, microwaves) radiation. The chapter promotes public information and education about health physics by sending every award winner and sponsoring teacher a copy of career opportunities in health physics, including information about degree programs and scholarships. Also, the chapter provides a 1-year free subscription to the Rio Grande Chapter Newsletter, and publishes the names of the award winners, the titles of their projects, the names of their teachers, and the names of their schools. Furthermore, chapter members are encouraged to assist contestants and award winners by providing mentoring opportunities, and educational resources such as textbooks. This paper reviews the Rio Grande Chapter Science and Engineering Fair Program with respect to judging categories and criteria, project titles, what the chapter has learned from the students, and an overview of the 1995 Regional, State, and International Science and Engineering Fair Programme. (author)

  19. Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf daily oil and gas production rate projections from 1999 through 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melancon, J.M.; Baud, R.D.

    1999-02-01

    This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1999 through 2003. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals

  20. Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf daily oil and gas production rare projections from 1998 through 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melancon, J.M.; Roby, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1998 through 2002. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals

  1. Reconnaissance of Macondo-1 well oil in sediment and tarballs from the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline, Texas to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Thomas, Burt; Wong, Florence L.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons were extracted and analyzed from sediment and tarballs collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) coast that is potentially impacted by Macondo-1 (M-1) well oil. The samples were analyzed for a suite of diagnostic geochemical biomarkers. Aided by multivariate statistical analysis, the M-1 well oil has been identified in sediment and tarballs collected from Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. None of the sediment hydrocarbon extracts from Texas correlated with the M-1 well oil. Oil-impacted sediments are confined to the shoreline adjacent to the cumulative oil slick of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and no impact was observed outside of this area.

  2. Cenozoic geology of the Yolomécatl-Tlaxiaco area, Northwestern Oaxaca, Southeastern Mexico: Stratigraphy, structure and regional significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrusquía-Villafranca, Ismael; Ruiz-González, José E.; Torres-Hernández, José Ramón; Anderson, Thomas H.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Martínez-Hernández, Enrique; García-Villegas, Felipe

    2016-12-01

    The Yolomécatl-Tlaxiaco Area, lies in the rugged Sierra Madre del Sur (SMS) of northwestern Oaxaca (YOTLA), southeastern Mexico. Within the area Cenozoic units unconformably overlie metamorphic, clastic and carbonate rock units of Late Paleozoic to Cretaceous ages as well as the Mixteco/Oaxaca Terrane boundary. The Cenozoic sequence, emphasized herein, includes from botton to top: (1) basal, calcilithitic Early Tertiary Tamazulapam Conglomerate, (2) andesitic lava flows of Nduayaco "Group," (3-4) Epiclastic/pyroclastic strata composing Yolomécatl Formation (∼40.3 ± 1.0 Ma), and Tayata Pyroepiclastics (5) Early Oligocene (∼32.9 Ma), felsic, pyroclastic Nundichi "Group," (6) Late Oligocene (∼27.7 ± 0.7 Ma) andesitic lava flows of Nicananduta "Group" containing intercalations of unit (7) ?Chilapa Formation (largely lacustrine). Quaternary deposits unconformably overlie the sequence. The structural record includes NNW-SSE folds in the Mesozoic units, and one in Tayata Pyroepiclastics, as well as numerous fractures/faults of diverse types, whose pattern seems to roughly define four geographic/structural domains, NW, SW, S, and E. The Tertiary sequence records four magmatic and six deformational events: Pre-Late Eocene Extension accommodated by the Tamazulapam fault, along which magma of the Nduayaco "Group" moved upward. The next episode is the earliest Late Eocene extension recorded by the Yucuxaco-Santa Cruz Tayata fault was followed by accumulation of Yolomécatl Formation, Tayata Pyroepiclastics, and synsedimentary emplacement of tuff sheets at ∼40.3 ± 1.0 Ma. After this date, left lateral transpression emplaced a Teposcolula Limestone block over Nduayaco "Group" and ?Yolomécatl Formation, whereas the Tayata Pyroepiclastics was folded into an open anticline. Movement along the Yucuxaco-Santa Cruz Tayayata fault suite influenced accumulation of the Nundichi "Group" strata ca. ∼32.9 Ma. Subsequent ENE-WSW extension affected the Nundichi "Group," partly

  3. Consequences of Chixculub Impact for the Tectonic and Geodynamic Evolution of the Gulf of Mexico North Carribean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangin, C.; Crespy, A.; Martinez-Reyes, J.

    2013-05-01

    The debate for Pacific exotic origin versus in situ inter American plate Atlantic origin of the Caribbean plate is active in the scientific community since decades. Independently of the origin of this plate, its fast motion towards the east at a present rate of 2cm/yr is accepted to have been initiated during the early-most Cenozoic. The Paleocene is a key period in the global evolution of Central America mainly marked also by the Chicxulub multiring meteor impact in Yucatan. We question here the genetic relationship between this impact event and the incipient tectonic escape of the Caribbean plate. The mostly recent published models suggest this impact has affected the whole crust down to the Moho, the upper mantle being rapidly and considerably uplifted. The crust was then fragmented 600km at least from the point of impact, and large circular depressions were rapidly filled by clastic sediments from Cantarell to Western Cuba via Chiapas and Belize. North of the impact, the whole Gulf of Mexico was affected by mass gravity sliding, initiated also during the Paleocene in Texas, remaining active in this basin up to present time. South of the impact, in the Caribbean plate, the Yucatan basin was rapidly opened, indicating a fast escape of the crustal material towards the unique free boundary, the paleo-Antilles subduction zone. Shear waves velocity data below the Caribbean plate suggest this crustal tectonic escape was enhanced by the fast eastward flowing mantle supporting a fragmented and stretched crust. The proposed model suggests Chicxulub impact (but also the hypothetic Beata impact) have fragmented brittle crust, then easily drifted towards the east. This could explain the Paleogene evolution of the Caribbean plate largely stretched during its early evolution. Geologically, this evolution could explain the absence of evident Paleogene oblique subduction along the Caribbean plate northern and southern margins, marked only by Mid Cretaceous dragged volcanic

  4. Proposal of Postgraduate in Management to Collaborate with the Sustainable Regional Development in the State of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Israel Patiño

    2017-01-01

    Regional Development of the countries depends of the relation and interaction between enterprises, government, education sector and society, and the strategies to take advantage of the available resources. In that sense, the education sector plays a very important role as a supplier of competitive human capital. This study is the result of a…

  5. Water-rock-tailings interactions and sources of sulfur and metals in the subtropical mining region of Taxco, Guerrero (southern Mexico): A multi-isotopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talavera Mendoza, Oscar; Ruiz, Joaquin; Díaz Villaseñor, Elvia; Ramírez Guzmán, Alejandro; Cortés, Alejandra; Salgado Souto, Sergio Adrián; Dótor Almazán, Azucena; Rivera Bustos, Reymundo

    2016-01-01

    Multi-isotope (H, O, S, Sr, Pb) systems coupled with conventional (major and trace element) hydrogeochemical analysis were applied to determine the origin of water, to model water-rock-tailings interactions and for source apportionment of sulfur and associated toxic metals in the mining region of Taxco, Guerrero in southern Mexico. Oxygen and H isotopes indicate that meteoric water in the zone is rainwater undergoing varying degrees of isotopic fractionation by atmospheric evaporation whereas Sr isotopes trace the interaction of pristine water from volcanics of the regional recharge zone and subsequently flowing through sandstone and shale to spring points. Leachates form from two distinctive sources (spring water and surface water) having differential interactions with bedrocks prior to entering the tailings. Compared to pristine water, leachates are enriched in sulfate, metals (e.g. Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) and metalloids (e.g. As). The sulfur isotopic composition of ore-sulfides, leachates, secondary precipitates, regional surface water and hypogenic sulfates is described in terms of a two-component mixing model with shale of Mexcala and limestone of Morelos formations representing the light and heavy end-members, respectively, whereas Sr isotopic composition is bracketed combining three lithogenic (Mexcala/Morelos, Tilzapotla and Taxco Schist) sources. Finally, leachates have a mixture of lead from ore-sulfides and Taxco Schist Formation (Family I) or from ore-sulfides alone (Family II). The application of multiple environmental isotopic techniques is an outstanding tool for elucidating complex interactions of water with bedrocks and tailings and for determining the source of sulfur and toxic metal from mining and other metal polluted environments. - Highlights: • We applied multi-isotope techniques to model water-bedrocks-tailings interaction. • Spring water records fractionation by evaporation and interaction with local rocks. • The sulfur cycle is modeled in

  6. Regional, holocene records of the human dimension of global change: sea-level and land-use change in prehistoric Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluyter, Andrew

    1997-02-01

    Regional, Holocene records hold particular relevance for understanding the reciprocal nature of global environmental change and one of its major human dimensions: "sustainable agriculture", i.e., food production strategies which entail fewer causes of and are less susceptible to environmental change. In an epoch of accelerating anthropogenic transformation, those records reveal the protracted regional causes and consequences of change (often agricultural) in the global system as well as informing models of prehistoric, intensive agriculture which, because of long tenures and high productivities, suggest strategies for sustainable agricultural in the present. This study employs physiographic analysis and the palynological, geochemical record from cores of basin fill to understand the reciprocal relation between environmental and land-use change in the Gulf of Mexico tropical lowland, focusing on a coastal basin sensitive to sea-level change and containing vestiges of prehistoric settlement and wetland agriculture. Fossil pollen reveals that the debut of maize cultivation in the Laguna Catarina watershed dates to ca. 4100 BC, predating the earliest evidence for that cultivar anywhere else in the lowlands of Middle America. Such an early date for a cultivar so central to Neotropical agroecology and environmental change, suggests the urgency of further research in the study region. Moreover, the longest period of continuous agriculture in the basin lasted nearly three millennia (ca. 2400 BC-AD 550) despite eustatic sea-level rise. Geochemical fluxes reveal the reciprocity between land-use and environmental change: slope destabilization, basin aggradation, and eutrophication. The consequent theoretical implications pertain to both applied and basic research. Redeploying ancient agroecologies in dynamic environments necessitates reconstructing the changing operational contexts of putative high productivity and sustainability. Adjusting land use in the face of global

  7. Impacts of using an ensemble Kalman filter on air quality simulations along the California-Mexico border region during Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Naifang; Li, Guohui; Meng, Zhiyong; Weng, Yonghui; Zavala, Miguel; Molina, L T

    2014-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) on air quality simulations in the California-Mexico border region on two days (May 30 and June 04, 2010) during Cal-Mex 2010. The uncertainties in ozone (O3) and aerosol simulations in the border area due to the meteorological initial uncertainties were examined through ensemble simulations. The ensemble spread of surface O3 averaged over the coastal region was less than 10ppb. The spreads in the nitrate and ammonium aerosols are substantial on both days, mostly caused by the large uncertainties in the surface temperature and humidity simulations. In general, the forecast initialized with the EnKF analysis (EnKF) improved the simulation of meteorological fields to some degree in the border region compared to the reference forecast initialized with NCEP analysis data (FCST) and the simulation with observation nudging (FDDA), which in turn leading to reasonable air quality simulations. The simulated surface O3 distributions by EnKF were consistently better than FCST and FDDA on both days. EnKF usually produced more reasonable simulations of nitrate and ammonium aerosols compared to the observations, but still have difficulties in improving the simulations of organic and sulfate aerosols. However, discrepancies between the EnKF simulations and the measurements were still considerably large, particularly for sulfate and organic aerosols, indicating that there are still ample rooms for improvement in the present data assimilation and/or the modeling systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Seismicity, focal mechanisms, and stress distribution in the Tres Virgenes volcanic and geothermal region, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Victor; Munguia, Luis [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada (Mexico)

    2006-01-15

    In October 1993 we carried out a seismic monitoring in the Tres Virgenes volcanic region in order to record the background seismicity associated with the volcanic structures, the geothermal field and the tectonic features of the area. Hypocenters for 257 microearthquakes were located in the volcanic edifices and along the northwest right-lateral, strike-slip La Virgen fault. Focal depths range from close to the Earth surface to about 8 km. Shallow depths occur mainly in the volcanic edifices. Deeper seismic events occurred outside the volcanic area. The duration magnitudes of the located microearthquakes range between 1 and 3. The Vp/Vs ratio and the low-Q values estimated suggest heterogeneous material properties in the volcanic structures mainly toward the El Azufre fault and the El Aguajito Caldera, where hydrothermal activity has been reported. The P- and T-axes of focal mechanisms for 90 microearthquakes suggest that the region is under N-S compression and E-W extension, in agreement with the regional tectonic stress field of the NW-SE right-lateral strike-slip transform fault system of the Gulf of California. [Spanish] En octubre de 1993 se llevo a cabo un monitoreo sismico en la region volcanica Las Tres Virgenes con el proposito de registrar la actividad sismica asociada a las estructuras volcanicas, al campo geotermico y a la tectonica local. Se localizaron 257 microsismos con hipocentros en los edificios volcanicos y a lo largo de la falla de rumbo, lateral derecha conocida como falla La Virgen. La profundidad focal de los sismos varia desde los muy cercanos a la superficie de la Tierra hasta los 8 km. Las profundidades someras ocurren principalmente en los edificios volcanicos. Los sismos mas profundos ocurren fuera del area volcanica. La magnitud de duracion de los microsismos localizados varia entre 1 y 3. La razon Vp/Vs y los valores bajos de Q que se estimaron en la zona sugieren un material con propiedades heterogeneas bajo las estructuras

  9. Regional stratigraphy, sedimentology, and tectonic significance of Oligocene-Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks, northern Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Burns, Beverly

    1994-01-01

    Upper Oligocene (?) to middle Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks in northern Baja California were deposited along the western margin of North America during subduction of the Guadalupe plate and southward migration of the Rivera Triple Junction. Regional mapping and compilation of stratigraphic data reveal a sequence of three regionally traceable stratigraphic units. (1) Oligocene (?) to lower Miocene Mesa Formation: basal quartz-rich fluvial sandstone, grus, conglomerate, and accessory facies, whose detrital compositions reflect the composition of local pre-Tertiary basement rock. (2) Lower to middle Miocene Comondú Formation: laterally variable sequence of volcaniclastic conglomerate, breccia, sandstone, tuff and minor volcanic flow units. (3) Widespread mesa-capping rhyolite tuff, typically welded and crystal-rich, probably upper Miocene in age. The Mesa Formation overlies a highly irregular and deeply dissected erosional surface developed on pre-Tertiary basement rock. The shift from pre-Mesa erosion to widespread (though localized) deposition and valley-filling records the final phase of late Cretaceous to middle Tertiary regional subsidence and eastward transgression that resulted from slow cooling and thermal contraction of Cretaceous arc crust during a temporal gap in magmatic activity along the western Cordilleran margin. Nonmarine sediments of the Mesa Formation were deposited in small, steep-walled paleovalleys and basins that gradually filled and evolved to form through-going, low-energy ephemeral stream systems. The gradational upward transition from the Mesa to Comondú Formation records the early to middle Miocene onset of subduction-related arc magmatism in eastern Baja California and related westward progradation of alluvial volcaniclastic aprons shed from high-standing eruptive volcanic centers. Pre-existing streams were choked with the new influx of volcanic detritus, causing the onset of rapid sediment deposition by stream flows and dilute

  10. One Year Performance Results for the Prism Solar Installation at the New Mexico Regional Test Center: Field Data from February 15 2016 - February 14 2017.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burnham, Laurie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-01

    A 9.6 kW test array of Prism bifacial modules and reference monofacial modules installed in February 2016 at the New Mexico Regional Test Center has produced one year of performance data. The data reveal that the Prism modules are out-performing the monofacial modules, with bifacial gains in energy over the twelve-month period ranging from 17% to 132%, depending on the orientation and ground albedo. These measured bifacial gains were found to be in good agreement with modeled bifacial gains using equations previously published by Prism Solar. The most dramatic increase in performance was seen among the vertically mounted, west-facing modules, where the bifacial modules produced more than double the energy of monofacial modules in the same orientation. Because peak energy generation (mid- morning and mid-afternoon) for these bifacial modules may best match load on the electric grid, the west-facing orientation may be more economically desirable than traditional south-facing module orientations (which peak at solar noon).

  11. Performance Results for the Prism Solar Installation at the New Mexico Regional Test Center: Field Data from February 15 - August 15 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Photovoltaic and Distributed Systems Integration; Stein, Joshua S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photovoltaics and Distributed Systems Integration; Burnham, Laurie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electric Power Systems Research

    2016-09-01

    A 9.6 kW test array of Prism bifacial modules and reference monofacial modules installed in February 2016 at the New Mexico Regional Test Center has produced six months of performance data. The data reveal that the Prism modules are out-performing the monofacial modules, with bifacial gains in energy over the six-month period ranging from 18% to 136%, depending on the orientation and ground albedo. These measured bifacial gains were found to be in good agreement with modeled bifacial gains using equations previously published by Prism. The most dramatic increase in performance was seen among the vertically tilted, west-facing modules, where the bifacial modules produced more than double the energy of monofacial modules and more energy than monofacial modules at any orientation. Because peak energy generation (mid-morning and mid-afternoon) for these bifacial modules may best match load on the electric grid, the west-facing orientation may be more economically desirable than traditional south-facing module orientations (which peak at solar noon).

  12. The carbon isotope biogeochemistry of the individual hydrocarbons in bat guano and the ecology of the insectivorous bats in the region of Carlsbad, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Marais, D.J.; Mitchell, J.M.; Meinschein, W.G.; Hayes, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The structures and 13 C contents of individual alkanes extracted from bat guano found in the Carlsbad region of New Mexico can be related to both the photosynthetic pathways of the local plants and the feeding habits of the insects that support the bats. Carbon isotopic analyses show that equivalent numbers of C 3 and C 4 native plant species occupy the Pecos River Valley, a very significant feeding area for the Carlsbad bats. During the seasons when bats frequent the area, the agricultural crops consist principally of alfalfa and cotton, both C 3 plants. The molecular composition of the bat guano hydrocarbons is fully consistent with an insect origin. Two isotopically distinct groups of insect branched alkanes were discerned. These two groups of alkanes derived from two chemotaxonomically distinct populations of insects possessing distinctly different feeding habits. It is possible that one population grazes predominantly on crops whereas the other population prefers native vegetation. This and other isotopic evidence suggests that crop pests constitute a major percentage of the bats' diet. Because the guano sample was less than 40 years old, this material reflects the present day plant community in the Pecos River Valley. Future studies of more ancient guano deposits should reveal a measurable influence of both natural and man-induced vegetative changes with time upon the 13 C content of the bat guano hydrocarbons. (author)

  13. Establishment of Aedes aegypti (L.) in mountainous regions in Mexico: Increasing number of population at risk of mosquito-borne disease and future climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equihua, Miguel; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Benítez, Griselda; Estrada-Contreras, Israel; Sandoval-Ruiz, César A; Mendoza-Palmero, Fredy S

    2017-02-01

    The study was conducted in the central region of Veracruz Mexico, in the metropolitan area of Xalapa. It is a mountainous area where Aedes aegypti (L.) is not currently endemic. An entomological survey was done along an elevation gradient using the Ae. aegypti occurrences at different life cycle stages. Seven sites were sampled and a total of 24 mosquito species were recorded: 9 species were found in urban areas, 18 in non-urban areas with remnant vegetation, and 3 occurred in both environments. Ae. aegypti was found only in the urban areas, usually below 1200m a.s.l., but in this study was recorded for the first time at 1420m a.s.l. These occurrences, together with additional distribution data in the state of Veracruz were used to developed species distribution models using Maxlike software in R to identify the current projected suitable areas for the establishment of this vector and the human populations that might be affected by dengue transmission at higher elevations. Its emergence in previously unsuitable places appears to be driven by both habitat destruction and biodiversity loss associated with biotic homogenization. A border study using data from the edges of the vector's distribution might allow sensitive monitoring to detect any changes in this mosquito's distribution pattern, and any changes in the anthropic drivers or climate that could increase transmission risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Survey of protozoan, helminth and viral infections in shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus native to the Jamapa River region, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Machín, Magda E; Hernández-Vergara, Martha P; Jiménez-García, Isabel; Simá-Alvarez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2011-09-09

    We surveyed protozoan and metazoan parasites as well as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus native to the lower Jamapa River region of Veracruz, Mexico. The presence of parasites and the infection parameters were evaluated in 113 palaemonid prawns collected during the northwind (n = 45), rainy (n = 38) and dry seasons (n = 30) between October 2007 and July 2008, and in 91 shrimp collected in the rainy season between May and June 2008. In L. setiferus, ciliates of the subclass Apostomatia (Ascophrys sp.) were evident in gills, and third-stage larvae of the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were evident in the stomach. Cestodes of the genus Prochristianella were evident in the hepatopancreas, while some gregarines of the genus Nematopsis, as well as unidentified larval cestodes, were observed in the intestine. Histology identified Ascophrys sp. in association with gill necrosis and tissue melanization. Slight inflammation was observed in intestinal epithelium near cestode larvae. In M. acanthurus, epibionts of the protozoans Epistylis sp., Acineta sp. and Lagenophrys sp. were observed under uropods, periopods and pleopods. An unidentified ciliate of the Apostomatia was also found in the gills, and Nematopsis was identified in the intestine. No histopathology was observed in association with these parasites. Moreover, neither WSSV nor IHHNV were detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in any of the L. setiferus or M. acanthurus analysed.

  15. Bridging the Gap Between Micro and Macro Practice to Address Homelessness in the U.S.-Mexico Border Region: Implications for Practitioners and Community Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Eva M; Chavez-Baray, Silvia Maria; Martinez, Omar; Mattera, Brian; Adcox, Courtney

    2018-01-01

    Research and scholarship efforts continue to promote the integration of micro and macro practice in social work practice and education. Despite this, scholarship has documented persistent challenges in the fluid integration between the domains of micro-level service provision and macro-level social change efforts in practice and academic programs. This paper outlines a successful bridge between the micro-macro divide in the form of community-engaged practice to address homelessness and social work education in the U.S.-Mexico border region. MSW students enrolled in a macro-level course at the University of Texas at El Paso's College of Health Sciences successfully partnered with the Opportunity Center for the Homeless, a grassroots community-based organization serving individuals experiencing homelessness. The narrative describes how students were effectively able to apply both micro- and macro-level skills learned in the classroom to an experiential learning environment while providing much-needed assistance to an underfunded community-based organization. A set of challenges and recommendations are also discussed. Research initiatives are needed to evaluate and test clinical and community work initiatives, including the use of photovoice methodology to address homelessness, while being responsive to community needs and challenges.

  16. The role of MEXART in the National Space Weather Laboratory of Mexico: Detection of solar wind, CMEs, ionosphere, active regions and flares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Ambriz, J.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; De la Luz, V.; Villanueva-Hernandez, P.; Andrade, E.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Chang, O.; Romero Hernandez, E.; Sergeeva, M. A.; Perez Alanis, C. A.; Reyes-Marin, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The National Space Weather Laboratory - Laboratorio Nacional de Clima Espacial (LANCE) - of Mexico has different ground based instruments to study and monitor the space weather. One of these instruments is the Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART) which is principally dedicated to remote sensing the solar wind and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at 140 MHz, the instrument can detect solar wind densities and speeds from about 0.4 to 1 AU by modeling observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS). MEXART is also able to detect ionospheric disturbances associated with transient space weather events by the analysis of ionospheric scintillation (IONS) . Additionally, MEXART has followed the Sun since the beginning of the current Solar Cycle 24 with records of 8 minutes per day, and occasionally, has partially detected the process of strong solar flares. Here we show the contributions of MEXART to the LANCE by reporting recent detections of CMEs by IPS, the arrive of transient events at Earth by IONS, the influence of active regions in the flux of the Sun at 140 MHz and the detection of a M6.5 class flare. Furthermore we report the status of a near real time analysis of IPS data for forecast purposes and the potential contribution to the Worldwide IPS Stations network (WIPSS), which is an effort to achieve a better coverage of the solar wind observations in the inner heliosphere.

  17. A basin-scale approach for assessing water resources in a semiarid environment: San Diego region, California and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Flint

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many basins throughout the world have sparse hydrologic and geologic data, but have increasing demands for water and a commensurate need for integrated understanding of surface and groundwater resources. This paper demonstrates a methodology for using a distributed parameter water-balance model, gaged surface-water flow, and a reconnaissance-level groundwater flow model to develop a first-order water balance. Flow amounts are rounded to the nearest 5 million cubic meters per year.

    The San Diego River basin is 1 of 5 major drainage basins that drain to the San Diego coastal plain, the source of public water supply for the San Diego area. The distributed parameter water-balance model (Basin Characterization Model was run at a monthly timestep for 1940–2009 to determine a median annual total water inflow of 120 million cubic meters per year for the San Diego region. The model was also run specifically for the San Diego River basin for 1982–2009 to provide constraints to model calibration and to evaluate the proportion of inflow that becomes groundwater discharge, resulting in a median annual total water inflow of 50 million cubic meters per year. On the basis of flow records for the San Diego River at Fashion Valley (US Geological Survey gaging station 11023000, when corrected for upper basin reservoir storage and imported water, the total is 30 million cubic meters per year. The difference between these two flow quantities defines the annual groundwater outflow from the San Diego River basin at 20 million cubic meters per year. These three flow components constitute a first-order water budget estimate for the San Diego River basin. The ratio of surface-water outflow and groundwater outflow to total water inflow are 0.6 and 0.4, respectively. Using total water inflow determined using the Basin Characterization Model for the entire San Diego region and the 0.4 partitioning factor, groundwater outflow from the San Diego region, through

  18. [Geographic distribution of birds in the Sierra Madre Oriental of San Luis Potosi, Mexico: a regional analysis of conservation status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahagún Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Navarro, Jaime Castro; Reyes Hernández, Humberto

    2013-06-01

    The Sierra Madre Oriental region in the mexican state of San Luis Potosi is a relevant place for bird conservation at a country level. Therefore the main goal of this study was to analyze the geographic patterns of distribution and the conservation current state of the birds, to support the needs to expand the conservation areas in the future. Data was collected from various databases of zoological museums and collections, and field sampling methods conducted from January 2009 to May 2011. Potential distributions were modeled for 284 species using GARP software and then a map was developed to determine areas with favorable environmental characteristics for the distribution of species richness. Finally, the importance of conservation areas for the potential distribution of birds in the region was evaluated. A total of 359 species were recorded of which 71.4% are permanent residents, 19% are winter migrants and 4% are summer residents. From this total, 41 species were endemic, 47 were species at risk and 149 were neotropical migrants. The largest species richness correspond to oak forests, cloud forests, and tropical moist forests located at altitudes from 100m to 1 500m. Their potential distribution was concentrated towards the center and Southeast of the study area. Only 10% of areas with a high potential conservation was included in areas of priority for bird conservation (AICA) and just 3% of all potential areas were under some governmental category of protection. However, no conservation area has a management plan currently applied and monitored. The information generated is important for the development of management proposals for birds conservation in the region.

  19. Physical and chemical properties of the regional mixed layer of Mexico's Megapolis Part II: evaluation of measured and modeled trace gases and particle size distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ochoa

    2012-11-01

    normally distributed with most of the mass in the accumulation mode centered at 200 ± 20 nm and little observed or predicted changes with respect to the time when the RML is above the Altzomoni research station. Only the total mass changes with time and air mass origin. The invariability of average diameter of the accumulation mode suggests that there is very little growth of the particles by condensation or coagulation after six hours of aging downwind of the major sources of anthropogenic emissions in Mexico's Megapolis. This could greatly simplify parameterization in climate models although it is not known at this time if this invariance can be extended to other megacity regions.

  20. Cruise report for a seismic investigation of gas hydrates in the Mississippi Canyon region, northern Gulf of Mexico; cruise M1-98-GM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alan K.; Hart, Patrick E.; Pecher, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    During June 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the University of Mississippi Marine Minerals Technology Center (MMTC) conducted a 12-day cruise in the Mississippi Canyon region of the Gulf of Mexico (Fig. 1). The R/V Tommy Munro, owned by the Marine Research Institute of the University of Southern Mississippi, was chartered for the cruise. The general objective was to acquire very high resolution seismic-reflection data across of the upper and middle continental slope (200-1200-m water depths) to study the acoustic character, distribution and potential effects of gas hydrates within the shallow subsurface, extending from the sea floor down to the base of the gas-hydrate stability zone. The Gulf of Mexico is well known for hydrocarbon resources that include petroleum and related gases. Areas of the Gulf that lie in waters deeper than about 250 m potentially have conditions (e.g., pressure, temperature, near-surface gas content, etc.) that are right for the shallow-subsurface formation of the ice-like substance (gas and water) known as gas hydrate (Kvenvolden, 1993). Gas hydrates have previously been sampled in sea-floor cores and observed as massive mounds in several parts of the northern Gulf, including the Mississippi Canyon region (e.g., Anderson et al., 1992). Extensive seismic data have been recorded in the Gulf, in support of commercial drilling efforts, but few very high resolution data exist in the public domain to aid in gas-hydrate studies. Studies of long-term interest include those on the resource potential of gas hydrates, the geologic hazards associated with dissociation and formation of hydrates, and the impact, if any, of gas-hydrate dissociation on atmospheric warming (i.e., via release of methane, a "greenhouse" gas). Several very high resolution seismic systems (surface-towed, deep-towed, and sea-floor) were used during the cruise to test the feasibility of using such data for detailed structural (geometric) and stratigraphic (physical

  1. Institutions and Societal Impacts of Climate in the Lower Colorado and San Pedro Basins of the U.S.-Mexico Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, R. G.; Wilder, M.; Morehouse, B. J.; Garfin, G. M.

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Southwest and Mexico border region feature two prominent river basins, the Colorado and Rio Grande, and ecologically important sub-basins such as the San Pedro. The area within which these transboundary basins lie is characterized by overall aridity and high climatic variability over seasonal to decadal and longer time scales. Throughout human occupation, numerous and diverse strategies for buffering climate impacts have emerged. The most notable response has been an increasingly complex system of institutions and structures designed to buffer water scarcity. The Colorado River Compact, and the laws governing allocation of waters from the Rio Grande River, together with the dams, hydropower generators, canals and other engineered features, represent two of the most complex systems. Drought nevertheless remains a looming specter across much of the binational border region. Institutional mechanisms for responding to drought range from awareness-raising and capacity-building efforts, to implementation of formal drought plans, to storing water to make up for deficits, and water conservation rules that become increasingly stringent as drought intensifies. A number of formal and informal binational institutions operate in the region. Some are venerable, like the century-old International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) and its Mexican counterpart the Comision Internacional de Limites y Agua (CILA). Others, like the Border Environment Cooperation Commission and the North American Development Bank, were created in the mid-1990s with the North American Free Trade Agreement. These institutions, both domestic and transnational, operate in a complex binational, bicultural environment with contrasting legal and administrative traditions. Under such constraints, they manage water resources and ecosystems and attempt to improve water and sanitation infrastructure in the context of deep and extended drought. But in spite of their efforts, society and natural habitat

  2. Water Matters: Assessing the Impacts of Water and Sanitation Infrastructure in the U.S./Mexico Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, W. L.; Del Rio, M.; Korc, M.

    2017-12-01

    Using Health Impact Assessment methods, we determined: 1) the impact of water and sanitation infrastructure installed about 15 years ago in two Texas border communities; 2) the impact of failing septic tanks in a neighborhood where septic systems are more than 20 years old and failing; and 3) the impacts of hauled water as the main household water source in a colonia. We obtained a total of 147 household surveys related to water and sanitation in four communities. Households who had obtained water and sanitation infrastructure had less skin problems, neuropathy, gastrointestinal illness, and stomach infections compared to an earlier time when they relied on local domestic wells or hauled water and septic tanks. Hepatitis A incidence in El Paso County, TX dropped precipitously after the implementation of water and sanitation infrastructure. Hauling water contributed to mental stress and anxiety and was risky in terms of road safety. We also assessed the economic and community development impacts of water and sanitation infrastructure. Communities benefitted from higher property values, expanded health care services, more parks and recreation, more local businesses, and improved fire safety. We argue that though water and sanitation infrastructure is a significant contributor to addressing inequities in the border region, much remains to be done to achieve water justice in this challenging region.

  3. Planning report for the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Hayes F.

    1984-01-01

    Large quantities of water for municipal, industrial and agriculture use are supplied from the aquifers in Tertiary and younger sediments over an area of about 225,000 square miles in the Coastal Plain of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, and Texas. Three regional aquifer systems, the Mississippi Embayment aquifer system, the Coastal Lowlands aquifer system, and the Texas Coastal Uplands aquifer system have been developed to varying degrees throughout the area. A variety of problems has resulted from development such as movement of the saline-freshwater interface into parts of aquifers that were previously fresh, lowering of the potentiometric surface with resulting increases in pumping lift, and land-surface subsidence due to the compaction of clays within the aquifer. Increased demand for ground water is anticipated to meet the needs of urban growth, expanded energy development, and growth of irrigated agriculture. The U. S. Geological Survey initiated an eightyear study in 1981 to define the geohydrologic framework, describe the chemistry of the ground water, and to analyze the regional ground-water flow patterns. The objectives, plan, and organization of the study are described in this report and the major tasks to be undertaken are outlined.

  4. The relationship of meteorological patterns with changes in floristic richness along a large elevational gradient in a seasonally dry region of southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Morales, Silvia H.; Meave, Jorge A.; Trejo, Irma

    2015-12-01

    Globally, climate is a fundamental driver of plant species' geographical distributions, yet we still lack a good understanding of climatic variation on tropical mountains and its consequences for elevational floristic patterns. In a seasonally dry region of southern Mexico, we analysed meteorological patterns along a large elevational gradient (0-3670 m a.s.l.) and examined their relationship with changes in floristic richness. Meteorological patterns were characterised using two data sources. First, climatic information was extracted from cartography and records from a few existing meteorological stations. Additionally, air temperature and humidity were recorded hourly during 1 year with data loggers, at sites representing 200-m elevation increments. Floristic information was extracted from a database containing 10,124 records of plant collections, and organized in 200-m elevational belts. Climatic charts distinguished three climate types along the gradient, all with marked rainfall seasonality, but these bore little correspondence with the information obtained with the data loggers. Mean annual air temperature decreased with increasing elevation (lapse rate of 0.542 °C 100 m-1). Thermal oscillation was minimum around 1400 m and increased towards both extremes of the gradient. Relative humidity opposed this pattern, with maxima between 800 and 1800 m, decreasing towards the highest elevations. An analysis of temperature frequency distributions revealed meteorological features undetectable from the annual or monthly means of this variable; despite an overall gradual transition of the proportions of time recorded at different temperatures, some changes did not conform to this pattern. The first discontinuity occurred between 1000-1200 m, where dominant temperatures shifted abruptly; also noticeable was an abrupt increase of the proportion of time elapsed at 0.1-10 °C between 2400 and 2600 m. Air temperature appears to be the most influential climatic factor

  5. Perceptions of and barriers to family planning services in the poorest regions of Chiapas, Mexico: a qualitative study of men, women, and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Emily; Schaefer, Alexandra; Hernández, Bernardo; Nelson, Jennifer; Palmisano, Erin; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Woldeab, Alex; Zúñiga, Maria Paola; Iriarte, Emma Margarita; Mokdad, Ali H; El Bcheraoui, Charbel

    2017-10-17

    In the poorest regions of Chiapas, Mexico, 50.2% of women in need of contraceptives do not use any modern method. A qualitative study was needed to design effective and culturally appropriate interventions. We used purposive maximum-variation sampling to select eight municipalities with a high proportion of residents in the poorest wealth quintile, including urban, rural, indigenous, and non-indigenous communities. We conducted 44 focus group discussions with 292 women, adolescent women, and men using semi-structured topic guides. We analyzed the data through recursive abstraction. There were intergenerational and cultural gaps in the acceptability of family planning, and in some communities family planning use was greatly limited by gender roles and religious objections to contraception. Men strongly influenced family planning choices in many households, but were largely unreached by outreach and education programs due to their work hours. Respondents were aware of many modern methods but often lacked deeper knowledge and held misconceptions about long-term fertility risks posed by some hormonal methods. Acute physical side effects also dissuaded use. The implant was a new and highly acceptable method due to ease of use, low upkeep, and minimal side effects; however, it was perceived as subject to stock-outs. Adolescent women reported being refused services at health facilities and requested more reproductive health information from their parents and schools. Mass and social media are growing sources of reproductive health information. Our study identifies a number of barriers to family planning that have yet to be adequately addressed by existing programs in Chiapas' poorest regions, and calls for reinvigorated efforts to provide effective, acceptable, and culturally appropriate interventions for these communities.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey program of offshore resource and geoenvironmental studies, Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico region, from September 1, 1976, to December 31, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folger, David W.; Needell, Sally W.

    1983-01-01

    Mineral and energy resources of the continental margins of the United States arc important to the Nation's commodity independence and to its balance of payments. These resources are being studied along the continental margins of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico in keeping with the mission of the U.S. Geological Survey to survey the geologic structures, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.'(Organic Act of 1879). An essential corollary to these resource studies is the study of potential geologic hazards that may be associated with offshore resource exploration and exploitation. In cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the Geological Survey, through its Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico Marine Geology Program, carries out extensive research to evaluate hazards from sediment mobility, shallow gas, and slumping and to acquire information on the distribution and concentration of trace metals and biogenic and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons in sea-floor sediments. All these studies arc providing needed background information, including information on pollutant dispersal, on the nearshore, estuarine, and lacustrine areas that may be near pipeline and nuclear powerplant sites. Users of these data include the Congress, many Federal agencies, the coastal States, private industry, academia, and the concerned public. The results of the regional structural, stratigraphic, and resource studies carried out under the Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico Marine Geology Program have been used by the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Land Management to select areas for future leasing and to aid in the evaluation of tracts nominated for leasing. Resource studies have concentrated mostly on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf frontier areas. Geologic detailing of five major basins along the U.S. Atlantic margin, where sediments are as much as 14 km thick, have been revealed by 25,000 km of 24-and 48-channel common-depth-point seismic data, 187,000 km of

  7. Federal Mineral Lease Blocks Protractions from MMS source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [offshore_blocks_protraction_MMS_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Federal lease blocks protractions for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region. Based on the OCS Marine Survey Group Official Protraction...

  8. Household risk factors associated to infestation of Triatoma dimidiata, the Chagas disease vector in Central Region of Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A Sandoval-Ruiz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate risk factors facilitating the colonization of dwellings by Triatoma dimidiata in the central region of the state of Veracruz. Materials and methods. We applied socioeconomic questionnaires and entomologic surveys in three localities (Chavarrillo, Soyacuautla and Arroyo Agrio in central Veracruz involving 115 households. Results. We found that the main risk factors were the predominance of unplastered walls and particularly those made of light weight aggregate concrete blocks and wood. At Chavarrillo, houses usually have unplastered walls, whereas in Soyocuautla walls are commonly manufactured with wood. In Arroyo Agrio, the phenomenon was seasonal, and bugs were commonly found in the dry season, particularly in relatively new houses, less than 20 years old. Conclusions. These results help to improve the surveillance capacity for this vector and the control strategies to reduce the transmission of Chagas disease in the state of Veracruz and other sites where this species is present.

  9. Assessing coastal wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast: Gaps and opportunities for developing a coordinated regional sampling network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Michael J; Griffith, Kereen T; Larriviere, Jack C; Feher, Laura C; Cahoon, Donald R; Enwright, Nicholas M; Oster, David A; Tirpak, John M; Woodrey, Mark S; Collini, Renee C; Baustian, Joseph J; Breithaupt, Joshua L; Cherry, Julia A; Conrad, Jeremy R; Cormier, Nicole; Coronado-Molina, Carlos A; Donoghue, Joseph F; Graham, Sean A; Harper, Jennifer W; Hester, Mark W; Howard, Rebecca J; Krauss, Ken W; Kroes, Daniel E; Lane, Robert R; McKee, Karen L; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Middleton, Beth A; Moon, Jena A; Piazza, Sarai C; Rankin, Nicole M; Sklar, Fred H; Steyer, Greg D; Swanson, Kathleen M; Swarzenski, Christopher M; Vervaeke, William C; Willis, Jonathan M; Wilson, K Van

    2017-01-01

    Coastal wetland responses to sea-level rise are greatly influenced by biogeomorphic processes that affect wetland surface elevation. Small changes in elevation relative to sea level can lead to comparatively large changes in ecosystem structure, function, and stability. The surface elevation table-marker horizon (SET-MH) approach is being used globally to quantify the relative contributions of processes affecting wetland elevation change. Historically, SET-MH measurements have been obtained at local scales to address site-specific research questions. However, in the face of accelerated sea-level rise, there is an increasing need for elevation change network data that can be incorporated into regional ecological models and vulnerability assessments. In particular, there is a need for long-term, high-temporal resolution data that are strategically distributed across ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients. Here, we quantify the distribution of SET-MH stations along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast (USA) across political boundaries (states), wetland habitats, and ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients (i.e., gradients in temperature, precipitation, elevation, and relative sea-level rise). Our analyses identify areas with high SET-MH station densities as well as areas with notable gaps. Salt marshes, intermediate elevations, and colder areas with high rainfall have a high number of stations, while salt flat ecosystems, certain elevation zones, the mangrove-marsh ecotone, and hypersaline coastal areas with low rainfall have fewer stations. Due to rapid rates of wetland loss and relative sea-level rise, the state of Louisiana has the most extensive SET-MH station network in the region, and we provide several recent examples where data from Louisiana's network have been used to assess and compare wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise. Our findings represent the first attempt to examine spatial gaps in SET-MH coverage across abiotic gradients. Our analyses can be used

  10. Assessing coastal wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast: Gaps and opportunities for developing a coordinated regional sampling network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Osland

    Full Text Available Coastal wetland responses to sea-level rise are greatly influenced by biogeomorphic processes that affect wetland surface elevation. Small changes in elevation relative to sea level can lead to comparatively large changes in ecosystem structure, function, and stability. The surface elevation table-marker horizon (SET-MH approach is being used globally to quantify the relative contributions of processes affecting wetland elevation change. Historically, SET-MH measurements have been obtained at local scales to address site-specific research questions. However, in the face of accelerated sea-level rise, there is an increasing need for elevation change network data that can be incorporated into regional ecological models and vulnerability assessments. In particular, there is a need for long-term, high-temporal resolution data that are strategically distributed across ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients. Here, we quantify the distribution of SET-MH stations along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast (USA across political boundaries (states, wetland habitats, and ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients (i.e., gradients in temperature, precipitation, elevation, and relative sea-level rise. Our analyses identify areas with high SET-MH station densities as well as areas with notable gaps. Salt marshes, intermediate elevations, and colder areas with high rainfall have a high number of stations, while salt flat ecosystems, certain elevation zones, the mangrove-marsh ecotone, and hypersaline coastal areas with low rainfall have fewer stations. Due to rapid rates of wetland loss and relative sea-level rise, the state of Louisiana has the most extensive SET-MH station network in the region, and we provide several recent examples where data from Louisiana's network have been used to assess and compare wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise. Our findings represent the first attempt to examine spatial gaps in SET-MH coverage across abiotic gradients. Our

  11. Stratigraphy, geochronology and regional tectonic setting of the Late Cretaceous (ca. 82-70 Ma) Cabullona basin, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-León, Carlos M.; Solari, Luigi A.; Madhavaraju, Jayagopal

    2017-12-01

    The Cabullona basin in northeastern Sonora is a continental depocenter whose origin is related to the adjacent Sierra Anibacachi uplift that bounds its tectonic eastern flank. Its exposed, mostly fluvial and lacustrine sedimentary fill, the Cabullona Group, was deposited between 81.9 ± 0.7 and 69.8 ± 0.7 Ma and its outcrops extends for 70 km from north to south. The oldest measured stratigraphic column of the Cabullona Group is the Los Atolillos column of the southern part of the basin, but its base is not exposed. A basal conglomerate in the younger El Malacate (ca. 80 Ma), Cuauhtémoc (ca. 75 Ma) and San Joaquín (ca. 70 Ma) columns onlaps deformed basement rocks. The type section in which the Cabullona Group was previously named is herein referred as the Naco section and is dated ∼73-72 Ma. The younger strata of the Cabullona Group correspond to the fluvial San Joaquín column that onlaps the eastern tectonic boundary of the basin and to the lacustrine Esqueda column. These columns are dated at ca. 70 Ma and may represent the late evolution of the Cabullona basin. Sandstone petrography and detrital zircon geochronology are used to infer provenance of sediments of the Cabullona Group. Sandstones consist of lithic arkose to feldespathic litharenite, indicating provenance from dissected to transitional volcanic arc, but samples of the El Malacate column classify as arkose and lithic arkose with possible provenance from basement uplift of Sierra Los Ajos; litharenite from the Esqueda column indicate arc provenance. Detrital zircons yielded mostly Proterozoic and Mesozoic ages with age peaks at ca. 1568, 167, 100, 80 and 73 Ma indicating possible provenance from the Precambrian basement rocks and the Jurassic continental magmatic arc that underlie the region, the Alisitos arc and La Posta plutons in Baja California, and from the Laramide magmatic arc of Sonora. The Cabullona basin developed nearly contemporaneous to the early, eastwards migrating Laramide

  12. Demographic, health services and socio-economic factors associated with pulmonary tuberculosis mortality in Los Altos Region of Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nájera-Ortiz, J C; Sánchez-Pérez, H J; Ochoa-Díaz, H; Arana-Cedeño, M; Lezama, Ma Salazar; Mateo, M Martín

    2008-08-01

    Chiapas is one of the Mexican states having the highest rates of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB), due to the numerous factors impeding its management and control (poverty, poor housing and nutrition, shortage of health resources, among others). To analyse the PTB mortality of a cohort of patients in Los Altos Region of Chiapas, who had been diagnosed with PTB from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2002; and, to identify demographic, socioeconomic and health services utilization factors, associated with death from PTB. Analysis of a cohort of patients aged over 14 years diagnosed with PTB in the above mentioned period (n = 431) in Los Altos region of Chiapas. The records of the Tuberculosis Programme were reviewed, and patients were located through a search attempting to locate them in their homes. Those found alive were interviewed and asked to provide sputum samples. In the case of deceased patients, a verbal autopsy was obtained from a member of their family. The records of the PTB Programme in the area were incomplete and erroneous in many cases. The results of the home follow-up visits were: 208 (48%) patients located alive, five of whom were still PTB positive (three with multi-drug resistance); 145 (34%) could not be located and 78 (18%) had already died. Apparently, in at least 40 cases, the deaths were associated with PTB. Of these forty, 33 (83%) died without having received any medical care. The factors associated with dying from PTB were: 45 and over years of age (OR = 1.3; 95% CI = 0.98-1.3), 0-3 schooling years (OR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.1-9.6), engaged in agriculture (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.1-4.4), not living in main villages of their municipality (OR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.0-1.3), living in a rural community (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.1-6.8), not having been treated in DOTS (OR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.0-1.3) and having defaulted from treatment (OR = 11.5; 95% CI = 5.3-24.8). The high rate of mortality due to PTB observed constitutes a serious public health problem deserving

  13. Phytoplankton oceanographic characterization during El Niño 2004 event in the Northwest region of Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda-Alvarez, A. C.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An oceanographic cruise in front of the Coast of Baja California was carried from the 9th to the 29th day of July in 2004, in 91 stations at 10 m depth. The aim of this study was to identify the variability of phytoplankton and its oceanographic characterization in the coast-ocean region during an anomalous year with El Niño characteristics. Results showed a taxonomic composition of 21 phytoplankton genera in an interval size called nano-microphytoplankton: Gymnodinium, Scrippsiella, Ceratium, Coscinodiscus, Oxytoxum, Gyrodinium, Protoperidinium, Nitzschia, Gonyaulax. On the other hand, spatial distribution of light absorption coefficient for phytoplankton (aph440 and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a concentration showed high values in front of the San Quintin coast and south of Punta Eugenia, detecting a clear decrease towards the oceanic zone. In regard to the taxonomic composition of phytoplankton, a dominance of dinoflagellates in contrast to diatoms was observed, results coinciding with the basic characteristics of phytoplankton ecology during an El Niño event.

  14. Radiated Seismic Energy of Earthquakes in the South-Central Region of the Gulf of California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Raúl R.; Mendoza-Camberos, Antonio; Pérez-Vertti, Arturo

    2018-05-01

    We estimated the radiated seismic energy (ES) of 65 earthquakes located in the south-central region of the Gulf of California. Most of these events occurred along active transform faults that define the Pacific-North America plate boundary and have magnitudes between M3.3 and M5.9. We corrected the spectral records for attenuation using nonparametric S-wave attenuation functions determined with the whole data set. The path effects were isolated from the seismic source using a spectral inversion. We computed radiated seismic energy of the earthquakes by integrating the square velocity source spectrum and estimated their apparent stresses. We found that most events have apparent stress between 3 × 10-4 and 3 MPa. Model independent estimates of the ratio between seismic energy and moment (ES/M0) indicates that this ratio is independent of earthquake size. We conclude that in general the apparent stress is low (σa < 3 MPa) in the south-central and southern Gulf of California.

  15. Dietary fat and antioxidant vitamin intake in patients of neurodegenerative disease in a rural region of Jalisco, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Meza, Mónica; Gabriel-Ortiz, Genaro; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.; Cruz-Ramos, José A.; López-Espinoza, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the intake of lipids and (A, E, and C) vitamins in patients with and without possible neurodegenerative diseases. Methods Twenty adults with possible Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease and 41 control subjects (50–89 years old) from a rural region were studied. Dietary intake was evaluated with the analysis of macronutrients and micronutrients conducted by a food frequency questionnaire and 24 hours dietary record. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and energy intake. Through interrogation and use of medical record form of health secretary we obtained information about the sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate analysis of variance to allow for covariated adjustment was used. Results Patients had a lower energy intake, vitamin C (P = 0.016), fruits (P < 0.001), vegetables (P = 0.037), and oils and fat (P = 0.002), than the controls. Interestingly, the C vitamin intake in patients was still higher than the recommended. Patients had a higher consumption of cereals (P = 0.017), high-animal fat diet (P = 0.024), and whole milk (P < 0.001); 2.4% of the controls smoke and 5% are alcohol consumers. Eighty-five percent of patients and 78% of the controls do not have physical activity. Family history of subjects in this study indicated chronic diseases. Conclusion The subjects included in this study had a high intake of C vitamin, this is due to the consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, patients with possible Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease had a lower intake of fruits and vegetables, which could be due to type of food to which they have access. PMID:24257159

  16. Mortality trends from diabetes mellitus in the seven socioeconomic regions of Mexico, 2000-2007 Tendencias de la mortalidad por diabetes mellitus en las siete regiones socioeconómicas de México, 2000-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Sánchez-Barriga

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine trends in mortality from diabetes mellitus nationwide according to federative entity, socioeconomic region, and sex and to establish the association between education level, federation entity of residence, and socioeconomic region and mortality from diabetes in Mexico during the years 2000-2007. METHODS: Records of mortality associated with diabetes for 2000-2007 were obtained from the National Information System of the Secretariat of Health. This information is generated by the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics through death certificates. Codes of International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, that correspond to the basic cause of death from diabetes mellitus were identified. Rates of mortality by federative entity and socioeconomic region were calculated, along with the strength of association (obtained by Poisson regression between federative entity of residence, socioeconomic region, and education level and mortality from diabetes. The seven socioeconomic regions elaborated by the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics include the 32 federative entities according to indicators related to well-being such as education, occupation, health, housing, and employment. RESULTS: Individuals who did not complete elementary school had a higher risk of dying from diabetes (relative risk [RR] 2.104, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.089-2.119. The federative entity and socioeconomic region with the strongest association with mortality from diabetes were Mexico City (RR 2.5, CI 2.33-2.68 for 2000; RR 2.06, CI 1.95-2.18 for 2007 and region 7 (RR 2.47, CI 2.36-2.57 for 2000; RR 2.05, CI 1.98-2.13 for 2007. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality rates increased from 77.9 to 89.2 per 100 000 inhabitants in the period 2000-2007. Women had higher mortality than men. Individuals who did not complete elementary school had a higher risk of dying from diabetes (RR 2.104, CI 2.089-2.119. Mexico City as

  17. All projects related to mexico | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Argentina, South America, Mexico, North and Central America, Peru ... West Indies, Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Mexico ... which interact in the diffusion, production and use of new and economically useful ...

  18. Forecast of Wind Speed with a Backpropagation Artificial Neural Network in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec Region in the State of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Lastres Danguillecourt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta los resultados preliminares de la configuración de una red neuronal artificial (ANN, de tipo alimentación hacia adelante con el método de entrenamiento de retro-propagación para pronosticar la velocidad de viento en la región del Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, México. La base de datos utilizada abarca los años comprendidos entre Junio 2008- Noviembre 2011, y fue suministrada por una estación meteorológica ubicada en la Universidad del Istmo campus Tehuantepec. Los experimentos se realizaron utilizando las siguientes variables: velocidad del viento, presión, temperatura y fecha. Al mismo tiempo se hicieron siete pruebas combinando estas variables, comparando su error cuadrático medio (MSE y el coeficiente de correlación r, con los datos de predicción y experimentales. En esta investigación, se propone una ANN de dos capas ocultas, para un pronóstico de 48 horas.This paper presents the preliminary results of setting up an artificial neural network (ANN of the feed forward type with the backpropagation training method for forecast wind speed in the region in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico. The database used covers the years from June 2008 - November 2011, and was supplied by a meteorological station located at the Isthmus University campus Tehuantepec. The experiments were done using the following variables: wind speed, pressure, temperature and date. At the same time were done seven tests combining these variables, comparing their mean square error (MSE and coefficient correlation r, with data the predicting and experimental. In this research, is proposed a ANN of two hidden layers, for a forecast of 48 hours.

  19. Archaeal enrichment in the hypoxic zone in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Lauren E; Thrash, J Cameron; deRada, Sergio; Rabalais, Nancy N; Mason, Olivia U

    2015-10-01

    Areas of low oxygen have spread exponentially over the past 40 years, and are cited as a key stressor on coastal ecosystems. The world's second largest coastal hypoxic (≤ 2 mg of O2 l(-1)) zone occurs annually in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The net effect of hypoxia is the diversion of energy flow away from higher trophic levels to microorganisms. This energy shunt is consequential to the overall productivity of hypoxic water masses and the ecosystem as a whole. In this study, water column samples were collected at 39 sites in the nGOM, 21 of which were hypoxic. Analysis of the microbial community along a hypoxic to oxic dissolved oxygen gradient revealed that the relative abundance (iTag) of Thaumarchaeota species 16S rRNA genes (> 40% of the microbial community in some hypoxic samples), the absolute abundance (quantitative polymerase chain reaction; qPCR) of Thaumarchaeota 16S rRNA genes and archaeal ammonia-monooxygenase gene copy number (qPCR) were significantly higher in hypoxic samples. Spatial interpolation of the microbial and chemical data revealed a continuous, shelfwide band of low dissolved oxygen waters that were dominated by Thaumarchaeota (and Euryarchaeota), amoA genes and high concentrations of phosphate in the nGOM, thus implicating physicochemical forcing on microbial abundance. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Food-web structure of seep sediment macrobenthos from the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Gualtieri, Daniel; Kovacs, Kaitlin

    2010-01-01

    The slope environment of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) supports dense communities of seep megafaunal invertebrates that rely on endosymbiotic bacteria for nutrition. Seep sediments also contain smaller macrofaunal invertebrates whose nutritional pathways are not well understood. Using stable-isotope analysis, we investigate the utilization of chemosynthetically fixed and methane-derived organic matter by macrofauna. Biological sampling was conducted in three lower-slope GOM seep environs: Green Canyon (GC852, 1428 m), Atwater Valley (AT340, 2230 m), and Alaminos Canyon (AC601, 2384 m). Infaunal delta13C and delta15N exhibited a broad range of values; most infauna appeared to be heterotrophic, although several taxa had very light delta15N and delta13C values, indicating possible reliance on chemoautotrophic symbioses. The lightest delta13C and delta15N values were observed in nematodes (delta13C=-54.6 + or - 0.1 per mil, delta15N=-6.1 + or - 0.2 per mil) and one gastropod (delta13C=-54.1 per mil, delta15N=-1.1 per mil) from Green Canyon. Mixing-model results indicated that sulfur-oxidizing Beggiatoa may be an important food source for seep infauna; the rate of utilization ranged from 60% to 100% at Green Canyon and Atwater Valley. The overall range in isotope values was similar across the three sites, suggesting that biogeochemical processes may be very similar in these geographically distinct areas.

  1. Characterizing Natural Gas Hydrates in the Deep Water Gulf of Mexico: Applications for Safe Exploration and Production Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, Jimmy

    2014-05-31

    In 2000 Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deep water portion of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Chevron is an active explorer and operator in the Gulf of Mexico and is aware that natural gas hydrates need to be understood to operate safely in deep water. In August 2000 Chevron worked closely with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and held a workshop in Houston, Texas to define issues concerning the characterization of natural gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, the workshop was meant to clearly show where research, the development of new technologies, and new information sources would be of benefit to the DOE and to the oil and gas industry in defining issues and solving gas hydrate problems in deep water.

  2. Macondo-1 well oil in sediment and tarballs from the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Florence L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Thomas, Burt

    2011-01-01

    From April 20 through July 15, 2010, an estimated 4.4 million barrels (1 barrel = 42 gallons [~700,000 cu m]) of crude oil spilled into the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) from the ruptured British Petroleum (BP) Macondo-1 (M-1) well after the explosion of the drilling platform Deepwater Horizon. In addition, ~1.84 million gallons (~7,000 cu m) of hydrocarbon-based Corexit dispersants were applied to the oil both on and below the sea surface (Operational Science Advisory Team, 2010). An estimate of the total extent of the surface oil slick, derived from wind, ocean currents, aerial photography, and satellite imagery, was 68,000 square miles (~180,000 sq km; Amos and Norse, 2010). Spilled oil from this event impacted sensitive habitat along the shores of the nGOM. In response to this environmental catastrophe, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected coastal sediment and tarball samples along the shores of the nGOM from Texas to Florida before and after oil made landfall. These sites included priority areas of the nGOM at highest risk for oil contamination. These areas included coastal wetlands, shorelines, and barrier islands that could suffer severe environmental damage if a significant amount of oil came ashore. Samples were collected before oil reached land from 69 sites; 49 were revisited to collect samples after oil landfall. This poster focuses on the samples from locations that were sampled on both occasions. The USGS samples and one M-1 well-oil sample provided by BP were analyzed for a suite of diagnostic geochemical biomarkers. Aided by multivariate statistical analysis, the M-1 well oil was not detected in the samples collected before landfall but have been identified in sediment and tarballs collected from Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida after landfall. None of the sediment hydrocarbon extracts from Texas correlated with the M-1 well oil. Oil-impacted sediment is confined to the shoreline adjacent to the cumulative oil slick of the

  3. Unsustainability of water resources in the Upper Laja River Basin, Mexico: Social-hydrology interactions in a regional overexploited aquifer with increasing concentrations of fluoride, arsenic and sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A.

    2013-05-01

    The Upper Laja River Basin, also known as the Independence Basin (IB), with an area of 7,000 km2 and a population near to 500,000 inhabitants is part of the regional Lerma-Chapala Basin in Central Mexico. Groundwater is the main source for drinking water supply, agriculture and industrial uses. Total groundwater extraction is in the order of 1,000 million of m3/a, through near to 3,000 wells in the basin, from which about 85% is for agriculture production, mainly for exportation. Historical hydrologic information in the basin showed the existence of numerous streams, rivers and lakes within the catchments in addition to thousands of springs in the discharge area. At present there is not permanent runoff in the main river and most of the springs and associated ecosystems have disappeared. Water table in the aquifer is between 100 and 200 m depth with decreasing rates between 2 m/a and 10 m/a, while 60 years ago water tables was near ground surface. Dissolved concentration of arsenic and fluoride in groundwater is increasing with time, causing severe health effects in rural villages and more recently in the main urban centers. Increasing concentration of sodium is affecting soil productivity and plant grow, where several hectares of land are been abandoned. There are several pieces of evidence that show the unsustainability of water resources in the IB creating complex social-hydrology interactions: Human actions are impairing the long-term renewability of freshwater stocks and flows. Basic water requirement are not been guaranteed to all inhabitants to maintain human health, neither to restore nor to maintain the remaining ecosystems. Water quality does not meet certain minimum standards in most of the basin. Water-planning and decision making are not democratic, the COTAS, a representation of water users is controlled by farmers with political power; therefore, limiting the participation of other parties and fostering direct participation of affected interests

  4. Hantavirus Public Health outreach effectiveness in three populations: an overview of northwestern New Mexico, Los Santos Panama, and Region IX Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Marjorie S

    2014-02-27

    This research compared the effectiveness of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) outreach programs in New Mexico, Panama, and Chile. Understanding the role of human demographics, disease ecology, and human behavior in the disease process is critical to the examination of community responses in terms of behavior changes. Attitudes, knowledge, and behavior across three populations were measured through the implementation of a self-administered questionnaire (N = 601). Surveys implemented in Chile and Panama in 2004, followed by northwestern New Mexico in 2008, attempted to assess knowledge and behavior change with respect to hantavirus in high- and lower-risk prevalence areas during endemic periods. While levels of concern over contracting hantavirus were lowest in New Mexico, they were highest in Panama. Respondents in Chile showed mid-level concern and exhibited a tendency to practice proper cleaning methods more than in New Mexico and Panama. This indicates that public health messages appear to be more effective in Chile. However, since negative behavior changes, such as sweeping and vacuuming, occur at some level in all three populations, improved messages should help decrease risk of exposure to HPS.

  5. Corima: A Bilingual Experiment in the Tarahumara Region in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico. How Does It Measure against Transitional Bilingual Programs in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Mario A.

    This report explores two bilingual educational approaches currently in use in Mexico and the United States. The study pursues a limited comparison between two modalities of bilingual instruction, as observed and reported in the consulted literature. The U.S. model featured is known as the two-way bilingual model, an additive approach to…

  6. A "Great Roads" Approach to Teaching Modern World History and Latin American Regional Survey Courses: A Veracruz to Mexico City Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Seay, Jr.; Sullivan-Gonzalez, Douglass

    2002-01-01

    Outlines an innovative way of teaching "World History Since 1500" at Samford University (Birmingham, Alabama) called the "great roads" approach, centered upon important roads in a country's history. Presents the "Veracruz to Mexico City corridor" case study used to teach a Latin American modern history course. (CMK)

  7. Geologic framework for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in sandstone reservoirs of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group, U.S. Gulf of Mexico region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D.; Dubiel, Russell F.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is assessing the undiscovered oil and gas resources in sandstone reservoirs of the Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group in onshore areas and State waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico region. The assessment is based on geologic elements of a total petroleum system. Four assessment units (AUs) are defined based on characterization of hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks, seals, traps, and the geohistory of the hydrocarbon products. Strata in each AU share similar stratigraphic, structural, and hydrocarbon-charge histories.

  8. Seismic Interferometry of Gulf of Mexico Basin Opening (GUMBO) Data: Extraction of Body and Surface Waves with a Mixed-Mode Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangraj, J. S.; Quiros, D.; Pulliam, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is a relative small oceanic basin that formed by rifting between the continental blocks of North America and Yucatan in the Middle to Late Jurassic. Following the breakup, seafloor spreading continued until the Early Cretaceous. Since then, subsidence and sedimentation have shaped the GoM margin that we see today. To better understand the opening of the GoM, a long-offset (307 km) seismic refraction line was acquired in 2010. The transect was located on the northwest GoM margin, and consisted of several types of instruments. This mixed-mode array combined 31 ocean bottom seismographs (OBS), 412 high-frequency instruments (4.5 Hz geophones with RefTek 125A "Texan" digitizers) and 12 broadband stations. The R/V Iron Cat provided the airgun source used in the refraction experiment. The airgun generated 2028 shots in a period of 2.5 days which were recorded by the entire array. The airgun-generated seismic energy was clearly visible on the OBS recordings, however its amplitude was too low to be discerned on most of the onshore stations. In fact, this energy was only visible on Texan stations 1-50 (station 1 is located at the coast), extending 18 km inland, limiting the extend of the velocity model that can be obtained. Here, we apply seismic interferometry techniques to the 2.5 days of continuous data recorded by the Texan array with the goal of extending the spatial range for which the airgun-generated seismic energy can be observed. Preliminary results show that by treating the 2.5 days of continuously recorded airgun data as ambient noise, and applying time-domain cross-correlation, we can observe energy propagating 50 to 70 km inland with apparent velocities of 1800 - 2200 ms-1. These velocities agree with the compressional seismic velocity for the top 5 km of sediments under the GoM obtained from the OBS records, suggesting that we are observing compressional energy in the virtual source gathers (VSG). We also observe arrivals in the VSG

  9. State estimates and forecasts of the loop current in the Gulf of Mexico using the MITgcm and its adjoint

    KAUST Repository

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    2013-07-01

    An ocean state estimate has been developed for the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using the MIT general circulation model and its adjoint. The estimate has been tested by forecasting loop current (LC) evolution and eddy shedding in the GoM. The adjoint (or four-dimensional variational) method was used to match the model evolution to observations by adjusting model temperature and salinity initial conditions, open boundary conditions, and atmospheric forcing fields. The model was fit to satellite-derived along-track sea surface height, separated into temporal mean and anomalies, and gridded sea surface temperature for 2 month periods. The optimized state at the end of the assimilation period was used to initialize the forecast for 2 months. Forecasts explore practical LC predictability and provide a cross-validation test of the state estimate by comparing it to independent future observations. The model forecast was tested for several LC eddy separation events, including Eddy Franklin in May 2010 during the deepwater horizon oil spill disaster in the GoM. The forecast used monthly climatological open boundary conditions, atmospheric forcing, and run-off fluxes. The model performance was evaluated by computing model-observation root-mean-square difference (rmsd) during both the hindcast and forecast periods. The rmsd metrics for the forecast generally outperformed persistence (keeping the initial state fixed) and reference (forecast initialized using assimilated Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model 1/12° global analysis) model simulations during LC eddy separation events for a period of 1̃2 months.

  10. State estimates and forecasts of the loop current in the Gulf of Mexico using the MITgcm and its adjoint

    KAUST Repository

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Cornuelle, Bruce D.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Rudnick, Daniel L.; Owens, W. Brechner

    2013-01-01

    An ocean state estimate has been developed for the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using the MIT general circulation model and its adjoint. The estimate has been tested by forecasting loop current (LC) evolution and eddy shedding in the GoM. The adjoint (or four-dimensional variational) method was used to match the model evolution to observations by adjusting model temperature and salinity initial conditions, open boundary conditions, and atmospheric forcing fields. The model was fit to satellite-derived along-track sea surface height, separated into temporal mean and anomalies, and gridded sea surface temperature for 2 month periods. The optimized state at the end of the assimilation period was used to initialize the forecast for 2 months. Forecasts explore practical LC predictability and provide a cross-validation test of the state estimate by comparing it to independent future observations. The model forecast was tested for several LC eddy separation events, including Eddy Franklin in May 2010 during the deepwater horizon oil spill disaster in the GoM. The forecast used monthly climatological open boundary conditions, atmospheric forcing, and run-off fluxes. The model performance was evaluated by computing model-observation root-mean-square difference (rmsd) during both the hindcast and forecast periods. The rmsd metrics for the forecast generally outperformed persistence (keeping the initial state fixed) and reference (forecast initialized using assimilated Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model 1/12° global analysis) model simulations during LC eddy separation events for a period of 1̃2 months.

  11. Fat, weather, and date affect migratory songbirds' departure decisions, routes, and time it takes to cross the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Jill L; Ward, Michael P; Bolus, Rachel T; Diehl, Robert H; Celis-Murillo, Antonio; Zenzal, Theodore J; Moore, Frank R; Benson, Thomas J; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A; Schofield, Lynn N; Enstrom, David A; Paxton, Eben H; Bohrer, Gil; Beveroth, Tara A; Raim, Arlo; Obringer, Renee L; Delaney, David; Cochran, William W

    2015-11-17

    Approximately two thirds of migratory songbirds in eastern North America negotiate the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), where inclement weather coupled with no refueling or resting opportunities can be lethal. However, decisions made when navigating such features and their consequences remain largely unknown due to technological limitations of tracking small animals over large areas. We used automated radio telemetry to track three songbird species (Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson's Thrush, Wood Thrush) from coastal Alabama to the northern Yucatan Peninsula (YP) during fall migration. Detecting songbirds after crossing ∼1,000 km of open water allowed us to examine intrinsic (age, wing length, fat) and extrinsic (weather, date) variables shaping departure decisions, arrival at the YP, and crossing times. Large fat reserves and low humidity, indicative of beneficial synoptic weather patterns, favored southward departure across the Gulf. Individuals detected in the YP departed with large fat reserves and later in the fall with profitable winds, and flight durations (mean = 22.4 h) were positively related to wind profit. Age was not related to departure behavior, arrival, or travel time. However, vireos negotiated the GOM differently than thrushes, including different departure decisions, lower probability of detection in the YP, and longer crossing times. Defense of winter territories by thrushes but not vireos and species-specific foraging habits may explain the divergent migratory behaviors. Fat reserves appear extremely important to departure decisions and arrival in the YP. As habitat along the GOM is degraded, birds may be limited in their ability to acquire fat to cross the Gulf.

  12. Fat, weather, and date affect migratory songbirds’ departure decisions, routes, and time it takes to cross the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Jill L.; Ward, Michael P.; Bolus, Rachel T.; Diehl, Robert H.; Celis-Murillo, A.; Zenzal, Theodore J.; Moore, Frank R.; Benson, Thomas J.; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Schofield, Lynn N.; Enstrom, David A.; Paxton, Eben H.; Bohrer, Gil; Beveroth, Tara A.; Raim, Arlo; Obringer, Renee L.; Delaney, David; Cochran, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately two thirds of migratory songbirds in eastern North America negotiate the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), where inclement weather coupled with no refueling or resting opportunities can be lethal. However, decisions made when navigating such features and their consequences remain largely unknown due to technological limitations of tracking small animals over large areas. We used automated radio telemetry to track three songbird species (Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson’s Thrush, Wood Thrush) from coastal Alabama to the northern Yucatan Peninsula (YP) during fall migration. Detecting songbirds after crossing ∼1,000 km of open water allowed us to examine intrinsic (age, wing length, fat) and extrinsic (weather, date) variables shaping departure decisions, arrival at the YP, and crossing times. Large fat reserves and low humidity, indicative of beneficial synoptic weather patterns, favored southward departure across the Gulf. Individuals detected in the YP departed with large fat reserves and later in the fall with profitable winds, and flight durations (mean = 22.4 h) were positively related to wind profit. Age was not related to departure behavior, arrival, or travel time. However, vireos negotiated the GOM differently than thrushes, including different departure decisions, lower probability of detection in the YP, and longer crossing times. Defense of winter territories by thrushes but not vireos and species-specific foraging habits may explain the divergent migratory behaviors. Fat reserves appear extremely important to departure decisions and arrival in the YP. As habitat along the GOM is degraded, birds may be limited in their ability to acquire fat to cross the Gulf.

  13. Effect of the US-Mexico border region in cardiovascular mortality: ecological time trend analysis of Mexican border and non-border municipalities from 1998 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Anaya; Wael K Al-Delaimy

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background An array of risk factors has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, and developing nations are becoming disproportionately affected by such diseases. Cardiovascular diseases have been reported to be highly prevalent in the Mexican population, but local mortality data is poor. The Mexican side of the US-Mexico border has a culture that is closely related to a developed nation and therefore may share the same risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. We wanted to explo...

  14. Agglomeration economies, growth and the new economic geography in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Diaz-Bautista

    2005-01-01

    El presente estudio sobre el crecimiento economico regional en Mexico se basa en la nueva geografia economica, donde la distancia desempena un papel importante para explicar el crecimiento economico urbano regional. Los resultados muestran que la distancia a la frontera norte de Mexico y la migracion en Mexico, despues de la puesta en marcha del TLCAN, son factores importantes que explican el crecimiento regional estatal y las aglo-meraciones para el periodo 1994 a 2000. Los resultados tambie...

  15. GoM Diet Matrix

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was taken from CRD 08-18 at the NEFSC. Specifically, the Gulf of Maine diet matrix was developed for the EMAX exercise described in that center...

  16. Towards Real-Time GOMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-28

    as possible, thinking aloud as he played. Gray videotaped KP performing this task to provide observed behavior against which to measure the...Lehman, J. F., Newell, A., Rosenblom, P. S., Simon , T., & Tessler, S. G. "Soar as a Unified Theory of Cognition: Spring 1990. in the Proceedings of the...Center Brown University Dr. Michael Blackburns User Interface Institute Department of Psychology Code 943 P.O. Box 704 Proience. RI 02912 Naval Ocean

  17. Heavy metals in red crabs, Chaceon quinquedens, from the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Harriet; Isphording, Wayne; Trigg, Christine; Riedel, Ralf

    2015-12-30

    The red crab, Chaceon quinquedens, is distributed in deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and is most abundant in an area associated with sediment deposition from the Mississippi River. Sediment geochemistry and biological and ecological traits of red crabs favor accumulation of contaminants. Red crabs, sediment, and bottom water samples were taken from three distinct geographic locations representing areas with differing exposure to contaminant laden effluents from the Mississippi River. Inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry were employed to determine levels of heavy metals in red crab muscle tissue. Ion site partitioning was used to determine metal speciation in sediments. Red crabs showed evidence of heavy metal bioaccumulation in all sample areas with high variability in contaminant levels in individual crabs for some metals. Bioavailability of metals in sediment did not always result in accumulation in muscle tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Frecuencia de micosis en pacientes inmunosuprimidos de un hospital regional de la Ciudad de México Frequency of mycoses in immunosuppressed patients in a regional hospital in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Hernández-Hernández

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Aislar e identificar hongos en diferentes especímenes de pacientes inmunocomprometidos, atendidos en un hospital de la Ciudad de México, y determinar su asociación con micosis. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de tipo observacional transversal en pacientes del Hospital Regional General Ignacio Zaragoza, de junio de 1999 a mayo de 2000. De 108 pacientes se procesaron 268 especímenes para estudio micológico que incluyó examen directo, frotis, cultivos y microcultivos en medios específicos además de pruebas bioquímicas. La mayoría de pacientes tenía diagnóstico clínico de tuberculosis pulmonar y de síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron 183 aislamientos de levaduras y 66 de hongos filamentosos. Se diagnosticaron 45 micosis que en su mayoría correspondieron a candidosis pulmonar (32 casos. Las especies de Candida más frecuentes asociadas a patología fueron Candida albicans y C parapsilosis. Se obtuvieron cinco aislamientos de Cryptococcus neoformans variedad neoformans, uno de C albidus, tres de Histoplasma capsulatum y uno de Geotrichum candidum, asociados a infección micótica. CONCLUSIONES: El 41.6% de los pacientes estudiados presentaron una micosis asociada principalmente a síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida y a tuberculosis pulmonar.OBJECTIVE: To isolate and identify the fungi in specimens collected from immunocompromised patients seen in Mexico City hospital, and to assess their association with mycosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 268 specimens from 108 patients were processed for mycological study, including direct examination, smears, cultures, and microcultures in specific media, in addition to biochemical tests. Most of the patients had been diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-three yeasts and 66 mycelial fungi were isolated. Forty-five mycoses were diagnosed; the most frequent

  19. Connecting the Mississippi River with Carbon Variability in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Z. G.; He, R.; Fennel, K.; Cai, W. J.; Lohrenz, S. E.; Huang, W. J.; Tian, H.; Ren, W.

    2016-02-01

    To understand the linkage between landuse/land-cover change within the Mississippi basin and the carbon dynamics in the Gulf of Mexico, a three-dimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical model was used to the examine temporal and spatial variability of surface ocean pCO2 in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). The model is driven by realistic atmospheric forcing, open boundary conditions from a data-assimilative global ocean circulation model, and freshwater and terrestrial nutrient and carbon input from major rivers provided by the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM). A seven-year model hindcast (2004-2010) was performed and was validated against the recently updated Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory global ocean carbon dataset. Model simulated seawater pCO2 and air-sea CO2 flux are in good agreement with in-situ measurements. An inorganic carbon budget was estimated based on the multi-year mean of the model results. Overall, the GoM is a sink of atmospheric CO2 with a flux of 0.92 × 1012 mol C yr-1, which, together with the enormous fluvial carbon input, is balanced by carbon export through the Loop Current. In a sensitivity experiment with all biological sources and sinks of carbon disabled surface pCO2 was elevated by 70 ppm, suggesting that biological uptake is the most important reason for the simulated CO2 sink. The impact from landuse and land-cover changes within the Mississippi River basin on coastal pCO2 dynamics is also discussed based on a scenario run driven by river conditions during the 1904-1910 provided by the DLEM model.

  20. September 1985 Mexico City, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.1 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The damage was concentrated in a 25 square km area of Mexico City, 350 km from the epicenter....

  1. Digital archive of drilling mud weight pressures and wellbore temperatures from 49 regional cross sections of 967 well logs in Louisiana and Texas, onshore Gulf of Mexico basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lauri A.; Kinney, Scott A.; Kola-Kehinde, Temidayo B.

    2011-01-01

    This document provides the digital archive of in-situ temperature and drilling mud weight pressure data that were compiled from several historical sources. The data coverage includes the states of Texas and Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico basin. Data are also provided graphically, for both Texas and Louisiana, as plots of temperature as a function of depth and pressure as a function of depth. The minimum, arithmetic average, and maximum values are tabulated for each 1,000-foot depth increment for temperature as well as pressure in the Texas and Louisiana data.

  2. Anomalous behavior of cutoff rigidity variation in the region of the Mexico station during a magnetic superstorm on 20 November 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Pchelkin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The pioneering storm-time model of magnetospheric magnetic field T01S made possible trajectory calculations for the events of giant magnetic storms. We have performed such calculations for a unique magnetic storm on 20 November 2003. In our previous paper, Belov et al. (2005, dedicated to the magnetospheric effects of cosmic rays (CR during this storm, we revealed an anomalous behavior of a cutoff rigidity variation at the Mexico station. Here, by trajectory calculations, we demonstrate that this peculiarity persists in the latitudinal and longitudinal curves of cutoff rigidity (Rc for both quiet and storm-time conditions and thus should be considered as physically meaningful.

  3. Aerosol optical properties relevant to regional remote sensing of CCN activity and links to their organic mass fraction: airborne observations over Central Mexico and the US West Coast during MILAGRO/INTEX-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozuka, Y.; Clarke, A. D.; Decarlo, P. F.; Jimenez, J. L.; Dunlea, E. J.; Roberts, G. C.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Collins, D. R.; Howell, S. G.; Kapustin, V. N.; McNaughton, C. S.; Zhou, J.

    2009-09-01

    Remote sensing of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) would help evaluate the indirect effects of tropospheric aerosols on clouds and climate. To assess its feasibility, we examined relationships of submicron aerosol composition to CCN activity and optical properties observed during the MILAGRO/INTEX-B aircraft campaigns. An indicator of CCN activity, κ, was calculated from hygroscopicity measured under saturation. κ for dry 100 nm particles decreased with increasing organic fraction of non-refractory mass of submicron particles (OMF) as 0.34-0.20×OMF over Central Mexico and 0.47-0.43×OMF over the US West Coast. These fits represent the critical dry diameter, centered near 100 nm for 0.2% supersaturation but varied as κ(-1/3), within measurement uncertainty (~20%). The decreasing trends of CCN activity with the organic content, evident also in our direct CCN counts, were consistent with previous ground and laboratory observations of highly organic particles. The wider range of OMF, 0-0.8, for our research areas means that aerosol composition will be more critical for estimation of CCN concentration than at the fixed sites previously studied. Furthermore, the wavelength dependence of extinction was anti-correlated with OMF as -0.70×OMF+2.0 for Central Mexico's urban and industrial pollution air masses, for unclear reasons. The Angstrom exponent of absorption increased with OMF, more rapidly under higher single scattering albedo, as expected for the interplay between soot and colored weak absorbers (some organic species and dust). Because remote sensing products currently use the wavelength dependence of extinction albeit in the column integral form and may potentially include that of absorption, these regional spectral dependencies are expected to facilitate retrievals of aerosol bulk chemical composition and CCN activity over Central Mexico.

  4. Marine snow formation in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passow, U; Ziervogel, K; Asper, V; Diercks, A

    2012-01-01

    The large marine snow formation event observed in oil-contaminated surface waters of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) after the Deepwater Horizon accident possibly played a key role in the fate of the surface oil. We characterized the unusually large and mucus-rich marine snow that formed and conducted roller table experiments to investigate their formation mechanisms. Once marine snow lost its buoyancy, its sinking velocity, porosity and excess density were then similar to those of diatom or miscellaneous aggregates. The hydrated density of the component particles of the marine snow from the GoM was remarkably variable, suggesting a wide variety of component types. Our experiments suggest that the marine snow appearing at the surface after the oil spill was formed through the interaction of three mechanisms: (1) production of mucous webs through the activities of bacterial oil-degraders associated with the floating oil layer; (2) production of oily particulate matter through interactions of oil components with suspended matter and their coagulation; and (3) coagulation of phytoplankton with oil droplets incorporated into aggregates. Marine snow formed in some, but not all, experiments with water from the subsurface plume of dissolved hydrocarbons, emphasizing the complexity of the conditions leading to the formation of marine snow in oil-contaminated seawater at depth. (letter)

  5. Polychaete Annelid (segmented worms) Species Composition in the Deep Gulf of Mexico following the Deep Water Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    QU, F.; Rowe, G.

    2012-12-01

    Sediments 5 to 9 km from the Deep Water Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill site were sampled using a 0.2 m2 box corer 5 months after the event to assess the effects of the oil spill on polychaete annelid (segmented worms) community structure. Numbers of species, abundance, and biodiversity indices were all significantly lower than pre-spill values from similar depths in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). All of the five dominant species were different. Non-selective deposit feeders and selective deposit feeders were still the most frequent feeding guilds, but their abundances decreased significantly after the event. A large number of carnivorous Sigalionidae may be a response to an accumulation of PAHs on the sediment. Multivariate analyses (CLUSTER and multidimensional scaling (MDS)) illustrate the differences between assemblages near the DWH and those from prior studies in similar deep GoM habitats. In sum, the polychaete populations appeared to be at an early stage of succession in the recovery from the spill or they could be a resident assemblage that is the natural characteristic infauna in or adjacent to natural seeps of fossil hydrocarbons.

  6. Generalized additive models used to predict species abundance in the Gulf of Mexico: an ecosystem modeling tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Drexler

    Full Text Available Spatially explicit ecosystem models of all types require an initial allocation of biomass, often in areas where fisheries independent abundance estimates do not exist. A generalized additive modelling (GAM approach is used to describe the abundance of 40 species groups (i.e. functional groups across the Gulf of Mexico (GoM using a large fisheries independent data set (SEAMAP and climate scale oceanographic conditions. Predictor variables included in the model are chlorophyll a, sediment type, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and depth. Despite the presence of a large number of zeros in the data, a single GAM using a negative binomial distribution was suitable to make predictions of abundance for multiple functional groups. We present an example case study using pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duroarum and compare the results to known distributions. The model successfully predicts the known areas of high abundance in the GoM, including those areas where no data was inputted into the model fitting. Overall, the model reliably captures areas of high and low abundance for the large majority of functional groups observed in SEAMAP. The result of this method allows for the objective setting of spatial distributions for numerous functional groups across a modeling domain, even where abundance data may not exist.

  7. Tsunami-Induced Nearshore Hydrodynamic Modeling using a 3D VOF Method: A Gulf of Mexico Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kian, R.; Horrillo, J. J.; Fang, N. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term morphology changes can be interrupted by extreme events such as hurricanes and tsunamis. In particular, the impact of tsunamis on coastal erosion and accretion patterns is presently not well understood. In order to understand the sediment movement during coastal tsunami impact a numerical sediment transport model is added to a 3D VOF model. This model allows for spatially varying bottom sediment characteristics and entails functions for entrainment, bedload, and suspended load transport. As a case study, a Gulf of Mexico (GOM) coastal study site is selected to investigate the effect of a landslide-tsunami on the coastal morphology. The GOM is recognized as a vast and productive body of water with great ecologic and economic value. The morphodynamic response of the nearshore environment to the tsunami hydrodynamic forcing is influenced by many factors including bathymetry, topography, tsunami wave and current magnitude, and the characteristics of the local bottom substrate. The 3D model addition can account for all these factors. Finally, necessary strategies for reduction of the potential tsunami impact and management of the morphological changes are discussed.

  8. Agglomeration Economies, Economic Growth and the New Economic Geography in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Diaz-Bautista

    2005-01-01

    The present study of regional economic growth in Mexico is based on the new economic geography, where distance plays an important role in explaining urban regional economic growth. The results show that distance to the northern border of Mexico and labor migration between states of Mexico, after the passage of NAFTA are important factors that explain the regional state growth and agglomerations in Mexico between 1994 and 2000. The results also indicate that job growth and FDI are not signific...

  9. First Record of Psorophora albipes in Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Chable, Rahuel J; Ortega-Morales, Aldo I; Martínez-Arce, Arely

    2016-09-01

    In Mexico the Psorophora genus includes 24 species divided into 3 subgenera: Grabhamia, Janthinosoma, and Psorophora. Some species occur in the Nearctic region of the country (northern Mexico), whereas other species occur in the Neotropical region (southern Mexico), and a few species occur in both regions. In Quintana Roo, Mexico, 7 species have been previously recorded: Ps. confinnis s.s., Ps. champerico, Ps. cyanescens, Ps. ferox, Ps. lutzii, Ps. ciliata, and Ps. lineata. In October 2013, 24 females of Ps. albipes were collected using CDC light traps. This is the first record of this species in Quintana Roo.

  10. Water quality of springs and water wells which are used in human consumption, in the Jocotitlan volcano region at State of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca G, A.; Segovia, N.; Iturbe, J.L.; Martinez, V.; Armienta, M.A.; Seidel, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    In this work are presented the results of water quality of seven springs (San Antonio Enchisi, Las Fuentes, El Cerro, Pasteje, Los Reyes, Santa Cruz and Tiacaque) and two water wells (Jocotitlan No. 2 and La Providencia No. 35) which are used for human consumption and that are located surrounding area to Jocotitlan volcano, state of Mexico. It was determined the 222 Rn concentration through liquid scintillation, the 226 Ra by Gamma spectroscopy, the physical-chemical parameters (major elements) and bacteriological, using standardized methods. The minor elements and trace in solution were determined by Icp-Ms mass spectroscopy. The water quality was established in function of the standing standards. Therefore Las Fuentes, El Cerro, Santa Cruz, Tiacaque springs and the Jocotitlan No. 2 well, are drinkable water. So, Pasteje, Los Reyes, San Antonio Enchisi springs and the La Providencia No. 35 well are chemically drinkable but presenting bacteriological pollution. (Author)

  11. Is Latin America Ready to Identify Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma in Breast Implants Patients? Regional Encounter During the National Plastic Surgery Meeting in Cancun, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gallardo, Guillermo; Cuenca-Pardo, Jesus; Cardenas-Camarena, Lazaro; Duran-Vega, Hector; Rodríguez-Olivares, Eugenio; Bayter-Marin, Jorge Enrique; Levelier De Doig Alvear, Gerardo; Vazquez, Guillermo; Fontbona-Torres, Montserrat; Galán-Suárez, Ricardo; Guzman-Stein, Gabriela; Guzmán-Padilla, Sergio; Echeverría-Roldán, Guillermo; Silva-Gavarrete, Jose Fernando; Vallarta-Rodríguez, Alfonso; Contreras-Bulnes, Livia; Oaxaca-Escobar, Carlos Guillemro; Caravantes-Cortes, Isabel; Flores, María Eugenia; Cowes-McGowen, Jorge; Maciel-Sosa, María Liz; Delgado-Binasco, Ricardo; Rincón-Rubio, Linda

    2018-05-16

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma associated with breast implants is receiving increased attention. Most cases have been reported in Europe, North America (USA and Canada), Australia and New Zealand. Fewer cases have been reported in Latin America (including Mexico), Africa and Asia. This report was delivered during our national plastic surgery meeting in Cancun in May 2017. Before the meeting, two participants reviewed the literature. The review was performed using the following information sources: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Fisterra, Google Scholar and LILACS, with entries from 1980 to August 2015 in several languages (English, Spanish, French and Portuguese). The results were revealed during the meeting to the other participants. The consensus was divided into two parts. The first part included an open-ended question regarding the incidence and prevalence of the problem. The second part included clinical scenarios with different items that were rated by the participants. After this activity, accordance among the responses was evaluated. Seven cases were reported during the meeting (3 from Mexico, 3 from Chile and 1 from Argentina). Fifty percent of the participants reported consulting with guidelines and clinical centers to help with potential cases. Most agreed that further studies must be done in cases of chronic seroma where the capsule plays an important role. A current debate exists about the incidence of this problem in Latin America because we did not report the same number of cases as Europe, Australia or North America. More studies are required to determine the differences among reports in Latin America. Most representatives agreed that further studies must be done. Concern is increasing, and the problem is known. Other factors involved may be considered, and the problem must not be ignored. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the

  12. Mexico; Mexique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes the key energy data for Mexico: 1 - energy organizations and policy: Ministry of energy (SENER), Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), Ministry of Finances, Ministry of trade and industrial development (SECOFI), national commission for energy savings (CONAE); 2 - companies: federal commission of electricity (CFE), Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido (MICARE - coal), Pemex (petroleum); 3 - energy production: resources, electric power, petroleum, natural gas; 4 - energy consumption; 5 - stakes and perspectives. Some economic and energy indicators are summarized in a series of tables: general indicators, supply indicators (reserves, refining and electric capacity, energy production, foreign trade), demand indicators (consumption trends, end use, energy independence, energy efficiency, CO{sub 2} emissions), energy status per year and per energy source. (J.S.)

  13. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range province, southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste: characterization of the Rio Grande Region, New Mexico, and Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, Kenneth A.; Langer, William H.

    1989-01-01

    The Rio Grande region, New Mexico and Texas, includes most of the area east of the Rio Grande to the Sacramento Mountains. The region encompasses two large basins, the Jornada del Muerto and Tularosa basins, and the intervening San Andres Mountains. The valley surfaces generally have altitudes from 600 to 1,500 meters, and the mountain ranges generally have altitudes from 1,500 to 2,400 meters. About one-half the area is underlain by basin fill. Sedimentary rocks that crop out in the Rio Grande region range in age from Precambrian to Holocene. The oldest Precambrian rocks are metamorphosed and intruded by plutons. Paleozoic rocks are primarily carbonates, with argillaceous beds in the older Paleozoic units. Clastic and gypsum are in greater abundance in younger Paleozoic units of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. The Mesozoic rocks primarily are clastic rocks with some limestone. Cenozoic rocks consist of sequences of conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone, and siltstone, derived from adjacent mountain masses, interbedded with basalt and andesite flows and silicic tuffs. Early to middle Tertiary volcanic and tectonic processes resulted in the implacement of plutonic bodies; volcanic activity continued into the Quaternary. Media considered to have potential for isolation of high-level radioactive waste include intrusive rocks, ash-flow tuff, and basaltic lava flows. Laharic and mudflow breccia and argillaceous beds also may be potential host rocks. These and other rocks may be potential media in areas where the unsaturated zone is thick. Quaternary faults are more common in the southern one-half of the region than in the northern one-half. Range-bounding faults with evidence of Quaternary movement extend northward into the central part of the region. Volcanic activity in the northern part of the region includes basalt flows of Quaternary age. Historical crustal uplift and seismicity have occurred in the vicinity of Socorro, New Mexico. The region is bordered on the west by

  14. Constraining gas hydrate occurrence in the northern Gulf of Mexico continental slope : fine scale analysis of grain-size in hydrate-bearing sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangsterfer, A.; Driscoll, N.; Kastner, M. [Scripps Inst. of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States). Geosciences Research Division

    2008-07-01

    Methane hydrates can form within the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) in sea beds. The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) contains an underlying petroleum system and deeply buried, yet dynamic salt deposits. Salt tectonics and fluid expulsion upward through the sediment column result in the formation of fractures, through which high salinity brines migrate into the GHSZ, destabilizing gas hydrates. Thermogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons also migrate to the seafloor along the GOMs northern slope, originating from the thermal and biogenic degradation of organic matter. Gas hydrate occurrence can be controlled by either primary permeability, forming in coarse-grained sediment layers, or by secondary permeability, forming in areas where hydrofracture and faulting generate conduits through which hydrocarbon-saturated fluids flow. This paper presented a study that attempted to determine the relationship between grain-size, permeability, and gas hydrate distribution. Grain-size analyses were performed on cores taken from Keathley Canyon and Atwater Valley in the GOM, on sections of cores that both contained and lacked gas hydrate. Using thermal anomalies as proxies for the occurrence of methane hydrate within the cores, samples of sediment were taken and the grain-size distributions were measured to see if there was a correlation between gas hydrate distribution and grain-size. The paper described the methods, including determination of hydrate occurrence and core analysis. It was concluded that gas hydrate occurrence in Keathley Canyon and Atwater Valley was constrained by secondary permeability and was structurally controlled by hydrofractures and faulting that acted as conduits through which methane-rich fluids flowed. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  15. Lagrangian Statistics and Intermittency in Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liru; Zhuang, Wei; Huang, Yongxiang

    2017-12-12

    Due to the nonlinear interaction between different flow patterns, for instance, ocean current, meso-scale eddies, waves, etc, the movement of ocean is extremely complex, where a multiscale statistics is then relevant. In this work, a high time-resolution velocity with a time step 15 minutes obtained by the Lagrangian drifter deployed in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) from July 2012 to October 2012 is considered. The measured Lagrangian velocity correlation function shows a strong daily cycle due to the diurnal tidal cycle. The estimated Fourier power spectrum E(f) implies a dual-power-law behavior which is separated by the daily cycle. The corresponding scaling exponents are close to -1.75 and -2.75 respectively for the time scale larger (resp. 0.1 ≤ f ≤ 0.4 day -1 ) and smaller (resp. 2 ≤ f ≤ 8 day -1 ) than 1 day. A Hilbert-based approach is then applied to this data set to identify the possible multifractal property of the cascade process. The results show an intermittent dynamics for the time scale larger than 1 day, while a less intermittent dynamics for the time scale smaller than 1 day. It is speculated that the energy is partially injected via the diurnal tidal movement and then transferred to larger and small scales through a complex cascade process, which needs more studies in the near future.

  16. Building the gas sector in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrocarbon reserves in Mexico, ranked 8th in the world, were discussed. On January 1, 1996, Mexico's hydrocarbon proven reserves were 62.1 billion barrels ( a decline of some 10 billion barrels since 1984). Of this 48.8 billion corresponded to crude oil and 13.3 billion to natural gas. Mexico's natural gas pipeline network includes 10,280 kilometres in transmission and 2,211 kilometres in distribution, concentrated along the Gulf of Mexico and in the central and northern regions of the country. A new regulatory framework for natural gas, passed in Congress in 1995, was outlined. The new amendments were designed to strengthen the natural gas industry through private investment in the storage, transportation and distribution of natural gas. Stages for third party access were identified. Increased North American regional integration by interconnections between Mexican, American and Canadian pipeline networks, and the effects of such integration on investments, were examined. figs

  17. Mexico: Imports or exports?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, J.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of Mexico's energy sector. Proven oil reserves place Mexico in ninth position in the world and fourth largest in natural gas reserves. Energy is one of the most important economic activities of the country, representing 3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Oil exports represent 8.4 per cent of total exports. Approximately 40 per cent of total public investment is earmarked for energy projects. The author discusses energy resources and energy sector limitations. The energy sector plan for the period 2001-2006 is discussed. Its goals are to ensure energy supply, to develop the energy sector, to stimulate participation of Mexican enterprises, to promote renewable energy sources, and to strengthen international energy cooperation. The regulatory framework is being adapted to increase private investment. Some graphs are presented, displaying the primary energy production and primary energy consumption. Energy sector reforms are reviewed, as are electricity and natural gas reforms. The energy sector demand for 2000-2010 and investment requirements are reviewed, as well as fuel consumption for power generation. The author discusses the National Pipeline System (SNG) and the bottlenecks caused by pressure efficiency in the northeast, flow restriction on several pipeline segments, variability of the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) own use, and pressure drop on central regions. The entire prospect for natural gas in the country is reviewed, along with the Strategic Gas Program (PEG) consisting of 20 projects, including 4 non-associated natural gas, 9 exploration and 7 optimization. A section dealing with multiple service contracts is included in the presentation. The authors conclude by stating that the priority is a national energy policy to address Mexico's energy security requirements, to increase natural gas production while promoting the diversification of imports, and a regulatory framework to be updated in light of current

  18. Epidemic Risk from Cholera Introductions into Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Sean M.; Shannon, Kerry L.; Zelaya, Carla E.; Azman, Andrew S.; Lessler, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Stemming from the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti, cholera transmission in Hispaniola continues with over 40,000 cases in 2013. The presence of an ongoing cholera outbreak in the region poses substantial risks to countries throughout the Americas, particularly in areas with poor infrastructure. Since September 9, 2013 nearly 200 cholera cases have been reported in Mexico, as a result of introductions from Hispaniola or Cuba. There appear to have been multiple introductions into Mexico resultin...

  19. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): United Nuclear Corporation, Mckinley County, New Mexico, ground-water operable unit (first remedial action) September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) site is located approximately 17 miles northeast of Gallup, New Mexico in McKinley County. The site operated as a State-licensed uranium mill facility from June 1977 to May 1982. It includes an ore-processing mill (about 25 acres) and an unlined tailings pond area (about 100 acres). In July 1979, approximately 23 million gallons of tailings and pond water were released to a nearby river as a result of a dam breach in the tailings pond area. The site damage was repaired; however, attention was focused on ground-water contamination resulting from tailings seepage. Nevertheless, the offsite migration of radionuclides and chemical constituents from uranium milling byproduct materials into the ground water, as well as to surface water and air, are still principal threats at the site. The remedial action will address onsite ground water contamination. Source control and onsite surface reclamation will be implemented under the direction of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and integrated with this ground water operable unit. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are metals including arsenic, and radioactive substances including radium-226/228 and gross alpha. The selected remedial action for the site is included

  20. Social and structural factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers who inject drugs in the Mexico-US border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Martinez, Gustavo; Vera, Alicia; Rusch, Melanie; Nguyen, Lucie; Pollini, Robin A; Uribe-Salas, Felipe; Beletsky, Leo; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-04-25

    FSWs who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) can acquire HIV through high risk sexual and injection behaviors. We studied correlates of HIV infection among FSW-IDUs in northern Mexico, where sex work is quasi-legal and syringes can be legally obtained without a prescription. FSW-IDUs>18 years old who reported injecting drugs and recent unprotected sex with clients in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez underwent surveys and HIV/STI testing. Logistic regression identified correlates of HIV infection. Of 620 FSW-IDUs, prevalence of HIV, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, trichomonas, syphilis titers ≥1:8, or any of these infections was 5.3%, 4%, 13%, 35%, 10% and 72%, respectively. Compared to other FSW-IDUs, HIV-positive women were more likely to: have syphilis titers ≥1:8 (36% vs. 9%, psocial environment (i.e., injecting drugs with clients) and policy environment (i.e., having syringes confiscated by police, attending NEPs) predominated as factors associated with risk of HIV infection, rather than individual-level risk behaviors. Interventions should target unjustified policing practices, clients' risk behaviors and HIV/STI prevention through NEPs.

  1. Can't buy my love: a typology of female sex workers' commercial relationships in the Mexico-U.S. Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Amaro, Hortensia; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Patterson, Thomas L; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) experience elevated risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) through unprotected sex with male clients, yet the complexity of these commercial relationships remains understudied. From 2010 to 2011, we explored FSWs' conceptualizations of various client types and related risk behavior patterns using semistructured interviews with 46 FSWs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, where FSWs' HIV/STI prevalence is increasing. Our grounded theory analysis identified four types of commercial relationships: nonregular clients, regular clients and friends, clients who "fell in love" with FSWs, and long-term financial providers who often originated from the United States. As commercial relationships developed, clients' social and emotional connections to FSWs increased, rendering condom negotiation and maintaining professional boundaries more difficult. Drug abuse and poverty also influenced behaviors, particularly in Ciudad Juárez, where lucrative U.S. clients were increasingly scarce. While struggling to cultivate dependable relationships in a setting marked by historical sex tourism from a wealthier country, some FSWs ceased negotiating condom use. We discuss the need for HIV/STI research and prevention interventions to recognize the complexity within FSWs' commercial relationships and how behaviors (e.g., condom use) evolve as relationships develop through processes that are influenced by local sociopolitical contexts and binational income inequality.

  2. Mapping Surface Water DOC in the Northern Gulf of Mexico Using CDOM Absorption Coefficients and Remote Sensing Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B.; Chelsky, A.; Bulygina, E.; Roberts, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing techniques have become valuable tools to researchers, providing the capability to measure and visualize important parameters without the need for time or resource intensive sampling trips. Relationships between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and spectral data have been used to remotely sense DOC concentrations in riverine systems, however, this approach has not been applied to the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) and needs to be tested to determine how accurate these relationships are in riverine-dominated shelf systems. In April, July, and October 2017 we sampled surface water from 80+ sites over an area of 100,000 km2 along the Louisiana-Texas shelf in the northern GoM. DOC concentrations were measured on filtered water samples using a Shimadzu TOC-VCSH analyzer using standard techniques. Additionally, DOC concentrations were estimated from CDOM absorption coefficients of filtered water samples on a UV-Vis spectrophotometer using a modification of the methods of Fichot and Benner (2011). These values were regressed against Landsat visible band spectral data for those same locations to establish a relationship between the spectral data, CDOM absorption coefficients. This allowed us to spatially map CDOM absorption coefficients in the Gulf of Mexico using the Landsat spectral data in GIS. We then used a multiple linear regressions model to derive DOC concentrations from the CDOM absorption coefficients and applied those to our map. This study provides an evaluation of the viability of scaling up CDOM absorption coefficient and remote-sensing derived estimates of DOC concentrations to the scale of the LA-TX shelf ecosystem.

  3. New Mexico Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of parks in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data from a...

  4. New Mexico State Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the generalized physical boundaries of New Mexico State Parks, in polygonal form with limited attributes, compiled using...

  5. New Mexico Ghost Towns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data provides locations and non-spatial attributes of many ghost towns in the State of New Mexico, compiled from various sources. Locations provided with...

  6. Deep-towed CSEM survey of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannberg, P.; Constable, S.

    2017-12-01

    Controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) surveys are increasingly being used to remotely detect hydrate deposits in seafloor sediments. CSEM methods are sensitive to sediment pore space resistivity, such as when electrically resistive hydrate displaces the electrically conductive pore fluid, increasing the bulk resistivity of the sediment. In July 2017, a two-week research cruise using an upgraded and expanded "Vulcan" towed receiver system collected over 250 line km of data at four sites in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) thought to have hydrate bearing sediments. Hydrate bearing horizons at the survey sites ranged from 400-700 m below seafloor. Modeling suggested an array with source receiver offsets of up to 1600 m would be needed to properly image the deep hydrate. A deep towed electromagnetic transmitter outputting 270 Amps was towed 100 m above seafloor. Six Vulcan receivers, each recording three-axis electric field data, were towed at 200 m intervals from 600-1600 m behind the transmitter. The four sites surveyed, Walker Ridge 313, Orca Basin, Mad Dog, and Green Canyon 955, are associated with the upcoming GOM^2 coring operation scheduled for 2020. Wells at WR313 and GC955 were logged as part of a joint industry drilling project in 2009 and will be used to ground truth our inversion results. In 2008, WR313 and GC955 were surveyed using traditional CSEM seafloor receivers, accompanied by a single prototype Vulcan towed receiver. This prior survey will allow comparison of results from a seafloor receiver survey with those from a towed receiver survey. Seismic data has been collected at all the sites, which will be used to constrain inversions. In addition to the four hydrate sites surveyed, two lines were towed over Green Knoll, a deep-water salt dome located between Mad Dog and GC955. Presented here are initial results from our recent cruise.

  7. Carbon Composition of Particulate Organic Carbon in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, K.; Montoya, J. P.; Weber, S.; Bosman, S.; Chanton, J.

    2016-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout released 5.0x1011 g C from gaseous hydrocarbons and up to 6.0x1011g C from oil into the water column. Another carbon source, adding daily to the water column, leaks from the natural hydrocarbon seeps that pepper the seafloor of the Gulf of Mexico. How much of this carbon from the DWH and natural seeps is assimilated into particulate organic carbon (POC) in the water column? We filtered seawater collected in 2010, 2012, and 2013 from seep and non-seep sites, collecting POC on 0.7µm glass microfiber filters and analyzing the POC for stable and radiocarbon isotopes. Mixing models based on carbon isotopic endmembers of methane, oil, and modern production were used to estimate the percentage of hydrocarbon incorporated into POC. Significant differences were seen between POC from shallow and deep waters and between POC collected from seep, non-seep, and blowout sites; however yearly differences were not as evident suggesting the GOM has a consistent supply of depleted carbon. Stable carbon isotopes signatures of POC in the Gulf averaged -23.7±2.5‰ for shallow samples and -26.65±2.9‰ for deep POC samples, while radiocarbon signatures averaged -100.4±146.1‰ for shallow and -394.6±197‰ for deep samples. POC in the northern Gulf are composed of 23-91% modern carbon, 2-21% methane, and 0-71% oil. Oil plays a major role in the POC composition of the GOM, especially at the natural seep GC600.

  8. Assessing Oil Spill Impacts to Cold-Water Corals of the Deep Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeo, D. M.; Lengyel, S. D.; Cordes, E. E.

    2016-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster and subsequent cleanup efforts resulted in the release of an unprecedented amount of oil and chemical dispersants in the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Over the years, numerous detrimental effects have been documented including impacts to cold-water coral ecosystems. Assessing and quantifying these effects is crucial to understanding the long-term consequences to affected coral populations as well as their resilience. We conducted live exposure experiments to investigate the toxicity of oil and dispersants on two deep-sea corals, Callogorgia delta and Paramuricea type B3. For both species, the treatments containing dispersants had a more pronounced effect than oil treatments alone. In addition, RNA from unexposed and DWH spill-impacted Paramuricea biscaya was extracted and sequenced using Illumina technology. A de novo reference transcriptome was produced and used to explore stress-induced variations in gene expression. Current findings show overexpression of genes coding for Cytochrome p450 (CYP1A1), Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs), Peroxidasin and additional genes involved in innate immunity and apoptotic pathways. CYP1A1 is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics and has been previously used as a diagnostic tool for aquatic pollution. TRAFs are responsible for regulating pathways involved in immune and inflammatory responses and were likewise overexpressed in thermally stressed shallow-water corals. Ribosomal proteins were also significantly underexpressed. These genes among others found in our expression data serve as useful biomarker candidates for assessing and monitoring future spill impacts as resource extraction continues in the deep waters of the GoM. Our results also provide insights into the responses of deep-sea corals to toxin exposure, implications of applying dispersants to oil spills and a novel reference assembly for a relatively under-studied group of cold-water corals.

  9. Cold-seep carbonates of the middle and lower continental slope, northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Harry H.; Feng, Dong; Joye, Samantha B.

    2010-11-01

    Authigenic carbonates from cold seeps on the middle and lower continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) exhibit a wide range of mineralogical and stable isotopic compositions. These carbonates consist of concretions and nodules in surface sediments, hardgrounds of crusts and isolated slabs, and mounded buildups of blocks and slabs of up to over 10 meters in relief above the surrounding seafloor. Mineralogically, the carbonates are dominated by high-Mg calcite (HMC) and aragonite. However, low levels (oil, seawater CO2, and 13C-enriched residual CO2 from methanogenesis. A similarly large variability in δ18O values (2.5 to 6.7‰ PDB) demonstrates the geochemical complexity of the slope, with some samples pointing toward an 18O-enriched oxygen source that is possibly related to advection of 18O-enriched formation water and/or to the decomposition of gas hydrate. A considerable range of mineralogical and isotopic variations in cold-seep carbonate composition was noted even within individual study sites. However, common trends occur across multiple geographic areas. This situation suggests that local controls on fluid and gas flux, types of seep hydrocarbons, the presence or absence of gas hydrate in the near-surface sediment, and chemosynthetic communities, as well as the temporal evolution of the local hydrocarbon reservoir, all may play a part in determining carbonate mineralogy and isotope geochemistry. The carbon isotope data clearly indicate that between-site variation is greater than within-site variation. Seep carbonates formed on the middle and lower continental slope of the GOM do not appear to be substantially different from those found on the upper slope (<1000-m water depth). The highly variable fluids and gases that leave their geochemical imprints on seep carbonate of the middle and lower continental slope are similar to their outer shelf and upper slope counterparts.

  10. Complete genome sequence of a novel influenza A H1N2 virus circulating in swine from Central Bajio region, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Betancourt, J I; Cervantes-Torres, J B; Saavedra-Montañez, M; Segura-Velázquez, R A

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to perform the complete genome sequence of a swine influenza A H1N2 virus strain isolated from a pig in Guanajuato, México (A/swine/Mexico/GtoDMZC01/2014) and to report its seroprevalence in 86 counties at the Central Bajio zone. To understand the evolutionary dynamics of the isolate, we undertook a phylogenetic analysis of the eight gene segments. These data revealed that the isolated virus is a reassortant H1N2 subtype, as its genes are derived from human (HA, NP, PA) and swine (M, NA, PB1, PB2 and NS) influenza viruses. Pig serum samples were analysed by the hemagglutination inhibition test, using wild H1N2 and H3N2 strains (A/swine/México/Mex51/2010 [H3N2]) as antigen sources. Positive samples to the H1N2 subtype were processed using the field-isolated H1N1 subtype (A/swine/México/Ver37/2010 [H1N1]). Seroprevalence to the H1N2 subtype was 26.74% in the sampled counties, being Jalisco the state with highest seroprevalence to this subtype (35.30%). The results herein reported demonstrate that this new, previously unregistered influenza virus subtype in México that shows internal genes from other swine viral subtypes isolated in the past 5 years, along with human virus-originated genes, is widely distributed in this area of the country. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Gravity and magnetic survey of the Oaxaca city region: Cenozoic horst-and-graben structure superimposed on the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary, southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Enríquez, J. O.; Belmonte-Jiménez, S. I.; Keppie, J. D.; Ortega-Gutiérrez, F.; Arzate, J. A.; Martínez-Silva, J.; Martínez-Serrano, R. G.

    2010-04-01

    A geophysical survey of the Oaxaca Fault along the north-trending Etla and Zaachila valleys area, southern Mexico, shows a series of NNW-SSE Bouguer and magnetic anomalies with steeper gradients towards the east. The Oaxaca Fault represents Tertiary extensional reactivation of the Juarez shear zone that constitutes the boundary between the Oaxaca and Juárez terranes. Cooperative interpretation of six combined gravity and magnetic NE-SW profiles perpendicular to the valleys indicates the presence of a composite depression comprising three N-S sub-basins: the northern Etla and southern Zaachila sub-basins separated by the Atzompa sub-basin. The Etla sub-basin is bounded by the moderately E-dipping, Etla Fault and the more steeply W-dipping Oaxaca Fault, which together constitute a graben that continues southwards into the Atzompa graben. The deeper Zaachila sub-basin, south of Oaxaca city, is a wide V-shaped graben with a horst in the middle. The new geophysical data suggest that the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary is displaced sinistrally ca. 20 km along the E-W Donají Fault, which defines the northern boundary of the Zaachila sub-basin. On the other hand, the Oaxaca Fault may either continue unbroken southwards along the western margin of the horst in the Zaachila sub-basin or be offset along with the terrane boundary. The sinistral movement may have taken place either during the Late Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic, Laramide Orogeny as a lateral ramp in the thrust plane or under Miocene-Pliocene, NE-SW extension. The former suggests that the Donají Fault is a transcurrent fault, whereas the latter implies that it is a transfer fault. The models imply that originally the suture was continuous south of the Donaji Fault and provide a constraint for the accretion of the Oaxaca and Juarez terranes.

  12. Transmission dynamics of Fasciola hepatica in the Plateau Region of Mexico. Effect of weather and treatment of mammals under current farm management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Mendoza, Irene; Quiroz-Romero, Héctor; Correa, Dolores; Gómez-Espinoza, Guillermo

    2011-01-10

    The aim of the present work was to study the dynamics of Fasciola hepatica natural infection in ovines, caprines, bovines and two mollusc species, Lymnaea (Fossaria) humilis and Lymnaea (F.) bulimoides, from 2004 to mid 2007 under normal farm management conditions, and the relation to climate changes. The study was performed in a research centre in the plateau of Mexico. Temperature and rainfall were registered every month, as well as the number and intensity of infection in livestock and molluscs, as determined by coprology and direct observation/cercariae release, respectively. The first two years mammals were treated with clorsulon/ivermectin because the animals were harbouring concomitant intestinal nematode infections and this was the available drug combination. During the second period treatment was with triclabendazole. The temperature ranged from around cero to 30 °C, except during September 2005 to January 2006, when a cold climate prevailed. The rainfall augmented every year in July-August, and slightly in April, 2006. Lymneid snails appeared during or immediately after the rainfall peaks of 2004 and 2006, while few L. humilis and no L. bulimoides were present during the same period of 2005, probably because it was cold. A total of 15564 cercariae were released from molluscs during the wet time of 2004, 76 during 2005 and 368 in 2006. Several peaks of infection in mammals were observed, most occurring up to 4 months after the snails had disappeared. As expected, the weather had strong impact on snails and then on livestock infection. Also, treatment given to livestock was related to reduced cercarieae release five months later. Therefore, the combination of treatment and inspection of snails in the biotopes where the livestock graze may facilitate control of fasciolosis under current farm management. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sexual competitiveness and compatibility between mass-reared sterile flies and wild populations of Anastrepha Ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from different regions in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco-Davila, D.; Hernandez, R.; Meza, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-01-01

    The mass-reared colony of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) currently used in Mexico for suppression of the Mexican fruit fly has been in use for over 10 years. Sterile flies are released into a wide range of environmental conditions as part of an integrated area-wide approach to suppress diverse populations of this pest in the Mexican Republic. This paper assesses the performance of the sterile flies interacting with wild populations from the different environments. We investigated the sexual compatibility and competitiveness of the sterile flies when competing with wild populations from 6 representatives Mexican states: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan, and Chiapas. Results show that the males of the wild populations differed in the time to the onset and peak of sexual activity. Nevertheless, the index of sexual isolation (ISI) reflected sexual compatibility between the populations and the mass-reared strain, indicating that the sterile individuals mate satisfactorily with the wild populations from the 6 states. The male relative performance index (MRPI) showed that the sterile male is as effective in copulating as the wild males. The female relative performance index (FRPI) reflected a general tendency for wild females to copulate in greater proportion than the sterile females, except for the strains from Tamaulipas and Chiapas. In general, the lower participation of the sterile females in copulation increases the possibilities of sterile males to mate with wild females. The relative sterility index (RSI) showed that the acceptance by wild females of the sterile males (25-55%) was similar to that of wild males. Females of the Chiapas strain showed the lowest acceptance of sterile males. Finally, the results obtained in the Fried test (which measures induced sterility in eggs) showed a competitiveness coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. This suggests that sterile males successfully compete and are compatible with flies from different geographic origins

  14. Nature and origin of the nonsulfide zinc deposits in the Sierra Mojada District, Coahuila, Mexico: constraints from regional geology, petrography, and isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, J. Richard; Ahn, Hyein; Gilg, H. Albert

    2018-02-01

    The Sierra Mojada District comprises multiple types of near-surface mineral concentrations ranging from polymetallic sulfide zones, "nonsulfide Zn" (NSZ) deposits, and a silver-rich Pb carbonate deposit hosted by lower Cretaceous carbonate strata. Hypogene concentrations of Fe-Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag sulfides and sulfosalts are locally preserved and are associated with hydrothermal dolomite and silica. Alteration mineralogy and sulfur isotope data suggest primary Zn-Pb-Ag mineralization from circa 200 °C hydrothermal fluids. The NSZ deposits dominantly consist of smithsonite and hemimorphite associated with local Mn-Fe oxides. The Red Zinc Zone consists of strata-bound zones dominantly of hemimorphite that fills pores in residual and resedimented Fe oxides. The White Zinc Zone shows local dissolution features, including internal sediments interbanded with and cemented by smithsonite. Similar Pb isotopic compositions of smithsonite, hemimorphite, and cerussite to Sierra Mojada galena document that the NSZ deposits originated from polymetallic carbonate-replacement sulfide deposits, with flow of metal-bearing groundwater being controlled by local topography and structural features in this extensional terrane. Oxygen isotope values for Sierra Mojada smithsonite are relatively constant (δ18OVSMOW = 20.9 to 23.3‰) but are unusually low compared to other supergene smithsonites. Using δ18OVSMOW (- 8‰) of modern groundwater at nearby Cuatrociénegas, smithsonite formational temperatures are calculated to have been between 26 to 35 °C. Smithsonite precipitation was favored by near-neutral conditions typical of carbonate terranes, whereas hemimorphite precipitated by reaction with wallrock silica and locally, or episodically, more acidic conditions resulting from sulfide oxidation. Transition to, and stabilization of, the modern desert climate over the past 9000 years from the Late Pleistocene wetter, cooler climate of northern Mexico resulted in episodic drawdown of the water

  15. English Teaching in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses teaching English in Mexico, a country with important social, cultural, and economic ties to the United States. Looks at the various English teaching situations as well as teacher education for teachers in Mexico. Concludes that the English teaching situation in Mexico reflects great diversity and growth, and that the knowledge of English…

  16. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  17. Amphibian and reptile biodiversity in the semi-arid region of the municipality of Nopala de Villagrán, Hidalgo, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Roth-Monzón, Andrea J.; Mendoza-Hernández, Andrés Alberto; Flores-Villela, Oscar

    2018-01-01

    Current global changes are putting both biodiversity and the processes that depend on it at risk. This is especially true for semi-arid regions and the flagship groups that inhabit them, such as amphibians and reptiles. Semi-arid regions are often thought to have lower biodiversity and thus have been overlooked, resulting in the underestimation of their biological richness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct an inventory of amphibians and reptiles in the semi-arid municipality of...

  18. Mexico: one of the last great emerging markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.J.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Mexican government's proposed reform of the electricity industry and its efforts to raise capital from the private sector are examined. The restructuring of the industry, the expansion of the natural gas projects in the Frontera US/Mexico border region, and the market potential along the border are discussed. Details of Mexico's electricity generation projects are tabulated, and Mexico/US electricity and natural gas prices for 1998-1999 are plotted. (UK)

  19. Source characterization and tsunami modeling of submarine landslides along the Yucatán Shelf/Campeche Escarpment, southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaytor, Jason D.; Geist, Eric L.; Paull, Charles K.; Caress, David W; Gwiazda, Roberto; Urrutia Fucugauchi, Jaime; Rebolledo Vieyra, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Submarine landslides occurring along the margins of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) represent a low-likelihood, but potentially damaging source of tsunamis. New multibeam bathymetry coverage reveals that mass wasting is pervasive along the Yucatán Shelf edge with several large composite landslides possibly removing as much as 70 km3 of the Cenozoic sedimentary section in a single event. Using GIS-based analysis, the dimensions of six landslides from the central and northern sections of the Yucatán Shelf/Campeche Escarpment were determined and used as input for preliminary tsunami generation and propagation models. Tsunami modeling is performed to compare the propagation characteristics and distribution of maximum amplitudes throughout the GOM among the different landslide scenarios. Various factors such as landslide geometry, location along the Yucatán Shelf/Campeche Escarpment, and refraction during propagation result in significant variations in the affected part of the Mexican and US Gulf Coasts. In all cases, however, tsunami amplitudes are greatest along the northern Yucatán Peninsula.

  20. From DNS to RANS: A Multi-model workflow to understand the Influence of Hurricanes on Generating Turbidity Currents in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvitski, J. P.; Arango, H.; Harris, C. K.; Meiburg, E. H.; Jenkins, C. J.; Auad, G.; Hutton, E.; Kniskern, T. A.; Radhakrishnan, S.

    2016-12-01

    A loosely coupled numerical workflow is developed to address land-sea pathways for sediment routing from terrestrial and coastal sources, across the continental shelf and ultimately down the continental slope canyon system of the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Model simulations represent a range of environmental conditions that might lead to the generation of turbidity-currents. The workflow comprises: 1) A simulator for the water and sediment discharged from rivers into the GOM with WMBsedv2 with calibration using USGS and USACE gauged river data; 2) Domain grids and bathymetry (ETOPO2) for the ocean models and realistic seabed sediment texture grids (dbSEABED) for the sediment transport models; 3) A spectral wave action simulator (10 km resolution) (WaveWatch III) driven by GFDL - GFS winds; 4) A simulator for ocean dynamics (ROMS) forced with ECMWF ERA winds; 5) A simulator for seafloor resuspension and transport (CSTMS); 6) Simulators (HurriSlip) of seafloor failure and flow ignition locations for boundary input to a turbidity current model; and 7) A RANS turbidity current model (TURBINS) to route sediment flows down GOM canyons, providing estimates of bottom shear stresses. TURBINS was developed first as a DNS model and then converted to an LES model wherein a dynamic turbulence closure scheme was employed. Like most DNS to LES model comparisons (these being done by the UCSB team), turbulence scaling allowed for higher Re applications but were found still not capable of simulating field scale (GOM continental canyons) environments. The LES model was next converted to a non-hydrostatic RANS model capable of field scale applications but only with a daisy-chain approach to multiple model runs along the simulated canyon floor. These model adaptations allowed the workflow to be tested for the year 1-Oct-2007 to 30-Sep-2008 that included two domain Hurricanes (Ike and Gustav). The RANS-TURBINS employed further boundary simplifications on both sediment erosion and

  1. Can Continental Shelf River Plumes in the Northern and Southern Gulf of Mexico Promote Ecological Resilience in a Time of Climate Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paul Kemp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Deltas and estuaries built by the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River (MAR in the United States and the Usumacinta/Grijalva River (UGR in Mexico account for 80 percent of all Gulf of Mexico (GoM coastal wetlands outside of Cuba. They rank first and second in freshwater discharge to the GoM and owe their natural resilience to a modular geomorphology that spreads risk across the coast-scape while providing ecosystem connectivity through shelf plumes that connect estuaries. Both river systems generate large plumes that strongly influence fisheries production over large areas of the northern and southern GoM continental shelves. Recent watershed process simulations (DLEM, MAPSS driven by CMIP3 General Circulation Model (GCM output indicate that the two systems face diverging futures, with the mean annual discharge of the MAR predicted to increase 11 to 63 percent, and that of the UGR to decline as much as 80 percent in the 21st century. MAR delta subsidence rates are the highest in North America, making it particularly susceptible to channel training interventions that have curtailed a natural propensity to shift course and deliver sediment to new areas, or to refurbish zones of high wetland loss. Undoing these restrictions in a controlled way has become the focus of a multi-billion-dollar effort to restore the MAR delta internally, while releasing fine-grained sediments trapped behind dams in the Great Plains has become an external goal. The UGR is, from an internal vulnerability standpoint, most threatened by land use changes that interfere with a deltaic architecture that is naturally resilient to sea level rise. This recognition has led to successful efforts in Mexico to protect still intact coastal systems against further anthropogenic impacts, as evidenced by establishment of the Centla Wetland Biosphere Preserve and the Terminos Lagoon Protected Area. The greatest threat to the UGR system, however, is an external one that will be imposed by the

  2. Historic Shipwrecks as Ecosystem Monitoring Platforms in the Wake of Deepwater Horizon? Results of the Gulf of Mexico Shipwreck Corrosion, Hydrocarbon Exposure, Microbiology, and Archaeology (GOM-SCHEMA) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damour, M.; Hamdan, L. J.; Salerno, J. L.; McGown, C.; Blackwell, C. A.; Church, R.; Warren, D.; Horrell, C.; Jordan, B.; Moore, J.

    2016-02-01

    Historic shipwrecks and other archaeological sites are protected by a well-established body of historic preservation laws intended to preserve these sensitive, non-renewable resources. While the cultural, historical, and archaeological value of historic shipwrecks is unequivocal, their function and value as ecosystem monitoring platforms following a major environmental disaster is becoming apparent. Shipwrecks have been found in previous studies to serve as artificial reefs and hotspots of biodiversity, essentially providing the basis for an intact ecosystem. This is especially true in the deepwater marine environment where natural hard-bottom is sparse. Micro- and macro-infaunal diversity on shipwrecks and their sensitivity to environmental change demonstrates the suitability of these platforms for monitoring ecosystem impact and recovery. After the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and partners initiated a multidisciplinary study to examine spill effects on shipwrecks and their associated microbial communities. To assess these impacts and to perform comparative analyses, the team collected microbiological, geochemical, and archaeological data at wooden- and metal-hulled shipwrecks within and outside of the subsurface spill-impacted area. Microbial community biodiversity informs us of micro-scale changes while 3D laser and sonar data reveal macro-scale changes. A multidisciplinary approach informs us of the roles microorganisms have in shipwreck degradation and corrosion as well as their response to ecosystem impacts. Results of the study identified multiple lines of evidence that sites were impacted by exposure to spill-related contaminants. Future multidisciplinary studies at these sites, as part of a long-term monitoring program, should inform on ecosystem recovery.

  3. HyFlux - Part I: Regional Modeling of Methane Flux From Near-Seafloor Gas Hydrate Deposits on Continental Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Asper, V.; Garcia, O. P.; Kastner, M.; Leifer, I.; Naehr, T.; Solomon, E.; Yvon-Lewis, S.; Zimmer, B.

    2008-12-01

    HyFlux - Part I: Regional modeling of methane flux from near-seafloor gas hydrate deposits on continental margins MacDonald, I.R., Asper, V., Garcia, O., Kastner, M., Leifer, I., Naehr, T.H., Solomon, E., Yvon-Lewis, S., and Zimmer, B. The Dept. of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) has recently awarded a project entitled HyFlux: "Remote sensing and sea-truth measurements of methane flux to the atmosphere." The project will address this problem with a combined effort of satellite remote sensing and data collection at proven sites in the Gulf of Mexico where gas hydrate releases gas to the water column. Submarine gas hydrate is a large pool of greenhouse gas that may interact with the atmosphere over geologic time to affect climate cycles. In the near term, the magnitude of methane reaching the atmosphere from gas hydrate on continental margins is poorly known because 1) gas hydrate is exposed to metastable oceanic conditions in shallow, dispersed deposits that are poorly imaged by standard geophysical techniques and 2) the consumption of methane in marine sediments and in the water column is subject to uncertainty. The northern GOM is a prolific hydrocarbon province where rapid migration of oil, gases, and brines from deep subsurface petroleum reservoirs occurs through faults generated by salt tectonics. Focused expulsion of hydrocarbons is manifested at the seafloor by gas vents, gas hydrates, oil seeps, chemosynthetic biological communities, and mud volcanoes. Where hydrocarbon seeps occur in depths below the hydrate stability zone (~500m), rapid flux of gas will feed shallow deposits of gas hydrate that potentially interact with water column temperature changes; oil released from seeps forms sea-surface features that can be detected in remote-sensing images. The regional phase of the project will quantify verifiable sources of methane (and oil) the Gulf of Mexico continental margin and selected margins (e.g. Pakistan Margin, South China Sea

  4. Time-domain incomplete Gauss-Newton full-waveform inversion of Gulf of Mexico data

    KAUST Repository

    AlTheyab, Abdullah

    2013-09-22

    We apply the incomplete Gauss-Newton full-waveform inversion (TDIGN-FWI) to Gulf of Mexico (GOM) data in the space-time domain. In our application, iterative least-squares reverse-time migration (LSRTM) is used to estimate the model update at each non-linear iteration, and the number of LSRTM iterations is progressively increased after each non-linear iteration. With this method, model updating along deep reflection wavepaths are automatically enhanced, which in turn improves imaging below the reach of diving-waves. The forward and adjoint operators are implemented in the space-time domain to simultaneously invert the data over a range of frequencies. A multiscale approach is used where higher frequencies are down-weighted significantly at early iterations, and gradually included in the inversion. Synthetic data results demonstrate the effectiveness of reconstructing both the high- and low-wavenumber features in the model without relying on diving waves in the inversion. Results with Gulf of Mexico field data show a significantly improved migration image in both the shallow and deep sections.

  5. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN THE AMBIENT AIR OF MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent and past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Mexico has resulted in concentrations in ambient air that are 1-2 orders of magnitude above levels in the Great Lakes region. Atmospheric transport from Mexico and Central America may be contributing significant amounts ...

  6. Basin of Mexico: A history of watershed mismanagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis A. Bojorquez Tapia; Exequiel Ezcurra; Marisa Mazari-Hiriart; Salomon Diaz; Paola Gomez; Georgina Alcantar; Daniela Megarejo

    2000-01-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) is located within the Basin of Mexico. Because of its large population and demand for natural resources, several authors have questioned the viability of the city, especially in terms of water resources. These are reviewed at the regional and the local scales. It is concluded that a multi-basin management approach is necessary to...

  7. Northward laramide thrusting in the quitovac region, northwestern sonora, mexico: Implications for the juxtaposition of paleoproterozoic basement blocks and the mojave-sonora megashear hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriondo, Alexander; Martínez-Torres, Luis M.; Kunk, Michael J.; Atkinson, William W.; Premo, Wayne R.; McIntosh, William C.

    2005-01-01

    Restoration of 12%–30% Basin and Range extension allows direct interpretation of ductile fabrics associated with a stack of Laramide thrust faults in the Quitovac region in northwestern Sonora. The inferred direction of displacement of these thrusts varies gradually from N63°W to N23°E and is interpreted to represent a clockwise rotation of the direction of Laramide thrusting through time. The thrust faults represent a piggy-back sequence of thrusting propagating north, toward the foreland. The average direction and sense of displacement of the thrusts is N18°W, and the cumulative 45 km of estimated northward-directed displacement corresponds to ∼86% of shortening.Based on geochronological constraints, onset of thrusting in Quitovac occurred sometime between 75 and 61 Ma, whereas cessation occurred at ca. 39 Ma. The presence of Paleocene-Eocene orogenic gold mineralization, spatially associated with thrusting, strengthens our idea that compressional tectonism associated with the Laramide orogeny is a very important and widespread dynamometamorphic event in the region.Similarities in age, kinematics, and structural stratigraphy indicate that the thrusting in the Quitovac region may be equivalent to the Laramide Quitobaquito Thrust in southwestern Arizona. In both areas, thrust faults juxtapose the Paleoproterozoic Caborca and “North America” basement blocks. This juxtaposition was previously proposed as exclusively related to movements along the hypothetical Upper Jurassic Mojave-Sonora megashear. The Laramide northward displacements and clockwise rotations recorded in the Caborca block rocks in Quitovac contradict the southward displacements (∼800 km) and counterclockwise rotations inherent in the left-lateral Upper Jurassic Mojave-Sonora megashear hypothesis. We conclude that if this megashear exists in northwestern Sonora, its trace should be to the southwest of the Quitovac region.

  8. Use of radiometric (Cs-137, Pb-210), geomorphic, and stratigraphic techniques to date recent oxbow sediments in the Rio Puerco drainage Grants uranium region, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, C.J.; Dehn, M. (New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Tech., Socorro (United States)); Hawley, J.W.; Love, D.W. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro (United States))

    1988-06-01

    In the absence of historic geochemical baseline data for the Grants uranium region, environmental changes resulting from uranium mine-mill activities can be determined only by indirect methods. A methodology for determining the age of recent sediments in streams draining the region has been established based on combined geomorphic, stratigraphic, and radiometric dating techniques. Because clay-rich sediments retain possible radionuclides and heavy metals derived from mineralization and mined sources, sample sites which contain fine-grained deposits that both predate and postdate mine-mill activity were located in abandoned-channel segments (oxbows) of major streams draining the eastern Grants uranium region. Aerial photographs (and derivative maps) taken between 1935 and 1971 provided the historical and geomorphic documentation of approximate dates of oxbow formation and ages of alluvial fills in the abandoned-channel segments. Pits were dug at these oxbow sites to determine stratigraphy and composition of the deposits. Samples collected from pit walls and auger holes below the pits were subjected to radiometric analysis by gamma ray spectrometry for the artificial radionuclide Cs-137 and the natural radionuclide Pb-210 as well as other U-238 and Th-232 daughters. Because of the dynamic nature of the system, absolute dating with Cs-137 was not possible but samples could be dated as either pre- or post-1950. The 1950 date is important because it marked the beginning of the uranium exploitation in the region. The Pb-210 dating was not possible because background Pb-210 was very high relative to fallout Pb-210.

  9. A Regional-Scale Groundwater Model Supporting Management of the Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve and its Catchment, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, B. R.; Merediz Alonso, G.; Rebolledo Vieyra, M.; Marin, L.; Supper, R.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    2007-05-01

    The Caribbean Coast of the Yucatan Peninsula is a rapidly developing area featuring a booming tourism industry. The number of hotel rooms in the Riviera Maya has increased from 2600 in 1996 to 26,000 in 2005, while the total population in the Mexican federal state of Quintana Roo has grown from 500,000 in 1990 to 1,115,000 in 2005. This explosive growth threatens the region's water resources, which primarily consist of a less than 50m thick freshwater lens residing in the regional karst aquifer underlying the entire Yucatan Peninsula. The Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, a 6400 km2 combined marine/terrestrial nature protection area is situated south of Tulum (approx. 87.3° - 88° W, 19° - 20° N). The site is listed as a UNESCO world heritage site and is protected under the Ramsar Convention. It includes extensive freshwater wetlands, saline/brackish mangrove swamps, tropical rainforests and parts of the world's second largest coral reef. The freshwater supply to the system occurs primarily via subsurface inflow. Large freshwater springs emerge through vertical sinkholes (cenotes) in the lagoons of Sian Ka'an. Management of this unique ecosystem in view of the rapid development and urbanization of the surrounding areas requires detailed knowledge on the groundwater flow paths in and around the reserve. Moreover, mapping and delineation of its groundwater catchment zone and groundwater traveling time zones is essential. To this end, a regional-scale steady-state groundwater flow model of the Sian Ka'an Biosphere reserve and its catchment was developed. The model is implemented in MIKE SHE with a finite-difference cell size of 1 km2 and is driven with temporally averaged climate forcings. The karst aquifer is treated as an equivalent porous medium. Darcy's law is assumed to be valid over regional scales and the main structural elements of the karst aquifer are included in the model as zones of varying hydraulic conductivity. High conductivity zones in the Sian Ka

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi strains isolated from human, vector, and animal reservoir in the same endemic region in Mexico and typed as T. cruzi I, discrete typing unit 1 exhibit considerable biological diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Sánchez-Guillén

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, three strains of Trypanosoma cruzi were isolated at the same time and in the same endemic region in Mexico from a human patient with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (RyC-H; vector (Triatoma barberi (RyC-V; and rodent reservoir (Peromyscus peromyscus (RyC-R. The three strains were characterized by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, random amplified polymorphic DNA, and by pathological profiles in experimental animals (biodemes. Based on the analysis of genetic markers the three parasite strains were typed as belonging to T. cruzi I major group, discrete typing unit 1. The pathological profile of RyC-H and RyC-V strains indicated medium virulence and low mortality and, accordingly, the strains should be considered as belonging to biodeme Type III. On the other hand, the parasites from RyC-R strain induced more severe inflammatory processes and high mortality (> 40% and were considered as belonging to biodeme Type II. The relationship between genotypes and biological characteristics in T. cruzi strains is still debated and not clearly understood. An expert committee recommended in 1999 that Biodeme Type III would correspond to T. cruzi I group, whereas Biodeme Type II, to T. cruzi II group. Our findings suggest that, at least for Mexican isolates, this correlation does not stand and that biological characteristics such as pathogenicity and virulence could be determined by factors different from those identified in the genotypic characterization

  11. The role of regional groundwater flow in the hydrogeology of the Culebra member of the Rustler formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbet, T.F. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knupp, P.M. [Ecodynamics Research Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Numerical simulation has been used to enhance conceptual understanding, of the hydrogeology of the Culebra Dolomite in the context of regional groundwater flow. The hydrogeology is of interest because this unit is a possible pathway for offsite migration of radionuclides from a proposed repository for defense-generated transuranic wastes (the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). The numerical model used is three-dimensional, extends laterally to topographic features that form the actual boundaries of a regional groundwater system, and uses a free-surface upper boundary condition to simulate the effect of change in the rate of recharge on groundwater flow. Steady-state simulations were performed to examine the sensitivity of simulation results to assumed values for hydraulic conductivity and recharge rate. Transient simulations, covering the time period from 14,000 years in the past to 10,000 years in the future, provided insight into how patterns of groundwater flow respond to changes in climate. Simulation results suggest that rates and directions of Groundwater flow in the Culebra change with time due to interaction between recharge, movement of the water table, and the topography of the land surface. The gentle east-to-west slope of the land surface in the vicinity of the WIPP caused groundwater in the Culebra to flow toward and discharge into Nash Draw, a topographic depression. Modern-day flow directions in the Culebra reflect regional rather than local features of the topography. Changes in Groundwater flow, however, lagged behind changes in the rate of recharge. The present-day position of the water table is still adjusting to the decrease in recharge that ended 8,000 years ago. Contaminants introduced into the Culebra will travel toward the accessible environment along the Culebra rather than by leaking upward or downward into other units. Natural changes in flow over the next 10,000 years will be small and will mainly reflect future short-term wet periods.

  12. The role of regional groundwater flow in the hydrogeology of the Culebra member of the Rustler formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbet, T.F.; Knupp, P.M.

    1996-12-01

    Numerical simulation has been used to enhance conceptual understanding, of the hydrogeology of the Culebra Dolomite in the context of regional groundwater flow. The hydrogeology is of interest because this unit is a possible pathway for offsite migration of radionuclides from a proposed repository for defense-generated transuranic wastes (the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). The numerical model used is three-dimensional, extends laterally to topographic features that form the actual boundaries of a regional groundwater system, and uses a free-surface upper boundary condition to simulate the effect of change in the rate of recharge on groundwater flow. Steady-state simulations were performed to examine the sensitivity of simulation results to assumed values for hydraulic conductivity and recharge rate. Transient simulations, covering the time period from 14,000 years in the past to 10,000 years in the future, provided insight into how patterns of groundwater flow respond to changes in climate. Simulation results suggest that rates and directions of Groundwater flow in the Culebra change with time due to interaction between recharge, movement of the water table, and the topography of the land surface. The gentle east-to-west slope of the land surface in the vicinity of the WIPP caused groundwater in the Culebra to flow toward and discharge into Nash Draw, a topographic depression. Modern-day flow directions in the Culebra reflect regional rather than local features of the topography. Changes in Groundwater flow, however, lagged behind changes in the rate of recharge. The present-day position of the water table is still adjusting to the decrease in recharge that ended 8,000 years ago. Contaminants introduced into the Culebra will travel toward the accessible environment along the Culebra rather than by leaking upward or downward into other units. Natural changes in flow over the next 10,000 years will be small and will mainly reflect future short-term wet periods

  13. Water quality of springs and water wells which are used in human consumption, in the Jocotitlan volcano region at State of Mexico; Calidad del agua de manantiales y pozos que se utilizan para consumo humano, en la region del volcan Jocotitlan, Estado de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baca G, A.; Segovia, N.; Iturbe, J.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Martinez, V. [CIRA, UAEM, Unidad San Cayetabo, Toluca-Ixtlahuaca (Mexico); Armienta, M.A. [IGFUNAM, C. Universitaria, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Seidel, J.L. [CNRS, Univ. Montpellier (France)

    1998-07-01

    In this work are presented the results of water quality of seven springs (San Antonio Enchisi, Las Fuentes, El Cerro, Pasteje, Los Reyes, Santa Cruz and Tiacaque) and two water wells (Jocotitlan No. 2 and La Providencia No. 35) which are used for human consumption and that are located surrounding area to Jocotitlan volcano, state of Mexico. It was determined the {sup 222} Rn concentration through liquid scintillation, the {sup 226} Ra by Gamma spectroscopy, the physical-chemical parameters (major elements) and bacteriological, using standardized methods. The minor elements and trace in solution were determined by Icp-Ms mass spectroscopy. The water quality was established in function of the standing standards. Therefore Las Fuentes, El Cerro, Santa Cruz, Tiacaque springs and the Jocotitlan No. 2 well, are drinkable water. So, Pasteje, Los Reyes, San Antonio Enchisi springs and the La Providencia No. 35 well are chemically drinkable but presenting bacteriological pollution. (Author)

  14. Epidemic risk from cholera introductions into Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean M; Shannon, Kerry L; Zelaya, Carla E; Azman, Andrew S; Lessler, Justin

    2014-02-21

    Stemming from the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti, cholera transmission in Hispaniola continues with over 40,000 cases in 2013. The presence of an ongoing cholera outbreak in the region poses substantial risks to countries throughout the Americas, particularly in areas with poor infrastructure. Since September 9, 2013 nearly 200 cholera cases have been reported in Mexico, as a result of introductions from Hispaniola or Cuba. There appear to have been multiple introductions into Mexico resulting in outbreaks of 2 to over 150 people. Using publicly available data, we attempt to estimate the reproductive number (R) of cholera in Mexico, and thereby assess the potential of continued introductions to establish a sustained epidemic. We estimate R for cholera in Mexico to be between 0.8 to 1.1, depending on the number of introductions, with the confidence intervals for the most plausible estimates crossing 1. These results suggest that the efficiency of cholera transmission in some regions of Mexico is near that necessary for a large epidemic. Intensive surveillance, evaluation of water and sanitation infrastructure, and planning for rapid response are warranted steps to avoid potential large epidemics in the region.

  15. Machine-readable files developed for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System analysis in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    Machine-readable files were developed for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis project are stored on two magnetic tapes available from the U.S. Geological Survey. The first tape contains computer programs that were used to prepare, store, retrieve, organize, and preserve the areal interpretive data collected by the project staff. The second tape contains 134 data files that can be divided into five general classes: (1) Aquifer geometry data, (2) aquifer and water characteristics , (3) water levels, (4) climatological data, and (5) land use and water use data. (Author 's abstract)

  16. Diferencias regionales en la mortalidad por cáncer de mama y cérvix en México entre 1979 y 2006 Regional differences in breast and cervical cancer mortality in Mexico between 1979-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Sofía Palacio-Mejía

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Explorar las diferencias regionales en la mortalidad por cáncer de mama (CaMa y cervical (CaCu en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se calcularon tendencias de mortalidad por CaMa y CaCu mediante modelos probabilísticos ajustados por estado, grado de marginación y lugar de residencia (urbano/rural. RESULTADOS: La tendencia de mortalidad por CaMa ha sido ascendente, de una tasa estandarizada de 5.6 muertes por cada 100 000 mujeres en 1979 a 10.1 en 2006. La mortalidad por CaCu alcanzó un pico en 1989 y a partir de esa fecha se redujo a 9.9 en 2006. Las tasas más altas de mortalidad por CaMa se encuentran en la capital (13.2 y la región norte (11.8, mientras en el sur se registra la mortalidad por CaCu más alta (11.9. DISCUSIÓN: El número de muertes por CaMa aumenta de forma gradual a lo largo del tiempo a nivel nacional y persisten elevadas tasas de mortalidad por CaCu en áreas marginadas.OBJECTIVE: Explore the regional differences in breast (BC and cervical cancer (CC mortality in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We estimated mortality trends for BC and CC using probabilistic models adjusted by state marginalization level and urban and rural residence. RESULTS: BC mortality shows a rising trend, from a rate of 5.6 deaths per 100000 women in 1979 to 10.1 in 2006. The CC mortality rate reached a peak in 1989 and after this decreased significantly to 9.9 in 2006. The highest BC mortality rates are found in Mexico City (13.2 and the northern part of the country (11.8. As for CC, the highest mortality rates are found in the south (11.9 per 100000 women the. DISCUSSION: The number of BC cases are increased gradually at the national level during the last three decades and high rates of CC mortality persist in marginalized areas.

  17. A PDA-based Network for Telemonitoring Asthma Triggering Gases in the El Paso School Districts of the US - Mexico Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Namdev; Nazeran, Homer

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the application of a personal digital assistant (PDA) or pocket PC as an effective communication device to telemonitor levels of asthma triggering gases collected from a remote location under test to a workstation which has a personal computer (PC) running on Windows XP® as the operating system. The Bluetooth® features of the PDA are explored to transmit data collected by a Direct™ Sense Tox toxic gas monitor equipped with five toxic gas probes and one temperature sensor in real time, thereby making this telemonitoring system an innovative instrument in monitoring levels of asthma triggering gases in the El Paso-border metropolitan region, a region in which asthma is highly prevalent especially in children. At the workstation or fixed location these readings are displayed using a custom made, user friendly graphical user interface (GUI) developed using software tools like action scripting with Macromedia® Flash™. The growing advancement in technology and ever diminishing sizes of handheld devices encouraged us to opt for this configuration. Moreover, the PDA and toxic gas monitor were also chosen for their light weight, portability, flexibility, low cost and data collection and transmission capabilities.

  18. Overfishing Drivers and Opportunities for Recovery in Small-Scale Fisheries of the Midriff Islands Region, Gulf of California, Mexico: the Roles of Land and Sea Institutions in Fisheries Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cinti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Institutions play an important role in shaping individual incentives in complex social-ecological systems, by encouraging or discouraging resource overuse. In the Gulf of California, Mexico, there is widespread evidence of declines in small-scale fishery stocks, largely attributed to policy failures. We investigated formal and informal rules-in-use regulating access and resource use by small-scale fishers in the two most important fishing communities of the Midriff Islands region in the Gulf of California, which share several target species and fishing grounds. The Midriff Islands region is a highly productive area where sustainable use of fisheries resources has been elusive. Our study aimed to inform policy by providing information on how management and conservation policies perform in this unique environment. In addition, we contrast attributes of the enabling conditions for sustainability on the commons in an effort to better understand why these communities, albeit showing several contrasting attributes of the above conditions, have not developed sustainable fishing practices. We take a novel, comprehensive institutional approach that includes formal and informal institutions, incorporating links between land (i.e., communal land rights and sea institutions (i.e., fisheries and conservation policies and their effects on stewardship of fishery resources, a theme that is practically unaddressed in the literature. Insufficient government support in provision of secure rights, enforcement and sanctioning, and recognition and incorporation of local arrangements and capacities for management arose as important needs to address in both cases. We highlight the critical role of higher levels of governance, that when disconnected from local practices, realities, and needs, can be a major impediment to achieving sustainability in small-scale fisheries, even in cases where several facilitating conditions are met.

  19. Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele T Jay-Russell

    Full Text Available In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6% dog and 5 (4.9% coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2% dog and 33 (32% coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2% of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1% of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the

  20. Assessment of the landscape connectivity of the Puuc-Chenes region, Mexico, based on the habitat requirements of jaguar (Panthera onca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Salazar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Yucatan Peninsula is included as part of the initiative for the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. In its central area, are located three Protected Natural Areas (PNA: the Biocultural Puuc Reserve (RBP, by its Spanish acronym, the Bala’an K’aax flora and fauna protected area (APB, by its Spanish acronym, Quintana Roo, and the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve (RBC, by its Spanish acronym, Campeche. The Puuc-Chenes region is located in the center of the Yucatan Peninsula - among these PNAs - which included important fragments of vegetation that in the past formed a continuum through the forests of the Yucatan Peninsula, constituting an important link to keep the connectivity of the Mayan forest. However, the expansion of the agricultural frontier is causing the fragmentation of the habitat. In the present study, the structural and functional connectivity of the Puuc-Chenes region is analyzed, based on habitat requirements of the Panthera onca (jaguar by sex. Both, male and female, prefer tropical forest, however, P. onca males dare to transit in secondary vegetation and inclusively in agricultural areas. Males make inroads to villages more often than females, coming close to, and even crossing roads. P. onca males have a home range of 60 km2. In the present study, the ArcMap, FRAGSTATS and IDRISI software were used to analyses the structural and functional connectivity of the landscape, based on the known differences of habitat requirements for P. onca males and females. A vegetation and land use map of the studied area was elaborated, based on Landsat 7 ETM+ images, with 30 m size pixels. The following cover classes were differentiated: tropical forest, secondary forest, agriculture, urban, and water polls, which were validated in the fields. The Puuc-Chenes has an extension of 972 578 ha. Tropical forest was the dominant vegetation cover (49.8% with the largest patch index covering 19.7% of the total landscape. The landscape had 2 509 fragments

  1. Radon in soil concentration levels in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.; Mena, M.

    1991-09-01

    Radon in soil surveys in Mexico have been carried out since 1974 both for uranium prospectus and to correlate mean values of the gas emanation with local telluric behaviour. The mapping includes the northern uranium mining region, the Mexican Neo volcanic Belt, the coastal areas adjacent to the zone of subduction of the Cocos Plate under the North American Plate, some of the active volcanoes of Southern Mexico and several sedimentary valleys in Central Mexico. Recording of 222 Rn alpha decay is systematically performed with LR115 track detectors. Using mean values averaged over different observation periods at fixed monitoring stations, a radon in soil map covering one third of the Mexican territory is presented. The lowest mean values have been found in areas associated with active volcanoes. The highest levels are found in uranium ore zones. Intermediate values are obtained in regions with enhanced hydrothermal activity and stations associated with intrusive rocks. (Author)

  2. The occurrence of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, in nonindigenous snails in the Gulf of Mexico region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teem, John L.; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Bishop, Henry S.; da Silva, Alexandre J.; Carter, Jacoby; White-McLean, Jodi; Smith, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Nonindigenous apple snails, Pomacea maculata (formerly Pomacea insularum), are currently spreading rapidly through the southeastern United States. This mollusk serves as an intermediate host of the rat lungworm parasite (Angiostrongylus cantonensis), which can cause eosinophilic meningitis in humans who consume infected mollusks. A PCR-based detection assay was used to test nonindigenous apple snails for the rat lungworm parasite in Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, and Florida. Only apple snails obtained from the New Orleans, Louisiana, area tested positive for the parasite. These results provide the first evidence that Angiostrongylus cantonensis does occur in nonindigenous apple snails in the southeastern United States. Additionally, Angiostrongylus cantonensis was identified in the terrestrial species Achatina fulica in Miami, Florida, indicating that rat lungworm is now established in Florida as well as Louisiana. Although the study suggests that the rat lungworm is not widespread in the Gulf States region, the infected snail population could still pose a risk to human health and facilitate the spread of the parasite to new areas.

  3. Birds and fish as bioindicators of tourist disturbance in springs in semi-arid regions in Mexico: a basis for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacio-Núñez, J.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourist disturbance in semi–arid springs was analysed; birds and fish were selected as bioindicators. Media Luna spring is the biggest and most spatially complex system in the region, with the highest biodiversity levels and tourist use. Areas with the highest bird species richness and abundances showed highest structural heterogeneity and least direct human impact. No differences in species richness of fish were observed between sectors and the most abundant species were found in the sectors least perturbed by human activity. Factors that explained the bird distribution were the species´ tolerance to the effects of direct tourism (noise and direct presence of people and habitat quality, mainly riparian vegetation. Aquatic vegetation condition was very important for fish. Six bird species and two fish species were relevant as indicators of the habitat quality related to human impact. Anthropic disturbance such as tree plantation favoured some bird species, whereas aquatic vegetation removal was favourable for some fish species, such as the endemic Cichlasoma bartoni, however, both types of disturbance were unfavourable for other species; riparian vegetation removal was negative for both groups. Controlled tourism promotes good conditions for C. bartoni establishment. Efficient conservation measures such as limiting touristic distribution are necessary for all species, especially for the fish community, in order to conserve biodiversity in general.

  4. Physiological and productive responses of multiparous lactating Holstein cows exposed to short-term cooling during severe summer conditions in an arid region of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Rivera, J. A.; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F. D.; Macías-Cruz, U.; Díaz-Molina, R.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Robinson, P. H.; Fadel, J. G.

    2012-11-01

    Heat stress generates a significant economic impact for the dairy industry in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, so that heat abatement is an important issue for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of two short-term cooling periods on physiological and productive status of lactating Holstein cows during hot ambient temperatures. Thirty-nine multiparous cows were blocked by milk yield and assigned to one of three treatments including: control group (C), cows cooled before milking time (0500 and 1700 h daily, 1 h cooling); AM group, cows cooled at 1000 h and before milking (2 h cooling); and AM + PM group, cows cooled at 1100, 1500 and 2200 h, as well as before milking (4 h cooling). The cooling system was placed in the holding pen which the cows were moved through for cooling. Respiratory rate, and temperatures of thurl and right flank, were lower ( P cows from the AM + PM group than AM and C cows during the morning and afternoon. However, udder temperature was higher in the AM + PM group compared to AM and C groups during the afternoon, although lower than the AM group during the morning. Rectal temperature was similar in all groups. Thyroxin concentrations tended ( P cows had a trend ( P cows.

  5. All projects related to Mexico | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: North and Central America, South America, Mexico. Program: Food ... Ongoing trade reforms and economic restructuring in Latin America have implications for gender equity. Start Date: March 29, ... Program: Employment and Growth.

  6. All projects related to Mexico | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · What we do / Regions and countries / Mexico ... Caribbean (LAC) have serious deficiencies in water and sanitation provision. ... The daily commute of millions of people to their workplace is a major source of pollution in urban areas.

  7. Cenozoic North American Drainage Basin Evolution, Sediment Yield, and Accumulation in the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, W.; Ganey-Curry, P. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Cenozoic fill of the Gulf of Mexico basin contains a continuous record of sediment supply from the North American continental interior for the past 65 million years. Regional mapping of unit thickness and paleogeography for 18 depositional episodes defines patterns of shifting entry points of continental fluvial systems and quantifies the total volume of sediment supplied during each episode. Eight fluvio-deltaic depocenters, named for geographic similarities to entry points and drainage basins of modern rivers, are present. From southwest to northeast, they are the Rio Bravo, Rio Grande, Guadalupe, Colorado, Houston-Brazos, Red, Mississippi, and Tennessee axes. Sediment volume was calculated from hand-contoured unit thickness maps compiled from basin-wide well and seismic control. Using a GIS algorithm to sum volumes within polygons bounding interpreted North American river contribution, the total extant volume was then calculated. General compaction factors were used to convert modern volume to quantitative approximations of total grain volume. Grain volume rate of supply for each depositional episode was then calculated. Values vary by more than an order of magnitude. Supply rate has commonly varied by two-fold or more between successive depositional episodes. Sediment supply is a significant, independent variable in development of stratigraphic sequences within the Gulf basin. Paleogeographic maps of the continental interior for eleven Cenozoic time intervals display the evolving and complex interplay of intracontinental tectonism, climate change, and drainage basin evolution. Five tectono-climatic eras are differentiated: Paleocene late Laramide era; early to middle Eocene terminal Laramide era; middle Cenozoic (Late Eocene—Early Miocene) dry, volcanogenic era; middle Neogene (Middle—Late Miocene) arid, extensional era; and late Neogene (Plio—Pleistocene) monsoonal, epeirogenic uplift era. Sediment supply to the GOM reflects the interplay of (1

  8. SIMULATION MODEL OF THE PRODUCTIVITY OF A HERD OF GOATS GRAZING UNDER DIFFERENT SCENARIOS OF HANDLING IN THE SOUTHWESTERN REGION OF TAMAULIPAS, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Villanueva-Castillo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the major current challenges in the livestock industry is meeting the demand for livestock products of a growing world population. Bio-economic models integrate animal biology and rural enterprise management, which allows for the study of complex animal production systems. This paper aims at simulating the productive performance of a herd grazing under different management conditions. To do so, a simple simulation model of a goat herd (MSSRC, rangeland forage growth, and the dynamics of animal population in the semi-arid region of Southwestern Tamaulipas under three rainfall scenarios (300, 500, and 700 mm. of average annual precipitation was built. The objective was to evaluate the sustainability of extensive grazing under different animal loads. Nine different scenarios were evaluated, corresponding to the different combinations of the three rainfall scenarios and three levels of initial loads (Hi and nannies maximum load (HMAX. Evaluated variables are: kids sales (C; total number of nannies (female goats, HT; sales of replacement nannies (VREE; sales of scrap goats (CDS; rangeland condition (CA; voluntary consumption (CV; mortality rate (M; abortion rate (A;  and average annual profits (UPA. Simulation was performed on a 1,000 hectares plot, and three 10-year periods were used as time framework. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA revealed statistically significant (P < 0.05 differences between scenarios for all studied variables. Biomass primary net production under the 300, 500, and 700 mm of rainfall was found to be 1,132.2 ± 362.9, 2,244.2 ± 517.0, and 3,113.3 ± 598.7 kg DM ha-1 per year, and the average annual production of kids was 36 ± 17, 90 ± 31, and 132 ±37, respectively. The low loads scenarios showed a stable behavior, with a constant rate of kids production over the three simulation periods (0-30 years, which resulted in a higher average annual profit, and a more sustainable profile than those with heavier

  9. Preliminary Micropaleontological Investigation of a Preserved, Late Pleistocene Cypress Forest on the Northern Gulf of Mexico Inner Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, J. T.; DeLong, K. L.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Harley, G. L.; Reese, A.; Gonzalez, S.; Obelcz, J.; Caporaso, A.

    2017-12-01

    Exposed at the bottom of a trough 13 km offshore Orange Beach, AL on the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shelf in 18 m water depth are exceptionally preserved in situ bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) stumps. Preserved seeds (T. distichum, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Hibiscus lasiocarpos, Liquidambar styraciflua) discovered in core catcher samples illustrate the exceptional preservation of the site. Woody debris samples have come back radiocarbon dead with an exception to samples located in the upper peat layer with 14C ages from 37,350-41,830 years BP. Optically stimulated luminescence and 14C dates, in combination with GOM eustatic sea level curves, suggest the forest was located 30 m above the paleoshoreline. How the forest remained preserved during subaerial exposure of the continental shelf through the Last Glacial Maximum lowstand until ensuing Holocene sea level transgression remains unknown. The R/V Coastal Profiler collected 7 vibracores from the study site in 2015 and an additional 11 in 2016. A single core (DF1) contains facies identified as the Holocene Mississippi-Alabama-Florida sand sheet, a transitional facies of interbedded sand and mud, and a basal floodplain facies in which the stumps reside. This study seeks to identify the location of the Pleistocene-Holocene unconformity and to assist in stratigraphy of the area. Foraminiferal assemblages found within the transitional facies are of a shallow marine environment that suggests Holocene in age. It is hypothesized that a pulse of sea level rise during Marine Isotope Stages 3-4 caused subsequent rapid aggradation of the paleovalley system allowing for preservation through >30 kyrs of subaerial exposure. One of the ultimate goals of this study is to serve as a guide for identification of other possible sites along the gulf coast.

  10. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Wyung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (GOM JIP Leg II) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gas hydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gas hydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gas hydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gas hydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP Leg II effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

  11. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and anaylsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Gulf of MexicoGasHydrateJointIndustryProjectLegII (GOM JIP LegII) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gashydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gashydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gashydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gashydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gashydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gashydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gashydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gashydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gashydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP LegII effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

  12. Development of a field testing protocol for identifying Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues trapped near Gulf of Mexico beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuling

    2018-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident, one of the largest oil spills in U.S. history, contaminated several beaches located along the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shoreline. The residues from the spill still continue to be deposited on some of these beaches. Methods to track and monitor the fate of these residues require approaches that can differentiate the DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. This is because, historically, the crude oil released from sources such as natural seeps and anthropogenic discharges have also deposited other types of petroleum residues on GOM beaches. Therefore, identifying the origin of these residues is critical for developing effective management strategies for monitoring the long-term environmental impacts of the DWH oil spill. Advanced fingerprinting methods that are currently used for identifying the source of oil spill residues require detailed laboratory studies, which can be cost-prohibitive. Also, most agencies typically use untrained workers or volunteers to conduct shoreline monitoring surveys and these worker will not have access to advanced laboratory facilities. Furthermore, it is impractical to routinely fingerprint large volumes of samples that are collected after a major oil spill event, such as the DWH spill. In this study, we propose a simple field testing protocol that can identify DWH oil spill residues based on their unique physical characteristics. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by testing a variety of oil spill samples, and the results are verified by characterizing the samples using advanced chemical fingerprinting methods. The verification data show that the method yields results that are consistent with the results derived from advanced fingerprinting methods. The proposed protocol is a reliable, cost-effective, practical field approach for differentiating DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. PMID:29329313

  13. Development of a field testing protocol for identifying Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues trapped near Gulf of Mexico beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuling; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2018-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident, one of the largest oil spills in U.S. history, contaminated several beaches located along the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shoreline. The residues from the spill still continue to be deposited on some of these beaches. Methods to track and monitor the fate of these residues require approaches that can differentiate the DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. This is because, historically, the crude oil released from sources such as natural seeps and anthropogenic discharges have also deposited other types of petroleum residues on GOM beaches. Therefore, identifying the origin of these residues is critical for developing effective management strategies for monitoring the long-term environmental impacts of the DWH oil spill. Advanced fingerprinting methods that are currently used for identifying the source of oil spill residues require detailed laboratory studies, which can be cost-prohibitive. Also, most agencies typically use untrained workers or volunteers to conduct shoreline monitoring surveys and these worker will not have access to advanced laboratory facilities. Furthermore, it is impractical to routinely fingerprint large volumes of samples that are collected after a major oil spill event, such as the DWH spill. In this study, we propose a simple field testing protocol that can identify DWH oil spill residues based on their unique physical characteristics. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by testing a variety of oil spill samples, and the results are verified by characterizing the samples using advanced chemical fingerprinting methods. The verification data show that the method yields results that are consistent with the results derived from advanced fingerprinting methods. The proposed protocol is a reliable, cost-effective, practical field approach for differentiating DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues.

  14. [Aging in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras de Lehr, E

    1986-01-01

    Demographic social and economic aspects of the situation of the elderly in Mexico are described with special emphasis upon education programmes and types of care in nursing homes. Considering the future trends of an increase in Mexico's elderly population, the author calls for more efforts in research and training in the field of gerontology. First results in this area are reported.

  15. Mitigating the Risk of Environmental Hazards in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    wildfires.9 Infectious hazards in Mexico pose an intermediate risk of disease and include food or waterborne illness, hepatitis, dengue fever , Valley Fever ...the type of health threat that is posed. 12 Nanotechnology: Within the Latin American region , Brazil , Argentina and Mexico are leaders in...07/25/ dengue -on-the-loose/ (accessed 11 October 2011). 41. Environmental Protection Agency, State of the Border Region Indicators Report 2005, EPA

  16. Poverty in Mexico in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, Jesus Manuel

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores poverty trends in Mexico during the 1990's using three different definitions of poverty. The paper then uses poverty convergence analysis to explore the pre-crisis (1992-1994), the crisis (1994-1996), and the recovery periods (1996-1998). Finally, the paper incorporates a regional analysis in order to examine these poverty effects in greater detail.

  17. Faulting in eastern New Mexico: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.J.

    1987-08-01

    This area in eastern New Mexico is being studied because of its proximity to a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Regional and local tectonics must be thoroughly understood in order to be able to predict future tectonic activities in the site region. Hydrogeologic studies indicate that ground-water recharge, for regional deep and shallow aquifer systems, occurs primarily within the study area. Regional, easterly ground-water flow may be significantly affected by the spacing, orientation, and character of faults identified in this report. The tectonic history of eastern New Mexico is developed from information from 660 exploratory wells. A history of recurrent tectonic movements is evident, beginning possibly in the late Precambrian and extending into the late Cenozoic. The nature of the evidence includes the lateral and vertical distribution and the lithology of these deposits. The results are presented mainly as isopach and structure contour maps and as structural cross sections. The Paleozoic tectonic history of eastern New Mexico is similar and related to the history of the Texas Panhandle. Differences occur primarily in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic histories; tectonic uplift persisted for longer periods and faults show evidence of repeated movements in eastern New Mexico. This is probably a result of the proximity of the area to the Laramide and Basin and Range deformational events. 442 refs., 35 figs

  18. COMPARISON BETWEEN ESTRADIOL CYPIONATE AND GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE AS OVULATION SYNCHRONIZATION TREATMENTS FOR FIXED-TIME ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION PROGRAMS IN BRAHMAN-CROSS HEIFERS IN A SUBTROPICAL REGION OF NORTHEASTERN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Dominguez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization protocols with intravaginal progesterone releasing devices (CIDR and PGF2α were evaluated, with GnRH or estradiol cypionate (ECP added for fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI in five counties in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Brahman-cross heifers (≥15 months old were selected based on body condition (≥3 on a 5-point scale and confirmed ovarian activity. The six treatments (n = 320 each were: T1 (9-d CIDR, ECP on insertion, PGF2α on day 9, ECP on day 10, FTAI 54 h after removal; T2 (7-d CIDR, ECP on insertion, PGF2α on day 7, ECP on day 8, FTAI 54 h after removal; T3 (7-d CIDR, GnRH on insertion, PGF2α on day 7, FTAI and GnRH 48 h after removal; T4 (7-d CIDR, GnRH on insertion, PGF2α on day 6, FTAI and GnRH 48 h after removal; T5 (7-d CIDR, GnRH on insertion, PGF2α on day 7, FTAI and GnRH 60 h after removal; and T6 (7-d CIDR, GnRH on insertion, PGF2α on day 7, FTAI alone 48 h after removal. Pregnancy was diagnosed ultrasonically 45 days after FTAI. Analyses included pregnancy rates and treatment costs (hormones and handling. Pregnancy rates ranged from 31.6 ± 3.9 to 48.0 ± 10.6%; neither treatment nor county affected these rates (p > 0.05. In conclusion, the inclusion of treatment costs showed two more economical treatments (T2 using estradiol or T3 using GnRH under the nutritional, weather and handling conditions present in the tropical region of southeastern Tamaulipas.

  19. Foliicolous fungi from Arctostaphylos pungens in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Rico, Onésimo; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Crous, Pedro W.

    2014-01-01

    Arctostaphylos pungens "Manzanita" is an important shrub in the southwestern USA, and northern and central Mexico. Manzanita bears apple-like fruit that is utilised for a range of edible products. Over the past two years, several foliar disease problems were noted on this host in the San José de Gracia region of Mexico. The aim of the present study was to elucidate their identity through the analysis of morphological characters and DNA phylogeny (based on the large subunit nuclear ribosomal R...

  20. Seeking a Rational Approach to a Regional Refugee Crisis: Lessons from the Summer 2014 “Surge” of Central American Women and Children at the US-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Musalo

    2017-03-01

    arrangements for unaccompanied children as required by federal law. Images of children crowded shoulder to shoulder in US Customs and Border Patrol holding cells generated a sense of urgency across the political spectrum (e.g., Fraser-Chanpong 2014; Tobias 2014. Responses to this “surge,” and explanations for it, varied widely in policy, media, and government circles. Two competing narratives emerged, rooted in two very disparate views of the “crisis.” One argues that “push” factors in the home countries of El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala drove children and families to flee as bona fide asylum seekers; the other asserted that “pull” factors drew these individuals to the United States. For those adopting the “push” factor outlook, the crisis is a humanitarian one, reflecting human rights violations and deprivations in the region, and the protection needs of refugees (UNHCR 2015b; UNHCR 2014; Musalo et al. 2015. While acknowledging that reasons for migration may be mixed, this view recognizes the seriousness of regional refugee protection needs. For those focusing on “pull” factors, the crisis has its roots in border enforcement policies that were perceived as lax by potential migrants, and that thereby acted as an inducement to migration (Harding 2014; Navarette, Jr. 2014. Each narrative, in turn, suggests a very different response to the influx of women and children at US borders. If “push” factors predominately drive migration, then protective policies in accordance with international and domestic legal obligations toward refugees must predominately inform US reaction. Even apart from the legal and moral rightness of this approach, any long-term goal of lowering the number of Central American migrants at the US-Mexico border, practically speaking, would have to address the root causes of violence in their home countries. On the other hand, if “pull” factors are granted greater causal weight, it would seem that stringent enforcement

  1. Mexico and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfman, M

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration and HIV/AIDS in Mexico and Central America, including Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama. Most migrants travel to the US through Mexico. US-Mexico trade agreements created opportunities for increased risk of HIV transmission. The research literature focuses on Mexico. Most countries, with the exception of Belize and Costa Rica, are sending countries. Human rights of migrants are violated in transit and at destination. Migration policies determine migration processes. The Mexican-born population in the US is about 3% of US population and 8% of Mexico's population. About 22% arrived during 1992-97, and about 500,000 are naturalized US citizens. An additional 11 million have a Mexican ethnic background. Mexican migrants are usually economically active men who had jobs before leaving and were urban people who settled in California, Texas, Illinois, and Arizona. Most Mexican migrants enter illegally. Many return to Mexico. The main paths of HIV transmission are homosexual, heterosexual, and IV-drug-injecting persons. Latino migrants frequently use prostitutes, adopt new sexual practices including anal penetration among men, greater diversity of sexual partners, and use of injectable drugs.

  2. Le rapport métropolisation – régionalisation : prolégomènes pour un renouvellement paradigmatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Fontan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available L’idée de consacrer une réflexion à l’analyse du lien s’établissant entre des métropoles et leurs régions périphériques émerge des travaux réalisés et présentés au colloque 1998 de l’Association d’économie politique (Fontan, Klein, Tremblay, 1999. Plusieurs conférenciers, dont Veltz et Jalabert, posaient alors un constat de fond : l’analyse de la réalité socio-économique métropolitaine ne peut se limiter au cadre référentiel du paradigme du développement régional. Cet article répond à trois objectifs. Dans un premier temps, j’invoque les motifs qui nous ont guidé dans la réalisation de ce numéro d’Interventions économiques. Dans un deuxième temps, je soulève, à partir de quelques constats empiriques et théoriques, quelques questions sur la nature des liens passés et à venir entre la Grande région de Montréal et les autres régions du Québec. Dans un troisième temps, je présente les contributions des différents auteurs à ce numéro.I am pursuing tree goals in this article. First of all, I present the reasons underlying the production of this first edition of the new electronic format of Interventions Économiques. In second time, from empirical observations and theorithecal new developments, I reconsider the nature of past and present links between the Great Montreal Region and others Quebec’s sub regions. In the last part of the article, I introduce the articles of the others contributors.

  3. Mexico's nuclear paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redclift, M.

    1989-01-01

    Opposition to Mexico's nuclear reactors at Laguna Verde has grown during the last two years. The nuclear programme is blamed for being expensive and wasteful, and the decision to rely on the USA contradicts Mexico's espoused policy of greater independence from the USA. The way in which petroleum revenues were used to precipitate the nuclear option is compared with the lack of urgency given to renewable energy and greater energy efficiency. From a social and environmental perspective, as well as an economic one, Mexico's nuclear programme is judged expensive and irrelevant. (author)

  4. Damage to offshore infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico by hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, A. M.; Krausmann, E.

    2009-04-01

    The damage inflicted by hurricanes Katrina and Rita to the Gulf-of-Mexico's (GoM) oil and gas production, both onshore and offshore, has shown the proneness of industry to Natech accidents (natural hazard-triggered hazardous-materials releases). In order to contribute towards a better understanding of Natech events, we assessed the damage to and hazardous-materials releases from offshore oil and natural-gas platforms and pipelines induced by hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Data was obtained through a review of published literature and interviews with government officials and industry representatives from the affected region. We also reviewed over 60,000 records of reported hazardous-materials releases from the National Response Center's (NRC) database to identify and analyze the hazardous-materials releases directly attributed to offshore oil and gas platforms and pipelines affected by the two hurricanes. Our results show that hurricanes Katrina and Rita destroyed at least 113 platforms, and severely damaged at least 53 others. Sixty percent of the facilities destroyed were built 30 years ago or more prior to the adoption of the more stringent design standards that went into effect after 1977. The storms also destroyed 5 drilling rigs and severely damaged 19 mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs). Some 19 MODUs lost their moorings and became adrift during the storms which not only posed a danger to existing facilities but the dragging anchors also damaged pipelines and other infrastructure. Structural damage to platforms included toppling of sections, and tilting or leaning of platforms. Possible causes for failure of structural and non-structural components of platforms included loading caused by wave inundation of the deck. Failure of rigs attached to platforms was also observed resulting in significant damage to the platform or adjacent infrastructure, as well as damage to equipment, living quarters and helipads. The failures are attributable to tie-down components

  5. Silencing criticism in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Suárez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Journalists and human rights defenders in Mexico are being attacked in an attempt to silence their criticism. Many are forced to flee or risk being assassinated. The consequences are both personal and of wider social significance.

  6. New Mexico State Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  7. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  8. New Mexico Mountain Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  9. Mexico - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mexican Surface Daily Observations taken at 94 observatories located throughout Mexico, beginning in 1872 and going up through 1981. The data resided on paper...

  10. Doing Business in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Thomas A.

    2002-01-01

    On 1 July 2001, a far-reaching free trade agreement between the EFTA States and Mexico entered into force. ”Doing Business in Mexico” provides targeted assistance to Swiss Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME) that wish to tap the potential of Mexico as both an export destination and investment location. This comprehensive guide contains information and advice on market research, market entry, and investment in this fascinating country. Part I introduces the reader to this fascinating ...

  11. Mexico tornado climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Macías Medrano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A brief introduction on some features of tornado database in Mexico is exposed showing its substantive criteria. We resent a brief analysis about main Mexican tornadoes´ characteristics, based on data collected between 2000 to 2010, talking about spatial and temporal expressions (historical, seasonal and horary in order to show the importance of it destruction capacity and also the people´s vulnerability in Mexico.

  12. Occupational health in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón, Tania; Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Baron, Sherry; Hernández, Sendy

    2002-01-01

    The authors discuss the maquiladoras and child labor, and offer an overview of the history of occupational safety and health in Mexico that covers laws and regulations, social security, unions, and enforcement of legislation. The organization and structure of the various institutions responsible for occupational safety and health (OSH), as well as administrative procedures, are described. This article concludes with a list of the new challenges for OSH in Mexico.

  13. Philanthropic Support for Public Education in the Southwestern Region: An Assay of Philanthropy's Potential To Impact Comprehensive School Reform in Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Environmental Scanning Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Laurie; Wilson, Dave

    This report examines the relationship between philanthropy and public schools in Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas served by the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL). While begun as a project to build understanding and to support institutional planning, this report speaks also to local school leaders, the…

  14. An Energy Overview of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Mexico. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  15. Sedimentological Characterization of a Deepwater Methane Hydrate Reservoir in Green Canyon 955, Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meazell, K.; Flemings, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    Grain size is a controlling factor of hydrate saturation within a Pleistocene channel-levee system investigated by the UT-GOM2-1 expedition within the deepwater northern Gulf of Mexico. Laser diffraction and settling experiments conducted on sediments from 413-440 meters below the seafloor reveal the presence of two interbedded lithologic units, identified as a silty sand and a clayey silt, according Shepard's classification system. The sand-rich lithofacies has low density and high p-wave velocity, suggesting a high degree of hydrate saturation. Conversely, the clay and silt dominated lithofacies is characterized by a higher density and low p-wave velocity, suggesting low hydrate saturation. The sand-rich lithofacies is well-sorted and displays abundant ripple lamination, indicative of deposition within a high-energy environment. The clayey-silt is poorly-sorted and lacks sedimentary structures. The two lithofacies are interbedded throughout the reservoir unit; however, the relative abundance of the sand-rich lithofacies increases with depth, suggesting a potential decrease in flow energy or sediment flux over time, resulting in the most favorable reservoir properties near the base of the unit.

  16. Radon-in-soil concentration levels in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.; Mena, M.

    1992-01-01

    Radon-in-soil surveys in Mexico have been carried out since 1974 both for uranium prospecting and to correlate mean values of the gas emanation with local telluric behaviour. The mapping covers the northern uranium mining region, the Mexican Neovolcanic Belt, the coastal areas adjacent to the zone of subduction of the Cocos Plate under the North American Plate, some of the active volcanoes of Southern Mexico and several sedimentary valleys in Central Mexico. Recording of 222 Rn alpha decay is systematically performed with LR115 track detectors. Using mean values averaged over different observation periods at fixed monitoring stations, a radon-in-soil map covering one third of the territory of Mexico is presented. The lowest mean values occur in areas associated with active volcanoes. The highest levels are found in uranium ore zones. Intermediate values are obtained in regions with enhanced hydrothermal activity and stations associated with intrusive rocks. (author)

  17. The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on central New Mexico and the state of New Mexico fiscal year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansford, R.R.; Nielsen, T.G.; Schultz, J.; Adcock, L.D.; Gentry, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) was established in 1949 to perform the engineering development and ordnance responsibilities associated with nuclear weapons. By the early 1960's the facility had evolved into an engineering research and development laboratory and became a multiprogram laboratory during the 1970s. Sandia is operated for the US Department of Energy by the Sandia Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin, Incorporated. For several years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained an inter-industry, input-output model with capabilities to assess the impacts of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. This model will be used to assess economic, personal income and employment impacts of SNL on central New Mexico and the state of New Mexico. For this report, the reference period is FY 1997 (October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997) and includes two major impact analyses: the impact of SNL activities on central New Mexico and the economic impacts of SNL on the state of New Mexico. For purposes of this report, the central New Mexico region includes Bernalillo, Sandoval, Valencia, and Torrance counties. Total impact represents both direct and indirect respending by business, including induced effects (respending by households). The standard multipliers used in determining impacts results from the inter-industry, input-output models developed for the four-county region and the state of New Mexico. 6 figs., 10 tabs

  18. 78 FR 35149 - Addresses of Regional Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ..., and Texas), 500 Gold Avenue SW., Room 9018 (P.O. Box 1306), Albuquerque, New Mexico 87102. (c) Midwest... 01035. (f) Mountain-Prairie Regional Office (Region 6--comprising the States of Colorado, Kansas...

  19. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  20. New Mexico State Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...

  1. HSIP Hospitals in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Hospitals in New Mexico The term "hospital" ... means an institution which- (1) is primarily engaged in providing, by or under the supervision of physicians, to...

  2. High resolution ensemble forecasting for the Gulf of Mexico eddies and fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counillon, F.; Bertino, L.

    2007-05-01

    As oil production moves further into deeper waters, the costs related to strong current hazards are increasing accordingly, and accurate three-dimensional forecasts of currents are urgently needed. To be useful, models have to locate eddies and fronts to an accuracy of 30 km at a nowcast stage, which is almost impossible to accomplish with the use of satellite data of the same accuracy. The use of stochastic forecast allows us to give confidence of our prediction. We are using a nested configuration of the Hybrid coordinate ocean model (HYCOM), where the TOPAZ system, which covers the Atlantic and the Artic, gives lateral boundary condition to a high-resolution (5km) model of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). TOPAZ is a real-time forecasting coupled ocean-ice model, which assimilates sea level anomaly (SLA), sea surface temperature, and sea ice concentration, with the ensemble Kalman filter. The high- resolution model assimilates SLA using the ensemble optimal interpolation, which updates accordingly the currents, salinity, temperature, and layer interface at all depths. Here, we evaluate the ensemble forecast capabilities of our high-resolution model, for eddy Extreme that has been observed from altimeters around the 15th of July. We run 6 successive ensemble runs composed of 10 members of equal likelihood. Members differ by perturbations of the initial state, of the lateral boundary conditions, and of the atmospheric boundary conditions. We have started the experiment 1 month prior to the shedding event, because it was the time necessary for perturbation of boundary conditions to spread uniformly and reach a significant level across the GOM. The ensemble reproduces well the dynamics of the eddy shedding and produces a significant spread at the boundary of the eddy, but underestimates the RMS error of the SLA. Prior to the shedding time, the error growth increase, induced by the highly non-linear growth of cyclonic eddies at the boundary of the Loop Current. Additionally

  3. Characterization of ceramics from the archaeological site of San Miguel Ixtapan, Mexico State, Mexico, using NAA, SEM, XRD and PIXE techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenorio, D.; Monroy-Guzman, F.; Longoria, L.C.; Almazan-Torres, M.G.; Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca; Rodriguez-Garcia, N.L.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic samples found in San Miguel Ixtapan, Mexico State, Mexico, were analyzed by means of NAA, PIXE, SEM and XRD. Statistical treatments such as bivariate cluster and principal-components analysis were applied to the data set. The origins of these ceramic samples were classified as local, regional and foreign. (author)

  4. Biodiversity and community composition of sediment macrofauna associated with deep-sea Lophelia pertusa habitats in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Bourque, Jill R.; Frometa, Janessy

    2014-01-01

    Scleractinian corals create three-dimensional reefs that provide sheltered refuges, facilitate sediment accumulation, and enhance colonization of encrusting fauna. While heterogeneous coral habitats can harbor high levels of biodiversity, their effect on the community composition within nearby sediments remains unclear, particularly in the deep sea. Sediment macrofauna from deep-sea coral habitats (Lophelia pertusa) and non-coral, background sediments were examined at three sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico (VK826, VK906, MC751, 350–500 m depth) to determine whether macrofaunal abundance, diversity, and community composition near corals differed from background soft-sediments. Macrofaunal densities ranged from 26 to 125 individuals 32 cm−2 and were significantly greater near coral versus background sediments only at VK826. Of the 86 benthic invertebrate taxa identified, 16 were exclusive to near-coral habitats, while 14 were found only in background sediments. Diversity (Fisher’s α) and evenness were significantly higher within near-coral sediments only at MC751 while taxon richness was similar among all habitats. Community composition was significantly different both between near-coral and background sediments and among the three primary sites. Polychaetes numerically dominated all samples, accounting for up to 70% of the total individuals near coral, whereas peracarid crustaceans were proportionally more abundant in background sediments (18%) than in those near coral (10%). The reef effect differed among sites, with community patterns potentially influenced by the size of reef habitat. Taxon turnover occurred with distance from the reef, suggesting that reef extent may represent an important factor in structuring sediment communities near L. pertusa. Polychaete communities in both habitats differed from other Gulf of Mexico (GOM) soft sediments based on data from previous studies, and we hypothesize that local environmental conditions found near L

  5. Biodiversity and community composition of sediment macrofauna associated with deep-sea Lophelia pertusa habitats in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Bourque, Jill R.; Frometa, Janessy

    2014-11-01

    Scleractinian corals create three-dimensional reefs that provide sheltered refuges, facilitate sediment accumulation, and enhance colonization of encrusting fauna. While heterogeneous coral habitats can harbor high levels of biodiversity, their effect on the community composition within nearby sediments remains unclear, particularly in the deep sea. Sediment macrofauna from deep-sea coral habitats (Lophelia pertusa) and non-coral, background sediments were examined at three sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico (VK826, VK906, MC751, 350-500 m depth) to determine whether macrofaunal abundance, diversity, and community composition near corals differed from background soft-sediments. Macrofaunal densities ranged from 26 to 125 individuals 32 cm-2 and were significantly greater near coral versus background sediments only at VK826. Of the 86 benthic invertebrate taxa identified, 16 were exclusive to near-coral habitats, while 14 were found only in background sediments. Diversity (Fisher's α) and evenness were significantly higher within near-coral sediments only at MC751 while taxon richness was similar among all habitats. Community composition was significantly different both between near-coral and background sediments and among the three primary sites. Polychaetes numerically dominated all samples, accounting for up to 70% of the total individuals near coral, whereas peracarid crustaceans were proportionally more abundant in background sediments (18%) than in those near coral (10%). The reef effect differed among sites, with community patterns potentially influenced by the size of reef habitat. Taxon turnover occurred with distance from the reef, suggesting that reef extent may represent an important factor in structuring sediment communities near L. pertusa. Polychaete communities in both habitats differed from other Gulf of Mexico (GOM) soft sediments based on data from previous studies, and we hypothesize that local environmental conditions found near L. pertusa

  6. GoM Coastal Biopsy Surveys - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Small vessel surveys were conducted within estuarine and nearshore coastal waters of Barataria Bay, LA and Mississippi Sound, MS to collect tissue biopsy samples...

  7. Arsenic in drinking water in the Los Altos de Jalisco region of Mexico Arsénico en el agua potable de la región de Los Altos de Jalisco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Hurtado-Jiménez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish the degree of contamination by arsenic in drinking water in the Los Altos de Jalisco (LAJ region of west-central Mexico, and to estimate the levels of exposure that residents of the area face. METHODS: Total arsenic concentration (the sum of all arsenic forms, organic and inorganic was determined for 129 public water wells in 17 municipal capitals (cabeceras municipales of the LAJ region, using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. For most of the wells, water samples were taken in both November 2002 and October 2003. The levels of exposure to arsenic were estimated for babies (10 kg, children (20 kg, and adults (70 kg. RESULTS: Mean concentrations of arsenic higher than the Mexican national guideline value of 25 µg/L were found in 44 (34% of the 129 wells. The mean concentration of total arsenic for the 129 wells ranged from 14.7 µg/L to 101.9 µg/L. The highest concentrations were found in well water samples collected in the cities of Mexticacán (262.9 µg/L, Teocaltiche (157.7 µg/L, and San Juan de los Lagos (113.8 µg/L. Considering the global mean concentration for all the wells in each of the 17 cities, the mean concentration of arsenic exceeded the Mexican guideline value in 7 of the cities. However, the global mean concentration in all 17 cities was higher than the World Health Organization guideline value of 10 µg/L for arsenic. The range of the estimated exposure doses to arsenic in drinking water was 1.1-7.6 µg/kg/d for babies, 0.7-5.1 µg/kg/d for children, and 0.4-2.7 µg/kg/d for adults. CONCLUSIONS: At the exposure doses estimated in the LAJ