WorldWideScience

Sample records for mexico basin gom

  1. Offshore Minerals Management Platforms for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Geographic NAD83, MMS (2006) [platforms_mms_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Platforms for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Identifies the location of platforms in GOM. All platforms existing in the database are included.

  2. 76 FR 50245 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... (BOEMRE), Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of a Final Supplemental Environmental Impact... sale's incremental contribution to the cumulative impacts on environmental and socioeconomic resources... Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sale for the...

  3. 76 FR 70478 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer... studies, NEPA analysis, resource evaluation, economic analysis, and renewable energy. BSEE is responsible... Program AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA...

  4. UT-GOM2-1: Prospecting, Drilling and Sampling a Coarse-Grained Hydrate Reservoir in Green Canyon 955, the Deepwater Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemings, P. B.; Phillips, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    In May 2017, a science team led by the University of Texas-Austin conducted drilling and coring operations from the Helix Q4000 targeting gas hydrates in sand-rich reservoirs in the Green Canyon 955 block in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The UT-GOM2-1 expedition goals were to 1) test two configurations of pressure coring devices to assess relative performance with respect to recovery and quality of samples and 2) gather sufficient samples to allow laboratories throughout the US to investigate a range of outstanding science questions related to the origin and nature of gas hydrate-bearing sands. In the first well (UT-GOM2-1-H002), 1 of the 8 cores were recovered under pressure with 34% recovery. In the second well (UT-GOM2-1-H005), 12 of 13 cores were recovered under pressure with 77% recovery. The pressure cores were imaged and logged under pressure. Samples were degassed both shipboard and dockside to interpret hydrate concentration and gas composition. Samples for microbiological and porewater analysis were taken from the depressurized samples. 21 3 ft pressure cores were returned to the University of Texas for storage, distribution, and further analysis. Preliminary analyses document that the hydrate-bearing interval is composed of two interbedded (cm to m thickness) facies. Lithofacies II is composed of sandy silt and has trough cross bedding whereas Lithofacies III is composed of clayey silt and no bedforms are observed. Lithofacies II has low density (1.7 to 1.9 g/cc) and high velocity (3000-3250 m/s) beds whereas Lithofacies 3 has high density ( 1.9-2.1g/cc) and low velocity ( 1700 m/s). Quantitative degassing was used to determine that Lithofacies II contains high hydrate saturation (66-87%) and Lithofacies III contains moderate saturation ( 18-30%). Gas samples were analyzed periodically in each experiment and were composed of primarily methane with an average of 94 ppm ethane and detectable, but not quantifiable, propane. The core data will provide a

  5. Automating CPM-GOMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Bonnie; Vera, Alonso; Matessa, Michael; Freed, Michael; Remington, Roger

    2002-01-01

    CPM-GOMS is a modeling method that combines the task decomposition of a GOMS analysis with a model of human resource usage at the level of cognitive, perceptual, and motor operations. CPM-GOMS models have made accurate predictions about skilled user behavior in routine tasks, but developing such models is tedious and error-prone. We describe a process for automatically generating CPM-GOMS models from a hierarchical task decomposition expressed in a cognitive modeling tool called Apex. Resource scheduling in Apex automates the difficult task of interleaving the cognitive, perceptual, and motor resources underlying common task operators (e.g. mouse move-and-click). Apex's UI automatically generates PERT charts, which allow modelers to visualize a model's complex parallel behavior. Because interleaving and visualization is now automated, it is feasible to construct arbitrarily long sequences of behavior. To demonstrate the process, we present a model of automated teller interactions in Apex and discuss implications for user modeling. available to model human users, the Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection (GOMS) method [6, 21] has been the most widely used, providing accurate, often zero-parameter, predictions of the routine performance of skilled users in a wide range of procedural tasks [6, 13, 15, 27, 28]. GOMS is meant to model routine behavior. The user is assumed to have methods that apply sequences of operators and to achieve a goal. Selection rules are applied when there is more than one method to achieve a goal. Many routine tasks lend themselves well to such decomposition. Decomposition produces a representation of the task as a set of nested goal states that include an initial state and a final state. The iterative decomposition into goals and nested subgoals can terminate in primitives of any desired granularity, the choice of level of detail dependent on the predictions required. Although GOMS has proven useful in HCI, tools to support the

  6. 78 FR 52562 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Central Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). SUMMARY: Consistent with the regulations... Supplemental EIS will update the environmental and socioeconomic analyses in the Gulf of Mexico OCS Oil and Gas... Area Lease Sales 227, 231, 235, 241, and 247, Final Environmental Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM...

  7. 78 FR 64242 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... (NOA) of the Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Public Meetings. SUMMARY: BOEM... Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2012-019) (2012- 2017 WPA/CPA Multisale EIS) and in the Gulf of Mexico... Lease Sale 231, Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2013-0118) (WPA 233...

  8. Nitrogen delivery from the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin to the Gulf of Mexico: magnitude, attribution, and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Xu, R.; Yang, J.; Zhang, B.; Yao, Y.; Pan, S.; Cai, W. J.; Lohrenz, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    The northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), as one of the largest hypoxic zone in the world, is near the outlet of the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) that contributed to the increased fluxes of agriculturally derived nitrogen (N) since the 1950s. This increase of N exports could be primarily attributed to anthropogenic N inputs into the MARB (e.g., N fertilizer application), climate (e.g., precipitation), and land use change. A long-term data of monthly/annual dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) exports from the MARB to the GOM had been released by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) since the 1970s. However, on one hand, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) also plays an active role in supplying N for phytoplankton and bacteria in aquatic ecosystems; on the other hand, monitoring data provided by the USGS could not attribute the contributions of various factors to this N increase in the northern GOM. Here, we used a coupled hydrological-biogeochemical model, the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model, to examine changes in DIN (ammonium and nitrate) and DON exports from the MARB to the GOM during 1901 2014. Meanwhile, we investigated how climate variability, land use change, land management, and atmospheric chemistry affected the annual and seasonal patterns of N export in the study area.

  9. Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for an Underground Blowout Scenario in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, M.; Zulqarnain, M.

    2017-12-01

    Offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations, involve the use of some of the cutting edge and challenging technologies of the modern time. These technological complex operations involves the risk of major accidents as well, which have been demonstrated by disasters such as the explosion and fire on the UK production platform piper alpha, the Canadian semi-submersible drilling rig Ocean Ranger and the explosion and capsizing of Deepwater horizon rig in the Gulf of Mexico. By conducting Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA), safety of various operations as well as their associated risks and significance during the entire life phase of an offshore project can be quantitatively estimated. In an underground blowout, the uncontrolled formation fluids from higher pressure formation may charge up shallower overlying low pressure formations or may migrate to sea floor. Consequences of such underground blowouts range from no visible damage at the surface to the complete loss of well, loss of drilling rig, seafloor subsidence or hydrocarbons discharged to the environment. These blowouts might go unnoticed until the over pressured sands, which are the result of charging from higher pressure reservoir due to an underground blowout. Further, engineering formulas used to estimate the fault permeability and thickness are very simple in nature and may add to uncertainty in the estimated parameters. In this study the potential of a deepwater underground blowout are assessed during drilling life phase of a well in Popeye-Genesis field reservoir in the Gulf of Mexico to estimate the time taken to charge a shallower zone to its leak-off test (LOT) value. Parametric simulation results for selected field case show that for relatively high permeability (k = 40mD) fault connecting a deep over-pressured zone to a shallower low-pressure zone of similar reservoir volumes, the time to recharge the shallower zone up to its threshold LOT value is about 135 years. If the ratio of the

  10. Recovery and Lithologic Analysis of Sediment from Hole UT-GOM2-1-H002, Green Canyon 955, Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinash, N.; Cook, A.; Sawyer, D.; Heber, R.

    2017-12-01

    In May 2017 the University of Texas led a drilling and pressure coring expedition in the northern Gulf of Mexico, UT-GOM2-01. The holes were located in Green Canyon Block 955, where the Gulf of Mexico Joint Industry Project Leg II identified an approximately 100m thick hydrate-filled course-grained levee unit in 2009. Two separate wells were drilled into this unit: Holes H002 and H005. In Hole H002, a cutting shoe drill bit was used to collect the pressure cores, and only 1 of the 8 cores collected was pressurized during recovery. The core recovery in Hole H002 was generally poor, about 34%, while the only pressurized core had 45% recovery. In Hole H005, a face bit was used during pressure coring where 13 cores were collected and 9 cores remained pressurized. Core recovery in Hole H005 was much higher, at about 75%. The type of bit was not the only difference between the holes, however. Drilling mud was used throughout the drilling and pressure coring of Hole H002, while only seawater was used during the first 80m of pressure cores collected in Hole H005. Herein we focus on lithologic analysis of Hole H002 with the goal of documenting and understanding core recovery in Hole H002 to compare with Hole H005. X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) images were collected by Geotek on pressurized cores, mostly from Hole H005, and at Ohio State on unpressurized cores, mostly from Hole H002. The XCT images of unpressurized cores show minimal sedimentary structures and layering, unlike the XCT images acquired on the pressurized, hydrate-bearing cores. Only small sections of the unpressurized cores remained intact. The unpressurized cores appear to have two prominent facies: 1) silt that did not retain original sedimentary fabric and often was loose within the core barrel, and 2) dense mud sections with some sedimentary structures and layering present. On the XCT images, drilling mud appears to be concentrated on the sides of cores, but also appears in layers and fractures within

  11. Alternative futures of dissolved inorganic nitrogen export from the Mississippi River Basin: influence of crop management, atmospheric deposition, and population growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) export from the Mississippi River Basin contributes to seasonal hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). We explored monthly dissolved inorganic N (DIN) export to the GOM for a historical year (2002) and two future scenarios (year 2022) by linking macroeonomic energy, ag...

  12. Geophysical Data Define Boundaries and Sub-Regions of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Basin: Structural Histories and Causes are Hypothesized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsland, G. L.

    2017-12-01

    Within the last several years new types of geophysical data of the southern margin of the North American Craton and the Northern Gulf of Mexico Basin (NGoMB) have become available, e.g., results from the USArray experiment, high resolution satellite gravity data of the GoM itself and new heat flow data. These data when combined with previously existing geophysical data (gravity, magnetic and seismic) and shallow structural data offer new insights into the boundaries and sub-regions of the NGoMB. I offer hypotheses for the development of the structures of the buried crust and upper mantle which cause these features. Of particular interest might be my suggestion that the NGoMB might have extended in a southeasterly direction prior to the counter-clockwise rotation of the Yucatan Peninsula which ultimately resulted in the GoM.

  13. Early sedentary economy in the basin of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederberger, C

    1979-01-12

    Artifactual and nonartifactual evidence from the lacustrine shores of the Chalco-Xochimilco Basin suggest the existence of fully sedentary human communities in the Basin of Mexico from at least the sixth millennium B.C.

  14. Cenozoic North American Drainage Basin Evolution, Sediment Yield, and Accumulation in the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, W.; Ganey-Curry, P. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Cenozoic fill of the Gulf of Mexico basin contains a continuous record of sediment supply from the North American continental interior for the past 65 million years. Regional mapping of unit thickness and paleogeography for 18 depositional episodes defines patterns of shifting entry points of continental fluvial systems and quantifies the total volume of sediment supplied during each episode. Eight fluvio-deltaic depocenters, named for geographic similarities to entry points and drainage basins of modern rivers, are present. From southwest to northeast, they are the Rio Bravo, Rio Grande, Guadalupe, Colorado, Houston-Brazos, Red, Mississippi, and Tennessee axes. Sediment volume was calculated from hand-contoured unit thickness maps compiled from basin-wide well and seismic control. Using a GIS algorithm to sum volumes within polygons bounding interpreted North American river contribution, the total extant volume was then calculated. General compaction factors were used to convert modern volume to quantitative approximations of total grain volume. Grain volume rate of supply for each depositional episode was then calculated. Values vary by more than an order of magnitude. Supply rate has commonly varied by two-fold or more between successive depositional episodes. Sediment supply is a significant, independent variable in development of stratigraphic sequences within the Gulf basin. Paleogeographic maps of the continental interior for eleven Cenozoic time intervals display the evolving and complex interplay of intracontinental tectonism, climate change, and drainage basin evolution. Five tectono-climatic eras are differentiated: Paleocene late Laramide era; early to middle Eocene terminal Laramide era; middle Cenozoic (Late Eocene—Early Miocene) dry, volcanogenic era; middle Neogene (Middle—Late Miocene) arid, extensional era; and late Neogene (Plio—Pleistocene) monsoonal, epeirogenic uplift era. Sediment supply to the GOM reflects the interplay of (1

  15. Basin of Mexico: A history of watershed mismanagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis A. Bojorquez Tapia; Exequiel Ezcurra; Marisa Mazari-Hiriart; Salomon Diaz; Paola Gomez; Georgina Alcantar; Daniela Megarejo

    2000-01-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) is located within the Basin of Mexico. Because of its large population and demand for natural resources, several authors have questioned the viability of the city, especially in terms of water resources. These are reviewed at the regional and the local scales. It is concluded that a multi-basin management approach is necessary to...

  16. Seismic Interferometry of Gulf of Mexico Basin Opening (GUMBO) Data: Extraction of Body and Surface Waves with a Mixed-Mode Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangraj, J. S.; Quiros, D.; Pulliam, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is a relative small oceanic basin that formed by rifting between the continental blocks of North America and Yucatan in the Middle to Late Jurassic. Following the breakup, seafloor spreading continued until the Early Cretaceous. Since then, subsidence and sedimentation have shaped the GoM margin that we see today. To better understand the opening of the GoM, a long-offset (307 km) seismic refraction line was acquired in 2010. The transect was located on the northwest GoM margin, and consisted of several types of instruments. This mixed-mode array combined 31 ocean bottom seismographs (OBS), 412 high-frequency instruments (4.5 Hz geophones with RefTek 125A "Texan" digitizers) and 12 broadband stations. The R/V Iron Cat provided the airgun source used in the refraction experiment. The airgun generated 2028 shots in a period of 2.5 days which were recorded by the entire array. The airgun-generated seismic energy was clearly visible on the OBS recordings, however its amplitude was too low to be discerned on most of the onshore stations. In fact, this energy was only visible on Texan stations 1-50 (station 1 is located at the coast), extending 18 km inland, limiting the extend of the velocity model that can be obtained. Here, we apply seismic interferometry techniques to the 2.5 days of continuous data recorded by the Texan array with the goal of extending the spatial range for which the airgun-generated seismic energy can be observed. Preliminary results show that by treating the 2.5 days of continuously recorded airgun data as ambient noise, and applying time-domain cross-correlation, we can observe energy propagating 50 to 70 km inland with apparent velocities of 1800 - 2200 ms-1. These velocities agree with the compressional seismic velocity for the top 5 km of sediments under the GoM obtained from the OBS records, suggesting that we are observing compressional energy in the virtual source gathers (VSG). We also observe arrivals in the VSG

  17. Formaldehyde Surface Distributions and Variability in the Mexico City Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkermann, W.; Mohr, C.; Steinbrecher, R.; Ruiz Suarez, L.

    2007-05-01

    Formaldehyde ambient air mole fractions were measured throughout the dry season in March at three different locations in the Mexico City basin. The continuously running instruments were operated at Tenago del Aire, a site located in the Chalco valley in the southern venting area of the basin, at the Intituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP) in the northern part of the city and about 30 km north of the city at the campus of the Universidad Tecnològica de Tecamac (UTTEC). The technique used is the Hantzsch technology with a time resolution of 2 minutes and a detection limit of 100 ppt. Daily maxima peaked at 35 ppb formaldehyde in the city and about 15 to 20 ppb at the other sites. During night formaldehyde levels dropped to about 5 ppb or less. It is evident that the observed spatial and temporal variability in near surface formaldehyde distributions is strongly affected by local and regional advection processes.

  18. Boundaries of Consent: Stakeholder Representation in River Basin Management in Mexico and South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, P.; Merrey, D.J.; Lange, M.

    2003-01-01

    Increasing the capacity of water users to influence decision-making is crucial in river basin management reforms. This article assesses emerging forums for river basin management in Mexico and South Africa and concludes that the pace of democratization of water management in both is slow. Mexico is

  19. Geothermal resources of the northern gulf of Mexico basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P.H.

    1970-01-01

    Published geothermal gradient maps for the northern Gulf of Mexico basin indicate little or no potential for the development of geothermal resources. Results of deep drilling, from 4000 to 7000 meters or more, during the past decade however, define very sharp increases in geothermal gradient which are associated with the occurrence of abnormally high interstitial fluid pressure (geopressure). Bounded by regional growth faults along the landward margin of the Gulf Basin, the geopressured zone extends some 1300 km from the Rio Grande (at the boundary between the United States and Mexico) to the mouth of the Mississippi river. Gulfward, it extends to an unknown distance across the Continental Shelf. Within geopressured deposits, geothermal gradients range upwards to 100 ??C/km, being greatest within and immediately below the depth interval in which the maximum pressure gradient change occurs. The 120 ??C isogeotherm ranges from about 2500 to 5000 m below sea level, and conforms in a general way with depth of occurrence of the top of the geopressured zone. Measured geostatic ratios range upward to 0.97; the maximum observed temperature is 273 ??C, at a depth of 5859 m. Dehydration of montmorillonite, which comprises 60 to 80 percent of clay deposited in the northern Gulf Basin during the Neogene, occurs at depths where temperature exceeds about 80 ??C, and is generally complete at depths where temperature exceeds 120 ??C. This process converts intracrystalline and bound water to free pore water, the volume produced being roughly equivalent to half the volume of montmorillonite so altered. Produced water is fresh, and has low viscosity and density. Sand-bed aquifers of deltaic, longshore, or marine origin form excellent avenues for drainage of geopressured deposits by wells, each of which may yield 10,000 m3 or more of superheated water per day from reservoirs having pressures up to 1000 bars at depths greater than 5000 m. ?? 1971.

  20. Geothermal energy from deep sedimentary basins: The Valley of Mexico (Central Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Nils; Götz, Annette E.

    2015-04-01

    The geothermal potential of the Valley of Mexico has not been addressed in the past, although volcaniclastic settings in other parts of the world contain promising target reservoir formations. A first assessment of the geothermal potential of the Valley of Mexico is based on thermophysical data gained from outcrop analogues, covering all lithofacies types, and evaluation of groundwater temperature and heat flow values from literature. Furthermore, the volumetric approach of Muffler and Cataldi (1978) leads to a first estimation of ca. 4000 TWh (14.4 EJ) of power generation from Neogene volcanic rocks within the Valley of Mexico. Comparison with data from other sedimentary basins where deep geothermal reservoirs are identified shows the high potential of the Valley of Mexico for future geothermal reservoir utilization. The mainly low permeable lithotypes may be operated as stimulated systems, depending on the fracture porosity in the deeper subsurface. In some areas also auto-convective thermal water circulation might be expected and direct heat use without artificial stimulation becomes reasonable. Thermophysical properties of tuffs and siliciclastic rocks qualify them as promising target horizons (Lenhardt and Götz, 2015). The here presented data serve to identify exploration areas and are valuable attributes for reservoir modelling, contributing to (1) a reliable reservoir prognosis, (2) the decision of potential reservoir stimulation, and (3) the planning of long-term efficient reservoir utilization. References Lenhardt, N., Götz, A.E., 2015. Geothermal reservoir potential of volcaniclastic settings: The Valley of Mexico, Central Mexico. Renewable Energy. [in press] Muffler, P., Cataldi, R., 1978. Methods for regional assessment of geothermal resources. Geothermics, 7, 53-89.

  1. Transient electromagnetic study of basin fill sediments in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultman, M.W.; Gray, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Upper San Pedro River Basin in Mexico and the United States is an important riparian corridor that is coming under increasing pressure from growing populations and the associated increase in groundwater withdrawal. Several studies have produced three-dimensional maps of the basin fill sediments in the US portion of the basin but little work has been done in the Mexican portion of the basin. Here, the results of a ground-based transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Mexico are presented. These basin fill sediments are characterized by a 10-40 m deep unsaturated surficial zone which is composed primarily of sands and gravels. In the central portion of the basin this unsaturated zone is usually underlain by a shallow clay layer 20-50 m thick. Beneath this may be more clay, as is usually the case near the San Pedro River, or interbedded sand, silt, and clay to a depth of 200-250 m. As you move away from the river, the upper clay layer disappears and the amount of sand in the sediments increases. At 1-2 km away from the river, sands can occupy up to 50% of the upper 200-250 m of the sediment fill. Below this, clays are always present except where bedrock highs are observed. This lower clay layer begins at a depth of about 200 m in the central portion of the basin (250 m or more at distances greater than 1-2 km from the river) and extends to the bottom of most profiles to depths of 400 m. While the depth of the top of this lower clay layer is probably accurate, its thickness observed in the models may be overestimated due to the relatively low magnetic moment of the TEM system used in this study. The inversion routine used for interpretation is based on a one-dimensional geologic model. This is a layer based model that is isotropic in both the x and y directions. Several survey soundings did not meet this requirement which invalidates the inversion process and the resulting interpretation at these locations. The results from these

  2. Geochemical Characterization of Late Pleistocene and Holocene Tephra Layers from the Basin of Mexico, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Guerrero, Beatriz; Newton, Anthony J.

    1998-07-01

    In order to aid palaeoenvironmental research of Late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits of central Mexico, tephra layers collected from the sediments of the Texcoco and Chalco sub-basins, in the southern part of the Basin of Mexico, are geochemically characterized and used as stratigraphic markers. The tephra layers range in composition from basaltic andesites to rhyolites and are calc-alkaline. The tephras range in age from >34,000 to ca. 2600 14C yr B.P. New names are used informally to designate correlated tephras. The Tlahuac tephra is present in Chalco, at a depth of 18 m; in the southeastern part of Texcoco, at a depth of around 10 m; and at the Tlapacoya archaeological site, where it had been mistakenly described as basaltic. This basalt-andesite tephra is dated to at least 34,000 14C yr B.P. The Tlapacoya 1 tephra is dated to between 15,020 ± 450 and 14,430 ± 190 yr B.P. and is present in all Chalco sections. The Tlapacoya 2 tephra corresponds to the previously described "pomez gruesa con fragmentos de andesita" (ca. 14,400 yr B.P.) and is present in all Chalco and Texcoco sections. The likely source of these three tephras is the volcano Popocatepetl. Tephra II at Chalco dates to 12,520 ± 135 yr B.P. and correlates with the Upper Toluca Pumice from Nevado de Toluca volcano. These represent the first geochemical glass-shard analysis of tephras from the Basin of Mexico, and so further research is necessary before a reliable tephrochronology can be established.

  3. Shedding the waters : institutional change and water control in the Lerma-Chapala Basin, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, P.

    2008-01-01

    Water resources development has led to water overexploitation in many river basins around the world. This is clearly the case in the Lerma-Chapala Basin in central Mexico, where excessive surface water use nearly resulted in the drying up of Lake Chapala, one of the world’s largest shallow lakes. It

  4. Offshore Pipeline Locations in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD27, MMS (2007) [pipelines_vectors_mms_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Pipeline Locations for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Contains the lines of the pipeline in the GOM. All pipelines existing in the databases...

  5. Offshore Pipeline Locations in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD27, MMS (2007) [pipelines_points_mms_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Pipeline Locations for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Contains the points of the pipeline in the GOM. All pipelines existing in the databases...

  6. Shedding the waters : institutional change and water control in the Lerma-Chapala Basin, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Wester, P.

    2008-01-01

    Water resources development has led to water overexploitation in many river basins around the world. This is clearly the case in the Lerma-Chapala Basin in central Mexico, where excessive surface water use nearly resulted in the drying up of Lake Chapala, one of the world’s largest shallow lakes. It is also a basin in which many of the policies prescribed in international water debates were pioneered. This thesis investigates the histories and relationships between water overexploitation, wat...

  7. Enhanced Seismic Imaging of Turbidite Deposits in Chicontepec Basin, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Perez, S.; Vargas-Meleza, L.

    2007-05-01

    We test, as postprocessing tools, a combination of migration deconvolution and geometric attributes to attack the complex problems of reflector resolution and detection in migrated seismic volumes. Migration deconvolution has been empirically shown to be an effective approach for enhancing the illumination of migrated images, which are blurred versions of the subsurface reflectivity distribution, by decreasing imaging artifacts, improving spatial resolution, and alleviating acquisition footprint problems. We utilize migration deconvolution as a means to improve the quality and resolution of 3D prestack time migrated results from Chicontepec basin, Mexico, a very relevant portion of the producing onshore sector of Pemex, the Mexican petroleum company. Seismic data covers the Agua Fria, Coapechaca, and Tajin fields. It exhibits acquisition footprint problems, migration artifacts and a severe lack of resolution in the target area, where turbidite deposits need to be characterized between major erosional surfaces. Vertical resolution is about 35 m and the main hydrocarbon plays are turbidite beds no more than 60 m thick. We also employ geometric attributes (e.g., coherent energy and curvature), computed after migration deconvolution, to detect and map out depositional features, and help design development wells in the area. Results of this workflow show imaging enhancement and allow us to identify meandering channels and individual sand bodies, previously undistinguishable in the original seismic migrated images.

  8. Magnetotelluric data collected to characterize aquifers in the San Luis Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailes, Chad E.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin as part of the Geologic Framework of Rio Grande Basins project. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, magnetotelluric surveys, and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifers in the San Luis Basin. This report describes one north-south and two east-west regional magnetotelluric sounding profiles, acquired in June of 2010 and July and August of 2011, across the San Luis Basin in northern New Mexico. No interpretation of the data is included.

  9. Environmental tritium as a hydrometeorologic tool in the Roswell basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinowitz, D.D.; Gross, F.W.; Holmes, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    Tritium analyses of precipitation collected in central New Mexico in the years 1957-1968 were combined with precipitation distribution patterns in space and time. An empirical tritium input function (effective fallout) was constructed for the Roswell artesian basin in southeastern New Mexico. Rather than linearly related to precipitation, recharge is proportional to a sliding function of the mean annual precipitation. Proper selection of precipitation measuring stations was of critical importance in constructing the tritium input function

  10. The Role of Transforms in Gulf of Mexico Opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, E.; Doré, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    The curious pie-shaped Gulf of Mexico (GoM) may be considered a high-angle back-arc basin to the Pacific Ocean. Opening was strongly facilitated by transforms, including a terminal transform on its Pacific side. GoM also formed synchronously with the nearby Central Atlantic when Gondwanaland pulled away from Laurasia in the Jurassic. Notably, GoM's oceanic crust never connected with that of the Atlantic, and the isolated nature of this small ocean led to periodically confined conditions that influenced the petroleum system. Of particular importance are the deposition of Callovian age salt and Tithonian age source rocks. The central part of GoM is generally accepted as underlain by oceanic crust, but the position of the continent-ocean boundaries (COB) is debated, as well as the nature of intervening crust. We favor an interpretation of the COBs marked by the regional scale, large-amplitude Houston, Florida, and Campeche magnetic anomalies, in turn probably reflecting seaward dipping reflectors of magma-rich margins. GoM's unusual shape may indirectly represent utilization of pre-existing transforms during the break-up of Pangea. Transforms represent long, linear weaknesses where the crust and lithosphere is already broken. Transforms seem to have governed the break-up of several oceanic segments in the North Atlantic and Arctic. The Suwanne suture of the Rheic Ocean is a pronounced magnetic anomaly that crosses Georgia-Florida and becomes aligned with the Houston magnetic anomaly, which here is interpreted as the northern COB to GoM. The Suwanne suture is oriented at high angle to the rest of the Rheic suture along the Appalachians and probably experienced lateral motion during the transpressional closure of the Rheic Ocean. This transform arguably represents a weak element in the Ouachita-Marathon orogen that allowed the Yucatan microcontinent to easily be plucked from the North American margin during the dispersal of Pangea, forming the GoM in the process. This

  11. Geologic framework of nonmarine cretaceous-tertiary boundary sites, raton basin, new mexico and colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillmore, C.L.; Tschudy, R.H.; Orth, C.J.; Gilmore, J.S.; Knight, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Indium concentrations are anomalously high at the palynological Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in fluvial sedimentary rocks of the lower part of the Raton Formation at several localities in the Raton Basin of New Mexico and Colorado. The iridium anomaly is associated with a thin bed of kaolinitic claystone in a discontinuous carbonaceous shale and coal sequence.

  12. Gulf of Mexico development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenz, D.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has seen significant deepwater growth. An overview of the GOM deepwater leaseholds by Shell and developments by competing companies is presented. Deepwater GOM developments, total production from the shelf and from deepwater wells, new offshore pipeline capacity and ownership, and processing plant capacity are also discussed. Significant deepwater growth in the Gulf is anticipated. Despite significant economic and technological challenges, the area is judged to be the prime exploration and production opportunity in the lower 48 states of the USA. tabs., figs

  13. The Texcoco Seismic Array: Analysis of the Seismic Movement in the Deep Sediments of Mexico Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Estrella, H.; Cardenas-Soto, M.; Lomnitz, C.

    2007-05-01

    The seismic movement in the Lake Zone of the Mexico Basin is characterized by long durations and late energy arrivals; many efforts have been made to find the origin of these late waves. In 1997 the Texcoco Seismic Array (TXC) was installed in the former Lake of Texcoco, in the northeastern part of Mexico Basin. It is a natural reserve formed by the same lacustrine clays of the Lake Zone in Mexico City, however we consider TXC as a virgin site as there are no buildings near, and there is almost no human activity. We analyzed 7 earthquakes recorded at TXC in two instrumental arrays, to identify late energy arrivals near the fundamental period and we also analyzed these pulses with F-K method to estimate the phase velocity and its origin.

  14. Radioactive hydrogeochemical processes in the Chihuahua-Sacramento Basin, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burillo, J. C.; Reyes C, M.; Montero C, M. E.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E. F. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C., Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Reyes, I.; Espino, M. S., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Facultad de Ingenieria, Nuevo Campus Universitario, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    The Chihuahua Basin is divided by its morphology into three main sub basins: Chihuahua-Sacramento sub basin, Chihuahua Dam sub basin and Chuviscar River sub basin. In the aquifers at the Sacramento sub basin, specific concentrations of uranium in groundwater range from 460 to 1260 Bq / m{sup 3}. The presence of strata and sandy clay lenses with radiometric anomalies in the N W of Chihuahua Valley was confirmed by a litostatigraphic study and gamma spectrometry measurements of drill cuttings. High uranium activity values found in the water of some deep wells may correspond to the presence of fine material bodies of carbonaceous material, possible forming pa leo-sediment of flooding or pa leo-soils. It is suggested that these clay horizons are uranyl ion collectors. Uranyl may suffer a reduction process by organic material. Furthermore the groundwater, depending on its ph and Eh, oxidizes and re-dissolves uranium. The hydrogeochemical behavior of San Marcos dam and the N W Valley area is the subject of studies that should help to clarify the origin of the radioactive elements and their relationships with other pollutants in the watershed. (Author)

  15. Radioactive hydrogeochemical processes in the Chihuahua-Sacramento Basin, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burillo, J. C.; Reyes C, M.; Montero C, M. E.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E. F.; Reyes, I.; Espino, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    The Chihuahua Basin is divided by its morphology into three main sub basins: Chihuahua-Sacramento sub basin, Chihuahua Dam sub basin and Chuviscar River sub basin. In the aquifers at the Sacramento sub basin, specific concentrations of uranium in groundwater range from 460 to 1260 Bq / m 3 . The presence of strata and sandy clay lenses with radiometric anomalies in the N W of Chihuahua Valley was confirmed by a litostatigraphic study and gamma spectrometry measurements of drill cuttings. High uranium activity values found in the water of some deep wells may correspond to the presence of fine material bodies of carbonaceous material, possible forming pa leo-sediment of flooding or pa leo-soils. It is suggested that these clay horizons are uranyl ion collectors. Uranyl may suffer a reduction process by organic material. Furthermore the groundwater, depending on its ph and Eh, oxidizes and re-dissolves uranium. The hydrogeochemical behavior of San Marcos dam and the N W Valley area is the subject of studies that should help to clarify the origin of the radioactive elements and their relationships with other pollutants in the watershed. (Author)

  16. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-05-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area

  17. GOM Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Time Series Analysis of Variations in Spilled Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, C. M.; Yan, B.

    2013-12-01

    An estimated amount of 210 million gallons of crude oil was released into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from April 20th to July 15th 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion. The spill caused a tremendous financial, ecological, environmental and health impact and continues to affect the GOM today. Variations in hydrocarbons including alkanes, hopanes and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be analyzed to better understand the oil spill and assist in oil source identification. Twenty-one sediment samples*, two tar ball samples and one surface water oil sample were obtained from distinct locations in the GOM and within varying time frames from May to December 2010. Each sample was extracted through the ASE 200 solvent extractor, concentrated down under nitrogen gas, purified through an alumina column, concentrated down again with nitrogen gas and analyzed via GC X GC-TOF MS. Forty-one different hydrocarbons were quantified in each sample. Various hydrocarbon 'fingerprints,' such as parental :alkylate PAH ratios, high molecular weight PAHs: low molecular weight alkane ratios, and carbon preference index were calculated. The initial objective of this project was to identify the relative hydrocarbon contributions of petrogenic sources and combustion sources. Based on the calculated ratios, it is evident that the sediment core taken in October of 2010 was greatly affected by combustion sources. Following the first month of the spill, oil in the gulf was burned in attempts to contain the spill. Combustion related sources have quicker sedimentation rates, and hydrocarbons from a combustion source essentially move into deeper depths quicker than those from a petrogenic source, as was observed in analyses of the October 2010 sediment. *Of the twenty-one sediment samples prepared, nine were quantified for this project.

  18. Nutrient status and plant growth effects of forest soils in the Basin of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Fenn; V.M. Perea-Estrada; L.I. de Bauer; M. Pérez-Suárez; D.R. Parker; V.M. Cetina-Alcalá

    2006-01-01

    The nutrient status of forest soils in the Mexico City Air Basin was evaluated by observing plant growth responses to fertilization with N, P or both nutrients combined. P deficiency was the most frequent condition for soil from two high pollution sites and N deficiency was greatest at a low N deposition site. Concentrations of Pb and Ni, and to a lesser extent Zn and...

  19. Nutrient status and plant growth effects of forest soils in the Basin of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenn, M.E.; Perea-Estrada, V.M.; Bauer, L.I. de; Perez-Suarez, M.; Parker, D.R.; Cetina-Alcala, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    The nutrient status of forest soils in the Mexico City Air Basin was evaluated by observing plant growth responses to fertilization with N, P or both nutrients combined. P deficiency was the most frequent condition for soil from two high pollution sites and N deficiency was greatest at a low N deposition site. Concentrations of Pb and Ni, and to a lesser extent Zn and Co, were higher at the high pollution sites. However, positive plant growth responses to P and sometimes to N, and results of wheat root elongation bioassays, suggest that heavy metal concentrations were not directly phytotoxic. Further studies are needed to determine if heavy metal toxicity to mycorrhizal symbionts of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.) from high pollution sites may explain the P deficiency and stunted growth. P deficiency is expected to limit the capacity for biotic N retention in N saturated forested watersheds in the Basin of Mexico dominated by Andisols. - Plant response to N deposition may be limited by P limitation in forests growing on Andisol soils in the Basin of Mexico

  20. Nutrient status and plant growth effects of forest soils in the Basin of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenn, M.E. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Fire Laboratory, 4955 Canyon Crest Dr., Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)]. E-mail: mfenn@fs.fed.us; Perea-Estrada, V.M. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Colegio de Postgraduados, CP 56230 Montecillo (Mexico); Bauer, L.I. de [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Colegio de Postgraduados, CP 56230 Montecillo (Mexico)]. E-mail: libauer@colpos.mx; Perez-Suarez, M. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Colegio de Postgraduados, CP 56230 Montecillo (Mexico); Parker, D.R. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)]. E-mail: david.parker@ucr.edu; Cetina-Alcala, V.M. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Colegio de Postgraduados, CP 56230 Montecillo (Mexico)

    2006-03-15

    The nutrient status of forest soils in the Mexico City Air Basin was evaluated by observing plant growth responses to fertilization with N, P or both nutrients combined. P deficiency was the most frequent condition for soil from two high pollution sites and N deficiency was greatest at a low N deposition site. Concentrations of Pb and Ni, and to a lesser extent Zn and Co, were higher at the high pollution sites. However, positive plant growth responses to P and sometimes to N, and results of wheat root elongation bioassays, suggest that heavy metal concentrations were not directly phytotoxic. Further studies are needed to determine if heavy metal toxicity to mycorrhizal symbionts of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.) from high pollution sites may explain the P deficiency and stunted growth. P deficiency is expected to limit the capacity for biotic N retention in N saturated forested watersheds in the Basin of Mexico dominated by Andisols. - Plant response to N deposition may be limited by P limitation in forests growing on Andisol soils in the Basin of Mexico.

  1. A Decision Support System for Demand Management of the Rio Conchos Basin, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S.; Valdes, J.; Gastelum, J.; Brookshire, D.; Aparicio, J.; Hidalgo, J.; Velazco, I.

    2003-12-01

    There is a need for integrated models of transboundary watersheds such as that of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo (RGRB) along the US/Mexico border. We present the first stage an interdisciplinary effort to develop a semi-distributed regional dynamic simulation model (DSM) for examining water issues in the Lower RGRB basin. The RGRB serves as the border between the U.S. and Mexico. We focus first on the Conchos River basin, which contributes approximately 70-80% of the surface flow in the lower RGRB basin. Irrigated agriculture has historically been the major user of water and irrigated acreage continues to expand, but it faces increasing competition from industrial development, maquiladoras, and increasing residential water demand. International agreements such as the Treaty of 1944 between the US and Mexico stipulate that the flows in the RGRB are equally split. Yet uncertainties remain due to vagaries in the legislation. For example, Mexico is required to provide an average of 350,000 AF/yr over a five-year cycle, unless "extraordinary drought" occurs, although the Treaty does not define extraordinary. The characterization of droughts poses a significant problem for hydrometeorologists and water resource engineers. Our simulation model incorporates drought indices developed to characterize droughts in semi-arid and arid regions and statistical approaches to examine the spatial influence of droughts. To examine the effects of various structural and institutional changes to water use in the basin to meet the requirements of the Treaty and simulate climactic issues, we model agricultural, municipal, and industrial water demands that are directly linked to sectors of the regional economy using input output (IO) models. IO models can be used to examine how changes in water deliveries to the agricultural or manufacturing sectors affect the level of output, employment, and wages in the regional economy. All model outputs will be incorporated into a decision support system

  2. Using Apex To Construct CPM-GOMS Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Bonnie; Vera, Alonso; Matessa, Michael; Freed, Michael; Remington, Roger

    2006-01-01

    process for automatically generating computational models of human/computer interactions as well as graphical and textual representations of the models has been built on the conceptual foundation of a method known in the art as CPM-GOMS. This method is so named because it combines (1) the task decomposition of analysis according to an underlying method known in the art as the goals, operators, methods, and selection (GOMS) method with (2) a model of human resource usage at the level of cognitive, perceptual, and motor (CPM) operations. CPM-GOMS models have made accurate predictions about behaviors of skilled computer users in routine tasks, but heretofore, such models have been generated in a tedious, error-prone manual process. In the present process, CPM-GOMS models are generated automatically from a hierarchical task decomposition expressed by use of a computer program, known as Apex, designed previously to be used to model human behavior in complex, dynamic tasks. An inherent capability of Apex for scheduling of resources automates the difficult task of interleaving the cognitive, perceptual, and motor resources that underlie common task operators (e.g., move and click mouse). The user interface of Apex automatically generates Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) charts, which enable modelers to visualize the complex parallel behavior represented by a model. Because interleaving and the generation of displays to aid visualization are automated, it is now feasible to construct arbitrarily long sequences of behaviors. The process was tested by using Apex to create a CPM-GOMS model of a relatively simple human/computer-interaction task and comparing the time predictions of the model and measurements of the times taken by human users in performing the various steps of the task. The task was to withdraw $80 in cash from an automated teller machine (ATM). For the test, a Visual Basic mockup of an ATM was created, with a provision for input from (and measurement

  3. Distance on FDI and Trade: The Roles of China and Mexico in the Pacific Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Yushi Yoshida; Hiro Ito

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the dynamics of the trilateral trade relationship among the U.S., Japan and an emerging economy in the Pacific Basin. Our particular attention is paid to two emerging countries; China and Mexico. In what we call the “triangular trade approach,” we explore how Japanese trade with and foreign direct investment to an emerging economy affect its exports to the US market. We apply the trilateral trade approach to eight Southeast Asian countries, four American continen...

  4. Regional well-log correlation in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.; Shaffer, S.E.

    1985-09-01

    Although well logs provide the most complete record of stratigraphy and structure in the northern Delaware Basin, regional interpretations of these logs generate problems of ambiguous lithologic signatures and on-hole anomalies. Interpretation must therefore be based on log-to-log correlation rather than on inferences from single logs. In this report, logs from 276 wells were used to make stratigraphic picks of Ochoan horizons (the Rustler, Salado, and Castile Formations) in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin. Current log correlation suggests that: (1) the Castile is characterized by lateral thickening and thinning; (2) some Castile thinnings are of Permian age; (3) irregular topography in the Guadalupian Bell Canyon Formation may produce apparent structures in the overlying Ochoan units; and (4) extensive dissolution of the Salado is not apparent in the area of the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) site. 13 refs., 37 figs

  5. Processes in Environmental Depositional Systems and Deformation in Sedimentary Basins: Goals for Exoloration in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Ochoa, J.

    2005-05-01

    Among the recent needs to establish new goals in the mexican energy industry to increase the petroleum reserves, has been necessary to recapitulate on some academic an operative concepts and definitions applied to the Petroliferous Basins Exploration; first of all, in order to understand the Petroleum System in given tectonophysical framework. The tectonophysical environment experienced by the petroliferous basin in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, merely in the Campeche Sound and adjacent terrestrial regions (Figure 1); has been the result of interaction among the tectonic plates, the Coco's Plate with impingement and subduction beneath the Northamerican Plate and the Yucatán Microplate and even in very deep connection with the oceanic crust of southwesternmost portion of the Gulf of Mexico and the one of the Caribbean sea beneath the gulf of Belize-Honduras. The tectonosedimentary effects in the Campeche Bay starting with the skeleton formed for the Cenozoic Era, kept simultaneous conditions in depositions and deformations because of strain, stress and collapse fields, acted through this Era up to the present day, as observed in the surface Aguayo et al, 1999 and Sandoval, 2000. The involved portions of the crust and its boundaries have also been performing the relative sinking of the mere southwestern centre of the Gulf of Mexico, and the rising of the southeastern lands of Mexico. In the middle contiguity are found the productive Tertiary basins of: Comalcalco, Macuspana, Salina del Itsmo, Campeche-Champoton and other in deep waters; all of them, in an arrangement of basins among distensive faulted blocks in echelon, falling down to the deep centre of the Gulf Sandoval, op cit. With this scenario and that ones of other basins, a recapitulation on concepts and definitions, has been made on the regional natural processes of the environmental depositional systems and on the basins analysis in the tectonophysical framework, in order to reflect on the

  6. The Crownpoint and Churchrock uranium deposits, San Juan Basin, New Mexico: An ISL mining perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarn, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    The Crownpoint and Churchrock uranium deposits, San Juan Basin, New Mexico are currently being developed by Uranium Resources, Inc. (URI) and its subsidiary Hydro Resources, Inc. (HRI) with an anticipated start-up in 1998. Both deposits will be developed using advanced in situ leach (ISL) mining techniques. URI/HRI currently has about 14,583 t U (37.834 million pounds U 3 O 8 ) of estimated recoverable reserves at Crownpoint and Churchrock. at a cost less than $39/kg U ($15/lb U 3 O 8 ). The uranium endowment of the San Juan Basin is the largest of any province in the USA. In March, 1997, a Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Crownpoint and Churchrock sites was completed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission which recommends the issuance of an operating license. The FEIS is the culmination of a 9 year effort to license and develop the deposits. The Westwater Canyon Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation is an arkosic, fine to coarse grained sandstone bounded by near basinwide confining clays deposited in a wet alluvial fan environment within the San Juan Basin. The primary, trend-ore deposits are hosted by the Westwater Canyon Member as humate-rich, syngenetic tabular deposits which were subsequently remobilized into roll fronts. Since deposition in the Jurassic, two phases of remobilization have occurred in the basin causing the formation of in situ leach amenable monometallic uranium rolls free of organic debris. Following in situ mining, ground water restoration of the Crownpoint and Churchrock mines is required to provide a water quality consistent with pre-mining baseline conditions. The development of in situ mining offers an environmentally sound and cost-effective method for uranium extraction. URI/HRI anticipates a production of 385-1,156 Tonnes U/year (1-3 million pounds U 3 O 8 ) from the New Mexico properties. (author)

  7. Sedimentary Record of the Back-Arc Basins of South-Central Mexico: an Evolution from Extensional Basin to Carbonate Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Rojas, M. I.; Molina-Garza, R. S.; Lawton, T. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Cretaceous depositional systems of southwestern Oaxaquia, in south-central Mexico, were controlled by tectonic processes related to the instauration of a continental arc and the accretion of the Guerrero arc to mainland Mexico. The Atzompa Formation refers to a succession of conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, and limestone that crop out in southwestern Mexico with Early Cretaceous fauna and detrital zircon maximum depositional ages. The sedimentary record shows a transition from early fluvial/alluvial to shallow marine depositional environments. The first stage corresponds to juvenile fluvial/alluvial setting followed by a deep lacustrine depositional environment, suggesting the early stages of an extensional basin. The second stage is characterized by anabranched deposits of axial fluvial systems flowing to the NE-SE, showing deposition during a period of rapid subsidence. The third and final stage is made of tidal deposits followed, in turn, by abrupt marine flooding of the basin and development of a Barremian-Aptian carbonate ramp. We interpret the Tentzo basin as a response to crustal extension in a back-arc setting, with high rates of sedimentation in the early stages of the basin (3-4 mm/m.y), slower rates during the development of starved fluvial to tidal systems and carbonate ramps, and at the top of the Atzompa Formation an abrupt deepening of the basin due to flexural subsidence related to terrane docking and attendant thrusting to the west. These events were recorded in the back-arc region of a continental convergent margin (Zicapa arc) where syn-sedimentary magmatism is indicated by Early Cretaceous detrital and volcanic clasts from alluvial fan facies west of the basin. Finally, and as a response to the accretion of the Guerrero superterrane to Oaxaquia during the Aptian, a carbonate platform facing toward the Gulf of Mexico was established in central to eastern Oaxaquia.

  8. Geochemistry and hydrodynamics of the Paradox Basin region, Utah, Colorado and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanshaw, B.B.; Hill, G.A.

    1969-01-01

    calcium chloride type water commonly occurring. Because evaporite facies occur in the Paradox Member, this unit has brines with as much as 400,000 mg/l dissolved solids content. Previous analysis of the San Juan Basin has indicated the presence of an osmotic membrane system. The highly permeable Jurassic formations were postulated to be the outflow side of the membrane. It is also possible that the Upper Paleozoic units with known brines and with an otherwise inexplicably high potentiometric surface in the Four Corners area of New Mexico could be the outflow receptors of the San Juan membrane system. ?? 1969.

  9. Three-dimensional geologic model of the southeastern Espanola Basin, Santa Fe County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantea, Michael P.; Hudson, Mark R.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Minor, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This multimedia model and report show and describe digital three-dimensional faulted surfaces and volumes of lithologic units that confine and constrain the basin-fill aquifers within the Espanola Basin of north-central New Mexico. These aquifers are the primary groundwater resource for the cities of Santa Fe and Espanola, six Pueblo nations, and the surrounding areas. The model presented in this report is a synthesis of geologic information that includes (1) aeromagnetic and gravity data and seismic cross sections; (2) lithologic descriptions, interpretations, and geophysical logs from selected drill holes; (3) geologic maps, geologic cross sections, and interpretations; and (4) mapped faults and interpreted faults from geophysical data. Modeled faults individually or collectively affect the continuity of the rocks that contain the basin aquifers; they also help define the form of this rift basin. Structure, trend, and dip data not previously published were added; these structures are derived from interpretations of geophysical information and recent field observations. Where possible, data were compared and validated and reflect the complex relations of structures in this part of the Rio Grande rift. This interactive geologic framework model can be used as a tool to visually explore and study geologic structures within the Espanola Basin, to show the connectivity of geologic units of high and low permeability between and across faults, and to show approximate dips of the lithologic units. The viewing software can be used to display other data and information, such as drill-hole data, within this geologic framework model in three-dimensional space.

  10. Basin-Wide Temperature Constraints On Gas Hydrate Stability In The Gulf Of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Reagan, M. T.; Guinasso, N. L.; Garcia-Pineda, O. G.

    2012-12-01

    Gas hydrate deposits commonly occur at the seafloor-water interface on marine margins. They are especially prevalent in the Gulf of Mexico where they are associated with natural oil seeps. The stability of these deposits is potentially challenged by fluctuations in bottom water temperature, on an annual time-scale, and under the long-term influence of climate change. We mapped the locations of natural oil seeps where shallow gas hydrate deposits are known to occur across the entire Gulf of Mexico basin based on a comprehensive review of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data (~200 images). We prepared a bottom water temperature map based on the archive of CTD casts from the Gulf (~6000 records). Comparing the distribution of gas hydrate deposits with predicted bottom water temperature, we find that a broad area of the upper slope lies above the theoretical stability horizon for structure 1 gas hydrate, while all sites where gas hydrate deposits occur are within the stability horizon for structure 2 gas hydrate. This is consistent with analytical results that structure 2 gas hydrates predominate on the upper slope (Klapp et al., 2010), where bottom water temperatures fluctuate over a 7 to 10 C range (approx. 600 m depth), while pure structure 1 hydrates are found at greater depths (approx. 3000 m). Where higher hydrocarbon gases are available, formation of structure 2 gas hydrate should significantly increase the resistance of shallow gas hydrate deposits to destabilizing effects variable or increasing bottom water temperature. Klapp, S.A., Bohrmann, G., Kuhs, W.F., Murshed, M.M., Pape, T., Klein, H., Techmer, K.S., Heeschen, K.U., and Abegg, F., 2010, Microstructures of structure I and II gas hydrates from the Gulf of Mexico: Marine and Petroleum Geology, v. 27, p. 116-125.Bottom temperature and pressure for Gulf of Mexico gas hydrate outcrops and stability horizons for sI and sII hydrate.

  11. Evaporite dissolution relevant to the WIPP site, northern Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluation of the threat of natural dissolution of host evaporites to the integrity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico has taken into consideration (1) the volume of missing rock salt, (2) the occurrence (or not) of characteristic dissolution brines, (3) geomorphic features, some of which are unrelated to dissolution, and (4) the time intervals over which dissolution may have been active. Even under the assumption that all missing halite was originally present and has been removed by dissolution, there is no evidence of active preferential removal of the lower Salado Formation halite by any geologically reasonable process. The geologic record contains evidence of dissolution in the Triassic and Jurassic; to constrain all removal of basinal halite to the late Cenozoic yields an unrealistically high rate of removal. Application to the lower Salado of a stratabound mechanism known to be active in Nash Draw, a near-surface feature within the Basin, allows a minimum survival time of 2,500,000 years to be predicted for the subsurface facility for storage of radioactive waste at WIPP. This calculation is based on an analysis of all known dissolution features in the Delaware Basin, and takes into account the wetter (pluvial) climate during the past 600,000 years. 2 figures, 1 table

  12. Sequence Stratigraphy of the Dakota Sandstone, Eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and its Relationship to Reservoir Compartmentalization; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varney, Peter J.

    2002-01-01

    This research established the Dakota-outcrop sequence stratigraphy in part of the eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and relates reservoir quality lithologies in depositional sequences to structure and reservoir compartmentalization in the South Lindrith Field area. The result was a predictive tool that will help guide further exploration and development

  13. Sequence Stratigraphy of the Dakota Sandstone, Eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and its Relationship to Reservoir Compartmentalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varney, Peter J.

    2002-04-23

    This research established the Dakota-outcrop sequence stratigraphy in part of the eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and relates reservoir quality lithologies in depositional sequences to structure and reservoir compartmentalization in the South Lindrith Field area. The result was a predictive tool that will help guide further exploration and development.

  14. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Paradox Basin Province, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whidden, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 560 million barrels of undiscovered oil, 12,701 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, and 490 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona.

  15. Hydrate-bearing Submarine Landslides in the Orca Basin, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, D.; Mason, A.; Cook, A.; Portnov, A.; Hillman, J.

    2017-12-01

    The co-occurrence of submarine landslides and hydrate-bearing sediment suggests that hydrates may play a role in landslide triggering and/or the mobility and dynamic characteristics of the submarine landslide. In turn, the removal of large sections of seafloor perturbs the hydrate stability field by removing overburden pressure and disturbing the temperature field. These potential hydrate-landslide feedbacks are not well understood. Here we combine three-dimensional seismic and petrophysical logs to characterize the deposits of submarine landslides that failed from hydrate-bearing sediments in the Orca Basin in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The Orca Basin contains a regionally mappable bottom simulating reflector, hydrate saturations within sands and muds, as well as numerous landslides. In addition, the Orca Basin features a well-known 123 km2 anoxic hypersaline brine pool that is actively being fed by outcropping salt. Lying at the bottom of the brine pool are deposits of submarine landslides. Slope instability in the Orca Basin is likely associated with near-seafloor salt tectonics. The most prominent landslide scar observable on the seafloor has a correlative deposit that now lies at the bottom of the brine pool 11.6 km away. The headwall is amphitheater-shaped with an average height of 80 meters and with only a minor amount of rubble remaining near the headwall. A total of 8.7 km3 of material was removed and deposited between the lower slopes of the basin and the base of the brine pool. Around the perimeter of the landslide headwall, two industry wells were drilled and well logs show elevated resistivity that are likely caused by gas hydrate. The slide deposits have a chaotic seismic facies with large entrained blocks and the headwall area does not retain much original material, which together suggests a relatively mobile style of landslide and therefore may have generated a wave upon impacting the brine pool. Such a slide-induced wave may have sloshed

  16. Geothermal Gradient impact on Induced Seismicity in Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, K.; Ge, S.

    2017-12-01

    Since 1999, Raton Basin, located in southeastern Colorado and northern New Mexico, is the site of wastewater injection for disposing a byproduct of coal bed methane production. During 1999-2016, 29 wastewater injection wells were active in Raton Basin. Induced seismicity began in 2001 and the largest recorded earthquake, an M5.3, occurred in August 2011. Although most injection occurs in the Dakota Formation, the majority of the seismicity has been located in the crystalline basement. Previous studies involving Raton Basin focused on high injection rates and high volume wells to determine their effect on increased pore pressure. However, the geothermal gradient has yet to be studied as a potential catalyst of seismicity. Enhanced Geothermal Systems throughout the world have experienced similar seismicity problems due to water injection. Raton's geothermal gradient, which averages 49± 12°C/km, is much higher then other areas experiencing seismicity. Thermal differences between the hot subsurface and cooler wastewater injection have the potential to affect the strength of the rock and allow for failure. Therefore, we hypothesis that wells in high geothermal gradient areas will produce more frequent earthquakes due to thermal contrast from relatively cold wastewater injection. We model the geothermal gradient in the surrounding areas of the injection sites in Raton Basin to assess potential spatial relationship between high geothermal gradient and earthquakes. Preliminary results show that the fluid pressure increase from injecting cool water is above the threshold of 0.1MPa, which has been shown to induce earthquakes. In addition, temperatures in the subsurface could decrease up to 2°C at approximately 80 m from the injection well, with a temperature effect reaching up to 100 m away from the injection well.

  17. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Leslie

    The text explores Mexico's history, geography, art, religion, and lifestyles in the context of its complex economy. The text focuses on Mexico's economy and reasons for its current situation. Part I of this teaching unit includes: Teacher Overview, Why Study Mexico, Mexico Fact Sheet, Map of Mexico, the Land and Climate, History, Government,…

  18. Definition of Greater Gulf Basin Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous Lower Cenomanian Shale Gas Assessment Unit, United States Gulf of Mexico Basin Onshore and State Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennen, Kristin O.; Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    An assessment unit (AU) for undiscovered continuous “shale” gas in Lower Cretaceous (Aptian and Albian) and basal Upper Cretaceous (lower Cenomanian) rocks in the USA onshore Gulf of Mexico coastal plain recently was defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The AU is part of the Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) of the Gulf of Mexico Basin. Definition of the AU was conducted as part of the 2010 USGS assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in Gulf Coast Mesozoic stratigraphic intervals. The purpose of defining the Greater Gulf Basin Lower Cretaceous Shale Gas AU was to propose a hypothetical AU in the Cretaceous part of the Gulf Coast TPS in which there might be continuous “shale” gas, but the AU was not quantitatively assessed by the USGS in 2010.

  19. Historical Evolution of the Hydrological Functioning of the Old Lake Xochimilco, Southern Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, T.; Ruvalcaba, A.

    2012-12-01

    The lacustrian area of Xochimilco is one of the remnants of the old system of lakes located in the Basin of Mexico. After the Spanish conquest, began a series of actions including hydraulic-works that have changed the original landscape of this region. This region had important springs that for more than 50 years supplied water to the Mexico City. Since 1960, the excessive exploitation of the aquifer and urban growth in the region exhausted the springs. Using historical information we were able to characterize the major phenomena that have substantially changed the hydrogeological functioning of the region, in some more than 100 years. Currently, the exploitation of extraction wells has caused a gradual decrease in their static level and the existing remnant of the old lake is maintained with treated water. Observable effects are presented. The topographic gradient has been modified occurs subsidence and fractures are visible besides a severe reduction in the lake area which has been reduced to 15% of its original extent.

  20. A GOMS model applied to a simplified control panel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, C.; Edwards, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    The design of the user interface for a new system requires many decisions to be considered. To develop sensitivity to user needs requires understanding user behavior. The how-to-do-it knowledge is a mixture of task-related and interface-related components. A conscientious analysis of these components, allows the designer to construct a model in terms of goals, operators, methods, and selection (GOMS model) rules that can be advantageously used in the design process and evaluation of a user interface. The emphasis of the present work is on describing the importance and use of a GOMS model as a formal user interface analysis tool in the development of a simplified panel for the control of a nuclear power plant. At Pennsylvania State University, a highly automated control system with a greatly simplified human interface has been proposed to improve power plant safety. Supervisory control is to be conducted with a simplified control panel with the following functions: startup, shutdown, increase power, decrease power, reset, and scram. Initial programming of the operator interface has been initiated within the framework of a U.S. Department of Energy funded university project for intelligent distributed control. A hypothesis to be tested is that this scheme can be also used to estimate mental work load content and predict human performance

  1. Geomorphic evolution of the San Luis Basin and Rio Grande in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruleman, Chester A.; Machette, Michael; Thompson, Ren A.; Miggins, Dan M; Goehring, Brent M; Paces, James B.

    2016-01-01

    The San Luis Basin encompasses the largest structural and hydrologic basin of the Rio Grande rift. On this field trip, we will examine the timing of transition of the San Luis Basin from hydrologically closed, aggrading subbasins to a continuous fluvial system that eroded the basin, formed the Rio Grande gorge, and ultimately, integrated the Rio Grande from Colorado to the Gulf of Mexico. Waning Pleistocene neotectonic activity and onset of major glacial episodes, in particular Marine Isotope Stages 11–2 (~420–14 ka), induced basin fill, spillover, and erosion of the southern San Luis Basin. The combined use of new geologic mapping, fluvial geomorphology, reinterpreted surficial geology of the Taos Plateau, pedogenic relative dating studies, 3He surface exposure dating of basalts, and U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate supports a sequence of events wherein pluvial Lake Alamosa in the northern San Luis Basin overflowed, and began to drain to the south across the closed Sunshine Valley–Costilla Plain region ≤400 ka. By ~200 ka, erosion had cut through topographic highs at Ute Mountain and the Red River fault zone, and began deep-canyon incision across the southern San Luis Basin. Previous studies indicate that prior to 200 ka, the present Rio Grande terminated into a large bolson complex in the vicinity of El Paso, Texas, and systematic, headward erosional processes had subtly integrated discontinuously connected basins along the eastern flank of the Rio Grande rift and southern Rocky Mountains. We propose that the integration of the entire San Luis Basin into the Rio Grande drainage system (~400–200 ka) was the critical event in the formation of the modern Rio Grande, integrating hinterland basins of the Rio Grande rift from El Paso, Texas, north to the San Luis Basin with the Gulf of Mexico. This event dramatically affected basins southeast of El Paso, Texas, across the Chisos Mountains and southeastern Basin and Range province, including the Rio

  2. Satellite Retrieval of Atmospheric Water Budget over Gulf of Mexico- Caribbean Basin: Seasonal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Santos, Pablo; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study presents results from a multi-satellite/multi-sensor retrieval system designed to obtain the atmospheric water budget over the open ocean. A combination of hourly-sampled monthly datasets derived from the GOES-8 5 Imager and the DMSP 7-channel passive microwave radiometer (SSM/I) have been acquired for the Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean Sea basin. Whereas the methodology is being tested over this basin, the retrieval system is designed for portability to any open-ocean region. Algorithm modules using the different datasets to retrieve individual geophysical parameters needed in the water budget equation are designed in a manner that takes advantage of the high temporal resolution of the GOES-8 measurements, as well as the physical relationships inherent to the SSM/I passive microwave signals in conjunction with water vapor, cloud liquid water, and rainfall. The methodology consists of retrieving the precipitation, surface evaporation, and vapor-cloud water storage terms in the atmospheric water balance equation from satellite techniques, with the water vapor advection term being obtained as the residue needed for balance. Thus, we have sought to develop a purely satellite-based method for obtaining the full set of terms in the atmospheric water budget equation without requiring in situ sounding information on the wind profile. The algorithm is partly validated by first cross-checking all the algorithm components through multiple-algorithm retrieval intercomparisons. More fundamental validation is obtained by directly comparing water vapor transports into the targeted basin diagnosed from the satellite algorithm to those obtained observationally from a network of land-based upper air stations that nearly uniformly surround the basin. Total columnar atmospheric water budget results will be presented for an extended annual cycle consisting of the months of October-97, January-98, April-98, July-98, October-98, and January-1999. These results are used to emphasize

  3. Raton basin assessment of coalbed methane resources. [USA - Colorado and New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S H; Kelso, B S; Lombardi, T E; Coates, J -M [Advanced Research International, Arlington, VA (USA)

    1993-02-01

    Coalbed methane resources of the Raton basin were assessed through an analysis of public and proprietary sources encompassing stratigraphic, structural, hydrologic, coal rank, and gas-content data. Mapping of coal seams within the Vermejo Formation and Raton Formation revealed several net-coal thickness maxima of 80 ft along the synclinal axis of the basin. However, this sizable coal resource is distributed among multiple, thin, laterally discontinuous coal seams; approximately 60 percent of the total coal in the Raton Formation and 50 percent in the Vermejo Formation occur in seams thinner than 4 ft. Coal rank of the basal Vermejo Formation ranges from high-volatile C to low-volatile bituminous, indicating adequate thermal maturity for methane-generation. Coal seam gas contents show considerable scatter, ranging from 4 to 810 CF/T (ash free), and vary more closely with depth below the hydrologic potentiometric surface than with depth below ground level. Exclusive of shallow and intruded coal seams, in-place coalbed methane resources are estimated at 8.4 to 12.1 TCF, with a mean average of 10.2 TCF. The apparent highest concentration of coalbed methane (24 BCF/mi[sup 2]) occurs along the La Veta trough in Colorado in an area that is geologically less well studied. A second maximum of 8 BCF/mi[sup 2] occurs southeast of Vermejo Park in New Mexico. Successful coalbed methane development in the Raton basin will require favourable coal seam geometry, depth, and reservoir properties in addition to sufficient in-place resources. Local fracturing and enhanced permeability may occur along folds, such as the Vermejo anticline, that splay off the Sangre de Cristo thrust belt. 16 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Temporal variations of water and sediment fluxes in the Cointzio river basin, central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvert, C.; Gratiot, N.; Navratil, O.; Esteves, M.; Prat, C.; Nord, G.

    2009-04-01

    The STREAMS program (Sediment TRansport and Erosion Across MountainS) was launched in 2006 to study suspended sediment dynamics in mountainous areas. Two watersheds were selected as part of the program: the Bléone river basin in the French Alps, and the Cointzio river basin (636 km2), located in the mountainous region of Michoacán, in central Mexico. The volcanic soils of the Cointzio catchment undergo important erosion processes, especially during flashflood events. Thus, a high-frequency monitoring of sediment transport is highly required. The poster presents the high-frequency database obtained from the 2008 hydrological season at the Santiago Undameo gauged station, located at the basin's outlet. Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) was estimated every 10 minutes by calibrating turbidity measurements with bottle sampling acquired on a double-daily basis. Water discharge time-series was approximated with continuous water-level measurements (5 minutes time-step), and a stage-discharge rating curve. Our investigation highlights the influence of sampling frequency on annual water and sediment fluxes estimate. A daily or even a weekly water-level measurement provides an unexpectedly reliable assessment of the seasonal water fluxes, with an under-estimation of about 5 % of the total flux. Concerning sediment fluxes, a high-frequency SSC survey appears to be necessary. Acquiring SSC data even twice a day leads to a significant (over 30 %) under-estimation of the seasonal sediment load. These distinct behaviors can be attributed to the fact that sediment transport almost exclusively occurs during brief night flood events, whereas exfiltration on the watershed always provides a base flow during the daily water-level measurements.

  5. Permian salt dissolution, alkaline lake basins, and nuclear-waste storage, Southern High Plains, Texas and New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, C.C. Jr.; Temple, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Areas of Permian salt dissolution associated with 15 large alkaline lake basins on and adjacent to the Southern High Plains of west Texas and eastern New Mexico suggest formation of the basins by collapse of strata over the dissolution cavities. However, data from 6 other alkaline basins reveal no evidence of underlying salt dissolution. Thus, whether the basins were initiated by subsidence over the salt dissolution areas or whether the salt dissolution was caused by infiltration of overlying lake water is conjectural. However, the fact that the lacustrine fill in Mound Lake greatly exceeds the amount of salt dissolution and subsidence of overlying beds indicates that at least Mound Lake basin was antecedent to the salt dissolution. The association of topography, structure, and dissolution in areas well removed from zones of shallow burial emphasizes the susceptibility of Permian salt-bed dissolution throughout the west Texas-eastern New Mexico area. Such evidence, combined with previous studies documenting salt-bed dissolution in areas surrounding a proposed high-level nuclear-waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas, leads to serious questions about the rationale of using salt beds for nuclear-waste storage

  6. Implementation of MAR within the Rio Grande Basin of Central New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Robert; Blandford, T. Neil; Ewing, Amy; Webb, Larry; Yuhas, Katherine

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation has identified the Rio Grande basin within Central New Mexico as one of several regions where water supplies are over-allocated and future conflicts over the inadequate resource are highly likely. Local water providers have consistently identified managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as an important tool to provide conjunctive management of surface-water, groundwater, and reclaimed water sources in order to extend the useful life of existing water sources. However, MAR projects have been slow to take root partly due to rigorous demonstration requirements, groundwater quality protection concerns, and ongoing water right uncertainties. At first glance the several thousand meters of unconsolidated basin-fill sediments hosting the regional aquifer appear to provide an ideal environment for the subsurface storage of surplus water. However, the basin has a complex structural and depositional history that impacts the siting and overall effectiveness of MAR systems. Several recharge projects are now in various stages of implementation and are overcoming site specific challenges including source water and ambient groundwater compatibility, low-permeability sediments and compartmentalization of the aquifer by extensive faulting, well clogging, and overall water quality management. This presentation will highlight ongoing efforts of these water providers to develop full-scale recharge facilities. The performance of natural in-channel infiltration, engineered infiltration galleries, and direct injection systems designed to introduce from 500 to 5,000 mega-liters per annum to target intervals present from 150 to 600 meters below ground surface will be described. Source waters for recharge operations include inter-basin transferred surface water and highly treated reclaimed water sources requiring from minor to extensive treatment pre-recharge and post-recovery. Operational complexities have raised concerns related to long-term operation and maintenance

  7. Biomass production in the Lower Mississippi River Basin: Mitigating associated nutrient and sediment discharge to the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Miae; Zhang, Zhonglong; Wu, May

    2018-04-24

    A watershed model was developed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) that simulates nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment loadings in the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB). The LMRB SWAT model was calibrated and validated using 21 years of observed flow, sediment, and water-quality data. The baseline model results indicate that agricultural lands within the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB) are the dominant sources of nitrogen and phosphorus discharging into the Gulf of Mexico. The model was further used to evaluate the impact of biomass production, in the presence of riparian buffers in the LMRB, on suspended-sediment and nutrient loading discharge from the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico. The interplay among land use, riparian buffers, crop type, land slope, water quality, and hydrology were anlyzed at various scales. Implementing a riparian buffer in the dominant agricultural region within the LMRB could reduce suspended sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus loadings at the regional scale by up to 65%, 38%, and 39%, respectively. Implementation of this land management practice can reduce the suspended-sediment content and improve the water quality of the discharge from the LMRB into the Gulf of Mexico and support the potential production of bioenergy and bio-products within the Mississippi River Basin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Aerosol climatology over the Mexico City basin: Characterization of optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabali, Giovanni; Estévez, Héctor Raúl; Valdés-Barrón, Mauro; Bonifaz-Alfonzo, Roberto; Riveros-Rosas, David; Velasco-Herrera, Víctor Manuel; Vázquez-Gálvez, Felipe Adrián

    2017-09-01

    Climatology of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Single Scattering Albedo (SSA), and aerosol particle-size distribution were analyzed using a 15-year (1999-2014) dataset from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) observations over the Mexico City (MC) basin. The atmosphere over this site is dominated by two main aerosol types, represented by urban/industrial pollution and biomass-burning particles. Due to the specific meteorological conditions within the basin, seasons are usually classified into three as follows: Dry Winter (DW) (November-February); Dry Spring (DS) (March-April), and the RAiny season (RA) (May-October), which are mentioned throughout this article. Using a CIMEL sun photometer, we conducted continuous observations over the MC urban area from January 1999 to December 2014. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (α440-870), Single Scattering Albedo (SSA), and aerosol particle-size distribution were derived from the observational data. The overall mean AOD500 during the 1999-2014 period was 0.34 ± 0.07. The monthly mean AOD reached a maximal value of 0.49 in May and a minimal value of 0.27 in February and March. The average α440-870 value for the period studied was 1.50 ± 0.16. The monthly average of α440-870 reached a minimal value of 1.32 in August and a maximal value of 1.61 in May. Average SSA at 440 nm was 0.89 throughout the observation period, indicating that aerosols over Mexico City are composed mainly of absorptive particles. Concentrations of fine- and coarse-mode aerosols over MC were highest in DS season compared with other seasons, especially for particles with radii measuring between 0.1 and 0.2 μm. Results from the Spectral De-convolution Algorithm (SDA) show that fine-mode aerosols dominated AOD variability in MC. In the final part of this article, we present a classification of aerosols in MC by using the graphical method proposed by Gobbi et al. (2007), which is based on the combined analysis of α and its spectral curvature

  9. Frequency and sources of basin floor turbidites in alfonso basin, Gulf of California, Mexico: Products of slope failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Yajimovich, Oscar E.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Douglas, Robert G.

    2007-07-01

    Alfonso Basin is a small margin basin formed by extensional tectonics in the actively rifting, seismically active Gulf of California. The basin is centered at 24°40' N and 110° 38' W, and is a closed depression (maximum depth 420 m) with an effective sill depth of about 320 m (deepest sill), a width of 20 km and length of 25 km. Basin floor area below a depth of 350 m is about 260 km 2. The climate is arid to semiarid but was wetter during the early (ca. 10,000-7000 Calendar years Before Present [BP]) and middle Holocene (ca. 7000-4000 Cal. Years BP). Basin-wide turbidity currents reach the floor of Alfonso Basin at centennial to millennial intervals. The peninsular drainages tributary to the basin are small and have maximum flood discharges of the order of 10 4m 3. The basin-floor turbidites thicker than 1 cm have volumes of the order of 10 6m 3 to 10 8m 3 and require a much larger source. The largest turbidite seen in our cores is ca. 1 m thick in the central basin floor and was deposited 4900 Calendar Years Before Present (BP). Two smaller major events occurred about 1500 and 2800 Cal. Years BP. Seismicity over the past century of record shows a clustering of larger epicenters along faults forming the eastern Gulf side of Alfonso Basin. In that period there have been four earthquakes with magnitudes above 7.0 but all are distant from the basin. Frequency of such earthquakes in the basin vicinity is probably millennial. It is concluded that the basin-wide turbidites thicker than 1 cm must be generated by slope failures on the eastern side of the basin at roughly millennial intervals. The thin flood turbidites have a peninsular source at centennial frequencies.

  10. A potential integrated water quality strategy for the Mississippi River Basin and the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, S; Faeth, P

    2001-11-22

    Nutrient pollution, now the leading cause of water quality impairment in the U.S., has had significant impact on the nation"s waterways. Excessive nutrient pollution has been linked to habitat loss, fish kills, blooms of toxic algae, and hypoxia (oxygen-depleted water). The hypoxic "dead zone" in the Gulf of Mexico is one of the most striking illustrations of what can happen when too many nutrients from inland watersheds reach coastal areas. Despite programs to improve municipal wastewater treatment facilities, more stringent industrial wastewater requirements, and agricultural programs designed to reduce sediment loads in waterways, water quality and nutrient pollution continues to be a problem, and in many cases has worsened. We undertook a policy analysis to assess how the agricultural community could better reduce its contribution to the dead zone and also to evaluate the synergistic impacts of these policies on other environmental concerns such as climate change. Using a sectorial model of U.S. agriculture, we compared policies including untargeted conservation subsidies, nutrient trading, Conservation Reserve Program extension, agricultural sales of carbon and greenhouse gas credits, and fertilizer reduction. This economic and environmental analysis is watershed-based, primarily focusing on nitrogen in the Mississippi River basin, which allowed us to assess the distribution of nitrogen reduction in streams, environmental co-benefits, and impact on agricultural cash flows within the Mississippi River basin from various options. The model incorporates a number of environmental factors, making it possible to get a more a complete picture of the costs and co-benefits of nutrient reduction. These elements also help to identify the policy options that minimize the costs to farmers and maximize benefits to society.

  11. A Potential Integrated Water Quality Strategy for the Mississippi River Basin and the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzie Greenhalgh

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient pollution, now the leading cause of water quality impairment in the U.S., has had significant impact on the nation’s waterways. Excessive nutrient pollution has been linked to habitat loss, fish kills, blooms of toxic algae, and hypoxia (oxygen-depleted water. The hypoxic “dead zone” in the Gulf of Mexico is one of the most striking illustrations of what can happen when too many nutrients from inland watersheds reach coastal areas. Despite programs to improve municipal wastewater treatment facilities, more stringent industrial wastewater requirements, and agricultural programs designed to reduce sediment loads in waterways, water quality and nutrient pollution continues to be a problem, and in many cases has worsened. We undertook a policy analysis to assess how the agricultural community could better reduce its contribution to the dead zone and also to evaluate the synergistic impacts of these policies on other environmental concerns such as climate change. Using a sectorial model of U.S. agriculture, we compared policies including untargeted conservation subsidies, nutrient trading, Conservation Reserve Program extension, agricultural sales of carbon and greenhouse gas credits, and fertilizer reduction. This economic and environmental analysis is watershed-based, primarily focusing on nitrogen in the Mississippi River basin, which allowed us to assess the distribution of nitrogen reduction in streams, environmental co-benefits, and impact on agricultural cash flows within the Mississippi River basin from various options. The model incorporates a number of environmental factors, making it possible to get a more a complete picture of the costs and co-benefits of nutrient reduction. These elements also help to identify the policy options that minimize the costs to farmers and maximize benefits to society.

  12. Seagrass blue carbon dynamics in the Gulf of Mexico: Stocks, losses from anthropogenic disturbance, and gains through seagrass restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorhaug, Anitra; Poulos, Helen M; López-Portillo, Jorge; Ku, Timothy C W; Berlyn, Graeme P

    2017-12-15

    Seagrasses comprise a substantive North American and Caribbean Sea blue carbon sink. Yet fine-scale estimates of seagrass carbon stocks, fluxes from anthropogenic disturbances, and potential gains in sedimentary carbon from seagrass restoration are lacking for most of the Western Hemisphere. To begin to fill this knowledge gap in the subtropics and tropics, we quantified organic carbon (C org ) stocks, losses, and gains from restorations at 8 previously-disturbed seagrass sites around the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) (n=128 cores). Mean natural seagrass C org stocks were 25.7±6.7MgC org ha -1 around the GoM, while mean C org stocks at adjacent barren sites that had previously hosted seagrass were 17.8MgC org ha -1 . Restored seagrass beds contained a mean of 38.7±13.1MgC org ha -1 . Mean C org losses differed by anthropogenic impact type, but averaged 20.98±7.14MgC org ha -1 . C org gains from seagrass restoration averaged 20.96±8.59Mgha -1 . These results, when combined with the similarity between natural and restored C org content, highlight the potential of seagrass restoration for mitigating seagrass C org losses from prior impact events. Our GoM basin-wide estimates of natural C org totaled ~36.4Tg for the 947,327ha for the USA-GoM. Including Mexico, the total basin contained an estimated 37.2-37.5Tg C org . Regional US-GoM losses totaled 21.69Tg C org . C org losses differed significantly among anthropogenic impacts. Yet, seagrass restoration appears to be an important climate change mitigation strategy that could be implemented elsewhere throughout the tropics and subtropics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A geochemical and hydrological investigation of groundwater recharge in the Roswell basin of New Mexico: summary of results and updated listing of tritium determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, G.W.; Hoy, R.N.

    1980-04-01

    Different approaches were used to study recharge and flow patterns in the Roswell, New Mexico, artesian basin. Isotope determination for tritium, deuterium, and oxygen-18 were made as a function of time and space. Observation well levels, springflow, and precipitation were analyzed by stochastic/numerical approaches. Also, a hydrogeologic survey was made of representative springs in the recharge zone on the basin western flank. An updated listing of tritium activity in precipitation, springs, surface runoff, and subsurface water from over 120 sampling sites in the basin covers 117 pages of the report. Substantial deep leakage contributions from the basin western flank must be included to account for the basin groundwater budget

  14. Geochemical and isotopic determination of deep groundwater contributions and salinity to the shallow groundwater and surface water systems, Mesilla Basin, New Mexico, Texas, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A.; Carroll, K. C.; Kubicki, C.; Purtshert, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Mesilla Basin/Conejos-Médanos aquifer system, extending from southern New Mexico to Chihuahua, Mexico, is a priority transboundary aquifer under the 2006 United States­-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Act. Declining water levels, deteriorating water quality, and increasing groundwater use by municipal, industrial, and agricultural users on both sides of the international border raise concerns about long-term aquifer sustainability. Relative contributions of present-day and "paleo" recharge to sustainable fresh groundwater yields has not been determined and evidence suggests that a large source of salinity at the distal end of the Mesilla Basin is saline discharge from deep groundwater flow. The magnitude and distribution of those deep saline flow paths are not determined. The contribution of deep groundwater to discharge and salinity in the shallow groundwater and surface water of the Mesilla Basin will be determined by collecting discrete groundwater samples and analyzing for aqueous geochemical and isotopic tracers, as well as the radioisotopes of argon and krypton. Analytes include major ions, trace elements, the stable isotopes of water, strontium and boron isotopes, uranium isotopes, the carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon, noble gas concentrations and helium isotope ratios. Dissolved gases are extracted and captured from groundwater wells using membrane contactors in a process known as ultra-trace sampling. Gas samples are analyzed for radioisotope ratios of krypton by the ATTA method and argon by low-level counting. Effectiveness of the ultra-trace sampling device and method was evaluated by comparing results of tritium concentrations to the krypton-85 content. Good agreement between the analyses, especially in samples with undetectable tritium, indicates that the ultra-trace procedure is effective and confirms that introduction of atmospheric air has not occurred. The geochemistry data indicate a complex system of geochemical

  15. AUTOCHTHONOUS BIOFACIES IN THE PLIOCENE LORETO BASIN, BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHELE PIAZZA

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the molluscan and/or echinoid assemblages recovered from two lithostratigraphic units (Piedras Rodadas Sandstone and Arroyo de Arce Norte Sandstone outcropping in the Pliocene Loreto Basin, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Ten biofacies have been identified, i.e. Trachycardium procerum-Trachycardium senticosum Biofacies, Chione compta-Transennella modesta Biofacies, Laevicardium elenense-Chione kelletii Biofacies, Xenophora sp. 1-Strombus subgracilior Biofacies, Crassostrea californica osunai Biofacies, Myrakeena angelica Biofacies, Vermetid-Nodipecten Biofacies, Argopecten abietis abietis Biofacies, Aequipecten dallasi Biofacies and Encope Biofacies. The first four biofacies have been defined on the basis of statistical analyses (cluster analysis, MDS. The other six, which are monospecific or definitely low-diversity, were already identified during field work. The deduced paleoecological bearing of biofacies, largely relying upon the comparison to their closest modern counterparts, provides the basis for the paleoenvironmental reconstruction. The latter also considers sedimentological evidence and is framed within the tectonic and sedimentary context recently proposed by American workers. Biofacies point toward environments differing in terms of substrate texture, presence/absence of vegetal cover, energy level, variously distributed within the low tide mark-40 m bathymetric range. 

  16. Possibilities for converting conventional cattle production to the organic model in the Grijalva River Basin, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nahed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities for converting conventional cattle production to the organic model were evaluated in the Grijalva River Basin, Mexico, and possible interventions were identified. A multi-criteria organic livestock conversion index (OLCI with 10 indicators comprising 35 variables was used. Information was obtained through participatory workshops, direct observation, and interviews to 91 farmers of 11 different communities in the municipalities of Mazapa de Madero (n = 17, Huitiupán (n = 30, and Tacotalpa (n = 44. Results show higher OLCI values in Mazapa (56.8% and Tacotalpa (56.7% than in Huitiupán (49.0%. The production units evaluated show: (i limitations with respect to indicators ecological weed control in pastures and crops, veterinary prevention and treatment, food safety, and ecological management, and (ii strengths to reach the organic standards are: feed management, sustainable pasture management, soil fertilization, ecological pest and disease control in pastures and crops, breeds and reproduction, and animal well-being. In order to revert the future scenario of conventional livestock production and to transition to organic cattle raising, it is necessary to: (1 train and advice farmers regarding ecological production techniques and management, principally with respect to the limitations pointed out, and (2 implement a policy for development of livestock raising with specific functional and structural changes.

  17. The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin in Coahuila, Mexico: An Astrobiological Precambrian Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, Janet L.; Escalante, Ana E.; Elser, James J.; Eguiarte, Luis E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) is a rare oasis in the Chihuahuan Desert in the state of Coahuila, Mexico. It has a biological endemism similar to that of the Galapagos Islands, and its spring-fed ecosystems have very low nutrient content (nitrogen or phosphorous) and are dominated by diverse microbialites. Thus, it has proven to be a distinctive opportunity for the field of astrobiology, as the CCB can be seen as a proxy for an earlier time in Earth's history, in particular the late Precambrian, the biological frontier when prokaryotic life yielded at least partial dominance to eukaryotes and multicellular life. It is a kind of ecological time machine that provides abundant opportunities for collaborative investigations by geochemists, geologists, ecologists, and population biologists in the study of the evolutionary processes that structured Earth-based life, especially in the microbial realm. The CCB is an object of investigation for the identification of biosignatures of past and present biota that can be used in our search for extraterrestrial life. In this review, we summarize CCB research efforts that began with microbial ecology and population biology projects and have since been expanded into broader efforts that involve biogeochemistry, comparative genomics, and assessments of biosignatures. We also propose that, in the future, the CCB is sanctioned as a “Precambrian Park” for astrobiology. Key Words: Microbial mats—Stromatolites—Early Earth—Extremophilic microorganisms—Microbial ecology. Astrobiology 12, 641–647. PMID:22920514

  18. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard; Ronald K. Zimmerman

    2005-05-10

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been data compilation and the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basin modeling and petroleum system identification. In the first nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus was on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories, and during the remainder of the year the emphasis has basin modeling and petroleum system identification. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, regional cross sections have been prepared, structure and isopach maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and related profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary

  19. Geochemical variability of natural soils and reclaimed minespoil soils in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, L.P.; Severson, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    An inventory of total-and extractable-element concentrations in soils was made for three areas of the San Juan Basin in New Mexico: (1) the broad area likely to be affected by energy-related development. (2) an area of soils considered to have potential for use as topsoil in mined-land reclamation. and (3) an area of the San Juan coal mine that has been regraded. topsoiled, and revegetated. Maps made of concentrations of 16 elements in area 1 soils show no gradational pattern across the region. Further. these maps do not correspond to those showing geology or soil types. Sodic or saline problems, and a possible but unproven deficiency of zinc available to plants. may make some of the soils in this area undesirable for use as topsoil in mined-land reclamation. Taxonomic great groups of soil in this area cannot be distinguished because each great group tends to have a large within-group variability if compared to the between-group variability. In area 2 the major soils sampled were of the Sheppard. Shiprock. and Doak association. These soils are quite uniform in chemical composition and are not greatly saline or sodic. As in area 1 soils. zinc deficiency may cause a problem in revegetating most of these soils. It is difficult to distinguish soil taxonomic families by using their respective chemical compositions. because of small between-family variability. Topsoil from a reclaimed area of the San Juan mine (area 3) most closely resembles the chemical composition of natural C horizons of soil from area 1. Spoil material that has not been topsoiled is likely to cause sodic-and saline-related problems in revegetation and may cause boron toxicity in plants. Topsoiling has apparently ameliorated these potential problems for plant growth on mine spoil. Total and extractable concentrations for elements and other parameters for each area of the San Juan Basin provide background information for the evaluation of the chemical quality of soils in each area.

  20. Subsidence of the Laguna Salada Basin, northeastern Baja California, Mexico, inferred from Milankovitch climatic changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Juan; Martin-Barajas, Arturo [Departamento de Geologia, CICESE, Ensenada Baja California (Mexico); Herguera, Juan Carlos [Division de Oceanologia, CICESE, Ensenada Baja California (Mexico)

    2005-01-15

    Laguna Salada in northern Baja California, Mexico, is an active half-graben product of the trans-tensional tectonics of the Gulf of California. It is sensitive to changes in sediment supply from the Colorado River basin. We present a time series analysis of the upper 980 m of a gamma-ray log from a borehole drilled near the Laguna Salada fault. The power spectrum of the gammaray log resembles the spectrum of {delta}{sup 1}8{omicron} Pleistocene isotopic variations from ice cores and from the deep ocean, known to be strongly controlled by Milankovitch cycles. We correlate {delta}{sup 1}8{omicron} stages with silty and sandy intervals in the log. Downcore ages for the last 780 ky are constrained within {approx}10 kyr. We derive a simple time vs. depth calibration relation for the basin over this time interval. Estimated sedimentation rates at the drill site appear to be constant with a value of {approx}1.6 mm/yr. We propose that this subsidence rate is produced by the Laguna Salada fault. [Spanish] La cuenca de Laguna Salada en el norte de Baja California, Mexico, es un semigraben activo producto de la tectonica ranstensional del Golfo de California. Esta cuenca endorreica es sensible a cambios en sedimentacion por variaciones en el aporte e sedimentos de fuentes cercanas y distales transportados por arroyos de las sierras adyacentes y por el Rio Colorado. Esta cuenca es un sitio excepcional para explorar el uso de cambios climaticos ciclicos como herramienta de datacion y estimar tasas de sedimentacion y subsidencia en el area. Para demostrar esto se presenta un analisis de series de tiempo de un registro de rayos de gama de un pozo geotermico exploratorio perforado adyacente a la falla de Laguna Salada, la cual limita el margen oriental de la cuenca. Los resultados del analisis indican que el espectro de los primeros 980 m del registro de rayos gama tiene una alta coherencia con el espectro de registros isotopicos paleoclimaticos de {delta}{sup 1}8{omicron} del

  1. Tocuila Mammoths, Basin of Mexico: Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene stratigraphy and the geological context of the bone accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Silvia; Huddart, David; Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Dominguez-Vazquez, Gabriela; Bischoff, James

    2014-07-01

    We report new stratigraphic, tephrochronology and dating results from the Tocuila Mammoth site in the Basin of Mexico. At the site there is evidence for a thin meteorite airburst layer dated between 10,878 and 10,707 cal BC at the onset of the Younger Dryas (YD) cool period. The Upper Toluca Pumice (UTP) tephra marker, caused by a Plinian eruption of the Nevado de Toluca volcano, dated from 10,666 to 10,612 cal BC, is above that layer. The eruption must have caused widespread environmental disruption in the region with evidence of extensive reworking and channelling by the Lake Texcoco shoreline and contributed to the widespread death and/or extinction of megafaunal populations, as suggested by earlier authors, but the new work reinforces the view that both catastrophic events must have caused large environmental disruption in a short time period of around two hundred years. There is no evidence for megafauna (mammoths, sabre toothed cats, camels, bison, glyptodonts) after the UTP volcanic event and subsequent lahars in the Basin of Mexico. At Tocuila, although there are some in situ tephra markers in nearshore lake sediments, such as the Great Basaltic Ash (GBA) and the UTP Ash, there is evidence of much reworking of several tephra populations in various combinations. The mammoth bone accumulation is reworked in a lahar sequence (volcanic mudflow) derived from several source sediments but associated with the major UTP Plinian eruption. Paleoindian populations were also present in the Basin of Mexico during the YD period, where several Paleoindian skeletons were found associated with the UTP ash deposits, e.g. Metro Man, Chimalhuacan Man and Tlapacoya Man.

  2. Knowledge and Understanding of the Hydrogeology of the Salt Basin in South-Central New Mexico and Future Study Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, G.F.; Chace, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Salt Basin covers about 2,400 square miles of south-central New Mexico and extends across the State line into Texas. As much as 57 million acre-feet of ground water may be stored within the New Mexico part of the Salt Basin of which 15 million acre-feet are potentially potable and recoverable. Recent work suggests that the volume of ground water in storage within the New Mexico portion of the Salt Basin may be substantially greater than 57 million acre-feet. In this report, aquifers contained in the San Andres, Bone Spring, and Victorio Peak Limestones and in the Yeso, Hueco, and Abo Formations are collectively referred to as the carbonate aquifer. Porosity and permeability of the major aquifer are primarily determined by the density and interconnectedness of fractures and karstic solution channels. The spatial variability of these fractures and karstic features leads to a large spatial variability in hydraulic properties in the carbonate aquifer. Ground water generally moves southward away from recharge areas along the northern border of the Salt Basin and generally moves eastward to southeastward away from areas of distributed recharge on the Otero Mesa and the Diablo Plateau. Ground water originating from these recharge areas generally moves toward the central valley. Present day discharge is mostly through ground-water withdrawal for agricultural irrigation. A zone of relatively low hydraulic gradient, corresponding to the location of the Otero Break, extends from near the Sacramento River watershed southward toward Dell City, Texas. Ground water in the carbonate aquifer generally is very hard and has dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 500 to 6,500 milligrams per liter. Substantial variability exists in current estimates of (1) ground-water recharge, (2) natural ground-water discharge, (3) the volume of ground water in storage, (4) the volume of recoverable ground water, (5) the conceptual model of ground-water flow, (6) the distribution of ground

  3. Water quality, discharge, and groundwater levels in the Palomas, Mesilla, and Hueco Basins in New Mexico and Texas from below Caballo Reservoir, New Mexico, to Fort Quitman, Texas, 1889-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, Sarah E.; Matherne, Anne Marie; Thomas, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, compiled data from various sources to develop a dataset that can be used to conduct an assessment of the total dissolved solids in surface water and groundwater of the Palomas, Mesilla, and Hueco Basins in New Mexico and Texas, from below Caballo Reservoir, N. Mex., to Fort Quitman, Tex. Data include continuous surface-water discharge records at various locations on the Rio Grande; surface-water-quality data for the Rio Grande collected at selected locations in the Palomas, Mesilla, and Hueco Basins; groundwater levels and groundwater-quality data collected from selected wells in the Palomas and Mesilla Basins; and data from several seepage investigations conducted on the Rio Grande and selected drains in the Mesilla Basin.

  4. Use of brackish ground water resources for regional energy center development, Tularosa Basin, New Mexico: preliminary evaluation. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an impact and suitability profile for the use of the Tularosa Basin in south-central New Mexico as the potential location of an energy center. Underyling the Tularosa Basin is an aquifer system containing perhaps 40 million acre-feet of fresh and slightly saline (1-3 g/l) water that is theoretically recoverable and could be used for cooling and other energy-related or industrial purposes, particularly if energy development projects in other areas of the state and region are delayed, impeded, or cancelled because of uncertain availability or accessibility of water. This preliminary investigation of the Tularosa Basin reveals no outstanding features that would discourage further detailed analysis and planning for an energy complex. A major program of exploratory drilling, well logging, and testing is needed to determine aquifer characteristics and factors affecting well design. Since industrial development in the basin will necessarily involve Federal, state, and private lands, any serious plan will require collaboration of Federal, state, and local authorities

  5. Water resources during drought conditions and postfire water quality in the upper Rio Hondo Basin, Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2010-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherson, Lauren R.; Rice, Steven E.

    2015-07-16

    Stakeholders and water-resource managers in Lincoln County, New Mexico, have had long-standing concerns over the impact of population growth and groundwater withdrawals. These concerns have been exacerbated in recent years by extreme drought conditions and two major wildfires in the upper Rio Hondo Basin, located in south-central New Mexico. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Lincoln County, initiated a study in 2006 to assess and characterize water resources in the upper Rio Hondo Basin. Data collected during water years 2010–13 are presented and interpreted in this report. All data presented in this report are described in water years unless stated otherwise.

  6. Hydrogeology of the Cliff House Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Conde R.; Levings, G.W.; Craigg, S.D.; Dam, W.L.; Kernodle, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. Previous reports in the series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Point Lookout Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1990), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), and Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990) in the San Juan structural basin. The purposes of the RASA (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams; and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Cliff House Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the study or were derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's data base, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN data base. Although all data available for the Cliff House Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin is in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah and has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic or younger age and, therefore, is less extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary sedimentary rocks are emphasized in this study because the major aquifers in the basin are present in these rocks. The study area is about 140 miles wide (about the same as the

  7. Hydrogeology of the Point Lookout Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigg, Steven D.; Dam, W.L.; Kernodle, J.M.; Thorn, C.R.; Levings, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. Previous reports in the series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990), and Cliff House Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990), in the San Juan structural basin. The purposes of the RASA (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams; and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Point Lookout Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the study or were derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's database, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN data base. Although all data available for the Point Lookout Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin is in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah and has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic or younger age and, therefore, is less areally extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary sedimentary rocks are emphasized in this study because the major aquifers in the basin are present in these rocks. The study area is about 140 miles wide (about the same as the

  8. Deposition and diagenesis of the Brushy Basin Member and upper part of the Westwater Canyon member of the Morrison Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Brushy Basin Member and the upper part of the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation in northwest New Mexico are nonmarine sedimentary rocks of Late Jurassic age. This stratigraphic interval consists of as many as four lithofacies deposited in fluvial and playa-lake environments. Lithofacies A is composed of crossbed feldspathic sandstone and was deposited by braided streams on an alluvial plain. Lithofacies B is composed of crossbedded feldspathic sandstone and tuffaceous mudstone, and was deposited by braided and anastomosing streams at the distal end of the alluvial plain. Lithofacies C is composed of calcareous, tuffaceous mudstone and was deposited on a mudflat between the alluvial plain and a playa lake. Lithofacies D is composed of zeolitic, tuffaceous mudstone and was deposited in a playa lake. The distribution of diagenetic facies in mudstones and tuffs in the Brushy Basin Member and upper part of the Westwater Canyon Member reflects the pH and salinity gradients common to fluvial/playa-lake systems. The abundant vitric ash in the sediments reacted to form montmorillonite in the fluvial facies. Calcite and montmorillonite were the reaction products where the fluvial and outermost playa facies met. Vitric ash reacted to form clinoptilolite and heulandite along the playa margins. In the center of the playa facies, analcime replaced clinoptilolite, an early zeolite. These early diagenetic minerals were replaced by albite, quartz, and mixed-layer illitemontmorillonite where the Brushy Basin Member and upper part of the Westwater Canyon Member have been deeply buried in the San Juan basin

  9. Insuring Water Sustainability for Resource Extraction in the New Mexico Permian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, T. S.; Schuhen, M. D.; Lofton, O. W.; Walker, L. T. N.; Johnson, P. B.; Land, L. A.; Herrell, D.

    2017-12-01

    Advancements in directional drilling and well completion technologies have resulted in an exponential growth in the use of hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas extraction. Within the New Mexico portion of the Permian Basin (see figure), water demand to complete each hydraulically fractured well is estimated to average 7.3 acre-feet (2.4 million gallons), which has resulted in an increase in the regional water demand of over 5000 acre-feet per year. The rise in demand along with proposed rule changes that govern the regulation and management of hydraulic fracturing on Federal and Indian lands (40 CFS 3160) has created concern as to the regions ability to meet the demand in a manner that can sustainably meet the needs of the variety of water users and other stakeholders in the region while also protecting human health and the environment. Funded by the Bureau of Land Management who is charged with managing the regions water resources on Federal lands, this project is addressing those concerns using a multi-disciplinary approach that synthesizes data collection, field verification, and system dynamics (SD) modeling to better understand the dynamics of the regional water supply and demand under different management, policy, and growth scenarios. The scientific challenge has been in bringing together disparate data in a manner that exposes the temporal and spatial dynamics of the regional water supply in the context of increasing demands and changing policy and management scenarios. Field verification and testing activities are used to evaluate existing borehole data to insure that the data are accurate and up to date. The SD model simulates forecasted increases in drilling activity and water demand relative to each water source to identify areas that are most vulnerable and to estimate risk to water sustainability. Key to this is the models ability to seamlessly handle uncertainty such that it produces probabilistic outputs that allow decision makers to explore and

  10. A multi-tracer approach to delineate groundwater dynamics in the Rio Actopan Basin, Veracruz State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Quezadas, Juan; Heilweil, Victor M.; Cortés Silva, Alejandra; Araguas, Luis; Salas Ortega, María del Rocío

    2016-12-01

    Geochemistry and environmental tracers were used to understand groundwater resources, recharge processes, and potential sources of contamination in the Rio Actopan Basin, Veracruz State, Mexico. Total dissolved solids are lower in wells and springs located in the basin uplands compared with those closer to the coast, likely associated with rock/water interaction. Geochemical results also indicate some saltwater intrusion near the coast and increased nitrate near urban centers. Stable isotopes show that precipitation is the source of recharge to the groundwater system. Interestingly, some high-elevation springs are more isotopically enriched than average annual precipitation at higher elevations, indicating preferential recharge during the drier but cooler winter months when evapotranspiration is reduced. In contrast, groundwater below 1,200 m elevation is more isotopically depleted than average precipitation, indicating recharge occurring at much higher elevation than the sampling site. Relatively cool recharge temperatures, derived from noble gas measurements at four sites (11-20 °C), also suggest higher elevation recharge. Environmental tracers indicate that groundwater residence time in the basin ranges from 12,000 years to modern. While this large range shows varying groundwater flowpaths and travel times, ages using different tracer methods (14C, 3H/3He, CFCs) were generally consistent. Comparing multiple tracers such as CFC-12 with CFC-113 indicates piston-flow to some discharge points, yet binary mixing of young and older groundwater at other points. In summary, groundwater within the Rio Actopan Basin watershed is relatively young (Holocene) and the majority of recharge occurs in the basin uplands and moves towards the coast.

  11. Salt anticlines in the Castile-Salado evaporite sequence, northern Delaware Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.Y.; Powers, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Anticlines are more common around basin margin but are present in basin-center areas. Both Halite I and Halite II may have flowed but Halite I was movement more extensive. Depressions associated with anticlines may be due to either flowage or subsequent dissolution. Association with brine flows is common. Anticline probably was formed with mid-Cenozoic uplift and tilting of basin and with adjustments around reef margin

  12. Geology and total petroleum systems of the Paradox Basin, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whidden, Katherine J.; Lillis, Paul G.; Anna, Lawrence O.; Pearson, Krystal M.; Dubiel, Russell F.

    2014-01-01

    The geological model for the development of the Total Petroleum Systems (TPSs) within the Paradox Basin formed the foundation of the recent U.S. Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources in the basin. Five TPSs were defined, of which three have known production and two are hypothetical. These TPSs are based on geologic elements of the basin and the potential development of Precambrian, Devonian, Pennsylvanian, Permian-Mississippian, and Cretaceous source rock intervals.

  13. Hydrogeology of the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, William L.; Kernodle, J.M.; Thorn, C.R.; Levings, G.W.; Craigg, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. The purposes of the study (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams, and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. Previous reports in this series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Point Lookout Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1990), Kirtland Shale and Fruitland Formation (Kernodle and others, 1990), Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990), Cliff House Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990), and Ojo Alamo Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990) in the San Juan structural basin. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the RASA study or derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's data base, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN database. Although all data available for the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic and younger age; therefore, the study area is less extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary

  14. Timing of the Cenozoic basins of Southern Mexico and its relationship with the Pacific truncation process: Subduction erosion or detachment of the Chortís block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Romo, Gilberto; Mendoza-Rosales, Claudia Cristina; Campos-Madrigal, Emiliano; Hernández-Marmolejo, Yoalli Bianii; de la Rosa-Mora, Orestes Antonio; de la Torre-González, Alam Israel; Bonifacio-Serralde, Carlos; López-García, Nallely; Nápoles-Valenzuela, Juan Ivan

    2018-04-01

    In the central sector of the Sierra Madre del Sur in Southern Mexico, between approximately 36 and 16 Ma ago and in the west to east direction, a diachronic process of the formation of ∼north-south trending fault-bounded basins occurred. No tectono-sedimentary event in the period between 25 and 20 Ma is recognized in the study region. A period during which subduction erosion truncated the continental crust of southern Mexico has been proposed. The chronology, geometry and style of the formation of the Eocene Miocene fault-bounded basins are more congruent with crustal truncation by the detachment of the Chortís block, thus bringing into question the crustal truncation hypothesis of the Southern Mexico margin. Between Taxco and Tehuacán, using seven new Laser Ablation- Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb ages in magmatic zircons, we refine the stratigraphy of the Tepenene, Tehuitzingo, Atzumba and Tepelmeme basins. The analyzed basins present similar tectono-sedimentary evolutions as follows: Stage 1, depocenter formation and filling by clastic rocks accumulated as alluvial fans and Stage 2, lacustrine sedimentation characterized by calcareous and/or evaporite beds. Based on our results, we propose the following hypothesis: in Southern Mexico, during Eocene-Miocene times, the diachronic formation of fault-bounded basins with general north-south trend occurred within the framework of the convergence between the plates of North and South America, and once the Chortís block had slipped towards the east, the basins formed in the cortical crust were recently left behind. On the other hand, the beginning of the basins' formation process related to left strike slip faults during Eocene-Oligocene times can be associated with the thermomechanical maturation cortical process that caused the brittle/ductile transition level in the continental crust to shallow.

  15. Regional Specialization. The Middle Americas: Mexico, Panama, Central America and the Caribbean Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owen, Mark H; Inman, Kenneth A

    1997-01-01

    .... Generally viewed as lagging in efforts to develop stable governments and self-sustaining economies, Mexico, Central America to include Panama and the Caribbean, henceforth Middle America, have in the...

  16. Numerical Modeling Study of the Gulf of Mexico Basin: Skill Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirwan, A

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the results of an assessment of a three dimensional primitive equation model simulation of the Gulf of Mexico, using surface drifter observations collected as part of the Sculp program...

  17. Abiquiu Dam and Reservoir, Rio Grande Basin, Rio Chama, New Mexico. Embankment Criteria and Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    EMBANKMENT CRITERIA AND PERFORMANCE REPORT PERTINENT DATA 1. General Data. LOCATION: Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, on the Rio Chama at river mile 33. PURPOSE...is located across the Rio Chama, approximately 30 miles upstream from its confluence with the Rio Grande, in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. The dam is...6600- 4 i ’. 6600 65060- -60 6600- a + v6500s-go FA**v~w -6500 6300- 60 - ~ ~ ~ wo Ala filll------------------ EMBNKEN SECTION62 *LDN WOR SAFEL VAIE

  18. Changes without changes: the Puebla's Alto Atoyac sub-basin case in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Casiano Flores, Cesar Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Since the year 2000, actions at the three governmental levels have taken place to improve water quality in Mexico’s Puebla Alto Atoyac sub-basin. This paper reports a situation in which several policy actors have been striving for water quality improvement in that polluted sub-basin. However, when

  19. Provenance of the lower Miocene of the Gulf of Mexico from detrital zircon double dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    xu, J.

    2013-12-01

    The lower Miocene interval of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has recently gained increasing attention from oil and gas industry due to its hydrocarbon potential below the salt canopy. However, it has been less well studied than both the underlying Oligocene and overlying middle Miocene strata. The lower Miocene worldwide is a transitional period of tectonic, climatic, and oceanographic change. In particular, it is a period of major tectonic reorganization in the western interior of North America (Rocky Mountains), involving a shift from the Oligocene thermal phase, with abundant volcanic activity recorded in the thick Frio/Vicksburg succession of the GOM, to the Miocene Basin-Range extensional phase. Climatic conditions also changed from a relatively arid Oligocene to wetter Miocene, resulting in increased sediment yields from exhumed tectonic structures. Previous provenance studies used proportions of quartz, feldspar and lithic fragments and consideration of likely river courses through known paleogeomorphological elements. Only limited detrital zircon (DZ) U-Pb studies on Paleocene strata have been undertaken and there has been no previous U-Pb and (U-Th)/He double dating in the GOM. In this study we apply the latest analytical approaches, such as DZ U-Pb dating to gain robust source terranes ages and more fully elucidate the complex sediment provenance and dispersal history of GOM. We also employ DZ (U-Th)/He (ZHe) dating, combined with DZ U-Pb, to not only define sedimentary provenance but also the exhumation histories of detrital source regions. Samples of lower Miocene outcrop exposures in Texas and Louisiana have been collected to discriminate the varied tectonic and drainage system changes across the basin in lateral. In addition, samples from the Eocene, Oligocene and middle Miocene have been obtained to reveal vertical shift of source terranes contributions. Our initial age data show detrital zircons of lower Miocene sediments come from a wide range of source

  20. Use of System Thinking Software for Determining Climate Change Impacts in Water Balance for the Rio Yaqui Basin, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, E. M.; Minjarez, J. I.; Espinoza, I. G.; Sosa, C. M.

    2013-05-01

    Climate change in Northwestern Mexico and its hydrological impact on water balance, water scarcity and flooding events, has become a matter of increasing concern over the past several decades due to the region's semiarid conditions. Changes in temperature, precipitation, and sea level will affect agriculture, farming, and aquaculture, in addition to compromising the quality of water resources for human consumption. According to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007), Global Circulation Models (GCMs) can provide reliable estimations of future climate conditions in addition to atmospheric processes that cause them, based on different input scenarios such as A2 (higher emission of greenhouse gases) and B1 (lower emission of GHG), among others. However, GCM`s resolution results to coarse in regions which have high space and time climate variability. To remediate this, several methods based on dynamical, statistical and empirical analysis have been proposed for downcaling. In this study, we evaluate possible changes in precipitation and temperature for the "Rio Yaqui Basin" in Sonora, Mexico and assess the impact of such changes on runoff, evapotranspiration and aquifer recharge for the 2010-2099 period of time. For this purpose, we analyzed the results of a Bias Corrected and Downscaled Climate Projection from the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) multi-model dataset: UKMO-HADCM3 from the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction. Northwest Mexico is under the influence of the North American Monsoon (NAM), a system affecting the states of Sinaloa and Sonora where the precipitation regimes change drastically during the summer months of June, July and August. It is associated to the sharp variations of topography, precipitation and temperature regimes in the region, so the importance of analyzing the downscaled climate projections. The Rio Yaqui Basin is one of

  1. 77 FR 34405 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Geophysical Survey, SEA M09- Planning Area of the 013. Gulf of Mexico. Energy Resource Technology GOM, South... Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... documents prepared for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region SUMMARY: BOEM, in accordance...

  2. Preliminary study of favorability for uranium of the Sangre de Cristo Formation in the Las Vegas basin, northeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.T.; Strand, J.R.; Reid, B.E.; Phillips, W.R.

    1977-12-01

    Uranium favorability of the Sangre de Cristo Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) in the Las Vegas basin has been evaluated. The Las Vegas basin project area, located in Colfax, Mora, and San Miguel Counties, New Mexico, comprises about 3,489 sq mi. The formation contains sedimentologic and stratigraphic characteristics that are considered favorable for uranium deposition. Field investigations consisted of section measuring, rock sampling, and ground radiometric reconnaissance. North-south and east-west cross sections of the basin were prepared from well logs and measured sections. Petrographic, chemical, and spectrographic analyses were conducted on selected samples. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic information were used to determine depositional environments. The most favorable potential host rocks include red to pink, coarse-grained, poorly sorted, feldspathic to arkosic lenticular sandstones with stacked sandstone thicknesses of more than 20 ft and sandstone-to-shale ratios between 1:1 and 2:1. The sandstone is interbedded with mudstone and contains carbonaceous debris and anomalous concentrations of uranium locally. Areas of maximum favorability are found in a braided-stream, alluvial-plain depositional environment in the north-central part of the Las Vegas basin. There, carbonaceous material is well preserved, probably due to rapid subsidence and burial. Furthermore, uranium favorability is highest in the lower half of the formation because carbonaceous wood and plant fragments, as well as known uranium deposits, are concentrated in this zone. Piedmont deposits in the north and east, and meander-belt, alluvial-plain deposits in the south, are not considered favorable because of the paucity of uranium deposits and a minimum of carbonaceous material

  3. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2005-04-15

    The principal research effort for the first six months of Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization. Understanding the burial and thermal maturation histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in petroleum system characterization. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicate that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was the Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa shale was an effective local petroleum source rock in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and a possible local source bed in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Reservoir rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary siliciclastic and carbonate strata. Seal rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary anhydrite and shale beds. Petroleum traps include structural and combination traps.

  4. Seismic Characterization of the Terrebonne Mini-basin, a Hydrate Rich Depositional System in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafov, L. N.; Eze, P. C.; Haines, S. S.; Graham, S. A.; McHargue, T.; Hosford Scheirer, A.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gas bearing hydrates are a focus of research as a potential source of energy and carbon storage because they occur globally in permafrost regions and marine sediment along every continent. This study focuses on the structural and stratigraphic architecture of the Terrebonne mini-basin, northwest Walker Ridge, Gulf of Mexico, to characterize the depositional architecture and to describe possible migration pathways for petroleum. Questions addressed include: a) continuity of sand layers b) effects of faulting and c) ponding versus fill and spill. To address these questions, seven of forty-two high resolution USGS 2D seismic lines were interpreted and then verified with WesternGeco 3D seismic data, yielding three qualitative models for the depositional environment of hydrate-bearing sand intervals. Deeper hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs were deposited as sheet-like turbidite lobes. Two shallower hydrate-bearing intervals display two possible depositional systems which form reservoirs- 1) sandy to muddy channel sealed laterally by muddy levees with associated sandy crevasse splays, and 2) ponded sandy lobes cut by channels filled with sand lags and mud. Additional observations in the 2D seismic include mass transport deposits and possible contourites. Salt movement facilitated mini-basin formation which was then ponded by sediment and followed by episodes of fill-and-spill and erosion. These seismic interpretations indicate periodic salt uplift. Overturn of salt along the northwestern edge of the basin resulted in thrust faults. The faults and erosional surfaces act as seals to reservoirs. The greatest volume of sandy reservoir potential occurs in sheet-like turbidite lobes with high lateral continuity, which facilitates updip migration of deep-sourced thermogenic gas along bedding surfaces. Channel levees serve as lateral seals to gas hydrate reservoirs, whereas faults, erosional surfaces, and shales provide vertical seals. Characterization of the Terrebonne

  5. Connecting the Mississippi River with Carbon Variability in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Z. G.; He, R.; Fennel, K.; Cai, W. J.; Lohrenz, S. E.; Huang, W. J.; Tian, H.; Ren, W.

    2016-02-01

    To understand the linkage between landuse/land-cover change within the Mississippi basin and the carbon dynamics in the Gulf of Mexico, a three-dimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical model was used to the examine temporal and spatial variability of surface ocean pCO2 in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). The model is driven by realistic atmospheric forcing, open boundary conditions from a data-assimilative global ocean circulation model, and freshwater and terrestrial nutrient and carbon input from major rivers provided by the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM). A seven-year model hindcast (2004-2010) was performed and was validated against the recently updated Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory global ocean carbon dataset. Model simulated seawater pCO2 and air-sea CO2 flux are in good agreement with in-situ measurements. An inorganic carbon budget was estimated based on the multi-year mean of the model results. Overall, the GoM is a sink of atmospheric CO2 with a flux of 0.92 × 1012 mol C yr-1, which, together with the enormous fluvial carbon input, is balanced by carbon export through the Loop Current. In a sensitivity experiment with all biological sources and sinks of carbon disabled surface pCO2 was elevated by 70 ppm, suggesting that biological uptake is the most important reason for the simulated CO2 sink. The impact from landuse and land-cover changes within the Mississippi River basin on coastal pCO2 dynamics is also discussed based on a scenario run driven by river conditions during the 1904-1910 provided by the DLEM model.

  6. Sedimentologic and Geometric Characterization of Turbidites of Brazos-Trinity Basin IV in the Gulf of Mexico: Preliminary Results of IODP Expedition 308

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Pastor, J.; Pirmez, C.; Flemings, P. B.; Behrmann, J. H.; John, C. M.

    2005-12-01

    Brazos Trinity Basin IV is located about 200 km offshore Texas, and belongs to a linked system of four intra slope mini basins. Basin IV provides a type section to characterize turbidites in salt withdrawal mini-basins of the Gulf of Mexico. IODP Expedition 308 has cored and logged complete pre-fan and fan sequences that are clearly distinguished with high-resolution seismic profiles at Brazos Trinity Basin IV at Sites U1319, U1320 and U1321. Seismically imaged pre-fan and fan units also can be distinguished and correlated with the sedimentological and logging data. Turbidite facies display distinct properties in terms of grain size, bed thickness, color, organic matter content, vertical organization of beds and lateral distribution in all the units of the fan through the basin. The pre-fan sequence is composed of terrigenous laminated clay with color banding and it is interpreted to result from deposition from fluvial plumes and/or muddy turbidity currents overspilling from basins upstream of Basin IV. The lower fan is characterized by laminated and bioturbated muds with thin beds of silt and sand, and represent the initial infill of the basin by mostly muddy turbidity currents, although an exceptionally sand-rich unit occurs at the base of the lower fan. The middle and upper fan represent the main pulses of turbidity current influx into Basin IV, and contain fine to medium sand turbidite beds organized in packets ranging in thickness from 5 to 25 m. The middle fan displays an overall upward increase in sand content at Site U1320, suggesting increased flow by-pass from the updip basins through time. Key examples of turbidites from each fan unit are analysed in detail to infer the depositional processes and infilling history of Brazos-Trinity Basin IV. The study of turbidites in a calibrated basin such as Basin IV provides ground truth for the sedimentological processes and resultant seismic facies, which can be used to interpret the infill history of other

  7. Direct U-Pb dating of Cretaceous and Paleocene dinosaur bones, San Juan Basin, New Mexico: COMMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Alan E.; Lucas, Spencer G.; Neymark, Leonid A.; Heckert, Andrew B.; Sullivan, Robert M.; Jasinski, Steven E.; Fowler, Denver W.

    2012-01-01

    Based on U-Pb dating of two dinosaur bones from the San Juan Basin of New Mexico (United States), Fassett et al. (2011) claim to provide the first successful direct dating of fossil bones and to establish the presence of Paleocene dinosaurs. Fassett et al. ignore previously published work that directly questions their stratigraphic interpretations (Lucas et al., 2009), and fail to provide sufficient descriptions of instrumental, geochronological, and statistical treatments of the data to allow evaluation of the potentially complex diagenetic and recrystallization history of bone. These shortcomings lead us to question the validity of the U-Pb dates published by Fassett et al. and their conclusions regarding the existence of Paleocene dinosaurs.

  8. State policies and requirements for management of uranium mining and milling in New Mexico. Volume II. Water availability in the San Juan Structural Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandevender, S.G.

    1980-04-01

    This volume contains Two parts: Part One is an analysis of an issue paper prepared by the office of the New Mexico State Engineer on water availability for uranium production. Part Two is the issue paper itself. The State Engineer's report raises the issue of a scarce water supply in the San Juan Structural Basin acting as a constraint on the growth of the uranium mining and milling industry in New Mexico. The water issue in the structural basin is becoming an acute policy issue because of the uranium industry's importance to and rapid growth within the structural basin. Its growth places heavy demands on the region's scarce water supply. The impact of mine dewatering on water supply is of particular concern. Much of the groundwater has been appropriated or applied for. The State Engineer is currently basing water rights decisions upon data which he believes to be inadequate to determine water quality and availability in the basin. He, along with the USGS and the State Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, recommends a well drilling program to acquire the additional information about the groundwater characteristics of the basin. The information would be used to provide input data for a computer model, which is used as one of the bases for decisions concerning water rights and water use in the basin. The recommendation is that the appropriate DOE office enter into discussions with the New Mexico State Engineer to explore the potential mutual benefits of a well drilling program to determine the water availability in the San Juan Structural Basin

  9. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations.

  10. Using GOMS and NASA-TLX to Evaluate Human-Computer Interaction Process in Interactive Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramkumar, A.; Stappers, P.J.; Niessen, W.J.; Adebahr, S; Schimek-Jasch, T; Nestle, U; Song, Y.

    2016-01-01

    HCI plays an important role in interactive medical image segmentation. The Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection rules (GOMS) model and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire are different methods that are often used to evaluate the HCI

  11. Rapid subsidence and stacked Gilbert-type fan deltas, Pliocene Loreto basin, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Umhoefer, Paul J.; Renne, Paul R.

    1995-08-01

    Pliocene nonmarine to marine sedimentary rocks exposed in the Loreto basin, Baja California Sur, provide a record of syntectonic subsidence and sedimentation in a transform-rift basin that developed along the western margin of the Gulf of California. A thick sequence of twelve Gilbert-type fan deltas, having a total measured thickness of about 615 m, accumulated near the fault-bounded southwestern margin of this basin. Based on stratal geometries and lithofacies associations, sedimentary rocks are divided into Gilbert-delta topset, foreset and bottomset strata, shell beds and background shallow-marine shelf deposits. Topset strata of each Gilbert-type delta cycle are capped by laterally persistent molluscan shell beds containing diverse assemblages of bivalves, pectens, oysters, gastropods and echinoids. These shell beds are interpreted to be condensed intervals that record sediment starvation during abandonment of the fan-delta plain. Delta abandonment may have been caused by large episodic faulting events, which submerged each pre-existing fan-delta plain, substantially slowed detrital input by drowning of alluvial feeder channels, and created new accommodation space for each new Gilbert-type fan delta. Alternatively, it is possible that delta-plain abandonment was caused by upstream avulsions and autocyclic lateral switching of fan-delta lobes during relatively uniform rates of slip along the basin-bounding fault. Two contrasting, plausible basin models are proposed for the Loreto basin: (1) asymmetric subsidence along a high-angle oblique-slip normal fault, producing a classic half-graben basin geometry with vertically stacked Gilbert-type fan deltas; or (2) lateral stacking and horizontal displacement of strata away from a relatively fixed depocenter due to fault movement in the releasing bend of a listric strike-slip fault. We favor the first model because field relations and simple geometric constraints suggest that most of the total measured section

  12. Assessment of land use and land cover change in Tecolutla River Basin, Veracruz, Mexico; during the period 1994-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karen Osuna-Osuna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to changes in vegetation and land use cover have gained importance in environmental research, as they allow for the assessment of time-space trends in deforestation and environmental degradation processes, especially as caused by human activity. In this context, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of human activity in the basin of the Tecolutla River, in Veracruz, Mexico during a 16-year period. Landsat satellite images were used for the years 1994 and 2010, distinguishing nine land use coverage classes: rainforest, forest, agricultural land, water, disturbed vegetation, urban settlements, grasslands, citrus crops and shrubs. Thematic maps were validated, yielding overall accuracies greater than 92% and Kappa coefficients of 0.89 and 0.91 for the 1994 and 2010 classifications, respectively. Analysis of the transition matrix revealed a trend of increasing areas related to human activity (agriculture and urban use showing percentage changes of 28% and 67% within 16 years, respectively. Consequently, a decrease (-1.1% per year in areas with natural cover, specifically forest and jungle, was observed. Similar findings were reported in works done at national and state levels, where the transition of natural cover by the increasing of anthropogenic activities has been proven. The results of this study are useful for future environmental development planning, land management planning and planning strategies for the conservation of the natural resources in the basin.

  13. Geology and stratigraphy of the San Lorenzo Tezonco deep well and its correlation to surrounding ranges, Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Layer, P. W.; Morales-Casique, E.; Benowitz, J.

    2014-12-01

    The San Lorenzo Tezonco deep well stratigraphy records intense episodic volcanic activity in the Mexico Basin and surroundings during the past 20 Ma. The 2008-m deep lithological column is dominated by volcanic material, either as lava flows or pyroclastic deposits (97%), and only the upper most 70 m are composed of lacustrine deposits (3%). Based on geochronology and geochemistry, the lower part of the drill core is represented by rocks correlating to the Tepoztlán Formation (876-2008 m deep) that vary in composition from basaltic-andesite to rhyolite, and ages ranging from 13 to 21.2 Ma. On the surface this formation outcrops near the towns of Malinalco and Tepoztlán, ~43 km south of the deep well. Between depths of 581 and 875 m, volcanic rocks were recovered and are interpreted as lavas from the Sierra de las Cruces that vary in composition from andesite to dacite and range in age from 0.9 Ma to 5 Ma. Additionally, we documented rocks belonging to the Xochitepec Formation, outcropping around Xochimilco, in the Mexico City, with ages ranging from 1.2 and 1.7 Ma, in contrast with the Oligocene age proposed in previous works for these rocks. These new ages plus the chemical composition data, allow us to correlate the Xochitepec rocks with Sierra de las Cruces. Upward in the drill core (510-580 m) there are andesitic rocks that correlate with the 0.25 Ma Cerro de la Estrella volcanic center. The last volcanic package found in the well is correlated to the Santa Catarina basaltic andesites (70-120 m) that are younger than 0.25 Ma, and probably Holocene. Lacustrine deposits crown the stratigraphic column of the drill core with ages probably younger than 34 ka. The San Lorenzo Tezonco well is in a graben-like structure that was filled with more than 1900 m of volcanic products, suggesting that volcanism were intense in the Miocene to the Recent, and the south drainage of the Mexico Basin was closed probably in the early Pleistocene.

  14. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2005-10-28

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization and modeling. Understanding the burial, thermal maturation, and hydrocarbon expulsion histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in hydrocarbon resource assessment. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and initial thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicated that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The initial modeling also indicated that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Refined thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling and additional petroleum source rock analysis have confirmed that the major source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early to Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary.

  15. Hydrogeology, water resources, and water budget of the upper Rio Hondo Basin, Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, Michael J.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Rattray, Gordon W.; Durall, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    The upper Rio Hondo Basin occupies a drainage area of 585 square miles in south-central New Mexico and comprises three general hydrogeologic terranes: the higher elevation “Mountain Block,” the “Central Basin” piedmont area, and the lower elevation “Hondo Slope.” As many as 12 hydrostratigraphic units serve as aquifers locally and form a continuous aquifer on the regional scale. Streams and aquifers in the basin are closely interconnected, with numerous gaining and losing stream reaches across the study area. In general, the aquifers are characterized by low storage capacity and respond to short-term and long-term variations in recharge with marked water-level fluctuations on short (days to months) and long (decadal) time scales. Droughts and local groundwater withdrawals have caused marked water-table declines in some areas, whereas periodically heavy monsoons and snowmelt events have rapidly recharged aquifers in some areas. A regional-scale conceptual water budget was developed for the study area in order to gain a basic understanding of the magnitude of the various components of input, output, and change in storage. The primary input is watershed yield from the Mountain Block terrane, supplying about 38,200 to 42,300 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr) to the basin, as estimated by comparing the residual of precipitation and evapotranspiration with local streamgage data. Streamflow from the basin averaged about 21,200 acre-ft/yr, and groundwater output left the basin at an estimated 2,300 to 5,700 acre-ft/yr. The other major output (about 13,500 acre-ft/yr) was by public water supply, private water supply, livestock, commercial and industrial uses, and the Bonito Pipeline. The residual in the water budget, the difference between the totals of the input and output terms or the potential change in storage, ranged from -2,200 acre-ft/yr to +5,300 acre-ft/yr. There is a high degree of variability in precipitation and consequently in the water supply; small

  16. Monthly-Diurnal Water Budget Variability Over Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean Sea Basin from Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E. A.; Santos, P.

    2006-01-01

    This study presents results from a multi-satellite/multi-sensor retrieval system design d to obtain the atmospheric water budget over the open ocean. A combination of hourly-sampled monthly datasets derived from the GOES-8 5-channel Imager, the TRMM TMI radiometer, and the DMSP 7-channel passive microwave radiometers (SSM/I) have been acquired for the combined Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean Sea basin. Whereas the methodology has been tested over this basin, the retrieval system is designed for portability to any open-ocean region. Algorithm modules using the different datasets to retrieve individual geophysical parameters needed in the water budget equation are designed in a manner that takes advantage of the high temporal resolution of the GOES-8 measurements, as well as the physical relationships inherent to the TRMM and SSM/I passive microwave measurements in conjunction with water vapor, cloud liquid water, and rainfall. The methodology consists of retrieving the precipitation, surface evaporation, and vapor-cloud water storage terms in the atmospheric water balance equation from satellite techniques, with the water vapor advection term being obtained as the residue needed for balance. Thus, the intent is to develop a purely satellite-based method for obtaining the full set of terms in the atmospheric water budget equation without requiring in situ sounding information on the wind profile. The algorithm is validated by cross-checking all the algorithm components through multiple-algorithm retrieval intercomparisons. A further check on the validation is obtained by directly comparing water vapor transports into the targeted basin diagnosed from the satellite algorithms to those obtained observationally from a network of land-based upper air stations that nearly uniformly surround the basin, although it is fair to say that these checks are more effective in identifying problems in estimating vapor transports from a "leaky" operational radiosonde network than in

  17. Use of GOES, SSM/I, TRMM Satellite Measurements Estimating Water Budget Variations in Gulf of Mexico - Caribbean Sea Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    This study presents results from a multi-satellite/multi-sensor retrieval system designed to obtain the atmospheric water budget over the open ocean. A combination of 3ourly-sampled monthly datasets derived from the GOES-8 5-channel Imager, the TRMM TMI radiometer, and the DMSP 7-channel passive microwave radiometers (SSM/I) have been acquired for the combined Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean Sea basin. Whereas the methodology has been tested over this basin, the retrieval system is designed for portability to any open-ocean region. Algorithm modules using the different datasets to retrieve individual geophysical parameters needed in the water budget equation are designed in a manner that takes advantage of the high temporal resolution of the GOES-8 measurements, as well as the physical relationships inherent to the TRMM and SSM/I passive microwave measurements in conjunction with water vapor, cloud liquid water, and rainfall. The methodology consists of retrieving the precipitation, surface evaporation, and vapor-cloud water storage terms in the atmospheric water balance equation from satellite techniques, with the water vapor advection term being obtained as the residue needed for balance. Thus, the intent is to develop a purely satellite-based method for obtaining the full set of terms in the atmospheric water budget equation without requiring in situ sounding information on the wind profile. The algorithm is validated by cross-checking all the algorithm components through multiple- algorithm retrieval intercomparisons. A further check on the validation is obtained by directly comparing water vapor transports into the targeted basin diagnosed from the satellite algorithms to those obtained observationally from a network of land-based upper air stations that nearly uniformly surround the basin, although it is fair to say that these checks are more effective m identifying problems in estimating vapor transports from a leaky operational radiosonde network than in verifying

  18. Magnetotelluric data collected near geophysically logged boreholes in the Espa?ola and Middle Rio Grande basins, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jackie M.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2006-01-01

    The Santa Fe region is growing rapidly. The Santa Fe Group aquifer in the Espa?ola Basin is the main source of municipal water for the region, and water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region's ground-water resources. An important issue in managing the ground-water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Tertiary Santa Fe Group. The Santa Fe Group includes the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift and contain the principal ground-water aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the Espa?ola Basin in northern New Mexico. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, electromagnetic surveys, and hydrologic, lithologic, and hydro-geochemical data are being used to better understand the aquifer systems. Magnetotelluric (MT) surveys were completed as part of these studies. The primary purpose of the MT surveys was to map changes in electrical resistivity with depth that are related to differences in various rock types that help control the properties of aquifers in the region. Resistivity modeling of the MT data can be used to investigate buried structures related to the basic geologic framework of the study area. The purpose of this report is to release MT sounding data collected near geophysically logged boreholes in the study area, including the nearby Middle Rio Grande Basin. This MT data can be used in subsequent resistivity modeling. No interpretation of the data is included in this report.

  19. Radioactivity in the environment; a case study of the Puerco and Little Colorado River basins, Arizona and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirt, Laurie

    1994-01-01

    This report, written for the nontechnical reader, summarizes the results of a study from 1988-91 of the occurrence and transport of selected radionuclides and other chemical constituents in the Puerco and Little Colorado River basins, Arizona and New Mexico. More than two decades of uranium mining and the 1979 failure of an earthen dam containing mine tailings released high levels of radionuclides and other chemical constituents to the Puerco River, a tributary of the Little Colorado River. Releases caused public concern that ground water and streamflow downstream from mining were contaminated. Study findings show which radioactive elements are present, how these elements are distributed between water and sediment in the environment, how concentrations of radioactive elements vary naturally within basins, and how levels of radioactivity have changed since the end of mining. Although levels of radioactive elements and other trace elements measured in streamflow commonly exceed drinking-water standards, no evidence was found to indicate that the high concentrations were still related to uraniurn mining. Sediment radioactivity was higher at sample sites on streams that drain the eastern part of the Little Colorado River basin than that of samples from the western part. Radioactivity of suspended sediment measured in this study, therefore, represents natural conditions for the streams sampled rather than an effect of mining. Because ground water beneath the Puerco River channel is shallow, the aquifer is vulnerable to contamination. A narrow zone of ground water beneath the Puerco River containing elevated uranium concentrations was identified during the study. The highest concentrations were nearest the mines and in samples collected in the first few feet beneath the streambed. Natuxal radiation levels in a few areas of the underlying sedimentary aquifer not connected to the Puerco River also exceeded water quality standards. Water testing would enable those residents

  20. Radioactivity in the environment: a case study of the Puerco and Little Colorado River Basins, Arizona and New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirt, L.

    1994-01-01

    This report, written for the nontechnical reader, summarizes the results of a study from 1988-91 of the occurrence and transport of selected radionuclides and other chemical constituents in the Puerco and Little Colorado River basins, Arizona and New Mexico. More than two decades of uranium mining and the 1979 failure of an earthen dam containing mine tailings released high levels of radionuclides and other chemical constituents to the Puerco River, a tributary of the Little Colorado River. Releases caused public concern that ground water and streamflow downstream from mining were contaminated. Study findings show which radioactive elements are present, how these elements are distributed between water and sediment in the environment, how concentrations of radioactive elements vary naturally within basins, and how levels of radioactivity have changed since the end of mining. Although levels of radioactive elements and other trace elements measured in streamflow commonly exceed drinking-water standards, no evidence was found to indicate that the high concentrations were still related to uraniurn mining. Sediment radioactivity was higher at sample sites on streams that drain the eastern part of the Little Colorado River basin than that of samples from the western part. Radioactivity of suspended sediment measured in this study, therefore, represents natural conditions for the streams sampled rather than an effect of mining. Because ground water beneath the Puerco River channel is shallow, the aquifer is vulnerable to contamination. A narrow zone of ground water beneath the Puerco River containing elevated uranium concentrations was identified during the study. The highest concentrations were nearest the mines and in samples collected in the first few feet beneath the streambed. Natuxal radiation levels in a few areas of the underlying sedimentary aquifer not connected to the Puerco River also exceeded water quality standards. Water testing would enable those residents

  1. 4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder v5 Seasonal and Annual Day-Night Sea Surface Temperature Climatologies for 1982-2009 for the Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0072888)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains a set of sea surface temperature climatologies for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), derived from the AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5 sea surface...

  2. Evolution of the east-central San Jose del Cabo basin, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTeague, M. S.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Schwennicke, T.; Ingle, J. C.; Cortes Martinez, M.

    2006-12-01

    The San Jose del Cabo basin at the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula records the early tectonic evolution of the west side of the Gulf of California. This study focused on the east central margin of the basin. The basal La Calera Formation unconformably overlies Cretaceous granite and consists of conglomerate, pebbly sandstone and conglomerate, and sandstone deposited in alluvial fans and fan-deltas. Deposition of the La Calera Formation was from ca. 9-14 Ma. The lower member of the Trinidad Formation was deposited beginning ca. 9-13 Ma and consists of sandstone, mudstone, and shelly mudstone deposited in nearshore and estuarine environments. These age estimates are based on sedimentation rates and foraminifera and coccoliths from the NN 11A nannozone (7.4 8.6 Ma, GTS 2004). The middle member of the Trinidad Formation consists of deeper water mudstones deposited by turbidity currents and suspension settling in a shelf to slope and conglomerates deposited by submarine debris flows on the shelf. The basin began earlier than previously thought. The oldest marine rocks are ca.9-13 Ma, while sedimentation on the east side began at ca. 9-14 Ma, synchronous with estimates of initiation of offset on the San Jose del Cabo fault. The Zapote fault is a down-to-the-east normal and sinistral-oblique fault that exposes a wedge of granite and older strata in the footwall to the west. The fault was active during sedimentation in the late Miocene and possibly later. The fault divides the study area into an eastern hanging wall subbasin and western footwall subbasin. The eastern subbasin formed an embayment in the eastern margin of the Cabo basin. A regional flooding surface (ca. 8 Ma) can be correlated across the fault that marks a major marine incursion. Depositional systems evolved rapidly from coarse-grained terrestrial systems to fine-grained marine and estuarine systems. The Cabo basin provides an excellent analogue for comparison with offshore basins, which are

  3. Oblique transfer of extensional strain between basins of the middle Rio Grande rift, New Mexico: Fault kinematic and paleostress constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Scott A.; Hudson, Mark R.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Thompson, Ren A.

    2013-01-01

    The structural geometry of transfer and accommodation zones that relay strain between extensional domains in rifted crust has been addressed in many studies over the past 30 years. However, details of the kinematics of deformation and related stress changes within these zones have received relatively little attention. In this study we conduct the first-ever systematic, multi-basin fault-slip measurement campaign within the late Cenozoic Rio Grande rift of northern New Mexico to address the mechanisms and causes of extensional strain transfer associated with a broad accommodation zone. Numerous (562) kinematic measurements were collected at fault exposures within and adjacent to the NE-trending Santo Domingo Basin accommodation zone, or relay, which structurally links the N-trending, right-stepping en echelon Albuquerque and Española rift basins. The following observations are made based on these fault measurements and paleostresses computed from them. (1) Compared to the typical northerly striking normal to normal-oblique faults in the rift basins to the north and south, normal-oblique faults are broadly distributed within two merging, NE-trending zones on the northwest and southeast sides of the Santo Domingo Basin. (2) Faults in these zones have greater dispersion of rake values and fault strikes, greater dextral strike-slip components over a wide northerly strike range, and small to moderate clockwise deflections of their tips. (3) Relative-age relations among fault surfaces and slickenlines used to compute reduced stress tensors suggest that far-field, ~E-W–trending σ3 stress trajectories were perturbed 45° to 90° clockwise into NW to N trends within the Santo Domingo zones. (4) Fault-stratigraphic age relations constrain the stress perturbations to the later stages of rifting, possibly as late as 2.7–1.1 Ma. Our fault observations and previous paleomagnetic evidence of post–2.7 Ma counterclockwise vertical-axis rotations are consistent with increased

  4. Temporal variability of chlorophyll distribution in the Gulf of Mexico: bio-optical data from profiling floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqueron de Fommervault, Orens; Perez-Brunius, Paula; Damien, Pierre; Camacho-Ibar, Victor F.; Sheinbaum, Julio

    2017-12-01

    Chlorophyll concentration is a key oceanic biogeochemical variable. In the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), its distribution, which is mainly obtained from satellite surface observations and scarce in situ experiments, is still poorly understood. In 2011-2012, eight profiling floats equipped with biogeochemical sensors were deployed for the first time in the GOM and generated an unprecedented dataset that significantly increased the number of chlorophyll vertical distribution measurements in the region. The analysis of these data, once calibrated, permits us to reconsider the spatial and temporal variability of the chlorophyll concentration in the water column. At a seasonal scale, results confirm the surface signal seen by satellites, presenting maximum concentrations in winter and low values in summer. It is shown that the deepening of the mixed layer is the primary factor triggering the chlorophyll surface increase in winter. In the GOM, a possible interpretation is that this surface increase corresponds to a biomass increase. However, the present dataset suggests that the basin-scale climatological surface increase in chlorophyll content results from a vertical redistribution of subsurface chlorophyll and/or photoacclimation processes, rather than a net increase of biomass. One plausible explanation for this is the decoupling between the mixed-layer depth and the deep nutrient reservoir since mixed-layer depth only reaches the nitracline in sporadic events in the observations. Float measurements also provide evidence that the depth and the magnitude of the deep chlorophyll maximum is strongly controlled by the mesoscale variability, with higher chlorophyll biomass generally observed in cyclones rather than anticyclones.

  5. Effects of reducing nutrient loads to surface waters within the Mississippi River Basin and the Gulf of Mexico: Topic 4 Report for the Integrated Assessment on Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Brezonik, Patrick L.; Bierman, Jr., Victor J.; Alexander , Richard; Anderson, James; Barko, John; Dortch, Mark; Hatch, Lorin; Hitchcock , Gary L.; Keeney, Dennis; Mulla, David; Smith, Val; Walker, Clive; Whitledge, Terry; Wiseman, Jr., William J.

    1999-01-01

    The overall goal of this assessment was to evaluate the effects of nutrient-source reductions that may be implemented in the Mississippi River Basin (MRB) to reduce the problem of low oxygen conditions (hypoxia) in the nearshore Gulf of Mexico. Such source reductions would affect the quality of surface waters—streams, rivers, and reservoirs—in the drainage basin itself, as well as nearshore Gulf waters. The task group’s work was divided into addressing the effects of nutrient-source reduction...

  6. Capturing the waters: the hydraulic mission in the Lerma-Chapala Basin, Mexico (1876-1976)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, P.

    2009-01-01

    The hydraulic mission of the Mexican federal government, embodied in its hydraulic bureaucracy (hydrocracy), led to the centralization of water development and the creation of water overexploitation in the Lerma-Chapala Basin between 1876 and 1976. In the late nineteenth century, the federal

  7. Deep-seated salt dissolution in the Delaware basin, Texas and New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Patterns of salt dissolution in the Delaware Basin are related to the bedrock geometry and hydrology that developed following uplift, tilting, and erosion in the late Cenozoic, and the greatest volume of salt has been removed since that time. During the Permian, some salt was dissolved from the top of the Castile Formation before deposition of the Salado Formation and from the top of the Salado before deposition of the Rustler Formation. In addition, some salt dissolution occurred after the Permian and before the Cretaceous. Post-uplift surface dissolution has progressed across the Delaware Basin from south to north and west to east and generally down the regional dip. Deep-seated dissolution has occurred around the margin of the basin where the Capitan Limestone aquifer is in contact with the Permian evaporites and within the basin where selective dissolution in the lower Salado has undercut the overlying salt beds of the middle and upper Salado. Dissolution has not advanced down regional dip uniformly but has left outliers of salt and has progressed selectively into structurally predisposed areas. This selective advance has significance for the stability of the U.S. Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site

  8. Sedimentary history and economic geology of San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.A.; LeLeit, A.J.; Spencer, C.W.; Ullrich, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The San Juan Basin contains up to 15,000 ft of sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Cambrian to Recent. The earliest development of the area as a sedimentary basin or trough apparently took place in Pennsylvanian time, and the basin was maintained, with changing rates of subsidence and filling, through the remainder of geologic time. During the Early Paleozoic, sedimentation was dominated by marine transgressions across the northwestern flank of the regional Transcontinental Arch. The Late Paleozoic history was strongly influenced by tectonism related to development of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains Uplifts and associated downwarping. The Early Mesozoic is characterized by fluvial and eolian environments, interrupted periodically by thin marine transgressive deposits of nearshore redbeds. The final Mesozoic event was the widespread Late Cretaceous marine transgression which deposited a thick cyclic sequence of marine gray shale and sandstone, with interbedded coal. Late Tertiary regional uplift and resulting volcanism were accompanied by a regional dissection of the area by stream systems that evolved into the present drainage pattern of superposed streams. The sedimentary history is directly related to the occurrence of economic deposits in the basin. Major reserves of petroleum and gas are in Cretaceous and Pennsylvanian rocks, coal in Cretaceous, and uranium in Jurassic and Cretaceous. Abstract only

  9. Bacterial sulfate reduction in hydrothermal sediments of the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, Mexico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, A.; Jørgensen, BB

    2002-01-01

    Depth distribution and temperature dependence of bacterial sulfate reduction were studied in hydrothermal surface sediments of the southern trough of the Guaymas Basin at 2000 m water depth. In situ temperatures ranged from 2.8 degreesC at the sediment surface to > 130degreesC at 30 cm depth in t...

  10. Reducing nitrogen export from the corn belt to the Gulf of Mexico: agricultural strategies for remediating hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Eileen; Robertson, Dale M.; Schilling, Keith; Tomer, Mark; Kostel, Jill; Smith, Douglas G.; King, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    SPAtially Referenced Regression on Watershed models developed for the Upper Midwest were used to help evaluate the nitrogen-load reductions likely to be achieved by a variety of agricultural conservation practices in the Upper Mississippi-Ohio River Basin (UMORB) and to compare these reductions to the 45% nitrogen-load reduction proposed to remediate hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Our results indicate that nitrogen-management practices (improved fertilizer management and cover crops) fall short of achieving this goal, even if adopted on all cropland in the region. The goal of a 45% decrease in loads to the GoM can only be achieved through the coupling of nitrogen-management practices with innovative nitrogen-removal practices such as tile-drainage treatment wetlands, drainage–ditch enhancements, stream-channel restoration, and floodplain reconnection. Combining nitrogen-management practices with nitrogen-removal practices can dramatically reduce nutrient export from agricultural landscapes while minimizing impacts to agricultural production. With this approach, it may be possible to meet the 45% nutrient reduction goal while converting less than 1% of cropland in the UMORB to nitrogen-removal practices. Conservationists, policy makers, and agricultural producers seeking a workable strategy to reduce nitrogen export from the Corn Belt will need to consider a combination of nitrogen-management practices at the field scale and diverse nitrogen-removal practices at the landscape scale.

  11. The risk of supply of Surface/groundwater in the Laja River Basin in the State of Guanajuato, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanmei; Knappett, Peter; Giardino, John Rick; Horacio Hernandez, Jesus; Aviles, Manuel; Rodriguez, Rodrigo Mauricio; Deng, Chao

    2016-04-01

    Water supply in Laja River Basin, located in an arid, semi-arid area of Central Mexico, is dependent primarily on groundwater. Although multiple users depend on this groundwater, the majority of the groundwater is used for commercial irrigation. The water table is swiftly being lowered, as the result of a rapidly growing population, expanding industries and increased commercial agriculture production in the State of Guanajuato. The average historic drawdown rate, measured in various wells across the aquifer, is ~1 m/yr; some wells approach 4 m/yr. Hydraulic heads are lower in wells in the central, low-lying areas of the basin, near the main branch of Laja River, than in wells located along the outer edges of the basin. The resulting water depth ranges from 70-130 m in most of the area. As wells are drilled deeper, at increased costs, to access the falling groundwater table, toxic levels of fluoride (F) and arsenic (As) are being reported for these wells. These increases in toxicity are possibly caused by induced upwelling of deeper groundwater. Based on analysis of the water, we suggest that the groundwater is fresh and suggest that the reservoir rock is not very reactive or the groundwater is young. Unfortunately, F and As were found to exceed Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) in several wells. Concentrations of F and As were correlated to Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) suggesting a mixing with older, deeper groundwater. Mapping of the watershed and channel geomorphology indicates that the Laja River tends to be gravel bedded in some locations and sand-bedded in other locations with highly erodible banks. At multiple sample locations, as many as four terraces were present, suggesting an actively down-cutting channel. Geophysical measurements suggest the river is well connected to the alluvial aquifer. Thus, prior to intensive pumping in the 1950's the Laja River may have been recharged by aquifers. Whereas the discharge in the Laja River is decreasing yearly, a

  12. Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes the key energy data for Mexico: 1 - energy organizations and policy: Ministry of energy (SENER), Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), Ministry of Finances, Ministry of trade and industrial development (SECOFI), national commission for energy savings (CONAE); 2 - companies: federal commission of electricity (CFE), Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido (MICARE - coal), Pemex (petroleum); 3 - energy production: resources, electric power, petroleum, natural gas; 4 - energy consumption; 5 - stakes and perspectives. Some economic and energy indicators are summarized in a series of tables: general indicators, supply indicators (reserves, refining and electric capacity, energy production, foreign trade), demand indicators (consumption trends, end use, energy independence, energy efficiency, CO 2 emissions), energy status per year and per energy source. (J.S.)

  13. Shallow Miocene basaltic magma reservoirs in the Bahia de Los Angeles basin, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Argote, Luis A.; García-Abdeslem, Juan

    1999-01-01

    The basement in the Bahía de Los Angeles basin consists of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks and Cretaceous granitoids. The Neogene stratigraphy overlying the basement is formed, from the base to the top, by andesitic lava flows and plugs, sandstone and conglomeratic horizons, and Miocene pyroclastic flow units and basaltic flows. Basaltic dikes also intrude the whole section. To further define its structure, a detailed gravimetric survey was conducted across the basin about 1 km north of the Sierra Las Flores. In spite of the rough and lineal topography along the foothills of the Sierra La Libertad, we found no evidence for large-scale faulting. Gravity data indicates that the basin has a maximum depth of 120 m in the Valle Las Tinajas and averages 75 m along the gravimetric profile. High density bodies below the northern part of the Sierra Las Flores and Valle Las Tinajas are interpreted to be part of basaltic dikes. The intrusive body located north of the Sierra Las Flores is 2.5 km wide and its top is about 500 m deep. The lava flows of the top of the Sierra Las Flores, together with the distribution of basaltic activity north of this sierra, suggests that this intrusive body continues for 20 km along a NNW-trending strike. Between the sierras Las Flores and Las Animas, a 0.5-km-wide, 300-m-thick intrusive body is interpreted at a depth of about 100 m. This dike could be part of the basaltic activity of the Cerro Las Tinajas and the small mounds along the foothills of western Sierra Las Animas. The observed local normal faulting in the basin is inferred to be mostly associated with the emplacement of the shallow magma reservoirs below Las Flores and Las Tinajas.

  14. Assessment of hydric balance through climatic variables, in the Cazones River Basin, Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Santillán Gutiérrez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The hydrologic regime and the water catchment capacity of a hydrographic basin depend on the temporal and spatial variation patterns of climatic variables and on the physiographic characteristics of the watershed. In certain regions, where the availability of water depends on the catchment capacity of the watershed, the utilization of effective methods such as the hydric balance has become more frequently used because it enables an estimate of the hydrologic regime, the catchment capacity, and the water flows. It also enables an estimate of the hydrologic processes and the period in which they occurred. In the present work, assessments of the Climatic Hydric Balance (CHB and of potential evapotranspiration were performed in the Cazones river basin. The calculations followed the Thornthwaite and Mather method based on climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation during the period from 1981 to 2010. As a result of these assessments, it was found that the excess layer of water and the annual runoff were 638.63 mm and 637.02 mm, respectively. Further, the work identified the months that comprise the humid and dry periods, the regime of the climatic variables, and surpluses and deficits of water in the basin during an annual cycle.

  15. Evolution of the Sedimentary Basin Within the Eastern Eez Polygon at the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, S.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.; Bandy, W. L.; Escobar-Briones, E. G.; Perez, D. A.

    2013-05-01

    This study shows the seafloor structures and magnetic anomalies inside the eastern EEZ polygon at the Gulf of Mexico. The objective of this study is to examine the previous hypothesis of the Gulf of Mexico opening, based on the seafloor magnetic character. Researchers from the "Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología" at UNAM, collected , multibeam bathymetric data, high-resolution seismic reflection and magnetic profiles along 37 E-W transects during two campaigns on board the UNAM vessel, BO JUSTO SIERRA, SIGSBEE-11 in 2008 and SIGSBEE-13 in 2010. Results of the bathymetry data gathered with the EM300 multibeam echo sounder (Kongsberg) and processed with the software Caraibes from IFREMER has generated a bathymetry chart of seafloor at the Eastern Polygon, and a mosaic of back-scattering images. The high-resolution seismic profiles gathered with the subbottom profiler TOPAS PS-18 (Kongsberg) provide information on the stratigraphy sediment packages across this polygon and across the deep Mississippi Canyon. The magnetic anomalies are reduced from the data gathered with a proton-precession magnetometer, G877 (GEOMETRICS). The anomalies are modeled, based on a N_S rift at the Gulf central sector. The bathymetric chart and reflectivity mosaics of SIGSBEE-11 and SIGSBEE-13 documented the smooth relief of the seabed slope toward the Gulf central sector and abrupt morphological features associated to the meanders of the Mississippi Canyon that trend to the East. The multibeam bathymetry chart shows a relief depth that goes from 2,900 to 3,400 m from north to south. Meanders are observed in the seabed within the Eastern Polygon which is related to turbidity currents from the Mississippi River, and having a trend from west to east. The relief of the canyon shows channels with widths between 400 and 1800 m, and canyon depths up to 80 m. The high-resolution seismic sections, show well defined stratigraphy packages, where clear sediment strata are interrupted by

  16. Lacustrine sedimentation and facies model for the last 45,000 yr in Chalco basin. Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, B.; Lozano, S.; Caballero, M.; Herrera, D.

    2013-05-01

    Chalco basin in central Mexico (19° 15' N, 98° 58' W, 2200 m asl) is one of the most detailed lake sediment sequence analyzed in Mexico for paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental studies. In this former lake, five drill cores up to 27 m depth were recovered in 1987-1989 by the UNAM team, and three cores covering most of the former sequence were obtained in 2008 and 2011. The upper 27 m of the Chalco lacustrine sequence contains the record of the last 45 kyr climate history in the northern American tropics. The active tectonic and volcanic setting of Chalco Lake in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, provides an opportunity to evaluate environmental (volcanic + tectonic vs. climatic) controls on lacustrine sedimentation. The establishment of a detailed time scale by 14C in pollen extracts provides an accurate chronological control. The stratigraphical and sedimentological analyses presented here provided the recognition of depositional environments and the architecture of the upper lacustrine succession. Sedimentary facies were defined on the basis of sedimentological descriptions, microscopic observation and compositional analyses. According to compositional criteria, facies were identified and groped into two main categories according to compositional criteria: 1) detrital and volcaniclastic, and 2) biogenic facies. The clastic facies includes massive to laminated, silty and clayey sediments composed of clay minerals, feldspars, amphiboles with minor amounts of quartz, opaque minerals and calcite. Diatoms are the most common biological remains in all the clastic facies. Most of the volcaniclastic deposits correspond to fall-out deposits, some of them of well documented eruptions of the nearby large stratovolcanoes Popocatepetl and Nevado de Toluca, which in turn serve as stratigraphical markers. The biogenic facies are massive to finely laminated diatom ooze and ostracod ooze layers. The sedimentary architecture of the lacustrine succession has been controlled by

  17. A hybrid method for the estimation of ground motion in sedimentary basins: Quantitative modelling for Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeh, D.; Suhadolc, P.; Mueller, S.; Panza, G.F.

    1994-04-01

    To estimate the ground motion in two-dimensional, laterally heterogeneous, anelastic media, a hybrid technique has been developed which combines modal summation and the finite difference method. In the calculation of the local wavefield due to a seismic event, both for small and large epicentral distances, it is possible to take into account the sources, path and local soil effects. As practical application we have simulated the ground motion in Mexico City caused by the Michoacan earthquake of September 19, 1985. By studying the one-dimensional response of the two sedimentary layers present in Mexico City, it is possible to explain the difference in amplitudes observed between records for receivers inside and outside the lake-bed zone. These simple models show that the sedimentary cover produces the concentration of high-frequency waves (0.2-0.5 Hz) on the horizontal components of motion. The large amplitude coda of ground motion observed inside the lake-bed zone, and the spectral ratios between signals observed inside and outside the lake-bed zone, can only be explained by two-dimensional models of the sedimentary basin. In such models, the ground motion is mainly controlled by the response of the uppermost clay layer. The synthetic signals explain the major characteristics (relative amplitudes, spectral ratios, and frequency content) of the observed ground motion. The large amplitude coda of the ground motion observed in the lake-bed zone can be explained as resonance effects and the excitation of local surface waves in the laterally heterogeneous clay layer. Also, for the 1985 Michoacan event, the energy contributions of the three subevents are important to explain the observed durations. (author). 39 refs, 15 figs, 1 tab

  18. Land subsidence and recovery in the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico, 1993–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Jessica M.; Brandt, Justin T.

    2017-08-14

    The Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) drinking water supply was almost exclusively sourced from groundwater from within the Albuquerque Basin before 2008. In 2008, the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project (SJCDWP) provided surface-water resources to augment the groundwater supply, allowing for a reduction in groundwater pumping in the Albuquerque Basin. In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the ABCWUA, began a study to measure and compare aquifer-system and land-surface elevation change before and after the SJCDWP in 2008. Three methods of data collection with different temporal and spatial resolutions were used for this study: (1) aquifer-system compaction data collected continuously at a single extensometer from 1994 to 2013; (2) land-surface elevation change from Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys of a network of monuments collected in 1994–95, 2005, and 2014; and (3) spatially distributed Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) satellite data from 1993 to 2010. Collection of extensometer data allows for direct and continuous measurement of aquifer-system compaction at the extensometer location. The GPS surveys of a network of monuments allow for periodic measurements of land-surface elevation change at monument locations. Interferograms are limited in time by lifespan of the satellite, orbital pattern, and data quality but allow for measurement of gridded land-surface elevation change over the study area. Each of these methods was employed to provide a better understanding of aquifer-system compaction and land-surface elevation change for the Albuquerque Basin.Results do not show large magnitudes of subsidence in the Albuquerque Basin. High temporal-resolution but low spatial-resolution data measurements of aquifer-system compaction at the Albuquerque extensometer show elastic aquifer-system response to recovering groundwater levels. Results from the GPS survey of the network of monuments show

  19. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources, onshore Claiborne Group, United Statespart of the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, P.C.; Ewing, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    The middle Eocene Claiborne Group was assessed for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources using established U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology. This work was conducted as part of a 2007 assessment of Paleogene-Neogene strata of the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin, including the United States onshore and state waters (Dubiel et al., 2007). The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic-CretaceousTertiary composite total petroleum system, which was defined for the assessment. Source rocks for Claiborne oil accumulations are interpreted to be organic-rich, downdip, shaley facies of the Wilcox Group and the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group; gas accumulations may have originated from multiple sources, including the Jurassic Smackover Formation and the Haynesville and Bossier shales, the Cretaceous Eagle Ford and Pearsall (?) formations, and the Paleogene Wilcox Group and Sparta Sand. Hydrocarbon generation in the basin started prior to deposition of Claiborne sediments and is currently ongoing. Primary reservoir sandstones in the Claiborne Group include, from oldest to youngest, the Queen City Sand, Cook Mountain Formation, Sparta Sand, Yegua Formation, and the laterally equivalent Cockfield Formation. A geologic model, supported by spatial analysis of petroleum geology data, including discovered reservoir depths, thicknesses, temperatures, porosities, permeabilities, and pressures, was used to divide the Claiborne Group into seven assessment units (AUs) with three distinctive structural and depositional settings. The three structural and depositional settings are (1) stable shelf, (2) expanded fault zone, and (3) slope and basin floor; the seven AUs are (1) lower Claiborne stable-shelf gas and oil, (2) lower Claiborne expanded fault-zone gas, (3) lower Claiborne slope and basin-floor gas, (4) lower Claiborne Cane River, (5) upper Claiborne stable-shelf gas and oil, (6) upper Claiborne expanded fault-zone gas, and (7) upper Claiborne slope and basin

  20. Participatory Water Resources Modeling in a Water-Scarce Basin (Rio Sonora, Mexico) Reveals Uncertainty in Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, A. S.; Vivoni, E. R.; Halvorsen, K. E.; Kossak, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Rio Sonora Basin (RSB) in northwest Mexico has a semi-arid and highly variable climate along with urban and agricultural pressures on water resources. Three participatory modeling workshops were held in the RSB in spring 2013. A model of the water resources system, consisting of a watershed hydrology model, a model of the water infrastructure, and groundwater models, was developed deliberatively in the workshops, along with scenarios of future climate and development. Participants were asked to design water resources management strategies by choosing from a range of supply augmentation and demand reduction measures associated with water conservation. Participants assessed water supply reliability, measured as the average daily supply divided by daily demand for historical and future periods, by probing with the climate and development scenarios. Pre- and post-workshop-surveys were developed and administered, based on conceptual models of workshop participants' beliefs regarding modeling and local water resources. The survey results indicate that participants believed their modeling abilities increased and beliefs in the utility of models increased as a result of the workshops. The selected water resources strategies varied widely among participants. Wastewater reuse for industry and aquifer recharge were popular options, but significant numbers of participants thought that inter-basin transfers and desalination were viable. The majority of participants indicated that substantial increases in agricultural water efficiency could be achieved. On average, participants chose strategies that produce reliabilities over the historical and future periods of 95%, but more than 20% of participants were apparently satisfied with reliabilities lower than 80%. The wide range of strategies chosen and associated reliabilities indicate that there is a substantial degree of uncertainty in how future water resources decisions could be made in the region.

  1. Effect of Downscaled Forcings and Soil Texture Properties on Hyperresolution Hydrologic Simulations in a Regional Basin in Northwest Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, A.; Mascaro, G.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2017-12-01

    Hyper-resolution ( 10 km) scales. In this study, we address some of the challenges by applying a parallel version of the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN)-based Real Time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS) to the Rio Sonora Basin (RSB) in northwest Mexico. The RSB is a large, semiarid watershed ( 21,000 km2) characterized by complex topography and a strong seasonality in vegetation conditions, due to the North American monsoon. We conducted simulations at an average spatial resolution of 88 m over a decadal (2004-2013) period using spatially-distributed forcings from remotely-sensed and reanalysis products. Meteorological forcings were derived from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) at the original resolution of 12 km and were downscaled at 1 km with techniques accounting for terrain effects. Two grids of soil properties were created from different sources, including: (i) CONABIO (Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad) at 6 km resolution; and (ii) ISRIC (International Soil Reference Information Centre) at 250 m. Time-varying vegetation parameters were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) composite products. The model was first calibrated and validated through distributed soil moisture data from a network of 20 soil moisture stations during the monsoon season. Next, hydrologic simulations were conducted with five different combinations of coarse and downscaled forcings and soil properties. Outputs in the different configurations were then compared with independent observations of soil moisture, and with estimates of land surface temperature (1 km, daily) and evapotranspiration (1 km, monthly) from MODIS. This study is expected to support the community involved in hyper-resolution hydrologic modeling by identifying the crucial factors that, if available at higher resolution, lead to the largest improvement of the simulation prognostic capability.

  2. How do en route events around the Gulf of Mexico influence landbird populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emily B.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Buler, Jeffrey J.; Deppe, Jill L.; Farnsworth, Andrew; Marra, Peter P.; McWilliams, Scott R.; Mehlman, David W; Wilson, R. Randy; Woodrey, Mark S; Moore, Frank R.

    2017-01-01

    Habitats around the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) provide critical resources for Nearctic–Neotropical migratory landbirds, the majority of which travel across or around the GOM every spring and fall as they migrate between temperate breeding grounds in North America and tropical wintering grounds in the Caribbean and Central and South America. At the same time, ecosystems in the GOM are changing rapidly, with unknown consequences for migratory landbird populations, many of which are experiencing population declines. In general, the extent to which events encountered en route limit migratory bird populations is not well understood. At the same time, information from weather surveillance radar, stable isotopes, tracking, eBird, and genetic datasets is increasingly available to address many of the unanswered questions about bird populations that migrate through stopover and airspace habitats in the GOM. We review the state of the science and identify key research needs to understand the impacts of en route events around the GOM region on populations of intercontinental landbird migrants that breed in North America, including: (1) distribution, timing, and habitat associations; (2) habitat characteristics and quality; (3) migratory connectivity; and (4) threats to and current conservation status of airspace and stopover habitats. Finally, we also call for the development of unified and comprehensive long-term monitoring guidelines and international partnerships to advance our understanding of the role of habitats around the GOM in supporting migratory landbird populations moving between temperate breeding grounds and wintering grounds in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean.

  3. Performance Evaluation of HYCOM-GOM for Hydrokinetic Resource Assessment in the Florida Strait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neary, Vincent S [ORNL; Gunawan, Budi [ORNL; Ryou, Albert S [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) is assessing and mapping the potential off-shore ocean current hydrokinetic energy resources along the U.S. coastline, excluding tidal currents, to facilitate market penetration of water power technologies. This resource assessment includes information on the temporal and three-dimensional spatial distribution of the daily averaged power density, and the overall theoretical hydrokinetic energy production, based on modeled historical simulations spanning a 7-year period of record using HYCOM-GOM, an ocean current observation assimilation model that generates a spatially distributed three-dimensional representation of daily averaged horizontal current magnitude and direction time series from which power density time series and their statistics can be derived. This study ascertains the deviation of HYCOM-GOM outputs, including transport (flow) and power density, from outputs based on three independent observation sources to evaluate HYCOM-GOM performance. The three independent data sources include NOAA s submarine cable data of transport, ADCP data at a high power density location, and HF radar data in the high power density region of the Florida Strait. Comparisons with these three independent observation sets indicate discrepancies with HYCOM model outputs, but overall indicate that the HYCOM-GOM model can provide an adequate assessment of the ocean current hydrokinetic resource in high power density regions like the Florida Strait. Additional independent observational data, in particular stationary ADCP measurements, would be useful for expanding this model performance evaluation study. ADCP measurements are rare in ocean environments not influenced by tides, and limited to one location in the Florida Strait. HF radar data, although providing great spatial coverage, is limited to surface currents only.

  4. El Cardenal Isidro Gomá y la cuestión vasca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio Vivas, Miguel Ángel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the many areas of activity of Cardinal Isidro Goma during the Civil War was the attention to the Basque question. After, the controversy with lehendakari Aguirre A, the result of the alignment of Basque nationalism with the Republic. The primate was also a central role regarding the end of conflict in the Basque Country, with negotiations for the surrender of Bilbao. Finally had to face conflict with the national clergy, who remained in Spain, who was victimized who was exiled or those who criticized the position of Cardinal Goma.Uno de los múltiples campos de actuación del cardenal Isidro Gomá durante la guerra civil fue la atención a la cuestión vasca. En primer lugar los problemas derivados del enfrentamiento de las autoridades militares con el obispo de Vitoria, Mateo Múgica. Después la polémica entre el propio Gomá y el lehendakari Aguirre, consecuencia del alineamiento del nacionalismo vasco con la República. El primado tuvo, asimismo, un papel central en torno al fin del conflicto bélico en el Pais Vasco, con las negociaciones para la rendición de Bilbao. Por último debió afrontar los conflictos clero nacionalista, el que permaneció en España, el que fue represaliado y el que fue exiliado o aquellos que censuraron la posición del Cardenal Gomá.

  5. Seismic Structural Setting of Western Farallon Basin, Southern Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero-Lajas, D.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Lopez-Martinez, M.; Lonsdale, P.

    2007-05-01

    Data from a number of high resolution 2D multichannel seismic (MCS) lines were used to investigate the structure and stratigraphy of the western Farallon basin in the southern Gulf of California. A Generator-Injector air gun provided a clean seismic source shooting each 12 s at a velocity of 6 kts. Each signal was recorded during 6- 8 s, at a sampling interval of 1 ms, by a 600 m long digital streamer with 48 channels and a spacing of 12.5 m. The MCS system was installed aboard CICESE's (Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada) 28 m research vessel Francisco de Ulloa. MCS data were conventionally processed, to obtain post- stack time-migrated seismic sections. The MCS seismic sections show a very detailed image of the sub-bottom structure up to 2-3 s two-way travel time (aprox. 2 km). We present detailed images of faulting based on the high resolution and quality of these data. Our results show distributed faulting with many active and inactive faults. Our study also constrains the depth to basement near the southern Baja California eastern coast. The acoustic basement appears as a continuous feature in the western part of the study area and can be correlated with some granite outcrops located in the southern Gulf of California islands. To the East, near the center of the Farallon basin, the acoustic basement changes, it is more discontinuous, and the seismic sections show a number of diffracted waves.

  6. Soil physical degradation by human activities in the zone II of the basin of Burgos, Tamaulipas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Mino, F.; Espinosa Rmirez, M.; Andrade Limas, E.; Castro Meza, B.; Romero Diaz, A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the physical degradation of the soil for antropic activities during the years 2007 and 2008 in the II zone of the Burgos Basin in Tamaulipas, Mexico. In this region, human action manifests itself due to activities such as agriculture, livestock and industry. The conventional farming, based mainly on the cultivation of sorghum, is characterized by great mechanization and tilling the soil which has contributed in large measure to aggravate erosion processes. There is also some logging, mainly for charcoal production and, recently, has joined the exploration and exploitation of natural gas. We used the methodology for Assessment of Soil Degradation (ASSOD) to identify, located and define the types of soil degradation within physiographic units. Results showed that nearly 74% of the study area presents some kind of degradation. The main process was water erosion, followed, by compaction and wind erosion. The main factors are essentially overgrazing and inadequate farming practices. Approximately 60% of the units evaluated presented a moderate level of degradation, but the speed of this process indicates that maintenance works are needed to reverse. (Author) 7 refs.

  7. Analysis of geophysical well logs from the Mariano Lake-Lake Valley drilling project, San Juan Basin, Northwestern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Geophysical well logs were obtained in eight deep holes drilled and cored by the U.S. Geological Survey to examine the geology of the Mariano Lake-Lake Valley area in the southern part of the San Juan basin, New Mexico. The logs were made to determine the petrophysical properties of the rocks penetrated by the holes, to aid in making stratigraphic correlations between the holes, and to estimate the grade of uranium enrichment in mineralized zones. The logs can be divided into six categories-nuclear, electric, sonic, magnetic, dipmeter, and borehole conditions. Examples of these logs are presented and related to lithological and petrophysical properties of the cores recovered. Gamma-ray and prompt fission neutron logs were used to estimate uranium grade in mineralized zones. Resistivity and spontaneous potential logs were used to make stratigraphic correlations between drill holes and to determine the variability of the sandstone:mudstone ratios of the major sedimentary units. In one drill hole a dipmeter log was used to estimate the direction of sediment transport of the fluvial host rock. Magnetic susceptibility logs provided supportive information for a laboratory study of magnetic mineral alteration in drill cores. This study was used to infer the geochemical and hydrologic environment associated with uranium deposition in the project area

  8. Data collection for cooperative water resources modeling in the Lower Rio Grande Basin, Fort Quitman to the Gulf of Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard David; Pallachula, Kiran (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Villalobos, Joshua (Texas A& M University); Piccinni, Giovanni (Texas A& M University); Brainard, James Robert; Gerik, Thomas (Texas A& M University); Morrison, Wendy (Texas A& M University); Serrat-Capdevila, Aleix (University of Arizona); Valdes, Juan (University of Arizona); Sheng, Zhuping (Texas A& M University); Lovato, Rene (Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua); Guitron, Alberto (Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua); Ennis, Martha Lee; Aparicio, Javier (Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua); Newman, Gretchen Carr (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Michelsen, Ari M. (Texas A& M University)

    2004-10-01

    Water resource scarcity around the world is driving the need for the development of simulation models that can assist in water resources management. Transboundary water resources are receiving special attention because of the potential for conflict over scarce shared water resources. The Rio Grande/Rio Bravo along the U.S./Mexican border is an example of a scarce, transboundary water resource over which conflict has already begun. The data collection and modeling effort described in this report aims at developing methods for international collaboration, data collection, data integration and modeling for simulating geographically large and diverse international watersheds, with a special focus on the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo. This report describes the basin, and the data collected. This data collection effort was spatially aggregated across five reaches consisting of Fort Quitman to Presidio, the Rio Conchos, Presidio to Amistad Dam, Amistad Dam to Falcon Dam, and Falcon Dam to the Gulf of Mexico. This report represents a nine-month effort made in FY04, during which time the model was not completed.

  9. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Raton Basin Project. The Raton and Santa Fe Quadrangles of New Mexico. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    In 1978, EG and G geoMetrics collected 4955 line miles of high sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic data in New Mexico within the Raton and Santa Fe quadrangles. These quadrangles represent part of the Raton Basin Project. All radiometric and magnetic data for the two quadrangles were fully reduced and interpreted by geoMetrics, and are presented as three volumes; one Volume I covering both quadrangles and separate Volume II's for the individual quadrangles. Over 50% of the survey area is covered by flat lying Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits of the southern Great Plains Province. The western and southern portions of the area contain a combination of Precambrian and Paleozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks. These rocks occur primarily within and in close proximity to the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and late Cenozoic volcanic deposits occur to the west of the mountains and in the Las Vegas Volcanic region. Uranium deposits are scattered throughout the region, but none are known to be economic at the time of this report

  10. Water-quality assessment of the Central Arizona Basins, Arizona and northern Mexico; environmental setting and overview of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordy, Gail E.; Rees, Julie A.; Edmonds, Robert J.; Gebler, Joseph B.; Wirt, Laurie; Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.; Anning, David W.

    1998-01-01

    The Central Arizona Basins study area in central and southern Arizona and northern Mexico is one of 60 study units that are part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. The purpose of this report is to describe the physical, chemical, and environmental characteristics that may affect water quality in the Central Arizona Basins study area and present an overview of water quality. Covering 34,700 square miles, the study area is characterized by generally north to northwestward-trending mountain ranges separated by broad, gently sloping alluvial valleys. Most of the perennial rivers and streams are in the northern part of the study area. Rivers and streams in the south are predominantly intermittent or ephemeral and flow in response to precipitation such as summer thunderstorms. Effluent-dependent streams do provide perennial flow in some reaches. The major aquifers in the study area are in the basin-fill deposits that may be as much as 12,000 feet thick. The 1990 population in the study area was about 3.45 million, and about 61 percent of the total was in Maricopa County (Phoenix and surrounding cities). Extensive population growth over the past decade has resulted in a twofold increase in urban land areas and increased municipal water use; however, agriculture remains the major water use. Seventy-three percent of all water with drawn in the study area during 1990 was used for agricultural purposes. The largest rivers in the study area-the Gila, Salt, and Verde-are perennial near their headwaters but become intermittent downstream because of impoundments and artificial diversions. As a result, the Central Arizona Basins study area is unique compared to less arid basins because the mean surface-water outflow is only 528 cubic feet per second from a total drainage area of 49,650 square miles. Peak flows in the northern part of the study area are the result of snowmelt runoff; whereas, summer thunderstorms account for the peak flows in

  11. Lower Tertiary Sedimentary Turbidite Facies at the Chicontepec Basin, East-Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santillán-Piña N.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study area comprises the northwestern portion of the Chicontepec Basin at southeastern San Luis Potosí and northeastern Hidalgo States. At the stratigraphy sequences of the Chicontepec Formation from Lower Paleocene in isolated outocrops, were herein interpreted two major sedimentary sub-environments into the fan model: the middle and the external sedimentary settings; the applied criteria for their identification were: (a lithostratigraphic (thickness, geometry and distribution; (b internal and external primary sedimentary structures, and (c intra-formational deformation structures. The sedimentary facies are composed of siliciclastic and calcareous particles sourced from the Sierra Madre Oriental, western; the Tuxpan paleo-island, eastern; and from the Teziutlan Massif, southern; the sediments were massively transported by slideing, slumping, flow debris and turbidity currents, then deposited as massive, tabular, lenticular and lobely in shape at the slope foot and on the sea marine floor.

  12. Effects of uranium development on erosion and associated sedimentation in southern San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Maurice E.

    1979-01-01

    A reconnaissance was made of some of the effects of uranium development on erosion and associated sedimentation in the southern San Juan Basin, where uranium development is concentrated. In general, the effects of exploration on erosion are minor, although erosion may be accelerated by the building of access roads, by activities at the drilling sites, and by close concentration of drilling sites. Areas where the greatest effects on erosion and sedimentation from mining and milling operations have occurred are: (1) in the immediate vicinity of mines and mills, (2) near waste piles, and (3) in stream channels where modifications, such as changes in depth have been caused by discharge of excess mine and mill water. Collapse of tailings piles could result in localized but excessive erosion and sedimentation.

  13. Advanced reservoir characterization for improved oil recovery in a New Mexico Delaware basin project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.D.; Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M. [Dave Martin and Associates, Inc., Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration site in the Department of Energy Class III program. The basic problem at the Nash Draw Pool is the low recovery typically observed in similar Delaware fields. By comparing a control area using standard infill drilling techniques to a pilot area developed using advanced reservoir characterization methods, the goal of the project is to demonstrate that advanced technology can significantly improve oil recovery. During the first year of the project, four new producing wells were drilled, serving as data acquisition wells. Vertical seismic profiles and a 3-D seismic survey were acquired to assist in interwell correlations and facies prediction. Limited surface access at the Nash Draw Pool, caused by proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes, limits development with conventional drilling. Combinations of vertical and horizontal wells combined with selective completions are being evaluated to optimize production performance. Based on the production response of similar Delaware fields, pressure maintenance is a likely requirement at the Nash Draw Pool. A detailed reservoir model of pilot area was developed, and enhanced recovery options, including waterflooding, lean gas, and carbon dioxide injection, are being evaluated.

  14. Waterborne disease-related risk perceptions in the Sonora River basin, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morua, Agustin Robles; Halvorsen, Kathleen E; Mayer, Alex S

    2011-05-01

    Waterborne disease is estimated to cause about 10% of all diseases worldwide. However, related risk perceptions are not well understood, particularly in the developing world where waterborne disease is an enormous problem. We focus on understanding risk perceptions related to these issues in a region within northern Mexico. Our findings show how waterborne disease problems and solutions are understood in eight small communities along a highly contaminated river system. We found major differences in risk perceptions between health professionals, government officials, and lay citizens. Health professionals believed that a high level of human-waste-related risk existed within the region. Few officials and lay citizens shared this belief. In addition, few officials and lay citizens were aware of poor wastewater-management-related disease outbreaks and water contamination. Finally, aside from health professionals, a few interviewees understood the importance of basic hygiene and water treatment measures that could help to prevent disease. Our results add to the literature on environmentally-related risk perceptions in the developing world. We discuss recommendations for improving future human-wastewater-related risk communication within the region. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Satellite-derived land surface parameters for mesoscale modelling of the Mexico City basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscale meteorological modelling is an important tool to help understand air pollution and heat island effects in urban areas. Accurate wind simulations are difficult to obtain in areas of weak synoptic forcing. Local factors have a dominant role in the circulation and include land surface parameters and their interaction with the atmosphere. This paper examines an episode during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA in April of 2003. Because the episode has weak synoptic forcing, there is the potential for the surface heat budget to influence the local meteorology. High resolution satellite observations are used to specify the land use, vegetation fraction, albedo and surface temperature in the MM5 model. Making use of these readily available data leads to improved meteorological simulations in the MCMA, both for the wind circulation patterns and the urban heat island. Replacing values previously obtained from land-use tables with actual measurements removes the number of unknowns in the model and increases the accuracy of the energy budget. In addition to improving the understanding of local meteorology, this sets the stage for the use of advanced urban modules.

  16. Assessing sedimentation rates at Usumacinta and Grijalva river basin (Southern Mexico) using OSL and suspended sediment load analysis: A study from the Maya Classic Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Salinas, E.; Castillo, M.; Sanderson, D.; Kinnaird, T.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.

    2013-12-01

    Studying sedimentation rates on floodplains is key to understanding environmental changes occurred through time in river basins. The Usumacinta and Grijalva rivers flow most of their travel through the southern part of Mexico, forming a large river basin, crossing the states of Chiapas and Tabasco. The Usumacinta-Grijalva River Basin is within the 10 major rivers of North America, having a basin area of ~112 550 km2. We use the OSL technique for dating two sediment profiles and for obtaining luminescence signals in several sediment profiles located in the streambanks of the main trunk of the Usumacinta and Grijalva rivers. We also use mean annual values of suspended sediment load spanning ~50 years to calculate the sedimentation rates. Our OSL dating results start from the 4th Century, when the Maya Civilization was at its peak during the Classic Period. Sedimentation rates show a notable increase at the end of the 19th Century. The increase of the sedimentation rates seems to be related to changes in land uses in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Altos de Chiapas, based on deforestation and land clearing for developing new agrarian and pastoral activities. We conclude that the major environmental change in the basin of the Usumacinta and Grijalva Rivers since the Maya Classic Period was generated since the last Century as a result of an intense anthropogenic disturbance of mountain rain forest in Chiapas.

  17. Geology of Paleozoic Rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, Excluding the San Juan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldon, Arthur L.

    2003-01-01

    The geology of the Paleozoic rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, was studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program to provide support for hydrogeological interpretations. The study area is segmented by numerous uplifts and basins caused by folding and faulting that have recurred repeatedly from Precambrian to Cenozoic time. Paleozoic rocks in the study area are 0-18,000 feet thick. They are underlain by Precambrian igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks and are overlain in most of the area by Triassic formations composed mostly of shale. The overlying Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks are 0-27,000 feet thick. All Paleozoic systems except the Silurian are represented in the region. The Paleozoic rocks are divisible into 11 hydrogeologic units. The basal hydrogeologic unit consisting of Paleozoic rocks, the Flathead aquifer, predominantly is composed of Lower to Upper Cambrian sandstone and quartzite. The aquifer is 0-800 feet thick and is overlain gradationally to unconformably by formations of Cambrian to Mississippian age. The Gros Ventre confining unit consists of Middle to Upper Cambrian shale with subordinate carbonate rocks and sandstone. The confining unit is 0-1,100 feet thick and is overlain gradationally to unconformably by formations of Cambrian to Mississippian age. The Bighom aquifer consists of Middle Cambrian to Upper Ordovician limestone and dolomite with subordinate shale and sandstone. The aquifer is 0-3,000 feet thick and is overlain unconformably by Devonian and Mississipplan rocks. The Elbert-Parting confining unit consists of Lower Devonian to Lower Mississippian limestone, dolomite, sandstone, quartzite, shale, and anhydrite. It is 0-700 feet thick and is overlain conformably to unconformably by Upper Devonian and Mississippian rocks. The Madison aquifer consists of two zones of distinctly different lithology. The lower (Redwall-Leadville) zone

  18. Distinct wind convergence patterns in the Mexico City basin due to the interaction of the gap winds with the synoptic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mexico City lies in a high altitude basin where air quality and pollutant fate is strongly influenced by local winds. The combination of high terrain with weak synoptic forcing leads to weak and variable winds with complex circulation patterns. A gap wind entering the basin in the afternoon leads to very different wind convergence lines over the city depending on the meteorological conditions. Surface and upper-air meteorological observations are analysed during the MCMA-2003 field campaign to establish the meteorological conditions and obtain an index of the strength and timing of the gap wind. A mesoscale meteorological model (MM5 is used in combination with high-resolution satellite data for the land surface parameters and soil moisture maps derived from diurnal ground temperature range. A simple method to map the lines of wind convergence both in the basin and on the regional scale is used to show the different convergence patterns according to episode types. The gap wind is found to occur on most days of the campaign and is the result of a temperature gradient across the southern basin rim which is very similar from day to day. Momentum mixing from winds aloft into the surface layer is much more variable and can determine both the strength of the flow and the pattern of the convergence zones. Northerly flows aloft lead to a weak jet with an east-west convergence line that progresses northwards in the late afternoon and early evening. Westerlies aloft lead to both stronger gap flows due to channelling and winds over the southern and western basin rim. This results in a north-south convergence line through the middle of the basin starting in the early afternoon. Improved understanding of basin meteorology will lead to better air quality forecasts for the city and better understanding of the chemical regimes in the urban atmosphere.

  19. Nutrient loads in the river mouth of the Río Verde basin in Jalisco, Mexico: how to prevent eutrophication in the future reservoir?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayme-Torres, Gonzalo; Hansen, Anne M

    2017-10-04

    Since nutrients are emitted and mobilized in river basins, causing eutrophication of water bodies, it is important to reduce such emissions and subsequent nutrient loads. Due to processes of attenuation, nutrient loads are reduced during their mobilization in river basins. At the mouth of the Río Verde basin in western Mexico, the El Purgatorio dam is being constructed to supply water to the metropolitan area of the second most populated city in the country, Guadalajara. To analyze situations that allow protecting this future dam from eutrophication, nutrient loads in the mouth of the river basin were determined and their reduction scenarios evaluated by using the NEWS2 (Nutrient Export from Watersheds) model. For this, a nutrient emissions inventory was established and used to model nutrient loads, and modeling results were compared to an analysis of water quality data from two different monitoring sites located on the river. The results suggest that 96% of nitrogen and 99% of phosphorus emissions are attenuated in the watershed. Nutrient loads reaching the mouth of the river basin come mainly from wastewater discharges, followed by livestock activities and different land uses, and loads are higher as emissions are located closer to the mouth of the river basin. To achieve and maintain mesotrophic state of water in the future dam, different nutrient emission reduction scenarios were evaluated. According to these results, the reduction of 90% of the phosphorus loads in wastewater emissions or 75% of the phosphorus loads in wastewater emissions and at least 50% in emissions from livestock activities in the river basin are required.

  20. Distinct wind convergence patterns in the Mexico City basin due to the interaction of the gap winds with the synoptic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Foy, B.; Clappier, A.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2006-04-01

    Mexico City lies in a high altitude basin where air quality and pollutant fate is strongly influenced by local winds. The combination of high terrain with weak synoptic forcing leads to weak and variable winds with complex circulation patterns. A gap wind entering the basin in the afternoon leads to very different wind convergence lines over the city depending on the meteorological conditions. Surface and upper-air meteorological observations are analysed during the MCMA-2003 field campaign to establish the meteorological conditions and obtain an index of the strength and timing of the gap wind. A mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) is used in combination with high-resolution satellite data for the land surface parameters and soil moisture maps derived from diurnal ground temperature range. A simple method to map the lines of wind convergence both in the basin and on the regional scale is used to show the different convergence patterns according to episode types. The gap wind is found to occur on most days of the campaign and is the result of a temperature gradient across the southern basin rim which is very similar from day to day. Momentum mixing from winds aloft into the surface layer is much more variable and can determine both the strength of the flow and the pattern of the convergence zones. Northerly flows aloft lead to a weak jet with an east-west convergence line that progresses northwards in the late afternoon and early evening. Westerlies aloft lead to both stronger gap flows due to channelling and winds over the southern and western basin rim. This results in a north-south convergence line through the middle of the basin starting in the early afternoon. Improved understanding of basin meteorology will lead to better air quality forecasts for the city and better understanding of the chemical regimes in the urban atmosphere.

  1. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  2. Digital archive of drilling mud weight pressures and wellbore temperatures from 49 regional cross sections of 967 well logs in Louisiana and Texas, onshore Gulf of Mexico basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lauri A.; Kinney, Scott A.; Kola-Kehinde, Temidayo B.

    2011-01-01

    This document provides the digital archive of in-situ temperature and drilling mud weight pressure data that were compiled from several historical sources. The data coverage includes the states of Texas and Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico basin. Data are also provided graphically, for both Texas and Louisiana, as plots of temperature as a function of depth and pressure as a function of depth. The minimum, arithmetic average, and maximum values are tabulated for each 1,000-foot depth increment for temperature as well as pressure in the Texas and Louisiana data.

  3. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beman, Joseph E.; Bryant, Christina F.

    2016-10-27

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is hydrologically defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift between San Acacia to the south and Cochiti Lake to the north. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) began treatment and distribution of surface water from the Rio Grande through the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project. A 20-percent population increase in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22-percent population increase from 2000 to 2010 may have resulted in an increased demand for water in areas within the basin.An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the Albuquerque Basin. In 1983, this network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly. The network currently (2015) consists of 124 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the ABCWUA, currently (2015) measures and reports water levels from the 124 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 124 sites through water year 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015).

  4. Deep-towed CSEM survey of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannberg, P.; Constable, S.

    2017-12-01

    Controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) surveys are increasingly being used to remotely detect hydrate deposits in seafloor sediments. CSEM methods are sensitive to sediment pore space resistivity, such as when electrically resistive hydrate displaces the electrically conductive pore fluid, increasing the bulk resistivity of the sediment. In July 2017, a two-week research cruise using an upgraded and expanded "Vulcan" towed receiver system collected over 250 line km of data at four sites in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) thought to have hydrate bearing sediments. Hydrate bearing horizons at the survey sites ranged from 400-700 m below seafloor. Modeling suggested an array with source receiver offsets of up to 1600 m would be needed to properly image the deep hydrate. A deep towed electromagnetic transmitter outputting 270 Amps was towed 100 m above seafloor. Six Vulcan receivers, each recording three-axis electric field data, were towed at 200 m intervals from 600-1600 m behind the transmitter. The four sites surveyed, Walker Ridge 313, Orca Basin, Mad Dog, and Green Canyon 955, are associated with the upcoming GOM^2 coring operation scheduled for 2020. Wells at WR313 and GC955 were logged as part of a joint industry drilling project in 2009 and will be used to ground truth our inversion results. In 2008, WR313 and GC955 were surveyed using traditional CSEM seafloor receivers, accompanied by a single prototype Vulcan towed receiver. This prior survey will allow comparison of results from a seafloor receiver survey with those from a towed receiver survey. Seismic data has been collected at all the sites, which will be used to constrain inversions. In addition to the four hydrate sites surveyed, two lines were towed over Green Knoll, a deep-water salt dome located between Mad Dog and GC955. Presented here are initial results from our recent cruise.

  5. Southwestern Regional Partnership For Carbon Sequestration (Phase 2): Pump Canyon CO2-ECBM/Sequestration Demonstration, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Within the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP), three demonstrations of geologic CO 2 sequestration are being performed -- one in an oilfield (the SACROC Unit in the Permian basin of west Texas), one in a deep, unmineable coalbed (the Pump Canyon site in the San Juan basin of northern New Mexico), and one in a deep, saline reservoir (underlying the Aneth oilfield in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah). The Pump Canyon CO 2 -enhanced coalbed methane (CO 2 /ECBM) sequestration demonstration project plans to demonstrate the effectiveness of CO 2 sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams via a small-scale geologic sequestration project. The site is located in San Juan County, northern New Mexico, just within the limits of the high-permeability fairway of prolific coalbed methane production. The study area for the SWP project consists of 31 coalbed methane production wells located in a nine section area. CO 2 was injected continuously for a year and different monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) techniques were implemented to track the CO 2 movement inside and outside the reservoir. Some of the MVA methods include continuous measurement of injection volumes, pressures and temperatures within the injection well, coalbed methane production rates, pressures and gas compositions collected at the offset production wells, and tracers in the injected CO 2 . In addition, time-lapse vertical seismic profiling (VSP), surface tiltmeter arrays, a series of shallow monitoring wells with a regular fluid sampling program, surface measurements of soil composition, CO 2 fluxes, and tracers were used to help in tracking the injected CO 2 . Finally, a detailed reservoir model was constructed to help reproduce and understand the behavior of the reservoir under production and injection operation. This report summarizes the different phases of the project, from permitting through site closure, and gives the results of the different MVA techniques.

  6. Southwestern Regional Partnership For Carbon Sequestration (Phase 2) Pump Canyon CO2- ECBM/Sequestration Demonstration, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Resources International

    2010-01-31

    Within the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP), three demonstrations of geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration are being performed -- one in an oilfield (the SACROC Unit in the Permian basin of west Texas), one in a deep, unmineable coalbed (the Pump Canyon site in the San Juan basin of northern New Mexico), and one in a deep, saline reservoir (underlying the Aneth oilfield in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah). The Pump Canyon CO{sub 2}-enhanced coalbed methane (CO{sub 2}/ECBM) sequestration demonstration project plans to demonstrate the effectiveness of CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams via a small-scale geologic sequestration project. The site is located in San Juan County, northern New Mexico, just within the limits of the high-permeability fairway of prolific coalbed methane production. The study area for the SWP project consists of 31 coalbed methane production wells located in a nine section area. CO{sub 2} was injected continuously for a year and different monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) techniques were implemented to track the CO{sub 2} movement inside and outside the reservoir. Some of the MVA methods include continuous measurement of injection volumes, pressures and temperatures within the injection well, coalbed methane production rates, pressures and gas compositions collected at the offset production wells, and tracers in the injected CO{sub 2}. In addition, time-lapse vertical seismic profiling (VSP), surface tiltmeter arrays, a series of shallow monitoring wells with a regular fluid sampling program, surface measurements of soil composition, CO{sub 2} fluxes, and tracers were used to help in tracking the injected CO{sub 2}. Finally, a detailed reservoir model was constructed to help reproduce and understand the behavior of the reservoir under production and injection operation. This report summarizes the different phases of the project, from permitting through site closure, and gives the

  7. Small theropod teeth from the Late Cretaceous of the San Juan Basin, northwestern New Mexico and their implications for understanding latest Cretaceous dinosaur evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Thomas E; Brusatte, Stephen L

    2014-01-01

    Studying the evolution and biogeographic distribution of dinosaurs during the latest Cretaceous is critical for better understanding the end-Cretaceous extinction event that killed off all non-avian dinosaurs. Western North America contains among the best records of Late Cretaceous terrestrial vertebrates in the world, but is biased against small-bodied dinosaurs. Isolated teeth are the primary evidence for understanding the diversity and evolution of small-bodied theropod dinosaurs during the Late Cretaceous, but few such specimens have been well documented from outside of the northern Rockies, making it difficult to assess Late Cretaceous dinosaur diversity and biogeographic patterns. We describe small theropod teeth from the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. These specimens were collected from strata spanning Santonian - Maastrichtian. We grouped isolated theropod teeth into several morphotypes, which we assigned to higher-level theropod clades based on possession of phylogenetic synapomorphies. We then used principal components analysis and discriminant function analyses to gauge whether the San Juan Basin teeth overlap with, or are quantitatively distinct from, similar tooth morphotypes from other geographic areas. The San Juan Basin contains a diverse record of small theropods. Late Campanian assemblages differ from approximately coeval assemblages of the northern Rockies in being less diverse with only rare representatives of troodontids and a Dromaeosaurus-like taxon. We also provide evidence that erect and recurved morphs of a Richardoestesia-like taxon represent a single heterodont species. A late Maastrichtian assemblage is dominated by a distinct troodontid. The differences between northern and southern faunas based on isolated theropod teeth provide evidence for provinciality in the late Campanian and the late Maastrichtian of North America. However, there is no indication that major components of small-bodied theropod diversity were lost

  8. Microbial respiration and extracellular enzyme activity in sediments from the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study explores the relationship between sediment chemistry (TC, TN, TP) and microbial respiration (DHA) and extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) across the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) hypoxic zone. TC, TN, and TP were all positively correlated with each other (r=0.19-0.68). DHA was ...

  9. Time-domain incomplete Gauss-Newton full-waveform inversion of Gulf of Mexico data

    KAUST Repository

    AlTheyab, Abdullah; Wang, Xin; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2013-01-01

    We apply the incomplete Gauss-Newton full-waveform inversion (TDIGN-FWI) to Gulf of Mexico (GOM) data in the space-time domain. In our application, iterative least-squares reverse-time migration (LSRTM) is used to estimate the model update at each

  10. Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province, New Mexico and Colorado. Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995. There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  11. Significance of detrital zircons in upper Devonian ocean-basin strata of the Sonora allochthon and Lower Permian synorogenic strata of the Mina Mexico foredeep, central Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, F.G.; Gehrels, G.E.; Stewart, John H.

    2008-01-01

    U-Pb isotopic dating of detrital zircons from a conglomeratic barite sandstone in the Sonora allochthon and a calciclastic sandstone in the Mina Mexico foredeep of the Minas de Barita area reveals two main age groups in the Upper Devonian part of the Los Pozos Formation, 1.73-1.65 Ga and 1.44-1.42 Ga; and three main age groups in the Lower Permian part of the Mina Mexico Formation, 1.93-1.91 Ga, 1.45-1.42 Ga, and 1.1-1.0 Ga. Small numbers of zircons with ages of 2.72-2.65 Ga, 1.30-1.24 Ga, ca. 2.46 Ga, ca. 1.83 Ga, and ca. 0.53 Ga are also present in the Los Pozos sandstone. Detrital zircons ranging in age from 1.73 to 1.65 Ga are considered to have been derived from the Yavapai, Mojave, and Mazatzal Provinces and their transition zones of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. The 1.45-1.30 Ga detrital zircons were probably derived from scattered granite bodies within the Mojave and Mazatzal basement rocks in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, and possibly from the Southern and Eastern Granite-Rhyolite Provinces of the southern United States. The 1.24-1.0 Ga detrital zircons are believed to have been derived from the Grenville (Llano) Province to the east and northeast or from Grenvilleage intrusions or anatectites to the north. Several detrital zircon ages ranging from 2.72 to 1.91 Ga were probably derived originally from the Archean Wyoming Province and Early Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Lake Superior region. These older detrital zircons most likely have been recycled one or more times into the Paleozoic sandstones of central Sonora. The 0.53 Ga zircon is believed to have been derived from a Lower Cambrian granitoid or meta-morphic rock northeast of central Sonora, possibly in New Mexico and Colorado, or Oklahoma. Detrital zircon geochronology suggests that most of the detritus in both samples was derived from Laurentia to the north, whereas some detritus in the Permian synorogenic foredeep sequence was derived from the

  12. Dating of a representative pottery sample from the basin of Sayula, Jalisco in Mexico using the thermoluminescence method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado U, H. [CINVESTAV, Unidad Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Schaaf, P.; Ramirez, A. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez, P.R. [ININ, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Brunet, J. [CUCSH, Universidad de Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this work is presented a study of dating of the representative pottery sample from the west of Mexico, in a predominantly saline region. The study is carried out with the thermoluminescence method and the fine grain technique. The archaeological region was begun to study from 1990. This work also presents an historical and geographical context of the region and its relevance in the western culture of Mexico. (Author)

  13. Dating of a representative pottery sample from the basin of Sayula, Jalisco in Mexico using the thermoluminescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado U, H.; Schaaf, P.; Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, P.R.; Brunet, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this work is presented a study of dating of the representative pottery sample from the west of Mexico, in a predominantly saline region. The study is carried out with the thermoluminescence method and the fine grain technique. The archaeological region was begun to study from 1990. This work also presents an historical and geographical context of the region and its relevance in the western culture of Mexico. (Author)

  14. Negotiating Surface Water Allocations to Achieve a Soft Landing in the Closed Lerma-Chapala Basin, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, P.; Vargas-Velázquez, S.; Mollard, E.; Silva-Ochoa, P.

    2008-01-01

    The Lerma-Chapala basin exemplifies the challenges posed by basin closure, where surface water allocation mechanisms, lack of environmental flows and access to water are critical issues. Underlying these issues is a need for accurate water accounting that is transparent and publicly available. This

  15. The deepwater Gulf of Mexico : promises delivered?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    A summary review of deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) oil production was presented for the years 1989 to 1998. Trends and prospects in deepwater GOM production and leasing were assessed. Promises and forecasts made in the early 1990s were compared with what actually happened since then. Forecasts in the early 1990s promised deeper, faster and cheaper developments in the deepwater Gulf. Results of the comparison showed that the prognosticators were correct on all three counts. Regarding the future of the Gulf, one can be justified in being optimistic in so far as more experience, robust economics, more and cheaper rigs can be taken as reliable indicators of optimism. In contrast, there are certain negatives to consider, such as low commodity prices, budget constraints, lease expirations, technical challenges and increased competition. . 12 figs

  16. Computer-assisted decision aid for the estimation of mineral endowment: uranium in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrigan, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    This methodology comprises two main sections, each executed on a different computer system. The first section, the Geologic Decision Model, has been computerized as an interactive PLATO program. Using the PLATO system, the geologist describes probabilistically the perceived states of geologic processes and conditions. The decision model analyzes this information and computes a probability distribution for mineral occurrence. The second section, the Endowment Simulation Model (program MASTER), is run on the DEC 10 and Cyber 175 computers. Program MASTER takes the product of the Geologic Decision Model, combines it with other data, and produces a probabilistic estimate of mineral endowment for the region being evaluated. Development and testing of the Arizona Appraisal System were carried out simultaneously over a period of about three years. During this period, four geologists from government and industry were called upon four or five times over a period of about a year for a study of the uranium (U 3 O 8 ) endowment in the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. The results produced by the system consist, for each geologist, of a probability distribution for tons of U 3 O 8 endowment for (1) each partition of each stratigraphic unit, (2) each stratigraphic unit as a whole, (3) ''formations'' or ''merged units'' (groups of stratigraphic units), and (4) the San Juan Basin as a whole (all stratigraphic units). The system also calculates the average distribution across all geologists for the various merged units and for the basin as a whole. The result for the basin as a whole (in thousands of tons) is: mean 3,855, variance 4,108 x 10 9 , and 95th percentile 6,541

  17. Latest Miocene-earliest Pliocene evolution of the ancestral Rio Grande at the Española-San Luis Basin boundary, northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Koning,; Aby, Scott B.; Grauch, V. J.; Matthew J. Zimmerer,

    2016-01-01

    We use stratigraphic relations, paleoflow data, and 40Ar/39Ar dating to interpret net aggradation, punctuated by at least two minor incisional events, along part of the upper ancestral Rio Grande fluvial system between 5.5 and 4.5 Ma (in northern New Mexico). The studied fluvial deposits, which we informally call the Sandlin unit of the Santa Fe Group, overlie a structural high between the San Luis and Española Basins. The Sandlin unit was deposited by two merging, west- to southwest-flowing, ancestral Rio Grande tributaries respectively sourced in the central Taos Mountains and southern Taos Mountains-northeastern Picuris Mountains. The river confluence progressively shifted southwestward (downstream) with time, and the integrated river (ancestral Rio Grande) flowed southwards into the Española Basin to merge with the ancestral Rio Chama. Just prior to the end of the Miocene, this fluvial system was incised in the southern part of the study area (resulting in an approximately 4–7 km wide paleovalley), and had sufficient competency to transport cobbles and boulders. Sometime between emplacement of two basalt flows dated at 5.54± 0.38 Ma and 4.82±0.20 Ma (groundmass 40Ar/39Ar ages), this fluvial system deposited 10–12 m of sandier sediment (lower Sandlin subunit) preserved in the northern part of this paleovalley. The fluvial system widened between 4.82±0.20 and 4.50±0.07 Ma, depositing coarse sand and fine gravel up to 14 km north of the present-day Rio Grande. This 10–25 m-thick sediment package (upper Sandlin unit) buried earlier south- to southeast-trending paleovalleys (500–800 m wide) inferred from aeromagnetic data. Two brief incisional events are recognized. The first was caused by the 4.82±0.20 Ma basalt flow impounding south-flowing paleodrainages, and the second occurred shortly after emplacement of a 4.69±0.09 Ma basalt flow in the northern study area. Drivers responsible for Sandlin unit aggradation may include climate

  18. Unsustainability of water resources in the Upper Laja River Basin, Mexico: Social-hydrology interactions in a regional overexploited aquifer with increasing concentrations of fluoride, arsenic and sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A.

    2013-05-01

    The Upper Laja River Basin, also known as the Independence Basin (IB), with an area of 7,000 km2 and a population near to 500,000 inhabitants is part of the regional Lerma-Chapala Basin in Central Mexico. Groundwater is the main source for drinking water supply, agriculture and industrial uses. Total groundwater extraction is in the order of 1,000 million of m3/a, through near to 3,000 wells in the basin, from which about 85% is for agriculture production, mainly for exportation. Historical hydrologic information in the basin showed the existence of numerous streams, rivers and lakes within the catchments in addition to thousands of springs in the discharge area. At present there is not permanent runoff in the main river and most of the springs and associated ecosystems have disappeared. Water table in the aquifer is between 100 and 200 m depth with decreasing rates between 2 m/a and 10 m/a, while 60 years ago water tables was near ground surface. Dissolved concentration of arsenic and fluoride in groundwater is increasing with time, causing severe health effects in rural villages and more recently in the main urban centers. Increasing concentration of sodium is affecting soil productivity and plant grow, where several hectares of land are been abandoned. There are several pieces of evidence that show the unsustainability of water resources in the IB creating complex social-hydrology interactions: Human actions are impairing the long-term renewability of freshwater stocks and flows. Basic water requirement are not been guaranteed to all inhabitants to maintain human health, neither to restore nor to maintain the remaining ecosystems. Water quality does not meet certain minimum standards in most of the basin. Water-planning and decision making are not democratic, the COTAS, a representation of water users is controlled by farmers with political power; therefore, limiting the participation of other parties and fostering direct participation of affected interests

  19. Isotopic investigation of ground water resources in the Ojo Alamo sandstone, Nacimiento, and San Jose Formations, San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Technical completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, F.M.; Peeters, L.A.; Tansey, M.K.

    1984-06-01

    The San Juan Basin, in northwest New Mexico, has vast reserves of strippable, low-sulfur coal. Development of the resource will require large quantities of water, from an area where water resources are not abundant. Since surface-water supplies are fully allocated, increased future water demands will have to be met through ground-water development. The study concentrates on the Ojo Alamo, Nacimiento, and San Jose Formations, the aquifers directly above the principal coal unit. Carbon-14 and tritium methods were used to date the ground water in these units. Initial radiocarbon activities were calculated using the models of Vogel, Tamers, Pearson, Mook and Fontes. The observation lends support to the hypothesis of isotopically lighter Pleistocene precipitation. Such lighter recharge was most likely due to a colder mean annual temperature and perhaps increased winter precipitation. A similar change is obtained from noble-gas paleothermometry

  20. Stratigraphic Evolution of Brazos-Trinity Basin IV, Western Gulf of Mexico: Preliminary Results of IODP Expedition 308

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirmez, C.; Behrmann, J.; Flemings, P. B.; John, C.

    2005-12-01

    IODP Expedition 308 drilled three sites across Brazos-Trinity Basin IV, at the terminal end of a system of four salt-withdrawal intra-slope basins offshore Texas. A 175 m thick succession of sand-rich turbidite fans, mass-transport deposits and hemipelagic sediments was deposited within the last ~120 ka in Basin IV, as recorded at Site U1320. Pre-fan deposits dating back to MIS 6 form a conformable succession of laminated and bioturbated clays, deposited from distal turbidity currents and/or river plumes. The pre-fan succession is capped by a hemipelagic clay interpreted to represent the high stand of sea level during MIS 5e. The basal turbidite deposits in the basin are mud-rich, with the exception of the very first turbidity currents to enter the basin. This initial pulse, possibly derived from failure of older shelf edge deposits, accumulated an ~8 m thick sand-rich interval. A pause in turbidity current influx lasted 30 to 40 kyrs, beginning a few thousand years before ash layer Y8 dated at 84 ka and the Emiliana huxleyi acme. During MIS 3 to MIS 2 sand-rich fans containing 5-25 m thick packets of very fine to lower medium sand beds accumulated up to 130 m of sediments. A 2-3 m thick microfossil-rich clay marks the end of turbidity current influx into the basin during the Holocene. The sedimentary record of Brazos-Trinity Basin IV shows that the accumulation of turbidites in the terminal end of this source to sink depositional system reflects a complex interaction between the availability of material and the initiation of flows at the source near the shelf edge, the interaction of turbidity currents with complex slope topography, and the effects of salt tectonics and flow processes on modifying this topography. The initial results indicate that sealevel changes alone cannot explain the sedimentation patterns observed in the basin.

  1. Principal facts for gravity data collected in the southern Albuquerque Basin area and a regional compilation, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Cindy L.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Oshetski, Kim; Keller, Gordon R.

    2000-01-01

    Principal facts for 156 new gravity stations in the southern Albuquerque basin are presented. These data fill a gap in existing data coverage. The compilation of the new data and two existing data sets into a regional data set of 5562 stations that cover the Albuquerque basin and vicinity is also described. Bouguer anomaly and isostatic residual gravity data for this regional compilation are available in digital form from ftp://greenwood.cr.usgs.gov/pub/openfile- reports/ofr-00-490.

  2. Geology and coal-bed methane resources of the northern San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassett, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This guidebook is the first of its kind: A focused look at coal-bed methane in a large Rocky Mountain Laramide basin. The papers in this volume cover every aspect of coal-bed methane in the San Juan Basin, including: The geology, environments of deposition, and geometry of the coal beds that contain the resource; the origin and migration history of the gas; basin-wide resource estimates; the engineering aspects of getting the gas out of the ground; the marketing and economics of producing coal-bed methane in the San Juan Basin; the legal ownership of the gas; state regulations governing well spacing and field rules; disposal of produced water; and land and mineral ownership patterns in the northern part of the basin. Also included are detailed papers on all of the major coal-bed methane fields in the basin, and in a paper on the history of Fruitland gas production, a discussion of most of the not-so-major fields. A small section of the book deals with geophysical methods, as yet still experimental, for surface detection of underground hydrocarbon resources. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  3. 3D electric resistivity tomography (ERT) methodologies applied on selected heavily urbanized areas of the basin of Mexico to detect buried fractures and subsidence problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez Segura, R. E.; Cifuentes-Nava, G.; Tejero, A.; Hernandez, E.

    2012-12-01

    Urban development in modern cities require of a more integral knowledge of the subsurface, mainly on those areas, where human concentrations increase. Mexico City is one of such an example, where it constitutes one of the largest concentrations of human activities in the world. Most of the urban area is underlain by lacustrine sediments of the former lakes, and confined by important volcanic ranges. Such sediments offer poor foundation conditions for constructive purposes. Therefore, high risk areas have to be identified to prevent accidents and disastrous events. Geophysical techniques can be employed to understand the physical characteristics of the subsurface. Two examples are presented in this investigation. A residential complex named La Concordia is located towards the central portion of the basin that consists of six four storey buildings in an area of 33x80 m2. Finally, a block of small houses (50x50 m2) is found to the southern limit of the basin; close to the Chichinautzin range within the town of Tecomitl. Both zones suffer of strong damage in their structures due to fractures and subsidence within the subsoil. Therefore, Electric Resistivity Tomography (ERT) was carried out to characterize the subsoil beneath these urban complexes. A special array ('horse-shoe' geometry) 'L' employing Wenner-Schlumberger techniques, in addition to equatorial-dipole and minimum-coupling arrays were carried out to fully 'illuminate' beneath the constructions. Computed resistivity models for both examples depicted the buried fracture pattern affecting the urban complexes. Such patterns seem to extend beyond the limits of the surveyed areas, and are probably part of a more complex fracture system. It is very likely that fractures have been produced due to the poorly consolidated clays that cover most of the central part of the Valley of Mexico; the intense water extraction, that form 'voids' in the subsoil causing subsidence effects and finally the existence of regional

  4. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to perform resource assessment of the thermogenic gas resources in deeply buried (>15,000 ft) natural gas reservoirs of the onshore interior salt basins of the north central and northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling; and (2) to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the deep thermogenic gas resource that is available for potential recovery and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential for this thermogenic gas resource. Petroleum source rock analysis and petroleum system characterization and modeling, including thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling, have shown that the Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation served as the regional petroleum source rock in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Thus, the estimates of the total hydrocarbons, oil, and gas generated and expelled are based on the assumption that the Smackover Formation is the main petroleum source rock in these basins and subbasins. The estimate of the total hydrocarbons generated for the North Louisiana Salt Basin in this study using a petroleum system approach compares favorably with the total volume of hydrocarbons generated published by Zimmermann (1999). In this study, the estimate is 2,870 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the method of Schmoker (1994), and the estimate is 2,640 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the Platte River software application. The estimate of Zimmermann (1999) is 2,000 to 2,500 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated. The estimate of gas generated for this basin is 6,400 TCF using the Platte River software application, and 12,800 TCF using the method of Schmoker (1994). Barnaby (2006) estimated that the total gas volume generated for this basin ranges from 4,000 to 8,000 TCF. Seventy

  5. Mercury Speciation at a Coastal Site in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Results from the Grand Bay Intensive Studies in Summer 2010 and Spring 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinrong Ren

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During two intensive studies in summer 2010 and spring 2011, measurements of mercury species including gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM, and particulate-bound mercury (PBM, trace chemical species including O3, SO2, CO, NO, NOY, and black carbon, and meteorological parameters were made at an Atmospheric Mercury Network (AMNet site at the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR in Moss Point, Mississippi. Surface measurements indicate that the mean mercury concentrations were 1.42 ± 0.12 ng∙m−3 for GEM, 5.4 ± 10.2 pg∙m−3 for GOM, and 3.1 ± 1.9 pg∙m−3 for PBM during the summer 2010 intensive and 1.53 ± 0.11 ng∙m−3 for GEM, 5.3 ± 10.2 pg∙m−3 for GOM, and 5.7 ± 6.2 pg∙m−3 for PBM during the spring 2011 intensive. Elevated daytime GOM levels (>20 pg∙m−3 were observed on a few days in each study and were usually associated with either elevated O3 (>50 ppbv, BrO, and solar radiation or elevated SO2 (>a few ppbv but lower O3 (~20–40 ppbv. This behavior suggests two potential sources of GOM: photochemical oxidation of GEM and direct emissions of GOM from nearby local sources. Lack of correlation between GOM and Beryllium-7 (7Be suggests little influence on surface GOM from downward mixing of GOM from the upper troposphere. These data were analyzed using the HYSPLIT back trajectory model and principal component analysis in order to develop source-receptor relationships for mercury species in this coastal environment. Trajectory frequency analysis shows that high GOM events were generally associated with high frequencies of the trajectories passing through the areas with high mercury emissions, while low GOM levels were largely associated the trajectories passing through relatively clean areas. Principal component analysis also reveals two main factors: direct emission and photochemical processes that were clustered with high GOM and PBM. This study indicates that the receptor site

  6. Chemical data and statistical analyses from a uranium hydrogeochemical survey of the Rio Ojo Caliente drainage basin, New Mexico. Part I. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenrich-Verbeek, K.J.; Suits, V.J.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the chemical analyses and statistical evaluation of 62 water samples collected in the north-central part of New Mexico near Rio Ojo Caliente. Both spring and surface-water samples were taken throughout the Rio Ojo Caliente drainage basin above and a few miles below the town of La Madera. A high U concentration (15 μg/l) found in the water of the Rio Ojo Caliente near La Madera, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, during a regional sampling-technique study in August 1975 by the senior author, was investigated further in May 1976 to determine whether stream waters could be effectively used to trace the source of a U anomaly. A detailed study of the tributaries to the Rio Ojo Caliente, involving 29 samples, was conducted during a moderate discharge period, May 1976, so that small tributaries would contain water. This study isolated Canada de la Cueva as the tributary contributing the anomalous U, so that in May 1977, an extremely low discharge period due to the 1977 drought, an additional 33 samples were taken to further define the anomalous area. 6 references, 3 figures, 6 tables

  7. HYPOXIA IN THE GULF OF MEXICO: ASSESSING AND MANAGING RISKS FROM NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTANTS IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    . Hypoxia is the condition in which dissolved oxygen levels are below that necessary to sustain most animal life. The largest zone of oxygen depletion in U.S. coastal waters is found in the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) on the Louisiana/Texas continental shelf. In response to...

  8. Soft-sediment deformation structures interpreted as seismites in the uppermost Aptian to lowermost Albian transgressive deposits of the Chihuahua basin (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, E.J.-P.; Blanc-Aletru, M. -C.; Mojon, P.-O.

    1998-01-01

    Several levels of soft-sediment deformation structures (s.-s.d.s.) cut by synsedimentary normal faults have been observed in the transition beds between the "Las Vigas" and "La Virgen" formations (Cretaceous) in the northeastern part of the Chihuahua basin in Mexico. These structures consisted of four kinds of motifs (floating breccias, flame-like structures, large pillow structures, and wavy structures). They are restricted to five "stratigraphie" levels (Z1-Z5) and surrounded by undeformed beds in fluvio-lacustrine and tidal deposits and can be traced over a distance of several hundred meters. This deformation is interpreted to have resulted from the combined effects of liquidization and shear stress in soft-sediments due to local earthquakes in the area which could have been generated during the rifting stage of the Chihuahua basin. New constraints placed on the age of the "Las Vigas" Formation (bracketed by Late Aptian charophytes at the bottom and colomiellids of late Aptian to earliest Albian age at the top) suggest that this synrift tectonism lasted at least until the end of the Aptian. ?? Springer-Verlag 1998.

  9. Does a strong pycnocline impact organic-matter preservation and accumulation in an anoxic setting? The case of the Orca Basin, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribovillard, Nicolas; Bout-Roumazeilles, Viviane; Sionneau, Thomas; Serrano, Jean Carlos Montero; Riboulleau, Armelle; Baudin, François

    2009-01-01

    The Orca Basin (an intraslope depression located in the Gulf of Mexico) collects sedimentary particles of terrestrial origin (clastic and organic particles mainly supplied by the Mississippi River) and of marine origin (biogenic productivity). The basin is partly filled with dense brines leached from salt diapirs cropping out on the sea floor, and is permanently stratified. A strong pycnocline induces anoxic bottom conditions, expectedly favorable to organic matter (OM) preservation. Here, we report on OM in the upper 750 cm below sea floor of Core MD02-2552 (Holocene). The organic content is dominated by marine-derived amorphous OM. The organic assemblage is unexpectedly degraded to some extent, which may be accounted for by a relatively long residence time of organic particles at the halocline-pycnocline at ˜2240 m. Thus the organic particles are temporarily trapped and kept in contact with the dissolved oxygen-rich overlying water mass. Lastly, the land-derived organic fraction shows co-variations with the land-derived clay mineral supply.

  10. Evaluation of geothermal potential of Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range province, New Mexico. Final technical report, January 1, 1977-May 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callender, J.F.

    1985-04-01

    A study was made of the geological, geochemical and geophysical characteristics of potential geothermal areas in the Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range province of New Mexico. Both regional and site-specific information is presented. Data was collected by: (1) reconnaissance and detailed geologic mapping, emphasizing Neogene stratigraphy and structure; (2) petrologic studies of Neogene igneous rocks; (3) radiometric age-dating; (4) geochemical surveying, including regional and site-specific water chemistry, stable isotopic analyses of thermal waters, whole-rock and mineral isotopic studies, and whole-rock chemical analyses; and (5) detailed geophysical surveys, using electrical, gravity and magnetic techniques, with electrical resistivity playing a major role. Regional geochemical water studies were conducted for the whole state. Integrated site-specific studies included the Animas Valley, Las Cruces area (Radium Springs and Las Alturas Estates), Truth or Consequences region, the Albuquerque basin, the San Ysidro area, and the Abiquiu-Ojo Caliente region. The Animas Valley and Las Cruces areas have the most significant geothermal potential of the areas studied. The Truth or Consequences and Albuquerque areas need further study. The San Ysidro and Abiquiu-Ojo Caliente regions have less significant geothermal potential. 78 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. Web application to access U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works and Restoration Projects information for the Rio Grande Basin, southern Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Eames, Deanna R.

    2009-01-01

    The Rio Grande Civil Works and Restoration Projects Web Application, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Albuquerque District, is designed to provide publicly available information through the Internet about civil works and restoration projects in the Rio Grande Basin. Since 1942, USACE Albuquerque District responsibilities have included building facilities for the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force, providing flood protection, supplying water for power and public recreation, participating in fire remediation, protecting and restoring wetlands and other natural resources, and supporting other government agencies with engineering, contracting, and project management services. In the process of conducting this vast array of engineering work, the need arose for easily tracking the locations of and providing information about projects to stakeholders and the public. This fact sheet introduces a Web application developed to enable users to visualize locations and search for information about USACE (and some other Federal, State, and local) projects in the Rio Grande Basin in southern Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas.

  12. Ground-Water Flow Model of the Sierra Vista Subwatershed and Sonoran Portions of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona, United States, and Northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, D.R.; Dickinson, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    A numerical ground-water model was developed to simulate seasonal and long-term variations in ground-water flow in the Sierra Vista subwatershed, Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico, portions of the Upper San Pedro Basin. This model includes the simulation of details of the groundwater flow system that were not simulated by previous models, such as ground-water flow in the sedimentary rocks that surround and underlie the alluvial basin deposits, withdrawals for dewatering purposes at the Tombstone mine, discharge to springs in the Huachuca Mountains, thick low-permeability intervals of silt and clay that separate the ground-water flow system into deep-confined and shallow-unconfined systems, ephemeral-channel recharge, and seasonal variations in ground-water discharge by wells and evapotranspiration. Steady-state and transient conditions during 1902-2003 were simulated by using a five-layer numerical ground- water flow model representing multiple hydrogeologic units. Hydraulic properties of model layers, streamflow, and evapotranspiration rates were estimated as part of the calibration process by using observed water levels, vertical hydraulic gradients, streamflow, and estimated evapotranspiration rates as constraints. Simulations approximate observed water-level trends throughout most of the model area and streamflow trends at the Charleston streamflow-gaging station on the San Pedro River. Differences in observed and simulated water levels, streamflow, and evapotranspiration could be reduced through simulation of climate-related variations in recharge rates and recharge from flood-flow infiltration.

  13. Summary statistics and trend analysis of water-quality data at sites in the Gila River basin, New Mexico and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldys, Stanley; Ham, L.K.; Fossum, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    Summary statistics and temporal trends for 19 water-chemistry constituents and for turbidity were computed for 13 study sites in the Gila River basin, Arizona and New Mexico. A nonparametric technique, the seasonal Kendall tau test for flow-adjusted data, was used to analyze temporal changes in water-chemistry data. For the 19 selected constituents and turbidity, decreasing trends in concentrations outnumbered increasing trends by more than two to one. Decreasing trends in concentrations of constituents were found for 49 data sets at the 13 study sites. Gila River at Calva and Gila River above diversions, at Gillespie Dam (eight each) had the most decreasing trends for individual sites. The largest number of decreasing trends measured for a constituent was six for dissolved lead. The next largest number of decreasing trends for a constituent was for dissolved solids and total manganese (five each). Hardness, dissolved sodium, and dissolved chloride had decreasing trends at four of the study sites. Increasing trends in concen- trations of constituents were found for 24 data sets at the 13 study sites. The largest number of increasing trends measured for a single constituent was for pH (four), dissolved sulfate (three), dissolved chromium (three) and total manganese (three). Increased concentrations of constituents generally were found in three areas in the basin-at Pinal Creek above Inspiration Dam, at sites above reservoirs, and at sites on the main stem of the Gila River from Gillespie Dam to the mouth.

  14. Preliminary study of the uranium potential of Tertiary rocks in the central San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizcaino, H.P.; O'Neill, A.J.

    1977-12-01

    Three formations in the Tertiary of the San Juan Basin were investigated for their uranium favorability. They are the Ojo Alamo Sandstone, the Nacimiento Formation, and the San Jose Formation. The study comprised a literature survey and a basin analysis, which consisted of subsurface lithofacies, stratigraphic, and radiometric mapping. Field work in preparation for the subsurface analysis consisted of examination of outcrop and measured sections, surface radiometric traverses, and checking of reported surface radioactive anomalies. Interpretation of subsurface mapping provided the primary basis for favorability assessment. The sandstone trends depicted in lithofacies maps, and stratigraphic cross sections reflect large channel complexes and major fluvial systems originating in favorable source areas. Although surface radioactivity anomalies were found to be few, weak, and widespread, the San Juan Basin has abundant favorable host rocks. The subsurface anomalies, although weak, are widespread and sometimes persist throughout thickness intervals greater than 50 ft. Subsurface anomalies were mapped on a wide-spaced grid and are generalized. On the basis of apparent source, lithology, differential permeability, contents of carbonaceous detritus, and geometry, the Nacimiento Formation and the basal facies of the San Jose Formation in the north-central basin have the greatest potential. The Ojo Alamo Sandstone is less favorable, and the Nacimiento Formation in the southern part of the basin and the upper San Jose Formation are the least favorable of the units studied

  15. Geologic assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources--Middle Eocene Claiborne Group, United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle Eocene Claiborne Group was assessed using established U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment methodology for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources as part of the 2007 USGS assessment of Paleogene-Neogene strata of the United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin including onshore and State waters. The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite total petroleum system, which was defined as part of the assessment. Source rocks for Claiborne oil accumulations are interpreted to be organic-rich downdip shaley facies of the Wilcox Group and the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group; gas accumulations may have originated from multiple sources including the Jurassic Smackover and Haynesville Formations and Bossier Shale, the Cretaceous Eagle Ford and Pearsall(?) Formations, and the Paleogene Wilcox Group and Sparta Sand. Hydrocarbon generation in the basin started prior to deposition of Claiborne sediments and is ongoing at present. Emplacement of hydrocarbons into Claiborne reservoirs has occurred primarily via vertical migration along fault systems; long-range lateral migration also may have occurred in some locations. Primary reservoir sands in the Claiborne Group include, from oldest to youngest, the Queen City Sand, Cook Mountain Formation, Sparta Sand, Yegua Formation, and the laterally equivalent Cockfield Formation. Hydrocarbon traps dominantly are rollover anticlines associated with growth faults; salt structures and stratigraphic traps also are important. Sealing lithologies probably are shaley facies within the Claiborne and in the overlying Jackson Group. A geologic model, supported by spatial analysis of petroleum geology data including discovered reservoir depths, thicknesses, temperatures, porosities, permeabilities, and pressures, was used to divide the Claiborne Group into seven assessment units (AU) with distinctive structural and depositional settings. The AUs include (1) Lower Claiborne Stable Shelf

  16. 78 FR 12085 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... the Central Planning Area of the Gulf of Mexico. Energy Resource Technology GOM, Green Canyon, Block... on the Federal OCS. These SEAs examine the potential environmental effects of proposed activities and present BOEM conclusions regarding the significance of those effects. The SEAs are used as a basis for...

  17. Deformation Analyses and Lithologic Characterization in Overpressured Basins Based on Logging While Drilling and Wireline Results from the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrino, G. J.; Pirmez, C.; Moore, J. C.; Reichow, M. K.; Dugan, B. E.; Sawyer, D. E.; Flemings, P. B.; Shipboard Scientific Party, I.

    2005-12-01

    IODP Expedition 308 drilled transects along the Brazos-Trinity IV and Ursa Basins in the western and eastern Gulf of Mexico, respectively, for examining how sedimentation, overpressure, fluid flow, and deformation are coupled in passive margin settings. A total of eight holes were logged using either logging while drilling (LWD) or wireline techniques to evaluate the controls on slope stability, understand the timing of sedimentation and slumping, establish the petrophysical properties of shallow sediments, and provide a better understanding of turbidite systems. Overall, the log responses vary for the different lithostratigraphic units and associated regional seismic reflectors. The data acquired also make bed-to-bed correlation between sites possible, which is valuable for the study of sandy turbidites and studies of regional deformation. The thick sedimentary successions drilled at these basins show records of the evolution of channel-levee systems composed of low relief channels that were incapable of confining the turbidity currents causing an overspill of sand and silt. In addition, mass transport deposits at shallow depths, and transitions between interbedded silt, sand, and mud units are common features identified in many of the downhole logging data. In the Ursa Basin sediments, resistivity-at-the-bit images show significant deformation of the overlying hemipelagic drape and distal turbidites that were drilled in these areas. Numerous dipping beds throughout these intervals with dips ranging from 5 to 55 degrees confirm core observations. Steeply deformed beds, with dips as high as 65 degrees, and folded and faulted beds suggest down slope remobilization as mass-transport deposits. Resistivity images also show evidence of these mass-transport deposits where steep dips and folds suggest the presence of overturned beds within a series of cyclic intervals that we interpret as a succession of sand-silt-mud lamina. Preliminary structural analyses suggest that

  18. Millennial- to century-scale variability in Gulf of Mexico Holocene climate records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, R.Z.; Dowsett, H.J.; Verardo, S.; Quinn, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Proxy records from two piston cores in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) provide a detailed (50-100 year resolution) record of climate variability over the last 14,000 years. Long-term (millennial-scale) trends and changes are related to the transition from glacial to interglacial conditions and movement of the average position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) related to orbital forcing. The ??18O of the surface-dwelling planktic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber show negative excursions between 14 and 10.2 ka (radiocarbon years) that reflect influx of meltwater into the western GOM during melting of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. The relative abundance of the planktic foraminifer Globigerinoides sacculifer is related to transport of Caribbean water into the GOM. Maximum transport of Caribbean surface waters and moisture into the GOM associated with a northward migration of the average position of the ITCZ occurs between about 6.5 and 4.5 ka. In addition, abundance variations of G. sacculifer show century-scale variability throughout most of the Holocene. The GOM record is consistent with records from other areas, suggesting that century-scale variability is a pervasive feature of Holocene climate. The frequency of several cycles in the climate records is similar to cycles identified in proxy records of solar variability, indicating that at least some of the century-scale climate variability during the Holocene is due to external (solar) forcing.

  19. Species boundaries of Gulf of Mexico vestimentiferans (Polychaeta, Siboglinidae) inferred from mitochondrial genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pia Miglietta, Maria; Hourdez, Stephane; Cowart, Dominique A.; Schaeffer, Stephen W.; Fisher, Charles

    2010-11-01

    At least six morphospecies of vestimentiferan tubeworms are associated with cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). The physiology and ecology of the two best-studied species from depths above 1000 m in the upper Louisiana slope (Lamellibrachia luymesi and Seepiophila jonesi) are relatively well understood. The biology of one rare species from the upper slope (escarpiid sp. nov.) and three morphospecies found at greater depths in the GOM (Lamellibrachia sp. 1, L. sp. 2, and Escarpia laminata) are not as well understood. Here we address species distributions and boundaries of cold-seep tubeworms using phylogenetic hypotheses based on two mitochondrial genes. Fragments of the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit rDNA (16S) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes were sequenced for 167 vestimentiferans collected from the GOM and analyzed in the context of other seep vestimentiferans for which sequence data were available. The analysis supported five monophyletic clades of vestimentiferans in the GOM. Intra-clade variation in both genes was very low, and there was no apparent correlation between the within-clade diversity and collection depth or location. Two of the morphospecies of Lamellibrachia from different depths in the GOM could not be distinguished by either mitochondrial gene. Similarly, E. laminata could not be distinguished from other described species of Escarpia from either the west coast of Africa or the eastern Pacific using COI. We suggest that the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes have little utility as barcoding markers for seep vestimentiferan tubeworms.

  20. A basin-scale approach for assessing water resources in a semiarid environment: San Diego region, California and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Flint

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many basins throughout the world have sparse hydrologic and geologic data, but have increasing demands for water and a commensurate need for integrated understanding of surface and groundwater resources. This paper demonstrates a methodology for using a distributed parameter water-balance model, gaged surface-water flow, and a reconnaissance-level groundwater flow model to develop a first-order water balance. Flow amounts are rounded to the nearest 5 million cubic meters per year.

    The San Diego River basin is 1 of 5 major drainage basins that drain to the San Diego coastal plain, the source of public water supply for the San Diego area. The distributed parameter water-balance model (Basin Characterization Model was run at a monthly timestep for 1940–2009 to determine a median annual total water inflow of 120 million cubic meters per year for the San Diego region. The model was also run specifically for the San Diego River basin for 1982–2009 to provide constraints to model calibration and to evaluate the proportion of inflow that becomes groundwater discharge, resulting in a median annual total water inflow of 50 million cubic meters per year. On the basis of flow records for the San Diego River at Fashion Valley (US Geological Survey gaging station 11023000, when corrected for upper basin reservoir storage and imported water, the total is 30 million cubic meters per year. The difference between these two flow quantities defines the annual groundwater outflow from the San Diego River basin at 20 million cubic meters per year. These three flow components constitute a first-order water budget estimate for the San Diego River basin. The ratio of surface-water outflow and groundwater outflow to total water inflow are 0.6 and 0.4, respectively. Using total water inflow determined using the Basin Characterization Model for the entire San Diego region and the 0.4 partitioning factor, groundwater outflow from the San Diego region, through

  1. Assessing Hydrologic Impacts of Future Land Cover Change Scenarios in the South Platte River Basin (CO, WY, & NE) and the San Pedro River Basin (U.S./Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J. E.; Burns, I. S.; Guertin, D. P.; Kepner, W. G.; Goodrich, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term land-use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology to characterize hydrologic impacts from future urban growth through time that was developed and applied on the San Pedro River Basin was expanded and utilized on the South Platte River Basin as well. Future urban growth is represented by housing density maps generated in decadal intervals from 2010 to 2100, produced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Integrated Climate and Land-Use Scenarios (ICLUS) project. ICLUS developed future housing density maps by adapting the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) social, economic, and demographic storylines to the conterminous United States. To characterize hydrologic impacts from future growth, the housing density maps were reclassified to National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2006 land cover classes and used to parameterize the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool. The objectives of this project were to 1) develop and implement a methodology for adapting the ICLUS data for use in AGWA as an approach to evaluate impacts of development on water-quantity and -quality, 2) present, evaluate, and compare results from scenarios for watersheds in two different geographic and climatic regions, 3) determine watershed specific implications of this type of future land cover change analysis.

  2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Renewable Energy Opportunity Assessment for USAID Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Andrea [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bracho, Ricardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Romero, Rachel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mercer, Megan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-13

    The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program is designing its second phase of assistance to the Government of Mexico (GOM). In preparation for program design, USAID has asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assist in identifying options for enabling renewable energy in Mexico and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the energy sector. The NREL team conducted a literature review and consulted with over 20 Mexican agencies and organizations during a two-week temporary duty assignment (TDY) to Mexico to identify gaps, opportunities, and program theme areas for Mexico.

  3. Identifying ephemeral and perennial stream reaches using apparent thermal inertia for an ungauged basin: The Rio Salado, Central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Night and day temperature images from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) remote sensing images are used to identify ephemeral and perennial stream reaches for use in the calibration of an integrated hydrologic model of an ungauged basin. The concept is based on a...

  4. Lessons for Integrated Water Resources Management from the San Pedro HELP Basin on the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, A.; Goodrich, D.; Varady, R.; Richter, H.

    2007-12-01

    The San Pedro Basin sits within an intermountain ecotone with the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts to the west and east and the Rocky Mountain and Sierra Madre Mountain habitats to the north and south. The headwaters of the basin originate in northern Sonora and flow north into southeast Arizona. As the region's only remaining perennial stream, the San Pedro River serves as an international flyway for over 400 bird species. It is one of the western hemisphere's most ecologically diverse areas with some 20 different biotic communities, and "possesses one of the richest assemblages of land mammal species in the world." Large mining, military, and municipal entities are major users of the same groundwater resources that maintain perennial flow in the San Pedro. This presentation describes empirical evidence of the positive impacts on watershed management of scientists and policy researchers working closely with water managers and elected officials in a functioning HELP basin. We posit that when hydrologists help watershed groups understand the processes controlling water quality and quantity, and when managers and stakeholders connect these processes to social, economic and legal issues then transboundary cooperation in policymaking and water management is most effective. The distinctive physical and socioeconomic characteristics of the basin as well as differences in institutional regulations, water law issues, and their local implementations in Arizona and Sonora are discussed. We illustrate how stakeholders and scientific researchers in both countries strive to balance ecosystem needs with human demands to create new, integrated basin management. Finally, we describe how the accomplishments of the San Pedro collaborative process, including the use of environmental-conflict-resolution tools, have contributed to the UNESCO HELP (Hydrology for the Environment, Life, and Policy) agenda.

  5. Hydrologic properties and ground-water flow systems of the Paleozoic rocks in the upper Colorado River basin in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, excluding the San Juan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldon, Arthur L.

    2003-01-01

    The hydrologic properties and ground-water flow systems of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin were investigated under the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey in anticipation of the development of water supplies from bedrock aquifers to fulfill the region's growing water demands. The study area, in parts of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, covers about 100,000 square miles. It includes parts of four physiographic provinces--the Middle Rocky Mountains, Wyoming Basin, Southern Rocky Mountains, and Colorado Plateaus. A variety of landforms, including mountains, plateaus, mesas, cuestas, plains, badlands, and canyons, are present. Altitudes range from 3,100 to 14,500 feet. Precipitation is distributed orographically and ranges from less than 6 inches per year at lower altitudes to more than 60 inches per year in some mountainous areas. Most of the infrequent precipitation at altitudes of less than 6,000 feet is consumed by evapotranspiration. The Colorado and Green Rivers are the principal streams: the 1964-82 average discharge of the Colorado River where it leaves the Upper Colorado River Basin is 12,170 cubic feet per second (a decrease of 5,680 cubic feet per second since construction of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963). On the basis of their predominant lithologic and hydrologic properties, the Paleozoic rocks are classified into four aquifers and three confining units. The Flathead aquifer, Gros Ventre confining unit, Bighorn aquifer, Elbert-Parting confining unit, and Madison aquifer (Redwall-Leadville and Darwin-Humbug zones) make up the Four Corners aquifer system. A thick sequence, composed mostly of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian shale, anhydrite, halite, and carbonate rocks--the Four Corners confining unit (Belden-Molas and Paradox-Eagle Valley subunits)--overlies the Four Corners aquifer system in most areas and inhibits vertical ground-water flow between the Four Corners aquifer

  6. Executive summary--2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 1 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province (5022), New Mexico and Colorado (fig. 1). Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  7. Tectono-Stratigraphy of the Seeps on the Guaymas Basin at the Sonora Margin, Gulf of California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Albornoz, L. J.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.; Bandy, W. L.; Escobar-Briones, E. G.; Godfroy, A.; Fouquet, Y.

    2013-05-01

    Recently several hydrothermal and gas seeps systems has been located precisely at the Sonora margin within the Guaymas Basin (GB), Gulf of California. Since late 1970's , several marine studies had reported two main hydrothermal systems in the Guaymas Rift (one at the Northern Rift, and other at the Southern Rift) and a cold seeps system at the Satellite Basin in the Sonora-margin lower edge. During the campaign BIG10, onboard the IFREMER vessel, NO L'Atalante, the EM122 echo-sounder log more than 30,000 water column acoustic images, which allows us to create a data base of the bubble plumes active systems on the northern part of the GB and the Sonora Margin. These plumes are the expression on the water column of an active seeps site during the cruise time. These images document the presence of the cold seep activity around the scarp of the Guaymas Transform Fault (GTF), and within the Satellite Basin. Few active plumes are first located off-axis, on both sides of the Northern Rift. Although it is not observed any plume within NR. Sub-bottom profiles and bathymetric data logged during the campaign GUAYRIV10, onboard the UNAM vessel, BO EL PUMA, are analyzed to determine the shallow tectonic-stratigraphy of GB near the Sonora Margin. We analyze 17 high-resolution seismic profiles (13 with NE-SW strike and 3 with NW-SE strike). From this data set, the continental shelf stratigraphy at the Sonora Margin tilts toward the slope, showing 3 low angle unconformities due to tectonics and slope angle changes. The strata slope changes angle up to 60°. However, the constant trans-tension shear along the GTF causes gravitation instability on the slope, generating a few submarine landslides close to the Northern Rift, and the rotation of blocks, tilting toward the shelf. To the north, the GTF splits in two fault escarpments, forming a narrow pull-apart basin, known as Satellite Basin. The submarine canyon from the Sonora River flows through the Satellite Basin into the GB

  8. Stratigraphy, geochronology and regional tectonic setting of the Late Cretaceous (ca. 82-70 Ma) Cabullona basin, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-León, Carlos M.; Solari, Luigi A.; Madhavaraju, Jayagopal

    2017-12-01

    The Cabullona basin in northeastern Sonora is a continental depocenter whose origin is related to the adjacent Sierra Anibacachi uplift that bounds its tectonic eastern flank. Its exposed, mostly fluvial and lacustrine sedimentary fill, the Cabullona Group, was deposited between 81.9 ± 0.7 and 69.8 ± 0.7 Ma and its outcrops extends for 70 km from north to south. The oldest measured stratigraphic column of the Cabullona Group is the Los Atolillos column of the southern part of the basin, but its base is not exposed. A basal conglomerate in the younger El Malacate (ca. 80 Ma), Cuauhtémoc (ca. 75 Ma) and San Joaquín (ca. 70 Ma) columns onlaps deformed basement rocks. The type section in which the Cabullona Group was previously named is herein referred as the Naco section and is dated ∼73-72 Ma. The younger strata of the Cabullona Group correspond to the fluvial San Joaquín column that onlaps the eastern tectonic boundary of the basin and to the lacustrine Esqueda column. These columns are dated at ca. 70 Ma and may represent the late evolution of the Cabullona basin. Sandstone petrography and detrital zircon geochronology are used to infer provenance of sediments of the Cabullona Group. Sandstones consist of lithic arkose to feldespathic litharenite, indicating provenance from dissected to transitional volcanic arc, but samples of the El Malacate column classify as arkose and lithic arkose with possible provenance from basement uplift of Sierra Los Ajos; litharenite from the Esqueda column indicate arc provenance. Detrital zircons yielded mostly Proterozoic and Mesozoic ages with age peaks at ca. 1568, 167, 100, 80 and 73 Ma indicating possible provenance from the Precambrian basement rocks and the Jurassic continental magmatic arc that underlie the region, the Alisitos arc and La Posta plutons in Baja California, and from the Laramide magmatic arc of Sonora. The Cabullona basin developed nearly contemporaneous to the early, eastwards migrating Laramide

  9. Integrated petrographic and geochemical study of coal and gas shales from the Sabinas and Chihuahua basins, North of Mexico: estimation of methane gas resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La O Burrola, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    This comprehensive characterization study was performed using organic petrology and geochemistry conducted in the Sabinas basin and Chihuahua in northern Mexico. This information allowed a numerical modeling of gas formation, considering the thermal subsidence of coal and carbonaceous shales. The objectives of this thesis are: - Establish a characterization methodology for the studied rocks - Estimate potential gas generator and its regional distribution - Estimate the methane gas resources For the development of this project, we conducted an intensive campaign representative sampling of coal, carbonaceous shales and coal gas 'in situ'. For the Sabinas basin were studied 97 samples and 114 samples in the basin of Chihuahua. The analyses carried out that were used on the samples analyzed allowed to characterize the kerogen and gas. The methodology used to cross petrographic and geochemical information to analyze the petroleum system by numerical modeling. Analyses were: Petrographic, reflectance %Ro, elemental analysis and immediate, Rock Eval6 R (Bulk rock), isotopic analysis, δ 13 C, δD, (coal gas), scanning electron microscopy, image analysis and analysis of macerals fluid inclusions. The analyzes that were used on the samples allowed to characterize the sample, the kerogen and gas. The methodology used to cross petrographic and geochemical information for analyze the oil system by numerical modeling. Analyses were: Petrographic, reflectance %Ro, elemental analysis and immediate, Rock Eval6 R (Bulk rock), isotopic analysis, δ 13 C, δD, (coal gas), scanning electron microscopy, image analysis and analysis of macerals fluid inclusions A computer program was constructed to cross the information with the analysis of samples of artificial maturation experiments in the laboratory. This approach allowed estimation of methane gas resources generated by coal and carbonaceous shales. The main results obtained for Sabinas Basin were: - The kerogen of the

  10. Regional diagenesis of sandstone in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansley, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    The author reports that early authigenic mineral assemblages and vitroclastic textures are very well preserved in upper sandstones of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. The distributions of the authigenic minerals were controlled, in part, by chemical gradients in a large saline, alkaline lake (Lake T'oo'dichi) that existed in late Morrison time. Sandstones on lake margins were cemented by smectite and silica, whereas sandstones nearer the lake center, in which waters were most saline and alkaline, were cemented by zeolites. Diagenetic alterations in sandstones were promoted by alkaline interstitial waters that emanated from adjacent fine-grained, tuffaceous lake beds. Metastable phases that precipitated first were replaced relatively quickly by more stable, ordered phases in the geochemically favorable environment of the closed basin setting. Elevation of temperatures above the geothermal gradient was proved by the influx of warm, deep-basin waters that locally modified early diagenetic assemblages during burial diagenesis. In organic- (and commonly also uranium ore-) bearing sandstones located primarily in the southern part of the basin, complex diagenetic assemblages resulted from water/rock reactions involving soluble organic complexes

  11. Interpreting the suspended sediment dynamics in a mesoscale river basin of Central Mexico using a nested watershed approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvert, C.; Némery, J.; Gratiot, N.; Prat, C.; Collet, L.; Esteves, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Cointzio river basin is located within the Mexican Transvolcanic Belt, in the Michoacán state. Land-use changes undergone over last decades lead to significant erosion processes, though affecting limited areas of the basin. Apart from generating a minor depletion of arable land by incising small headwater areas, this important sediment delivery contributed to siltation in the reservoir of Cointzio, situated right downstream of the basin. During 2009 rainy season, a detailed monitoring of water and sediment fluxes was undertaken in three headwater catchments located within the Cointzio basin (Huertitas, Potrerillos and La Cortina, respectively 2.5, 9.3 and 12.0 km2), as well as at the outlet of the main river basin (station of Santiago Undameo, 627 km2). Preliminary tests realized in 2008 underlined the necessity of carrying out a high-frequency monitoring strategy to assess the sediment dynamics in the basins of this region. In each site, water discharge time-series were obtained from continuous water-level measurements (5-min time-step), and stage-discharge rating curves. At the river basin outlet, Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) was estimated every 10 minutes through turbidity measurements calibrated with data from automatic sampling. In the three sub-catchments, SSC time-series were calculated using stage-triggered automatic water samplers. The three upland areas monitored in our study present distinct landforms, morphology and soil types. La Cortina is underlain by andisols, rich in organic matter and with an excellent microstructure under wet conditions. Huertitas and Potrerillos both present a severely gullied landscape, bare and highly susceptible to water erosion in degraded areas. As a result, suspended sediment yields in 2009 were expectedly much higher in these two sub-catchments (≈320 t.km-2 in Huertitas and ≈270 t.km-2 in Potrerillos) than in La Cortina (≈40 t.km-2). The total suspended sediment export was approximately of 30 t.km-2

  12. Institutions and Societal Impacts of Climate in the Lower Colorado and San Pedro Basins of the U.S.-Mexico Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, R. G.; Wilder, M.; Morehouse, B. J.; Garfin, G. M.

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Southwest and Mexico border region feature two prominent river basins, the Colorado and Rio Grande, and ecologically important sub-basins such as the San Pedro. The area within which these transboundary basins lie is characterized by overall aridity and high climatic variability over seasonal to decadal and longer time scales. Throughout human occupation, numerous and diverse strategies for buffering climate impacts have emerged. The most notable response has been an increasingly complex system of institutions and structures designed to buffer water scarcity. The Colorado River Compact, and the laws governing allocation of waters from the Rio Grande River, together with the dams, hydropower generators, canals and other engineered features, represent two of the most complex systems. Drought nevertheless remains a looming specter across much of the binational border region. Institutional mechanisms for responding to drought range from awareness-raising and capacity-building efforts, to implementation of formal drought plans, to storing water to make up for deficits, and water conservation rules that become increasingly stringent as drought intensifies. A number of formal and informal binational institutions operate in the region. Some are venerable, like the century-old International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) and its Mexican counterpart the Comision Internacional de Limites y Agua (CILA). Others, like the Border Environment Cooperation Commission and the North American Development Bank, were created in the mid-1990s with the North American Free Trade Agreement. These institutions, both domestic and transnational, operate in a complex binational, bicultural environment with contrasting legal and administrative traditions. Under such constraints, they manage water resources and ecosystems and attempt to improve water and sanitation infrastructure in the context of deep and extended drought. But in spite of their efforts, society and natural habitat

  13. Hydrogeology in the sub basins of apan-tochac, Hidalgo and Tlaxcala states, Mexico; Hidrogeologia de la subcuencia de apan-tochac, estados de Hidalgo y Tlaxcala, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizar Alvarez, Rafael [Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    This study presents the hydrogeologic model of the Apan-Tochac sub-basin, obtained from geologic and geo electric soundings. These data were interpreted with the lithological description of three well-logs. This information allows to identify and map three different aquifers: intergranular, fissure and mixed. These three aquifers are hydraulically connected. The first one is located in the discharge zone and has semi-confined conditions in the center of the Tochac plain and is unconfined toward the periphery of the same plan. The other two aquifers are located mainly in the recharge zone. The hydraulic conductivity values are: 3x10-3 ms{sub 1} a 10-4 ms{sub 1} for the intergranular aquifer, 3x10-3 ms{sub 1} for the fissured and the third aquifer has not data available but it is assigned a value of 2x10-6 ms{sub 1}. The chemical analyses of groundwater (anions and cations) indicate that its mineralization forms two hydrochemical facies: a low mineralization facies corresponding to the recharge area, and a high mineralization facies corresponding to the discharge zone. The results also show that groundwater is of good quality for human consumption (Secretaria de Salubridad y Asistencia, and the World Health Organization), except for the concentrations of lead and chromium due to incipient contamination. Therefore, it is necessary to start actions to protect the aquifers and to foresee possible damages in the health of the inhabitants of the region, which use this groundwater. The preliminary hydrogeologic balance shows that the aquifer system of this sub-basin is almost in equilibrium. [Spanish] Este estudio presenta el modelo hidrogeologico de la subcuenca Apan-Tochac, apoyado en la informacion geologica y sondeos geoelectricos, interpretados estos ultimos con la descripcion litologica de tres perforadores. De esta forma, se reconocio y cartografio los siguientes acuiferos: (i) intergranular, (ii) fisurado y (iii) mixto. Estos tres acuiferos tienen relacion

  14. Enhanced provenance interpretation using combined U-Pb and (U-Th)/He double dating of detrital zircon grains from lower Miocene strata, proximal Gulf of Mexico Basin, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Stockli, Daniel F.; Snedden, John W.

    2017-10-01

    Detrital zircon U-Pb analysis is an effective approach for investigating sediment provenance by relating crystallization age to potential crystalline source terranes. Studies of large passive margin basins, such as the Gulf of Mexico Basin, that have received sediment from multiple terranes with non-unique crystallization ages or sedimentary strata, benefit from additional constraints to better elucidate provenance interpretation. In this study, U-Pb and (U-Th)/He double dating analyses on single zircons from the lower Miocene sandstones in the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin reveal a detailed history of sediment source evolution. U-Pb age data indicate that most zircon originated from five major crystalline provinces, including the Western Cordillera Arc (1800 Ma) terranes. Zircon (U-Th)/He ages record tectonic cooling and exhumation in the U.S. since the Mesoproterozoic related to the Grenville to Laramide Orogenies. The combined crystallization and cooling information from single zircon double dating can differentiate volcanic and plutonic zircons. Importantly, the U-Pb-He double dating approach allows for the differentiation between multiple possible crystallization-age sources on the basis of their subsequent tectonic evolution. In particular, for Grenville zircons that are present in all of lower Miocene samples, four distinct zircon U-Pb-He age combinations are recognizable that can be traced back to four different possible sources. The integrated U-Pb and (U-Th)/He data eliminate some ambiguities and improves the provenance interpretation for the lower Miocene strata in the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin and illustrate the applicability of this approach for other large-scale basins to reconstruct sediment provenance and dispersal patterns.

  15. Potential field studies of the central San Luis Basin and San Juan Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico, and southern and western Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenth, Benjamin John

    This dissertation includes three separate chapters, each demonstrating the interpretive utility of potential field (gravity and magnetic) geophysical datasets at various scales and in various geologic environments. The locations of these studies are the central San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, and southern and western Afghanistan. The San Luis Basin is the northernmost of the major basins that make up the Rio Grande rift, and interpretation of gravity and aeromagnetic data reveals patterns of rifting, rift-sediment thicknesses, distribution of pre-rift volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and distribution of syn-rift volcanic rocks. Syn-rift Santa Fe Group sediments have a maximum thickness of ˜2 km in the Sanchez graben near the eastern margin of the basin along the central Sangre de Cristo fault zone. Under the Costilla Plains, thickness of these sediments is estimated to reach ˜1.3 km. The Santa Fe Group sediments also reach a thickness of nearly 1 km within the Monte Vista graben near the western basin margin along the San Juan Mountains. A narrow, north-south-trending structural high beneath San Pedro Mesa separates the graben from the structural depression beneath the Costilla Plains. Aeromagnetic anomalies are interpreted to mainly reflect variations of remanent magnetic polarity and burial depth of the 5.3-3.7 Ma Servilleta basalt of the Taos Plateau volcanic field. Magnetic-source depth estimates indicate patterns of subsidence following eruption of the basalt and show that the Sanchez graben has been the site of maximum subsidence. One of the largest and most pronounced gravity lows in North America lies over the rugged San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado. A buried, low-density silicic batholith related to an Oligocene volcanic field coincident with the San Juan Mountains has been the accepted interpretation of the source of the gravity low since the 1970s. However, this interpretation was

  16. Geology of the Roswell artesian basin, New Mexico, and its relation to the Hondo Reservoir and Effect on artesian aquifer storage of flood water in Hondo Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Robert T.; Theis, Charles V.

    1949-01-01

    In the Roswell Basin in southeastern New Mexico artesian water is produced from cavernous zones in the carbonate rocks of the San Andres formation and the lower part of the Chalk Bluff formation, both of Permian age. The Hondo Reservoir, 9 miles west-southwest of Roswell, was completed by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation in 1907, to store waters of the Rio Hondo for irrigation. The project was not successful, as the impounded water escaped rapidly through holes in the gypsum and limestone of the San Andres formation constituting its floor. Of 27,000 acre~feet that entered the reservoir between 1908 and 1913, only 1,100 acre-feet was drawn Ollt for use, the remainder escaping through the floor of the reservoir. Since 1939, plans have been drawn up by the State Engineer and by Federal agencies to utilize the reservoir to protect Roswell from floods. It has also been suggested that water from the Pecos River might be diverted into underground storage through the reservoir. Sinkholes in the Roswell Basin are largely clustered in areas where gypsum occurs in the bedrock. Collapse of strata is due to solution of underlying rock commonly containing gypsum. Domes occur in gypsiferous strata near Salt Creek. The Bottomless Lakes, sinkhole lakes in the escarpment on the east side of the Pecos, are believed to have developed in north-south hinge-line fractures opened when the westernmost beds in the escarpment collapsed. Collapse was due to solution and removal of gypsiferous rock by artesian water which now fills the lakes.

  17. 78 FR 14116 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Eastern Planning Area (EPA) Lease Sale 225...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... a limited number of paper copies. In keeping with the Department of the Interior's mission to.... However, if you require a paper copy, BOEM will provide one upon request if copies are still available. 1...:00 p.m. EDT; Panama City Beach, Florida: Wednesday, March 27, 2013, Wyndham Bay Point Resort, 4114...

  18. 76 FR 22139 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... EIS and the 2009-2012 SEIS and to consider the Deepwater Horizon event. This Draft SEIS provides... activities and accidental events, including a possible large-scale event, associated with the proposed WPA...

  19. 77 FR 2991 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... circumstances and information arising from, among other things, the Deepwater Horizon event. This Final... Supplemental EIS and in consideration of the Deepwater Horizon event, including scientific journals; interviews... resources and socioeconomic factors. This analysis considers both routine activities and accidental events...

  20. 77 FR 67394 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sale 233...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... information in light of the Deepwater Horizon event. This Draft Supplemental EIS provides updates on the... consideration of the Deepwater Horizon event, reviewing scientific journals, available scientific data, and... impacts of routine activities and accidental events, and the proposed lease sales' incremental...

  1. 78 FR 21969 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sale 233...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    .... ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of the Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... Environmental Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2012-019) (2012-2017 Multisale EIS), completed in July 2012, in... to the cumulative impacts on environmental and socioeconomic resources. The oil and gas resource...

  2. 78 FR 42544 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sale, Western Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) SUMMARY: Consistent with the regulations... 248; Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sales 227, 231, 235, 241, and 247, Final Environmental Impact... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2013-0118) (WPA 233/CPA 231 Supplemental EIS). The...

  3. 75 FR 69122 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western and Central Planning Areas, Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... focus on updating the baseline conditions and potential environmental effects of oil and natural gas.... Comments Public meetings will be held in locations near these areas in early to mid November 2010. The...

  4. 77 FR 65408 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Western Planning Area (WPA) Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and Gas Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... leases in depths less than 400 meters with an initial period longer than 5 years, royalty rates, minimum... $25.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths of less than 400 meters. $100.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths of 400 meters or deeper. Rental Rates Annual rental...

  5. 76 FR 70473 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Western Planning Area (WPA) Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and Gas Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... period of the lease term for blocks in water depths of 400 meters to less than 1,600 meters, (2) the minimum bonus bid has increased for blocks in water depths of 400 meters or deeper, (3) no deepwater... meters and (2) 400 meters or more. Successful Bidders: The BOEM requires each company that has been...

  6. 75 FR 6874 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Central Planning Area (CPA) Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and Gas Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-12

    ... for blocks in water depths of 400 meters to less than 1,600 meters. Blocks in 400 to less than 800... resulting from this lease sale. Leases in water depths of 400 meters to less than 800 meters will be offered... still may require the full 10-year term. In both the 400-800 and 800-1,600 meter cases, the lease...

  7. Soil physical degradation by human activities in the zone II of the basin of Burgos, Tamaulipas, Mexico; Degradacion fisica del suelo por actividades antorpicas en la zona II de la cuenca de burgos, Tamaulipas, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias Mino, F.; Espinosa Rmirez, M.; Andrade Limas, E.; Castro Meza, B.; Romero Diaz, A.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the physical degradation of the soil for antropic activities during the years 2007 and 2008 in the II zone of the Burgos Basin in Tamaulipas, Mexico. In this region, human action manifests itself due to activities such as agriculture, livestock and industry. The conventional farming, based mainly on the cultivation of sorghum, is characterized by great mechanization and tilling the soil which has contributed in large measure to aggravate erosion processes. There is also some logging, mainly for charcoal production and, recently, has joined the exploration and exploitation of natural gas. We used the methodology for Assessment of Soil Degradation (ASSOD) to identify, located and define the types of soil degradation within physiographic units. Results showed that nearly 74% of the study area presents some kind of degradation. The main process was water erosion, followed, by compaction and wind erosion. The main factors are essentially overgrazing and inadequate farming practices. Approximately 60% of the units evaluated presented a moderate level of degradation, but the speed of this process indicates that maintenance works are needed to reverse. (Author) 7 refs.

  8. Uranium-series isotopes transport in surface, vadose and ground waters at San Marcos uranium bearing basin, Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burillo Montúfar, Juan Carlos; Reyes Cortés, Manuel; Reyes Cortés, Ignacio Alfonso; Espino Valdez, Ma. Socorro; Hinojosa de la Garza, Octavio Raúl; Nevárez Ronquillo, Diana Pamela; Herrera Peraza, Eduardo; Rentería Villalobos, Marusia; Montero Cabrera, María Elena

    2012-01-01

    In the U deposit area at San Marcos in Chihuahua, Mexico, hydrogeological and climatic conditions are very similar to the Nopal I, Peña Blanca U deposit, 50 km away. The physicochemical parameters and activity concentrations of several 238 U-series isotopes have been determined in surface, vadose and ground waters at San Marcos. The application of some published models to activity ratios of these isotopes has allowed assessing the order of magnitude of transport parameters in the area. Resulting retardation factors in San Marcos area are R f238 ≈ 250–14,000 for the unsaturated zone and ≈110–1100 for the saturated zone. The results confirm that the mobility of U in San Marcos is also similar to that of the Nopal I U deposit and this area can be considered as a natural analog of areas suitable for geologic repositories of high-level nuclear waste.

  9. Petrophysical Properties of the Yeso, Abo and Cisco Formations in the Permian Basin in New Mexico, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Griffin

    The area that comprises the Northwest Shelf in Lea Co., New Mexico has been heavily drilled over the past half century. The main target being shallow reservoirs within the Permian section (San Andres and Grayburg Formations). With a focus shifting towards deeper horizons, there is a need for more petrophysical data pertaining to these formations, which is the focus of this study through a variety of techniques. This study involves the use of contact angle measurements, fluid imbibition tests, Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure (MICP) and log analysis to evaluate the nano-petrophysical properties of the Yeso, Abo and Cisco Formation within the Northwest Shelf area of southeast New Mexico. From contact angle measurements, all of the samples studied were found to be oil-wetting as n-decane spreads on to the rock surface much quicker than the other fluids (deionized water and API brine) tested. Imbibition tests resulted in a well-connected pore network being observed for all of the samples with the highest values of imbibition slopes being recorded for the Abo samples. MICP provided a variety of pore structure data which include porosity, pore-throat size distributions, permeability and tortuosity. The Abo samples saw the highest porosity percentages, which were above 15%, with all the other samples ranging from 4 - 7%. The majority of the pore-throat sizes for most of the samples fell within the 1 - 10 mum range. The only exceptions to this being the Paddock Member within the Yeso Formation, which saw a higher percentage of larger pores (10 - 1000mum) and one of the Cisco Formation samples, which had the majority of its pore sizes fall in the 0.1 - 1 mum range. The log analysis created log calculations and curves for cross-plot porosity and water saturation that were then used to derive a value for permeability. The porosity and permeability values were comparable with those measured from our MICP and literature values.

  10. Petroleum Systems and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the Raton Basin - Sierra Grande Uplift Province, Colorado and New Mexico - USGS Province 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province of southeastern Colorado and northeastern New Mexico (USGS Province 41). The Cretaceous Vermejo Formation and Cretaceous-Tertiary Raton Formation have production and undiscovered resources of coalbed methane. Other formations in the province exhibit potential for gas resources and limited production. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define two total petroleum systems and five assessment units. All five assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered gas resources. Oil resources were not assessed because of the limited potential due to levels of thermal maturity of petroleum source rocks.

  11. FLUCTUACIONES ECONÓMICAS PREHISPÁNICAS EN LA CUENCA DEL RÍO BALSAS, MÉXICO (Prehispanic Economic Fluctuations in the Balsas River Basin, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aplicando el método de valoración contextual al análisis del registro funerario de la cuenca del río Balsas, México, podemos aislar las fluctuaciones económicas y los cambios sociales prehispánicos codificados en la composición de los ajuares mortuorios. Entre los relevantes resultados obtenidos, destaca que el colapso de las antiguas civilizaciones mesoamericanas —Teotihuacan, Monte Albán o la maya clásica— aparezca perfectamente reflejado en las ofrendas de los entierros del periodo Clásico Tardío. ENGLISH: By applying the contextual valuation method to the analysis of the mortuary record in the Balsas River basin, Mexico, we can isolate the prehispanic economic fluctuations and social changes encoded in the composition of grave goods. Among the relevant results obtained, highlights that the collapse of ancient Mesoamerican civilizations (Teotihuacan, Monte Alban and the Maya Classic appears perfectly reflected in the offerings of Late Classic burials.

  12. Subsurface gas hydrates in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Ray; Collett, Timothy S.; Frye, Matthew; Shedd, William; McConnell, Daniel R.; Shelander, Dianna

    2012-01-01

    The northernGulf of Mexico (GoM) has long been a focus area for the study of gashydrates. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, work focused on massive gashydrates deposits that were found to form at and near the seafloor in association with hydrocarbon seeps. However, as global scientific and industrial interest in assessment of the drilling hazards and resource implications of gashydrate accelerated, focus shifted to understanding the nature and abundance of "buried" gashydrates. Through 2005, despite the drilling of more than 1200 oil and gas industry wells through the gashydrate stability zone, published evidence of significant sub-seafloor gashydrate in the GoM was lacking. A 2005 drilling program by the GoM GasHydrate Joint Industry Project (the JIP) provided an initial confirmation of the occurrence of gashydrates below the GoM seafloor. In 2006, release of data from a 2003 industry well in Alaminos Canyon 818 provided initial documentation of gashydrate occurrence at high concentrations in sand reservoirs in the GoM. From 2006 to 2008, the JIP facilitated the integration of geophysical and geological data to identify sites prospective for gashydrate-bearing sands, culminating in the recommendation of numerous drilling targets within four sites spanning a range of typical deepwater settings. Concurrent with, but independent of, the JIP prospecting effort, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) conducted a preliminary assessment of the GoM gashydratepetroleum system, resulting in an estimate of 607 trillion cubic meters (21,444 trillion cubic feet) gas-in-place of which roughly one-third occurs at expected high concentrations in sand reservoirs. In 2009, the JIP drilled seven wells at three sites, discovering gashydrate at high saturation in sand reservoirs in four wells and suspected gashydrate at low to moderate saturations in two other wells. These results provide an initial confirmation of the complex nature and occurrence of gashydrate-bearing sands in

  13. Rock magnetic characterization of faulted sediments with associated magnetic anomalies in the Albuquerque Basin, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M.R.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Minor, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Variations in rock magnetic properties are responsible for the many linear, short-wavelength, low-amplitude magnetic anomalies that are spatially associated with faults that cut Neogene basin sediments in the Rio Grande rift, including the San Ysidro normal fault, which is well exposed in the northern part of the Albuquerque Basin. Magnetic-susceptibility measurements from 310 sites distributed through a 1200-m-thick composite section of rift-filling sediments of the Santa Fe Group and prerift Eocene and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks document large variations of magnetic properties juxtaposed by the San Ysidro fault. Mean volume magnetic susceptibilities generally increase upsection through eight map units: from 1.7 to 2.2E-4 in the prerift Eocene and Cretaceous rocks to 9.9E-4-1.2E-3 in three members of the Miocene Zia Formation of the Santa Fe Group to 1.5E-3-3.5E-3 in three members of the Miocene-Pleistocene Arroyo Ojito Formation of the Santa Fe Group. Rock magnetic measurements and petrography indicate that the amount of detrital magnetite and its variable oxidation to maghemite and hematite within the Santa Fe Group sediments are the predominant controls of their magnetic property variations. Magnetic susceptibility increases progressively with sediment grain size within the members of the Arroyo Ojito Formation (deposited in fluvial environments) but within members of the Zia Formation (deposited in mostly eolian environments) reaches highest values in fine to medium sands. Partial oxidation of detrital magnetite is spatially associated with calcite cementation in the Santa Fe Group. Both oxidation and cementation probably reflect past flow of groundwater through permeable zones. Magnetic models for geologic cross sections that incorporate mean magnetic susceptibilities for the different stratigraphic units mimic the aeromagnetic profiles across the San Ysidro fault and demonstrate that the stratigraphic level of dominant magnetic contrast changes with

  14. Assessment of goods and valuation of ecosystem services (AGAVES) San Pedro River Basin, United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens, Darius; Kepner, William; Goodrich, David

    2010-01-01

    A consortium of federal, academic, and nongovernment organization (NGO) partners have established a collaborative research enterprise in the San Pedro River Basin to develop methods, standards, and tools to assess and value ecosystem goods and services. The central premise of ecosystem services research is that human condition is intrinsically linked to the environment. Human health and well-being (including economic prosperity) depend on important supporting, regulating, provisioning, and cultural services that we derive from our surrounding ecosystems. The AGAVES project is intended as a demonstration study for incorporating ecosystem services information into resource management policy and decisionmaking. Accordingly, a nested, multiscale project design has been adopted to address a range of stakeholder information requirements. This design will further facilitate an evaluation of how well methods developed in this project can be transferred to other areas.

  15. Assessment of selected inorganic constituents in streams in the Central Arizona Basins Study Area, Arizona and northern Mexico, through 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Stream properties and water-chemistry constituent concentrations from data collected by the National Water-Quality Assessment and other U.S. Geological Survey water-quality programs were analyzed to (1) assess water quality, (2) determine natural and human factors affecting water quality, and (3) compute stream loads for the surface-water resources in the Central Arizona Basins study area. Stream temperature, pH, dissolved-oxygen concentration and percent saturation, and dissolved-solids, suspended-sediment, and nutrient concentration data collected at 41 stream-water quality monitoring stations through water year 1998 were used in this assessment. Water-quality standards applicable to the stream properties and water-chemistry constituent concentration data for the stations investigated in this study generally were met, although there were some exceedences. In a few samples from the White River, the Black River, and the Salt River below Stewart Mountain Dam, the pH in reaches designated as a domestic drinking water source was higher than the State of Arizona standard. More than half of the samples from the Salt River below Stewart Mountain Dam and almost all of the samples from the stations on the Central Arizona Project Canal?two of the three most important surface-water sources used for drinking water in the Central Arizona Basins study area?exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level for dissolved solids. Two reach-specific standards for nutrients established by the State of Arizona were exceeded many times: (1) the annual mean concentration of total phosphorus was exceeded during several years at stations on the main stems of the Salt and Verde Rivers, and (2) the annual mean concentration of total nitrogen was exceeded during several years at the Salt River near Roosevelt and at the Salt River below Stewart Mountain Dam. Stream properties and water-chemistry constituent concentrations were related to

  16. Post-Laramide and pre-Basin and Range deformation and implications for Paleogene (55-25 Ma) volcanism in central Mexico: A geological basis for a volcano-tectonic stress model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristán-González, Margarito; Aguirre-Díaz, Gerardo J.; Labarthe-Hernández, Guillermo; Torres-Hernández, José Ramón; Bellon, Hervé

    2009-06-01

    At central-eastern Mexico, in the Mesa Central province, there are several ranges that were formed after the K/T Laramide compression but before the Basin and Range peak extensional episodes at middle-late Oligocene. Two important volcano-tectonic events happened during this time interval, 1) uplift of crustal blocks exhuming the Triassic-Jurassic metamorphic sequence and formation of basins that were filled with red beds and volcanic sequences, and 2) normal faulting and tilting to the NE of these blocks and fanglomerate filling of graben and half-graben structures. The first event, from late Paleocene to early Eocene, was related to NNE and NNW oriented dextral strike-slip faults. These faults were combined with NW-SE en echelon faulting in these blocks through which plutonism and volcanism occurred. The second event lasted from early Oligocene to early Miocene and coincided with Basin and Range extension. Intense volcanic activity occurred synchronously with the newly-formed or reactivated old fault systems, producing thick sequences of silicic pyroclastic rocks and large domes. Volcano-tectonic peaks occurred in three main episodes during the middle-late Oligocene in this part of Mexico, at about 32-30 Ma, 30-28 Ma, and 26-25 Ma. The objectives of this work is to summarize the volcano-tectonic events that occurred after the end of the Laramide orogeny and before the peak episodes of Basin and Range faulting and Sierra Madre Occidental Oligocene volcanism, and to discuss the influence of these events on the following Oligocene-Miocene volcano-tectonic peak episodes that formed the voluminous silicic volcanism in the Mesa Central, and hence, in the Sierra Madre Occidental. A model based upon geological observations summarizes the volcanic-tectonic evolution of this part of Mexico from the late Paleocene to the Early Miocene.

  17. Effects of uranium mining discharges on water quality in the Puerco River basin, Arizona and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P.C.; Gray, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    From 1967 until 1986, uranium mine dewatering increased dissolved gross alpha, gross beta, uranium and radium activities and dissolved selenium and molybdenum concentrations in the Puerco River as indicated by time trends, areal patterns involving distance from the mines and stream discharge. Additionally, increased dissolved uranium concentrations were identified in groundwater under the Puerco River from where mine discharges entered the river to approximately the Arizona-New Mexico State line about 65 km downstream. Total mass of uranium and gross alpha activity released to the Puerco River by mine dewatering were estimated as 560 Mg (560 × 106 g) and 260 Ci, respectively. In comparison, a uranium mill tailings pond spill on 16 July 1979, released an estimated 1.5 Mg of uranium and 46 Ci of gross alpha activity. Mass balance calculations for alluvial ground water indicate that most of the uranium released did not remain in solution. Sorption of uranium on sediments and uptake of uranium by plants probably removed the uranium from solution.

  18. Fault Length Vs Fault Displacement Evaluation In The Case Of Cerro Prieto Pull-Apart Basin (Baja California, Mexico) Subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.; Nava Pichardo, F. A.; Farfan, F.; Garcia Arthur, M. A.; Orozco, L.; Brassea, J.

    2013-05-01

    The Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin is located in the southern part of San Andreas Fault system, and is characterized by high seismicity, recent volcanism, tectonic deformation and hydrothermal activity (Lomnitz et al, 1970; Elders et al., 1984; Suárez-Vidal et al., 2008). Since the Cerro Prieto geothermal field production started, in 1973, significant subsidence increase was observed (Glowacka and Nava, 1996, Glowacka et al., 1999), and a relation between fluid extraction rate and subsidence rate has been suggested (op. cit.). Analysis of existing deformation data (Glowacka et al., 1999, 2005, Sarychikhina 2011) points to the fact that, although the extraction changes influence the subsidence rate, the tectonic faults control the spatial extent of the observed subsidence. Tectonic faults act as water barriers in the direction perpendicular to the fault, and/or separate regions with different compaction, and as effect the significant part of the subsidence is released as vertical displacement on the ground surface along fault rupture. These faults ruptures cause damages to roads and irrigation canals and water leakage. Since 1996, a network of geotechnical instruments has operated in the Mexicali Valley, for continuous recording of deformation phenomena. To date, the network (REDECVAM: Mexicali Valley Crustal Strain Measurement Array) includes two crackmeters and eight tiltmeters installed on, or very close to, the main faults; all instruments have sampling intervals in the 1 to 20 minutes range. Additionally, there are benchmarks for measuring vertical fault displacements for which readings are recorded every 3 months. Since the crackmeter measures vertical displacement on the fault at one place only, the question appears: can we use the crackmeter data to evaluate how long is the lenth of the fractured fault, and how quickly it grows, so we can know where we can expect fractures in the canals or roads? We used the Wells and Coppersmith (1994) relations between

  19. Sources and transport of Δ14C in CO2 within the Mexico City Basin and vicinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Singh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiocarbon samples taken over Mexico City and the surrounding region during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 exhibited an unexpected distribution: (1 relatively few samples (23% were below the North American free tropospheric background value (57±2‰ despite the fossil fuel emissions from one of the world's most highly polluted environments; and (2 frequent enrichment well above the background value was observed. Correlate source tracer species and air transport characteristics were examined to elucidate influences on the radiocarbon distribution. Our analysis suggests that a combination of radiocarbon sources biased the "regional radiocarbon background" above the North American value thereby decreasing the apparent fossil fuel signature. Likely sources include the release of 14C-enhanced carbon from bomb 14C sequestered in plant carbon pools via the ubiquitous biomass burning in the region as well as the direct release of radiocarbon as CO2 from other "hot" sources. Plausible perturbations from local point "hot" sources include the burning of hazardous waste in cement kilns; medical waste incineration; and emissions from the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant. These observations provide insight into the use of Δ14CO2 to constrain fossil fuel emissions in the megacity environment, indicating that underestimation of the fossil fuel contribution to the CO2 flux is likely wherever biomass burning coexists with urban emissions and is unaccounted for as a source of the elevated CO2 observed above local background. Our findings increase the complexity required to quantify fossil fuel-derived CO2 in source-rich environments characteristic of megacities, and have implications for the use of Δ14CO2 observations in evaluating bottom-up emission inventories and their reliability as a tool for validating national emission claims of CO2 within the framework of the Kyoto Protocol.

  20. Demographic clusters identified within the northern Gulf of Mexico common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncates unusual mortality event: January 2010-June 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Venn-Watson

    Full Text Available A multi-year unusual mortality event (UME involving primarily common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates was declared in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM with an initial start date of February 2010 and remains ongoing as of August 2014. To examine potential changing characteristics of the UME over time, we compared the number and demographics of dolphin strandings from January 2010 through June 2013 across the entire GoM as well as against baseline (1990-2009 GoM stranding patterns. Years 2010 and 2011 had the highest annual number of stranded dolphins since Louisiana's record began, and 2011 was one of the years with the highest strandings for both Mississippi and Alabama. Statewide, annual numbers of stranded dolphins were not elevated for GoM coasts of Florida or Texas during the UME period. Demographic, spatial, and temporal clusters identified within this UME included increased strandings in northern coastal Louisiana and Mississippi (March-May 2010; Barataria Bay, Louisiana (August 2010-December 2011; Mississippi and Alabama (2011, including a high prevalence and number of stranded perinates; and multiple GoM states during early 2013. While the causes of the GoM UME have not been determined, the location and magnitude of dolphin strandings during and the year following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including the Barataria Bay cluster from August 2010 to December 2011, overlap in time and space with locations that received heavy and prolonged oiling. There are, however, multiple known causes of previous GoM dolphin UMEs, including brevetoxicosis and dolphin morbillivirus. Additionally, increased dolphin strandings occurred in northern Louisiana and Mississippi before the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Identification of spatial, temporal, and demographic clusters within the UME suggest that this mortality event may involve different contributing factors varying by location, time, and bottlenose dolphin populations that will be

  1. Parametric Adjustments to the Rankine Vortex Wind Model for Gulf of Mexico Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Parametric Adjustments to the Rankine Vortex Wind Model for Gulf of Mexico Hurricanes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT ...may be used to construct spatially varying wind fields for the GOM region (e.g., Thompson and Cardone [12]), but this requires using a complicated...Storm Damage Reduc- tion, and Dredging Operations and Environmental Research (DOER). The USACE Headquarters granted permission to publish this paper

  2. Characterization of coal-derived hydrocarbons and source-rock potential of coal beds, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, D.D.; Clayton, J.L.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Coal beds are considered to be a major source of nonassociated gas in the Rocky Mountain basins of the United States. In the San Juan basin of northwestern New Mexico and southwestern Colorado, significant quantities of natural gas are being produced from coal beds of the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and from adjacent sandstone reservoirs. Analysis of gas samples from the various gas-producing intervals provided a means of determining their origin and of evaluating coal beds as source rocks. The rank of coal beds in the Fruitland Formation in the central part of the San Juan basin, where major gas production occurs, increases to the northeast and ranges from high-volatile B bituminous coal to medium-volatile bituminous coal (Rm values range from 0.70 to 1.45%). On the basis of chemical, isotopic and coal-rank data, the gases are interpreted to be thermogenic. Gases from the coal beds show little isotopic variation (??13C1 values range -43.6 to -40.5 ppt), are chemically dry (C1/C1-5 values are > 0.99), and contain significant amounts of CO2 (as much as 6%). These gases are interpreted to have resulted from devolatilization of the humic-type bituminous coal that is composed mainly of vitrinite. The primary products of this process are CH4, CO2 and H2O. The coal-generated, methane-rich gas is usually contained in the coal beds of the Fruitland Formation, and has not been expelled and has not migrated into the adjacent sandstone reservoirs. In addition, the coal-bed reservoirs produce a distinctive bicarbonate-type connate water and have higher reservoir pressures than adjacent sandstones. The combination of these factors indicates that coal beds are a closed reservoir system created by the gases, waters, and associated pressures in the micropore coal structure. In contrast, gases produced from overlying sandstones in the Fruitland Formation and underlying Pictured Cliffs Sandstone have a wider range of isotopic values (??13C1 values range from -43.5 to -38

  3. Trophic ecology of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus [corrected] larvae from the Gulf of Mexico and NW Mediterranean spawning grounds: A Comparative Stable Isotope Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Laiz-Carrión

    Full Text Available The present study uses stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon (δ15Nandδ13C as trophic indicators for Atlantic bluefin tuna larvae (BFT (6-10 mm standard length in the highly contrasting environmental conditions of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM and the Balearic Sea (MED. These regions are differentiated by their temperature regime and relative productivity, with the GOM being significantly warmer and more productive. MED BFT larvae showed the highest δ15N signatures, implying an elevated trophic position above the underlying microzooplankton baseline. Ontogenetic dietary shifts were observed in the BFT larvae from the GOM and MED which indicates early life trophodynamics differences between these spawning habitats. Significant trophic differences between the GOM and MED larvae were observed in relation to δ15N signatures in favour of the MED larvae, which may have important implications in their growth during their early life stages.These low δ15N levels in the zooplankton from the GOM may be an indication of a shifting isotopic baseline in pelagic food webs due to diatrophic inputs by cyanobacteria. Lack of enrichment for δ15N in BFT larvae compared to zooplankton implies an alternative grazing pathway from the traditional food chain of phytoplankton-zooplankton-larval fish. Results provide insight for a comparative characterization of the trophic pathways variability of the two main spawning grounds for BFT larvae.

  4. Paloma Fernández Gomá: latidos de poesía que unen orillas

    OpenAIRE

    Medrano, Susana de los Ángeles

    2010-01-01

    En la lírica española contemporánea ya no cabe duda de que la poesía de mujer constituye un aporte significativo. Dentro de su entramado, en la panorámica actual de la lírica femenina de Andalucía, Paloma Fernández Gomá se perfila como una de las poetas más interesantes y singulares. Nacida en Madrid y asentada en Algeciras (Cádiz) desde niña, su poesía se inicia tempranamente pero recién se da a conocer en 1991 con El ocaso del girasol, al que le siguen hasta el momento una decena de poemari...

  5. Characterization (environmental Signature) and Function of the Main Instrumented (monitoring Water Quality Network in Real Time) Rivers Atoyac and Zahuapan in High Atoyac Basin; in Dry, Rain and Winter Season 2013-2014; Puebla-Tlaxcala Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavera, E. M.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, P. F.; Morales-Garcia, S. S.; Muñoz-Sevilla, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Zahuapan and Atoyac rivers were characterized in the Upper Atoyac through the integration of physical and chemical parameters (environmental firm) determining the behavior and function of the basin as a tool for measuring and monitoring the quality and management of water resources of the water in one of the most polluted rivers in Mexico. For the determination of the environmental signature proceeded to characterize the water through 11 physicochemical parameters: temperature (T), potential hydrogen (pH), dissolved oxygen (DO), spectral absorption coefficient (SAC), the reduction of oxide potential (ORP), turbidity (Turb), conductivity (l), biochemical oxygen demand in 5 days (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS ), which were evaluated in 49 sites in the dry season, 47 for the rainy season and 23 for the winter season in the basin and Atoyac Zahuapan Alto Atoyac, Puebla-Tlaxcala, Mexico river; finding a mathematical algorithm to assimilate and better represent the information obtained. The algorithm allows us to estimate correlation greater than 0.85. The results allow us to propose the algorithm used in the monitoring stations for purposes of processing information assimilated form.This measurement and monitoring of water quality supports the project, the monitoring network in real time and the actions to clean up Atoyac River, in the urban area of the city of Puebla.

  6. New geochronologic and stratigraphic evidence confirms the paleocene age of the dinosaur-bearing ojo alamo sandstone and animas formation in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Dinosaur fossils are present in the Paleocene Ojo Alamo Sandstone and Animas Formation in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and Colorado. Evidence for the Paleo-cene age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone includes palynologic and paleomagnetic data. Palynologic data indicate that the entire Ojo Alamo Sandstone, including the lower dinosaur-bearing part, is Paleocene in age. All of the palynomorph-productive rock samples collected from the Ojo Alamo Sandstone at multiple localities lacked Creta-ceous index palynomorphs (except for rare, reworked specimens) and produced Paleocene index palynomorphs. Paleocene palynomorphs have been identified strati-graphically below dinosaur fossils at two separate localities in the Ojo Alamo Sand-stone in the central and southern parts of the basin. The Animas Formation in the Colorado part of the basin also contains dinosaur fossils, and its Paleocene age has been established based on fossil leaves and palynology. Magnetostratigraphy provides independent evidence for the Paleocene age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone and its dinosaur-bearing beds. Normal-polarity magnetochron C29n (early Paleocene) has been identified in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone at six localities in the southern part of the San Juan Basin. An assemblage of 34 skeletal elements from a single hadrosaur, found in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone in the southern San Juan Basin, provided conclusive evidence that this assemblage could not have been reworked from underlying Cretaceous strata. In addition, geochemical studies of 15 vertebrate bones from the Paleocene Ojo Alamo Sandstone and 15 bone samples from the underlying Kirtland Formation of Late Creta-ceous (Campanian) age show that each sample suite contained distinctly different abundances of uranium and rare-earth elements, indicating that the bones were miner-alized in place soon after burial, and that none of the Paleocene dinosaur bones ana-lyzed had been reworked. ?? U.S. Geological Survey, Public Domain April 2009.

  7. Reprint of - Deep-sea coral and hardbottom habitats on the west Florida slope, eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Steve W.; Rhode, Mike; Brooke, Sandra

    2017-09-01

    Until recently, benthic habitats dominated by deep-sea corals (DSC) appeared to be less extensive on the slope of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) than in the northeast Atlantic Ocean or off the southeastern US. There are relatively few bioherms (i.e., coral-built mounds) in the northern GOM, and most DSCs are attached to existing hard substrata (e.g., authigenically formed carbonate). The primary structure-forming, DSC in the GOM is Lophelia pertusa, but structure is also provided by other living and dead scleractinians, antipatharians (black corals), octocorals (gorgonians, soft corals), hydrocorals and sponges, as well as abundant rocky substrata. The best development of DSCs in the GOM was previously documented within Viosca Knoll oil and gas lease blocks 826 and 862/906 (north-central GOM) and on the Campeche Bank (southern GOM in Mexican waters). This paper documents extensive deep reef ecosystems composed of DSC and rocky hard-bottom recently surveyed on the West Florida Slope (WFS, eastern GOM) during six research cruises (2008-2012). Using multibeam sonar, CTD casts, and video from underwater vehicles, we describe the physical and oceanographic characteristics of these deep reefs and provide size or area estimates of deep coral and hardground habitats. The multibeam sonar analyses revealed hundreds of mounds and ridges, some of which were subsequently surveyed using underwater vehicles. Mounds and ridges in <525 m depths were usually capped with living coral colonies, dominated by L. pertusa. An extensive rocky scarp, running roughly north-south for at least 229 km, supported lower abundances of scleractinian corals than the mounds and ridges, despite an abundance of settlement substrata. Areal comparisons suggested that the WFS may exceed other parts of the GOM slope in extent of living deep coral coverage and other deep-reef habitat (dead coral and rock). The complex WFS region warrants additional studies to better understand the influences of oceanography and

  8. Designing a reservoir flow rate experiment for the GOM hydrate JIP leg 2 LWD drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullapalli, I.; Silpngarmlert, S.; Reik, B.; Kamal, M.; Jones, E. [Chevron Energy Technology Co., San Ramon, CA (United States); Moridis, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, CA (United States); Collett, T. [United States Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Studies have indicated that the Gulf of Mexico may contain large deep sea hydrate deposits. This paper provided details of short-term production profiles obtained from a geological model of hydrate deposits located in the Gulf area. A well test analysis tool was used to obtain the production parameters. Pressure transients from numerical simulations of various well test designs were used to provide estimates of important flow parameters. The aim of the study was to determine the type and duration of a well test capable of providing data to support the accurate modeling of gas hydrate deposits. Parameters studied in the test included the effects of permeability and hydrate saturation as a function of the duration of the flow test. Results indicated that production using a constant bottom hole pressure is an appropriate method of impacting hydrate dissociation by depressurization. However, changes in transient pressure plots could not be characterized in order to identify regions of varying saturation levels. Results suggested that the rate of effective water to effective gas was higher than rates obtained from relative permeability relations due to low gas saturation levels. Fluid saturation regions were in areas of low confidence in relative permeability curves. However, it was not possible to calculate absolute permeability of the reservoir for systems with short production periods. Further studies are needed to determine effective permeability using history matching and a hydrate simulator. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 27 figs.

  9. Organic matter in surface sediments from the Gulf of Mexico and South China Sea: Compositions, distributions and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiping; Jia, Weili; Wang, Dong; Song, Zhiguang

    2017-07-15

    Sediments from the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and the South China Sea (SCS) were analyzed. The low δ 13 C values of pentamethylicosane (PMIs) and fatty acids (-81.3 to -85.2‰) were found in only the S-1 sample collected from the GOM, indicating that methanogenic archaea associated with gas hydrate formation contributed to the sediment organic matter. Principle component analysis of fatty acids suggested that similar microbial biomass was found in the S-1, S-9, O-3 and O-5 samples. However, a comparison of the alkanes, fatty acids, and alcohols indicated that the percentage of n-alkan-2-ols in the S-1 sample from the GOM was the highest, while n-alkanes and n-fatty acids were the highest percentages in other samples from the GOM and SCS. This finding suggests that microbial species or the oxidation/reduction environment of the sample site of S-1 were different from those of the other samples. The present study provides a basis for detecting gas hydrate sites on the seafloor of the SCS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment from the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline, Texas to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Thomas, Burt; Wong, Florence L.

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons were extracted and analyzed from shoreline sediment collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) coastline that could potentially be impacted by Macondo-1 (M-1) well oil. Sediment was collected before M-1 well oil made significant local landfall and analyzed for baseline conditions by a suite of diagnostic petroleum biomarkers. Oil residue in trace quantities was detected in 45 of 69 samples. With the aid of multivariate statistical analysis, three different oil groups, based on biomarker similarity, were identified that were distributed geographically along the nGOM from Texas to Florida. None of the sediment hydrocarbon extracts correlated with the M-1 well oil extract, however, the similarity of tarballs collected at one site (FL-18) with the M-1 well oil suggests that some oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill may have been transported to this site in the Florida Keys, perhaps by a loop current, before that site was sampled.

  11. Ocean Data Assimilation in the Gulf of Mexico Using 3D VAR Approach - Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturi, S.; Garraffo, Z. D.; Cummings, J. A.; Rivin, I.; Mehra, A.; Kim, H. C.

    2016-12-01

    Approaches to ocean data assimilation vary widely, both in terms of the sophistication of the method and the observations assimilated.A three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system, part of the Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation (NCODA) system developed at Navy Research Laboratory (NRL), is used for assimilating Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Sea Surface Height (SSH) in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). The NCODA 3DVAR produces simultaneous analyses of temperature, salinity, and vector velocity and uses all possible sources of ocean data observations.The Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) is used for the simulations, at 1/25o grid resolution for July 2011 period. After successful implementation of NCODA 3DVAR in the GoM, the system will be extended to the global ocean with the intent of making it operational.

  12. Historical polycyclic aromatic and petrogenic hydrocarbon loading in Northern Central Gulf of Mexico shelf sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, E B; Ashton, B M; Miles, M S

    2004-10-01

    The distribution of selected hydrocarbons within ten dated sediment cores taken from the Mississippi River Bight off coastal Louisiana suggests a chronic contaminant loading from several sources including the river itself, oil and gas exploration in the central Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shelf area, and natural geologic hydrocarbon seeps. Data were grouped as either total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), which were indicative of pyrogenic PAH's; or estimated total hopanes (indicative of petrogenic hydrocarbons). The total PAH concentrations and estimated total hopanes begin increasing above background levels (approximately 200 ng g(-1)) after the 1950s. The distribution of these hydrocarbons and hopanes within the dated sediment cores suggests that the Mississippi River is a regional source of pyrogenic PAH's, and that the hopanes are from natural geologic hydrocarbon seeps, oil and gas exploration in the GOM, or both.

  13. An underground view of the Albuquerque Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, J.W.; Haase, C.S.; Lozinsky, R.P. [New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Development of valid hydrogeologic models of New Mexico`s ``critical groundwater basins`` has been a long-term objective of the New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources (NMBMMR), a division of New Mexico Tech. The best possible information on basin hydrogeology is needed not only for incorporation in numerical models of groundwater-flow systems, which are necessary for proper management of limited water resources, but also for addressing public concerns relating to a wide range of important environmental issues. In the latter case, a hydrogeologist must be prepared to provide appropriate explanations of why groundwater systems behave physically and chemically as they do in both natural and man-disturbed situations. The paper describes the regional geologic setting, the geologic setting of the Albuquerque Basin, basin- and valley-fill stratigraphy, and the hydrogeologic model of the Albuquerque Basin. 77 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Temperature, salinity, chlorophyll pigments, nutrients and other parameters as part of the ECOHAB-GOM: The Ecology and Oceanography of Toxic Alexandrium Blooms in the Gulf of Maine project (NODC Accession 0064309)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The subproject described here is one of several components of ECOHAB-GOM: The Ecology and Oceanography of Toxic Alexandrium Blooms in the Gulf of Maine, a multi-PI,...

  15. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range province, southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste: characterization of the Rio Grande Region, New Mexico, and Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, Kenneth A.; Langer, William H.

    1989-01-01

    The Rio Grande region, New Mexico and Texas, includes most of the area east of the Rio Grande to the Sacramento Mountains. The region encompasses two large basins, the Jornada del Muerto and Tularosa basins, and the intervening San Andres Mountains. The valley surfaces generally have altitudes from 600 to 1,500 meters, and the mountain ranges generally have altitudes from 1,500 to 2,400 meters. About one-half the area is underlain by basin fill. Sedimentary rocks that crop out in the Rio Grande region range in age from Precambrian to Holocene. The oldest Precambrian rocks are metamorphosed and intruded by plutons. Paleozoic rocks are primarily carbonates, with argillaceous beds in the older Paleozoic units. Clastic and gypsum are in greater abundance in younger Paleozoic units of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. The Mesozoic rocks primarily are clastic rocks with some limestone. Cenozoic rocks consist of sequences of conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone, and siltstone, derived from adjacent mountain masses, interbedded with basalt and andesite flows and silicic tuffs. Early to middle Tertiary volcanic and tectonic processes resulted in the implacement of plutonic bodies; volcanic activity continued into the Quaternary. Media considered to have potential for isolation of high-level radioactive waste include intrusive rocks, ash-flow tuff, and basaltic lava flows. Laharic and mudflow breccia and argillaceous beds also may be potential host rocks. These and other rocks may be potential media in areas where the unsaturated zone is thick. Quaternary faults are more common in the southern one-half of the region than in the northern one-half. Range-bounding faults with evidence of Quaternary movement extend northward into the central part of the region. Volcanic activity in the northern part of the region includes basalt flows of Quaternary age. Historical crustal uplift and seismicity have occurred in the vicinity of Socorro, New Mexico. The region is bordered on the west by

  16. Structural setting and evolution of the Mensa and Thunder Horse intraslope basins, northern deep-water Gulf of Mexico: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimer, P.; Bouroullec, R.; Berg, A.A. van den; Lapinski, T.G.; Roesink, J.G.; Adson, J.

    2017-01-01

    The Mensa and Thunder Horse intraslope minibasins in southcentralMississippi Canyon, northern deep-water Gulf ofMexico, had a linked structural evolution from the Early Cretaceous through the late Miocene. Analysis of the two minibasins illustrates the complexities of deep-water sedimentation and

  17. Fluvial sedimentology of a major uranium-bearing sandstone - A study of the Westwater Canyon member of the Morrison Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner-Peterson, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation, the main ore-bearing sandstone in the San Juan basin, consists of a sequence of vertically stacked braided stream deposits. Three fluvial units within the sequence can be delineated in the basin. Volcanic pebbles are abundant in the middle fluvial unit, in a zone that forms a crude time line. A pronounced thickening of sandstone in the Westwater Canyon Member north of Gallup, once believed to be the apex of a large alluvial fan, is now thought to merely reflect a greater accumulation of sediment in response to downwarping of the basin in that area. Provenance studies suggest that highlands that contributed detritus to Westwater Canyon streams were located several hundred kilometers to the west and southwest of the San Juan basin, and thus fan apices would also have been several hundred kilometers upstream. The fluvial units recognized in the basin may well be coalesced distal fan deposits, but are probably best interpreted as vertically stacked braided steam sequences. Facies changes in fine-grained interbeds of the Westwater Canyon probably have greater significance in terms of localizing ore than any special attribute of the fluvial sandstones themselves. Uranium ore generally occurs in sandstones that are interbedded with greenish-gray lacustrine mudstones. Pore waters that were expelled from these mudstones are thought to have been the source of the pore-filling organic matter (humate) associated with primary uranium ore in nearby sandstones

  18. Oil-Spill Analysis: Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Lease Sales, Eastern Planning Area, 2003-2007 and Gulfwide OCS Program, 2003-2042

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The Federal Government plans to offer U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lands in the Eastern Planning Area of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) for oil and gas leasing. This report summarizes results of that analysis, the objective of which was to estimate the risk of oil-spill contact to sensitive offshore and onshore environmental resources and socioeconomic features from oil spills accidentally occurring from the OCS activities.

  19. La forja de Isidro Gomá como adalid del antirrepublicanismo en la Iglesia de España (1927-1933 Comment le cardinal Gomá devint le fer de lance de l’antirépublicanisme au sein de l’Église d’Espagne (1927-1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ceamanos Llorens

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo investiga la labor realizada por Isidro Gomá y Tomás al frente del obispado de Tarazona y Tudela (1927-1933. Gomá, arzobispo de Toledo y primado de la Iglesia de España (1933-1940, es una de las principales figuras por la que se han interesado los historiadores de la Guerra Civil española a causa del apoyo que concedió a los sublevados. Sin embargo, el período previo a su nombramiento como Primado permanece desconocido. En estas líneas se muestra como, durante su estancia en Tarazona, Gomá dirigió con mano firme su diócesis y, llegada la República, se enfrentó con contundencia a las reformas laicas, consolidándose como un referente fundamental en los medios integristas y antirrepublicanos católicos. Esta circunstancia llevó al Vaticano a pensar en él cuando decidió cubrir la vacante sede de Toledo.Cet article porte sur le travail réalisé par Isidro Gomá y Tomás lorsqu’il était à la tête de l’évêché de Tarazona et Tudela (1927-1933. Gomá, archevêque de Tolède et primat de l’Église d’Espagne (1933-1940, est l’une des figures principales à laquelle se sont intéressés les historiens de la guerre civile espagnole, notamment en raison de l’appui qu’il fournit aux révoltés. La période qui précéda sa nomination comme Primat reste toutefois méconnue. Les lignes qui suivent montrent comment Gomá a dirigé d’une main de fer son diocèse durant son séjour à Tarazona et comment il s’est radicalement opposé –après l’avènement de la République– aux réformes laïques, devenant ainsi un référent fondamental parmi les milieux intégristes et antirrépublicains catholiques. C’est d’ailleurs pour cela que le Vatican a pensé à lui lorsqu’il fallut pourvoir le siège de Tolède resté vacant.This article examines the work of Isidro Gomá y Tomás in the see of Tarazona and Tudela (1927-1933. Gomá, the archbishop of Toledo (1933-1940, is one of foremost personalities

  20. Geomorphological Characterization of Atenquique Basin in the Eastern Sector of the Volcan-Nevado-Colima, Jalisco, Mexico, As an Input to the Risk Assessment of Debris Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Pena, S.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Atenquique river basin drains the eastern sector of the Volcanic Complex (VC) Volcan-Nevado de Colima, located on the border of the states of Jalisco and Colima. To use the digital geomorphological analysis 1:50000 scale mapping provided by INEGI and Landsat images, manipulating it in ArcGIS 10.2 developing the DEM that was the basis for morphometric characterization. The results show that the basin is divided into five sub-basins, with the main Atenquique (SAT) and Arroyo Seco (SAS), calculating the compactness coefficient (Kc) and the coefficient of sinuosity indicate that SAT is the most prone to floods due to straight and slightly sinuous channels. However, the density of dissection shows a more developed drainage network on the SAT, with slopes up to 84° and 600 m deep. The drainage basin has its source at an altitude of 4260 m and its mouth is in the Tuxpan River at 1040 m, which has a relative height of 2800 m; has a funnel-shaped elongated west-east, its outstanding average in the sector are Mountain 44° and 10° the piedmont. The SAT has a total area of 81.8 km2, with a dendritic river network, where the first order streams reach an 82.99%, and second order streams are the 13.4% of the total, these values show that most of the slopes of the basin have incipient development valleys and steep slopes. The basin has had 3 debris flows in recent 58 years; these are formed by large volumes of rock and mud that covered the town of Atenquique and paper mill located at the mouth of the Tuxpan River, caused deaths and significant economic damage. Its genesis is associated with the end of the summer rainy season, so he also worked in the hydrological analysis in order to determine the volume of runoff in the basin. The results of this work are used as input for the determining the risk levels in the study area, and may also be used by the municipality of Tuxpan, in order to define policies to manage risk and reduce future risks to the industrial town of

  1. Late Miocene-Pleistocene evolution of a Rio Grande rift subbasin, Sunshine Valley-Costilla Plain, San Luis Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruleman, C.A.; Thompson, R.A.; Shroba, R.R.; Anderson, M.; Drenth, B.J.; Rotzien, J.; Lyon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Sunshine Valley-Costilla Plain, a structural subbasin of the greater San Luis Basin of the northern Rio Grande rift, is bounded to the north and south by the San Luis Hills and the Red River fault zone, respectively. Surficial mapping, neotectonic investigations, geochronology, and geophysics demonstrate that the structural, volcanic, and geomorphic evolution of the basin involves the intermingling of climatic cycles and spatially and temporally varying tectonic activity of the Rio Grande rift system. Tectonic activity has transferred between range-bounding and intrabasin faults creating relict landforms of higher tectonic-activity rates along the mountain-piedmont junction. Pliocene–Pleistocene average long-term slip rates along the southern Sangre de Cristo fault zone range between 0.1 and 0.2 mm/year with late Pleistocene slip rates approximately half (0.06 mm/year) of the longer Quaternary slip rate. During the late Pleistocene, climatic influences have been dominant over tectonic influences on mountain-front geomorphic processes. Geomorphic evidence suggests that this once-closed subbasin was integrated into the Rio Grande prior to the integration of the once-closed northern San Luis Basin, north of the San Luis Hills, Colorado; however, deep canyon incision, north of the Red River and south of the San Luis Hills, initiated relatively coeval to the integration of the northern San Luis Basin.Long-term projections of slip rates applied to a 1.6 km basin depth defined from geophysical modeling suggests that rifting initiated within this subbasin between 20 and 10 Ma. Geologic mapping and geophysical interpretations reveal a complex network of northwest-, northeast-, and north-south–trending faults. Northwest- and northeast-trending faults show dual polarity and are crosscut by north-south– trending faults. This structural model possibly provides an analog for how some intracontinental rift structures evolve through time.

  2. Adjoint sensitivity studies of loop current and eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico

    KAUST Repository

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Cornuelle, Bruce D.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Adjoint model sensitivity analyses were applied for the loop current (LC) and its eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). The circulation in the GoM is mainly driven by the energetic LC and subsequent LC eddy separation. In order to understand which ocean regions and features control the evolution of the LC, including anticyclonic warm-core eddy shedding in the GoM, forward and adjoint sensitivities with respect to previous model state and atmospheric forcing were computed using the MITgcm and its adjoint. Since the validity of the adjoint model sensitivities depends on the capability of the forward model to simulate the real LC system and the eddy shedding processes, a 5 year (2004–2008) forward model simulation was performed for the GoM using realistic atmospheric forcing, initial, and boundary conditions. This forward model simulation was compared to satellite measurements of sea-surface height (SSH) and sea-surface temperature (SST), and observed transport variability. Despite realistic mean state, standard deviations, and LC eddy shedding period, the simulated LC extension shows less variability and more regularity than the observations. However, the model is suitable for studying the LC system and can be utilized for examining the ocean influences leading to a simple, and hopefully generic LC eddy separation in the GoM. The adjoint sensitivities of the LC show influences from the Yucatan Channel (YC) flow and Loop Current Frontal Eddy (LCFE) on both LC extension and eddy separation, as suggested by earlier work. Some of the processes that control LC extension after eddy separation differ from those controlling eddy shedding, but include YC through-flow. The sensitivity remains stable for more than 30 days and moves generally upstream, entering the Caribbean Sea. The sensitivities of the LC for SST generally remain closer to the surface and move at speeds consistent with advection by the high-speed core of

  3. Adjoint sensitivity studies of loop current and eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico

    KAUST Repository

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    2013-07-01

    Adjoint model sensitivity analyses were applied for the loop current (LC) and its eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). The circulation in the GoM is mainly driven by the energetic LC and subsequent LC eddy separation. In order to understand which ocean regions and features control the evolution of the LC, including anticyclonic warm-core eddy shedding in the GoM, forward and adjoint sensitivities with respect to previous model state and atmospheric forcing were computed using the MITgcm and its adjoint. Since the validity of the adjoint model sensitivities depends on the capability of the forward model to simulate the real LC system and the eddy shedding processes, a 5 year (2004–2008) forward model simulation was performed for the GoM using realistic atmospheric forcing, initial, and boundary conditions. This forward model simulation was compared to satellite measurements of sea-surface height (SSH) and sea-surface temperature (SST), and observed transport variability. Despite realistic mean state, standard deviations, and LC eddy shedding period, the simulated LC extension shows less variability and more regularity than the observations. However, the model is suitable for studying the LC system and can be utilized for examining the ocean influences leading to a simple, and hopefully generic LC eddy separation in the GoM. The adjoint sensitivities of the LC show influences from the Yucatan Channel (YC) flow and Loop Current Frontal Eddy (LCFE) on both LC extension and eddy separation, as suggested by earlier work. Some of the processes that control LC extension after eddy separation differ from those controlling eddy shedding, but include YC through-flow. The sensitivity remains stable for more than 30 days and moves generally upstream, entering the Caribbean Sea. The sensitivities of the LC for SST generally remain closer to the surface and move at speeds consistent with advection by the high-speed core of

  4. The effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on seabed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dynamics in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Siddhartha; Lalicata, Joseph J; Allison, Mead A; Dellapenna, Timothy M

    2009-06-01

    To assess the extent to which Hurricanes Katrina and Rita affected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), sediment cores were analyzed in late 2005 from: a shallow shelf, a deeper shelf, and a marsh station. Sediment geochronology, fabric, and geochemistry show that the 2005 storms deposited approximately 10cm of sediment to the surface of a core at 5-12A. Bulk carbon geochemistry and PAH isomers in this top layer suggest that the source of sediment to the top portion of core 5-12A was from a relatively more marine area. Particulate PAHs in the marsh core (04M) appeared unaffected by the storms while sediments in the core from Station 5-1B (deeper shelf) were affected minimally (some possible storm-derived deposition). Substantial amounts of PAH-laden particles may have been displaced from the seabed in shallow areas of the water column in the GOM by these 2005 storms.

  5. Deep-water oilfield development cost analysis and forecasting —— Take gulf of mexico for example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Mingyu; Wang, Jianjun; Yi, Chenggao; Bai, Jianhui; Wang, Jing

    2017-11-01

    Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is the earliest offshore oilfield which has ever been developed. It tends to breed increasingly value of efficient, secure and cheap key technology of deep-water development. Thus, the analyze of development expenditure in this area is significantly important the evaluation concept of deep-water oilfield all over the world. This article emphasizes on deep-water development concept and EPC contract value in GoM in recent 10 years in case of comparison and selection to the economic efficiency. Besides, the QUETOR has been put into use in this research processes the largest upstream cost database to simulate and calculate the calculating examples’ expenditure. By analyzing and forecasting the deep-water oilfield development expenditure, this article explores the relevance between expenditure index and oil price.

  6. Passive acoustic monitoring of beaked whale densities in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, John A; Baumann-Pickering, Simone; Frasier, Kaitlin E; Trickey, Jennifer S; Merkens, Karlina P; Wiggins, Sean M; McDonald, Mark A; Garrison, Lance P; Harris, Danielle; Marques, Tiago A; Thomas, Len

    2015-11-12

    Beaked whales are deep diving elusive animals, difficult to census with conventional visual surveys. Methods are presented for the density estimation of beaked whales, using passive acoustic monitoring data collected at sites in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from the period during and following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010-2013). Beaked whale species detected include: Gervais' (Mesoplodon europaeus), Cuvier's (Ziphius cavirostris), Blainville's (Mesoplodon densirostris) and an unknown species of Mesoplodon sp. (designated as Beaked Whale Gulf - BWG). For Gervais' and Cuvier's beaked whales, we estimated weekly animal density using two methods, one based on the number of echolocation clicks, and another based on the detection of animal groups during 5 min time-bins. Density estimates derived from these two methods were in good general agreement. At two sites in the western GOM, Gervais' beaked whales were present throughout the monitoring period, but Cuvier's beaked whales were present only seasonally, with periods of low density during the summer and higher density in the winter. At an eastern GOM site, both Gervais' and Cuvier's beaked whales had a high density throughout the monitoring period.

  7. A MITgcm/DART ensemble analysis and prediction system with application to the Gulf of Mexico

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF)-based ocean data assimilation system for prediction of the evolution of the loop current in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). The system integrates the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) assimilation package with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ocean general circulation model (MITgcm). The MITgcm/DART system supports the assimilation of a wide range of ocean observations and uses an ensemble approach to solve the nonlinear assimilation problems. The GoM prediction system was implemented with an eddy-resolving 1/10th degree configuration of the MITgcm. Assimilation experiments were performed over a 6-month period between May and October during a strong loop current event in 1999. The model was sequentially constrained with weekly satellite sea surface temperature and altimetry data. Experiments results suggest that the ensemble-based assimilation system shows a high predictive skill in the GoM, with estimated ensemble spread mainly concentrated around the front of the loop current. Further analysis of the system estimates demonstrates that the ensemble assimilation accurately reproduces the observed features without imposing any negative impact on the dynamical balance of the system. Results from sensitivity experiments with respect to the ensemble filter parameters are also presented and discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Paleomagnetic evidence for a Tertiary not Triassic age for rocks in the lower part of the Grober-Fuqua #1 well, southeastern Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M.R.; Grauch, V.J.S.

    2003-01-01

    A sedimentary sequence penetrated in the lower part of the Grober-Fuqua #1 well in the southeastern Albuquerque Basin has previously been interpreted as either Triassic or Eocene in age. Paleomagnetic study of three specimens from two core fragments yielded a 54.5?? mean inclination of remanent magnetization relative to bedding. This inclination is like that expected in Tertiary time and is distinct from an expected low-angle Triassic inclination. Although the data are very few, when considered in combination with stratigraphic relations and the presence of a gravity low in this southeastern part of the basin, the paleomagnetic evidence favors a Tertiary age for strata in the lower part of the Grober-Fuqua #1 well.

  9. Using Drone Imagery and Photogrammetry to Map Basin Stratigraphy and Structures Exposed in Mine, Road, and Arroyo Outcrops, Santa Rosalia, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banes, A.; Alvarez Ortega, K. G.; Henry, M.; Niemi, T.

    2017-12-01

    During the 2017 Baja Basins Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU), a DJI Phantom 3 Advanced Quadcopter drone equipped with a GPS-enabled, 12 Megapixel camera was manually flown to collect aerial photographs of several geologic outcrops on the Minera Boléo and Lucifer mines in central Baja California Sur. The strip mine faces, roadcuts, and arroyos exposed Neogene to Quaternary sediments of the Santa Rosalía basin including the basal Cu-Zn-Mn-Co-bearing Miocene Boléo Formation that is actively being mined. It is overlain by Plio-Quaternary marine and non-marine deposits. Photographs were collected with a 70% overlap and processed into geographically-referenced, orthophotomosaics using Agisoft Photoscan. The output models have an adequate resolution for viewing bedding and fault characteristics. Measurements can be made inside the 3D models, making drones a useful tool for studying the geometry of stratigraphic, structural, and geomorphologic features. The studied sites included: 1) roadcuts on Mesa Soledad that exposed oblique-slip faults and syntectonically deposited non-marine and marine conglomerates and sandy, fossil-rich Pliocene beach sediment; 2) outcrops of the Boléo Fm in the Texcoco mine area that showed the detailed stratigraphic relationship between ore seams (mantos) and faults; 3) outcrops where sandstone samples were collected for detrital zircon geochronology; 4) strip mine 3120 that exposed faults and folds in the Boléo Formation; and 5) faults in Miocene volcanic rocks in the Arroyo Infierno near the Lucifer mine. This study shows that photogrammetry and modeling of geologic structures exposed in mine and road outcrops can provide useful information for reconstructing basin architecture and clarifying structural evolution of the Santa Rosalia Basin.

  10. Application of Advanced Exploration Technologies for the Development of Mancos Formation Oil Reservoirs, Jicarilla Apache Indian Nation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Scott; Billingsley, Randy

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to: (1) develop an exploration rationale for the Mancos shale in the north-eastern San Juan basin; (2) assess the regional prospectivity of the Mancos in the northern Nation lands based on that rationale; (3) identify specific leads in the northern Nation as appropriate; (4) forecast pro-forma production, reserves and economics for any leads identified; and (5) package and disseminate the results to attract investment in Mancos development on the Nation lands

  11. Regional Survey of Structural Properties and Cementation Patterns of Fault Zones in the Northern Part of the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico - Implications for Ground-Water Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Scott A.; Hudson, Mark R.

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by the need to document and evaluate the types and variability of fault zone properties that potentially affect aquifer systems in basins of the middle Rio Grande rift, we systematically characterized structural and cementation properties of exposed fault zones at 176 sites in the northern Albuquerque Basin. A statistical analysis of measurements and observations evaluated four aspects of the fault zones: (1) attitude and displacement, (2) cement, (3) lithology of the host rock or sediment, and (4) character and width of distinctive structural architectural components at the outcrop scale. Three structural architectural components of the fault zones were observed: (1) outer damage zones related to fault growth; these zones typically contain deformation bands, shear fractures, and open extensional fractures, which strike subparallel to the fault and may promote ground-water flow along the fault zone; (2) inner mixed zones composed of variably entrained, disrupted, and dismembered blocks of host sediment; and (3) central fault cores that accommodate most shear strain and in which persistent low- permeability clay-rich rocks likely impede the flow of water across the fault. The lithology of the host rock or sediment influences the structure of the fault zone and the width of its components. Different grain-size distributions and degrees of induration of the host materials produce differences in material strength that lead to variations in width, degree, and style of fracturing and other fault-related deformation. In addition, lithology of the host sediment appears to strongly control the distribution of cement in fault zones. Most faults strike north to north-northeast and dip 55? - 77? east or west, toward the basin center. Most faults exhibit normal slip, and many of these faults have been reactivated by normal-oblique and strike slip. Although measured fault displacements have a broad range, from 0.9 to 4,000 m, most are internal structure of, and cement

  12. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog. The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage (pH 2.8-3.3) that infiltrates debris-flow deposits containing acidic ground water (pH 3.0-4.0) and bedrock containing water of circumneutral pH values (5.6-7.7). Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rare-earth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition (34S and 18O of sulfate), and water isotopic composition (2H and 18O) during

  13. Horizontal distribution of near-inertial waves in the western Gulf of Mexico: Eulerian vs Lagrangian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas Sanz, E.; García-Carrillo, P.; Garcia Gomez, B. I.; Lilly, J. M.; Perez-Brunius, P.

    2016-02-01

    The time-average horizontal distribution of the near-inertial waves (NIWs) on the western Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is investigated using horizontal velocity data obtained from Lagrangian trajectories of 200 surface drifters drogued at 50m and deployed between September 2008 and September 2012. Preliminary results suggest maximum time-averaged near-inertial circle radius of 2.6km located in the southern Campeche bay near [22N,95W]; implying an inertial velocity of about 0.14m/s. Similar conclusions are delineated using horizontal velocity data obtained from 21 moorings deployed in the western GoM during the same time period. Maximum near-inertial kinetic energy and clockwise spectral energy is found in the mooring LNK3500 located at 21.850N and 94.028W. Maximum inertial circles measured with mooring data, however, are of about 1.6km leading to inertial currents of 0.087m/s, approximately a 40% smaller. This discrepancy seems to be due to the different depth level of the measurements and the bandwidth used to extract the near-inertial oscillations from the total flow. The time-average horizontal distributions of wind work computed from Lagrangian and Eulerian data are compared and they are not consistent with the time-averaged NIW field. The differences are not well understood but we speculate they may be due to the different time scales of wind fluctuations in the northwestern GoM compared to those observed in the Bay of Campeche, together with the change of sign of the background vorticity in the region; being negative (anticyclonic) in the northern GoM and positive (cyclonic) in the Bay of Campeche.

  14. Stable isotopes provide new insights into vestimentiferan physiological ecology at Gulf of Mexico cold seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Erin Leigh; Macko, Stephen A.; Lee, Raymond W.; Fisher, Charles R.

    2011-02-01

    On the otherwise low-biomass seafloor of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) continental slope, natural oil and gas seeps are oases of local primary production that support lush animal communities. Hundreds of seep communities have been documented on the continental slope, and nutrition derived from seeps could be an important link in the overall GoM food web. Here, we present a uniquely large and cohesive data set of δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S compositions of the vestimentiferan tubeworms Escarpia laminata and Lamellibrachia sp. 1, which dominate biomass at GoM seeps and provide habitat for hundreds of other species. Our sampling design encompassed an entire region of the GoM lower slope, allowing us for the first time to assess spatial variability in isotope compositions and to robustly address long-standing hypotheses about how vestimentiferans acquire and cycle nutrients over their long lifespan (200+ years). Tissue δ13C values provided strong evidence that larger adult vestimentiferans use their buried roots to take up dissolved inorganic carbon from sediment pore water, while very small individuals use their plume to take up carbon dioxide from the seawater. δ34S values were extremely variable among individuals of the same species within one location (<1 m2 area), indicating high variability in the inorganic sulfur pools on a very small spatial scale. This finding supports the hypothesis that vestimentiferans use their roots to cycle sulfate and sulfide between their symbionts and free-living consortia of sulfate-reducing archaea in the sediment. Finally, consistent differences in δ15N between two cooccurring vestimentiferan species provided the first strong evidence for partitioning of inorganic resources, which has significant implications for the ecology and evolution of this taxonomic group.

  15. Hydrocarbons prospecting using an integrated approach of petrography, geochemistry and modeling of organic matter transformation. Analysis and reconstitution of the thermal history of the central carboniferous basins of Asturias (Spain) and of the Sabinas - Piedras Negras basin (Coahuila, Mexico); Prospection des hydrocarbures par une approche integree de petrographie, geochimie et modelisation de la transformation de la matiere organique. Analyse et reconstitution de l'histoire thermique des Bassins Carbonifere Central des Asturies (Espagne) et Sabinas - Piedras Negras (Coahuila, Mexique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piedad-Sanchez, N.

    2004-09-01

    Solid knowledge of the transformation and evolution of organic matter during hydrocarbon generation in sedimentary basins serves to improve natural gas exploration. With this geological problem in mind, the thermal influence on organic matter was analyzed in two basins containing different characteristics (age, composition of organic matter, litho-stratigraphy, depth, thickness of the layers of rock, the maturation of organic matter, etc.) in order to understand the natural processes in generating oil and natural gas. With a view to studying this geological phenomenon, this work outlines the study of the chemical and macerals composition, the coal rank and geochemical characteristics of organic matter in these two sedimentary basins for the first time: The Asturian Central Carboniferous Basin (Spain) and Sabinas - Piedras Negras Basin (Mexico). Moreover, an approach to shed light on the thermal history and evolution of organic matter through 1D modeling in the two basins is developed. The Central Carboniferous Basin in Asturias is an important coal mining area where coal types range from bituminous carbons with high content in volatile matter to anthracite. The petrographical and geochemical study in this region has shown that at the moment of oil and gas exploration, the coals correspond to an efficient expulsion of oil and have been formed in an environment of swamp with a facies rich in vitrinite, low in sulfur and ash and varying in mineral content. As regards the paleo-environmental reconstruction, the bio-markers suggest a swamp with a relatively high water table and a humid climate. The coal type, the vitrinite reflectance and the volatile matter content in the basin show a N-S trend which could be correlated to the paleo-temperatures calculated in this study. These data point to the influence of two thermal gradients in the region: A normal thermal gradient of long duration and an oblique thermal gradient of short duration due to a pluton. The evolution of

  16. Usage and administration manual for a geodatabase compendium of water-resources data-Rio Grande Basin from the Rio Arriba-Sandoval County line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas, 1889-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, developed a geodatabase compendium (hereinafter referred to as the 'geodatabase') of available water-resources data for the reach of the Rio Grande from Rio Arriba-Sandoval County line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas. Since 1889, a wealth of water-resources data has been collected in the Rio Grande Basin from Rio Arriba-Sandoval County line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas, for a variety of purposes. Collecting agencies, researchers, and organizations have included the U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Reclamation, International Boundary and Water Commission, State agencies, irrigation districts, municipal water utilities, universities, and other entities. About 1,750 data records were recently (2010) evaluated to enhance their usability by compiling them into a single geospatial relational database (geodatabase). This report is intended as a user's manual and administration guide for the geodatabase. All data available, including water quality, water level, and discharge data (both instantaneous and daily) from January 1, 1889, through December 17, 2009, were compiled for the study area. A flexible and efficient geodatabase design was used, enhancing the ability of the geodatabase to handle data from diverse sources and helping to ensure sustainability of the geodatabase with long-term maintenance. Geodatabase tables include daily data values, site locations and information, sample event information, and parameters, as well as data sources and collecting agencies. The end products of this effort are a comprehensive water-resources geodatabase that enables the visualization of primary sampling sites for surface discharges, groundwater elevations, and water-quality and associated data for the study area. In addition, repeatable data processing scripts, Structured Query Language queries for loading prepared data sources, and a detailed process for refreshing all data in the

  17. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Mark B.

    1999-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry

  18. Gas Hydrate Characterization from a 3D Seismic Dataset in the Eastern Deepwater Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Dan

    2017-10-26

    The presence of a gas hydrate petroleum system and seismic attributes derived from 3D seismic data are used for the identification and characterization of gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater eastern Gulf of Mexico. In the central deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GoM), logging while drilling (LWD) data provided insight to the amplitude response of gas hydrate saturation in sands, which could be used to characterize complex gas hydrate deposits in other sandy deposits. In this study, a large 3D seismic data set from equivalent and distal Plio-Pleistocene sandy channel deposits in the deepwater eastern Gulf of Mexico is screened for direct hydrocarbon indicators for gas hydrate saturated sands.

  19. A new species of Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae from the Ameca River basin, in Central Mexico Una especie nueva de Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae en la cuenca del río Ameca en el centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Pérez-Rodríguez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A morphological comparative analysis was performed among different populations of the cyprinid Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 from the Lerma-Chapala and Ameca River basins in central Mexico. A new species, Algansea amecae n. sp. is described from individuals collected from small tributary in the headwaters of the Ameca basin. The new species differs from Lerma-Chapala populations of A. tincella by having a lower number of transversal scales, a lower number of infraorbital pores, a prominent dark lateral stripe along the body, a black caudal spot extending onto the medial caudal inter-radial membranes, and a pigmented ("dotted" lateral line. This new species increases the high level of endemism in the freshwater ichthyofauna of the Ameca basin. It appears to be most closely related to populations in the Lerma-Chapala-Santiago system, as is the case for several other species in the Ameca basin. This pattern of relationship provides evidence for a historical connection between the 2 basins, and implies that a vicariance event led to the isolation of populations and a subsequent speciation event. Due to the limited distributional range of Algansea amecae n. sp., and the environmental deterioration of the Ameca River, we propose that this new species should be designated as a protected species under Mexican law.Se realizó un análisis morfológico comparando diferentes poblaciones del ciprínido Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 correspondientes a los sistemas hidrológicos Lerma-Chapala y cuenca del río Ameca. Con base en este análisis se describe una nueva especie, Algansea amecae n. sp. a partir de los individuos recolectados en un pequeño afluente del alto Ameca, en el centro de México. La nueva especie difiere de las poblaciones de A. tincella del sistema Lerma-Chapala-Santiago por presentar un menor número de escamas transversales, un menor número de poros infraorbitales, una franja obscura lateral muy marcada a lo largo del

  20. Compilation of hydrologic data for White Sands pupfish habitat and nonhabitat areas, northern Tularosa Basin, White Sands Missile Range and Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, 1911-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, C.A.; Myers, R.G.; Saleh, D.K.; Myers, N.C.

    2014-01-01

    The White Sands pupfish (Cyprinodon tularosa), listed as threatened by the State of New Mexico and as a Federal species of concern, is endemic to the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. Because water quality can affect pupfish and the environmental conditions of their habitat, a comprehensive compilation of hydrologic data for pupfish habitat and nonhabitat areas in the northern Tularosa Basin was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with White Sands Missile Range. The four locations within the Tularosa Basin that are known pupfish habitat areas are the Salt Creek, Malpais Spring and Malpais Salt Marsh, Main Mound Spring, and Lost River habitat areas. Streamflow data from the Salt Creek near Tularosa streamflow-gaging station indicated that the average annual mean streamflow and average annual total streamflow for water years 1995–2008 were 1.35 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) and 983 acre-feet, respectively. Periods of no flow were observed in water years 2002 through 2006. Dissolved-solids concentrations in Salt Creek samples collected from 1911 through 2007 ranged from 2,290 to 66,700 milligrams per liter (mg/L). The average annual mean streamflow and average annual total streamflow at the Malpais Spring near Oscura streamflow-gaging station for water years 2003–8 were 6.81 ft3/s and 584 acre-feet, respectively. Dissolved-solids concentrations for 16 Malpais Spring samples ranged from 3,882 to 5,500 mg/L. Isotopic data for a Malpais Spring near Oscura water sample collected in 1982 indicated that the water was more than 27,900 years old. Streamflow from Main Mound Spring was estimated at 0.007 ft3/s in 1955 and 1957 and ranged from 0.02 to 0.07 ft3/s from 1996 to 2001. Dissolved-solids concentrations in samples collected between 1955 and 2007 ranged from an estimated 3,760 to 4,240 mg/L in the upper pond and 4,840 to 5,120 mg/L in the lower pond. Isotopic data for a Main Mound Spring water sample collected in 1982 indicated that the water was about

  1. Marketing San Juan Basin gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posner, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Marketing natural gas produced in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado principally involves four gas pipeline companies with significant facilities in the basin. The system capacity, transportation rates, regulatory status, and market access of each of these companies is evaluated. Because of excess gas supplies available to these pipeline companies, producers can expect improved take levels and prices by selling gas directly to end users and utilities as opposed to selling gas to the pipelines for system supply. The complexities of transporting gas today suggest that the services of an independent gas marketing company may be beneficial to smaller producers with gas supplies in the San Juan Basin

  2. Powering Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines Mexico's demand for electricity and the market for independent power generation. The topics discussed in the article include the outlook for the 1990s for growth in Mexico's economy and energy demand, renewable energy, energy conservation, small-scale, off-grid renewable energy systems, and estimates of Mexico's market for electric power generating equipment

  3. Renewable Electricity Grid Integration Roadmap for Mexico. Supplement to the IEA Expert Group Report on Recommended Practices for Wind Integration Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Brian [Evergreen Renewable Consulting, Evergreen, CO (United States); Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Watson, Andrea [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Katz, Jessica [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bracho, Ricardo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-19

    As a recognized leader in efforts to mitigate global climate change, the Government of Mexico (GOM) works proactively to reduce emissions, demonstrating strong political will and capacity to comprehensively address climate change. Since 2010, the U.S. government (USG) has supported these efforts by partnering with Mexico under the Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program. Through the program, the USG has partnered with Mexico’s Ministry of Energy (SENER), as well as other government agencies, to support GOM in reaching its clean energy and climate change goals. Specifically, the EC-LEDS program is supporting GOM’s clean energy goal of generating 35% of its electricity from renewable energy (RE) by 2024. EC-LEDS, through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the U.S Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has been collaborating with SENER and GOM interagency working group—the Consejo Consultivo para las Energías Renovables (Consultative Council on Renewable Energy)—to create a grid integration roadmap for variable RE. 1 A key objective in creating a grid integration roadmap is assessing likely impacts of wind and solar energy on the power system and modifying planning and operations accordingly. This paper applies best practices in conducting a grid integration study to the Mexican context.

  4. Quality of water and sediment in streams affected by historical mining, and quality of Mine Tailings, in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin, Big Bend Area of the United States and Mexico, August 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Kolbe, Christine M.; Belzer, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the International Boundary and Water Commission - U.S. and Mexican Sections, the National Park Service, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, the Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales in Mexico, the Area de Proteccion de Flora y Fauna Canon de Santa Elena in Mexico, and the Area de Proteccion de Flora y Fauna Maderas del Carmen in Mexico, collected samples of stream water, streambed sediment, and mine tailings during August 2002 for a study to determine whether trace elements from abandoned mines in the area in and around Big Bend National Park have affected the water and sediment quality in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin of the United States and Mexico. Samples were collected from eight sites on the main stem of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, four Rio Grande/Rio Bravo tributary sites downstream from abandoned mines or mine-tailing sites, and 11 mine-tailing sites. Mines in the area were operated to produce fluorite, germanium, iron, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc during the late 1800s through at least the late 1970s. Moderate (relatively neutral) pHs in stream-water samples collected at the 12 Rio Grande/Rio Bravo main-stem and tributary sites indicate that water is well mixed, diluted, and buffered with respect to the solubility of trace elements. The highest sulfate concentrations were in water samples from tributaries draining the Terlingua mining district. Only the sample from the Rough Run Draw site exceeded the Texas Surface Water Quality Standards general-use protection criterion for sulfate. All chloride and dissolved solids concentrations in water samples were less than the general-use protection criteria. Aluminum, copper, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc were detected in all water samples for which each element was analyzed. Cadmium, chromium, and lead were detected in samples less frequently, and silver was not detected in any of the samples. None of the sample concentrations of

  5. Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...

  6. Three decadal inputs of total organic carbon from four major coastal river basins to the summer hypoxic zone of the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Songjie; Xu, Y Jun

    2015-01-15

    This study investigated long-term (1980-2009) yields and variability of total organic carbon (TOC) from four major coastal rivers in Louisiana entering the Northern Gulf of Mexico where a large-area summer hypoxic zone has been occurring since the middle 1980s. Two of these rivers drain agriculture-intensive (>40%) watersheds, while the other two rivers drain forest-pasture dominated (>50%) watersheds. The study found that these rivers discharged a total of 13.0×10(4)t TOC annually, fluctuating from 5.9×10(4) to 22.8×10(4)t. Seasonally, the rivers showed high TOC yield during the winter and early spring months, corresponding to the seasonal trend of river discharge. While river hydrology controlled TOC yields, land use has played an important role in fluxes, seasonal variations, and characteristics of TOC. The findings fill in a critical information gap of quantity and quality of organic carbon transport from coastal watersheds to one of the world's largest summer hypoxic zones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Large-scale deposition of weathered oil in the Gulf of Mexico following a deep-water oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Isabel C; Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Diercks, Arne-R; Schwing, Patrick; Muller-Karger, Frank; Murawski, Steven; Hollander, David J

    2017-09-01

    The blowout of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling rig in 2010 released an unprecedented amount of oil at depth (1,500 m) into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Sedimentary geochemical data from an extensive area (∼194,000 km 2 ) was used to characterize the amount, chemical signature, distribution, and extent of the DWH oil deposited on the seafloor in 2010-2011 from coastal to deep-sea areas in the GoM. The analysis of numerous hydrocarbon compounds (N = 158) and sediment cores (N = 2,613) suggests that, 1.9 ± 0.9 × 10 4 metric tons of hydrocarbons (>C9 saturated and aromatic fractions) were deposited in 56% of the studied area, containing 21± 10% (up to 47%) of the total amount of oil discharged and not recovered from the DWH spill. Examination of the spatial trends and chemical diagnostic ratios indicate large deposition of weathered DWH oil in coastal and deep-sea areas and negligible deposition on the continental shelf (behaving as a transition zone in the northern GoM). The large-scale analysis of deposited hydrocarbons following the DWH spill helps understanding the possible long-term fate of the released oil in 2010, including sedimentary transformation processes, redistribution of deposited hydrocarbons, and persistence in the environment as recycled petrocarbon. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Extracting quasi-steady Lagrangian transport patterns from the ocean circulation: An application to the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, R; Beron-Vera, F J; Olascoaga, M J

    2018-03-26

    We construct a climatology of Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs)-the concealed skeleton that shapes transport-with a twelve-year-long data-assimilative simulation of the sea-surface circulation in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Computed as time-mean Cauchy-Green strain tensorlines of the climatological velocity, the climatological LCSs (cLCSs) unveil recurrent Lagrangian circulation patterns. The cLCSs strongly constrain the ensemble-mean Lagrangian circulation of the instantaneous model velocity, showing that a climatological velocity can preserve meaningful transport information. The quasi-steady transport patterns revealed by the cLCSs agree well with aspects of the GoM circulation described in several previous observational and numerical studies. For example, the cLCSs identify regions of persistent isolation, and suggest that coastal regions previously identified as high-risk for pollution impact are regions of maximal attraction. We also show that cLCSs are remarkably accurate at identifying transport patterns observed during the Deepwater Horizon and Ixtoc oil spills, and during the Grand LAgrangian Deployment (GLAD) experiment. Thus it is shown that computing cLCSs is an efficient and meaningful way of synthesizing vast amounts of Lagrangian information. The cLCS method confirms previous GoM studies, and contributes to our understanding by revealing the persistent nature of the dynamics and kinematics treated therein.

  9. Improved Specification of Transboundary Air Pollution over the Gulf of Mexico Using Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour Biazar, A.; Khan, M. N.; Park, Y. H.; McNider, R. T.; Cameron, B.

    2010-12-01

    The assessment of potential environmental impact of oil and gas operations in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) and in particular the onshore air quality impact of such operations is important to State and Federal regulatory agencies. In adapting sound policies for control strategies, it is crucial to assess the impact of local pollution versus transboundary air pollution, and in a region such as GoM with scarce monitoring capability over open waters such distinctions represents a challenge. Furthermore, GoM region can be impacted by the recirculation of pollution in the southeastern United States. The current study examines the efficacy of utilizing the newly available satellite observations of aerosols and trace gases in air quality impacts assessment for addressing these issues. In particular, ozone profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard Aura and aerosol products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Terra and Aqua satellites were utilized in a modeling study during August 2006. The satellite observations were used in the specification of the background and lateral boundary and also once daily for the re-adjustment of the concentration fields. The results were then evaluated against ozonesonde and surface observations. The utilization of OMI ozone profiles significantly improved model performance in the free troposphere and the use of MODIS aerosol products substantially enhanced model prediction of aerosols in the boundary layer. Neither OMI nor TES provide adequate information in the boundary layer with respect to O3 and as a result they can only marginally impact ozone predictions in the boundary layer. The utilization of the satellite data for lateral boundary condition (BC) was helpful in the realization of transboundary transport of pollution. The hypothesis that the recirculation of pollution from Northeast Corridor can play a role over the Gulf of Mexico was tested and

  10. New specimens of the rare taeniodont Wortmania (Mammalia: Eutheria) from the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and comments on the phylogeny and functional morphology of "archaic" mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Thomas E; Brusatte, Stephen L

    2013-01-01

    Taeniodonta is a clade of Late Cretaceous-Paleogene mammals remarkable for their relatively extreme cranial, dental, and postcranial adaptations and notable for being among the first mammals to achieve relatively large size following the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. Previous workers have hypothesized that taeniodonts can be divided into two clades: Conoryctidae, a group of small-bodied taeniodonts with supposedly "generalized" postcranial skeletons, and Stylinodontidae, a group of large-bodied, robust animals with massive forelimbs and claws adapted for scratch-digging. However, many taeniodont taxa are poorly known and few are represented by postcranial material, leaving many details about their anatomy, biology, and evolution ambiguous. In this paper, we describe three new specimens of the rare taxon Wortmania otariidens from the early Paleocene (Puercan) of New Mexico. Among these specimens is one that includes remarkably complete cranial and dental material, including associated upper and lower teeth, and another that consists of partial forelimbs. These specimens allow for an updated anatomical description of this unusual taxon, supply new data for phylogenetic analyses, and enable a more constrained discussion of taeniodont biology and functional morphology. The new specimen of Wortmania that includes associated upper and lower teeth indicates that previous interpretations of the upper dentition of this taxon were not accurate and the taxon Robertschochia sullivani is a junior synonym of W. otariidens. New specimens that include partial forelimbs indicate that Wortmania is very similar to later, large-bodied taeniodonts, with marked and distinctive adaptations for scratch-digging. Comparisons with other taeniodont taxa that include postcranial material suggest that all taeniodonts may have had scratch-digging adaptations. A phylogenetic analysis shows that Schowalteria and Onychodectes are basal taeniodonts, Stylinodontidae (including Wortmania) is

  11. New specimens of the rare taeniodont Wortmania (Mammalia: Eutheria from the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and comments on the phylogeny and functional morphology of "archaic" mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Williamson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Taeniodonta is a clade of Late Cretaceous-Paleogene mammals remarkable for their relatively extreme cranial, dental, and postcranial adaptations and notable for being among the first mammals to achieve relatively large size following the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. Previous workers have hypothesized that taeniodonts can be divided into two clades: Conoryctidae, a group of small-bodied taeniodonts with supposedly "generalized" postcranial skeletons, and Stylinodontidae, a group of large-bodied, robust animals with massive forelimbs and claws adapted for scratch-digging. However, many taeniodont taxa are poorly known and few are represented by postcranial material, leaving many details about their anatomy, biology, and evolution ambiguous. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper, we describe three new specimens of the rare taxon Wortmania otariidens from the early Paleocene (Puercan of New Mexico. Among these specimens is one that includes remarkably complete cranial and dental material, including associated upper and lower teeth, and another that consists of partial forelimbs. These specimens allow for an updated anatomical description of this unusual taxon, supply new data for phylogenetic analyses, and enable a more constrained discussion of taeniodont biology and functional morphology. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The new specimen of Wortmania that includes associated upper and lower teeth indicates that previous interpretations of the upper dentition of this taxon were not accurate and the taxon Robertschochia sullivani is a junior synonym of W. otariidens. New specimens that include partial forelimbs indicate that Wortmania is very similar to later, large-bodied taeniodonts, with marked and distinctive adaptations for scratch-digging. Comparisons with other taeniodont taxa that include postcranial material suggest that all taeniodonts may have had scratch-digging adaptations. A phylogenetic analysis shows that

  12. Preliminary report on fluid inclusions from halites in the Castile and lower Salado formations of the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, C.L.

    1985-09-01

    A suite of samples composed primarily of halite from the upper Castile and lower Salado Formations of the Permian Basin was selected from Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) core for a reconnaissance study of fluid inclusions. Volume percent of these trapped fluids averaged 0.7% to 1%. Freezing-point depressions varied widely and appeared to be unrelated to fluid-inclusion type, to sedimentary facies, or to stratigraphic depth. However, because very low freezing points were usually associated with anhydrite, a relation may exist between freezing-point data and lithology. Dissolved sulfate values were constant through the Castile, then decreased markedly with lesser depth in the lower Salado. This trend correlates very well with observed mineralogy and is consistent with an interpretation of the occurrence of secondary polyhalite as a result of gypsum or anhydrite alteration with simultaneous consumption of dissolved sulfate from the coexisting fluids. Together with the abundance and distribution of fluid inclusions in primary or ''hopper'' crystal structures, this evidence suggests that inclusions seen in these halites did not migrate any significant geographical distance since their formation. 28 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Carlos García Gual, Javier Gomá Lanzón, Fernando Savater. Muchas felicidades. Tres visiones y más de la idea de felicidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Laguna Mariscal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carlos García Gual, Javier Gomá Lanzón, Fernando Savater. Muchas felicidades. Tres visiones y más de la idea de felicidad. Madrid: Ariel, 2015, 207 pp. ISBN: 978-84-344-1892-9.

  14. Deepwater Horizon oil in Gulf of Mexico waters after 2 years: transformation into the dissolved organic matter pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Thomas S; Osburn, Christopher; Shields, Michael R; Yvon-Lewis, Shari; Young, Jordan; Guo, Laodong; Zhou, Zhengzhen

    2014-08-19

    Recent work has shown the presence of anomalous dissolved organic matter (DOM), with high optical yields, in deep waters 15 months after the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Here, we continue to use the fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) technique coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) modeling, measurements of bulk organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), oil indices, and other optical properties to examine the chemical evolution and transformation of oil components derived from the DWH in the water column of the GOM. Seawater samples were collected from the GOM during July 2012, 2 years after the oil spill. This study shows that, while dissolved organic carbon (DOC) values have decreased since just after the DWH spill, they remain higher at some stations than typical deep-water values for the GOM. Moreover, we continue to observe fluorescent DOM components in deep waters, similar to those of degraded oil observed in lab and field experiments, which suggest that oil-related fluorescence signatures, as part of the DOM pool, have persisted for 2 years in the deep waters. This supports the notion that some oil-derived chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) components could still be identified in deep waters after 2 years of degradation, which is further supported by the lower DIC and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) associated with greater amounts of these oil-derived components in deep waters, assuming microbial activity on DOM in the current water masses is only the controlling factor of DIC and pCO2 concentrations.

  15. Effect of Macondo Prospect 252 Oil on Microbiota Associated with Pelagic Sargassum in the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba, Manolito G; Franks, James S; Gomez, Andres; Yooseph, Shibu; Nelson, Karen E; Grimes, D Jay

    2017-01-01

    The environmental impact of major oil spills on marine microorganisms has yet to be thoroughly investigated using molecular biology techniques. The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling rig explosion of 2010 affected an approximately 176,000 km 2 surface area of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) when an estimated 210 million gallons of oil from the Macondo Prospect spilled into the environment. Pelagic Sargassum, a complex of two surface drifting species (Sargassum natans and Sargassum fluitans) of marine brown macroalgae and a critically important habitat in the GOM ecosystem, was suffused by Macondo Prospect 252 oil released during the DWH event. Using 16S rRNA PCR and Roche 454 pyrosequencing, the effect of the oil on the bacterial population associated with pelagic Sargassum and contiguous waters was examined by comparing sequence data generated from samples collected from oiled and non-oiled locations in the northern GOM. Sequence data showed similar microbial composition in Sargassum regardless of exposure to oil primarily dominated by five phyla; Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and unclassified bacteria. The microbial composition in water samples was significantly less diverse than for Sargassum and consisted primarily of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Due to the evenly distributed abundance of microbial species on oiled and non-oiled pelagic Sargassum, study findings indicate that DWH spilled oil had minimal effect on the composition and diversity of the microbial community associated with Sargassum and contiguous waters. However, higher abundances of Sulfitobacter and one species of Psychrobacter were found in oiled water samples when compared to non-oiled water samples indicating some effect of DHW oil in the microbial composition of seawater. Though there are a number of marine studies using molecular biology approaches, this is the first molecular examination of the impact of the DWH oil spill on bacterial communities

  16. Species distribution and population connectivity of deep-sea mussels at hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste Faure

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon seepage is widespread and patchy in the Gulf of Mexico, and six species of symbiont containing bathymodiolin mussels are found on active seeps over wide and overlapping depth and geographic ranges. We use mitochondrial genes to discriminate among the previously known and a newly discovered species and to assess the connectivity among populations of the same species in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM. Our results generally validate the morphologically based distribution of the three previously known GoM species of Bathymodiolus, although we found that approximately 10% of the morphologically based identifications were incorrect and this resulted in some inaccuracies with respect to their previously assigned depth and geographical distribution patterns. These data allowed us to confirm that sympatry of two species of Bathymodiolus within a single patch of mussels is common. A new species of bathymodiolin, Bathymodiolus sp. nov., closely related to B. heckerae was also discovered. The two species live at the same depths but have not been found in sympatry and both have small effective population sizes. We found evidence for genetic structure within populations of the three species of Bathymodiolinae for which we had samples from multiple sites and suggest limited connectivity for populations at some sites. Despite relatively small sample sizes, genetic diversity indices suggest the largest population sizes for B. childressi and Tamu fisheri and the smallest for B. heckerae and B. sp. nov. among the GoM bathymodiolins. Moreover, we detected an excess of rare variants indicating recent demographic changes and population expansions for the four species of bathymodiolins from the Gulf of Mexico.

  17. Evidences of melting of terrestrial sediments and paleoenvironment changes during the Younger Dryas in tectonic lacustrine basins of Transmexican Volcanic Belt, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israde-Alcantara, I.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known in the sedimentary record of several parts of the world that during the Younger Dryas interval (YD) ocurred an abrupt environmental change between 12,900 and 11,700 cal yr BP (10,900 to 10,000 14C BP). In the lacustrine basins this changes are often preserved and in some Mexican lakes this is a distinctive stratigraphic marker for the YD. We analized the proxies of this event in cores of two lakes (Chapala, Cuitzeo) and three trenches of ex-lakes (Acambay,Texcoco and El Cedral). Deposits consist of fine detrital material with often Pleistocene fossil vertebrate assemblages. At the Chapala, Cuitzeo, Acambay, and Tocuila lacustrine environments are found in association with a distinctive dark organic layer showing sharp changes in the diatom, pollen, mineralogical and geochemical record. Includes also microscopic magnetic, Fe-rich spherules, silica melted droplets with aerodynamic shapes (tektites), followed by large amounts of charcoal, and sometimes nanodiamonds (Cuitzeo), that were deposited at the onset of the YD or in the limit Pleistocene-Holocene. These unusual materials are buried more than 2.50 meters and were not observed above or below the Younger Dryas sediments at these sites. The geochemistry of the microspherules indicates that they are not volcanic, anthropogenic or authigenic origin. A very distinctive feature is the shape of the spherules, ovoid, polygonal, filigreed or dendritic indicating melting and quenching infering that are product of an impact event. Their morphologies includes hollow shells caused by de-gassing of elements at very high temperatures causing a flattened side with a "skirt" structure by a high-velocity collision.Our results are consistent with the Firestone hypothesis.

  18. Numerical simulation of groundwater artificial recharge in a semiarid-climate basin of northwest Mexico, case study the Guadalupe Valley Aquifer, Baja California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Gaytan, J. R.; Herrera-Oliva, C. S.

    2013-05-01

    In this study was analyzed through a regional groundwater flow model the effects on groundwater levels caused by the application of different future groundwater management scenarios (2007-2025) at the Guadalupe Valley, in Baja California, Mexico. Among these studied alternatives are those scenarios designed in order to evaluate the possible effects generated for the groundwater artificial recharge in order to satisfy a future water demand with an extraction volume considered as sustainable. The State of Baja California has been subject to an increment of the agricultural, urban and industrials activities, implicating a growing water-demand. However, the State is characterized by its semiarid-climate with low surface water availability; therefore, has resulted in an extensive use of groundwater in local aquifer. Water level measurements indicate there has been a decline in water levels in the Guadalupe Valley for the past 30 years. The Guadalupe Valley aquifer represents one the major sources of water supply in Ensenada region. It supplies about 25% of the water distributed by the public water supplier at the city of Ensenada and in addition constitutes the main water resource for the local wine industries. Artificially recharging the groundwater system is one water resource option available to the study zone, in response to increasing water demand. The existing water supply system for the Guadalupe Valley and the city of Ensenada is limited since water use demand periods in 5 to 10 years or less will require the construction of additional facilities. To prepare for this short-term demand, one option available to water managers is to bring up to approximately 3.0 Mm3/year of treated water of the city of Ensenada into the valley during the low-demand winter months, artificially recharge the groundwater system, and withdraw the water to meet the summer demands. A 2- Dimensional groundwater flow was used to evaluate the effects of the groundwater artificial recharge

  19. Fast track developments, Gulf of Mexico -- options and organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Carruth, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The pressure continues to compress the 'idea to barrel' time period -- to get oil and gas from a discovery into the pipeline as quickly, cheaply and safely as possible. This paper discusses the range of development options presently available in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) to meet these goals, and a project organizational structure that allows for maximum implementation efficiency. The structural options range from a standard 4-pile to a single, freestanding caisson, and the spectrum of 'minimum structures' in between. Developments in water depths of 100 feet and 200 feet are addressed, as are each system's associated costs, relative risks and startup times. Project organization is also addressed in terms of an effective in-house and out-of-house project organizational structure, the necessary attributes of the key members of this organization, and the most effective types of contracting

  20. Economic considerations for deep water Gulf of Mexico development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.; O'Sullivan, J.; Bayazitoglu, Y.O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the economic drivers behind deep water development in the Gulf of Mexico. Capital costs are also examined versus water depth and required system. Cost categories are compared. The cost analysis was carried out by using the SEAPLAN computer program. The program is an expert system that identifies, conceptually defines, and economically compares technically feasible approaches for developing offshore oil and gas fields. The program's sizing logic and cost data base create physical and cost descriptions of systems representative of developments being planned in the deep water GOM. The examination was done separately for oil and gas developments. The material presented here is for only oil, it serves as a useful framework for viewing development economics and technology trends

  1. Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf daily oil and gas production rate projections from 1999 through 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melancon, J.M.; Baud, R.D.

    1999-02-01

    This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1999 through 2003. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals

  2. Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf daily oil and gas production rare projections from 1998 through 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melancon, J.M.; Roby, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1998 through 2002. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals

  3. Reconnaissance of Macondo-1 well oil in sediment and tarballs from the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline, Texas to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Thomas, Burt; Wong, Florence L.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons were extracted and analyzed from sediment and tarballs collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) coast that is potentially impacted by Macondo-1 (M-1) well oil. The samples were analyzed for a suite of diagnostic geochemical biomarkers. Aided by multivariate statistical analysis, the M-1 well oil has been identified in sediment and tarballs collected from Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. None of the sediment hydrocarbon extracts from Texas correlated with the M-1 well oil. Oil-impacted sediments are confined to the shoreline adjacent to the cumulative oil slick of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and no impact was observed outside of this area.

  4. Synthesis of Seafood Catch, Distribution, and Consumption Patterns in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimle and Associates, Inc.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this task was to gather and assemble information that will provide a synthesis of seafood catch, distribution and consumption patterns for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) region. This task was part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project entitled ''Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations.'' Personal interviews were conducted with a total of 905 recreational fishermen and 218 commercial fishermen (inclusive of shrimpers, crabbers, oystermen and finfishermen) in Louisiana and Texas using survey questionnaires developed for the study. Results of these interviews detail the species and quantities caught, location of catch, mode of fishing, distribution of catch, family consumption patterns and demographics of the fishermen

  5. Synthesis of Seafood Catch, Distribution, and Consumption Patterns in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimle and Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    The purpose of this task was to gather and assemble information that will provide a synthesis of seafood catch, distribution and consumption patterns for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) region. This task was part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project entitled ''Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations.'' Personal interviews were conducted with a total of 905 recreational fishermen and 218 commercial fishermen (inclusive of shrimpers, crabbers, oystermen and finfishermen) in Louisiana and Texas using survey questionnaires developed for the study. Results of these interviews detail the species and quantities caught, location of catch, mode of fishing, distribution of catch, family consumption patterns and demographics of the fishermen.

  6. Geology and oil and gas assessment of the Fruitland Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 6 in Geology and Oil and Gas Assessment of the Fruitland Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, J.L.; Condon, S.M.; Hatch, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    The Fruitland Total Petroleum System (TPS) of the San Juan Basin Province includes all genetically related hydrocarbons generated from coal beds and organic-rich shales in the Cretaceous Fruitland Formation. Coal beds are considered to be the primary source of the hydrocarbons. Potential reservoir rocks in the Fruitland TPS consist of the Upper Cretaceous Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, Fruitland Formation (both sandstone and coal beds), and the Farmington Sandstone Member of the Kirtland Formation, and the Tertiary Ojo Alamo Sandstone, and Animas, Nacimiento, and San Jose Formations.

  7. Geology, sequence stratigraphy, and oil and gas assessment of the Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 5 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    The Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System (TPS) in the San Juan Basin Province contains a continuous gas accumulation in three distinct stratigraphic units deposited in genetically related depositional environments: offshore-marine shales, mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones of the Lewis Shale, and marginal-marine shoreface sandstones and siltstones of both the La Ventana Tongue and the Chacra Tongue of the Cliff House Sandstone. The Lewis Shale was not a completion target in the San Juan Basin (SJB) in early drilling from about the 1950s through 1990. During that time, only 16 wells were completed in the Lewis from natural fracture systems encountered while drilling for deeper reservoir objectives. In 1991, existing wells that penetrated the Lewis Shale were re-entered by petroleum industry operators in order to fracture-stimulate the Lewis and to add Lewis gas production onto preexisting, and presumably often declining, Mesaverde Group production stratigraphically lower in the section. By 1997, approximately 101 Lewis completions had been made, both as re-entries into existing wells and as add-ons to Mesaverde production in new wells. Based on recent industry drilling and completion practices leading to successful gas production from the Lewis and because new geologic models indicate that the Lewis Shale contains both source rocks and reservoir rocks, the Lewis Shale TPS was defined and evaluated as part of this U.S. Geological Survey oil and gas assessment of the San Juan Basin. Gas in the Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System is produced from shoreface sandstones and siltstones in the La Ventana and Chacra Tongues and from distal facies of these prograding clastic units that extend into marine rocks of the Lewis Shale in the central part of the San Juan Basin. Reservoirs are in shoreface sandstone parasequences of the La Ventana and Chacra and their correlative distal parasequences in the Lewis Shale where both natural and artificially enhanced fractures produce

  8. Natural gas in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on various aspects of the natural gas industry in Mexico. Some of the viewgraphs depicted statistics from 1998 regarding natural gas throughput from various companies in North America, natural gas reserves around the world, and natural gas reserves in Mexico. Other viewgraphs depicted associated and non-associated natural gas production from 1988 to 1998 in million cubic feet per day. The Burgos Basin and the Cantarell Basin gas production from 1997 to 2004 was also depicted. Other viewgraphs were entitled: (1) gas processing infrastructure for 1999, (2) cryogenic plant at Cd. PEMEX, (3) average annual growth of dry natural gas production for 1997-2004 is estimated at 5.2 per cent, (4) gas flows for December 1998, (5) PGPB- interconnect points, (6) U.S. Mexico gas trade for 1994-1998, (7) PGPB's interconnect projects with U.S., and (8) natural gas storage areas. Technological innovations in the industry include more efficient gas turbines which allow for cogeneration, heat recovery steam generators which reduce pollutant emissions by 21 per cent, cold boxes which increase heat transfer efficiency, and lateral reboilers which reduce energy consumption and total costs. A pie chart depicting natural gas demand by sector shows that natural gas for power generation will increase from 16 per cent in 1997 to 31 per cent in 2004. The opportunities for cogeneration projects were also reviewed. The Comision Federal de Electricidad and independent power producers represent the largest opportunity. The 1997-2001 investment program proposes an 85 per cent sulphur dioxide emission reduction compared to 1997 levels. This presentation also noted that during the 1998-2001 period, total ethane production will grow by 58 tbd. 31 figs

  9. Towards Defining the Ecological Niches of Novel Coastal Gulf of Mexico Bacterial Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, M. W.; Thrash, C.; Nall, E.

    2016-02-01

    The study of microbial contributions to biogeochemistry is critical to understanding the cycles of fundamental compounds and gain predictive capabilities in a changing environment. Such study requires observation of microbial communities and genetics in nature, coupled with experimental testing of hypotheses both in situ and in laboratory settings. This study combines dilution-to-extinction based high-throughput culturing (HTC) with cultivation-independent and geochemical measurements to define potential ecological niches of novel bacterial isolates from the coastal northern Gulf of Mexico (cnGOM). Here we report findings from the first of a three-year project. In total, 43 cultures from seven HTC experiments were capable of being repeatedly transferred. Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified these isolates as belonging to the phyla Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria. Eight are being genome sequenced, with two selected for further physiological characterization due to their phylogenic novelty and potential ecological significance. Strain LSUCC101 likely represents a novel family of Gammaproteobacteria (best blast hit to a cultured representative showed 91% sequence identity) and strain LSUCC96 belongs to the OM252 clade, with the Hawaiian isolate HIMB30 as its closest relative. Both are small (0.3-0.5 µm) cocci. The environmental importance of both LSUCC101 and LSUCC96 was illustrated by their presence within the top 30 OTU0.03 of cnGOM 16S rRNA gene datasets as well as within clone libraries from coastal regions around the world. Ongoing work is determining growth efficiencies, substrate utilization profiles, and metabolic potential to elucidate the roles of these organisms in the cnGOM. Comparative genomics will examine the evolutionary divergence of these organisms from their closest neighbors, and metagenomic recruitment to genomes will help identify strain-based variation from different coastal regions.

  10. Genetic Connectivity in Scleractinian Corals across the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Oil/Gas Platforms, and Relationship to the Flower Garden Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Sammarco, Paul W.; Brazeau, Daniel A.; Sinclair, James

    2012-01-01

    The 3,000 oil/gas structures currently deployed in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) provide hard substratum for marine organisms in a region where such has been rare since the Holocene. The major exception to this are the Flower Garden Banks (FGB). Corals are known to have colonized oil/gas platforms around the FGB, facilitating biogeographic expansion. We ask the question, what are the patterns of genetic affinity in these coral populations. We sampled coral tissue from populations of two s...

  11. Geology and oil and gas assessment of the Todilto Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin Province, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 3 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, J.L.; Hatch, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Organic-rich, shaly limestone beds, which contain hydrocarbon source beds in the lower part of the Jurassic Todilto Limestone Member of the Wanakah Formation, and sandstone reservoirs in the overlying Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, compose the Todilto Total Petroleum System (TPS). Source rock facies of the Todilto Limestone were deposited in a combined marine-lacustrine depositional setting. Sandstone reservoirs in the Entrada Sandstone were deposited in eolian depositional environments. Oil in Todilto source beds was generated beginning in the middle Paleocene, about 63 million years ago, and maximum generation of oil occurred in the middle Eocene. In the northern part of the San Juan Basin, possible gas and condensate were generated in Todilto Limestone Member source beds until the middle Miocene. The migration distance of oil from the Todilto source beds into the underlying Entrada Sandstone reservoirs was short, probably within the dimensions of a single dune crest. Traps in the Entrada are mainly stratigraphic and diagenetic. Regional tilt of the strata to the northeast has influenced structural trapping of oil, but also allowed for later introduction of water. Subsequent hydrodynamic forces have influenced the repositioning of the oil in some reservoirs and flushing in others. Seals are mostly the anhydrite and limestone facies of the Todilto, which thin to as little as 10 ft over the crests of the dunes. The TPS contains only one assessment unit, the Entrada Sandstone Conventional Oil Assessment Unit (AU) (50220401). Only four of the eight oil fields producing from the Entrada met the 0.5 million barrels of oil minimum size used for this assessment. The AU was estimated at the mean to have potential additions to reserves of 2.32 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 5.56 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 0.22 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL).

  12. Middle Rio Grande Basin Research Report 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Catherine Dold

    2008-01-01

    An ecosystem is rarely static. A natural system composed of plants, animals, and microorganisms interacting with an area's physical factors, an ecosystem is always fluctuating and evolving. But sometimes, often at the hands of humans, ecosystems change too much. Such is the case with many of the ecosystems of the Middle Rio Grande Basin of New Mexico.

  13. Archaeal enrichment in the hypoxic zone in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Lauren E; Thrash, J Cameron; deRada, Sergio; Rabalais, Nancy N; Mason, Olivia U

    2015-10-01

    Areas of low oxygen have spread exponentially over the past 40 years, and are cited as a key stressor on coastal ecosystems. The world's second largest coastal hypoxic (≤ 2 mg of O2 l(-1)) zone occurs annually in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The net effect of hypoxia is the diversion of energy flow away from higher trophic levels to microorganisms. This energy shunt is consequential to the overall productivity of hypoxic water masses and the ecosystem as a whole. In this study, water column samples were collected at 39 sites in the nGOM, 21 of which were hypoxic. Analysis of the microbial community along a hypoxic to oxic dissolved oxygen gradient revealed that the relative abundance (iTag) of Thaumarchaeota species 16S rRNA genes (> 40% of the microbial community in some hypoxic samples), the absolute abundance (quantitative polymerase chain reaction; qPCR) of Thaumarchaeota 16S rRNA genes and archaeal ammonia-monooxygenase gene copy number (qPCR) were significantly higher in hypoxic samples. Spatial interpolation of the microbial and chemical data revealed a continuous, shelfwide band of low dissolved oxygen waters that were dominated by Thaumarchaeota (and Euryarchaeota), amoA genes and high concentrations of phosphate in the nGOM, thus implicating physicochemical forcing on microbial abundance. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Food-web structure of seep sediment macrobenthos from the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Gualtieri, Daniel; Kovacs, Kaitlin

    2010-01-01

    The slope environment of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) supports dense communities of seep megafaunal invertebrates that rely on endosymbiotic bacteria for nutrition. Seep sediments also contain smaller macrofaunal invertebrates whose nutritional pathways are not well understood. Using stable-isotope analysis, we investigate the utilization of chemosynthetically fixed and methane-derived organic matter by macrofauna. Biological sampling was conducted in three lower-slope GOM seep environs: Green Canyon (GC852, 1428 m), Atwater Valley (AT340, 2230 m), and Alaminos Canyon (AC601, 2384 m). Infaunal delta13C and delta15N exhibited a broad range of values; most infauna appeared to be heterotrophic, although several taxa had very light delta15N and delta13C values, indicating possible reliance on chemoautotrophic symbioses. The lightest delta13C and delta15N values were observed in nematodes (delta13C=-54.6 + or - 0.1 per mil, delta15N=-6.1 + or - 0.2 per mil) and one gastropod (delta13C=-54.1 per mil, delta15N=-1.1 per mil) from Green Canyon. Mixing-model results indicated that sulfur-oxidizing Beggiatoa may be an important food source for seep infauna; the rate of utilization ranged from 60% to 100% at Green Canyon and Atwater Valley. The overall range in isotope values was similar across the three sites, suggesting that biogeochemical processes may be very similar in these geographically distinct areas.

  15. Characterizing Natural Gas Hydrates in the Deep Water Gulf of Mexico: Applications for Safe Exploration and Production Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, Jimmy

    2014-05-31

    In 2000 Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deep water portion of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Chevron is an active explorer and operator in the Gulf of Mexico and is aware that natural gas hydrates need to be understood to operate safely in deep water. In August 2000 Chevron worked closely with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and held a workshop in Houston, Texas to define issues concerning the characterization of natural gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, the workshop was meant to clearly show where research, the development of new technologies, and new information sources would be of benefit to the DOE and to the oil and gas industry in defining issues and solving gas hydrate problems in deep water.

  16. Macondo-1 well oil in sediment and tarballs from the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Florence L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Thomas, Burt

    2011-01-01

    From April 20 through July 15, 2010, an estimated 4.4 million barrels (1 barrel = 42 gallons [~700,000 cu m]) of crude oil spilled into the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) from the ruptured British Petroleum (BP) Macondo-1 (M-1) well after the explosion of the drilling platform Deepwater Horizon. In addition, ~1.84 million gallons (~7,000 cu m) of hydrocarbon-based Corexit dispersants were applied to the oil both on and below the sea surface (Operational Science Advisory Team, 2010). An estimate of the total extent of the surface oil slick, derived from wind, ocean currents, aerial photography, and satellite imagery, was 68,000 square miles (~180,000 sq km; Amos and Norse, 2010). Spilled oil from this event impacted sensitive habitat along the shores of the nGOM. In response to this environmental catastrophe, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected coastal sediment and tarball samples along the shores of the nGOM from Texas to Florida before and after oil made landfall. These sites included priority areas of the nGOM at highest risk for oil contamination. These areas included coastal wetlands, shorelines, and barrier islands that could suffer severe environmental damage if a significant amount of oil came ashore. Samples were collected before oil reached land from 69 sites; 49 were revisited to collect samples after oil landfall. This poster focuses on the samples from locations that were sampled on both occasions. The USGS samples and one M-1 well-oil sample provided by BP were analyzed for a suite of diagnostic geochemical biomarkers. Aided by multivariate statistical analysis, the M-1 well oil was not detected in the samples collected before landfall but have been identified in sediment and tarballs collected from Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida after landfall. None of the sediment hydrocarbon extracts from Texas correlated with the M-1 well oil. Oil-impacted sediment is confined to the shoreline adjacent to the cumulative oil slick of the

  17. Metabolic Roles of Uncultivated Bacterioplankton Lineages in the Northern Gulf of Mexico "Dead Zone".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, J Cameron; Seitz, Kiley W; Baker, Brett J; Temperton, Ben; Gillies, Lauren E; Rabalais, Nancy N; Henrissat, Bernard; Mason, Olivia U

    2017-09-12

    Marine regions that have seasonal to long-term low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, sometimes called "dead zones," are increasing in number and severity around the globe with deleterious effects on ecology and economics. One of the largest of these coastal dead zones occurs on the continental shelf of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), which results from eutrophication-enhanced bacterioplankton respiration and strong seasonal stratification. Previous research in this dead zone revealed the presence of multiple cosmopolitan bacterioplankton lineages that have eluded cultivation, and thus their metabolic roles in this ecosystem remain unknown. We used a coupled shotgun metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approach to determine the metabolic potential of Marine Group II Euryarchaeota , SAR406, and SAR202. We recovered multiple high-quality, nearly complete genomes from all three groups as well as candidate phyla usually associated with anoxic environments- Parcubacteria (OD1) and Peregrinibacteria Two additional groups with putative assignments to ACD39 and PAUC34f supplement the metabolic contributions by uncultivated taxa. Our results indicate active metabolism in all groups, including prevalent aerobic respiration, with concurrent expression of genes for nitrate reduction in SAR406 and SAR202, and dissimilatory nitrite reduction to ammonia and sulfur reduction by SAR406. We also report a variety of active heterotrophic carbon processing mechanisms, including degradation of complex carbohydrate compounds by SAR406, SAR202, ACD39, and PAUC34f. Together, these data help constrain the metabolic contributions from uncultivated groups in the nGOM during periods of low DO and suggest roles for these organisms in the breakdown of complex organic matter. IMPORTANCE Dead zones receive their name primarily from the reduction of eukaryotic macrobiota (demersal fish, shrimp, etc.) that are also key coastal fisheries. Excess nutrients contributed from anthropogenic activity

  18. Time-Domain Electromagnetic Data Collected in the U.S. Part of the Mesilla Basin/Conejos-Médanos Aquifer System in Doña Ana County, New Mexico, and El Paso County, Texas, November 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The transboundary Mesilla Basin/Conejos-Médanos aquifer system was identified as one of the priority transboundary aquifer systems for additional study by the United...

  19. Hydroclimatology of the Missouri River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Erika K.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; McCabe, Gregory; Pederson, Gregory T.; St. Jacques, Jeannine-Marie

    2018-01-01

    Despite the importance of the Missouri River for navigation, recreation, habitat, hydroelectric power, and agriculture, relatively little is known about the basic hydroclimatology of the Missouri River basin (MRB). This is of particular concern given the droughts and floods that have occurred over the past several decades and the potential future exacerbation of these extremes by climate change. Here, observed and modeled hydroclimatic data and estimated natural flow records in the MRB are used to 1) assess the major source regions of MRB flow, 2) describe the climatic controls on streamflow in the upper and lower basins , and 3) investigate trends over the instrumental period. Analyses indicate that 72% of MRB runoff is generated by the headwaters in the upper basin and by the lowest portion of the basin near the mouth. Spring precipitation and temperature and winter precipitation impacted by changes in zonal versus meridional flow from the Pacific Ocean play key roles in surface water supply variability in the upper basin. Lower basin flow is significantly correlated with precipitation in late spring and early summer, indicative of Atlantic-influenced circulation variability affecting the flow of moisture from the Gulf of Mexico. Although increases in precipitation in the lower basin are currently overriding the effects of warming temperatures on total MRB flow, the upper basin’s long-term trend toward decreasing flows, reduction in snow versus rain fraction, and warming spring temperatures suggest that the upper basin may less often provide important flow supplements to the lower basin in the future.

  20. State estimates and forecasts of the loop current in the Gulf of Mexico using the MITgcm and its adjoint

    KAUST Repository

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    2013-07-01

    An ocean state estimate has been developed for the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using the MIT general circulation model and its adjoint. The estimate has been tested by forecasting loop current (LC) evolution and eddy shedding in the GoM. The adjoint (or four-dimensional variational) method was used to match the model evolution to observations by adjusting model temperature and salinity initial conditions, open boundary conditions, and atmospheric forcing fields. The model was fit to satellite-derived along-track sea surface height, separated into temporal mean and anomalies, and gridded sea surface temperature for 2 month periods. The optimized state at the end of the assimilation period was used to initialize the forecast for 2 months. Forecasts explore practical LC predictability and provide a cross-validation test of the state estimate by comparing it to independent future observations. The model forecast was tested for several LC eddy separation events, including Eddy Franklin in May 2010 during the deepwater horizon oil spill disaster in the GoM. The forecast used monthly climatological open boundary conditions, atmospheric forcing, and run-off fluxes. The model performance was evaluated by computing model-observation root-mean-square difference (rmsd) during both the hindcast and forecast periods. The rmsd metrics for the forecast generally outperformed persistence (keeping the initial state fixed) and reference (forecast initialized using assimilated Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model 1/12° global analysis) model simulations during LC eddy separation events for a period of 1̃2 months.

  1. State estimates and forecasts of the loop current in the Gulf of Mexico using the MITgcm and its adjoint

    KAUST Repository

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Cornuelle, Bruce D.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Rudnick, Daniel L.; Owens, W. Brechner

    2013-01-01

    An ocean state estimate has been developed for the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using the MIT general circulation model and its adjoint. The estimate has been tested by forecasting loop current (LC) evolution and eddy shedding in the GoM. The adjoint (or four-dimensional variational) method was used to match the model evolution to observations by adjusting model temperature and salinity initial conditions, open boundary conditions, and atmospheric forcing fields. The model was fit to satellite-derived along-track sea surface height, separated into temporal mean and anomalies, and gridded sea surface temperature for 2 month periods. The optimized state at the end of the assimilation period was used to initialize the forecast for 2 months. Forecasts explore practical LC predictability and provide a cross-validation test of the state estimate by comparing it to independent future observations. The model forecast was tested for several LC eddy separation events, including Eddy Franklin in May 2010 during the deepwater horizon oil spill disaster in the GoM. The forecast used monthly climatological open boundary conditions, atmospheric forcing, and run-off fluxes. The model performance was evaluated by computing model-observation root-mean-square difference (rmsd) during both the hindcast and forecast periods. The rmsd metrics for the forecast generally outperformed persistence (keeping the initial state fixed) and reference (forecast initialized using assimilated Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model 1/12° global analysis) model simulations during LC eddy separation events for a period of 1̃2 months.

  2. Fat, weather, and date affect migratory songbirds' departure decisions, routes, and time it takes to cross the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Jill L; Ward, Michael P; Bolus, Rachel T; Diehl, Robert H; Celis-Murillo, Antonio; Zenzal, Theodore J; Moore, Frank R; Benson, Thomas J; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A; Schofield, Lynn N; Enstrom, David A; Paxton, Eben H; Bohrer, Gil; Beveroth, Tara A; Raim, Arlo; Obringer, Renee L; Delaney, David; Cochran, William W

    2015-11-17

    Approximately two thirds of migratory songbirds in eastern North America negotiate the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), where inclement weather coupled with no refueling or resting opportunities can be lethal. However, decisions made when navigating such features and their consequences remain largely unknown due to technological limitations of tracking small animals over large areas. We used automated radio telemetry to track three songbird species (Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson's Thrush, Wood Thrush) from coastal Alabama to the northern Yucatan Peninsula (YP) during fall migration. Detecting songbirds after crossing ∼1,000 km of open water allowed us to examine intrinsic (age, wing length, fat) and extrinsic (weather, date) variables shaping departure decisions, arrival at the YP, and crossing times. Large fat reserves and low humidity, indicative of beneficial synoptic weather patterns, favored southward departure across the Gulf. Individuals detected in the YP departed with large fat reserves and later in the fall with profitable winds, and flight durations (mean = 22.4 h) were positively related to wind profit. Age was not related to departure behavior, arrival, or travel time. However, vireos negotiated the GOM differently than thrushes, including different departure decisions, lower probability of detection in the YP, and longer crossing times. Defense of winter territories by thrushes but not vireos and species-specific foraging habits may explain the divergent migratory behaviors. Fat reserves appear extremely important to departure decisions and arrival in the YP. As habitat along the GOM is degraded, birds may be limited in their ability to acquire fat to cross the Gulf.

  3. Fat, weather, and date affect migratory songbirds’ departure decisions, routes, and time it takes to cross the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Jill L.; Ward, Michael P.; Bolus, Rachel T.; Diehl, Robert H.; Celis-Murillo, A.; Zenzal, Theodore J.; Moore, Frank R.; Benson, Thomas J.; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Schofield, Lynn N.; Enstrom, David A.; Paxton, Eben H.; Bohrer, Gil; Beveroth, Tara A.; Raim, Arlo; Obringer, Renee L.; Delaney, David; Cochran, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately two thirds of migratory songbirds in eastern North America negotiate the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), where inclement weather coupled with no refueling or resting opportunities can be lethal. However, decisions made when navigating such features and their consequences remain largely unknown due to technological limitations of tracking small animals over large areas. We used automated radio telemetry to track three songbird species (Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson’s Thrush, Wood Thrush) from coastal Alabama to the northern Yucatan Peninsula (YP) during fall migration. Detecting songbirds after crossing ∼1,000 km of open water allowed us to examine intrinsic (age, wing length, fat) and extrinsic (weather, date) variables shaping departure decisions, arrival at the YP, and crossing times. Large fat reserves and low humidity, indicative of beneficial synoptic weather patterns, favored southward departure across the Gulf. Individuals detected in the YP departed with large fat reserves and later in the fall with profitable winds, and flight durations (mean = 22.4 h) were positively related to wind profit. Age was not related to departure behavior, arrival, or travel time. However, vireos negotiated the GOM differently than thrushes, including different departure decisions, lower probability of detection in the YP, and longer crossing times. Defense of winter territories by thrushes but not vireos and species-specific foraging habits may explain the divergent migratory behaviors. Fat reserves appear extremely important to departure decisions and arrival in the YP. As habitat along the GOM is degraded, birds may be limited in their ability to acquire fat to cross the Gulf.

  4. Tectonic Implications of Changes in the Paleogene Paleodrainage Network in the West-Central Part of the San Luis Basin, Northern Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico and Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. A.; Turner, K. J.; Cosca, M. A.; Drenth, B.

    2016-12-01

    The San Luis Basin is the largest of extensional basins in the northern Rio Grande rift (>11,400 km2). The modern basin configuration is the result of Neogene deformation that has been the focus of numerous studies. In contrast, Paleogene extensional deformation is relatively little studied owing to a fragmentary or poorly exposed stratigraphic record in most areas. However, volcanic and volcaniclastic deposits exposed along the western margin of the basin provide the spatial and temporal framework for interpretation of paleodrainage patterns that changed in direct response to Oligocene basin subsidence and the migration of centers of Tertiary volcanism. The early Oligocene (34 to 30 Ma) drainage pattern that originated in the volcanic highlands of the San Juan Mountains flowed south into the northern Tusas Mountains. A structural and topographic high composed of Proterozoic rocks in the Tusas Mountains directed flow to the southeast at least as late as 29 Ma, as ash-flow tuffs sourced in the southeast San Juan Mountains are restricted to the north side of the paleohigh. Construction of volcanic highlands in the San Luis Hills between 30 and 28.5 Ma provided an abundant source of volcanic debris that combined with volcanic detritus sourced in the southeast San Juan Mountains and was deposited (Los Pinos Formation) throughout the northern Tusas Mountains progressively onlapping the paleotopographic high. By 29 Ma, subsidence of the Las Mesitas graben, a structural sub-basin, between the San Luis Hills and the southeast San Juan and northern Tusas Mountains is reflected by thick deposits of Los Pinos Formation beneath 26.5 Ma basalts. Regional tectonism responsible for the formation of the graben may have also lowered the topographic and structural high in the Tusas Mountains, which allowed development of a southwest-flowing paleodrainage that likely flowed onto the Colorado Plateau. Tholeiitic basalt flows erupted in the San Luis Hills at 25.8 Ma, that presently cap

  5. GoM Diet Matrix

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was taken from CRD 08-18 at the NEFSC. Specifically, the Gulf of Maine diet matrix was developed for the EMAX exercise described in that center...

  6. Towards Real-Time GOMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-28

    as possible, thinking aloud as he played. Gray videotaped KP performing this task to provide observed behavior against which to measure the...Lehman, J. F., Newell, A., Rosenblom, P. S., Simon , T., & Tessler, S. G. "Soar as a Unified Theory of Cognition: Spring 1990. in the Proceedings of the...Center Brown University Dr. Michael Blackburns User Interface Institute Department of Psychology Code 943 P.O. Box 704 Proience. RI 02912 Naval Ocean

  7. Heavy metals in red crabs, Chaceon quinquedens, from the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Harriet; Isphording, Wayne; Trigg, Christine; Riedel, Ralf

    2015-12-30

    The red crab, Chaceon quinquedens, is distributed in deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and is most abundant in an area associated with sediment deposition from the Mississippi River. Sediment geochemistry and biological and ecological traits of red crabs favor accumulation of contaminants. Red crabs, sediment, and bottom water samples were taken from three distinct geographic locations representing areas with differing exposure to contaminant laden effluents from the Mississippi River. Inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry were employed to determine levels of heavy metals in red crab muscle tissue. Ion site partitioning was used to determine metal speciation in sediments. Red crabs showed evidence of heavy metal bioaccumulation in all sample areas with high variability in contaminant levels in individual crabs for some metals. Bioavailability of metals in sediment did not always result in accumulation in muscle tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. September 1985 Mexico City, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.1 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The damage was concentrated in a 25 square km area of Mexico City, 350 km from the epicenter....

  9. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to detect factors contributing to hypoxic events in the southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, R.; Johansen, A.; Mitchell, Å. R.; Caraballo Álvarez, I. O.; Taggart, M.; Smith, B.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring and analyzing harmful algal blooms (HABs) and hypoxic events in the southern coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is important for watershed management and mitigation of environmental degradation. This study uncovered trends and dynamic characteristics of chlorophyll-a (Chl) concentration, sea surface temperature (SST), colored dissolved organic matter index (CDOM), and photosynthetically available radiation (PAR); as evident in 8-day standard mapped image (SMI) products from the MODIS instrument on the Aqua platform from 2002-2015 using Clark Labs TerrSet Earth Trends Modeler (ETM). Predicted dissolved oxygen images were classified using a Multi-Layer Perceptron regression approach with in-situ data from the northern GoM. Additionally, sediment and nutrient loading values of the Grijalva-Usumacinta watershed were modeled using the ArcGIS Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Lastly, A Turbidity Index was generated using Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) scenes for 2014-2015. Results, tools, and products will assist local environmental and health authorities in revising water quality standards and mitigating the impacts of future HABs and hypoxic events in the region. This project uses NASA's earth observations as a viable alternative to studying a region with no in-situ data.

  10. Isolation on the West Florida Shelf with implications for red tides and pollutant dispersal in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olascoaga, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of year-long drifter trajectories and records of simulated surface Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) have suggested the presence of a resilient Cross-Shelf Transport Barrier (CSTB) on the West Florida Shelf (WFS). The CSTB was conjectured to provide a large degree of isolation, which is consequential for the fueling of red tides on the southern WFS by nutrients possibly released by rivers and canals directly on the region. Here this conjecture is thoroughly tested by identifying LCSs as well as performing tracer advection calculations based on seven-year-long records of surface and subsurface currents produced by a HYbrid-Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) simulation of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). The identified LCSs suggest that the CSTB extends downward in the water column. The tracer calculations suggest that, while the majority of the nutrients possibly released by rivers and canals directly on the southern WFS are retained within the region for long times, only a small fraction of the nutrients possibly released by rivers outside the WFS reach the southern WFS, mainly accompanying shoreward excursions of the CSTB. These results add importance to the role played by the CSTB in controlling red tide development on the WFS. Implications of the results for the dispersal of pollutants, such as oil, in the GoM are discussed. PMID:22287830

  11. Marine snow formation in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passow, U; Ziervogel, K; Asper, V; Diercks, A

    2012-01-01

    The large marine snow formation event observed in oil-contaminated surface waters of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) after the Deepwater Horizon accident possibly played a key role in the fate of the surface oil. We characterized the unusually large and mucus-rich marine snow that formed and conducted roller table experiments to investigate their formation mechanisms. Once marine snow lost its buoyancy, its sinking velocity, porosity and excess density were then similar to those of diatom or miscellaneous aggregates. The hydrated density of the component particles of the marine snow from the GoM was remarkably variable, suggesting a wide variety of component types. Our experiments suggest that the marine snow appearing at the surface after the oil spill was formed through the interaction of three mechanisms: (1) production of mucous webs through the activities of bacterial oil-degraders associated with the floating oil layer; (2) production of oily particulate matter through interactions of oil components with suspended matter and their coagulation; and (3) coagulation of phytoplankton with oil droplets incorporated into aggregates. Marine snow formed in some, but not all, experiments with water from the subsurface plume of dissolved hydrocarbons, emphasizing the complexity of the conditions leading to the formation of marine snow in oil-contaminated seawater at depth. (letter)

  12. Polychaete Annelid (segmented worms) Species Composition in the Deep Gulf of Mexico following the Deep Water Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    QU, F.; Rowe, G.

    2012-12-01

    Sediments 5 to 9 km from the Deep Water Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill site were sampled using a 0.2 m2 box corer 5 months after the event to assess the effects of the oil spill on polychaete annelid (segmented worms) community structure. Numbers of species, abundance, and biodiversity indices were all significantly lower than pre-spill values from similar depths in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). All of the five dominant species were different. Non-selective deposit feeders and selective deposit feeders were still the most frequent feeding guilds, but their abundances decreased significantly after the event. A large number of carnivorous Sigalionidae may be a response to an accumulation of PAHs on the sediment. Multivariate analyses (CLUSTER and multidimensional scaling (MDS)) illustrate the differences between assemblages near the DWH and those from prior studies in similar deep GoM habitats. In sum, the polychaete populations appeared to be at an early stage of succession in the recovery from the spill or they could be a resident assemblage that is the natural characteristic infauna in or adjacent to natural seeps of fossil hydrocarbons.

  13. Molecular and biochemical responses of hypoxia exposure in Atlantic croaker collected from hypoxic regions in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Saydur; Thomas, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A major impact of global climate change has been the marked increase worldwide in the incidence of coastal hypoxia (dissolved oxygen, DOhypoxic waters as well as their molecular and physiological responses to environmental hypoxia exposure are largely unknown. A suite of potential hypoxia exposure biomarkers was evaluated in Atlantic croaker collected from hypoxic and normoxic regions in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), and in croaker after laboratory exposure to hypoxia (DO: 1.7 mg l-1). Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-α, hif-α; neuronal nitric oxide synthase, nNOS; and insulin-like growth factor binding protein, igfbp mRNAs and protein carbonyl (PC, an oxidative stress indicator) content were elevated several-fold in brain and liver tissues of croaker collected from nGOM hypoxic sites. All of these molecular and biochemical biomarkers were also upregulated ~3-10-fold in croaker brain and liver tissues within 1-2 days of hypoxia exposure in controlled laboratory experiments. These results suggest that hif-αs, nNOS and igfbp-1 transcripts and PC contents are useful biomarkers of environmental hypoxia exposure and some of its physiological effects, making them important components for improved assessments of long-term impacts of environmental hypoxia on fish populations.

  14. Generalized additive models used to predict species abundance in the Gulf of Mexico: an ecosystem modeling tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Drexler

    Full Text Available Spatially explicit ecosystem models of all types require an initial allocation of biomass, often in areas where fisheries independent abundance estimates do not exist. A generalized additive modelling (GAM approach is used to describe the abundance of 40 species groups (i.e. functional groups across the Gulf of Mexico (GoM using a large fisheries independent data set (SEAMAP and climate scale oceanographic conditions. Predictor variables included in the model are chlorophyll a, sediment type, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and depth. Despite the presence of a large number of zeros in the data, a single GAM using a negative binomial distribution was suitable to make predictions of abundance for multiple functional groups. We present an example case study using pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duroarum and compare the results to known distributions. The model successfully predicts the known areas of high abundance in the GoM, including those areas where no data was inputted into the model fitting. Overall, the model reliably captures areas of high and low abundance for the large majority of functional groups observed in SEAMAP. The result of this method allows for the objective setting of spatial distributions for numerous functional groups across a modeling domain, even where abundance data may not exist.

  15. The impact of weather and ocean forecasting on hydrocarbon production and pollution management in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 2 years, the vulnerability of offshore production in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has been brought to light by extensive damage to oil and gas facilities and pipelines resulting from Hurricanes Ivan, Katrina, and Rita. The occurrences of extreme weather regularly force operators to shut-down production, cease drilling and construction activities, and evacuate personnel. Loop currents and eddies can also impact offshore operations and delay installation and drilling activities and reduce the effectiveness of oil spill response strategies. The purpose of this paper is to describe how weather and ocean forecasting impact production activities and pollution management in the GOM. Physical outcome and decision models in support of production and development activities and oil spill response management are presented, and the expected economic benefits that may result from the implementation of an integrated ocean observation network in the region are summarized. Improved ocean observation systems are expected to reduce the uncertainty of forecasting and to enhance the value of ocean/weather information throughout the Gulf region. The source of benefits and the size of activity from which improved ocean observation benefits may be derived are estimated for energy development and production activities and oil spill response management

  16. Tsunami-Induced Nearshore Hydrodynamic Modeling using a 3D VOF Method: A Gulf of Mexico Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kian, R.; Horrillo, J. J.; Fang, N. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term morphology changes can be interrupted by extreme events such as hurricanes and tsunamis. In particular, the impact of tsunamis on coastal erosion and accretion patterns is presently not well understood. In order to understand the sediment movement during coastal tsunami impact a numerical sediment transport model is added to a 3D VOF model. This model allows for spatially varying bottom sediment characteristics and entails functions for entrainment, bedload, and suspended load transport. As a case study, a Gulf of Mexico (GOM) coastal study site is selected to investigate the effect of a landslide-tsunami on the coastal morphology. The GOM is recognized as a vast and productive body of water with great ecologic and economic value. The morphodynamic response of the nearshore environment to the tsunami hydrodynamic forcing is influenced by many factors including bathymetry, topography, tsunami wave and current magnitude, and the characteristics of the local bottom substrate. The 3D model addition can account for all these factors. Finally, necessary strategies for reduction of the potential tsunami impact and management of the morphological changes are discussed.

  17. Pinon-juniper management research at Corona Range and Livestock Research Center in Central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres Cibils; Mark Petersen; Shad Cox; Michael Rubio

    2008-01-01

    Description: New Mexico State University's Corona Range and Livestock Research Center (CRLRC) is located in a pinon-juniper (PJ)/grassland ecotone in the southern Basin and Range Province in south central New Mexico. A number of research projects conducted at this facility revolve around soil, plant, livestock, and wildlife responses to PJ woodland management. The...

  18. Oligocene cetaceans from Baja California Sur, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Cisneros, Atzcalli Ehécatl; González Barba, Gerardo; Fordyce, Robert Ewan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Baja California Sur has an important Cenozoic marine fossil record which includes diverse but poorly known Oligocene cetaceans from Mexico. Here we review the cetacean fossil record including new observations from materials that elucidate the evolution of the Neoceti in the Pacific basin. Fossils were collected from outcrops of the El Cien Formation (Oligocene-Early Miocene) and from San Gregorio Formation (Late Oligocene). The specimens belong to the paleontological collection of Mu...

  19. Gulf of Mexico deep-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The deepwater Gulf of Mexico, an emerging basin with 20 BBOE resource potential, was discussed. Technologies are advancing and development options are increasing within the Gulf of Mexico deepwater environment. Deepwater offers significant rate potentials leading to strong cash flows. The projected steep rate of resources captured in the next five years show that there is a short window of opportunity to establish a business position. The major production variables are development costs and cycle time. There is a definite market for Gulf of Mexico products because U.S. energy demand is expected to outstrip U.S. supply. Present infrastructure is capable of moving large volumes of gas into major U.S. markets, but with the large number of projects currently underway, especially in the United States, supply could exceed capacity. 1 tab., 16 figs

  20. Mexico; Mexique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes the key energy data for Mexico: 1 - energy organizations and policy: Ministry of energy (SENER), Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), Ministry of Finances, Ministry of trade and industrial development (SECOFI), national commission for energy savings (CONAE); 2 - companies: federal commission of electricity (CFE), Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido (MICARE - coal), Pemex (petroleum); 3 - energy production: resources, electric power, petroleum, natural gas; 4 - energy consumption; 5 - stakes and perspectives. Some economic and energy indicators are summarized in a series of tables: general indicators, supply indicators (reserves, refining and electric capacity, energy production, foreign trade), demand indicators (consumption trends, end use, energy independence, energy efficiency, CO{sub 2} emissions), energy status per year and per energy source. (J.S.)

  1. Bibliography, geophysical data locations, and well core listings for the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    To date, comprehensive basin analysis and petroleum system modeling studies have not been performed on any of the basins in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Of these basins, the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin has been selected for study because it is the most petroliferous basin in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, small- and medium-size companies are drilling the majority of the exploration wells. These companies do not have the resources to perform basin analysis or petroleum system modeling research studies nor do they have the resources to undertake elaborate information searches through the volumes of publicly available data at the universities, geological surveys, and regulatory agencies in the region. The Advanced Geologic Basin Analysis Program of the US Department of Energy provides an avenue for studying and evaluating sedimentary basins. This program is designed to improve the efficiency of the discovery of the nation`s remaining undiscovered oil resources by providing improved access to information available in the public domain and by increasing the amount of public information on domestic basins. This report provides the information obtained from Year 1 of this study of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. The work during Year 1 focused on inventorying the data files and records of the major information repositories in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and making these inventories easily accessible in an electronic format.

  2. Constraining gas hydrate occurrence in the northern Gulf of Mexico continental slope : fine scale analysis of grain-size in hydrate-bearing sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangsterfer, A.; Driscoll, N.; Kastner, M. [Scripps Inst. of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States). Geosciences Research Division

    2008-07-01

    Methane hydrates can form within the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) in sea beds. The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) contains an underlying petroleum system and deeply buried, yet dynamic salt deposits. Salt tectonics and fluid expulsion upward through the sediment column result in the formation of fractures, through which high salinity brines migrate into the GHSZ, destabilizing gas hydrates. Thermogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons also migrate to the seafloor along the GOMs northern slope, originating from the thermal and biogenic degradation of organic matter. Gas hydrate occurrence can be controlled by either primary permeability, forming in coarse-grained sediment layers, or by secondary permeability, forming in areas where hydrofracture and faulting generate conduits through which hydrocarbon-saturated fluids flow. This paper presented a study that attempted to determine the relationship between grain-size, permeability, and gas hydrate distribution. Grain-size analyses were performed on cores taken from Keathley Canyon and Atwater Valley in the GOM, on sections of cores that both contained and lacked gas hydrate. Using thermal anomalies as proxies for the occurrence of methane hydrate within the cores, samples of sediment were taken and the grain-size distributions were measured to see if there was a correlation between gas hydrate distribution and grain-size. The paper described the methods, including determination of hydrate occurrence and core analysis. It was concluded that gas hydrate occurrence in Keathley Canyon and Atwater Valley was constrained by secondary permeability and was structurally controlled by hydrofractures and faulting that acted as conduits through which methane-rich fluids flowed. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Habitat-specific density and diet of rapidly expanding invasive red lionfish, Pterois volitans, populations in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Kristen A; Patterson, William F

    2014-01-01

    Invasive Indo-Pacific red lionfish, Pterois volitans, were first reported in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) in summer 2010. To examine potential impacts on native reef fish communities, lionfish density and size distributions were estimated from fall 2010 to fall 2013 with a remotely operated vehicle at natural (n = 16) and artificial (n = 22) reef sites. Lionfish (n = 934) also were sampled via spearfishing to examine effects of habitat type, season, and fish size on their diet and trophic ecology. There was an exponential increase in lionfish density at both natural and artificial reefs over the study period. By fall 2013, mean lionfish density at artificial reefs (14.7 fish 100 m(-2)) was two orders of magnitude higher than at natural reefs (0.49 fish 100 m(-2)), and already was among the highest reported in the western Atlantic. Lionfish diet was significantly different among habitats, seasons, and size classes, with smaller (lionfish sampled from artificial reefs being composed predominantly of non-reef associated prey. The ontogenetic shift in lionfish feeding ecology was consistent with δ15N values of white muscle tissue that were positively related to total length. Overall, diet results indicate lionfish are generalist mesopredators in the nGOM that become more piscivorous at larger size. However, lionfish diet was much more varied at artificial reef sites where they clearly were foraging on open substrates away from reef structure. These results have important implications for tracking the lionfish invasion in the nGOM, as well as estimating potential direct and indirect impacts on native reef fish communities in this region.

  4. Habitat-specific density and diet of rapidly expanding invasive red lionfish, Pterois volitans, populations in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A Dahl

    Full Text Available Invasive Indo-Pacific red lionfish, Pterois volitans, were first reported in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM in summer 2010. To examine potential impacts on native reef fish communities, lionfish density and size distributions were estimated from fall 2010 to fall 2013 with a remotely operated vehicle at natural (n = 16 and artificial (n = 22 reef sites. Lionfish (n = 934 also were sampled via spearfishing to examine effects of habitat type, season, and fish size on their diet and trophic ecology. There was an exponential increase in lionfish density at both natural and artificial reefs over the study period. By fall 2013, mean lionfish density at artificial reefs (14.7 fish 100 m(-2 was two orders of magnitude higher than at natural reefs (0.49 fish 100 m(-2, and already was among the highest reported in the western Atlantic. Lionfish diet was significantly different among habitats, seasons, and size classes, with smaller (<250 mm total length fish consuming more benthic invertebrates and the diet of lionfish sampled from artificial reefs being composed predominantly of non-reef associated prey. The ontogenetic shift in lionfish feeding ecology was consistent with δ15N values of white muscle tissue that were positively related to total length. Overall, diet results indicate lionfish are generalist mesopredators in the nGOM that become more piscivorous at larger size. However, lionfish diet was much more varied at artificial reef sites where they clearly were foraging on open substrates away from reef structure. These results have important implications for tracking the lionfish invasion in the nGOM, as well as estimating potential direct and indirect impacts on native reef fish communities in this region.

  5. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  6. Lagrangian Statistics and Intermittency in Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liru; Zhuang, Wei; Huang, Yongxiang

    2017-12-12

    Due to the nonlinear interaction between different flow patterns, for instance, ocean current, meso-scale eddies, waves, etc, the movement of ocean is extremely complex, where a multiscale statistics is then relevant. In this work, a high time-resolution velocity with a time step 15 minutes obtained by the Lagrangian drifter deployed in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) from July 2012 to October 2012 is considered. The measured Lagrangian velocity correlation function shows a strong daily cycle due to the diurnal tidal cycle. The estimated Fourier power spectrum E(f) implies a dual-power-law behavior which is separated by the daily cycle. The corresponding scaling exponents are close to -1.75 and -2.75 respectively for the time scale larger (resp. 0.1 ≤ f ≤ 0.4 day -1 ) and smaller (resp. 2 ≤ f ≤ 8 day -1 ) than 1 day. A Hilbert-based approach is then applied to this data set to identify the possible multifractal property of the cascade process. The results show an intermittent dynamics for the time scale larger than 1 day, while a less intermittent dynamics for the time scale smaller than 1 day. It is speculated that the energy is partially injected via the diurnal tidal movement and then transferred to larger and small scales through a complex cascade process, which needs more studies in the near future.

  7. Mesozoic Continental Sediment-dispersal Systems of Mexico Linked to Development of the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, T. F.; Molina-Garza, R. S.; Barboza-Gudiño, R.; Rogers, R. D.

    2013-05-01

    Major sediment dispersal systems on western Pangea evolved in concert with thermal uplift, rift and drift phases of the Gulf of Mexico Basin, and were influenced by development of a continental arc on Pangea's western margin. Existing literature and preliminary data from fieldwork, sandstone petrology and detrital zircon analysis reveal how major drainages in Mexico changed from Late Triassic through Late Jurassic time and offer predictions for the ultimate destinations of sand-rich detritus along the Gulf and paleo-Pacific margins. Late Triassic rivers drained away from and across the present site of the Gulf of Mexico, which was then the location of a major thermal dome, the Texas uplift of recent literature. These high-discharge rivers with relatively mature sediment composition fed a large-volume submarine fan system on the paleo-Pacific continental margin of Mexico. Predictably, detrital zircon age populations are diverse and record sources as far away as the Amazonian craton. This enormous fluvial system was cut off abruptly near the Triassic-Jurassic boundary by extensive reorganization of continental drainages. Early and Middle Jurassic drainage systems had local headwaters and deposited sediment in extensional basins associated with arc magmatism. Redbeds accumulated across northern and eastern Mexico and Chiapas in long, narrow basins whose locations and dimensions are recorded primarily by inverted antiformal massifs. The Jurassic continental successions overlie Upper Triassic strata and local subvolcanic plutons; they contain interbedded volcanic rocks and thus have been interpreted as part of the Nazas continental-margin arc. The detritus of these fluvial systems is volcanic-lithic; syndepositional grain ages are common in the detrital zircon populations, which are mixed with Oaxaquia-derived Permo-Triassic and Grenville age populations. By this time, interior Pangea no longer supplied sediment to the paleo-Pacific margin, possibly because the

  8. Mapping Surface Water DOC in the Northern Gulf of Mexico Using CDOM Absorption Coefficients and Remote Sensing Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B.; Chelsky, A.; Bulygina, E.; Roberts, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing techniques have become valuable tools to researchers, providing the capability to measure and visualize important parameters without the need for time or resource intensive sampling trips. Relationships between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and spectral data have been used to remotely sense DOC concentrations in riverine systems, however, this approach has not been applied to the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) and needs to be tested to determine how accurate these relationships are in riverine-dominated shelf systems. In April, July, and October 2017 we sampled surface water from 80+ sites over an area of 100,000 km2 along the Louisiana-Texas shelf in the northern GoM. DOC concentrations were measured on filtered water samples using a Shimadzu TOC-VCSH analyzer using standard techniques. Additionally, DOC concentrations were estimated from CDOM absorption coefficients of filtered water samples on a UV-Vis spectrophotometer using a modification of the methods of Fichot and Benner (2011). These values were regressed against Landsat visible band spectral data for those same locations to establish a relationship between the spectral data, CDOM absorption coefficients. This allowed us to spatially map CDOM absorption coefficients in the Gulf of Mexico using the Landsat spectral data in GIS. We then used a multiple linear regressions model to derive DOC concentrations from the CDOM absorption coefficients and applied those to our map. This study provides an evaluation of the viability of scaling up CDOM absorption coefficient and remote-sensing derived estimates of DOC concentrations to the scale of the LA-TX shelf ecosystem.

  9. New Mexico Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of parks in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data from a...

  10. New Mexico State Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the generalized physical boundaries of New Mexico State Parks, in polygonal form with limited attributes, compiled using...

  11. New Mexico Ghost Towns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data provides locations and non-spatial attributes of many ghost towns in the State of New Mexico, compiled from various sources. Locations provided with...

  12. Uranium geochemistry of Orca Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, F.F. Jr.; Sackett, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Orca Basin, an anoxic, brine-filled depression at a depth of 2200 m in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico continental slope, has been studied with respect to its uranium geochemistry. Uranium concentration profiles for four cores from within the basin were determined by delayed-neutron counting. Uranium concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 4.1 ppm on a salt-free and carbonate-corrected basis. The highest uranium concentrations were associated with the lowest percentage and delta 13 C organic carbon values. For comparison, cores from the brine-filled Suakin and Atlantis II Deeps, both in the Red Sea, were also analyzed. Uranium concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 ppm in the Suakin Deep and from 8.0 to 11.0 ppm in the Atlantis II Deep. No significant correlation was found between uranium concentrations and organic carbon concentrations and delta 13 C values for these cores. Although anoxic conditions are necessary for significant uranium uptake by non-carbonate marine sediments, other factors such as dilution by rapidly depositing materials and uranium supply via mixing and diffusion across density gradients may be as important in determining uranium concentrations in hypersaline basin sediments. (author)

  13. Prospects for nuclear power in the Pacific Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiss, M.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear power for countries in the Pacific Basin were discussed. The countries involved were Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Indonesia and Mexico. Present nuclear power and prospects for nuclear power over the next four years were outlined, as well as the economics involved. (U.K.)

  14. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico-stratigraphic hierarchy and cycle stacking facies distribution, and interwell-scale heterogeneity: Grayburg Formation, New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaby, R.J.; Ward, W.B.; Jennings, J.W. Jr.

    1997-06-01

    The Grayburg Formation (middle Guadalupian) is a major producing interval in the Permian Basin and has yielded more than 2.5 billion barrels of oil in West Texas. Grayburg reservoirs have produced, on average, less than 30 percent of their original oil in place and are undergoing secondary and tertiary recovery. Efficient design of such enhanced recovery programs dictates improved geological models to better understand and predict reservoir heterogeneity imposed by depositional and diagenetic controls. The Grayburg records mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation on shallow-water platforms that rimmed the Delaware and Midland Basins. Grayburg outcrops in the Guadalupe and Brokeoff Mountains region on the northwest margin of the Delaware Basin present an opportunity to construct a detailed, three-dimensional image of the stratigraphic and facies architecture. This model can be applied towards improved description and characterization of heterogeneity in analogous Grayburg reservoirs. Four orders of stratigraphic hierarchy are recognized in the Grayburg Formation. The Grayburg represents a long-term composite sequence composed of four high-frequency sequences (HFS 1-4). Each HFS contains several composite cycles comprising two or more cycles that define intermediate-scale transgressive-regressive successions. Cycles are the smallest scale upward-shoaling vertical facies successions that can be recognized and correlated across various facies tracts. Cycles thus form the basis for establishing the detailed chronostratigraphic correlations needed to delineate facies heterogeneity.

  15. Asset Decommissioning Risk Metrics for Floating Structures in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mark J

    2015-08-01

    Public companies in the United States are required to report standardized values of their proved reserves and asset retirement obligations on an annual basis. When compared, these two measures provide an aggregate indicator of corporate decommissioning risk but, because of their consolidated nature, cannot readily be decomposed at a more granular level. The purpose of this article is to introduce a decommissioning risk metric defined in terms of the ratio of the expected value of an asset's reserves to its expected cost of decommissioning. Asset decommissioning risk (ADR) is more difficult to compute than a consolidated corporate risk measure, but can be used to quantify the decommissioning risk of structures and to perform regional comparisons, and also provides market signals of future decommissioning activity. We formalize two risk metrics for decommissioning and apply the ADR metric to the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) floater inventory. Deepwater oil and gas structures are expensive to construct, and at the end of their useful life, will be expensive to decommission. The value of proved reserves for the 42 floating structures in the GOM circa January 2013 is estimated to range between $37 and $80 billion for future oil prices between 60 and 120 $/bbl, which is about 10 to 20 times greater than the estimated $4.3 billion to decommission the inventory. Eni's Allegheny and MC Offshore's Jolliet tension leg platforms have ADR metrics less than one and are approaching the end of their useful life. Application of the proposed metrics in the regulatory review of supplemental bonding requirements in the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf is suggested to complement the current suite of financial metrics employed. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Carbon Composition of Particulate Organic Carbon in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, K.; Montoya, J. P.; Weber, S.; Bosman, S.; Chanton, J.

    2016-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout released 5.0x1011 g C from gaseous hydrocarbons and up to 6.0x1011g C from oil into the water column. Another carbon source, adding daily to the water column, leaks from the natural hydrocarbon seeps that pepper the seafloor of the Gulf of Mexico. How much of this carbon from the DWH and natural seeps is assimilated into particulate organic carbon (POC) in the water column? We filtered seawater collected in 2010, 2012, and 2013 from seep and non-seep sites, collecting POC on 0.7µm glass microfiber filters and analyzing the POC for stable and radiocarbon isotopes. Mixing models based on carbon isotopic endmembers of methane, oil, and modern production were used to estimate the percentage of hydrocarbon incorporated into POC. Significant differences were seen between POC from shallow and deep waters and between POC collected from seep, non-seep, and blowout sites; however yearly differences were not as evident suggesting the GOM has a consistent supply of depleted carbon. Stable carbon isotopes signatures of POC in the Gulf averaged -23.7±2.5‰ for shallow samples and -26.65±2.9‰ for deep POC samples, while radiocarbon signatures averaged -100.4±146.1‰ for shallow and -394.6±197‰ for deep samples. POC in the northern Gulf are composed of 23-91% modern carbon, 2-21% methane, and 0-71% oil. Oil plays a major role in the POC composition of the GOM, especially at the natural seep GC600.

  17. Assessing Oil Spill Impacts to Cold-Water Corals of the Deep Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeo, D. M.; Lengyel, S. D.; Cordes, E. E.

    2016-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster and subsequent cleanup efforts resulted in the release of an unprecedented amount of oil and chemical dispersants in the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Over the years, numerous detrimental effects have been documented including impacts to cold-water coral ecosystems. Assessing and quantifying these effects is crucial to understanding the long-term consequences to affected coral populations as well as their resilience. We conducted live exposure experiments to investigate the toxicity of oil and dispersants on two deep-sea corals, Callogorgia delta and Paramuricea type B3. For both species, the treatments containing dispersants had a more pronounced effect than oil treatments alone. In addition, RNA from unexposed and DWH spill-impacted Paramuricea biscaya was extracted and sequenced using Illumina technology. A de novo reference transcriptome was produced and used to explore stress-induced variations in gene expression. Current findings show overexpression of genes coding for Cytochrome p450 (CYP1A1), Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs), Peroxidasin and additional genes involved in innate immunity and apoptotic pathways. CYP1A1 is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics and has been previously used as a diagnostic tool for aquatic pollution. TRAFs are responsible for regulating pathways involved in immune and inflammatory responses and were likewise overexpressed in thermally stressed shallow-water corals. Ribosomal proteins were also significantly underexpressed. These genes among others found in our expression data serve as useful biomarker candidates for assessing and monitoring future spill impacts as resource extraction continues in the deep waters of the GoM. Our results also provide insights into the responses of deep-sea corals to toxin exposure, implications of applying dispersants to oil spills and a novel reference assembly for a relatively under-studied group of cold-water corals.

  18. Cold-seep carbonates of the middle and lower continental slope, northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Harry H.; Feng, Dong; Joye, Samantha B.

    2010-11-01

    Authigenic carbonates from cold seeps on the middle and lower continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) exhibit a wide range of mineralogical and stable isotopic compositions. These carbonates consist of concretions and nodules in surface sediments, hardgrounds of crusts and isolated slabs, and mounded buildups of blocks and slabs of up to over 10 meters in relief above the surrounding seafloor. Mineralogically, the carbonates are dominated by high-Mg calcite (HMC) and aragonite. However, low levels (oil, seawater CO2, and 13C-enriched residual CO2 from methanogenesis. A similarly large variability in δ18O values (2.5 to 6.7‰ PDB) demonstrates the geochemical complexity of the slope, with some samples pointing toward an 18O-enriched oxygen source that is possibly related to advection of 18O-enriched formation water and/or to the decomposition of gas hydrate. A considerable range of mineralogical and isotopic variations in cold-seep carbonate composition was noted even within individual study sites. However, common trends occur across multiple geographic areas. This situation suggests that local controls on fluid and gas flux, types of seep hydrocarbons, the presence or absence of gas hydrate in the near-surface sediment, and chemosynthetic communities, as well as the temporal evolution of the local hydrocarbon reservoir, all may play a part in determining carbonate mineralogy and isotope geochemistry. The carbon isotope data clearly indicate that between-site variation is greater than within-site variation. Seep carbonates formed on the middle and lower continental slope of the GOM do not appear to be substantially different from those found on the upper slope (<1000-m water depth). The highly variable fluids and gases that leave their geochemical imprints on seep carbonate of the middle and lower continental slope are similar to their outer shelf and upper slope counterparts.

  19. English Teaching in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses teaching English in Mexico, a country with important social, cultural, and economic ties to the United States. Looks at the various English teaching situations as well as teacher education for teachers in Mexico. Concludes that the English teaching situation in Mexico reflects great diversity and growth, and that the knowledge of English…

  20. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  1. Source characterization and tsunami modeling of submarine landslides along the Yucatán Shelf/Campeche Escarpment, southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaytor, Jason D.; Geist, Eric L.; Paull, Charles K.; Caress, David W; Gwiazda, Roberto; Urrutia Fucugauchi, Jaime; Rebolledo Vieyra, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Submarine landslides occurring along the margins of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) represent a low-likelihood, but potentially damaging source of tsunamis. New multibeam bathymetry coverage reveals that mass wasting is pervasive along the Yucatán Shelf edge with several large composite landslides possibly removing as much as 70 km3 of the Cenozoic sedimentary section in a single event. Using GIS-based analysis, the dimensions of six landslides from the central and northern sections of the Yucatán Shelf/Campeche Escarpment were determined and used as input for preliminary tsunami generation and propagation models. Tsunami modeling is performed to compare the propagation characteristics and distribution of maximum amplitudes throughout the GOM among the different landslide scenarios. Various factors such as landslide geometry, location along the Yucatán Shelf/Campeche Escarpment, and refraction during propagation result in significant variations in the affected part of the Mexican and US Gulf Coasts. In all cases, however, tsunami amplitudes are greatest along the northern Yucatán Peninsula.

  2. Statistical downscaling of IPCC sea surface wind and wind energy predictions for U.S. east coastal ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhigang; Xue, Zuo; He, Ruoying; Bao, Xianwen; Song, Jun

    2016-08-01

    A multivariate statistical downscaling method is developed to produce regional, high-resolution, coastal surface wind fields based on the IPCC global model predictions for the U.S. east coastal ocean, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), and the Caribbean Sea. The statistical relationship is built upon linear regressions between the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) spaces of a cross- calibrated, multi-platform, multi-instrument ocean surface wind velocity dataset (predictand) and the global NCEP wind reanalysis (predictor) over a 10 year period from 2000 to 2009. The statistical relationship is validated before applications and its effectiveness is confirmed by the good agreement between downscaled wind fields based on the NCEP reanalysis and in-situ surface wind measured at 16 National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoys in the U.S. east coastal ocean and the GOM during 1992-1999. The predictand-predictor relationship is applied to IPCC GFDL model output (2.0°×2.5°) of downscaled coastal wind at 0.25°×0.25° resolution. The temporal and spatial variability of future predicted wind speeds and wind energy potential over the study region are further quantified. It is shown that wind speed and power would significantly be reduced in the high CO2 climate scenario offshore of the mid-Atlantic and northeast U.S., with the speed falling to one quarter of its original value.

  3. From DNS to RANS: A Multi-model workflow to understand the Influence of Hurricanes on Generating Turbidity Currents in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvitski, J. P.; Arango, H.; Harris, C. K.; Meiburg, E. H.; Jenkins, C. J.; Auad, G.; Hutton, E.; Kniskern, T. A.; Radhakrishnan, S.

    2016-12-01

    A loosely coupled numerical workflow is developed to address land-sea pathways for sediment routing from terrestrial and coastal sources, across the continental shelf and ultimately down the continental slope canyon system of the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Model simulations represent a range of environmental conditions that might lead to the generation of turbidity-currents. The workflow comprises: 1) A simulator for the water and sediment discharged from rivers into the GOM with WMBsedv2 with calibration using USGS and USACE gauged river data; 2) Domain grids and bathymetry (ETOPO2) for the ocean models and realistic seabed sediment texture grids (dbSEABED) for the sediment transport models; 3) A spectral wave action simulator (10 km resolution) (WaveWatch III) driven by GFDL - GFS winds; 4) A simulator for ocean dynamics (ROMS) forced with ECMWF ERA winds; 5) A simulator for seafloor resuspension and transport (CSTMS); 6) Simulators (HurriSlip) of seafloor failure and flow ignition locations for boundary input to a turbidity current model; and 7) A RANS turbidity current model (TURBINS) to route sediment flows down GOM canyons, providing estimates of bottom shear stresses. TURBINS was developed first as a DNS model and then converted to an LES model wherein a dynamic turbulence closure scheme was employed. Like most DNS to LES model comparisons (these being done by the UCSB team), turbulence scaling allowed for higher Re applications but were found still not capable of simulating field scale (GOM continental canyons) environments. The LES model was next converted to a non-hydrostatic RANS model capable of field scale applications but only with a daisy-chain approach to multiple model runs along the simulated canyon floor. These model adaptations allowed the workflow to be tested for the year 1-Oct-2007 to 30-Sep-2008 that included two domain Hurricanes (Ike and Gustav). The RANS-TURBINS employed further boundary simplifications on both sediment erosion and

  4. Can Continental Shelf River Plumes in the Northern and Southern Gulf of Mexico Promote Ecological Resilience in a Time of Climate Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paul Kemp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Deltas and estuaries built by the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River (MAR in the United States and the Usumacinta/Grijalva River (UGR in Mexico account for 80 percent of all Gulf of Mexico (GoM coastal wetlands outside of Cuba. They rank first and second in freshwater discharge to the GoM and owe their natural resilience to a modular geomorphology that spreads risk across the coast-scape while providing ecosystem connectivity through shelf plumes that connect estuaries. Both river systems generate large plumes that strongly influence fisheries production over large areas of the northern and southern GoM continental shelves. Recent watershed process simulations (DLEM, MAPSS driven by CMIP3 General Circulation Model (GCM output indicate that the two systems face diverging futures, with the mean annual discharge of the MAR predicted to increase 11 to 63 percent, and that of the UGR to decline as much as 80 percent in the 21st century. MAR delta subsidence rates are the highest in North America, making it particularly susceptible to channel training interventions that have curtailed a natural propensity to shift course and deliver sediment to new areas, or to refurbish zones of high wetland loss. Undoing these restrictions in a controlled way has become the focus of a multi-billion-dollar effort to restore the MAR delta internally, while releasing fine-grained sediments trapped behind dams in the Great Plains has become an external goal. The UGR is, from an internal vulnerability standpoint, most threatened by land use changes that interfere with a deltaic architecture that is naturally resilient to sea level rise. This recognition has led to successful efforts in Mexico to protect still intact coastal systems against further anthropogenic impacts, as evidenced by establishment of the Centla Wetland Biosphere Preserve and the Terminos Lagoon Protected Area. The greatest threat to the UGR system, however, is an external one that will be imposed by the

  5. Introduction to the 2002 geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks: Chapter 2 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) periodically conducts assessments of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the United States. The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The last major USGS assessment of oil and gas of the most important oil and gas provinces in the United States was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). Since then a number of individual assessment provinces have been reappraised using new methodology. This was done particularly for those provinces where new information has become available, where new methodology was expected to reveal more insight to provide a better estimate, where additional geologic investigation was needed, or where continuous accumulations were deemed important. The San Juan Basin was reevaluated because of industry exploitation of new hydrocarbon accumulations that were not previously assessed and because of a change in application of assessment methodology to potential undiscovered hydrocarbon accumulations. Several changes have been made in this study. The methodology is different from that used in 1995 (Schmoker, 2003; Schmoker and Klett, 2003). In this study the total petroleum system (TPS) approach (Magoon and Dow, 1994) is used rather than the play approach. The Chama Basin is not included. The team of scientists studying the basin is different. The 1995 study focused on conventional accumulations, whereas in this 2002 assessment, it was a priority to assess continuous-type accumulations, including coal-bed gas. Consequently we are presenting here an entirely new study and results for the San Juan Basin Province. The results of this 2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province (5022) are presented in this report within the geologic context of individual TPSs and their assessment units (AU) (table 1). Results

  6. Helmintos gastrointestinales en aves acuáticas de la subcuenca alta del río Lerma, México Gastrointestinal helminth in waterfowl of the upper Lerma river sub-basin, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Martínez-Haro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventario y se calcularon los parámetros de infección de los helmintos gastrointestinales de 36 ejemplares de aves acuáticas pertenecientes a las familias Anatidae, Rallidae y Threskiornithidae, procedentes de la subcuenca alta del río Lerma, Estado de México, identificándose 20 especies: 9 tremátodos, 8 céstodos, 2 nemátodos y 1 acantocéfalo. De las 8 especies de céstodos, 6 son registros nuevos para el país y Pseudocorynosoma constrictum se registra por primera vez en Anas crecca, Anas discors, Oxyura jamaicensis y Fulica americana. Los helmintos que presentaron las prevalencias más altas fueron los céstodos Hymenolepis megalops y Sobolevicanthus krabbeella en Anas acuta, Anas clypeata, Anas cyanoptera y Anas crecca.A survey of helminth parasites in 36 waterfowl species from the upper Lerma River, in central Mexico was conducted. A total of 20 helminth species were recorded, including 9 trematodes, 8 cestodes, 2 nematodes and 1 acanthocephalan. Six of the cestode species are recorded for the fisrt time from Mexican birds; the acanthocephalan Pseudocorynosoma constrictum is reported for the first time in Anas crecca, A. discors, Oxyura jamaicensis and Fulica americana. The highest prevalences were recorded for the cestodes Hymenolepis megalops and Sobolevicanthus krabbeella in Anas acuta, A. clypeata, A. cyanoptera and A. crecca.

  7. Geophysics- and geochemistry-based assessment of the geochemical characteristics and groundwater-flow system of the U.S. part of the Mesilla Basin/Conejos-Médanos aquifer system in Doña Ana County, New Mexico, and El Paso County, Texas, 2010–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeple, Andrew P.

    2017-06-16

    One of the largest rechargeable groundwater systems by total available volume in the Rio Grande/Río Bravo Basin (hereinafter referred to as the “Rio Grande”) region of the United States and Mexico, the Mesilla Basin/Conejos-Médanos aquifer system, supplies water for irrigation as well as for cities of El Paso, Texas; Las Cruces, New Mexico; and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation assessed the groundwater resources in the Mesilla Basin and surrounding areas in Doña Ana County, N. Mex., and El Paso County, Tex., by using a combination of geophysical and geochemical methods. The study area consists of approximately 1,400 square miles in Doña Ana County, N. Mex., and 100 square miles in El Paso County, Tex. The Mesilla Basin composes most of the study area and can be divided into three parts: the Mesilla Valley, the West Mesa, and the East Bench. The Mesilla Valley is the part of the Mesilla Basin that was incised by the Rio Grande between Selden Canyon to the north and by a narrow valley (about 4 miles wide) to the southeast near El Paso, Tex., named the Paso del Norte, which is sometimes referred to in the literature as the “El Paso Narrows.”Previously published geophysical data for the study area were compiled and these data were augmented by collecting additional geophysical and geochemical data. Geophysical resistivity measurements from previously published helicopter frequency domain electromagnetic data, previously published direct-current resistivity soundings, and newly collected (2012) time-domain electromagnetic soundings were used in the study to detect spatial changes in the electrical properties of the subsurface, which reflect changes that occur within the hydrogeology. The geochemistry of the groundwater system was evaluated by analyzing groundwater samples collected in November 2010 for physicochemical properties, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, pesticides

  8. Historic Shipwrecks as Ecosystem Monitoring Platforms in the Wake of Deepwater Horizon? Results of the Gulf of Mexico Shipwreck Corrosion, Hydrocarbon Exposure, Microbiology, and Archaeology (GOM-SCHEMA) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damour, M.; Hamdan, L. J.; Salerno, J. L.; McGown, C.; Blackwell, C. A.; Church, R.; Warren, D.; Horrell, C.; Jordan, B.; Moore, J.

    2016-02-01

    Historic shipwrecks and other archaeological sites are protected by a well-established body of historic preservation laws intended to preserve these sensitive, non-renewable resources. While the cultural, historical, and archaeological value of historic shipwrecks is unequivocal, their function and value as ecosystem monitoring platforms following a major environmental disaster is becoming apparent. Shipwrecks have been found in previous studies to serve as artificial reefs and hotspots of biodiversity, essentially providing the basis for an intact ecosystem. This is especially true in the deepwater marine environment where natural hard-bottom is sparse. Micro- and macro-infaunal diversity on shipwrecks and their sensitivity to environmental change demonstrates the suitability of these platforms for monitoring ecosystem impact and recovery. After the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and partners initiated a multidisciplinary study to examine spill effects on shipwrecks and their associated microbial communities. To assess these impacts and to perform comparative analyses, the team collected microbiological, geochemical, and archaeological data at wooden- and metal-hulled shipwrecks within and outside of the subsurface spill-impacted area. Microbial community biodiversity informs us of micro-scale changes while 3D laser and sonar data reveal macro-scale changes. A multidisciplinary approach informs us of the roles microorganisms have in shipwreck degradation and corrosion as well as their response to ecosystem impacts. Results of the study identified multiple lines of evidence that sites were impacted by exposure to spill-related contaminants. Future multidisciplinary studies at these sites, as part of a long-term monitoring program, should inform on ecosystem recovery.

  9. Geology and fuel resources of the southern part of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Part 1, The coal field from Gallup eastward toward Mount Taylor, with a measured section of pre-Dakota(?) rocks near Navajo Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Julian D.

    1934-01-01

    The report describes the geology and coal deposits of the southwestern part of the San Juan Basin, N.Mex. The field lies northeast of the town of Gallup, on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, and is an irregular tract of about 630 square miles in central and west-central McKinley County; it includes the southeast corner of the Navajo Indian Reservation. Settlement is confined to the white families at a few trading posts and the Indian agency at Crown Point and to scattered Navajo Indians. The land forms, drainage, vegetation, and climate are those typical of the highland in the semiarid Southwest.The investigation disclosed complicated relations of the Mancos shale and the Mesaverde formation, of Upper Cretaceous age, and a marked variation in the stratigraphic boundary between them. At the western edge of the field, as in the adjoining Gallup coal district, the Mancos consists of about 725 feet of marine shale almost wholly of Benton (lower Colorado) age. It is overlain by about 1,800 feet of chiefly estuarine and fluviatile deposits that represent the lower part of the Mesaverde formation. In ascending order the Mesaverde here consists of the Gallup sandstone member (which includes local lenses of valuable coal), the Dilco coal member, the Bartlett barren member, the Gibson coal member, and the Allison barren member. Eastward through the field the outcrops extend obliquely across the trend of old shore lines out into the ancient basin of marine deposition, and some of the beds consequently show a progressive lateral change into rocks of littoral and marine types. The Gallup sandstone member is in part replaced by marine shale of the Mancos. The upper part of the Dilco coal member is replaced by the Dalton sandstone member, and still farther east the bottom of the Dalton and the top of the remaining Dilco are replaced by the Mulatto tongue of the Mancos shale. The Bartlett barren member becomes coal-bearing and thus merges with the Gibson. The Gibson coal

  10. Geologic framework, regional aquifer properties (1940s-2009), and spring, creek, and seep properties (2009-10) of the upper San Mateo Creek Basin near Mount Taylor, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Jeff B.; Sprague, Jesse E.; Durall, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, examined the geologic framework, regional aquifer properties, and spring, creek, and seep properties of the upper San Mateo Creek Basin near Mount Taylor, which contains areas proposed for exploratory drilling and possible uranium mining on U.S. Forest Service land. The geologic structure of the region was formed from uplift of the Zuni Mountains during the Laramide Orogeny and the Neogene volcanism associated with the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field. Within this structural context, numerous aquifers are present in various Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary formations and the Quaternary alluvium. The distribution of the aquifers is spatially variable because of the dip of the formations and erosion that produced the current landscape configuration where older formations have been exhumed closer to the Zuni Mountains. Many of the alluvial deposits and formations that contain groundwater likely are hydraulically connected because of the solid-matrix properties, such as substantive porosity, but shale layers such as those found in the Mancos Formation and Chinle Group likely restrict vertical flow. Existing water-level data indicate topologically downgradient flow in the Quaternary alluvium and indiscernible general flow patterns in the lower aquifers. According to previously published material and the geologic structure of the aquifers, the flow direction in the lower aquifers likely is in the opposite direction compared to the alluvium aquifer. Groundwater within the Chinle Group is known to be confined, which may allow upward migration of water into the Morrison Formation; however, confining layers within the Chinle Group likely retard upward leakage. Groundwater was sodium-bicarbonate/sulfate dominant or mixed cation-mixed anion with some calcium/bicarbonate water in the study area. The presence of the reduction/oxidation-sensitive elements iron and manganese in groundwater indicates reducing

  11. Time-domain incomplete Gauss-Newton full-waveform inversion of Gulf of Mexico data

    KAUST Repository

    AlTheyab, Abdullah

    2013-09-22

    We apply the incomplete Gauss-Newton full-waveform inversion (TDIGN-FWI) to Gulf of Mexico (GOM) data in the space-time domain. In our application, iterative least-squares reverse-time migration (LSRTM) is used to estimate the model update at each non-linear iteration, and the number of LSRTM iterations is progressively increased after each non-linear iteration. With this method, model updating along deep reflection wavepaths are automatically enhanced, which in turn improves imaging below the reach of diving-waves. The forward and adjoint operators are implemented in the space-time domain to simultaneously invert the data over a range of frequencies. A multiscale approach is used where higher frequencies are down-weighted significantly at early iterations, and gradually included in the inversion. Synthetic data results demonstrate the effectiveness of reconstructing both the high- and low-wavenumber features in the model without relying on diving waves in the inversion. Results with Gulf of Mexico field data show a significantly improved migration image in both the shallow and deep sections.

  12. New Specimens of the Rare Taeniodont Wortmania (Mammalia: Eutheria) from the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Comments on the Phylogeny and Functional Morphology of “Archaic” Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Thomas E.; Brusatte, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Taeniodonta is a clade of Late Cretaceous – Paleogene mammals remarkable for their relatively extreme cranial, dental, and postcranial adaptations and notable for being among the first mammals to achieve relatively large size following the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. Previous workers have hypothesized that taeniodonts can be divided into two clades: Conoryctidae, a group of small-bodied taeniodonts with supposedly “generalized” postcranial skeletons, and Stylinodontidae, a group of large-bodied, robust animals with massive forelimbs and claws adapted for scratch-digging. However, many taeniodont taxa are poorly known and few are represented by postcranial material, leaving many details about their anatomy, biology, and evolution ambiguous. Methodology/Principal Findings In this paper, we describe three new specimens of the rare taxon Wortmaniaotariidens from the early Paleocene (Puercan) of New Mexico. Among these specimens is one that includes remarkably complete cranial and dental material, including associated upper and lower teeth, and another that consists of partial forelimbs. These specimens allow for an updated anatomical description of this unusual taxon, supply new data for phylogenetic analyses, and enable a more constrained discussion of taeniodont biology and functional morphology. Conclusions/Significance The new specimen of Wortmania that includes associated upper and lower teeth indicates that previous interpretations of the upper dentition of this taxon were not accurate and the taxon Robertschochiasullivani is a junior synonym of W . otariidens . New specimens that include partial forelimbs indicate that Wortmania is very similar to later, large-bodied taeniodonts, with marked and distinctive adaptations for scratch-digging. Comparisons with other taeniodont taxa that include postcranial material suggest that all taeniodonts may have had scratch-digging adaptations. A phylogenetic analysis shows that Schowalteria and

  13. Subsurface imaging in a sector of Cerro Prieto transform fault near to pull-apart basin, Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico, based on crooked lines 2D seismic reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares-Agüero, M. A.; González-Escobar, M.; Arregui, S.

    2016-12-01

    In the transition zone between San Andres continental transformation system and the coupled transform faults system and rifting of Gulf of California is located the Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin delimitated by Imperial fault (northeast) and Cerro Prieto fault (CPF) (southwest), this last, is the limit west of Cerro Prieto geothermic field (CPGF). Crooked lines 2D seismic reflection, covering a portion near the intersection of CPF and CPGF are processed and interpreted. The seismic data were obtained in the early 80's by Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). By decades, technical and investigation works in Cerro Prieto geothermic field and its vicinity had mapped faults at several depths but do not stablish a clear limit where this faults and CPF interact due the complex hydrothermal effects imaging the subsurface. The profiles showing the presence of a zone of uplift effect due to CPF. Considering the proximity of the profiles to CPF, it is surprising almost total absence of faults. A strong reflector around 2 km of depth, it is present in all profiles. This seismic reflector is considered a layer of shale, result of the correlation with a well located in the same region.

  14. Faulting in eastern New Mexico: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.J.

    1987-08-01

    This area in eastern New Mexico is being studied because of its proximity to a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Regional and local tectonics must be thoroughly understood in order to be able to predict future tectonic activities in the site region. Hydrogeologic studies indicate that ground-water recharge, for regional deep and shallow aquifer systems, occurs primarily within the study area. Regional, easterly ground-water flow may be significantly affected by the spacing, orientation, and character of faults identified in this report. The tectonic history of eastern New Mexico is developed from information from 660 exploratory wells. A history of recurrent tectonic movements is evident, beginning possibly in the late Precambrian and extending into the late Cenozoic. The nature of the evidence includes the lateral and vertical distribution and the lithology of these deposits. The results are presented mainly as isopach and structure contour maps and as structural cross sections. The Paleozoic tectonic history of eastern New Mexico is similar and related to the history of the Texas Panhandle. Differences occur primarily in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic histories; tectonic uplift persisted for longer periods and faults show evidence of repeated movements in eastern New Mexico. This is probably a result of the proximity of the area to the Laramide and Basin and Range deformational events. 442 refs., 35 figs

  15. Hydrogeologic and geochemical characterization and evaluation of two arroyos for managed aquifer recharge by surface infiltration in the Pojoaque River Basin, Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew J.; Cordova, Jeffrey; Teeple, Andrew; Payne, Jason; Carruth, Rob

    2017-02-22

    In order to provide long-term storage of diverted surface water from the Rio Grande as part of the Aamodt water rights settlement, managed aquifer recharge by surface infiltration in Pojoaque River Basin arroyos was proposed as an option. The initial hydrogeologic and geochemical characterization of two arroyos located within the Pojoaque River Basin was performed in 2014 and 2015 in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation to evaluate the potential suitability of these two arroyos as sites for managed aquifer recharge through surface infiltration.The selected reaches were high-gradient (average 3.0–3.5 percent) braided channels filled with unconsolidated sand and gravel-sized deposits that were generally 30–50 feet thick. Saturation was not observed in the unconsolidated channel sands in four subsurface borings but was found at 7–60 feet below the contact between the unconsolidated channel sands and the bedrock. The poorly to well-cemented alluvial deposits that make up the bedrock underlying the unconsolidated channel material is the Tesuque Formation. The individual beds of the Tesuque Formation are reported to be highly heterogeneous and anisotropic, and the bedrock at the site was observed to have variable moisture and large changes in lithology. Surface electrical-resistivity geophysical survey methods showed a sharp contrast between the electrically resistive unconsolidated channel sands and the highly conductive bedrock; however, because of the high conductivity, the resistivity methods were not able to image the water table or preferential flow paths (if they existed) in the bedrock.Infiltration rates measured by double-ring and bulk infiltration tests on a variety of channel morphologies in the study reaches were extremely large (9.7–94.5 feet per day), indicating that the channels could potentially accommodate as much as 6.6 cubic feet per second of applied water without generating surface runoff out of the reach; however, the small volume

  16. Rupture of the Pitáycachi Fault in the 1887 Mw 7.5 Sonora, Mexico earthquake (southern Basin-and-Range Province): Rupture kinematics and epicenter inferred from rupture branching patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Max

    2015-01-01

    During the 3 May 1887 Mw 7.5 Sonora earthquake (surface rupture end-to-end length: 101.8 km), an array of three north-south striking Basin-and-Range Province faults (from north to south Pitáycachi, Teras, and Otates) slipped sequentially along the western margin of the Sierra Madre Occidental Plateau. This detailed field survey of the 1887 earthquake rupture zone along the Pitáycachi fault includes mapping the rupture scarp and measurements of surface deformation. The surface rupture has an endpoint-to-endpoint length of ≥41.0 km, dips 70°W, and is characterized by normal left-lateral extension. The maximum surface offset is 487 cm and the mean offset 260 cm. The rupture trace shows a complex pattern of second-order segmentation. However, this segmentation is not expressed in the 1887 along-rupture surface offset profile, which indicates that the secondary segments are linked at depth into a single coherent fault surface. The Pitáycachi surface rupture shows a well-developed bipolar branching pattern suggesting that the rupture originated in its central part, where the polarity of the rupture bifurcations changes. Most likely the rupture first propagated bilaterally along the Pitáycachi fault. The southern rupture front likely jumped across a step over to the Teras fault and from there across a major relay zone to the Otates fault. Branching probably resulted from the lateral propagation of the rupture after breaching the seismogenic part of the crust, given that the much shorter ruptures of the Otates and Teras segments did not develop branches.

  17. Iron-titanium oxide minerals and magnetic susceptibility anomalies in the Mariano Lake-Lake Valley cores - Constraints on conditions of uranium mineralization in the Morrison Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, R.L.; Fishman, N.S.; Scott, J.H.; Hudson, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    Petrographic study of the Mariano Lake-Lake Valley cores reveals three distinct zones of postdepositional alteration of detrital Fe-Ti (iron-titanium) oxide minerals in the Westwater Canyon Member of the Upper Jurassic Morrisson Formation. In the uranium-bearing and adjacent portions of the Westwater Canyon, these detrital Fe-Ti oxide minerals have been thoroughly altered by leaching of iron. Stratigraphically lower parts of the Westwater Canyon and the underlying Recapture Member are characterized by preservation of Fe-Ti oxide grains, primarily magnetite and ilmenite, and of hematite, and by an absence or uranium concentrations. Partly destroyed Fe-Ti oxide minerals occupy an interval between the zones of destruction and preservation. Alteration patterns of the Fe-Ti oxide minerals are reflected in bore-hole magnetic susceptibility logs. Magnetic susceptibility response in the upper parts of the Westwater Canyon Member is flat and uniformly <500 μSI units, but at greater depths it fluctuates sharply, from <1,000 to nearly 8,000 μSI units. The boundary between uniformly low and high magnetic susceptibility response corresponds closely to the interval that divides the zone of completely altered from the zone of preserved detrital Fe-Ti oxide minerals. The alteration pattern suggests that solutions responsible for destruction of the Fe-ti oxide minerals originated in the overlying Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation. Previous studies indicate that these solutions were rich in soluble organic matter and perhaps in uranium. Uranium precipitation may have been controlled by a vertically fluctuation interface between organic-rich solutions and geochemically different fluids in which the detrital Fe-Ti oxide minerals were preserved

  18. 2013 Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavia, Donald; Evans, Mary Anne; Obenour, Dan

    2013-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico annual summer hypoxia forecasts are based on average May total nitrogen loads from the Mississippi River basin for that year. The load estimate, recently released by USGS, is 7,316 metric tons per day. Based on that estimate, we predict the area of this summer’s hypoxic zone to be 18,900 square kilometers (95% credible interval, 13,400 to 24,200), the 7th largest reported and about the size of New Jersey. Our forecast hypoxic volume is 74.5 km3 (95% credible interval, 51.5 to 97.0), also the 7th largest on record.

  19. 2014 Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavia, Donald; Evans, Mary Anne; Obenour, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico annual summer hypoxia forecasts are based on average May total nitrogen loads from the Mississippi River basin for that year. The load estimate, recently released by USGS, is 4,761 metric tons per day. Based on that estimate, we predict the area of this summer’s hypoxic zone to be 14,000 square kilometers (95% credible interval, 8,000 to 20,000) – an “average year”. Our forecast hypoxic volume is 50 km3 (95% credible interval, 20 to 77).

  20. Preliminary Micropaleontological Investigation of a Preserved, Late Pleistocene Cypress Forest on the Northern Gulf of Mexico Inner Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, J. T.; DeLong, K. L.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Harley, G. L.; Reese, A.; Gonzalez, S.; Obelcz, J.; Caporaso, A.

    2017-12-01

    Exposed at the bottom of a trough 13 km offshore Orange Beach, AL on the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shelf in 18 m water depth are exceptionally preserved in situ bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) stumps. Preserved seeds (T. distichum, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Hibiscus lasiocarpos, Liquidambar styraciflua) discovered in core catcher samples illustrate the exceptional preservation of the site. Woody debris samples have come back radiocarbon dead with an exception to samples located in the upper peat layer with 14C ages from 37,350-41,830 years BP. Optically stimulated luminescence and 14C dates, in combination with GOM eustatic sea level curves, suggest the forest was located 30 m above the paleoshoreline. How the forest remained preserved during subaerial exposure of the continental shelf through the Last Glacial Maximum lowstand until ensuing Holocene sea level transgression remains unknown. The R/V Coastal Profiler collected 7 vibracores from the study site in 2015 and an additional 11 in 2016. A single core (DF1) contains facies identified as the Holocene Mississippi-Alabama-Florida sand sheet, a transitional facies of interbedded sand and mud, and a basal floodplain facies in which the stumps reside. This study seeks to identify the location of the Pleistocene-Holocene unconformity and to assist in stratigraphy of the area. Foraminiferal assemblages found within the transitional facies are of a shallow marine environment that suggests Holocene in age. It is hypothesized that a pulse of sea level rise during Marine Isotope Stages 3-4 caused subsequent rapid aggradation of the paleovalley system allowing for preservation through >30 kyrs of subaerial exposure. One of the ultimate goals of this study is to serve as a guide for identification of other possible sites along the gulf coast.

  1. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Wyung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (GOM JIP Leg II) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gas hydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gas hydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gas hydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gas hydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP Leg II effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

  2. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and anaylsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Gulf of MexicoGasHydrateJointIndustryProjectLegII (GOM JIP LegII) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gashydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gashydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gashydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gashydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gashydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gashydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gashydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gashydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gashydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP LegII effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

  3. Development of a field testing protocol for identifying Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues trapped near Gulf of Mexico beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuling

    2018-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident, one of the largest oil spills in U.S. history, contaminated several beaches located along the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shoreline. The residues from the spill still continue to be deposited on some of these beaches. Methods to track and monitor the fate of these residues require approaches that can differentiate the DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. This is because, historically, the crude oil released from sources such as natural seeps and anthropogenic discharges have also deposited other types of petroleum residues on GOM beaches. Therefore, identifying the origin of these residues is critical for developing effective management strategies for monitoring the long-term environmental impacts of the DWH oil spill. Advanced fingerprinting methods that are currently used for identifying the source of oil spill residues require detailed laboratory studies, which can be cost-prohibitive. Also, most agencies typically use untrained workers or volunteers to conduct shoreline monitoring surveys and these worker will not have access to advanced laboratory facilities. Furthermore, it is impractical to routinely fingerprint large volumes of samples that are collected after a major oil spill event, such as the DWH spill. In this study, we propose a simple field testing protocol that can identify DWH oil spill residues based on their unique physical characteristics. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by testing a variety of oil spill samples, and the results are verified by characterizing the samples using advanced chemical fingerprinting methods. The verification data show that the method yields results that are consistent with the results derived from advanced fingerprinting methods. The proposed protocol is a reliable, cost-effective, practical field approach for differentiating DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. PMID:29329313

  4. Development of a field testing protocol for identifying Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues trapped near Gulf of Mexico beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuling; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2018-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident, one of the largest oil spills in U.S. history, contaminated several beaches located along the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shoreline. The residues from the spill still continue to be deposited on some of these beaches. Methods to track and monitor the fate of these residues require approaches that can differentiate the DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. This is because, historically, the crude oil released from sources such as natural seeps and anthropogenic discharges have also deposited other types of petroleum residues on GOM beaches. Therefore, identifying the origin of these residues is critical for developing effective management strategies for monitoring the long-term environmental impacts of the DWH oil spill. Advanced fingerprinting methods that are currently used for identifying the source of oil spill residues require detailed laboratory studies, which can be cost-prohibitive. Also, most agencies typically use untrained workers or volunteers to conduct shoreline monitoring surveys and these worker will not have access to advanced laboratory facilities. Furthermore, it is impractical to routinely fingerprint large volumes of samples that are collected after a major oil spill event, such as the DWH spill. In this study, we propose a simple field testing protocol that can identify DWH oil spill residues based on their unique physical characteristics. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by testing a variety of oil spill samples, and the results are verified by characterizing the samples using advanced chemical fingerprinting methods. The verification data show that the method yields results that are consistent with the results derived from advanced fingerprinting methods. The proposed protocol is a reliable, cost-effective, practical field approach for differentiating DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues.

  5. Spatial and temporal variation of intertidal nematodes in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannock, Pamela M; Sharma, Jyotsna; Bik, Holly M; Thomas, W Kelley; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2017-09-01

    Nematodes are an abundant and diverse interstitial component of sedimentary habitats that have been reported to serve as important bioindicators. Though the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster occurred 60 km offshore in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) at a depth of 1525 m, oil rose to the surface and washed ashore, subjecting large segments of coastline in the northern GOM to contamination. Previous metabarcoding work shows intertidal nematode communities were negatively affected by the oil spill. Here we examine the subsequent recovery of nematode community structure at five sites along the Alabama coast over a two-year period. The latter part of the study (July 2011-July 2012) also included an examination of nematode vertical distribution in intertidal sediments. Results showed nematode composition within this region was more influenced by sample locality than time and depth. The five sampling sites were characterized by distinct nematode assemblages that varied by sampling dates. Nematode diversity decreased four months after the oil spill but increased after one year, returning to previous levels at all sites except Bayfront Park (BP). There was no significant difference among nematode assemblages in reference to vertical distribution. Although the composition of nematode assemblages changed, the feeding guilds they represented were not significantly different even though some variation was noted. Data from morphological observations integrated with metabarcoding data indicated similar spatial variation in nematode distribution patterns, indicating the potential of using these faster approaches to examine overall disturbance impact trends within communities. Heterogeneity of microhabitats in the intertidal zone indicates that future sampling and fine-scale studies of nematodes are needed to examine such anthropogenic effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Aging in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras de Lehr, E

    1986-01-01

    Demographic social and economic aspects of the situation of the elderly in Mexico are described with special emphasis upon education programmes and types of care in nursing homes. Considering the future trends of an increase in Mexico's elderly population, the author calls for more efforts in research and training in the field of gerontology. First results in this area are reported.

  7. Mexico and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfman, M

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration and HIV/AIDS in Mexico and Central America, including Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama. Most migrants travel to the US through Mexico. US-Mexico trade agreements created opportunities for increased risk of HIV transmission. The research literature focuses on Mexico. Most countries, with the exception of Belize and Costa Rica, are sending countries. Human rights of migrants are violated in transit and at destination. Migration policies determine migration processes. The Mexican-born population in the US is about 3% of US population and 8% of Mexico's population. About 22% arrived during 1992-97, and about 500,000 are naturalized US citizens. An additional 11 million have a Mexican ethnic background. Mexican migrants are usually economically active men who had jobs before leaving and were urban people who settled in California, Texas, Illinois, and Arizona. Most Mexican migrants enter illegally. Many return to Mexico. The main paths of HIV transmission are homosexual, heterosexual, and IV-drug-injecting persons. Latino migrants frequently use prostitutes, adopt new sexual practices including anal penetration among men, greater diversity of sexual partners, and use of injectable drugs.

  8. Mexico's nuclear paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redclift, M.

    1989-01-01

    Opposition to Mexico's nuclear reactors at Laguna Verde has grown during the last two years. The nuclear programme is blamed for being expensive and wasteful, and the decision to rely on the USA contradicts Mexico's espoused policy of greater independence from the USA. The way in which petroleum revenues were used to precipitate the nuclear option is compared with the lack of urgency given to renewable energy and greater energy efficiency. From a social and environmental perspective, as well as an economic one, Mexico's nuclear programme is judged expensive and irrelevant. (author)

  9. Saline water in southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiss, W.L.; Peterson, J.B.; Ramsey, T.R.

    1969-01-01

    Saline waters from formations of several geologic ages are being studied in a seven-county area in southeastern New Mexico and western Texas, where more than 30,000 oil and gas tests have been drilled in the past 40 years. This area of 7,500 sq. miles, which is stratigraphically complex, includes the northern and eastern margins of the Delaware Basin between the Guadalupe and Glass Mountains. Chloride-ion concentrations in water produced from rocks of various ages and depths have been mapped in Lea County, New Mexico, using machine map-plotting techniques and trend analyses. Anomalously low chloride concentrations (1,000-3,000 mg/l) were found along the western margin of the Central Basin platform in the San Andres and Capitan Limestone Formations of Permian age. These low chloride-ion concentrations may be due to preferential circulation of ground water through the more porous and permeable rocks. Data being used in the study were obtained principally from oil companies and from related service companies. The P.B.W.D.S. (Permian Basin Well Data System) scout-record magnetic-tape file was used as a framework in all computer operations. Shallow or non-oil-field water analyses acquired from state, municipal, or federal agencies were added to these data utilizing P.B.W.D.S.-compatible reference numbers and decimal latitude-longitude coordinates. Approximately 20,000 water analyses collected from over 65 sources were coded, recorded on punch cards and stored on magnetic tape for computer operations. Extensive manual and computer error checks for duplication and accuracy were made to eliminate data errors resulting from poorly located or identified samples; non-representative or contaminated samples; mistakes in coding, reproducing or key-punching; laboratory errors; and inconsistent reporting. The original 20,000 analyses considered were reduced to 6,000 representative analyses which are being used in the saline water studies. ?? 1969.

  10. Silencing criticism in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Suárez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Journalists and human rights defenders in Mexico are being attacked in an attempt to silence their criticism. Many are forced to flee or risk being assassinated. The consequences are both personal and of wider social significance.

  11. New Mexico State Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  12. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  13. New Mexico Mountain Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  14. Mexico - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mexican Surface Daily Observations taken at 94 observatories located throughout Mexico, beginning in 1872 and going up through 1981. The data resided on paper...

  15. Doing Business in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Thomas A.

    2002-01-01

    On 1 July 2001, a far-reaching free trade agreement between the EFTA States and Mexico entered into force. ”Doing Business in Mexico” provides targeted assistance to Swiss Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME) that wish to tap the potential of Mexico as both an export destination and investment location. This comprehensive guide contains information and advice on market research, market entry, and investment in this fascinating country. Part I introduces the reader to this fascinating ...

  16. Mexico tornado climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Macías Medrano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A brief introduction on some features of tornado database in Mexico is exposed showing its substantive criteria. We resent a brief analysis about main Mexican tornadoes´ characteristics, based on data collected between 2000 to 2010, talking about spatial and temporal expressions (historical, seasonal and horary in order to show the importance of it destruction capacity and also the people´s vulnerability in Mexico.

  17. Occupational health in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón, Tania; Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Baron, Sherry; Hernández, Sendy

    2002-01-01

    The authors discuss the maquiladoras and child labor, and offer an overview of the history of occupational safety and health in Mexico that covers laws and regulations, social security, unions, and enforcement of legislation. The organization and structure of the various institutions responsible for occupational safety and health (OSH), as well as administrative procedures, are described. This article concludes with a list of the new challenges for OSH in Mexico.

  18. Sedimentological Characterization of a Deepwater Methane Hydrate Reservoir in Green Canyon 955, Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meazell, K.; Flemings, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    Grain size is a controlling factor of hydrate saturation within a Pleistocene channel-levee system investigated by the UT-GOM2-1 expedition within the deepwater northern Gulf of Mexico. Laser diffraction and settling experiments conducted on sediments from 413-440 meters below the seafloor reveal the presence of two interbedded lithologic units, identified as a silty sand and a clayey silt, according Shepard's classification system. The sand-rich lithofacies has low density and high p-wave velocity, suggesting a high degree of hydrate saturation. Conversely, the clay and silt dominated lithofacies is characterized by a higher density and low p-wave velocity, suggesting low hydrate saturation. The sand-rich lithofacies is well-sorted and displays abundant ripple lamination, indicative of deposition within a high-energy environment. The clayey-silt is poorly-sorted and lacks sedimentary structures. The two lithofacies are interbedded throughout the reservoir unit; however, the relative abundance of the sand-rich lithofacies increases with depth, suggesting a potential decrease in flow energy or sediment flux over time, resulting in the most favorable reservoir properties near the base of the unit.

  19. Transience and persistence of natural hydrocarbon seepage in Mississippi Canyon, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pineda, Oscar; MacDonald, Ian; Silva, Mauricio; Shedd, William; Daneshgar Asl, Samira; Schumaker, Bonny

    2016-07-01

    Analysis of the magnitude of oil discharged from natural hydrocarbon seeps can improve understanding of the carbon cycle and the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) ecosystem. With use of a large archive of remote sensing data, in combination with geophysical and multibeam data, we identified, mapped, and characterized natural hydrocarbon seeps in the Macondo prospect region near the wreck site of the drill-rig Deepwater Horizon (DWH). Satellite image processing and the cluster analysis revealed locations of previously undetected seep zones. Including duplicate detections, a total of 562 individual gas plumes were also observed in multibeam surveys. In total, SAR imagery confirmed 52 oil-producing seep zones in the study area. In almost all cases gas plumes were associated with oil-producing seep zones. The cluster of seeps in the vicinity of lease block MC302 appeared to host the most persistent and prolific oil vents. Oil slicks and gas plumes observed over the DWH site were consistent with discharges of residual oil from the wreckage. In contrast with highly persistent oil seeps observed in the Green Canyon and Garden Banks lease areas, the seeps in the vicinity of Macondo Prospect were intermittent. The difference in the number of seeps and the quantity of surface oil detected in Green Canyon was almost two orders of magnitude greater than in Mississippi Canyon.

  20. Investigation of population structure in Gulf of Mexico Seepiophila jonesi (Polychaeta, Siboglinidae using cross-amplified microsatellite loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunya Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Vestimentiferan tubeworms are some of the most recognizable fauna found at deep-sea cold seeps, isolated environments where hydrocarbon rich fluids fuel biological communities. Several studies have investigated tubeworm population structure; however, much is still unknown about larval dispersal patterns at Gulf of Mexico (GoM seeps. As such, researchers have applied microsatellite markers as a measure for documenting the transport of vestimentiferan individuals. In the present study, we investigate the utility of microsatellites to be cross-amplified within the escarpiid clade of seep vestimentiferans, by determining if loci originally developed for Escarpia spp. could be amplified in the GoM seep tubeworm, Seepiophila jonesi. Additionally, we determine if cross-amplified loci can reliably uncover the same signatures of high gene flow seen in a previous investigation of S. jonesi. Methods Seventy-seven S. jonesi individuals were collected from eight seep sites across the upper Louisiana slope (<1,000 m in the GoM. Forty-eight microsatellite loci that were originally developed for Escarpia laminata (18 loci and Escarpia southwardae (30 loci were tested to determine if they were homologous and polymorphic in S. jonesi. Loci found to be both polymorphic and of high quality were used to test for significant population structuring in S. jonesi. Results Microsatellite pre-screening identified 13 (27% of the Escarpia loci were homologous and polymorphic in S. jonesi, revealing that microsatellites can be amplified within the escarpiid clade of vestimentiferans. Our findings uncovered low levels of heterozygosity and a lack of genetic differentiation amongst S. jonesi from various sites and regions, in line with previous investigations that employed species-specific polymorphic loci on S. jonesi individuals retrieved from both the same and different seep sites. The lack of genetic structure identified from these populations supports the

  1. A Hazy Day in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Mexico City has one of the world's most serious air pollution problems. The city is located atop a high plain at an altitude of 2200 meters, and is surrounded on three sides by mountains and snow-capped volcanoes. Since incident solar radiation does not vary significantly with season at tropical latitudes, photochemical smog is produced much of the year. In winter, air quality can worsen significantly when thermal inversions keep polluted air masses close to the surface.Atmospheric particulates (aerosols) are readily visible at oblique view angles, and differences in aerosol amount on two days are indicated by these images of central Mexico from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images at left and center are natural color views acquired by MISR's 70-degree forward-viewing camera on April 9 and December 5, 2001, respectively. Mexico City can be identified in the center panel by the large area of haze accumulation above image center. Two small brighter patches within the hazy area indicate low fog. In the left-hand panel, the city basin appears significantly clearer, but some haze remains apparent across the Sierra Madre mountains in the lower portion of the images. On the right is an elevation field corresponding to the December 5 view. Automated MISR stereoscopic retrievals reveal the clouds at lower right to be at very high altitudes, in contrast to the low-lying haze and fog near Mexico City. When the stereo retrieval determines that a location is not covered by clouds, digital terrain elevation data are displayed instead. High clouds appear as the orange and red areas, and mountainous areas appear light blue and green. The position of the clouds within the 70-degree image are slightly southward of their location in the elevation map as a consequence of geometric parallax.Major sources of air pollutants within the basin enclosing the Mexico City urban area include exhaust from 3.5 million vehicles, thousands of industries, and mineral dust

  2. Tiered on-the-ground implementation projects for Gulf of Mexico water quality improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both the Gulf Hypoxia Action Plan for Reducing, Mitigating, and Controlling Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and Improving Water Quality in the Mississippi River Basin (USEPA 2008) and the GOMA Governors’ Action Plan II for Healthy and Resilient Coasts (GOMA 2009) call for the development and ...

  3. Taxonomic distinctness and richness of helminth parasite assemblages of freshwater fishes in Mexican hydrological basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz-Martínez, Benjamín; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the distributional patterns of adult helminth parasites of freshwater fishes with respect to the main hydrological basins of Mexico. We use the taxonomic distinctness and the variation in taxonomic distinctness to explore patterns of parasite diversity and how these patterns change between zoogeographical regions. We address questions about the factors that determine the variation of observed diversity of helminths between basins. We also investigate patterns of richness, taxonomic distinctness and distance decay of similarity amongst basins. Our analyses suggest that the evolution of the fauna of helminth parasites in Mexico is mostly dominated by independent host colonization events and that intra--host speciation could be a minor factor explaining the origin of this diversity. This paper points out a clear separation between the helminth faunas of northern--nearctic and southern--neotropical components in Mexican continental waters, suggesting the availability of two distinct taxonomic pools of parasites in Mexican drainage basins. Data identifies Mexican drainage basins as unities inhabited by freshwater fishes, hosting a mixture of neotropical and nearctic species, in addition, data confirms neotropical and neartic basins/helminth faunas. The neotropical basins of Mexico are host to a richest and more diversified helminth fauna, including more families, genera and species, compared to the less rich and less diverse helminth fauna in the nearctic basins. The present analysis confirms distance--decay as one of the important factors contributing to the patterns of diversity observed. The hypothesis that helminth diversity could be explained by the ichthyological diversity of the basin received no support from present analysis.

  4. Taxonomic distinctness and richness of helminth parasite assemblages of freshwater fishes in Mexican hydrological basins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Quiroz-Martínez

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse the distributional patterns of adult helminth parasites of freshwater fishes with respect to the main hydrological basins of Mexico. We use the taxonomic distinctness and the variation in taxonomic distinctness to explore patterns of parasite diversity and how these patterns change between zoogeographical regions. We address questions about the factors that determine the variation of observed diversity of helminths between basins. We also investigate patterns of richness, taxonomic distinctness and distance decay of similarity amongst basins. Our analyses suggest that the evolution of the fauna of helminth parasites in Mexico is mostly dominated by independent host colonization events and that intra--host speciation could be a minor factor explaining the origin of this diversity. This paper points out a clear separation between the helminth faunas of northern--nearctic and southern--neotropical components in Mexican continental waters, suggesting the availability of two distinct taxonomic pools of parasites in Mexican drainage basins. Data identifies Mexican drainage basins as unities inhabited by freshwater fishes, hosting a mixture of neotropical and nearctic species, in addition, data confirms neotropical and neartic basins/helminth faunas. The neotropical basins of Mexico are host to a richest and more diversified helminth fauna, including more families, genera and species, compared to the less rich and less diverse helminth fauna in the nearctic basins. The present analysis confirms distance--decay as one of the important factors contributing to the patterns of diversity observed. The hypothesis that helminth diversity could be explained by the ichthyological diversity of the basin received no support from present analysis.

  5. Mexico City air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    Mexico City, faces a severe air pollution problem due to a combination of circumstances. The city is in a high mountain basin at a subtropical latitude. The basin setting inhibits dispersion of pollution and contributes to frequent wintertime thermal inversions which further trap pollutants near the surface. The elevation and latitude combine to provide plentiful sunshine which, in comparison to more northern latitudes, is enhanced in the UV radiation which drives atmospheric photochemistry to produce secondary pollutants such as ozone. The Area Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico AMCW is defined to include the 16 delegations of the Federal District (D.F.) and 17 highly urbanized municipalities in the State of Mexico which border the D.F. The 1990 census (XI Censo General de Poblacion y Vivienda de 1990) records that slightly over 15 million people live in the AMCM. There are numerous other nearby communities which are in the airshed region of Mexico City, but which are not included in the definition and population of the AMCM. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality management policies. The project utilizes a systems approach including computer modeling, comprehensive measurement studies of Mexico City's air pollutants, environmental chemical reaction studies and socioeconomic analysis. Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA) and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are the designated lead institutions

  6. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  7. New Mexico State Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...

  8. HSIP Hospitals in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Hospitals in New Mexico The term "hospital" ... means an institution which- (1) is primarily engaged in providing, by or under the supervision of physicians, to...

  9. 78 FR 15973 - Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the Pojoaque Basin Regional Water System Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Pojoaque Basin Regional Water System Environmental Impact Statement, New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of... Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended, the Bureau of Reclamation is preparing an environmental impact... document, alternatives, concerns, and issues to be addressed in the environmental impact statement. DATES...

  10. Deep-sea coral record of human impact on watershed quality in the Mississippi River Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prouty, N.G.; Roark, E.B.; Koenig, A.E.; Demopoulos, A.W.J.; Batista, F.C.; Kocar, B.D.; Selby, D.; McCarthy, M.D.; Mienis, F.

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest drivers of historical nutrient and sediment transport into the Gulf of Mexico is the unprecedented scale and intensity of land use change in the Mississippi River Basin. These landscape changes are linked to enhanced fluxes of carbon and nitrogen pollution from the Mississippi

  11. High resolution ensemble forecasting for the Gulf of Mexico eddies and fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counillon, F.; Bertino, L.

    2007-05-01

    As oil production moves further into deeper waters, the costs related to strong current hazards are increasing accordingly, and accurate three-dimensional forecasts of currents are urgently needed. To be useful, models have to locate eddies and fronts to an accuracy of 30 km at a nowcast stage, which is almost impossible to accomplish with the use of satellite data of the same accuracy. The use of stochastic forecast allows us to give confidence of our prediction. We are using a nested configuration of the Hybrid coordinate ocean model (HYCOM), where the TOPAZ system, which covers the Atlantic and the Artic, gives lateral boundary condition to a high-resolution (5km) model of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). TOPAZ is a real-time forecasting coupled ocean-ice model, which assimilates sea level anomaly (SLA), sea surface temperature, and sea ice concentration, with the ensemble Kalman filter. The high- resolution model assimilates SLA using the ensemble optimal interpolation, which updates accordingly the currents, salinity, temperature, and layer interface at all depths. Here, we evaluate the ensemble forecast capabilities of our high-resolution model, for eddy Extreme that has been observed from altimeters around the 15th of July. We run 6 successive ensemble runs composed of 10 members of equal likelihood. Members differ by perturbations of the initial state, of the lateral boundary conditions, and of the atmospheric boundary conditions. We have started the experiment 1 month prior to the shedding event, because it was the time necessary for perturbation of boundary conditions to spread uniformly and reach a significant level across the GOM. The ensemble reproduces well the dynamics of the eddy shedding and produces a significant spread at the boundary of the eddy, but underestimates the RMS error of the SLA. Prior to the shedding time, the error growth increase, induced by the highly non-linear growth of cyclonic eddies at the boundary of the Loop Current. Additionally

  12. Hydrocarbon Migration from the Micro to Macro Scale in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, C.; Marty, E.; Silva, M.; Natter, M.; Shedd, W. W.; Hill, J. C.; Viso, R. F.; Lobodin, V.; Krajewski, L.; Abrams, M.; MacDonald, I. R.

    2016-02-01

    In the Northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) at GC600, ECOGIG has been investigating the processes involved in hydrocarbon migration from deep reservoirs to sea surface. We studied two individual vents, Birthday Candles (BC) and Mega-Plume (MP), which are separated by 1km on a salt supported ridge trending from NW-SE. Seismic data depicts two faults, also separated by 1km, feeding into the surface gas hydrate region. BC and MP comprise the range between oily, mixed, and gaseous-type vents. In both cases bubbles are observed escaping from gas hydrate out crops at the sea floor and supporting chemosynthetic communities. Fluid flow is indicated by features on the sea floor such as hydrate mounds, authigenic carbonates, brine pools, mud volcanoes, and biology. We propose a model to describe the upward flow of hydrocarbons from three vertical scales, each dominated by different factors: 1) macro (capillary failure in overlying cap rocks causing reservoir leakage), 2) meso (buoyancy driven fault migration), and 3) micro (hydrate formation and chemosynthetic activity). At the macro scale we use high reflectivity in seismic data and sediment pore throat radii to determine the formation of fractures in leaky reservoirs. Once oil and gas leave the reservoir through fractures in the cap rock they migrate in separate phases. At the meso scale we use seismic data to locate faults and salt diapirs that form conduits for buoyant hydrocarbons follow. This connects the path to the micro scale where we used video data to observe bubble release from individual vents for extended periods of time (3h-26d), and developed an image processing program to quantify bubble release rates. At mixed vents gaseous bubbles are observed escaping hydrate outcrops with a coating of oil varying in thickness. Bubble oil and gas ratios are estimated using average bubble size and release rates. The relative vent age can be described by carbonate hard ground cover, biological activity, and hydrate mound formation

  13. Biodiversity and community composition of sediment macrofauna associated with deep-sea Lophelia pertusa habitats in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Bourque, Jill R.; Frometa, Janessy

    2014-01-01

    Scleractinian corals create three-dimensional reefs that provide sheltered refuges, facilitate sediment accumulation, and enhance colonization of encrusting fauna. While heterogeneous coral habitats can harbor high levels of biodiversity, their effect on the community composition within nearby sediments remains unclear, particularly in the deep sea. Sediment macrofauna from deep-sea coral habitats (Lophelia pertusa) and non-coral, background sediments were examined at three sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico (VK826, VK906, MC751, 350–500 m depth) to determine whether macrofaunal abundance, diversity, and community composition near corals differed from background soft-sediments. Macrofaunal densities ranged from 26 to 125 individuals 32 cm−2 and were significantly greater near coral versus background sediments only at VK826. Of the 86 benthic invertebrate taxa identified, 16 were exclusive to near-coral habitats, while 14 were found only in background sediments. Diversity (Fisher’s α) and evenness were significantly higher within near-coral sediments only at MC751 while taxon richness was similar among all habitats. Community composition was significantly different both between near-coral and background sediments and among the three primary sites. Polychaetes numerically dominated all samples, accounting for up to 70% of the total individuals near coral, whereas peracarid crustaceans were proportionally more abundant in background sediments (18%) than in those near coral (10%). The reef effect differed among sites, with community patterns potentially influenced by the size of reef habitat. Taxon turnover occurred with distance from the reef, suggesting that reef extent may represent an important factor in structuring sediment communities near L. pertusa. Polychaete communities in both habitats differed from other Gulf of Mexico (GOM) soft sediments based on data from previous studies, and we hypothesize that local environmental conditions found near L

  14. Biodiversity and community composition of sediment macrofauna associated with deep-sea Lophelia pertusa habitats in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Bourque, Jill R.; Frometa, Janessy

    2014-11-01

    Scleractinian corals create three-dimensional reefs that provide sheltered refuges, facilitate sediment accumulation, and enhance colonization of encrusting fauna. While heterogeneous coral habitats can harbor high levels of biodiversity, their effect on the community composition within nearby sediments remains unclear, particularly in the deep sea. Sediment macrofauna from deep-sea coral habitats (Lophelia pertusa) and non-coral, background sediments were examined at three sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico (VK826, VK906, MC751, 350-500 m depth) to determine whether macrofaunal abundance, diversity, and community composition near corals differed from background soft-sediments. Macrofaunal densities ranged from 26 to 125 individuals 32 cm-2 and were significantly greater near coral versus background sediments only at VK826. Of the 86 benthic invertebrate taxa identified, 16 were exclusive to near-coral habitats, while 14 were found only in background sediments. Diversity (Fisher's α) and evenness were significantly higher within near-coral sediments only at MC751 while taxon richness was similar among all habitats. Community composition was significantly different both between near-coral and background sediments and among the three primary sites. Polychaetes numerically dominated all samples, accounting for up to 70% of the total individuals near coral, whereas peracarid crustaceans were proportionally more abundant in background sediments (18%) than in those near coral (10%). The reef effect differed among sites, with community patterns potentially influenced by the size of reef habitat. Taxon turnover occurred with distance from the reef, suggesting that reef extent may represent an important factor in structuring sediment communities near L. pertusa. Polychaete communities in both habitats differed from other Gulf of Mexico (GOM) soft sediments based on data from previous studies, and we hypothesize that local environmental conditions found near L. pertusa

  15. GoM Coastal Biopsy Surveys - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Small vessel surveys were conducted within estuarine and nearshore coastal waters of Barataria Bay, LA and Mississippi Sound, MS to collect tissue biopsy samples...

  16. Variability in age and size at maturation, reproductive longevity, and long-term growth dynamics for Kemp's ridley sea turtles in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshe, Lisa R.; Coggins, Lewis; Shaver, Donna J.; Higgins, Ben; Landry, Andre M.; Bailey, Rhonda

    2017-01-01

    Effective management of protected sea turtle populations requires knowledge not only of mean values for demographic and life-history parameters, but also temporal and spatial trends, variability, and underlying causes. For endangered Kemp’s ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), the need for baseline information of this type has been emphasized during attempts to understand causes underlying the recent truncation in the recovery trajectory for nesting females. To provide insight into variability in age and size at sexual maturation (ASM and SSM) and long-term growth patterns likely to influence population trends, we conducted skeletochronological analysis of humerus bones from 333 Kemp’s ridleys stranded throughout the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from 1993 to 2010. Ranges of possible ASMs (6.8 to 21.8 yr) and SSMs (53.3 to 68.3 cm straightline carapace length (SCL)) estimated using the “rapprochement” skeletal growth mark associated with maturation were broad, supporting incorporation of a maturation schedule in Kemp’s ridley population models. Mean ASMs estimated from rapprochement and by fitting logistic, generalized additive mixed, and von Bertalanffy growth models to age and growth data ranged from 11 to 13 yr; confidence intervals for the logistic model predicted maturation of 95% of the population between 11.9 and 14.8 yr. Early juvenile somatic growth rates in the GOM were greater than those previously reported for the Atlantic, indicating potential for differences in maturation trajectories between regions. Finally, long-term, significant decreases in somatic growth response were found for both juveniles and adults, which could influence recruitment to the reproductive population and observed nesting population trends. PMID:28333937

  17. Adrenal Gland and Lung Lesions in Gulf of Mexico Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Found Dead following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Venn-Watson

    Full Text Available A northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM cetacean unusual mortality event (UME involving primarily bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama began in February 2010 and continued into 2014. Overlapping in time and space with this UME was the Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill, which was proposed as a contributing cause of adrenal disease, lung disease, and poor health in live dolphins examined during 2011 in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. To assess potential contributing factors and causes of deaths for stranded UME dolphins from June 2010 through December 2012, lung and adrenal gland tissues were histologically evaluated from 46 fresh dead non-perinatal carcasses that stranded in Louisiana (including 22 from Barataria Bay, Mississippi, and Alabama. UME dolphins were tested for evidence of biotoxicosis, morbillivirus infection, and brucellosis. Results were compared to up to 106 fresh dead stranded dolphins from outside the UME area or prior to the DWH spill. UME dolphins were more likely to have primary bacterial pneumonia (22% compared to 2% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003 and thin adrenal cortices (33% compared to 7% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003. In 70% of UME dolphins with primary bacterial pneumonia, the condition either caused or contributed significantly to death. Brucellosis and morbillivirus infections were detected in 7% and 11% of UME dolphins, respectively, and biotoxin levels were low or below the detection limit, indicating that these were not primary causes of the current UME. The rare, life-threatening, and chronic adrenal gland and lung diseases identified in stranded UME dolphins are consistent with exposure to petroleum compounds as seen in other mammals. Exposure of dolphins to elevated petroleum compounds present in coastal GoM waters during and after the DWH oil spill is proposed as a cause of adrenal and lung disease and as a contributor to increased dolphin deaths.

  18. Genetic connectivity in scleractinian corals across the Northern Gulf of Mexico: oil/gas platforms, and relationship to the Flower Garden Banks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W Sammarco

    Full Text Available The 3,000 oil/gas structures currently deployed in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM provide hard substratum for marine organisms in a region where such has been rare since the Holocene. The major exception to this are the Flower Garden Banks (FGB. Corals are known to have colonized oil/gas platforms around the FGB, facilitating biogeographic expansion. We ask the question, what are the patterns of genetic affinity in these coral populations. We sampled coral tissue from populations of two species occurring on oil and gas platforms: Madracis decactis (hermatype and Tubastraea coccinea (invasive ahermatype. We sampled 28 platforms along four transects from 20 km offshore to the continental shelf edge off 1 Matagorda Island, TX; 2 Lake Sabine, TX; 3 Terrebonne Bay, LA; and 4 Mobile, AL. The entire population of M. decactis was sampled between depths of 5 m and 37 m. T. coccinea populations were sub-sampled. Genetic variation was assessed using the PCR-based Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs. Data were analyzed via AFLPOP and STRUCTURE. Genetic connectivity among M. decactis platform populations was highest near the FGB and decreased to the east. Connectivity increased again in the eastern sector, indicating isolation between the populations from different sides of the Mississippi River (Transects 3 and 4. A point-drop in genetic affinity (relatedness at the shelf edge south of Terrebonne Bay, LA indicated a population differing from all others in the northern GOM. Genetic affinities among T. coccinea were highest in the west and decreased to the east. Very low genetic affinities off Mobile, AL indicated a dramatic difference between those populations and those west of the Mississippi River, apparently a formidable barrier to larval dispersal.

  19. Variability in age and size at maturation, reproductive longevity, and long-term growth dynamics for Kemp's ridley sea turtles in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Avens

    Full Text Available Effective management of protected sea turtle populations requires knowledge not only of mean values for demographic and life-history parameters, but also temporal and spatial trends, variability, and underlying causes. For endangered Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii, the need for baseline information of this type has been emphasized during attempts to understand causes underlying the recent truncation in the recovery trajectory for nesting females. To provide insight into variability in age and size at sexual maturation (ASM and SSM and long-term growth patterns likely to influence population trends, we conducted skeletochronological analysis of humerus bones from 333 Kemp's ridleys stranded throughout the Gulf of Mexico (GOM from 1993 to 2010. Ranges of possible ASMs (6.8 to 21.8 yr and SSMs (53.3 to 68.3 cm straightline carapace length (SCL estimated using the "rapprochement" skeletal growth mark associated with maturation were broad, supporting incorporation of a maturation schedule in Kemp's ridley population models. Mean ASMs estimated from rapprochement and by fitting logistic, generalized additive mixed, and von Bertalanffy growth models to age and growth data ranged from 11 to 13 yr; confidence intervals for the logistic model predicted maturation of 95% of the population between 11.9 and 14.8 yr. Early juvenile somatic growth rates in the GOM were greater than those previously reported for the Atlantic, indicating potential for differences in maturation trajectories between regions. Finally, long-term, significant decreases in somatic growth response were found for both juveniles and adults, which could influence recruitment to the reproductive population and observed nesting population trends.

  20. Ultra-Deepwater Gulf of Mexico Oil and Gas: Energy Return on Financial Investment and a Preliminary Assessment of Energy Return on Energy Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Moerschbaecher

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to calculate the energy return on financial investment (EROFI of oil and gas production in the ultra-deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GoM in 2009 and for the estimated oil reserves of the Macondo Prospect (Mississippi Canyon Block 252. We also calculated a preliminary Energy Return on Investment (EROI based on published energy intensity ratios including a sensitivity analysis using a range of energy intensity ratios (7 MJ/$, 12 MJ/$, and 18 MJ/$. The EROFI for ultra-deepwater oil and gas at the well-head, ranged from 0.019 to 0.022 barrels (BOE, or roughly 0.85 gallons, per dollar. Our estimates of EROI for 2009 ultra-deepwater oil and natural gas at the well-head ranged from 7–22:1. The independently-derived EROFI of the Macondo Prospect oil reserves ranged from 0.012 to 0.0071 barrels per dollar (i.e., $84 to $140 to produce a barrel and EROI ranged from 4–16:1, related to the energy intensity ratio used to quantify costs. We believe that the lower end of these EROI ranges (i.e., 4 to 7:1 is more accurate since these values were derived using energy intensities averaged across the entire domestic oil and gas industry. Time series of the financial and preliminary EROI estimates found in this study suggest that the extraction costs of ultra-deepwater energy reserves in the GoM come at increasing energetic and economic cost to society.

  1. Genetic connectivity in scleractinian corals across the Northern Gulf of Mexico: oil/gas platforms, and relationship to the Flower Garden Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, Paul W; Brazeau, Daniel A; Sinclair, James

    2012-01-01

    The 3,000 oil/gas structures currently deployed in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) provide hard substratum for marine organisms in a region where such has been rare since the Holocene. The major exception to this are the Flower Garden Banks (FGB). Corals are known to have colonized oil/gas platforms around the FGB, facilitating biogeographic expansion. We ask the question, what are the patterns of genetic affinity in these coral populations. We sampled coral tissue from populations of two species occurring on oil and gas platforms: Madracis decactis (hermatype) and Tubastraea coccinea (invasive ahermatype). We sampled 28 platforms along four transects from 20 km offshore to the continental shelf edge off 1) Matagorda Island, TX; 2) Lake Sabine, TX; 3) Terrebonne Bay, LA; and 4) Mobile, AL. The entire population of M. decactis was sampled between depths of 5 m and 37 m. T. coccinea populations were sub-sampled. Genetic variation was assessed using the PCR-based Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs). Data were analyzed via AFLPOP and STRUCTURE. Genetic connectivity among M. decactis platform populations was highest near the FGB and decreased to the east. Connectivity increased again in the eastern sector, indicating isolation between the populations from different sides of the Mississippi River (Transects 3 and 4). A point-drop in genetic affinity (relatedness) at the shelf edge south of Terrebonne Bay, LA indicated a population differing from all others in the northern GOM. Genetic affinities among T. coccinea were highest in the west and decreased to the east. Very low genetic affinities off Mobile, AL indicated a dramatic difference between those populations and those west of the Mississippi River, apparently a formidable barrier to larval dispersal.

  2. Basalt stratigraphy - Pasco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, A.C.; Myers, C.W.; Brown, D.J.; Ledgerwood, R.K.

    1979-10-01

    The geologic history of the Pasco Basin is sketched. Study of the stratigraphy of the area involved a number of techniques including major-element chemistry, paleomagnetic investigations, borehole logging, and other geophysical survey methods. Grande Ronde basalt accumulation in the Pasco Basin is described. An illustrative log response is shown. 1 figure

  3. Melo carboniferous basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flossdarf, A.

    1988-01-01

    This report is about of the Melo carboniferous basin which limits are: in the South the large and high Tupambae hill, in the west the Paraiso hill and the river mountains, in the North Yaguaron river basin to Candidata in Rio Grande del Sur in Brazil.

  4. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of the folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...

  5. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  6. Seismic characterization of hydrates in faulted, fine-grained sediments of Krishna-Godavari basin: Unified imaging

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jaiswal, P.; Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.; Zelt, C.A.

    (Clennell et al., 1999). However, in basins affected by structural deformation, local fluid and heat flow, and spatially variable sedimentation, e.g., Gulf of Mexico (Ding et al., 2008) and Krishna-Godavari (Dewangan et al., 2011), the BSR profile may..., northern Gulf of Mexico: Part I. A seismic approach based on geologic model, inversion, and rock physics principles. Marine and Petroleum Geology 25, 830-844. Daigle, H., Dugan, B., 2011. Capillary controls on methane hydrate distribution and fracturing...

  7. Radon measurements of groundwater in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.; Cortes, A.

    1991-01-01

    Radon measurement has important applications in hydrogeological studies. Specifically, radon measurement is used to determine the fluctuations of the piezometric levels in groundwater and, in some cases, the path of the water, which is one of the key parameters for evaluating hydrogeological resources. Water from springs and deep wells in the Basin of Mexico and the valley of San Luis Potosi were sampled, measured and analyzed by previous authors. In this work, a method for measuring 222 Rn in groundwater by using a passive detector is presented and the results are compared with a similar experiment performed at the same time, using a dynamic method. The aim of the work is to develop a method for detecting, evaluating and measuring the 222 Rn in groundwater by using SSNTD technology. (author)

  8. Biodegradation of dispersed Macondo crude oil by indigenous Gulf of Mexico microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian; Sandoval, Kathia; Ding, Yan [Southeaest Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, North Miami Beach, FL 33181 (United States); Stoeckel, Donald; Minard-Smith, Angela [Battelle 505 King Ave, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Andersen, Gary; Dubinsky, Eric A. [Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Atlas, Ronald [Department of Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Gardinali, Piero, E-mail: gardinal@fiu.edu [Southeaest Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, North Miami Beach, FL 33181 (United States); Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Because of the extreme conditions of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) release (turbulent flow at 1500 m depth and 5 °C water temperature) and the sub-surface application of dispersant, small but neutrally buoyant oil droplets < 70 μm were formed, remained in the water column and were subjected to in-situ biodegradation processes. In order to investigate the biodegradation of Macondo oil components during the release, we designed and performed an experiment to evaluate the interactions of the indigenous microbial communities present in the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) with oil droplets of two representative sizes (10 μm and 30 μm median volume diameter) created with Macondo source oil in the presence of Corexit 9500 using natural seawater collected at the depth of 1100–1300 m in the vicinity of the DWH wellhead. The evolution of the oil was followed in the dark and at 5 °C for 64 days by collecting sacrificial water samples at fixed intervals and analyzing them for a wide range of chemical and biological parameters including volatile components, saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, dispersant markers, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, microbial cell counts and microbial population dynamics. A one phase exponential decay from a plateau model was used to calculate degradation rates and lag times for more than 150 individual oil components. Calculations were normalized to a conserved petroleum biomarker (30αβ-hopane). Half-lives ranged from about 3 days for easily degradable compounds to about 60 days for higher molecular weight aromatics. Rapid degradation was observed for BTEX, 2–3 ring PAHs, and n-alkanes below n-C23. The results in this experimental study showed good agreement with the n-alkane (n-C13 to n-C26) half-lives (0.6–9.5 days) previously reported for the Deepwater Horizon plume samples and other laboratory studies with chemically dispersed Macondo oil conducted at low temperatures (< 8 °C). The responses of the microbial populations also

  9. Teledermatology in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Megan

    2016-12-01

    The Health Frontiers in Tijuana (HFiT) clinic is a binational partnership between the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine (San Diego, California); the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California School of Medicine (Tijuana, Mexico); and Desayunador Salesiano Padre Chava, a community grassroots organization in Tijuana, Mexico. Health Frontiers in Tijuana provides accessible quality health care for the underserved in Tijuana's Zona Norte. This article is a narrative meant to share my clinical experience as a dermatology resident who worked with HFiT to establish teledermatology services at this clinic.

  10. Mexico: a solar future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Immersed in the global price instability of fossil fuels and with an upsurge in renewables as the agent for development, countries like Mexico, that largely depend on this resource to generate income and whose national electrical energy generation mainly comes from these fuels, find themselves obliged to take decisions that allow them to maintain their appeal compared to other emerging markets. In this decision-making process, Mexico has been slow to implement its long-awaited Energy Reform that incentivises direct foreign investment and avoids the monopolies that have until recently prevailed in the Mexican energy and electricity sector. (Author)

  11. Statewide Groundwater Recharge Modeling in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F.; Cadol, D.; Newton, B. T.; Phillips, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    It is crucial to understand the rate and distribution of groundwater recharge in New Mexico because it not only largely defines a limit for water availability in this semi-arid state, but also is the least understood aspect of the state's water budget. With the goal of estimating groundwater recharge statewide, we are developing the Evapotranspiration and Recharge Model (ETRM), which uses existing spatial datasets to model the daily soil water balance over the state at a resolution of 250 m cell. The input datasets includes PRISM precipitation data, MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), NRCS soils data, state geology data and reference ET estimates produced by Gridded Atmospheric Data downscalinG and Evapotranspiration Tools (GADGET). The current estimated recharge presents diffuse recharge only, not focused recharge as in channels or playas. Direct recharge measurements are challenging and rare, therefore we estimate diffuse recharge using a water balance approach. The ETRM simulated runoff amount was compared with USGS gauged discharge in four selected ephemeral channels: Mogollon Creek, Zuni River, the Rio Puerco above Bernardo, and the Rio Puerco above Arroyo Chico. Result showed that focused recharge is important, and basin characteristics can be linked with watershed hydrological response. As the sparse instruments in NM provide limited help in improving estimation of focused recharge by linking basin characteristics, the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, which is one of the most densely gauged and monitored semiarid rangeland watershed for hydrology research purpose, is now being modeled with ETRM. Higher spatial resolution of field data is expected to enable detailed comparison of model recharge results with measured transmission losses in ephemeral channels. The final ETRM product will establish an algorithm to estimate the groundwater recharge as a water budget component of the entire state of New Mexico. Reference ET estimated by GADGET

  12. Hydrate research activities that both support and derive from the monitoring station/sea-floor Observatory, Mississippi Canyon 118, northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutken, Carol [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States). Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology (CMRET)

    2013-07-31

    A permanent observatory has been installed on the seafloor at Federal Lease Block, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118), northern Gulf of Mexico. Researched and designed by the Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) with the geological, geophysical, geochemical and biological characterization of in situ gas hydrates systems as the research goal, the site has been designated by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management as a permanent Research Reserve where studies of hydrates and related ocean systems may take place continuously and cooperatively into the foreseeable future. The predominant seafloor feature at MC118 is a carbonate-hydrate complex, officially named Woolsey Mound for the founder of both the GOM-HRC and the concept of the permanent seafloor hydrates research facility, the late James Robert “Bob” Woolsey. As primary investigator of the overall project until his death in mid-2008, Woolsey provided key scientific input and served as chief administrator for the Monitoring Station/ Seafloor Observatory (MS-SFO). This final technical report presents highlights of research and accomplishments to date. Although not all projects reached the status originally envisioned, they are all either complete or positioned for completion at the earliest opportunity. All Department of Energy funds have been exhausted in this effort but, in addition, leveraged to great advantage with additional federal input to the project and matched efforts and resources. This report contains final reports on all subcontracts issued by the University of Mississippi, Administrators of the project, Hydrate research activities that both support and derive from the monitoring station/sea-floor Observatory, Mississippi Canyon 118, northern Gulf of Mexico, as well as status reports on the major components of the project. All subcontractors have fulfilled their primary obligations. Without continued funds designated for further project development, the Monitoring Station

  13. The Ogaden Basin, Ethiopia: an underexplored sedimentary basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teitz, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    A brief article examines the Ogaden Basin in Ethiopia in terms of basin origin, basin fill and the hydrocarbon exploration history and results. The natural gas find in pre-Jurassic sandstones, which appears to contain substantial reserves, justifies continuing investigations in this largely underexplored basin. (UK).

  14. Natural Analog Studies at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2005-07-11

    The significance of the Pena Blanca uranium deposits in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico as potential natural analogs for a nuclear waste repository in unsaturated welded tuff was first recognized in the 1980s. In the 1970s, the Pena Blanca region was a major target of uranium exploration and exploitation by the Mexican government. Since then the Nopal I uranium deposit has been studied extensively by researchers in the U.S., Mexico, and Europe. The Nopal I deposit represents an environment similar to that of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain in many ways. Both are located in semi-arid regions. Both are located in Tertiary rhyolitic tuffs overlying carbonate rocks that have been subjected to basin and range-style tectonic deformation. Both are located in a chemically oxidizing, unsaturated zone 200 m or more above the water table. The alteration of uraninite to secondary minerals at Nopal I may be similar to the alteration of uranium fuel rods in this type of setting. Investigations at Nopal I and in the surrounding Sierra Pena Blanca have included detailed outcrop mapping, hydrologic and isotopic studies of flow and transport, studies of mineral alteration, modeling, and performance assessment.

  15. Natural Analog Studies at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.M. Simmons

    2005-01-01

    The significance of the Pena Blanca uranium deposits in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico as potential natural analogs for a nuclear waste repository in unsaturated welded tuff was first recognized in the 1980s. In the 1970s, the Pena Blanca region was a major target of uranium exploration and exploitation by the Mexican government. Since then the Nopal I uranium deposit has been studied extensively by researchers in the U.S., Mexico, and Europe. The Nopal I deposit represents an environment similar to that of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain in many ways. Both are located in semi-arid regions. Both are located in Tertiary rhyolitic tuffs overlying carbonate rocks that have been subjected to basin and range-style tectonic deformation. Both are located in a chemically oxidizing, unsaturated zone 200 m or more above the water table. The alteration of uraninite to secondary minerals at Nopal I may be similar to the alteration of uranium fuel rods in this type of setting. Investigations at Nopal I and in the surrounding Sierra Pena Blanca have included detailed outcrop mapping, hydrologic and isotopic studies of flow and transport, studies of mineral alteration, modeling, and performance assessment

  16. Protection gaps in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Villasenor

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With Mexico a major destination – and transit – country for people displaced by violence in the Northern Triangle of Central America, the Mexican government needs urgently to improve its asylum systems and procedures if they are to be fit for purpose.

  17. The Art of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccardi, Marianne

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of books for grades K and up which explores the folklore, poetry, fiction, and art of Mexico, and focuses on the Mayans and Aztecs and Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo. Also suggests various research, reading, drama, music, social studies, physical education, and art activities and lists related videos and Internet…

  18. [Food security in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance.

  19. Christmas in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    The Christmas season in Mexico starts on December 16 with "las posadas," a series of religious processions in which families or neighbors reenact Joseph's search for shelter for Mary en route to Bethlehem. Those representing pilgrims travel from home to home until they are finally accepted by those representing innkeepers at a home with…

  20. River basin administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  1. Use of environmental isotope tracer and GIS techniques to estimate basin recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunmbaku, Abdulganiu A. A.

    The extensive use of ground water only began with the advances in pumping technology at the early portion of 20th Century. Groundwater provides the majority of fresh water supply for municipal, agricultural and industrial uses, primarily because of little to no treatment it requires. Estimating the volume of groundwater available in a basin is a daunting task, and no accurate measurements can be made. Usually water budgets and simulation models are primarily used to estimate the volume of water in a basin. Precipitation, land surface cover and subsurface geology are factors that affect recharge; these factors affect percolation which invariably affects groundwater recharge. Depending on precipitation, soil chemistry, groundwater chemical composition, gradient and depth, the age and rate of recharge can be estimated. This present research proposes to estimate the recharge in Mimbres, Tularosa and Diablo Basin using the chloride environmental isotope; chloride mass-balance approach and GIS. It also proposes to determine the effect of elevation on recharge rate. Mimbres and Tularosa Basin are located in southern New Mexico State, and extend southward into Mexico. Diablo Basin is located in Texas in extends southward. This research utilizes the chloride mass balance approach to estimate the recharge rate through collection of groundwater data from wells, and precipitation. The data were analysed statistically to eliminate duplication, outliers, and incomplete data. Cluster analysis, piper diagram and statistical significance were performed on the parameters of the groundwater; the infiltration rate was determined using chloride mass balance technique. The data was then analysed spatially using ArcGIS10. Regions of active recharge were identified in Mimbres and Diablo Basin, but this could not be clearly identified in Tularosa Basin. CMB recharge for Tularosa Basin yields 0.04037mm/yr (0.0016in/yr), Diablo Basin was 0.047mm/yr (0.0016 in/yr), and 0.2153mm/yr (0.00848in

  2. Taxonomic composition and endemism of the helminth fauna of freshwater fishes of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Quiroz-Martínez, Benjamín

    2013-01-01

    We examine the taxonomic composition and endemism of adult helminth parasites of freshwater fishes of Mexico, with regard to the main hydrological basins of the country. A presence-absence matrix, including every species of adult helminth parasites of freshwater fishes from 23 Mexican hydrological basins was compiled and examined in this paper. The helminth fauna of freshwater fishes of Mexico consists of a large group of Central American Neotropical species (S = 119) and another set, less rich of Nearctic species (S = 48), which are distributed along with the families of its fish hosts; insufficient data preclude the assignation of three species. This fauna is composed predominantly by nematodes, trematodes, and monogeneans, which together contributed 86 % of the total species recorded; cestodes and acanthocephalans being the taxa with the least species recorded. Current data suggests a 22 % (37/170) endemism amongst helminths of freshwater fishes of Mexico. Data suggests that the isolation of bodies of water in the Mexican territory, mostly in the Neotropical areas of southeastern Mexico and in the central Altiplano Mexicano (Mexican Highland Plateau), with well delimited basins separated by orographic features, provided peculiar conditions that have been conducive to the diversification of a unique helminth fauna.

  3. New Mexico Math Pathways Taskforce Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Higher Education Department, 2016

    2016-01-01

    In April 2015 New Mexico faculty, Dana Center staff, and New Mexico Higher Education (NMHED) co-presented the need for better math pathways statewide. Faculty from 6 institutions (New Mexico State University, New Mexico Highlands University, Dine College, Eastern New Mexico University, El Paso Community College, and San Juan College) participated…

  4. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  5. BASINS Framework and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  6. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  7. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  8. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  9. Lidar Monitoring of Mexico City's Atmosphere During High Air Pollution Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, C. R., Jr.; Archuleta, F. L.; Hof, D. E.; Karl, R. R., Jr.; Tiee, J. J., Jr.; Eichinger, W. E.; Holtkamp, D. B.; Tellier, L.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Mexico City, like many large industrial and populous urban areas, has developed a serious air pollution problem, especially during the winter months when there are frequent temperature inversions and weak winds. The deteriorating air quality is the result of several factors. The basin within which Mexico City lies in Mexico's center of political, administrative and economic activity, generating 34 percent of the gross domestic product and 42 percent of the industrial revenue, and supporting a population which is rapidly approaching the 20 million mark. The basin is surrounded by mountains on three sides which end up preventing rapid dispersal of pollutants. Emissions from the transportation fleet (more than 3 million vehicles) are one of the primary pollution sources, and most are uncontrolled. Catalytic converters are just now working their way into the fleet. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative in an international collaboration project between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are dedicated to the investigation of the air quality problem in Mexico City. The main objective of the project is to identify and assess the cost and benefits of major options being proposed to improve the air quality. The project is organized into three main activity areas: (1) modeling and simulation; (2) characterization and measurements; and (3) strategic evaluation.

  10. Late Guadalupian evolution of the Delaware Basin: insights from stable isotope and trace element geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.; Kerans, C.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate characterization of mixed carbonate and evaporite deposits requires an understanding of basin-scale physical, chemical, and biological processes. In these settings, carbonate geochemistry often responds to changes in the prevailing conditions in the water column. It follows that the geochemical record presents a potential aid for interpretation of depositional systems provided that it is relatively free of diagenetic overprint. This is seldom the case in shallow-water settings as processes such as meteoric diagenesis and early dolomitization obscure or erase the original geochemical signal. Fine grained deep-water sediments are more likely to retain their original geochemical characteristics. If reliable shelf-to-basin correlations can be established, then basinal deposits provide critical data not only for the interpretation of deep water environments, but overall basin evolution as well. This study examines variations in trace element and stable isotope geochemistry from the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Interpretation of geochemical data within a pre-existing shelf-to-basin stratigraphic framework suggests a link between basin water chemistry and sea level changes during the entirety of the Guadalupian. This link is supported analogies to modern silled basins where changes in sea level and thus recharge across the sill can control nutrient input, circulation, and bottom water oxygenation. In light of these relationships, the filling of the Delaware Basin with basin-centered evaporites at the end of the Guadalupian likely represents the culmination of a more gradual, cyclic evolution towards basin restriction. Ongoing work will continue to focus on tying regional-scale changes in basin water chemistry to the combined geochemical and physical sedimentological records.

  11. Radon availability in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLemore, V.T.

    1995-01-01

    The New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources (NMBMMR) in cooperation with the Radiation Licensing and Registration Section of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been evaluating geologic and soil conditions that may contribute to elevated levels of indoor radon throughout New Mexico. Various data have been integrated and interpreted in order to determine areas of high radon availability. The purpose of this paper is to summarize some of these data for New Mexico and to discuss geologic controls on the distribution of radon. Areas in New Mexico have been identified from these data as having a high radon availability. It is not the intent of this report to alarm the public, but to provide data on the distribution of radon throughout New Mexico

  12. U.S.-Mexico energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports that while Mexico's petrochemical industry has grown rapidly, it now faces shortages both in investment funds and in supplies of basic petrochemicals due to a financial crisis in the 1980s. Mexico has undertaken a series of policy reforms aimed at encouraging foreign and private investment, but these efforts have generally failed to entice U.S. investment in Mexico. U.S. petrochemical companies have cited unfavorable market conditions, insufficient basic petrochemical capacity in Mexico, concern about the reversibility of Mexican reforms, inadequate Mexican protection of intellectual property rights, and lack of investment protection for U.S. businesses as impediments to investment in Mexico. Cooperation between the two nations in overcoming these obstacles could help U.S. petrochemical companies maintain their positions in a competitive global market, while at the same time provide Mexico with much needed capital investment and technological expertise

  13. Analysis of Suspended-Sediment Dynamics in Gulf of Mexico Estuaries Using MODIS/Terra 250-m Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M. J.; Otis, D. B.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Mendez-Lazaro, P.; Chen, F. R.

    2016-02-01

    Suspended sediments in coastal ecosystems reduce light penetration, degrade water quality, and inhibit primary production. In this study, a 15-year Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS/Terra) turbidity time-series was developed for use in the estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) at 645 nm and 250-m resolution was validated with in-situ turbidity measurements in these estuaries: Coastal Bend Bays (TX), Galveston Bay (TX), Barataria and Terrebonne Bays (LA), Mobile Bay (AL), Tampa Bay (FL), Sarasota Bay (FL), and Charlotte Harbor (FL). Mean values of turbidity over the time-series ranged from 2.5 NTU to over 10 NTU. Turbidity patterns exhibited seasonal cycles with peak values generally found during spring months, although there is considerable variability in the timing of peak turbidity. Episodes of elevated turbidity ranged from 6 episodes in Galveston Bay to 15 in Mobile Bay. The spatial extent of elevated turbidity within estuaries, frequency and duration of turbidity events, and potential driving factors behind episodes of elevated turbidity were also examined.

  14. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  15. Summary of urban stormwater quality in Albuquerque, New Mexico, 2003-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, Erik F.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.; Locke, Evan A.; Stevens, Michael R.; Romero, Orlando C.

    2015-01-01

    Urban stormwater in the Albuquerque metropolitan area was sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque, the Albuquerque Metropolitan Arroyo Flood Control Authority, the New Mexico Department of Transportation, and the University of New Mexico. Stormwater was sampled from a network of monitoring stations from 2003 to 2012 by following regulatory requirements for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System stormwater permit. During this period, stormwater was sampled in the Albuquerque metropolitan area at outfalls from nine drainage basins with residential, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and undeveloped land uses. Stormwater samples were analyzed for selected physical and chemical characteristics, nutrients, major ions, metals, organic compounds, and bacteria.

  16. ALARA development in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M.A.M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Col Lomas de Barrilaco (Mexico)

    1995-03-01

    Even though the ALARA philosophy was formally implemented in the early 1980`s, to some extent, ALARA considerations already had been incorporated into the design of most commercial equipment and facilities based on experience and engineering development. In Mexico, the design of medical and industrial facilities were based on international recommendations containing those considerations. With the construction of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station, formal ALARA groups were created to review some parts of its design, and to prepare the ALARA Program and related procedures necessary for its commercial operation. This paper begins with a brief historical description of ALARA development in Mexico, and then goes on to discuss our regulatory frame in Radiation Protection, some aspects of the ALARA Program, efforts in controlling and reducing of sources of radiation, and finally, future perspectives in the ALARA field.

  17. Neuropsychology in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky Shejet, Feggy; Velez Garcia, Alicia

    2016-11-01

    This invited paper explores the diverse pathways that have led to the development of neuropsychology in Mexico. The authors conducted a review of the literature and their own experiences to describe the seminal events and people relevant to the development of this area of research and practice. The master's degree is the usual level of educational attainment for those who wish to practice clinical neuropsychology. As of now, there is not a board certification process in neuropsychology, although there is one in clinical psychology. Neuropsychology and other mental health disciplines in Mexico and Latin America have historically been poorly funded, and have lacked optimal means of communication as to research findings and clinical initiatives and standards. However, there is reason to think that this will be improved upon in coming years.

  18. Dust storm, northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This large dust storm along the left side of the photo, covers a large portion of the state of Coahuila, Mexico (27.5N, 102.0E). The look angle of this oblique photo is from the south to the north. In the foreground is the Sierra Madre Oriental in the states Coahuila and Nuevo Leon with the Rio Grande River, Amistad Reservoir and Texas in the background.

  19. Seismology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, C.

    1982-01-01

    Mexico is situated at the intersection of four major crustal Plates: the Americas Plate, the Pacific Plate, the Caribbean Plate, and the Cocos Plate. The interaction of these four plates is very complex. The pattern of earthquake risk is, therefore, among the most complicated in the world. The average release of seismic energy each is 55x1021 ergs-more than twice the figure for California. 

  20. Mexico and the CTBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre G, J.; Martinez L, J.; Ruiz E, L. J.; Aragon M, I. B.

    2013-10-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) is a treaty that prohibits all the nuclear explosions by anybody and in any place, either on the terrestrial surface, in the atmosphere, under the sea or underground. From the adoption of this Treaty by the United Nations, Mexico has had interest for its entrance in vigor, as integral part to assure the international peace. For this reason, our country signed the Treaty since it was open in September 24, 1996 and three years later ratified it, due to Mexico is part of the group of necessary countries for their entrance in vigor. During 13 years, the country has been committed and helped to the installation of monitoring stations, actions that allow the strengthening of the International System of Surveillance. The purpose of this work is to divulge the Treaty,its technologies and benefits; and also to diffuse the works realized by Mexico regarding the radionuclides monitoring station and noble gases both certified ones for the CTBT. Besides the radionuclides technology, Mexico has taken charge of the installation and operation of the seismic stations and hydro-acoustics that have been certified too. The radionuclides station Rn-44 located in Guerrero Negro, BCS has two technologies, an automated sampler of suspended particles in air brand Cinderella/ARAME and a noble gases system Sauna used for the particles detection of radioactive material gamma emitting and Xenon radioisotopes product of nuclear assays. Both technologies are transmitting data in real time to the International Center of Data. These technologies are shown in this work. (Author)

  1. [Obesity in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; González-Izquierdo, José Jesús; Barrera-Cruz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Excess body weight (overweight and obesity) is currently recognized as one of the most important challenges of public health in the world, given its size, speed of growth and the negative effect it has on the health of the population that suffers. Overweight and obesity significantly increases the risk of chronic no communicable diseases, premature mortality and the social cost of health. An estimated 90 % of cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight and obesity. Today, Mexico is second global prevalence of obesity in the adult population, which is ten times higher than that of countries like Japan and Korea. With regard to children, Mexico ranks fourth worldwide obesity prevalence, behind Greece, USA and Italy. In our country, over 70 % of the adult population, between 30 and 60 years are overweight. The prevalence of overweight is higher in men than females, while the prevalence of obesity is higher in women than men. Until 2012, 26 million Mexican adults are overweight and 22 million obese, which represents a major challenge for the health sector in terms of promoting healthy lifestyles in the population and development of public policies to reverse this scenario epidemiology. Mexico needs to plan and implement strategies and action cost effective for the prevention and control of obesity of children, adolescents and adults. Global experience shows that proper care of obesity and overweight, required to formulate and coordinate multisectoral strategies and efficient for enhancing protective factors to health, particularly to modify individual behavior, family and community.

  2. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  3. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  4. Youth programmes in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez De Macias, G

    1990-12-01

    Research indicates that in-school adolescents in Mexico have their first sexual contact at the average age of 15.5 years. In 50% of cases, such contact is with a boyfriend or girlfriend, 28.1% with a fiance, and 18.3% with a prostitute. First sexual intercourse occurs with a spouse in only 1.3% of cases. Since only one in six young people in Mexico use a form of contraception, many unwanted pregnancies outside of marriage result. 450,000 births in 1989 were to mothers below 20 years old, with 15% of births annually being among teenage mothers. An estimated three million abortions occur annually in Mexico, and abortions are the fifth major cause of death at the national level. Teen pregnancy is decisively linked with poor living conditions and life expectancy, a relatively lower level of education, and rural residence. As for psychological and anthropological variables, most teens who become pregnant belong to large, unstable families with poor family communication, and are characterized as submissive, highly dependent, and of low self-esteem. Targeting students, workers, and other youths, the MEXFAM Youth Program selects and trains program coordinators over age 21 and volunteer promoters of both sexes aged 16-20 in urban/marginal communities. Promoters offer information to their peers and other youths in their local communities, distribute barrier contraceptives, and channel medical, psychological, and legal services to young people in need. Program procedure is described.

  5. New Mexico Clean Energy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation addresses New Mexico oil and gas development, brownfields, mining development, renewable energy development, renewable resources, renewable standards, solar opportunities, climate change, and energy efficiency.

  6. Geophysical investigation of the Raton Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, R. S.

    1982-05-01

    This thesis correlates gravity, magnetic, and seismic data for the Raton Basin of Colorado and New Mexico. The gravity data suggest that the study area, and the region around it, is in isostatic equilibrium. The free air anomaly in the southern portion of the study area suggests lack of local compensation due to Quaternary volocanic rock. The volcanic rock thickness, calculated from the free air gravity data, is 180 m. The gravity data indicated a crustal thickness of about 45 km, and the crust thinned from west to east. A basement relief map was constructed from the Bouquer gravity data. Computer techniques were developed to calculate the depth to the basement surface and to plot a contour map of that surface. The Raton Basin magnetic map defined the same surface found on the basement relief map since the overlying sedimentary rocks have no magnetism; therefore, any magnetism present is caused by the basement rock. A seismic survey near capulin Mountain detected a high level of microseismicity that may be caused by adjustment along faults or dormant volcanic activity.

  7. Mexico: Rasgos de Su Historia. (Mexico: Highlights of Its History).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Cecilio

    Intended for both teachers and students, this publication, written in Spanish, briefly traces Mexico's history from its Conquest in 1519 to the overthrow of Porfirio Diaz in 1910. The following are briefly discussed: Mexico's Conquest in 1519; events immediately after the fall of Tenochtitlan; the War for Independence; Texas' separation from…

  8. Financing options in Mexico`s energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, J.J. [PricewaterhouseCoopers Securities, Houston, TX (United States)

    1999-10-01

    A series of brief notes accompanied this presentation which was divided into seven sections entitled: (1) capital markets update, (2) Mexican financial market update, (3) financing options in the energy industry, (4) the Venezuelan experience at La Apertura, (5) private and strategic equity alternatives, (6) Pricewaterhouse Coopers Securities, and (7) Mexico energy 2005 prediction. The paper focused on how the financial crisis and merger activity in Latin America will impact electricity reform in Mexico. It was noted that under Mexico`s Policy Proposal for Electricity Reform of the Mexican Electricity Industry, the financial community will seek to back companies in power generation, transportation and distribution. The difficulty of financing government businesses undergoing privatization was also discussed with particular emphasis on the challenge of accepting political and regulatory risks. The Latin private equity market and Canadian investment in Mexico was also reviewed. Since NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) went into affect in 1994, Canadian investment in Mexico has more than tripled. Canadian companies have invested more than C$1.7 billion in Mexico since NAFTA. Pricewaterhouse Coopers Securities is a global investment bank which sees large opportunities in the Mexican energy market. They predict that in five years, Mexico will experience a gradual liberalization of the oil and gas sector, and a full liberalization of the gas pipeline and distribution business and the power generation, transmission and distribution business. 3 figs.

  9. Microbial Sulfate Reduction in Deep-Sea Sediments at the Guaymas Basin - Hydrothermal Vent Area - Influence of Temperature and Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ELSGAARD, L.; ISAKSEN, MF; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction was studied by a S-35 tracer technique in sediments from the hydrothermal vent site in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, Mexico. In situ temperatures ranged from 2.7-degrees-C in the overlying seawater to > 120-degrees-C at 30 cm depth in the hydrothermal sediment...

  10. 76 FR 4371 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed San Juan Basin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ...; NMNM122352] Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed San Juan Basin Energy Connect Project, San Juan County, New Mexico, and La Plata County, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land... prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the proposed San Juan Energy Connect Project, and by...

  11. Multivariate geostatistical modeling of the spatial sediment distribution in a large scale drainage basin, Upper Rhone, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Anna; Blöthe, Jan Henrik; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schrott, Lothar

    2018-02-01

    There is a notable discrepancy between detailed sediment budget studies in small headwater catchments ( 103 km2) in higher order catchments applying modeling and/or remote sensing based approaches for major sediment storage delineation. To bridge the gap between these scales, we compiled an inventory of sediment and bedrock coverage from field mapping, remote sensing analysis and published data for five key sites in the Upper Rhone Basin (Val d'Illiez, Val de la Liène, Turtmanntal, Lötschental, Goms; 360.3 km2, equivalent to 6.7% of the Upper Rhone Basin). This inventory was used as training and testing data for the classification of sediment and bedrock cover. From a digital elevation model (2 × 2 m ground resolution) and Landsat imagery we derived 22 parameters characterizing local morphometry, topography and position, contributing area, and climatic and biotic factors on different spatial scales, which were used as inputs for different statistical models (logistic regression, principal component logistic regression, generalized additive model). Best prediction results with an excellent performance (mean AUROC: 0.8721 ± 0.0012) and both a high spatial and non-spatial transferability were achieved applying a generalized additive model. Since the model has a high thematic consistency, the independent input variables chosen based on their geomorphic relevance are suitable to model the spatial distribution of sediment. Our high-resolution classification shows that 53.5 ± 21.7% of the Upper Rhone Basin are covered with sediment. These are by no means evenly distributed: small headwaters (analysis.

  12. Tectonic Mechanism for the Mid-Cretaceous - Early Paleogene Intraplate Magmatism from the Gulf of Mexico to Northwestern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Murphy, M. A.; Snow, J. E.; van Wijk, J.; Cannon, J. M.; Parsons, C.

    2017-12-01

    Tectonic mechanisms have remained controversial for a number of intraplate igneous suites of mid-Cretaceous - early Paleogene age across North America. They span the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM), through Arkansas and Kansas in the US, to Saskatchewan and Northwestern Territories in Canada, resembling a belt that is located 1000+ km inboard from, and aligned sub-parallel to, the western margin of North America. The northern GoM magmatism is characterized by lamproites, carbonatites, nephelinites, with other alkaline rocks, whereas the rest igneous provinces are dominated by kimberlites. Their geochemical signatures, in general, point to a sub-lithospheric mantle origin. Hypotheses that explain the tectonic origin of these magmatic rocks include: (1) hotspots and mantle plumes, (2) edge-driven convection, (3) lithospheric reactivation, and (4) low-angle subduction. Evaluation based on our integration of published geological and geophysical data shows that contradictions exist in each model between observations and predictions. To explain this plate-scale phenomenon, we propose that the Farallon slab may have stagnated within or around the mantle transition zone during the Early Cretaceous, with its leading edge reaching ca. 1600 km inland beneath the North American plate. Dehydration and decarbonation of the slab produces sporadic, dense, low-degree partial melts at the mantle transition zone depths. As the slab descends into the lower mantle, Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are induced at slab edges, causing passive upwelling that brings alkali-rich carbonate silicate melts to the base of the overriding plate. Subsequently, the North American lithosphere with varying thicknesses, discontinuities, and compositions interacts with the rising partial melts, generating a spectrum of igneous rocks. Fragments of the once-stagnated slab may still be detectable in the lower mantle beneath eastern US in seismic tomography models. This study highlights a profound plate

  13. Short- and Long-Term Dynamics of Gas Hydrate at GC600: A Gulf of Mexico Hydrocarbon Seep

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Johansen, C.; Silva, M.; Daneshgar, S.; Garcia-Pineda, O. G.; Shedd, W. W.

    2014-12-01

    The GC600 hydrocarbon seep is located at 1200 m in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Satellite data show it to be one of the most prolific sources of natural oil slicks in the entire GOM. We mapped its seafloor oil and gas vents with 3-D seismic, swath-bathymetry acoustics and submersible observations, documenting gas hydrate deposits, brine pools, benthic fauna, and authigenic carbonates. Geophysical profiles show subbottom locations of salt bodies and migration conduits. We deployed time-lapse imaging systems focused on individual vents to quantify release rates. Oil and gas flow upward along the flanks of an allochthonous salt body from source rocks at 10,000 m and migrate to the seafloor from faults emanating from the salt. Venting to the water column and surface consists of oily bubbles and occurs in two fields separated by ~1 km. The NW vent field (Megaplume) appears to be a more recent expression and hosts about three highly active vents; while the SE vent field (Birthday Candles) hosts more than 10 vents that are generally slower. We measured discharge rates of 2.6 cm3 s-1 and Megaplume and 0.09 cm3 s-1 at Birthday Candles. Although surface deposits of gas hydrate were evident at both vent fields, the Birthday Candles area featured dozens of conical mounds formed by gas hydrate that were dark brown due to large amounts of liquid oil perfused throughout the deposits. Large brine pools indicated gas hydrate formation at the seafloor. Venting occurred in horizontal fissures on the mounds, in which oil and hydrate combined to form short-lived chimneys and balloon-like structures. Ice worms (Hesiocaeca methanicola) were extremely abundant in burrows extending from the sediment into the gas hydrate. Proceeding farther to the SE, venting is reduced and absent, but surface carbonate deposits suggest relict gas hydrate mounds. We propose that the NW to SE trend at GC600 encompasses the progressive development of a biogeochemical filter that sequesters and

  14. Mexico: Imports or exports?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, J.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of Mexico's energy sector. Proven oil reserves place Mexico in ninth position in the world and fourth largest in natural gas reserves. Energy is one of the most important economic activities of the country, representing 3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Oil exports represent 8.4 per cent of total exports. Approximately 40 per cent of total public investment is earmarked for energy projects. The author discusses energy resources and energy sector limitations. The energy sector plan for the period 2001-2006 is discussed. Its goals are to ensure energy supply, to develop the energy sector, to stimulate participation of Mexican enterprises, to promote renewable energy sources, and to strengthen international energy cooperation. The regulatory framework is being adapted to increase private investment. Some graphs are presented, displaying the primary energy production and primary energy consumption. Energy sector reforms are reviewed, as are electricity and natural gas reforms. The energy sector demand for 2000-2010 and investment requirements are reviewed, as well as fuel consumption for power generation. The author discusses the National Pipeline System (SNG) and the bottlenecks caused by pressure efficiency in the northeast, flow restriction on several pipeline segments, variability of the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) own use, and pressure drop on central regions. The entire prospect for natural gas in the country is reviewed, along with the Strategic Gas Program (PEG) consisting of 20 projects, including 4 non-associated natural gas, 9 exploration and 7 optimization. A section dealing with multiple service contracts is included in the presentation. The authors conclude by stating that the priority is a national energy policy to address Mexico's energy security requirements, to increase natural gas production while promoting the diversification of imports, and a regulatory framework to be updated in light of current

  15. An iridium abundance anomaly at the palynological Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, C.J.; Gilmore, J.S.; Knight, J.D.; Pillmore, C.L.; Tschudy, R.H.; Fassett, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    An iridium abundance anomaly, with concentrations up to 5000 parts per trillion over a background level of 4 to 20 parts per trillion, has been located in sedimentary rocks laid down under freshwater swamp conditions in the Raton Basin of northeastern New Mexico. The anomaly occurs at the base of a coal bed, at the same stratigraphic position at which several well-known species of Cretaceous-age pollen became extinct. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  16. 21 CFR 808.81 - New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false New Mexico. 808.81 Section 808.81 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.81 New Mexico. The following New Mexico medical device requirement is... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: New Mexico Statutes Annotated, section 67-36-16(F...

  17. Arizona/New Mexico Mountains Ecoregion: Chapter 10 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlman, Jana; Gass, Leila; Middleton, Barry

    2012-01-01

    As the name suggests, the Arizona/New Mexico Mountains Ecoregion includes much of the mountainous regions of these two states, plus a very small part in the Guadalupe Mountains of northwestern Texas. Several isolated areas of higher terrain in Arizona and New Mexico are also included in the ecoregion, which occupies approximately 108,432 km2 (41,866 mi2) (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). The ecoregion is bounded on the south by the Sonoran Basin and Range, Madrean Archipelago, and Chihuahuan Deserts Ecoregions; to the north, the ecoregion is both bounded and surrounded by the Arizona/New Mexico Plateau Ecoregion (fig. 1). The ecoregion encompasses the largest contiguous ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest in the United States (Strom and Fulé, 2007), which stretches from Williams, Arizona, along the Mogollon Rim, Arizona, into southwestern New Mexico, north and west of Silver City, New Mexico.

  18. Designing a water leasing market for the Mimbres River, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno-Trujillo, Marissa Devan; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Broadbent, Craig; Brookshire, David; Coursey, Don; Jackson, Charles.; Polley, Adam; Stevenson, Bryan

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a conceptual framework for establishing water leasing markets in New Mexico using the Mimbres River as a test case. Given the past and growing stress over water in New Mexico and the Mimbres River in particular, this work will develop a mechanism for the short term, efficient, temporary transfer of water from one user to another while avoiding adverse effects on any user not directly involved in the transaction (i.e., third party effects). Toward establishing a water leasing market, five basic tasks were performed, (1) a series of stakeholder meetings were conducted to identify and address concerns and interests of basin residents, (2) several gauges were installed on irrigation ditches to aid in the monitoring and management of water resources in the basin, (3) the hydrologic/market model and decision support interface was extended to include the Middle and Lower reaches of the Mimbres River, (4) experiments were conducted to aid in design of the water leasing market, and (5) a set of rules governing a water leasing market was drafted for future adoption by basin residents and the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer.

  19. Mexico Wind Resource Assessment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.N.; Elliott, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    A preliminary wind energy resource assessment of Mexico that produced wind resource maps for both utility-scale and rural applications was undertaken as part of the Mexico-U.S. Renewable Energy Cooperation Program. This activity has provided valuable information needed to facilitate the commercialization of small wind turbines and windfarms in Mexico and to lay the groundwork for subsequent wind resource activities. A surface meteorological data set of hourly data in digital form was utilized to prepare a more detailed and accurate wind resource assessment of Mexico than otherwise would have been possible. Software was developed to perform the first ever detailed analysis of the wind characteristics data for over 150 stations in Mexico. The hourly data set was augmented with information from weather balloons (upper-air data), ship wind data from coastal areas, and summarized wind data from sources in Mexico. The various data were carefully evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. The preliminary assessment has identified many areas of good-to-excellent wind resource potential and shows that the wind resource in Mexico is considerably greater than shown in previous surveys.

  20. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Albuquerque Quadrangle, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.W.

    1982-09-01

    Areas and formations within the Albuquerque 1 0 x 2 0 Quadrangle, New Mexico designated as favorable, in order of decreasing relative favorability, include: (1) the Westwater Canyon and Brushy Basin Members of the Morrison Formation; (2) the Todilto Limestone of Late Jurassic age; (3) the Dakota Sandstone of Early and Late Cretaceous age; (4) the Ojo Alamo Sandstone of Tertiary age on the eastern side of the San Juan Basin; (5) the Galisteo Formation of Tertiary age within the Hagan Basin, in the eastern part of the Albuquerque Quadrangle; and (6) the Menefee Formation of Late Cretaceous age in the eastern part of the San Juan Basin. Favorability of the Westwater Canyon and Brushy Basin is based on the presence of favorable facies and sandstone-to-shale ratios, the presence of large masses of detrital and humic organic matter in sandstone host rocks, low to moderate dip of host beds, high radioactivity of outcropping rocks, numerous uranium occurrences, and the presence of large subsurface uranium deposits. The Todilto Limestone is considered favorable because of the presence of numerous medium to small uranium deposits in association with intraformational folds and with detrital and humic organic matter. The Dakota Sandstone is considered favorable only in areas within the Grants mineral belt where Tertiary faulting has allowed movement of uranium-bearing groundwater from the underlying Morrison Formation into organic-rich sandstone in the basal part of the Dakota. The Menefee Formation is locally favorable in the area of La Ventana Mesa where the control for known uranium deposits is both structural and stratigraphic. The Ojo Alamo Sandstone and the Galisteo Formations are considered favorable because of favorable facies, the presence of organic matter and pyrite; and low- to medium-grade mineral occurrences

  1. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Aztec quadrangle, New Mexico and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.W.

    1982-09-01

    Areas and formations within the Aztec 1 0 x 2 0 Quadrangle, New Mexico and Colorado considered favorable for uranium endowment of specified minimum grade and tonnage include, in decreasing order of favorability: (1) the Early Cretaceous Burro Canyon Formation in the southeastern part of the Chama Basin; (2) the Tertiary Ojo Alamo Sandstone in the east-central part of the San Juan Basin; and (3) the Jurassic Westwater Canyon and Brushy Basin Members of the Morrison Formation in the southwestern part of the quadrangle. Favorability of the Burro Canyon is based on the presence of favorable host-rock facies, carbonaceous material and pyrite to act as a reductant for uranium, and the presence of mineralized ground in the subsurface of the Chama Basin. The Ojo Alamo Sandstone is considered favorable because of favorable host-rock facies, the presence of carbonaceous material and pyrite to act as a reductant for uranium, and the presence of a relatively large subsurface area in which low-grade mineralization has been encountered in exploration activity. The Morrison Formation, located within the San Juan Basin adjacent to the northern edge of the Grants mineral belt, is considered favorable because of mineralization in several drill holes at depths near 1500 m (5000 ft) and because of favorable facies relationships extending into the Aztec Quadrangle from the Grants mineral belt which lies in the adjacent Albuquerque and Gallup Quadrangles. Formations considered unfavorable for uranium deposits of specified tonnage and grade include the remainder of sedimentary and igneous formations ranging from Precambrian to Quaternary in age. Included under the unfavorable category are the Cutler Formation of Permian age, and Dakota Sa