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Sample records for mexican typhus virus

  1. Typhus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Headache Joint and muscle pain Nausea and vomiting Symptoms of epidemic typhus may include: High fever, chills Confusion, decreased alertness, delirium Cough Severe muscle and joint pain Lights that ...

  2. Typhus in Mexico City during the epoch of the Mexican Revolution, 1913-1916

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    América Molina del Villar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the impact of the 1915-1916 typhus epidemic in Mexico City, examining its origin and propagation and placing the epidemic in the context of the great social and political vulnerability that originated with the fall of Victoriano Huerta and the capture of the city by a variety of revolutionary forces. The article focuses on the demographic impact of the epidemic, connecting its repercussions with the unhealthy conditions then prevailing in the country's capital, which could largely be attributed to poverty and the interruption of many sanitary measures due to budgetary shortfalls, armed conflict and changes of government. The article draws on sources of information from the historical archives of the Health Secretariat and the Mexico City government, as well as contemporary press reports and the bulletins issued by the Superior Health Council. This article aims to contribute to the historiography of the period from the perspective of social and demographic history.

  3. High-resolution computed tomography findings of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection: comparison with scrub typhus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Bang Sil; Lee, In Jae; Lee, Kwanseop; Im, Hyoung June

    2012-01-01

    Background. Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and scrub typhus, also known as tsutsugamushi disease can manifest as acute respiratory illnesses, particularly during the late fall or early winter, with similar radiographic findings, such as a predominance of ground-glass opacity (GGO). Purpose. To differentiate S-OIV infection from scrub typhus using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Material and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings of 14 patients with S-OIV infection and 10 patients with scrub typhus. We assessed the location, cross-sectional distribution, and the presence of a peribronchovascular distribution of GGO and consolidations on HRCT. We also assessed the presence of interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pleural effusion, and mediastinal or axillary lymph node enlargement. Results. Scrub typhus was more common than S-OIV in elderly patients (P < 0.001). The monthly incidences of S-OIV and scrub typhus infection reached a peak between October and November. About 86% of S-OIV patients and 80% of scrub typhus patients presented with GGO. About 67% of the GGO lesions in S-OIV had a peribronchovascular distribution, but this was absent in scrub typhus (P = 0.005). Consolidation (93% vs. 10%, P < 0.001) and bronchial wall thickening (43% vs. 0%, P = 0.024) were more frequent in S-OIV infection than scrub typhus. Interlobular septal thickening (90% vs. 36%, P = 0.013) and axillary lymphadenopathy (90% vs. 0%, P < 0.001) were more common in scrub typhus than S-OIV infection. Conclusion. There was considerable overlap in HRCT findings between S-OIV infection and scrub typhus. However, S-OIV showed a distinctive peribronchovascular distribution of GGO lesions. Consolidation and bronchial wall thickening were seen more frequently in S-OIV infection, whereas interlobular septal thickening and axillary lymphadenopathy were more common in scrub typhus. Thus, CT could

  4. High-resolution computed tomography findings of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection: comparison with scrub typhus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Bang Sil; Lee, In Jae; Lee, Kwanseop [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ijlee2003@medimail.co.kr; Im, Hyoung June [Dept. of Occupational Medicine, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Background. Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and scrub typhus, also known as tsutsugamushi disease can manifest as acute respiratory illnesses, particularly during the late fall or early winter, with similar radiographic findings, such as a predominance of ground-glass opacity (GGO). Purpose. To differentiate S-OIV infection from scrub typhus using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Material and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings of 14 patients with S-OIV infection and 10 patients with scrub typhus. We assessed the location, cross-sectional distribution, and the presence of a peribronchovascular distribution of GGO and consolidations on HRCT. We also assessed the presence of interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pleural effusion, and mediastinal or axillary lymph node enlargement. Results. Scrub typhus was more common than S-OIV in elderly patients (P < 0.001). The monthly incidences of S-OIV and scrub typhus infection reached a peak between October and November. About 86% of S-OIV patients and 80% of scrub typhus patients presented with GGO. About 67% of the GGO lesions in S-OIV had a peribronchovascular distribution, but this was absent in scrub typhus (P = 0.005). Consolidation (93% vs. 10%, P < 0.001) and bronchial wall thickening (43% vs. 0%, P = 0.024) were more frequent in S-OIV infection than scrub typhus. Interlobular septal thickening (90% vs. 36%, P = 0.013) and axillary lymphadenopathy (90% vs. 0%, P < 0.001) were more common in scrub typhus than S-OIV infection. Conclusion. There was considerable overlap in HRCT findings between S-OIV infection and scrub typhus. However, S-OIV showed a distinctive peribronchovascular distribution of GGO lesions. Consolidation and bronchial wall thickening were seen more frequently in S-OIV infection, whereas interlobular septal thickening and axillary lymphadenopathy were more common in scrub typhus. Thus, CT could

  5. Discrimination of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) strains using Mexican ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two strains of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were studied for six years in Yaounde in the forest zone of Cameroon. These strains, SNCL2 and SNCL4, were characterized on Lisbon lemon in Nyombe in the littoral zone of Cameroon. They were inoculated onto combinations of Mexican lime/citrange Troyer. The virulent strain ...

  6. A comparative hospital-based observational study of mono- and co-infections of malaria, dengue virus and scrub typhus causing acute undifferentiated fever.

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    Ahmad, S; Dhar, M; Mittal, G; Bhat, N K; Shirazi, N; Kalra, V; Sati, H C; Gupta, V

    2016-04-01

    Positive serology for dengue and/or scrub typhus infection with/without positive malarial smear (designated as mixed or co-infection) is being increasingly observed during epidemics of acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses (AUFIs). We planned to study the clinical and biochemical spectrum of co-infections with Plasmodium sp., dengue virus and scrub typhus and compare these with mono-infection by the same organisms. During the period from December 2012 to December 2013, all cases presenting with AUFIs to a single medical unit of a referral centre in Garhwal region of the north Indian state of Uttarakhand were retrospectively selected and categorised aetiologically as co-infections, malaria, dengue or scrub typhus. The groups thus created were compared in terms of demographic, clinical, biochemical and outcome parameters. The co-infection group (n = 49) was associated with milder clinical manifestations, fewer, milder and non-progressive organ dysfunction, and lesser need for intensive care, mechanical ventilation and dialysis as compared to mono-infections. When co-infections were sub-grouped and compared with the relevant mono-infections, there were differences in certain haematological and biochemical parameters; however, this difference did not translate into differential outcomes. Scrub typhus mono-infection was associated with severe disease in terms of both morbidity and mortality. Malaria, dengue and scrub typhus should be routinely tested in all patients with AUFIs. Co-infections, whether true or due to serological cross-reactivity, appear to be a separate entity so far as presentation and morbidity is concerned. Further insight is needed into the mechanism and identification of the protective infection.

  7. Scrub typhus

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    Amy G Rapsang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by orientia tsutsugamushi, transmitted to humans by the bite of the larva of trombiculid mites. It causes a disseminated vasculitic and perivascular inflammatory lesions resulting in significant vascular leakage and end-organ injury. It affects people of all ages and even though scrub typhus in pregnancy is uncommon, it is associated with increased foetal loss, preterm delivery, and small for gestational age infants. After an incubation period of 6-21 days, onset is characterized by fever, headache, myalgia, cough, and gastrointestinal symptoms. A primary papular lesion which later crusts to form a flat black eschar, may be present. If untreated, serious complications may occur involving various organs. Laboratory studies usually reveal leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, deranged hepatic and renal function, proteinuria and reticulonodular infiltrate. Owing to the potential for severe complications, diagnosis, and decision to initiate treatment should be based on clinical suspicion and confirmed by serologic tests. A therapeutic trial of tetracycline or chloramphenicol is indicated in patients in whom the diagnosis of scrub typhus is suspected. The recommended treatment regimen for scrub typhus is doxycycline. Alternative regimens include tetracycline, chloramphenicol, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin, and roxithromycin. Treatment of pregnant women with azithromycin was successfully done without relapse and with favorable pregnancy outcomes. Hence, early diagnosis and treatment are essential in order to reduce the mortality and the complications associated with the disease. We searched the English-language literature for reports of scrub typhus in children, pregnant women, and non-pregnant patients with scrub typhus, using the MEDLINE/PubMed database, which includes citations from 1945 to the present time. We used the search terms ′scrub typhus′, ′scrub typhus′ and ′pregnancy′,

  8. Epidemic typhus.

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    Bechah, Yassina; Capo, Christian; Mege, Jean-Louis; Raoult, Didier

    2008-07-01

    Epidemic typhus is transmitted to human beings by the body louse Pediculus humanus corporis. The disease is still considered a major threat by public-health authorities, despite the efficacy of antibiotics, because poor sanitary conditions are conducive to louse proliferation. Until recently, Rickettsia prowazekii, the causal agent, was thought to be confined to human beings and their body lice. Since 1975, R prowazekii infection in human beings has been related to contact with the flying squirrel Glaucomys volans in the USA. Moreover, Brill-Zinsser disease, a relapsed form of epidemic typhus that appears as sporadic cases many years after the initial infection, is unrelated to louse infestation. Stress or a waning immune system are likely to reactivate this earlier persistent infection, which could be the source of new epidemics when conditions facilitate louse infestation. Finally, R prowazekii is a potential category B bioterrorism agent, because it is stable in dried louse faeces and can be transmitted through aerosols. An increased understanding of the pathogenesis of epidemic typhus may be useful for protection against this bacterial threat.

  9. Cytokine Signatures Discriminate Highly Frequent Acute Hepatitis a Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Coinfections from Monoinfections in Mexican Pediatric Patients.

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    Realpe-Quintero, Mauricio; Copado-Villagrana, Edgar Daniel; Trujillo-Ochoa, Jorge Luis; Alvarez, Angel Hilario; Panduro, Arturo; Fierro, Nora Alma

    2017-07-01

    The frequency of hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus infections and their cytokine profiles were analyzed in Mexican pediatric patients with acute hepatitis. A high frequency of coinfections was found. Significant overexpression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, IL-13 and interferon-gamma during hepatitis A virus monoinfections and limited secretion of cytokines in hepatitis E virus infections were observed.

  10. Opsoclonus in scrub typhus

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    S D'sa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a mite borne infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. It is a common cause of undifferentiated febrile illness in the Indian subcontinent. We present a case of scrub typhus with a rare ophthalmic manifestation.Our patient presented with fever and opsoclonus, was diagnosed to have scrub typhus and completely improved upon treatment. Opsoclonus complicates various medical diseases, including viral infections, toxin, encephalitis, brain tumors, and paraneoplastic syndromes. There has been only one previously reported case of opsoclonus in scrub typhus. This phenomenon highlights the increasingly complex presentation of common diseases. It also indicates there is much to be discovered about the immunopathogenesis of this infectious disease.

  11. Diagnosis of Scrub Typhus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koh, Gavin C. K. W.; Maude, Richard J.; Paris, Daniel H.; Newton, Paul N.; Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2010-01-01

    Scrub typhus is transmitted by trombiculid mites and is endemic to East and Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. The clinical syndrome classically consists of a fever, rash, and eschar, but scrub typhus also commonly presents as an undifferentiated fever that requires laboratory confirmation of

  12. Typhus in Texas

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Kristy Murray, an associate professor in pediatrics and assistant dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, discusses increased cases of typhus in southern Texas.

  13. No association between Epstein-Barr Virus and Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus with Breast Cancer in Mexican Women

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    Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Molina-Muñoz, Tzindilú; Martínez-López, Juan L. E.; Hernández-Sancén, Paulina; Mantilla, Alejandra; Leal, Yelda A.; Torres, Javier; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy affecting women worldwide. It has been suggested that infection by Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus or a similar virus, MMTV-like virus (MMTV-LV), play a role in the etiology of the disease. However, studies looking at the presence of these viruses in breast cancer have produced conflicting results, and this possible association remains controversial. Here, we used polymerase chain reaction assay to screen specific sequences of EBV and MMTV-LV in 86 tumor and 65 adjacent tissues from Mexican women with breast cancer. Neither tumor samples nor adjacent tissue were positive for either virus in a first round PCR and only 4 tumor samples were EBV positive by a more sensitive nested PCR. Considering the study's statistical power, these results do not support the involvement of EBV and MMTV-LV in the etiology of breast cancer.

  14. Association of Drought with Typhus Epidemics in Central Mexico

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    Acuna-Soto, R.; Stahle, D.; Villanueva Diaz, J.; Therrell, M.

    2007-05-01

    Typhus is an acute infectious disease caused by the bacteria Rickettsia prowazekii, which is transmitted among humans by the body lice (Pediculus humanus corporis). The disease is highly contagious and transmission is favored in populations living in crowded conditions. Under these circumstances, typhus transmission is facilitated by factors that favor the colonization and proliferation of body lice such as absence of personal hygiene and wearing the same clothes for long periods of time. Historically, periods of war and famine were associated with devastating epidemics with high mortality rates in many parts of the world. Central Mexico has a long record of typhus epidemics. In this region, at > 2000 meters above sea level, the disease was endemic and occurred with a seasonal pattern in winter, with occasional large epidemics. Recently, we completed a chronology of epidemics in Mexico. A total of 22 well-defined major typhus epidemics were identified between 1650 and 1920. All of them caused periods of increased mortality that lasted 2 - 4 years (more than one standard deviation from the previous ten year period). The record of typhus epidemics was evaluated against the tree-ring record of Cuauhtmoc La Fragua, Puebla. This chronology, based on Douglas fir, has demonstrated to be a faithful record of precipitation in central Mexico. The results indicate that a statistically significant drought (t test, p first year of all 22 large outbreaks of typhus in recent Mexican history. No distinction is made between times of peace and war. This indicates that drought alone was capable of inducing the social conditions for increased transmission of typhus in pre-industrial central Mexico.

  15. Pancreatitis in scrub typhus

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    Alok Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a rickettsial infection prevalent in most parts of India. Acute pancreatitis with pseudocyst formation is a rare complication of this condition. This paper reports acute renal failure, pancreatitis and pseudocyst formation in a 48-year-old female with scrub typhus. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed a bulky pancreas with fluid seen along the body of the pancreas in the lesser sac. The infection was successfully treated with doxycycline and supportive treatment. Pancreatitis was managed conservatively. This case report highlights the importance of identifying and managing uncommon complications of a common tropical disease for optimum outcome.

  16. Scrub Typhus, Republic of Palau

    OpenAIRE

    Demma, Linda J.; McQuiston, Jennifer H.; Nicholson, William L.; Murphy, Staci M.; Marumoto, Pearl; Sengebau-Kingzio, J. Maireng; Kuartei, Stevenson; Durand, A. Mark; Swerdlow, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is a severe febrile illness transmitted to humans by trombiculid mites, which normally feed on rodents. The first known outbreak of scrub typhus in Palau occurred in 2001 to 2003 among residents of the remote southwest islands. To determine the extent of scrub typhus distribution in Palau, we tested serum samples from humans and rodents for antibodies to O. tsutsugamushi. Of 212 Palau residents surveyed in 2003, 101 (47.6%) had immunoglobulin G ...

  17. Genotyping of feline leukemia virus in Mexican housecats.

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    Ramírez, Hugo; Autran, Marcela; García, M Martha; Carmona, M Ángel; Rodríguez, Cecilia; Martínez, H Alejandro

    2016-04-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a retrovirus with variable rates of infection globally. DNA was obtained from cats' peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and proviral DNA of pol and env genes was detected using PCR. Seventy-six percent of cats scored positive for FeLV using env-PCR; and 54 %, by pol-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of both regions identified sequences that correspond to a group that includes endogenous retroviruses. They form an independent branch and, therefore, a new group of endogenous viruses. Cat gender, age, outdoor access, and cohabitation with other cats were found to be significant risk factors associated with the disease. This strongly suggests that these FeLV genotypes are widely distributed in the studied feline population in Mexico.

  18. Diagnosis of scrub typhus.

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    Janardhanan, Jeshina; Trowbridge, Paul; Varghese, George M

    2014-12-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness that, if untreated, can result in considerable morbidity and mortality. One of the primary reasons for delays in the treatment of this potentially fatal infection is the difficulty in diagnosing the condition. Diagnosis is often complicated because of the combination of non-specific symptoms that overlap with other infections commonly found in endemic areas and the poor available diagnostics. In the majority of the endemic settings, diagnosis still relies on the Weil-Felix test, which is neither sensitive nor specific. Other methods of testing have become available, but at this time, these remain insufficient to provide the rapid point-of-care diagnostics that would be necessary to significantly change the management of this infection by providers in endemic areas. This article reviews the currently available diagnostic tools for scrub typhus and their utility in the clinical setting.

  19. Typhus in Texas

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-06

    Dr. Kristy Murray, an associate professor in pediatrics and assistant dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children’s Hospital, discusses increased cases of typhus in southern Texas.  Created: 7/6/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/6/2017.

  20. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of scrub typhus

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    Sanjay K Mahajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi characterized by focal or disseminated vasculitis and perivasculitis which may involve the lungs, heart, liver, spleen and central nervous system. It was thought to have been eradicated from India. Recently it is being reported from many areas of India. The clinical picture and severity of the symptoms varies widely. The neurological manifestations of scrub typhus are not uncommon but are diverse. Meningoencephalitis is classical manifestation of scrub typhus but cerebellitis, cranial nerve palsies, plexopathy, transverse myelitis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and Guillan-Barré syndrome are other manifestations reported in literature. The availability of literature on the neurological manifestations of scrub typhus is limited to case reports mainly. This article reviews various neurological manifestations of scrub typhus reported in literature.

  1. Status epilepticus in scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Jayantee; Mani, Vinita E; Bhoi, Sanjeev K; Misra, Usha K

    2016-07-01

    Scrub typhus is an emerging infection, and there is little information about status epilepticus (SE) in scrub typhus. We report the clinical spectrum and outcome of SE in scrub typhus. In a 3-year prospective hospital-based observational study, all scrub typhus patients with SE were included. Scrub typhus was diagnosed by immunochromatography assay. SE was defined if convulsions lasted longer than 5 min. The patients' demographic, clinical, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) findings were noted. Response to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and outcome at 1 month and 1 year were recorded. Between 2012 and 2014, there were 66 patients with scrub typhus admitted with central nervous system (CNS) involvement, 10 (15.2%) of whom had SE (generalized convulsions in 5, secondary generalized in one). The median age of the patients was 34 (range 18-71) years and seven were female. The duration of SE ranged between 10 min and 48 h. SE responded to one AED in five patients, two AEDs in three patients, and more than two AEDs in two patients. Cranial MRI findings were normal. All patients recovered completely with doxycycline by 1 month and AED was withdrawn by 8 months in all. Although 15% patients with scrub typhus may have SE, they have good outcome. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. [Knowledge of human papilloma virus (HPV) and acceptance of vaginal self-sampling among Mexican woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Márquez, Clara I; Salinas-Urbina, Addis A; Cruz-Valdez, Aurelio; Hernández-Girón, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between the level of knowledge about human papilloma virus and the acceptance of vaginal self-sampling as a cervical cancer diagnostic test among Mexican women who have already experienced vaginal self-sampling at home. A structured questionnaire consisting of 22 questions was applied to 690 women in the state of Morelos who had taken a vaginal self-sample at home. The aspects explored were the level of knowledge about transmission of the human papilloma virus, identification of the virus as a necessary cause of cervical cancer, and clinical manifestations of infection and treatment. A knowledge index was constructed, identifying the relationship between the index and the women's acceptance of self-sampling, and their degree of trust in the procedure. The statistical analysis included a logistic regression with estimates of measures of association and their respective 95% confidence intervals. The level of knowledge about human papillomavirus showed a positive association with the degree of acceptance of vaginal self-sampling (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.0-5.01) and the women's level of confidence (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.8-4.67). The level of knowledge increased with level of education and was higher in younger women. In order for women with an increased risk of cervical cancer to continue participating in vaginal self-sampling, they must be well informed about the virus. This is especially true for older women, those with lower levels of education, and those in lower socioeconomic levels.

  3. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of infectious mononucleosis by Epstein-Barr virus in Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Saldaña, Napoleón; Monroy Colín, Victor Antonio; Piña Ruiz, Georgina; Juárez Olguín, Hugo

    2012-07-20

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) or Mononucleosis syndrome is caused by an acute infection of Epstein-Barr virus. In Latin American countries, there are little information pertaining to the clinical manifestations and complications of this disease. For this reason, the purpose of this work was to describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of infection by Epstein-Barr virus in Mexican children with infectious mononucleosis. A descriptive study was carried out by reviewing the clinical files of patients less than 18 years old with clinical and serological diagnosis of IM by Epstein-Barr virus from November, 1970 to July, 2011 in a third level pediatric hospital in Mexico City. One hundred and sixty three cases of IM were found. The most frequent clinical signs were lymphadenopathy (89.5%), fever (79.7%), general body pain (69.3%), pharyngitis (55.2%), hepatomegaly (47.2%). The laboratory findings were lymphocytosis (41.7%), atypic lymphocytes (24.5%), and increased transaminases (30.9%), there were no rupture of the spleen and no deaths among the 163 cases. Our results revealed that IM appeared in earlier ages compared with that reported in industrialized countries, where adolescents are the most affected group. Also, the order and frequency of the clinical manifestations were different in our country than in industrialized ones.

  4. Acute Cholecystitis in Patients with Scrub Typhus

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun; Ji, Misuk; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Ja-Yeon; Lee, Ju-Hyung; Chung, Kyung Min; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2015-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis is a rare complication of scrub typhus. Although a few such cases have been reported in patients with scrub typhus, the clinical course is not well described. Of 12 patients, acute cholecystitis developed in 66.7% (8/12) of patients older than 60 yr. The scrub typhus group with acute cholecystitis had marginal significant longer hospital stay and higher cost than the group without cholecystitis according to propensity score matching. Scrub typhus should be kept in mind as ...

  5. Endemic Scrub Typhus-like Illness, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    We report a case of scrub typhus in a 54-year-old man who was bitten by several terrestrial leeches during a trip to Chiloé Island in southern...vectors for murine typhus (R. typhi) and fl ea-borne spotted fever (R. felis), mites as vectors of rickettsialpox (R. akari), and scrub typhus ...rickettsial disease have been reported in this country since 1976 (3). Scrub typhus , caused by O. tsutsugamushi, which is usually transmitted by

  6. Acute Cholecystitis in Patients with Scrub Typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun; Ji, Misuk; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Ja-Yeon; Lee, Ju-Hyung; Chung, Kyung Min; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2015-11-01

    Acute cholecystitis is a rare complication of scrub typhus. Although a few such cases have been reported in patients with scrub typhus, the clinical course is not well described. Of 12 patients, acute cholecystitis developed in 66.7% (8/12) of patients older than 60 yr. The scrub typhus group with acute cholecystitis had marginal significant longer hospital stay and higher cost than the group without cholecystitis according to propensity score matching. Scrub typhus should be kept in mind as a rare etiology of acute cholecystitis in endemic areas because the typical signs of scrub typhus such as skin rash and eschar can present after the abdominal pain.

  7. HRCT findings of scrub typhus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu Sik; Kang, Sung Soo; Jin, Kong Yong; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Young Min; Kim, Chong Soo; Chung, Gyung Ho; Lee, Sang Yong; Sohn, Myung Hee; Choi, Ki Chul

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of scrub typhus. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT scans of 26 serologically confirmed scrub typhus patients. One underwent follow-up HRCT scanning. Twenty-three(88.5%) of the 26 patients showed abnormal findings. All 23 had lung parenchymal lesions; a small amount of pleural effusion was seen in 11 patients, and lymphadenopathy in six. The predominant parenchymal lesion was thickening of interlobular septae and the axial and intralobular interstitium (n=16). Most lesions were located in both lower lung zones. Other findings were ground-glass attenuation (n=11) and focal parenchymal consolidation (n=8). In one patient, parenchymal lesions were resolved on follow-up HRCT scanning. HRCT findings of interstitial thickening, abnormally increased parenchymal attenuation, pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy with typical clinical symptoms were diagnostic of scrub typhus

  8. HRCT findings of scrub typhus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyu Sik; Kang, Sung Soo; Jin, Kong Yong; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Young Min; Kim, Chong Soo; Chung, Gyung Ho; Lee, Sang Yong; Sohn, Myung Hee; Choi, Ki Chul [Chonbuk National Univ. Medical School, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of scrub typhus. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT scans of 26 serologically confirmed scrub typhus patients. One underwent follow-up HRCT scanning. Twenty-three(88.5%) of the 26 patients showed abnormal findings. All 23 had lung parenchymal lesions; a small amount of pleural effusion was seen in 11 patients, and lymphadenopathy in six. The predominant parenchymal lesion was thickening of interlobular septae and the axial and intralobular interstitium (n=16). Most lesions were located in both lower lung zones. Other findings were ground-glass attenuation (n=11) and focal parenchymal consolidation (n=8). In one patient, parenchymal lesions were resolved on follow-up HRCT scanning. HRCT findings of interstitial thickening, abnormally increased parenchymal attenuation, pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy with typical clinical symptoms were diagnostic of scrub typhus.

  9. Whole genome sequence phylogenetic analysis of four Mexican rabies viruses isolated from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcenas-Reyes, I; Loza-Rubio, E; Cantó-Alarcón, G J; Luna-Cozar, J; Enríquez-Vázquez, A; Barrón-Rodríguez, R J; Milián-Suazo, F

    2017-08-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the rabies virus in molecular epidemiology has been traditionally performed on partial sequences of the genome, such as the N, G, and P genes; however, that approach raises concerns about the discriminatory power compared to whole genome sequencing. In this study we characterized four strains of the rabies virus isolated from cattle in Querétaro, Mexico by comparing the whole genome sequence to that of strains from the American, European and Asian continents. Four cattle brain samples positive to rabies and characterized as AgV11, genotype 1, were used in the study. A cDNA sequence was generated by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) using oligo dT. cDNA samples were sequenced in an Illumina NextSeq 500 platform. The phylogenetic analysis was performed with MEGA 6.0. Minimum evolution phylogenetic trees were constructed with the Neighbor-Joining method and bootstrapped with 1000 replicates. Three large and seven small clusters were formed with the 26 sequences used. The largest cluster grouped strains from different species in South America: Brazil, and the French Guyana. The second cluster grouped five strains from Mexico. A Mexican strain reported in a different study was highly related to our four strains, suggesting common source of infection. The phylogenetic analysis shows that the type of host is different for the different regions in the American Continent; rabies is more related to bats. It was concluded that the rabies virus in central Mexico is genetically stable and that it is transmitted by the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Scrub typhus: Clinical spectrum and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkategowda, Pradeep M; Rao, S Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P; Rao, Mallela V; Taggu, Alai N

    2015-04-01

    Scrub typhus is one of the differential diagnoses for fever with thrombocytopenia. ARDS associated with Scrub typhus has high morbidity and mortality. To evaluate clinical features, lab values, and outcome in patients with scrub typhus and comparison in patients with or without ARDS. A prospective observational study was conducted on 109 patients with febrile illness and thrombocytopenia during a period of 12 months. All 109 patients were tested with both Immune-chromatography test and Weil felix test. Patients having either Immune-chromatography test/Weil felix test positive have been included and considered as scrub typhus positive whereas negative for both Immune-chromatography and Weil felix test were excluded. Clinical features, lab parameters, and outcome were evaluated in all patients with scrub typhus. Statistical analysis used in this study was T-test. Among 58 patients who were included (After exclusion of 51 patients among total of 109 patients) 34 patients had no ARDS and 24 patients had ARDS. The clinical feature like dyspnoea, cough, low blood pressure (MAPscrub typhus patients group with ARDS. The higher titers of Weil-felix can be correlated with more severe form of disease according to our observation. All 34 Scrub typhus patients without ARDS recovered completely. Among 24 Scrub typhus patients with ARDS, 22 patients recovered, and 2 patients died. Scrub typhus is an important differential diagnosis in a patients having fever with thrombocytopenia. Scrub typhus associated with ARDS has high morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment with doxycycline can prevent the occurrence of ARDS.

  11. Peritonitis in Patients with Scrub Typhus

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Yoon, Ki Jung; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2012-01-01

    Various complications have been reported in scrub typhus cases including acute respiratory distress syndrome, encephalitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, acute renal failure, and acute hepatic failure. Few studies have reported on the gastrointestinal manifestations of scrub typhus. Typical gastrointestinal manifestations in patients with scrub typhus include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, hematemesis, melena, and diarrhea. The two cases presented in this study are the first reported cases of p...

  12. Typhus, yellow fever and Medicine in Mexico during the French intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardo-Ramírez, Monserrat; Zavaleta-Castro, Jesús; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique

    2018-01-01

    French intervention in Mexico (1861-1867) is particularly full of episodes of patriotic heroism in terms of military, politic and, even, religious affairs, however this history is also rich in episodes related to diseases and the evolution of Mexican scientific medicine practice, epidemics such as typhus (nowadays knows as rickettsiosis), yellow fever, or cholera. Principally, this context outlined the Mexican history and influenced the course of the nation. The epidemics served as fertile land for the development of medicine science leading by prominent physicians, particularly by doctor Miguel Francisco Jiménez. Copyright: © 2018 SecretarÍa de Salud.

  13. Acute pancreatitis associated with scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sv, Padmavathi Devi; M, Aruna; Kumar, Anil Cv; Krishna Reddy, Hari; Bl, Sangeetha; Siva Kumar, V

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus, or tsutsugamushi fever, is a zoonosis of rural Asia and the western Pacific islands. The causative organism, Orientia (formerly Rickettsia) tsutsugamushi, is transmitted to humans by the bite of a larval Leptotrombidium mite (chigger). Scrub typhus may have gastrointestinal presentations, such as acute acalculous cholecystitis, duodenal ulcer perforation, peritonitis and gastric ulceration. Acute pancreatitis with scrub typhus has been reported rarely. We report a patient of scrub typhus complicated by acute pancreatitis and acute kidney injury. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Clinical manifestations of scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Weeratunga, Praveen; Sivayoganathan, Sriharan; Fernando, Sumadhya Deepika

    2017-02-01

    The mite-borne rickettsial zoonosis scrub typhus is widely prevalent in parts of Southeast and Far East Asia, and northern Australia. The disease is an acute febrile illness, associated with rash and often an eschar, which responds dramatically to treatment with antibiotics. In some cases it results in a serious illness leading to multiple organ involvement and death. The disease manifestations are thought to result from a systemic vasculitis, caused by both direct effects of the organisms as well as an exaggerated immune response, although little is understood about its pathogenesis. A wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, affecting nearly every organ system, have been described with scrub typhus. Some of these manifestations are serious and life threatening. In this systematic review, we summarise the typical and atypical manifestations of scrub typhus reported in the literature. Awareness of these unusual manifestations will hopefully guide clinicians towards diagnosing the condition early, and initiating early appropriate antibiotics and other supportive measures. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Scrub Typhus: An Emerging Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sayantani; Sarma, Nilendu

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (formerly Rickettsia) and is transmitted to humans by an arthropod vector of the Trombiculidae family (Leptotrombidium deliense and L. akamushi). It is the most common re-emerging Rickettsial infection in India and many other South East Asian countries. In fact, scrub typhus is confined geographically to the Asia Pacific region, a billion people are at risk and nearly a million cases are reported every year. Scrub typhus appears particularly to be distributed in the tsutsugamushi triangle which is distributed over a very wide area of 13 million km2 bound by Japan in the east, through China, the Philippines, tropical Australia in the south, and west through India, Pakistan, possibly to Tibet to Afghanistan, and southern parts of the USSR in the north. Eschar is the characteristic lesion that starts as a vesicular lesion at the site of mite feeding. Later, an ulcer forms with black necrotic center and an erythematous border along with regional lymphadenopathy. Other features are fever, maculopapular rash starting from the trunk, and spreading to the limbs. It may affect the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, renal, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems. Serious complication in the form of myocarditis, pneumonia, meningoencephalitis, acute renal failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, and even acute respiratory distress syndrome may develop. Tetracycline or chloramphenicol remains the main stay of therapy. PMID:28979009

  16. Imported rickettsioses : think of murine typhus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kleij, FGH; Gansevoort, RT; Kreeftenberg, HG

    Murine typhus is a disease still prevalent in many parts of the world. Because the incidence in the US and Europe has declined rapidly, physicians in these continents have become unfamiliar with the clinical picture. Murine typhus is associated with significant morbidity and fatalities do occur,

  17. Lysis of typhus-group rickettsia-infected targets by lymphokine activated killers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, M.; Dasch, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors recently described a subset of OKT8, OKT3-positive lymphocytes from typhus-group rickettsia immune individuals which were capable of lysing autologous PHA-blasts or Epstein-Barr virus transformed B cells (LCL) infected with typhus-group rickettsiae. In order to determine if killing by these effectors was HLA-restricted, they stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from typhus-group rickettsia immune individuals in vitro with typhus-group rickettsia-derived antigen for one week and then measured lysis of autologous LCL or HLA-mismatched LCL in a 4-6 hour Cr 51 -release assay. There was significant lysis of both the autologous and the HLA-mismatched infected targets as compared to the corresponding uninfected targets. Since this suggested that the effectors were lymphokine activated killers (LAK) rather than cytotoxic T lymphocytes, they then tested this hypothesis by stimulating PBMC from both immune and non-immune individuals in vitro for one week with purified interleukin 2 and measuring lysis of infected, autologous LCL. PBMC thus treated, from both immune and non-immune individuals, were capable of significantly lysing autologous, infected LCL as compared to the non-infected control. They therefore conclude that targets infected with typhus-group rickettsiae are susceptible to lysis to LAK

  18. Predictors of Severity in Pediatric Scrub Typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Dinesh Kumar; Arun Babu, Thirunavukkarasu; Vijayadevagaran, Vijayasankar; Kittu, Devi; Ananthakrishnan, Shanthi

    2018-01-24

    To identify the factors that can predict the severity of scrub typhus in children. This prospective study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital between November 2014 to October 2016. All children scrub typhus were included in the study. These children were followed during the hospital course and their laboratory results, response to treatment and complications were documented. Cases of 'severe scrub typhus' were identified based on criteria from published adult and pediatric studies. Out of 930 children with fever for more than 7d, IgM ELISA for scrub typhus was positive in 230 children. Ninety one (40.6%) cases fulfilled the criteria of 'severe scrub typhus' in children. Out of 45 factors, 27 potential factors were studied. The multivariate analysis identified 5 factors, breathlessness (OR: 6.85, 95%CI: 2.69 to 9.87), altered sensorium (OR: 11.48, 95% CI 3.43 to 10.19), leucocytosis (OR: 3.38, 95% CI 1.12 to 10.16), hypoalbuminemia (OR: 10.78, 95% CI 2.66 to 48.76), and hyponatremia (OR: 10.08, 95% CI 2.11 to 23.42) to be significantly associated with the 'severe scrub typhus' cases. Breathlessness, altered sensorium, leucocytosis, hypoalbuminemia, and hyponatremia predict severity in childhood scrub typhus. Presence of these factors should alert the treating physician regarding the need for intensive monitoring, treatment or referral.

  19. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Complicated Scrub Typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Sun Kim

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a mite-borne infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi . Although early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic therapy improve the prognosis for the majority of patients, life-threatening complications are not uncommon. Here, we present a case of successful veno-veno-type extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for scrub typhus-induced complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocarditis and multi-organ dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in complicated scrub typhus in Korea.

  20. Scrub typhus: audit of an outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Mani Ram; Vasuki, B; Nagaraju, K

    2015-06-01

    To document the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory profile of all children with scrub typhus at a tertiary care centre in Chennai between September 2010 and June 2011. The case records of all children admitted and diagnosed with scrub typhus between September 2010 and June 2011 were analysed to look for salient clinical and laboratory parameters. During the study period, 52 children were admitted with scrub typhus in the authors' hospital. The presenting complaints included fever in all cases. Other symptoms included swelling of legs (50 %) and vomiting (45 %). 13 % presented with CNS symptoms. The commonest physical findings included eschar (67 %), hepatomegaly (94 %), splenomegaly (73 %) and third spacing (67 %). Salient lab parameters included packed cell volume (PCV) scrub typhus in a tertiary care centre is reported. Eschar and hepatosplenomegaly with a high CRP value is helpful in diagnosis. All patients responded well to the treatment.

  1. Epidemiologic characteristics of scrub typhus on Jeju Island

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung Uk

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Scrub typhus is the most common febrile disease in Korea during the autumn. Jeju Island is the largest island in South Korea and has a distinctive oceanic climate. This study aimed to identify epidemiologic characteristics of scrub typhus on Jeju Island. METHODS From January 2011 to December 2016, 446 patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus on Jeju Island. The patients’ personal data and the environmental factors that might be related to scrub typhus were investigated and retrosp...

  2. Scrub Typhus Outbreak in a Remote Primary School, Bhutan, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshokey, Tshokey; Graves, Stephen; Tshering, Dorji; Phuntsho, Kelzang; Tshering, Karchung; Stenos, John

    2017-08-01

    Scrub typhus in Bhutan was first reported in 2009. We investigated an outbreak of scrub typhus in a remote primary school during August-October 2014. Delay in recognition and treatment resulted in 2 deaths from meningoencephalitis. Scrub typhus warrants urgent public health interventions in Bhutan.

  3. Scrub Typhus Outbreak in a Remote Primary School, Bhutan, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Tshokey, Tshokey; Graves, Stephen; Tshering, Dorji; Phuntsho, Kelzang; Tshering, Karchung; Stenos, John

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus in Bhutan was first reported in 2009. We investigated an outbreak of scrub typhus in a remote primary school during August?October 2014. Delay in recognition and treatment resulted in 2 deaths from meningoencephalitis. Scrub typhus warrants urgent public health interventions in Bhutan.

  4. Sacral Herpes Zoster Associated with Voiding Dysfunction in a Young Patient with Scrub Typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jian

    2015-06-01

    When a patient presents with acute voiding dysfunction without a typical skin rash, it may be difficult to make a diagnosis of herpes zoster. Here, we present a case of scrub typhus in a 25-year-old man with the complication of urinary dysfunction. The patient complained of loss of urinary voiding sensation and constipation. After eight days, he had typical herpes zoster eruptions on the sacral dermatomes and hypalgesia of the S1-S5 dermatomes. No cases of dual infection with varicella zoster virus and Orientia tsutsugamushi were found in the literature. In the described case, scrub typhus probably induced sufficient stress to reactivate the varicella zoster virus. Early recognition of this problem is imperative for prompt and appropriate management, as misdiagnosis can lead to long-term urinary dysfunction. It is important that a diagnosis of herpes zoster be considered, especially in patients with sudden onset urinary retention.

  5. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus and HIV infection among injection drug users in two Mexican cities bordering the U.S

    OpenAIRE

    White, Emily Faye; Garfein, Richard S.; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Lozada, Remedios; Ramos, Rebeca; Firestone-Cruz, Michelle; Pérez, Saida G; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV infection and associated risk behaviors among injection drug users (IDUs) in two northern Mexican cities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between February and April 2005, IDUs were recruited in Tijuana (N=222) and Ciudad Juarez (N=206) using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a chain referral sampling approach. Interviewer-administered questionnaires assessed drug-using behaviors during the prior six months. Venous blood was co...

  6. Clinical proteomic analysis of scrub typhus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Edmond Changkyun; Lee, Sang-Yeop; Yun, Sung Ho; Choi, Chi-Won; Lee, Hayoung; Song, Hyun Seok; Jun, Sangmi; Kim, Gun-Hwa; Lee, Chang-Seop; Kim, Seung Il

    2018-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute and febrile infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative α-proteobacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi from the family Rickettsiaceae that is widely distributed in Northern, Southern and Eastern Asia. In the present study, we analysed the serum proteome of scrub typhus patients to investigate specific clinical protein patterns in an attempt to explain pathophysiology and discover potential biomarkers of infection. Serum samples were collected from three patients (before and after treatment with antibiotics) and three healthy subjects. One-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed to identify differentially abundant proteins using quantitative proteomic approaches. Bioinformatic analysis was then performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Proteomic analysis identified 236 serum proteins, of which 32 were differentially expressed in normal subjects, naive scrub typhus patients and patients treated with antibiotics. Comparative bioinformatic analysis of the identified proteins revealed up-regulation of proteins involved in immune responses, especially complement system, following infection with O. tsutsugamushi , and normal expression was largely rescued by antibiotic treatment. This is the first proteomic study of clinical serum samples from scrub typhus patients. Proteomic analysis identified changes in protein expression upon infection with O. tsutsugamushi and following antibiotic treatment. Our results provide valuable information for further investigation of scrub typhus therapy and diagnosis.

  7. [Poland: cholera to typhus, 1831-1950].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balinska, M A

    1999-12-01

    In this article devoted to Poland's direct and indirect role in the elaboration of contemporary international health structures and to her reputation as an epidemic reservoir of Europe, we consider how Poland came to be perceived as the cordon sanitaire of the West. Traditionally seen as upholding Western values, in the 19th and 20th centuries the country became increasingly associated with "Eastern plagues"-cholera and then typhus-coming from Russia and which could spread to the rest of Europe if Poland did not manage to contain them. When Poland was reconstituted as a nation-state in 1918, the new country won international recognition through her successful attempts to contain a typhus epidemic sweeping westwards from Russia. The Polish government convened the first European, League sponsored, health conference following the First World War. A Polish doctor, L. RAJCHMAN, was chosen to head up the League of Nations Health Organisation (forerunner of the WHO) and later (1946) founded UNICEF. Finally, we examine the key issue of exanthematous typhus in both world wars, exemplifying how a disease can come to be "ideologized", in this case by Nazi Germany. Typhus was the pretext used- in the name of "public health"-for segregating Polish citizens of Jewish origin and even killing them. Paradoxically, typhus was in the process of being eradicated when the war began and German policy of mass resettlements, sequestration, and starvation only spurred the epidemic they supposedly wished to control.

  8. Duodenal perforation precipitated by scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath Rajat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness usually presenting with fever, myalgia, headache, and a pathognomonic eschar. Severe infection may lead to multiple organ failure and death. Gastrointestinal tract involvement in the form of gastric mucosal erosions and ulcerations owing to vasculitis resulting in gastrointestinal bleeding is common. This process may worsen a pre-existent asymptomatic peptic ulcer, causing duodenal perforation, and present as an acute abdomen requiring surgical exploration. We report the case of a patient with no previous symptoms or risk factors for a duodenal ulcer, who presented with an acute duodenal perforation, probably precipitated by scrub typhus infection.

  9. Distribution of Eschar in Pediatric Scrub Typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Winsley; Rajan, Roshni J; Punnen, Anu; Ghosh, Urmi

    2016-10-01

    Identifying an eschar in scrub typhus is useful for initiation of prompt and appropriate antibiotic therapy. The distribution of eschars in all children scrub typhus over a 5 year period is described. Of 431 children admitted with scrub typhus, eschars were present in 176 (40.8%) children with the following distribution: head, face and neck, 33 (19.1%); axillae, 37 (21%); chest and abdomen, 21 (11.9%); genitalia, inguinal region and buttocks, 58 (33%); back, 8 (4.5%); upper extremities, 13 (7.4%); and lower extremities, 5 (2.8%). The commonest sites of eschars were scrotum (27 of 106; 25.5%) and axillae (15 of 106; 14.2%) in males and axillae (22 of 70; 31.4%) and groin (16 of 70; 22.9%) in females. Eschars were seen within skin folds in 100 of 176 (56.8%) children. Children should be carefully examined for the presence of eschar especially in the skin folds of the genitalia, axillae and groin to make an early diagnosis of scrub typhus. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Acute pancreatitis due to scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Shaikh Iqbal Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is endemic in large parts of India and can cause multi-organ failure and death. Acute pancreatitis as a complication is very rare and is potentially fatal. This case series describes seven adult patients who presented with an acute febrile illness and were diagnosed to have scrub typhus with acute pancreatitis. The mean age of the seven patients with acute pancreatitis was 49.4 years, and mean duration of fever prior to presentation was 7.7 days. All seven patients had abdominal pain, and three had a pathognomonic eschar. The mean serum lipase level was 1,509 U/L (normal value: <190 U/L and the mean serum amylase level was 434 U/L (normal value: <200 U/L. Six patients had evidence of multi-organ dysfunction. Hematological and respiratory system dysfunction was seen in five patients, hepatic and renal dysfunction in four, and central nervous system dysfunction in three patients. Three patients who had ≥4 organs involved, died (mortality rate: 42.8%. Our case series shows that pancreatitis in scrub typhus is an extremely rare complication and when present, is associated with increased mortality (42.8%. Physicians may be familiar with the various complications of scrub typhus but less so with acute pancreatitis and hence may be underdiagnosed.

  11. Reemergence of Murine Typhus in the US

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-21

    Dr. Lucas Blanton discusses the Reemergence of Murine Typhus in Galveston Texas in 2013.  Created: 4/21/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2015.

  12. Tsutsugamushi Disease (Scrub Typhus) Meningoencephalitis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Absence of Eschar does not rule out scrub typhus. Clinical features and CSF findings can mimic tuberculous meningitis so misdiagnosis may lead to unwarranted prolonged empirical antituberculous therapy in cases of lymphocytic meningoencephalitis. Delay in treatment can be potentially fatal. WFT still ...

  13. Association between age and high-risk human papilloma virus in Mexican oral cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ramírez, I; Irigoyen-Camacho, M E; Ramírez-Amador, V; Lizano-Soberón, M; Carrillo-García, A; García-Carrancá, A; Sánchez-Pérez, Y; Méndez-Martínez, R; Granados-García, M; Ruíz-Godoy, Lm; García-Cuellar, Cm

    2013-11-01

    Studies reporting low prevalence of HPV in OSCC with declining age at presentation are increasing. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in a group of OSCC cases and controls in a Mexican population. The matched case-control study included 80 OSCC cases and 320 controls. HPV/DNA presence was evaluated through PCR amplification using three sets of consensus primers for the L1 gene. A conditional logistic regression analysis was carried out for the matched OSCC cases and controls. Interactions between risk factors and OCSS were tested in the construction process of the models. HPV prevalence was 5% in OSCC cases and 2.5% in controls. HPV-detected types were 16, 18 and 56. According to conditional logistics regression model, an association was detected between HR-HPV and OSCC. All HR-HPV-positive OSCC cases corresponded to young patients (<45 years), non-smokers and non-alcohol drinkers. The HR-HPV can be a contributing factor to oral carcinogenesis, especially in younger individuals without known risk factors such as tobacco and alcohol. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis regurgitome and insights into beetle-borne virus specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy R Gedling

    Full Text Available For nearly 400 million years, insects and plants have been embattled in an evolutionary arms race. Insects have developed diverse feeding strategies and behaviors in an effort to circumvent and overcome an extensive collection of plant defense tactics. Sap-sucking insects often inject saliva into hosts plants, which contains a suite of effector proteins and even microbial communities that can alter the plant's defenses. Lacking salivary glands, leaf-feeding beetles represent an interesting group of phytophagous insects. Feeding beetles regurgitate onto leaf surfaces and it is thought that these oral secretions influence insect-plant interactions and even play a role in virus-vector specificity. Since the molecular and biological makeup of the regurgitant is virtually unknown, we carried out RNA sequencing and 16S rDNA analysis on a major soybean pest, Epilachna varivestis, to generate the first ever beetle "regurgitome" and characterize its microbiome. Interestingly, the regurgitant is comprised of a rich molecular assortment of genes encoding putative extracellular proteins involved in digestion, molting, immune defense, and detoxification. By carrying out plant inoculation assays, we reinforced the fundamental role of the regurgitant in beetle-borne virus specificity. Ultimately, these studies begin to characterize the importance of regurgitant in virus transmission and beetle-plant interactions.

  15. Chest radiographic manifestations of scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash, Kpp; Mannam, P R; Rajendran, K; John, R A; Ramasami, P

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory system involvement in scrub typhus is seen in 20-72% of patients. In endemic areas, good understanding and familiarity with the various radiologic findings of scrub typhus are essential in identifying pulmonary complications. Patients admitted to a tertiary care center with scrub typhus between October 2012 and September 2013 and had a chest X ray done were included in the analysis. Details and radiographic findings were noted and factors associated with abnormal X-rays were analyzed. The study cohort contained 398 patients. Common presenting complaints included fever (100%), generalized myalgia (83%), headache (65%), dyspnea (54%), cough (24.3%), and altered sensorium (14%). Almost half of the patients (49.4%) had normal chest radiographs. Common radiological pulmonary abnormalities included pleural effusion (14.6%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (14%), airspace opacity (10.5%), reticulonodular opacities (10.3%), peribronchial thickening (5.8%), and pulmonary edema (2%). Cardiomegaly was noted in 3.5% of patients. Breathlessness, presence of an eschar, platelet counts of 2 mg/dL had the highest odds of having an abnormal chest radiograph. Patients with an abnormal chest X-ray had a higher requirement of noninvasive ventilation (odds ratio [OR]: 13.98; 95% confidence interval CI: 5.89-33.16), invasive ventilation (OR: 18.07; 95% CI: 6.42-50.88), inotropes (OR: 8.76; 95% CI: 4.35-17.62), higher involvement of other organ systems, longer duration of hospital stay (3.18 ± 3 vs. 7.27 ± 5.58 days; Pscrub typhus have abnormal chest radiographs. Chest radiography should be included as part of basic evaluation at presentation in patients with scrub typhus, especially in those with breathlessness, eschar, jaundice, and severe thrombocytopenia.

  16. Hemorrhagic Transformation of Scrub Typhus Encephalitis: A Rare Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-C; Yoon, K-W; Yoo, D-S; Cho, C-S

    2015-12-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement of scrub typhus infection is well known. Most CNS involvement of scrub typhus infection present as meningitis or encephalitis. We report on a patient suffering from hemorrhagic transformation of intracranial lesions caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. A 53-year-old female farmer who was infected by scrub typhus was treated with doxycycline and recovered from the systemic illness. However, headache persisted. Brain radiologic studies revealed acute intracranial hemorrhage and enhancing lesion, which implied a CNS involvement. Hemorrhagic transformation of encephalitis by scrub typhus is very rare complication and to our best knowledge, this is the first report of hemorrhagic transformation of scrub typhus encephalitis. Clinician should consider the possibility of hemorrhagic transformation of encephalitis in cases of scrub typhus infection.

  17. A case of scrub typhus requiring maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Yeon Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Renal failure caused by scrub typhus is known to be reversible. In most cases, renal function is almost fully restored after appropriate antibiotic treatment. A 71-year-old man was diagnosed with scrub typhus complicated by renal failure. A renal biopsy revealed histopathologic findings consistent with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. Renal function did not improve 18 months after discharge and the patient required continuous hemodialysis. Although severe renal failure requiring dialysis is a rare complication of scrub typhus, we describe a case of scrub typhus requiring maintenance hemodialysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such report.

  18. Epidemiologic characteristics of scrub typhus on Jeju Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Uk

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus is the most common febrile disease in Korea during the autumn. Jeju Island is the largest island in South Korea and has a distinctive oceanic climate. This study aimed to identify epidemiologic characteristics of scrub typhus on Jeju Island. From January 2011 to December 2016, 446 patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus on Jeju Island. The patients' personal data and the environmental factors that might be related to scrub typhus were investigated and retrospectively analyzed. The median age of the patients was 58-years-old (range, 8 to 91) and 43% of them worked in the agricultural, forestry or livestock industry. Regardless of their job, 87% of the patients had a history of either working outdoors or of other activities before developing scrub typhus. The south and southeast regions of Jeju Island, especially Namwon-eup, showed the highest incidence of scrub typhus. Workers in mandarin orange orchards seemed to be the highest risk group for scrub typhus infection. Scrub typhus on Jeju Island showed unique characteristics. To efficiently prevent scrub typhus, each year individual regional approaches should be developed based on the epidemiologic characteristics of the disease.

  19. Synergistic Effects of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Mexican Seaweeds against Measles Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Morán-Santibañez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs extracted from five seaweed samples collected or cultivated in Mexico (Macrocystis pyrifera, Eisenia arborea, Pelvetia compressa, Ulva intestinalis, and Solieria filiformis were tested in this study in order to evaluate their effect on measles virus in vitro. All polysaccharides showed antiviral activity (as measured by the reduction of syncytia formation and low cytotoxicity (MTT assay at inhibitory concentrations. SPs from Eisenia arborea and Solieria filiformis showed the highest antiviral activities (confirmed by qPCR and were selected to determine their combined effect. Their synergistic effect was observed at low concentrations (0.0274 μg/mL and 0.011 μg/mL of E. arborea and S. filiformis SPs, resp., which exhibited by far a higher inhibitory effect (96% syncytia reduction in comparison to the individual SP effects (50% inhibition with 0.275 μg/mL and 0.985 μg/mL of E. arborea and S. filiformis, resp.. Time of addition experiments and viral penetration assays suggest that best activities of these SPs occur at different stages of infection. The synergistic effect would allow reducing the treatment dose and toxicity and minimizing or delaying the induction of antiviral resistance; sulfated polysaccharides of the tested seaweed species thus appear as promising candidates for the development of natural antiviral agents.

  20. Human papilloma virus in oral squamous cell carcinoma in a Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibieta, Blanca R; Lizano, Marcela; Fras-Mendivil, Mauricio; Barrera, José L; Carrillo, Adela; Ma Ruz-Godoy, Luz; Mohar, Alejandro

    2005-03-01

    To determine the human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in oral cancer and its association with smoking and drinking habits. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples were collected from 51 patients with histological diagnosis of squamous-cell carcinoma were collected at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología in Mexico City. HPV infection was detected by polymerase chain reaction, and the clinical characteristics of this population were analyzed. Fifty samples out of 51 were positive for beta-globin; 21 (42%) cases were HPV-positive, and 14/21 were positive for HPV-16. We found more samples positive in men than in women (71% vs 29%). No differences were observed between HPV-positive and -negative patients in relation to smoking and drinking habits (81% vs 79%). HPV infection was present in 42% of patients with oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC); HPV-16 was the most frequent type, identified in 66.6%. Other cofactors participate in the development of OSCC, independent of HPV infection.

  1. Activation of the coagulation cascade in patients with scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Jeong; Park, Chi-Young; Park, Sang-Gon; Yoon, Na-Ra; Kim, Dong-Min; Chung, Choon-Hae

    2017-09-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the levels of coagulation factors and presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in patients with scrub typhus. We included patients confirmed to have scrub typhus at the Chosun University Hospital between September 2004 and December 2009. The DIC scores were evaluated in 365 patients and 36 healthy controls. The median concentrations of fibrinogen, d-dimer, and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) were compared between patients and healthy controls (pscrub typhus had longer prothrombin time and lower platelet counts than the controls. Major bleeding was observed in 18/365 patients with scrub typhus. Fifty-one (14.0%) patients presented with severe complications of scrub typhus. Overt DIC and thrombocytopenia (scrub typhus had overt DIC, as defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis DIC score (DIC1) and the DIC-scoring template with a fibrinogen/C-reactive protein-ratio (DIC2), respectively. Three (16.7%) and 10 (55.6%) patients with bleeding had overt DIC, as defined by the DIC1 and DIC2, respectively. Seven (13.7%) and 26 (51%) patients with severe illness had overt DIC, as defined by DIC1 and DIC2, respectively. In conclusion, activation of the coagulation system is an important feature of scrub typhus and is correlated with severe disease, including bleeding. This is the first study to report a relationship between DIC and scrub typhus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Chest radiographic manifestations of scrub typhus

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    KPP Abhilash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Rationale: Respiratory system involvement in scrub typhus is seen in 20–72% of patients. In endemic areas, good understanding and familiarity with the various radiologic findings of scrub typhus are essential in identifying pulmonary complications. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to a tertiary care center with scrub typhus between October 2012 and September 2013 and had a chest X ray done were included in the analysis. Details and radiographic findings were noted and factors associated with abnormal X-rays were analyzed. Results: The study cohort contained 398 patients. Common presenting complaints included fever (100%, generalized myalgia (83%, headache (65%, dyspnea (54%, cough (24.3%, and altered sensorium (14%. Almost half of the patients (49.4% had normal chest radiographs. Common radiological pulmonary abnormalities included pleural effusion (14.6%, acute respiratory distress syndrome (14%, airspace opacity (10.5%, reticulonodular opacities (10.3%, peribronchial thickening (5.8%, and pulmonary edema (2%. Cardiomegaly was noted in 3.5% of patients. Breathlessness, presence of an eschar, platelet counts of 2 mg/dL had the highest odds of having an abnormal chest radiograph. Patients with an abnormal chest X-ray had a higher requirement of noninvasive ventilation (odds ratio [OR]: 13.98; 95% confidence interval CI: 5.89–33.16, invasive ventilation (OR: 18.07; 95% CI: 6.42–50.88, inotropes (OR: 8.76; 95% CI: 4.35–17.62, higher involvement of other organ systems, longer duration of hospital stay (3.18 ± 3 vs. 7.27 ± 5.58 days; P< 0.001, and higher mortality (OR: 4.63; 95% CI: 1.54–13.85. Conclusion: Almost half of the patients with scrub typhus have abnormal chest radiographs. Chest radiography should be included as part of basic evaluation at presentation in patients with scrub typhus, especially in those with breathlessness, eschar, jaundice, and severe thrombocytopenia.

  3. Multiple eschars in scrub typhus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koraluru, Munegowda; Nandigam, Manideep; Bairy, Indira; Vidyasagar, Sudha; Varma, Muralidhar

    2017-01-01

    Eschar in scrub typhus aids in early diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapy; however, the eschar positivity rates vary greatly in endemic regions. Multiple eschars in scrub typhus are a rare presentation. Our patient presented with fever and multiple eschars and was empirically started on doxycycline. Nested polymerase chain reaction from all the four eschars and from EDTA blood were positive for 56-kDa type-specific antigen which is specific for Orientia tsutsugamushi The patient recovered completely after 7 days of antibiotic treatment. He was from an area where scrub typhus was not observed previously. An eschar in an acute febrile patient from the "tsutsugamushi triangle" is a valuable sign in scrub typhus diagnosis. A search for multiple eschars in scrub typhus must be made by clinicians. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Scrub Typhus Incidence Modeling with Meteorological Factors in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jaewon; Kim, Soojun; Kim, Gilho; Singh, Vijay P; Hong, Seungjin; Kim, Hung Soo

    2015-06-29

    Since its recurrence in 1986, scrub typhus has been occurring annually and it is considered as one of the most prevalent diseases in Korea. Scrub typhus is a 3rd grade nationally notifiable disease that has greatly increased in Korea since 2000. The objective of this study is to construct a disease incidence model for prediction and quantification of the incidences of scrub typhus. Using data from 2001 to 2010, the incidence Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, which considers the time-lag between scrub typhus and minimum temperature, precipitation and average wind speed based on the Granger causality and spectral analysis, is constructed and tested for 2011 to 2012. Results show reliable simulation of scrub typhus incidences with selected predictors, and indicate that the seasonality in meteorological data should be considered.

  5. Scrub Typhus Incidence Modeling with Meteorological Factors in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Kwak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its recurrence in 1986, scrub typhus has been occurring annually and it is considered as one of the most prevalent diseases in Korea. Scrub typhus is a 3rd grade nationally notifiable disease that has greatly increased in Korea since 2000. The objective of this study is to construct a disease incidence model for prediction and quantification of the incidences of scrub typhus. Using data from 2001 to 2010, the incidence Artificial Neural Network (ANN model, which considers the time-lag between scrub typhus and minimum temperature, precipitation and average wind speed based on the Granger causality and spectral analysis, is constructed and tested for 2011 to 2012. Results show reliable simulation of scrub typhus incidences with selected predictors, and indicate that the seasonality in meteorological data should be considered.

  6. Drought and Epidemic Typhus, Central Mexico, 1655–1918

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna-Soto, Rudofo; Stahle, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemic typhus is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia prowazekii and transmitted by body lice (Pediculus humanus corporis). This disease occurs where conditions are crowded and unsanitary. This disease accompanied war, famine, and poverty for centuries. Historical and proxy climate data indicate that drought was a major factor in the development of typhus epidemics in Mexico during 1655–1918. Evidence was found for 22 large typhus epidemics in central Mexico, and tree-ring chronologies were used to reconstruct moisture levels over central Mexico for the past 500 years. Below-average tree growth, reconstructed drought, and low crop yields occurred during 19 of these 22 typhus epidemics. Historical documents describe how drought created large numbers of environmental refugees that fled the famine-stricken countryside for food relief in towns. These refugees often ended up in improvised shelters in which crowding encouraged conditions necessary for spread of typhus. PMID:24564928

  7. Scrub Typhus among Pediatric Patients in Dambadeniya:A Base Hospital in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    De Silva, Nalika; Wijesundara, Sarojini; Liyanapathirana, Veranja; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Stenos, John

    2012-01-01

    Data on pediatric scrub typhus is uncommon in Sri Lanka and other countries. The objective of this study was to identify the clinical features of patients with scrub typhus at a Base Hospital in Sri Lanka. Sixty patients presenting with suspected scrub typhus were included in the study. Their blood samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against rickettsioses using the reference method. Twenty patients had confirmed scrub typhus and 24 had possible scrub typhus. Their clinical feat...

  8. Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Scrub Typhus and Murine Typhus among Hospitalized Patients with Acute Undifferentiated Fever in Northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Sugihiro; Cuong, Ngo Chi; Tra, Doan Thu; Doan, Yen Hai; Shimizu, Kenta; Tuan, Nguyen Quang; Yoshida, Lay-Myint; Mai, Le Quynh; Duc-Anh, Dang; Ando, Shuji; Arikawa, Jiro; Parry, Christopher M.; Ariyoshi, Koya; Thuy, Pham Thanh

    2015-01-01

    A descriptive study on rickettsiosis was conducted at the largest referral hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam, to identify epidemiological and clinical characteristics of specific rickettsiosis. Between March 2001 and February 2003, we enrolled 579 patients with acute undifferentiated fever (AUF), excluding patients with malaria, dengue fever, and typhoid fever, and serologically tested for Orientia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhi. Of the patients, 237 (40.9%) and 193 (33.3%) had scrub and murine typhus, respectively, and 149 (25.7%) had neither of them (non–scrub and murine typhus [non-ST/MT]). The proportion of murine typhus was highest among patients living in Hanoi whereas that of scrub typhus was highest in national or regional border areas. The presence of an eschar, dyspnea, hypotension, and lymphadenopathy was significantly associated with a diagnosis of scrub typhus (OR = 46.56, 10.90, 9.01, and 7.92, respectively). Patients with murine typhus were less likely to have these findings but more likely to have myalgia, rash, and relative bradycardia (OR = 1.60, 1.56, and 1.45, respectively). Scrub typhus and murine typhus were shown to be common causes of AUF in northern Vietnam although the occurrence of spotted fever group rickettsiae was not determined. Clinical and epidemiological information may help local clinicians make clinical diagnosis of specific rickettsioses in a resource-limited setting. PMID:25778504

  9. Increased Nucleosomes and Neutrophil Activation Link to Disease Progression in Patients with Scrub Typhus but Not Murine Typhus in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Daniel H; Stephan, Femke; Bulder, Ingrid; Wouters, Diana; van der Poll, Tom; Newton, Paul N; Day, Nicholas P J; Zeerleder, Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity is essential in protection against rickettsial illnesses, but the role of neutrophils in these intracellular vasculotropic infections remains unclear. This study analyzed the plasma levels of nucleosomes, FSAP-activation (nucleosome-releasing factor), and neutrophil activation, as evidenced by neutrophil-elastase (ELA) complexes, in sympatric Lao patients with scrub typhus and murine typhus. In acute scrub typhus elevated nucleosome levels correlated with lower GCS scores, raised respiratory rate, jaundice and impaired liver function, whereas neutrophil activation correlated with fibrinolysis and high IL-8 plasma levels, a recently identified predictor of severe disease and mortality. Nucleosome and ELA complex levels were associated with a 4.8-fold and 4-fold increased risk of developing severe scrub typhus, beyond cut off values of 1,040 U/ml for nucleosomes and 275 U/ml for ELA complexes respectively. In murine typhus, nucleosome levels associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and the duration of illness, while ELA complexes correlated strongly with inflammation markers, jaundice and increased respiratory rates. This study found strong correlations between circulating nucleosomes and neutrophil activation in patients with scrub typhus, but not murine typhus, providing indirect evidence that nucleosomes could originate from neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) degradation. High circulating plasma nucleosomes and ELA complexes represent independent risk factors for developing severe complications in scrub typhus. As nucleosomes and histones exposed on NETs are highly cytotoxic to endothelial cells and are strongly pro-coagulant, neutrophil-derived nucleosomes could contribute to vascular damage, the pro-coagulant state and exacerbation of disease in scrub typhus, thus indicating a detrimental role of neutrophil activation. The data suggest that increased neutrophil activation relates to disease progression and severe complications, and

  10. Clinical score to differentiate scrub typhus and dengue: A tool to differentiate scrub typhus and dengue

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    Shubhanker Mitra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue and scrub typhus share similar clinical and epidemiological features, and are difficult to differentiate at initial presentation. Many places are endemic to both these infections where they comprise the majority of acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses. Materials and Methods: We aimed to develop a score that can differentiate scrub typhus from dengue. In this cross-sectional study, 188 cases of scrub typhus and 201 cases of dengue infection who presented to the emergency department or medicine outpatient clinic from September 2012 to April 2013 were included. Univariate followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify clinical features and laboratory results that were significantly different between the two groups. Each variable was assigned scores based on the strength of association and receiver operating characteristics area under the curve (ROC-AUC was generated and compared. Six scoring models were explored to ascertain the model with the best fit. Results: Model 2 was developed using the following six variables: oxygen saturation (>90%, ≤90%, total white blood cell count (7000 cells/cumm, hemoglobin (≤14 and >14 g/dL, total bilirubin (200 and ≥200 IU/dL, and altered sensorium (present or absent. Each variable was assigned scores based on its strength of association. The AUC-ROC curve (95% confidence interval for model 2 was 0.84 (0.79–0.89. At the cut off score of 13, the sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 77% respectively, with a higher score favoring dengue. Conclusion: In areas of high burden of ST and dengue, model 2 (the “clinical score to differentiate scrub typhus and dengue fever” is a simple and rapid clinical scoring system that may be used to differentiate scrub typhus and dengue at initial presentation.

  11. Clinical Score to Differentiate Scrub Typhus and Dengue: A Tool to Differentiate Scrub Typhus and Dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Shubhanker; Gautam, Ira; Jambugulam, Mohan; Abhilash, Kundavaram Paul Prabhakar; Jayaseeelan, Vishalakshi

    2017-01-01

    Dengue and scrub typhus share similar clinical and epidemiological features, and are difficult to differentiate at initial presentation. Many places are endemic to both these infections where they comprise the majority of acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses. We aimed to develop a score that can differentiate scrub typhus from dengue. In this cross-sectional study, 188 cases of scrub typhus and 201 cases of dengue infection who presented to the emergency department or medicine outpatient clinic from September 2012 to April 2013 were included. Univariate followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify clinical features and laboratory results that were significantly different between the two groups. Each variable was assigned scores based on the strength of association and receiver operating characteristics area under the curve (ROC-AUC) was generated and compared. Six scoring models were explored to ascertain the model with the best fit. Model 2 was developed using the following six variables: oxygen saturation (>90%, ≤90%), total white blood cell count (7000 cells/cumm), hemoglobin (≤14 and >14 g/dL), total bilirubin (200 and ≥200 IU/dL), and altered sensorium (present or absent). Each variable was assigned scores based on its strength of association. The AUC-ROC curve (95% confidence interval) for model 2 was 0.84 (0.79-0.89). At the cut off score of 13, the sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 77% respectively, with a higher score favoring dengue. In areas of high burden of ST and dengue, model 2 (the "clinical score to differentiate scrub typhus and dengue fever") is a simple and rapid clinical scoring system that may be used to differentiate scrub typhus and dengue at initial presentation.

  12. Seroprevalence of Scrub Typhus Infection in Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakharia, Aniruddha; Borkakoty, Biswajyoti; Biswas, Dipankar; Yadav, Kaushal; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2016-10-01

    Scrub typhus is a major reason for febrile illness, caused by a bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, a rickettsial pathogen. Few outbreaks of scrub typhus have been reported from Arunachal Pradesh in recent past. However, there is lack of seroprevalence data from the region. In this regard, this study was undertaken using archival serum sample available from seven districts of Arunachal Pradesh. This serological study was conducted in Regional Medical Research Center for NE Region, Dibrugarh. Reactivity to IgG class of antibodies against scrub typhus was done using Scrub typhus detect IgG ELISA kit as per manufacturer's protocol. Seroprevalence of scrub typhus in seven districts of Arunachal Pradesh was found to be 40% (120/300). The age-specific scrub typhus seroprevalence rose steadily from 5.6% in children scrub typhus infection should be considered in differential diagnosis of any acute febrile illness in this part of the country. In view of the high prevalence, empirical therapy of doxycycline/azithromycin may be done in cases of undiagnosed fever. Active surveillance has to be done to understand exact magnitude, epidemiological aspects, and distribution of vector and disease of this reemerging neglected tropical disease.

  13. Murine Typhus: An Important Consideration for the Nonspecific Febrile Illness

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    Gurjot Basra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Murine typhus is a widely distributed flea-borne infection caused by Rickettsia typhi. Symptoms of murine typhus are nonspecific and mimic a variety of other infectious diseases. We herein report a case of murine typhus in an area where the broad use of DDT in the mid-20th century has now made it a rare disease. The patient described presented with headache, fever, and a faint macular rash. Initial laboratory studies revealed a slight transaminase elevation. Further questioning revealed exposure to opossums, prompting the consideration of murine typhus as a diagnosis. Although typhus group antibodies were not present during the patient’s acute illness, empiric therapy with doxycycline was initiated, and the patient defervesced. One month after convalescence, the patient returned to clinic with serum that contained typhus group antibodies with an IgG titer of 1 : 1024. Murine typhus is an important consideration during the workup of a patient with a nonspecific febrile illness. Exposure to reservoir hosts and the flea vector place humans at risk for this disease. Clinician recognition of this entity is required for diagnosis and effective therapy.

  14. Assessment of Epstein-Barr virus nucleic acids in gastric but not in breast cancer by next-generation sequencing of pooled Mexican samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M; Larios-Serrato, Violeta; Méndez-Tenorio, Alfonso; Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Arias, Carlos F; Torres, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Gastric (GC) and breast (BrC) cancer are two of the most common and deadly tumours. Different lines of evidence suggest a possible causative role of viral infections for both GC and BrC. Wide genome sequencing (WGS) technologies allow searching for viral agents in tissues of patients with cancer. These technologies have already contributed to establish virus-cancer associations as well as to discovery new tumour viruses. The objective of this study was to document possible associations of viral infection with GC and BrC in Mexican patients. In order to gain idea about cost effective conditions of experimental sequencing, we first carried out an in silico simulation of WGS. The next-generation-platform IlluminaGallx was then used to sequence GC and BrC tumour samples. While we did not find viral sequences in tissues from BrC patients, multiple reads matching Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) sequences were found in GC tissues. An end-point polymerase chain reaction confirmed an enrichment of EBV sequences in one of the GC samples sequenced, validating the next-generation sequencing-bioinformatics pipeline. PMID:26910355

  15. A review of the global epidemiology of scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guang; Walker, David H; Jupiter, Daniel; Melby, Peter C; Arcari, Christine M

    2017-11-01

    Scrub typhus is a serious public health problem in the Asia-Pacific area. It threatens one billion people globally, and causes illness in one million people each year. Caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, scrub typhus can result in severe multiorgan failure with a case fatality rate up to 70% without appropriate treatment. The antigenic heterogeneity of O. tsutsugamushi precludes generic immunity and allows reinfection. As a neglected disease, there is still a large gap in our knowledge of the disease, as evidenced by the sporadic epidemiologic data and other related public health information regarding scrub typhus in its endemic areas. Our objective is to provide a systematic analysis of current epidemiology, prevention and control of scrub typhus in its long-standing endemic areas and recently recognized foci of infection.

  16. Spatial Distribution Analysis of Scrub Typhus in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Hong Sung; Chu, Chaeshin; Han, Dong Yeob

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study analyzes the spatial distribution of scrub typhus in Korea. Methods: A spatial distribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi occurrence using a geographic information system (GIS) is presented, and analyzed by means of spatial clustering and correlations. Results: The provinces of Gangwon-do and Gyeongsangbuk-do show a low incidence throughout the year. Some districts have almost identical environmental conditions of scrub typhus incidence. The land use change of districts does...

  17. Scrub Typhus: An Emerging Neglected Tropical Disease in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, B P; Shakya, G; Adhikari, S; Rijal, N; Acharya, J; Maharjan, L; Marasini, B R

    2016-05-01

    Scrub typhus is a neglected tropical disease and is under reported from Nepal. The objective of this study was to investigate the sero-epidemiology of scrub typhus in patients suffering from acute febrile illness. A total of 434 specimens collected from July to November 2015 at National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL) were investigated for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to Orientiatsutsugamushi.The Scrub Typhus Detect TM kit (InBios, USA) was used to detect the antibodies to O.tsutsugamushi in human serum. Randomly selected 10% positive specimens were used for confirmation by dot- enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Of the total, 175 (40.3%) were positive for IgM antibodies to O. tsutsugamushi. Positive results of scrub typhus were highest among female in 11-20 year followed by males in 41-50 years age group. The IgM antibodies to O. tsutusugamushi were positive in specimens of various geographical regions including 30 districts of Nepal. Positive cases were found in various ecological regions of Nepal. Scrub typhus is one of the neglected tropical diseases in Nepal. Patients with acute febrile illness should be investigated for scrub typhus with high priority. There is an urgent need of reliable and affordable diagnostic tests at all level of health facilities of Nepal. Surveillance and public health awareness about the disease transmission and preventive measures needs to be initiated.

  18. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in Patients Suspected of Having Scrub Typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, Yu Mi; Woo, Hye In; Park, Dahee; Lee, Keun Hwa; Kang, Cheol-In; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2016-11-01

    To determine prevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in South Korea, we examined serum samples from patients with fever and insect bite history in scrub typhus-endemic areas. During the 2013 scrub typhus season, prevalence of this syndrome among patients suspected of having scrub typhus was high (23.0%), suggesting possible co-infection.

  19. High seroprevalence of antibodies against spotted fever and scrub typhus bacteria in patients with febrile Illness, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiga, Jacqueline W; Mutai, Beth K; Eyako, Wurapa K; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L; Waitumbi, John N

    2015-04-01

    Serum samples from patients in Kenya with febrile illnesses were screened for antibodies against bacteria that cause spotted fever, typhus, and scrub typhus. Seroprevalence was 10% for spotted fever group, typhus group, and 5% for scrub typhus group. Results should help clinicians expand their list of differential diagnoses for undifferentiated fevers.

  20. Estimating the burden of scrub typhus: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bonell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that can be life-threatening. There are no licensed vaccines, or vector control efforts in place. Despite increasing awareness in endemic regions, the public health burden and global distribution of scrub typhus remains poorly known.We systematically reviewed all literature from public health records, fever studies and reports available on the Ovid MEDLINE, Embase Classic + Embase and EconLit databases, to estimate the burden of scrub typhus since the year 2000.In prospective fever studies from Asia, scrub typhus is a leading cause of treatable non-malarial febrile illness. Sero-epidemiological data also suggest that Orientia tsutsugamushi infection is common across Asia, with seroprevalence ranging from 9.3%-27.9% (median 22.2% IQR 18.6-25.7. A substantial apparent rise in minimum disease incidence (median 4.6/100,000/10 years, highest in China with 11.2/100,000/10 years was reported through passive national surveillance systems in South Korea, Japan, China, and Thailand. Case fatality risks from areas of reduced drug-susceptibility are reported at 12.2% and 13.6% for South India and northern Thailand, respectively. Mortality reports vary widely around a median mortality of 6.0% for untreated and 1.4% for treated scrub typhus. Limited evidence suggests high mortality in complicated scrub typhus with CNS involvement (13.6% mortality, multi-organ dysfunction (24.1% and high pregnancy miscarriage rates with poor neonatal outcomes.Scrub typhus appears to be a truly neglected tropical disease mainly affecting rural populations, but increasingly also metropolitan areas. Rising minimum incidence rates have been reported over the past 8-10 years from countries with an established surveillance system. A wider distribution of scrub typhus beyond Asia is likely, based on reports from South America and Africa. Unfortunately, the quality and quantity of the available data on scrub typhus epidemiology is

  1. Estimating the burden of scrub typhus: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, Ana; Lubell, Yoel; Newton, Paul N; Crump, John A; Paris, Daniel H

    2017-09-01

    Scrub typhus is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that can be life-threatening. There are no licensed vaccines, or vector control efforts in place. Despite increasing awareness in endemic regions, the public health burden and global distribution of scrub typhus remains poorly known. We systematically reviewed all literature from public health records, fever studies and reports available on the Ovid MEDLINE, Embase Classic + Embase and EconLit databases, to estimate the burden of scrub typhus since the year 2000. In prospective fever studies from Asia, scrub typhus is a leading cause of treatable non-malarial febrile illness. Sero-epidemiological data also suggest that Orientia tsutsugamushi infection is common across Asia, with seroprevalence ranging from 9.3%-27.9% (median 22.2% IQR 18.6-25.7). A substantial apparent rise in minimum disease incidence (median 4.6/100,000/10 years, highest in China with 11.2/100,000/10 years) was reported through passive national surveillance systems in South Korea, Japan, China, and Thailand. Case fatality risks from areas of reduced drug-susceptibility are reported at 12.2% and 13.6% for South India and northern Thailand, respectively. Mortality reports vary widely around a median mortality of 6.0% for untreated and 1.4% for treated scrub typhus. Limited evidence suggests high mortality in complicated scrub typhus with CNS involvement (13.6% mortality), multi-organ dysfunction (24.1%) and high pregnancy miscarriage rates with poor neonatal outcomes. Scrub typhus appears to be a truly neglected tropical disease mainly affecting rural populations, but increasingly also metropolitan areas. Rising minimum incidence rates have been reported over the past 8-10 years from countries with an established surveillance system. A wider distribution of scrub typhus beyond Asia is likely, based on reports from South America and Africa. Unfortunately, the quality and quantity of the available data on scrub typhus epidemiology is currently too

  2. Scrub typhus: radiological and clinical findings in abdominopelvic involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kun Yung; Song, Ji Soo; Park, Eun Hae; Jin, Gong Yong

    2017-03-01

    To describe the clinical and radiological findings of abdominopelvic involvement in scrub typhus. Abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) of 78 patients with scrub typhus were evaluated by two readers. The presence of gallbladder wall thickening, arterial inhomogeneous enhancement of the liver, periportal edema, splenic infarction, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, ascites, pleural effusion, and sites of lymphadenopathy were evaluated. Patients were divided into four clinical subgroups according to laboratory findings. Association between imaging findings and subgroups was analyzed by Chi squared test or Fisher's exact test. The most common CT finding was hepatomegaly (74.4%), followed by splenomegaly (66.7%). The majority of patients had at least three areas of abdominopelvic lymphadenopathy (71.8%). Pelvic lymphadenopathy was most commonly seen when eschar was found in the ipsilateral lower extremity (left, n = 5/7; right, n = 8/13). Significant association between hepatic dysfunction and perigastric lymphadenopathy was documented (p = 0.03). Scrub typhus has a spectrum of variable clinical and radiological findings mimicking those of acute hepatitis. Diffuse abdominopelvic lymphadenopathy involving the retroperitoneum and pelvic area may aid in early diagnosis of scrub typhus. Perigastric lymphadenopathy could be a sign of severe scrub typhus combined with hepatic dysfunction.

  3. Mexican Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuzger, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    It was the complex and far-reaching transformation of the Mexican Revolution rather than the First World War that left its mark on Mexican history in the second decade of the 20th century. Nevertheless, although the country maintained its neutrality in the international conflict, it was a hidden theatre of war. Between 1914 and 1918, state actors in Germany, Great Britain and the United States defined their policies towards Mexico and its nationalist revolution with a view not only to improve...

  4. Seroprevalence of Scrub Typhus, Typhus, and Spotted Fever Among Rural and Urban Populations of Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trung, Nguyen Vu; Hoi, Le Thi; Thuong, Nguyen Thi Hong; Toan, Tran Khanh; Huong, Tran Thi Kieu; Hoa, Tran Mai; Fox, Annette; Kinh, Nguyen van; van Doorn, H Rogier; Wertheim, Heiman F L; Bryant, Juliet E; Nadjm, Behzad

    2017-05-01

    AbstractRickettsial infections are recognized as important causes of fever throughout southeast Asia. Herein, we determined the seroprevalence to rickettsioses within rural and urban populations of northern Vietnam. Prevalence of individuals with evidence of prior rickettsial infections (IgG positive) was surprisingly low, with 9.14% (83/908) testing positive to the three major rickettsial serogroups thought to circulate in the region. Prevalence of typhus group rickettsiae (TG)-specific antibodies (6.5%, 58/908) was significantly greater than scrub typhus group orientiae (STG)- or spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFG)-specific antibodies ( P < 0.05). The majority of TG seropositives were observed among urban rather than rural residents ( P < 0.05). In contrast, overall antibody prevalence to STG and SFG were both very low (1.1%, 10/908 for STG; 1.7%, 15/908 for SFG), with no significant differences between rural and urban residents. These results provide data on baseline population characteristics that may help inform development of Rickettsia serological testing criteria in future clinical studies.

  5. Diagnostic validation of selected serological tests for detecting scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koraluru, Munegowda; Bairy, Indira; Varma, Muralidhar; Vidyasagar, Sudha

    2015-07-01

    Clinical diagnosis of scrub typhus is often difficult because the symptoms are very similar to those of other febrile illness such as dengue, leptospirosis, malaria and other viral hemorrhagic fevers. Though better diagnostic tests are available for rickettsial diseases and scrub typhus elsewhere, the Weil-Felix test is still commonly used in India, mainly because microimmunofluorescence assays (M-IFA) were not available in India till recently and relevant staff had insufficient training. The present study was performed to investigate the performance of M-IFA, IgM ELISA, and Weil-Felix test on 546 non-repeated serum samples from subjects suspected of having scrub typhus. One hundred and forty-three of these 546 samples were positive by M-IFA; these cases were also confirmed clinically to have scrub typhus based on their dramatic responses to doxycycline therapy. IgM ELISA was positive in 122 of the 143 M-IFA positive cases and the Weil-Felix test in 96. Though the Weil-Felix test is a heterophile agglutination test, it was found in this study to have good specificity but far too little sensitivity to use as a routine diagnostic test. IgM ELISA can be a good substitute for M-IFA. Incorporation of multiple prototype antigens on M-IFA slides is likely one of the reasons for its superior performance. As newer and better diagnostic assays become available for scrub typhus diagnosis in developed countries, it will be imperative to also use such tests in other endemic countries to prevent over- or under-diagnosis of scrub typhus. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Urbanization of scrub typhus disease in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Won; Ha, Na-Young; Ryu, Boyeong; Bang, Ji Hwan; Song, Hoyeon; Kim, Yuri; Kim, Gwanghun; Oh, Myoung-don; Cho, Nam-Hyuk; Lee, Jong-koo

    2015-05-01

    Scrub typhus is an endemic disease in Asia. It has been a rural disease, but indigenous urban cases have been observed in Seoul, South Korea. Urban scrub typhus may have a significant impact because of the large population. Indigenous urban scrub typhus was epidemiologically identified in Seoul, the largest metropolitan city in South Korea, using national notifiable disease data from 2010 to 2013. For detailed analysis of clinical features, patients from one hospital that reported the majority of cases were selected and compared to a historic control group. Chigger mites were prospectively collected in the city using a direct chigger mite-collecting trap, and identified using both phenotypic and 18S rDNA sequencing analyses. Their infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi was confirmed by sequencing the 56-kDa antigen gene. Eighty-eight cases of urban scrub typhus were determined in Seoul. The possible sites of infection were mountainous areas (56.8%), city parks (20.5%), the vicinity of one's own residence (17.0%), and riversides (5.7%). Eighty-seven chigger mites were collected in Gwanak mountain, one of the suspected infection sites in southern Seoul, and seventy-six (87.4%) of them were identified as Helenicula miyagawai and eight (9.2%) as Leptotrombidium scutellare. Pooled DNA extracted from H. miyagawai mites yielded O. tsutsugamushi Boryong strain. Twenty-six patients from one hospital showed low APACHE II score (3.4 ± 2.7), low complication rate (3.8%), and no hypokalemia. We identified the presence of indigenous urban scrub typhus in Seoul, and a subgroup of them had mild clinical features. The chigger mite H. miyagawai infected with O. tsutsugamushi within the city was found. In endemic area, urban scrub typhus needs to be considered as one of the differential febrile diseases and a target for prevention.

  7. The clinical characteristics of pleural effusion in scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Ho; Chung, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Min; Yun, Na Ra; Lee, Jun; Kwon, Yong Eun; Yoon, Sung Ho; Lee, Seung Il; Han, Mi Ah

    2016-06-11

    The aim of this study is to identify the factors associated with the occurrence of pleural effusion and to investigate the characteristics of pleural effusion in scrub typhus. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of scrub typhus patients between January 2004 and December 2011 at Chosun University Hospital in South Korea. A total of 445 scrub typhus patients were divided into the following two groups: without (n = 352) or with pleural effusion (n = 93). The data of 18 scrub typhus patients who underwent thoracentesis were summarized. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the following factors were associated with the occurrence of pleural effusion in scrub typhus: older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.029, P = 0.037, confidence interval [CI] = 1.002-1.056); male gender (OR = 1.924, P = 0.020, CI = 1.109-3.340); presence of heart failure (OR = 2.628, P = 0.039, CI = 1.052-6.565); and lower albumin (OR = 0.107, P ≤ 0.001, CI = 0.058-0.196). Most pleural effusion presentations were bilateral (88 %) and small (91 %). The effusion had transudate characteristics in 7 patients and exudate characteristics in 11 patients based on Light's criteria. This study provided the first data regarding the following four independent risk factors associated with the occurrence of pleural effusion: older age; male gender; the presence of heart failure; and lower albumin. The pleural effusion presentations in scrub typhus patients were bilateral and small in most cases, with transudate and/or exudate characteristics.

  8. Investigation of Sylvatic Typhus at a Wilderness Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Greg Dasch discusses an outbreak of four cases of sylvatic typhus that occurred at a wilderness camp in Pennsylvania. Sylvatic typhus is very rare in the United States, with only 41 cases since it was discovered in the United States in 1975. Lab work at CDC and the discovery that all four camp counselors who became ill had slept in the same bunk at the camp between 2004 and 2006 ultimately led to confirmation that flying squirrels living in the wall of the cabin were to blame for the illnesses.

  9. Characteristics of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and Q fever among elderly patients: Prolonged prothrombin time as a predictor for severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ko; Lee, Nan-Yao; Ko, Wen-Chien; Lin, Wei-Ru; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chang, Ya-Ting; Lu, Po-Liang

    2017-06-22

    The clinical manifestations of scrub typhus, murine typhus and acute Q fever in the elderly are not clear. We conducted a retrospective study to identify the characteristics of the elderly aged ≥65 years with a comparison group aged 18-64 years among patients with scrub typhus, murine typhus, or acute Q fever who were serologically confirmed at three hospitals in Taiwan during 2002-2011. Among 441 cases, including 187 cases of scrub typhus, 166 acute Q fever, and 88 murine typhus, 68 (15.4%) cases were elderly patients. The elderly had a higher severe complication rate (10.3% vs. 3.5%, p = 0.022), but did not have a significantly higher mortality rate (1.47% vs. 0.54%, p = 0.396). Compared with those without severe complications, we found the elderly (p = 0.022), dyspnea (p = 0.006), less relative bradycardia (p = 0.004), less febrile illness (p = 0.004), prolonged prothrombin time (PT) (p = 0.002), higher levels of initial C-reactive protein (p = 0.039), blood leukocyte counts (p = 0.01), and lower platelet counts (p = 0.012) are significantly associated with severe complications. Only prolonged prothrombin time was associated with severe complications in multivariate analysis (p = 0.018, CI 95% 0.01-0.66). Among clinical symptoms and laboratory data, multivariate analysis revealed chills was less frequently occurred in the elderly (p = 0.012, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33-9.99). The elderly cases with scrub typhus, murine typhus, or acute Q fever would be more likely to have severe complications, for which prothrombin time prolongation is an important predictor for severe complications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Associated factors and clinical implications of serum aminotransferase elevation in scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tung-Hung; Liu, Chun-Jen; Shu, Pei-Yun; Fu, Yang-Hsien; Chang, Chi-Hsien; Jao, Ping; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2016-12-01

    Timely diagnosis and prompt treatment can reduce the complications of scrub typhus. It is thus important to find easy laboratory tests to help in the diagnosis, especially in patients without eschar at initial presentation. Because serum aminotransferase elevation is common in scrub typhus, its associated factors and clinical implications need further investigations. We conducted a retrospective study in Kinmen, Taiwan, to collect clinically suspected scrub typhus patients notified to Taiwan Centers for Disease Control for confirmation during 2005-2010. Scrub typhus was diagnosed and Orientia tsutsugamushi was genotyped by serological or molecular assays. The laboratory data and clinical information were recorded for analysis. Overall, 344 suspected scrub typhus patients were reported to Taiwan Centers for Disease Control and 288 of them were certified scrub typhus. Scrub typhus patients had significantly more thrombocytopenia, serum aminotransferase elevation (76% vs. 54%, p = 0.001), higher frequency of fever, eschar, and lymphadenopathy, compared with nontyphus patients. Hepatic dysfunction in scrub typhus was associated with older age, longer fever duration, and absence of lymphadenopathy, but seemed to be unrelated to the rickettsial genotypes. Multivariate analysis showed that serum aminotransferase elevation (odds ratio: 3.75; p = 0.003; 95% confidence interval: 1.56-9.01) independently predicted scrub typhus. Furthermore, in suspected scrub typhus patients without eschar, 92% of true typhus patients had serum aminotransferase elevation compared with the nontyphus ones (odds ratio: 6.47; p = 0.028, 95% confidence interval: 1.23-34.11). Hepatic dysfunction in scrub typhus patients is associated with older age, longer fever duration, and absence of lymphadenopathy. Serum aminotransferase elevation can aid in the diagnosis of scrub typhus, especially in suspected patients without eschar. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Scrub Typhus Leading to Acute Encephalitis Syndrome, Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Siraj A; Bora, Trishna; Laskar, Basanta; Khan, Abdul M; Dutta, Prafulla

    2017-01-01

    To determine the contribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi, the agent of scrub typhus, as a cause of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in Assam, India, we conducted a retrospective study of hospital patients with symptoms of AES during 2013-2015. Our findings suggest that O. tsutsugamushi infection leads to AES and the resulting illness and death.

  12. Milder clinical manifestation of scrub typhus in Kinmen, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Hung Su

    2013-04-01

    Conclusion: A unique summer-autumn type of scrub typhus with milder disease manifestations is identified in Kinmen. The younger patient population, rapid diagnosis, and prompt treatment may be associated with a shortened disease course and lead to a better outcome.

  13. A study of muscle involvement in scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Jayantee; Misra, Usha K; Mani, Vinita E; Mahadevan, Anita; Shankar, Susrala K

    2015-01-15

    Patients with scrub typhus often complain of myalgia, but a comprehensive study on muscle dysfunction is lacking. We therefore report the clinical, electromyographic and muscle biopsy findings in patients with scrub typhus. Consecutive patients with scrub typhus were included, and their clinical and laboratory findings were noted. The patients with myalgia or weakness and elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) were considered to have muscle involvement. Electromyography (EMG) and muscle biopsy were done in some patients. Patients were treated with doxycycline 200mg daily for 7 days, and their clinical and biochemical outcome on discharge and one month were evaluated. 13 out of 33 (39.4%) patients had muscle involvement and their CK levels ranged between 287 and 3166 (859 ± 829) U/L. EMG revealed short duration polyphasic potentials, and muscle histopathology revealed evidence of vasculitis. There were significant correlations between severity of weakness and CK levels (r = -0.6; p scrub typhus. Although muscle histopathology showed evidence of vasculitis, patients responded to doxycycline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for scrub typhus in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Paul; P, Divya; Premkumar, Prasanna S; Varghese, George M

    2017-05-01

    To determine the prevalence and risk factors of scrub typhus in Tamil Nadu, South India. We performed a clustered seroprevalence study of the areas around Vellore. All participants completed a risk factor survey, with seropositive and seronegative participants acting as cases and controls, respectively, in a risk factor analysis. After univariate analysis, variables found to be significant underwent multivariate analysis. Of 721 people participating in this study, 31.8% tested seropositive. By univariate analysis, after accounting for clustering, having a house that was clustered with other houses, having a fewer rooms in a house, having fewer people living in a household, defecating outside, female sex, age >60 years, shorter height, lower weight, smaller body mass index and smaller mid-upper arm circumference were found to be significantly associated with seropositivity. After multivariate regression modelling, living in a house clustered with other houses, female sex and age >60 years were significantly associated with scrub typhus exposure. Overall, scrub typhus is much more common than previously thought. Previously described individual environmental and habitual risk factors seem to have less importance in South India, perhaps because of the overall scrub typhus-conducive nature of the environment in this region. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes in patients with scrub typhus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Fost, Maaike; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Pimda, Kriangsak; Dondorp, Arjen M.; White, Nicholas J.; van der Poll, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Thai patients with scrub typhus caused by the intracellular pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi displayed elevated plasma concentrations of granzymes A and B, interferon-gamma (IFN)-gamma-inducible protein 10, and monokine induced by IFN-gamma. These data suggest that activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes

  16. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus and HIV infection among injection drug users in two Mexican cities bordering the U.S Prevalencia de los virus de la hepatitis C y de la inmunodeficiencia humana entre usuarios de drogas intravenosas, en dos ciudades mexicanas fronterizas con los Estados Unidos de America

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Faye White; Richard S. Garfein; Kimberly C Brouwer; Remedios Lozada; Rebeca Ramos; Michelle Firestone-Cruz; Saida G Pérez; Carlos Magis-Rodríguez; Carlos J Conde-Glez; Steffanie A Strathdee

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV infection and associated risk behaviors among injection drug users (IDUs) in two northern Mexican cities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between February and April 2005, IDUs were recruited in Tijuana (N=222) and Ciudad Juarez (N=206) using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a chain referral sampling approach. Interviewer-administered questionnaires assessed drug-using behaviors during the prior six months. Venous blood was co...

  17. Tricky typhus ticks two: A report of two sisters from North India presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is emerging as an important cause of acute febrile illness in Northern India. This is a report of two sisters presenting concurrently with acute respiratory distress syndrome. A diagnosis of scrub typhus was made in both the patients, and they were successfully treated with doxycycline.

  18. Molecular detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi from suspected scrub typhus cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seethalakshmi Srinivasan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. The disease is under-diagnosed in India, because of low index of suspicion and also due to its nonspecific presentation, and lack of confirmatory diagnostic tests. Aims: This study was undertaken to diagnose scrub typhus in patients with undifferentiated fevers by serology and molecular methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 blood samples were collected from patients clinically suspected to have scrub typhus. After transportation to the laboratory, the serum was separated from the blood and subjected to rapid card test. The ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood samples were subjected to DNA extraction using QIAamp DNA Mini Kit followed by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR. Results: 24/68 (35.29% cases showed the presence of antibody against scrub typhus by serology. 6/68 (8.8% patients showed the presence of outer membrane protein antigen gene 56 kDa by nPCR. 5/24 serology positive cases showed the presence of 56 kDa outer membrane protein antigen gene by nPCR. A large number of cases positive by serology were negative by PCR which may indicate a low sensitivity of this test either due to low copy numbers or due to excess host DNA. Conclusion: Delay in treatment may increase disease severity and leads to higher mortality. Thus, molecular methods of diagnosis may aid in the early diagnosis of infection and enable prompt treatment. This is the first report on the diagnosis of scrub typhus in the suburbs of Chennai using molecular methods and reemphasizes the need for increased awareness of rickettsial infections in rural areas.

  19. Molecular detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi from suspected scrub typhus cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Seethalakshmi; Menon, Thangam

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. The disease is under-diagnosed in India, because of low index of suspicion and also due to its nonspecific presentation, and lack of confirmatory diagnostic tests. This study was undertaken to diagnose scrub typhus in patients with undifferentiated fevers by serology and molecular methods. A total of 68 blood samples were collected from patients clinically suspected to have scrub typhus. After transportation to the laboratory, the serum was separated from the blood and subjected to rapid card test. The ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood samples were subjected to DNA extraction using QIAamp DNA Mini Kit followed by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). 24/68 (35.29%) cases showed the presence of antibody against scrub typhus by serology. 6/68 (8.8%) patients showed the presence of outer membrane protein antigen gene 56 kDa by nPCR. 5/24 serology positive cases showed the presence of 56 kDa outer membrane protein antigen gene by nPCR. A large number of cases positive by serology were negative by PCR which may indicate a low sensitivity of this test either due to low copy numbers or due to excess host DNA. Delay in treatment may increase disease severity and leads to higher mortality. Thus, molecular methods of diagnosis may aid in the early diagnosis of infection and enable prompt treatment. This is the first report on the diagnosis of scrub typhus in the suburbs of Chennai using molecular methods and reemphasizes the need for increased awareness of rickettsial infections in rural areas.

  20. Rapid Increase in Scrub Typhus Incidence in Mainland China, 2006-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Cheng; Qian, Quan; Magalhaes, Ricardo J Soares; Han, Zhi-Hai; Haque, Ubydul; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Hu, Wen-Biao; Liu, Yun-Xi; Sun, Yan-Song; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Li, Shen-Long

    2016-03-01

    Scrub typhus is a vector-borne disease, which has recently reemerged in China. In this study, we describe the distribution and incidence of scrub typhus cases in China from 2006 to 2014 and quantify differences in scrub typhus cases with respect to sex, age, and occupation. The results of our study indicate that the annual incidence of scrub typhus has increased during the study period. The number of cases peaked in 2014, which was 12.8 times greater than the number of cases reported in 2006. Most (77.97%) of the cases were reported in five provinces (Guangdong, Yunnan, Anhui, Fujian, and Shandong). Our study also demonstrates that the incidence rate of scrub typhus was significantly higher in females compared to males (P scrub typhus incidence, but also document an expansion in the geographic distribution throughout the country. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. Genotype Diversity and Distribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi Causing Scrub Typhus in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Genotype Diversity and Distribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi Causing Scrub Typhus in Thailand" Toon...2011 Scrub typhus , caused by antigenically disparate isolates of Orientia tsutsugamushi, is a widely distributed mite-borne human disease in the Asia...evaluation of scrub typhus - specific diagnostic assays and vaccines. Using indirect immunoHuorescence assays (IF A) and PCR assays, 0. tsutsugamushi

  2. Acute sensorineural hearing loss and severe otalgia due to scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dong-Min

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Case presentations We encountered a patient with sensorineural hearing loss complicating scrub typhus, and three patients with scrub typhus who complained of otalgia, which was sudden onset, severe, paroxysmal, intermittent yet persistent pain lasting for several seconds, appeared within 1 week after the onset of fever and rash. The acute sensorineural hearing loss and otalgia were resolved after antibiotic administration. Conclusion When patients in endemic areas present with fever and rash and have sensorineural hearing loss or otalgia without otoscopic abnormalities, clinicians should suspect scrub typhus and consider empirical antibiotic therapy.

  3. Successfully Managed Acute Transverse Myelitis Related to Scrub Typhus and Serial Image Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jae Sung; Song, Ji Soo; Choi, Eun Jung; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Seop; Park, Eun Hae

    2017-03-01

    AbstractCentral nervous system involvement manifesting as meningitis or meningoencephalitis is a known complication of scrub typhus, but very few spinal cord lesions such as acute transverse myelitis (ATM) have been reported in association with this disease. Scrub typhus patients with a spinal lesion present with neurologic symptoms including dysuria, motor, and sensory weakness. Herein, we describe a rare case of ATM associated with scrub typhus. Clinical characteristics, cerebrospinal fluid cytology, Orientia tsutsugamushi serum antibody titer, and serial magnetic resonance imaging scans resulted in a diagnosis of ATM associated with scrub typhus.

  4. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Scrub Typhus Transmission in Mainland China, 2006-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Cheng; Qian, Quan; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J; Han, Zhi-Hai; Hu, Wen-Biao; Haque, Ubydul; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Wang, Yong; Liu, Yun-Xi; Li, Xin-Lou; Sun, Hai-Long; Sun, Yan-Song; Clements, Archie C A; Li, Shen-Long; Zhang, Wen-Yi

    2016-08-01

    Scrub typhus is endemic in the Asia-Pacific region including China, and the number of reported cases has increased dramatically in the past decade. However, the spatial-temporal dynamics and the potential risk factors in transmission of scrub typhus in mainland China have yet to be characterized. This study aims to explore the spatiotemporal dynamics of reported scrub typhus cases in mainland China between January 2006 and December 2014, to detect the location of high risk spatiotemporal clusters of scrub typhus cases, and identify the potential risk factors affecting the re-emergence of the disease. Monthly cases of scrub typhus reported at the county level between 2006 and 2014 were obtained from the Chinese Center for Diseases Control and Prevention. Time-series analyses, spatiotemporal cluster analyses, and spatial scan statistics were used to explore the characteristics of the scrub typhus incidence. To explore the association between scrub typhus incidence and environmental variables panel Poisson regression analysis was conducted. During the time period between 2006 and 2014 a total of 54,558 scrub typhus cases were reported in mainland China, which grew exponentially. The majority of cases were reported each year between July and November, with peak incidence during October every year. The spatiotemporal dynamics of scrub typhus varied over the study period with high-risk clusters identified in southwest, southern, and middle-eastern part of China. Scrub typhus incidence was positively correlated with the percentage of shrub and meteorological variables including temperature and precipitation. The results of this study demonstrate areas in China that could be targeted with public health interventions to mitigate the growing threat of scrub typhus in the country.

  5. Meteorological factors and risk of scrub typhus in Guangzhou, southern China, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiegang; Yang, Zhicong; Dong, Zhiqiang; Wang, Ming

    2014-03-12

    Scrub typhus is becoming the most common vector born disease in Guangzhou, southern China. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of weather patterns on the incidence of Scrub typhus in the subtropical city of Guangzhou for the period 2006-2012, and assist public health prevention and control measures. Scrub typhus reported cases during the period of 2006-2012 in Guangzhou were obtained from National Notifiable Disease Report System (NNDRS). Simultaneous meteorological data including temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, sunshine, and rainfall were obtained from the documentation of the Guangzhou Meteorological Bureau. A negative binomial regression was used to identify the relationship between meteorological variables and scrub typhus. Annual incidence rates of scrub typhus from 2006 to 2012 were 3.25, 2.67, 3.81, 4.22, 4.41, 5.12, and 9.75 (per 100 000) respectively. Each 1°C rise in temperature corresponded to an increase of 14.98% (95% CI 13.65% to 16.33%) in the monthly number of scrub typhus cases, while a 1 hPa rise in atmospheric pressure corresponded to a decrease in the number of cases by 8.03% (95% CI -8.75% to -7.31%). Similarly, a 1 hour rise in sunshine corresponded to an increase of 0.17% or 0.54%, and a 1 millimeter rise in rainfall corresponded to an increase of 0.05% or 0.10%, in the monthly number of scrub typhus cases, depending on the variables considered in the model. Our study provided evidence that climatic factors were associated with occurrence of scrub typhus in Guangzhou city, China. Temperature, duration of sunshine, and rainfall were positively associated with scrub typhus incidence, while atmospheric pressure was inversely associated with scrub typhus incidence. These findings should be considered in the prediction of future patterns of scrub typhus transmission.

  6. Scrub typhus meningitis in a renal transplant recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Dhanapriya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a rickettsial infection commonly seen in Asia. The clinical presentation ranges from nonspecific febrile illness to potentially fatal multiorgan involvement such as liver, kidney, or lung. Central nervous system involvement is uncommon. We report a 45-year-old female renal transplant recipient who presented with fever, headache, meningeal signs, graft dysfunction, and eschar. IgM antibodies against Orientia tsutsugamushi were positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Despite oral doxycycline therapy for 5 days, she did not improve but responded well to intravenous azithromycin. To the best of our knowledge, scrub typhus as a cause of meningitis in a renal transplant recipient has not been reported so far.

  7. Immunohistochemical Study of Scrub Typhus: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Yuan Tseng

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a zoonotic disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, which is transmitted by chiggers. The target cells of this rickettsia are poorly defined in humans. Immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections of patients with scrub typhus is helpful in investigating the target cells of this rickettsia in different organs. We studied two autopsy specimens by immunohistochemical staining using a specific antibody against O. tsutsugamushi. Rickettsiae were located in endothelial cells in all of the organs evaluated, namely heart, lung, brain, kidney, appendix and skin, within cardiac muscle cells and renal tubular epithelial cells, and in macrophages located in the lymph node, liver and spleen. In conclusion, O. tsutsugamushi may disseminate into multiple organs through endothelial cells and macrophages, resulting in the development of fatal complications.

  8. Investigation of Sylvatic Typhus at a Wilderness Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-30

    In this podcast, Dr. Greg Dasch discusses an outbreak of four cases of sylvatic typhus that occurred at a wilderness camp in Pennsylvania. Sylvatic typhus is very rare in the United States, with only 41 cases since it was discovered in the United States in 1975. Lab work at CDC and the discovery that all four camp counselors who became ill had slept in the same bunk at the camp between 2004 and 2006 ultimately led to confirmation that flying squirrels living in the wall of the cabin were to blame for the illnesses.  Created: 6/30/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  9. Severe scrub typhus infection: Clinical features, diagnostic challenges and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, John Victor; Sudarsan, Thomas I; Prakash, John Anthony J; Varghese, George M

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus infection is an important cause of acute undifferentiated fever in South East Asia. The clinical picture is characterized by sudden onset fever with chills and non-specific symptoms that include headache, myalgia, sweating and vomiting. The presence of an eschar, in about half the patients with proven scrub typhus infection and usually seen in the axilla, groin or inguinal region, is characteristic of scrub typhus. Common laboratory findings are elevated liver transaminases, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis. About a third of patients admitted to hospital with scrub typhus infection have evidence of organ dysfunction that may include respiratory failure, circulatory shock, mild renal or hepatic dysfunction, central nervous system involvement or hematological abnormalities. Since the symptoms and signs are non-specific and resemble other tropical infections like malaria, enteric fever, dengue or leptospirosis, appropriate laboratory tests are necessary to confirm diagnosis. Serological assays are the mainstay of diagnosis as they are easy to perform; the reference test is the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the detection of IgM antibodies. However in clinical practice, the enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay is done due to the ease of performing this test and a good sensitivity and sensitivity when compared with the IFA. Paired samples, obtained at least two weeks apart, demonstrating a ≥ 4 fold rise in titre, is necessary for confirmation of serologic diagnosis. The mainstay of treatment is the tetracycline group of antibiotics or chloramphenicol although macrolides are used alternatively. In mild cases, recovery is complete. In severe cases with multi-organ failure, mortality may be as high as 24%. PMID:26261776

  10. A Spatiotemporal Database to Track Human Scrub Typhus Using the VectorMap Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl J Kelly

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a potentially fatal mite-borne febrile illness, primarily of the Asia-Pacific Rim. With an endemic area greater than 13 million km2 and millions of people at risk, scrub typhus remains an underreported, often misdiagnosed febrile illness. A comprehensive, updatable map of the true distribution of cases has been lacking, and therefore the true risk of disease within the very large endemic area remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to establish a database and map to track human scrub typhus. An online search using PubMed and the United States Armed Forces Pest Management Board Literature Retrieval System was performed to identify articles describing human scrub typhus cases both within and outside the traditionally accepted endemic regions. Using World Health Organization guidelines, stringent criteria were used to establish diagnoses for inclusion in the database. The preliminary screening of 181 scrub typhus publications yielded 145 publications that met the case criterion, 267 case records, and 13 serosurvey records that could be georeferenced, describing 13,739 probable or confirmed human cases in 28 countries. A map service has been established within VectorMap (www.vectormap.org to explore the role that relative location of vectors, hosts, and the pathogen play in the transmission of mite-borne scrub typhus. The online display of scrub typhus cases in VectorMap illustrates their presence and provides an up-to-date geographic distribution of proven scrub typhus cases.

  11. Climate variability, animal reservoir and transmission of scrub typhus in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuehong; Huang, Yong; Li, Xiaoning; Ma, Yu; Tao, Xia; Wu, Xinwei; Yang, Zhicong

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relationships between climate variability, animal reservoirs and scrub typhus incidence in Southern China. We obtained data on scrub typhus cases in Guangzhou every month from 2006 to 2014 from the Chinese communicable disease network. Time-series Poisson regression models and distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNM) were used to evaluate the relationship between risk factors and scrub typhus. Wavelet analysis found the incidence of scrub typhus cycled with a period of approximately 8-12 months and long-term trends with a period of approximately 24-36 months. The DLNM model shows that relative humidity, rainfall, DTR, MEI and rodent density were associated with the incidence of scrub typhus. Our findings suggest that the incidence scrub typhus has two main temporal cycles. Determining the reason for this trend and how it can be used for disease control and prevention requires additional research. The transmission of scrub typhus is highly dependent on climate factors and rodent density, both of which should be considered in prevention and control strategies for scrub typhus.

  12. Risk factors associated with severe scrub typhus in Shandong, northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyan Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: This study indicates that improved diagnosis and timely treatment are important factors for the prevention of severe scrub typhus. When scrub typhus patients present with a rash, lymphadenopathy, or blood platelet count <100 × 109/l, clinicians should be alert to the appearance of severe complications.

  13. A Spatiotemporal Database to Track Human Scrub Typhus Using the VectorMap Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daryl J; Foley, Desmond H; Richards, Allen L

    2015-12-01

    Scrub typhus is a potentially fatal mite-borne febrile illness, primarily of the Asia-Pacific Rim. With an endemic area greater than 13 million km2 and millions of people at risk, scrub typhus remains an underreported, often misdiagnosed febrile illness. A comprehensive, updatable map of the true distribution of cases has been lacking, and therefore the true risk of disease within the very large endemic area remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to establish a database and map to track human scrub typhus. An online search using PubMed and the United States Armed Forces Pest Management Board Literature Retrieval System was performed to identify articles describing human scrub typhus cases both within and outside the traditionally accepted endemic regions. Using World Health Organization guidelines, stringent criteria were used to establish diagnoses for inclusion in the database. The preliminary screening of 181 scrub typhus publications yielded 145 publications that met the case criterion, 267 case records, and 13 serosurvey records that could be georeferenced, describing 13,739 probable or confirmed human cases in 28 countries. A map service has been established within VectorMap (www.vectormap.org) to explore the role that relative location of vectors, hosts, and the pathogen play in the transmission of mite-borne scrub typhus. The online display of scrub typhus cases in VectorMap illustrates their presence and provides an up-to-date geographic distribution of proven scrub typhus cases.

  14. Coagulation and inflammation in scrub typhus and murine typhusu-a prospective comparative study from Laos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paris, D. H.; Chansamouth, V.; Nawtaisong, P.; Löwenberg, E. C.; Phetsouvanh, R.; Blacksell, S. D.; Lee, S. J.; Dondorp, A. M.; van der Poll, T.; Newton, P. N.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Day, N. P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Scrub typhus (caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi) and murine typhus (caused by Rickettsia typhi) cause up to 28% of febrile episodes in Thailand and Laos. The current understanding of coagulation and inflammation in the pathogenesis of these clinically very similar vasculotropic diseases is limited.

  15. Bartonella quintana and Typhus Group Rickettsiae Exposure among Homeless Persons, Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A; Márquez, Andrea C; Bravo-Estupiñan, Diana M; Calixto, Omar-Javier; López-Castillo, Christian A; Botero-García, Carlos A; Hidalgo, Marylin; Cuervo, Claudia

    2017-11-01

    In 2015, we investigated Bartonella quintana and typhus group rickettsiae in body lice from homeless persons in Bogotá, Colombia. We found B. quintana-infected body lice and seroprevalence of this microorganism in 19% of homeless persons and typhus group rickettsiae in 56%. Public health professionals should start preemptive measures and active vector control.

  16. Murine typhus in two travelers returning from Bali, Indonesia: an underdiagnosed disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Nozomi; Imoto, Kazuya; Ando, Shuji; Yanagisawa, Kunio; Ohji, Goh; Kato, Yasuyuki; Sakata, Akiko; Hosokawa, Naoto; Kishimoto, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    Two Japanese travelers from Bali were diagnosed with murine typhus in Japan during the same period. Although one had only mild illness, the other experienced liver and kidney dysfunction. Murine typhus may be missed not only in endemic areas around the world, but also in travelers, especially those returning from marine resorts in these areas. © 2010 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  17. Bayesian spatial modelling and the significance of agricultural land use to scrub typhus infection in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A; Kuo, Chi-Chien; Wang, Hsi-Chieh; Clements, Archie C A; Lee, Pei-Fen; Atkinson, Peter M

    2013-11-01

    Scrub typhus is transmitted by the larval stage of trombiculid mites. Environmental factors, including land cover and land use, are known to influence breeding and survival of trombiculid mites and, thus, also the spatial heterogeneity of scrub typhus risk. Here, a spatially autoregressive modelling framework was applied to scrub typhus incidence data from Taiwan, covering the period 2003 to 2011, to provide increased understanding of the spatial pattern of scrub typhus risk and the environmental and socioeconomic factors contributing to this pattern. A clear spatial pattern in scrub typhus incidence was observed within Taiwan, and incidence was found to be significantly correlated with several land cover classes, temperature, elevation, normalized difference vegetation index, rainfall, population density, average income and the proportion of the population that work in agriculture. The final multivariate regression model included statistically significant correlations between scrub typhus incidence and average income (negatively correlated), the proportion of land that contained mosaics of cropland and vegetation (positively correlated) and elevation (positively correlated). These results highlight the importance of land cover on scrub typhus incidence: mosaics of cropland and vegetation represent a transitional land cover type which can provide favourable habitats for rodents and, therefore, trombiculid mites. In Taiwan, these transitional land cover areas tend to occur in less populated and mountainous areas, following the frontier establishment and subsequent partial abandonment of agricultural cultivation, due to demographic and socioeconomic changes. Future land use policy decision-making should ensure that potential public health outcomes, such as modified risk of scrub typhus, are considered.

  18. Epidemiology & risk factors of scrub typhus in south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Scrub typhus is a major public health threat in South and Southeastern Asian countries including India. Understanding local patterns of disease and factors that place individuals at risk is pivotal to future preventive measures against scrub typhus. The primary aim of this study was to identify specific epidemiological and geographical factors associated with an increased risk of developing scrub typhus in this region. Methods: We mapped 709 patients from Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana who were admitted to the Christian Medical College (CMC Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India, for the period 2006-2011, assessed seasonality using monthly counts of scrub typhus cases, and conducted a case-control study among a subset of patients residing in Vellore. Results: The geographic distribution of cases at CMC Hospital clusters around the Tamil Nadu-Andhra Pradesh border. However, distinct hotspots clearly exist distal to this area, near Madurai and the coast in Tamil Nadu, and in the Northeast of Andhra Pradesh. Seasonally, the highest numbers of cases were observed in the cooler months of the year, i.e. September to January. In the case-control analysis, cases were more likely to be agricultural laborers (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.01 - 3.15, not wear a shirt at home (OR 4.23, 95% CI 1.12 - 16.3, live in houses adjacent to bushes or shrubs (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.08 - 3.53, and live in a single room home (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.02 - 3.01. On binary logistic regression, the first three of these variables were statistically significant. Interpretation & conclusions: With the growing number of cases detected in India, scrub typhus is fast emerging as a public health threat and further research to protect the population from this deadly infection is essential. Health education campaigns focusing on the agricultural workers of Southern India, especially during the cooler months of the year, can serve as an important public health measure to

  19. Clinical indicators for severe prognosis of scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriwongpan P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pamornsri Sriwongpan,1,2 Pornsuda Krittigamas,3 Pacharee Kantipong,4 Naowarat Kunyanone,5 Jayanton Patumanond,1 Sirianong Namwongprom1,61Clinical Epidemiology Program, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Social Medicine, Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 3Department of General Pediatrics, Nakornping Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 4Department of Internal Medicine, 5Department of Medical Technology, Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 6Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandBackground: The study explored clinical risk characteristics that may be used to forecast scrub typhus severity under routine clinical practices.Methods: Retrospective data were collected from patients registered at two university-affiliated tertiary care hospitals in the north of Thailand, from 2004 to 2010. Key information was retrieved from in-patient records, out patient cards, laboratory reports and registers. Patients were classified into three severity groups: nonsevere, severe (those with at least one organ involvement, and deceased. Prognostic characteristics for scrub typhus severity were analyzed by a multivariable ordinal continuation ratio regression.Results: A total of 526 patients were classified into nonsevere (n = 357, severe (n = 100, and deceased (n = 69. The significant multivariable prognostic characteristics for scrub typhus severity were increased body temperature (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.45–0.74, P < 0.001, increased pulse rate (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01–1.05, P < 0.001, presence of crepitation (OR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.52–6.96, P = 0.001, increased percentage of lymphocytes (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95–0.98, P = 0.001, increased aspartate aminotransferase (every 10 IU/L (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02–1.06, P < 0.001, increased serum albumin (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.27–0.80, P = 0

  20. Acute transverse myelitis following scrub typhus: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hyun-Seung; Moon, Bong Ju; Park, Jae-Young; Kim, Sang-Deok; Seo, Seung-Kwon; Lee, Jung-Kil

    2018-01-19

    Context Scrub typhus is an acute febrile disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. The disease can usually involve the lungs, heart, liver, spleen and brain through hematogenous dissemination. However, very rarely, acute transverse myelitis in the spinal cord develops from scrub typhus. We present a case of acute transverse myelitis following scrub typhus with a review of the literature. Findings A 66-year-old male visited a hospital for general myalgia, mild headache, and fever in October. He was noted to have thick, black papule skin on his abdomen, which was highly suggestive of scrub typhus. To confirm the diagnosis, O. tsutsugamushi antibody titers were examined and detected highly in serum by an indirect fluorescence antibody assay. Doxycycline, the standard treatment for scrub typhus, was administered. However, after seven days of treatment, he rapidly developed weakness in the right leg, paresthesia in both lower limbs, and voiding difficulty. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed lesions with high signal intensity involving the spinal cord at the thoracolumbar junction. Paraparesis gradually improved following steroid pulse therapy for five days. At one-year follow-up, he could walk without cane. Conclusions Orientia tsutsugamushi causes scrub typhus, which can affect not only the brain, but also the spinal cord. Although acute transverse myelitis develops rarely from scrub typhus, this should be considered as differential diagnosis in patients of fever with neurological deficit in endemic areas.

  1. Scrub typhus, a disease with increasing threat in Guangdong, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu De

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid increase in the number of scrub typhus cases in Guangdong Province, China. For this reason, an epidemiologic study was conducted to understand the characteristics of scrub typhus epidemics in Guangdong. From 2006 to 2013, the incidence of human cases increased from 0.4321 to 3.5917 per 100,000 with a bimodal peak in human cases typically occurring between May and November. To detect the prevalence of Orientia tsutsugamushi among suspected human cases and rodents, we performed ELISA tests of IgM/IgG and nested PCR tests on 59 whole blood samples from the suspected cases and 112 spleen samples from the rodents. Suspected cases tested positive for anti-O. tsutsugamushi IgM and IgG 66.1% (39/59 and 50.8% (30/59 of the time, respectively. Additionally, 20.3% (12/59 of blood samples and 13.4% (15/112 of spleen samples were positive for PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that there were four definable clusters among the 27 nucleotide sequences of the 56-kDa antigen genes: 44.4% Karp (12/27, 25.9% Kato (7/27, 22.2% Gilliam (6/27 and 7.4% TA763 (2/27. We concluded many suspected cases may result in diagnostic errors; therefore, it is necessary to perform laboratory tests on suspected cases in hospitals. The high infection rate of O. tsutsugamushi among the limited rodents tested suggested that further rodent sampling throughout the province is necessary to further define high-risk areas. Furthermore, the multiple co-circulating genotypes of O. tsutsugamushi play a key role in the pervasiveness of scrub typhus in the Guangdong area.

  2. CLINICAL PROFILE, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PROGNOSTIC FACTORS IN SCRUB TYPHUS

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    Priyadarshini B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Scrub typhus is an underdiagnosed disease, but potentially treatable, if diagnosis is made with high index of suspicion. Deaths are attributable to late presentation, delayed diagnosis and drug resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was an observational study of prospective design conducted in the Department of General Medicine, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, over a period of one year. History, physical examination and relevant lab investigations were done in 70 patients in the study. RESULTS Majority of patients were in working class. Most common physical finding was lymphadenopathy. Eschar was present in 46% of patients. Majority responded to doxycycline. Case fatality was 14.3%. CONCLUSION 1. Most cases occurred during cooler months of the year (Oct-Feb. 2. Fever and headache were the most common symptoms. 3. Lymphadenopathy was the most common sign followed by splenomegaly. 4. Eschar was present in 46% cases. 5. Leucocytosis was associated with poor prognosis and increased complication like meningoencephalitis. 6. Hypoalbuminaemia was associated with increased incidence of complications like myocarditis and encephalitis. 7. More than 2 times, elevation of transaminases was a poor prognostic marker. 8. Most common and important complication was Acute Kidney Injury (AKI. 9. Microangiopathic haemolysis could possibly be a contributory factor for high incidence of AKI associated with scrub typhus. 10. Rampant NSAID use is another contributory factor for high incidence of AKI associated with scrub typhus. 11. Resistance to doxycycline is emerging in our community and we should consider this possibility in cases with strong suspicion with no response to doxycycline.

  3. Bilateral Symmetrical Brachial Plexopathy in Association with Scrub Typhus: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a commonly encountered rickettsial disease of the Indian subcontinent caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. It can be associated with various neurological manifestations. We report a case of 50 year old man with bilateral symmetrical brachial plexopathy associated with scrub typhus from the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand state. The initial manifestations were fever, bodyaches and weakness in both upper limbs. Laboratory reports confirmed the diagnosis of scrub typhus. EMG and NCV were strongly suggestive of upper brachial plexopathy. Patient was discharged in satisfactory condition

  4. First case of scrub typhus with meningoencephalitis from Kerala: An emerging infectious threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Saifudheen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a rickettsial disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, one of the most common infectious diseases in the Asia-Pacific region. It has been reported from northern, eastern, and southern India, and its presence has been documented in at least 11 Indian states. However, scrub typhus meningoencephalitis has not been well documented in Kerala. We report two cases of scrub typhus meningoencephalitis from northern Kerala. The diagnosis was made based on the clinical pictures, presence of eschar, and a positive Weil-Felix test with a titer of > 1:320. The first patient succumbed to illness due to respiratory failure and the second patient improved well.

  5. Identification of factors for physicians to facilitate early differential diagnosis of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and Q fever from dengue fever in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ko; Lee, Nan-Yao; Ko, Wen-Chien; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Lin, Wei-Ru; Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lu, Po-Liang; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2017-02-01

    Dengue fever, rickettsial diseases, and Q fever are acute febrile illnesses with similar manifestations in tropical areas. Early differential diagnosis of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and Q fever from dengue fever may be made by understanding the distinguishing clinical characteristics and the significance of demographic and weather factors. We conducted a retrospective study to identify clinical, demographic, and meteorological characteristics of 454 dengue fever, 178 scrub typhus, 143 Q fever, and 81 murine typhus cases in three Taiwan hospitals. Case numbers of murine typhus and Q fever correlated significantly with temperature and rainfall; the scrub typhus case number was only significantly related with temperature. Neither temperature nor rainfall correlated with the case number of dengue fever. The rarity of dengue fever cases from January to June in Taiwan may be a helpful clue for diagnosis in the area. A male predominance was observed, as the male-to-female rate was 2.1 for murine typhus and 7.4 for Q fever. Multivariate analysis revealed the following six important factors for differentiating the rickettsial diseases and Q fever group from the dengue fever group: fever ≥8 days, alanine aminotransferase > aspartate aminotransferase, platelets >63,000/mL, C-reactive protein >31.9 mg/L, absence of bone pain, and absence of a bleeding syndrome. Understanding the rarity of dengue in the first half of a year in Taiwan and the six differentiating factors may help facilitate the early differential diagnosis of rickettsial diseases and Q fever from dengue fever, permitting early antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Mexican Parenting Questionnaire (MPQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgunseth, Linda C.; Ispa, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted in four phases and constructed a self-report parenting instrument for use with Mexican immigrant mothers of children aged 6 to 10. The 14-item measure was based on semistructured qualitative interviews with Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 10), was refined by a focus group of Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 5), and was…

  7. Scrub typhus islands in the Taiwan area and the association between scrub typhus disease and forest land use and farmer population density: geographically weighted regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Taiwan area comprises the main island of Taiwan and several small islands located off the coast of the Southern China. The eastern two-thirds of Taiwan are characterized by rugged mountains covered with tropical and subtropical vegetation. The western region of Taiwan is characterized by flat or gently rolling plains. Geographically, the Taiwan area is diverse in ecology and environment, although scrub typhus threatens local human populations. In this study, we investigate the effects of seasonal and meteorological factors on the incidence of scrub typhus infection among 10 local climate regions. The correlation between the spatial distribution of scrub typhus and cultivated forests in Taiwan, as well as the relationship between scrub typhus incidence and the population density of farm workers is examined. Methods We applied Pearson’s product moment correlation to calculate the correlation between the incidence of scrub typhus and meteorological factors among 10 local climate regions. We used the geographically weighted regression (GWR) method, a type of spatial regression that generates parameters disaggregated by the spatial units of analysis, to detail and map each regression point for the response variables of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR)-district scrub typhus. We also applied the GWR to examine the explanatory variables of types of forest-land use and farm worker density in Taiwan in 2005. Results In the Taiwan Area, scrub typhus endemic areas are located in the southeastern regions and mountainous townships of Taiwan, as well as the Pescadore, Kinmen, and Matou Islands. Among these islands and low-incidence areas in the central western and southwestern regions of Taiwan, we observed a significant correlation between scrub typhus incidence and surface temperature. No similar significant correlation was found in the endemic areas (e.g., the southeastern region and the mountainous area of Taiwan). Precipitation correlates positively

  8. The genotypes of Orientia tsutsugamushi, identified in scrub typhus patients in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hang L K; Pham, Hang T T; Nguyen, Tinh V; Hoang, Phuong Vm; Le, Mai T Q; Takemura, Taichiro; Hasebe, Futoshi; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Yamada, Akio; Hotta, Kozue

    2017-03-01

    There are an estimated one million patients with scrub typhus in the Asia-Pacific region. There are few reports describing the incidence of scrub typhus in Vietnam. Blood samples collected from 63 patients clinically diagnosed as having scrub typhus from July 2015 to September 2016 were subjected to genotyping of Orientia tsutsugamushi. Of these patients, 42 (67%) tested positive for O. tsutsugamushi, and the most common genotype was identified to be Karp (55%). Other genotypes, TA763, Gilliam type in Japan variant, and Kato were also found in 17%, 17% and 12% of patients, respectively. To better understand the epidemiological landscape of scrub typhus in Vietnam, a countrywide study is needed. LC110330-LC110333, LC110336-LC110351 and LC214804-LC214825. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Acute Febrile Illness and Complications Due to Murine Typhus, Texas, USA1,2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Zeeshan; Kallumadanda, Sunand; Wang, Feng; Hemmige, Vagish; Musher, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Murine typhus occurs relatively commonly in southern Texas, as well as in California. We reviewed records of 90 adults and children in whom murine typhus was diagnosed during a 3-year period in 2 hospitals in southern Texas, USA. Most patients lacked notable comorbidities; all were immunocompetent. Initial signs and symptoms included fever (99%), malaise (82%), headache (77%), fatigue (70%), myalgias (68%), and rash (39%). Complications, often severe, in 28% of patients included bronchiolitis, pneumonia, meningitis, septic shock, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, myositis, and rhabdomyolysis; the last 3 are previously unreported in murine typhus. Low serum albumin and elevated procalcitonin, consistent with bacterial sepsis, were observed in >70% of cases. Rash was more common in children; thrombocytopenia, hyponatremia, elevated hepatic transaminases, and complications were more frequent in adults. Murine typhus should be considered as a diagnostic possibility in cases of acute febrile illness in southern and even in more northern US states.

  10. A Comparative Study of Hepatitis Caused by Scrub Typhus and Viral Hepatitis A in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Dong-Min; Yun, Na Ra; Byeon, Yu Mi; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Man Woo; Han, Mi Ah

    2011-01-01

    We compared clinical features and laboratory findings of 104 patients with hepatitis A and 197 patients with scrub typhus. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, and jaundice were common in patient with hepatitis A, and fever and headache were significantly more common in patients with scrub typhus. At presentation, an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level ≥ 500 U/L was observed in 1% of scrub typhus patients and in 87.5% of hepatitis A patients (P hepatitis A patients. The ALT:lactate dehydrogenase ratio was ≤ 5 in 97.4% of the patients with scrub typhus and > 5 in 95.2% of those with hepatitis A (P 5, and hepatomegaly are indications of viral hepatitis A. PMID:22049041

  11. A comparative study of hepatitis caused by scrub typhus and viral hepatitis A in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Dong-Min; Yun, Na Ra; Byeon, Yu Mi; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Man Woo; Han, Mi Ah

    2011-11-01

    We compared clinical features and laboratory findings of 104 patients with hepatitis A and 197 patients with scrub typhus. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, and jaundice were common in patient with hepatitis A, and fever and headache were significantly more common in patients with scrub typhus. At presentation, an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level ≥ 500 U/L was observed in 1% of scrub typhus patients and in 87.5% of hepatitis A patients (P hepatitis A patients. The ALT:lactate dehydrogenase ratio was ≤ 5 in 97.4% of the patients with scrub typhus and > 5 in 95.2% of those with hepatitis A (P 5, and hepatomegaly are indications of viral hepatitis A.

  12. Meteorological factors and risk of scrub typhus in Guangzhou, southern China, 2006–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is becoming the most common vector born disease in Guangzhou, southern China. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of weather patterns on the incidence of Scrub typhus in the subtropical city of Guangzhou for the period 2006–2012, and assist public health prevention and control measures. Methods Scrub typhus reported cases during the period of 2006–2012 in Guangzhou were obtained from National Notifiable Disease Report System (NNDRS). Simultaneous meteorological data including temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, sunshine, and rainfall were obtained from the documentation of the Guangzhou Meteorological Bureau. A negative binomial regression was used to identify the relationship between meteorological variables and scrub typhus. Results Annual incidence rates of scrub typhus from 2006 to 2012 were 3.25, 2.67, 3.81, 4.22, 4.41, 5.12, and 9.75 (per 100 000) respectively. Each 1°C rise in temperature corresponded to an increase of 14.98% (95% CI 13.65% to 16.33%) in the monthly number of scrub typhus cases, while a 1 hPa rise in atmospheric pressure corresponded to a decrease in the number of cases by 8.03% (95% CI −8.75% to −7.31%). Similarly, a 1 hour rise in sunshine corresponded to an increase of 0.17% or 0.54%, and a 1 millimeter rise in rainfall corresponded to an increase of 0.05% or 0.10%, in the monthly number of scrub typhus cases, depending on the variables considered in the model. Conclusion Our study provided evidence that climatic factors were associated with occurrence of scrub typhus in Guangzhou city, China. Temperature, duration of sunshine, and rainfall were positively associated with scrub typhus incidence, while atmospheric pressure was inversely associated with scrub typhus incidence. These findings should be considered in the prediction of future patterns of scrub typhus transmission. PMID:24620733

  13. The pathologic splenic rupture of a patient with scrub typhus: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kum Rae; Park, Won Kyu; Chang, Jay Chun; Cho, Jae Ho; Kim, Jae Woon; Hwang, Mi Soo; Park, Bok Hwan

    2008-01-01

    A pathologic splenic rupture is rare, occurring primarily in a spleen affected by infective, hematological, and neoplastic disease. To the best of our knowledge, no prior reports of a pathologic splenic rupture due to scrub typhus exist. Intrasplenic pseudoaneurysms and focal infarctions are visible on an initial CT scan. Moreover, the spontaneous splenic rupture occurred a week later. We report a case of nontraumatic-splenic rupture in a patient with scrub typhus

  14. The pathologic splenic rupture of a patient with scrub typhus: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kum Rae; Park, Won Kyu; Chang, Jay Chun; Cho, Jae Ho; Kim, Jae Woon; Hwang, Mi Soo; Park, Bok Hwan [College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    A pathologic splenic rupture is rare, occurring primarily in a spleen affected by infective, hematological, and neoplastic disease. To the best of our knowledge, no prior reports of a pathologic splenic rupture due to scrub typhus exist. Intrasplenic pseudoaneurysms and focal infarctions are visible on an initial CT scan. Moreover, the spontaneous splenic rupture occurred a week later. We report a case of nontraumatic-splenic rupture in a patient with scrub typhus.

  15. Q Fever, Scrub Typhus, and Rickettsial Diseases in Children, Kenya, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Alice N; Farris, Christina M; Odhiambo, Antony; Jiang, Ju; Laktabai, Jeremiah; Armstrong, Janice; Holland, Thomas; Richards, Allen L; O'Meara, Wendy P

    2016-05-01

    To increase knowledge of undifferentiated fevers in Kenya, we tested paired serum samples from febrile children in western Kenya for antibodies against pathogens increasingly recognized to cause febrile illness in Africa. Of patients assessed, 8.9%, 22.4%, 1.1%, and 3.6% had enhanced seroreactivity to Coxiella burnetii, spotted fever group rickettsiae, typhus group rickettsiae, and scrub typhus group orientiae, respectively.

  16. [Epidemiology of scrub typhus and influencing factors in Yunnan province, 2006-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Shi, C; Li, X L; Fang, L Q; Cao, W C

    2018-01-10

    Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of scrub typhu s and influencing factors in Yunnan province, and provide further information for the prevention and control of scrub typhus. Methods: Based on the incidence data of scrub typhus reported in Yunnan from 2006 to 2013, the epidemiological characteristics of scrub typhus were analyzed and related environmental factors were identified with panel negative binomial regression model. Results: A total of 8 980 scrub typhus cases were reported during 2006-2013 in Yunnan. The average annual incidence was 2.46/100 000, with an uptrend observed. Natural focus expansion was found, affecting 71.3% of the counties in 2013. The epidemic mainly occurred in summer and autumn with the incidence peak during July-October. The annual incidence was higher in females than in males. More cases occurred in children and farmers, the proportions of cases in farmers and pre-school aged children showed an obvious increase. Panel negative binomial regression model indicated that the transmission risk of scrub typhus was positive associated with monthly temperature and monthly relative humidity. Furthermore, an "U" pattern between the risk and the increased coverage of cropland and grassland as well as an "inverted-U" pattern between the risk and increased coverage of shrub were observed. Conclusion: It is necessary to strengthen the scrub typhus surveillance in warm and moist areas as well as the areas with high coverage of cropland and grassland in Yunnan, and the health education in children and farmers who are at high risk.

  17. Meteorological factors affecting scrub typhus occurrence: a retrospective study of Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, 1984-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, J; Suzuki, Y; Nakao, R; Otani, K; Yahagi, K; Mizuta, K

    2017-02-01

    Climate change, by its influence on the ecology of vectors might affect the occurrence of vector-borne diseases. This study examines the effects of meteorological factors in Japan on the occurrence of scrub typhus, a mite-borne zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Using negative binomial regression, we analysed the relationships between meteorological factors (including temperature, rainfall, snowfall) and spring-early summer cases of scrub typhus in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, during 1984-2014. The average temperature in July and August of the previous year, cumulative rainfall in September of the previous year, snowfall throughout the winter, and maximum depth of snow cover in January and February were positively correlated with the number of scrub typhus cases. By contrast, cumulative rainfall in July of the previous year showed a negative relationship to the number of cases. These associations can be explained by the life-cycle of Leptotrombidium pallidum, a predominant vector of spring-early summer cases of scrub typhus in northern Japan. Our findings show that several meteorological factors are useful to estimate the number of scrub typhus cases before the endemic period. They are applicable to establish an early warning system for scrub typhus in northern Japan.

  18. Risk factors associated with severe scrub typhus in Shandong, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyan; Zhao, Zhongtang; Bi, Zhenwang; Kou, Zengqiang; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Li; Zheng, Li

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with severe scrub typhus, in order to provide a reference for clinical decision-making. A case-control study was conducted of scrub typhus patients who presented at local hospitals between 2010 and 2013. In total, 46 patients with severe scrub typhus complications (cases) and 194 without severe complications (controls) were included. There were significant differences in the duration of illness before effective antibiotic therapy, lymphadenopathy, rash, blood platelet count, white blood cell (WBC) count, percentage neutrophils, and percentage lymphocytes between the case and control groups. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the following four factors were significantly associated with the severe complications of scrub typhus: (1) duration of illness before effective antibiotic therapy (odds ratio (OR) 2.287, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.096-4.770); (2) the presence of a rash (OR 3.694, 95% CI 1.300-10.495); (3) lymphadenopathy (OR 2.438, 95% CI 1.090-5.458); (4) blood platelet count scrub typhus. When scrub typhus patients present with a rash, lymphadenopathy, or blood platelet count <100×10(9)/l, clinicians should be alert to the appearance of severe complications. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Hematogenously disseminated Orientia tsutsugamushi-infected murine model of scrub typhus [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Shelite

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientia tsutsugamushi, the etiologic agent of scrub typhus, is a mite-borne rickettsia transmitted by the parasitic larval stage of trombiculid mites. Approximately one-third of the world's population is at risk of infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi, emphasizing its importance in global health. In order to study scrub typhus, Orientia tsutsugamushi Karp strain has been used extensively in mouse studies with various inoculation strategies and little success in inducing disease progression similar to that of human scrub typhus. The objective of this project was to develop a disease model with pathology and target cells similar to those of severe human scrub typhus. This study reports an intravenous infection model of scrub typhus in C57BL/6 mice. This mouse strain was susceptible to intravenous challenge, and lethal infection occurred after intravenous inoculation of 1.25 × 10(6 focus (FFU forming units. Signs of illness in lethally infected mice appeared on day 6 with death occurring ∼ 6 days later. Immunohistochemical staining for Orientia antigens demonstrated extensive endothelial infection, most notably in the lungs and brain. Histopathological analysis revealed cerebral perivascular, lymphohistiocytic infiltrates, focal hemorrhages, meningoencephalitis, and interstitial pneumonia. Disseminated infection of endothelial cells with Orientia in C57BL/6 mice resulted in pathology resembling that of human scrub typhus. The use of this model will allow detailed characterization of the mechanisms of immunity to and pathogenesis of O. tsutsugamushi infection.

  20. Uncommon manifestations of scrub typhus encephalitis in two cases: Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings

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    Heo, Young Jin; Jeong, Hae Woong [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Scrub typhus is a well-known acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. This disease has multiorgan involvement, which includes the lungs, heart, liver, spleen, and the central or peripheral nervous system. Scrub typhus involving the central nervous system (CNS) is not rare. However, meningitis and meningoencephalitis can cause changes in mentation and death and are therefore associated with a poor prognosis. We report two consecutive cases of scrub typhus with CNS involvement. One patient presented with extensive white matter involvement, similar to that observed in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, whereas the other patient presented with subependymal enhancement along the lateral ventricles. To the best of our knowledge, scrub typhus encephalitis, with extensive white matter involvement and subependymal enhancement, are very rarely described findings in the previous literature. Our patients did not show complete recovery, but the symptoms resolved with treatment. Recognizing these uncommon radiologic findings of scrub typhus may be helpful in the early diagnosis of scrub typhus with CNS involvement, which may alter the prognoses of patients.

  1. Uncommon manifestations of scrub typhus encephalitis in two cases: Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Young Jin; Jeong, Hae Woong

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus is a well-known acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. This disease has multiorgan involvement, which includes the lungs, heart, liver, spleen, and the central or peripheral nervous system. Scrub typhus involving the central nervous system (CNS) is not rare. However, meningitis and meningoencephalitis can cause changes in mentation and death and are therefore associated with a poor prognosis. We report two consecutive cases of scrub typhus with CNS involvement. One patient presented with extensive white matter involvement, similar to that observed in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, whereas the other patient presented with subependymal enhancement along the lateral ventricles. To the best of our knowledge, scrub typhus encephalitis, with extensive white matter involvement and subependymal enhancement, are very rarely described findings in the previous literature. Our patients did not show complete recovery, but the symptoms resolved with treatment. Recognizing these uncommon radiologic findings of scrub typhus may be helpful in the early diagnosis of scrub typhus with CNS involvement, which may alter the prognoses of patients

  2. Epidemiology of scrub typhus and the eschars patterns in South Korea from 2008 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hyuk; Kim, Sun-Ja; Youn, Seung-Ki; Park, Kisoo; Gwack, Jin

    2014-01-01

    In South Korea, scrub typhus is the most common acute febrile illness in autumn. We analyzed scrub typhus cases reported from 2008 to 2012 to describe the epidemiology of scrub typhus as well as eschar patterns. A total of 30,478 cases were reported from 2008 to 2012; the incidence rates were higher in the southern and western regions of South Korea. The common clinical symptoms of confirmed scrub typhus cases from 2010 to 2012 were fever/chills (95.2%), eschars (78.9%), and myalgia (61.7%). The primary sites of eschars were the lower extremities (19.0%), abdomen/waist (13.4%), and axilla (11.5%) in men and the shoulder/frontal chest (15.1%), lower extremities (14.5%), and abdomen/waist (13.6%) in women. Regardless of gender, eschars tended to be more on the lower extremities among the leisure activities group. Among the occupational farm work group, who usually lived in rural areas, eschars appeared most frequently on the abdomen/waist in men and on the shoulder/frontal chest in women. Eschar patterns were influenced by gender and activities. These results could facilitate the prevention of scrub typhus and clarify the current status of scrub typhus in South Korea.

  3. Scrub typhus infection presenting as acute heart failure: A case report and systematic review of literature of cardiopulmonary involvement in scrub typhus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Ray

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a middle aged previoulsy healthy female patient who presented with clinical features suggestive of acute heart failure. Investigations revealed very high NT pro-BNP, right heart enlargement, bilateral pulmonary alveolar edema and bilateral pleural effusion. In view of falling platelet counts and exudative pleural effusion inflammatory/infective causes were considered. Her Weil Felix test was strongly positive and IgM for scrub typhus also returned positive. She was started on doxycycline to which there was dramatic improvement. Thus in this case scrub typhus infection presented as acute right heart failure and the cause seemed elusive at the outset.We also systematically reviewed the existing literature on cardio-pulmonary manifestations of scrub typhus infection.

  4. Scrub typhus: risks, diagnostic issues, and management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash JAJ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available John Antony Jude Prakash Department of Clinical Microbiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness in the “tsutsugamushi triangle”, transmitted by chiggers that can be treated effectively if detected early. Laboratory testing, including molecular and serological assays, is needed for confirming the diagnosis, especially in the absence of the pathognomonic eschar. In this review, factors that play a role in disease occurrence and clinical clues for diagnosis, in addition to risk factors contributing to disease severity, including mortality, are discussed in detail. Moreover, issues related to diagnostic assays, treatment, and mixed infections are also enumerated and described. Keywords: Orientia tsutsugamushi, disease severity, mortality predictors, diagnosis, coinfections, treatment

  5. Differential diagnosis of scrub typhus meningitis from tuberculous meningitis using clinical and laboratory features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valappil, Ashraf V; Thiruvoth, Sohanlal; Peedikayil, Jabir M; Raghunath, Praveenkumar; Thekkedath, Manojan

    2017-12-01

    The involvement of the central nervous system in the form of meningitis or meningoencephalitis is common in scrub typhus and is an important differential diagnosis of other lymphocytic meningitis like tuberculous meningitis (TBM). The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and laboratory parameters that may be helpful in differentiating scrub typhus meningitis from TBM. We compared of the clinical and laboratory features of 57 patients admitted with scrub typhus meningitis or TBM during a 3-year period. Patients who had abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and positive scrub typhus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serology (n=28) were included in the scrub typhus meningitis group, while the TBM group included those who satisfied the consensus diagnostic criteria of TBM (n=29). Compared with the TBM group, the mean duration of symptoms was less in patients with scrub typhus meningitis, who also had a lower magnitude of neurological deficits, such as altered mental status and cranial nerve and motor deficits. Patients with scrub typhus meningitis had a lower CSF white blood-cell count (WBC) than the TBM group (130.8±213 195±175 cells/mm 3 , P=0.002), lower CSF protein elevation (125±120 vs. 195.2±108.2mg/dl, P=0.002), and higher CSF sugar (70.1±32.4 vs. 48.7±23.4mg/dl, P=0.006). Features predictive of the diagnosis of scrub typhus meningitis included the absence of neurological impairment at presentation, blood serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase>40 international units (IU)/L, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase>60 IU/L, total blood leukocyte count>10,000/mm 3 , CSF protein50mg/dl, CSF WBC<100 cells/mm 3 . All patients with scrub typhus meningitis recovered completely following doxycycline therapy CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that, clinical features, including duration of fever, neurological deficits at presentation and laboratory parameters such as CSF pleocytosis,CSF protein elevation, CSF sugar levels and liver enzyme values are helpful in

  6. Clinical Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit for Scrub Typhus with Improved Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Sungman; Premaratna, Ranjan; Selvaraj, Stephen; Park, Sang-Jin; Kim, Sora; Kim, Donghwan; Kim, Min Soo; Shin, Dong Hoon; Choi, Kyung-Chan; Kwon, Soon-Hwan; Seo, Wonjun; Lee, Nam Taek; Kim, Seung-Han; Kang, Heui Keun; Kim, Yoon-Won

    2016-08-01

    Diagnosis of scrub typhus is challenging due to its more than twenty serotypes and the similar clinical symptoms with other acute febrile illnesses including leptospirosis, murine typhus and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Accuracy and rapidity of a diagnostic test to Orientia tsutsugamushi is an important step to diagnose this disease. To discriminate scrub typhus from other diseases, the improved ImmuneMed Scrub Typhus Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) was evaluated in Korea and Sri Lanka. The sensitivity at the base of each IgM and IgG indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) in Korean patients was 98.6% and 97.1%, and the specificity was 98.2% and 97.7% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for retrospective diagnosis at the base of IFA in Sri Lanka was 92.1% and 96.1%. ImmuneMed RDT was not reactive to any serum from seventeen diseases including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (n = 48), leptospirosis (n = 23), and murine typhus (n = 48). ImmuneMed RDT shows superior sensitivity (98.6% and 97.1%) compared with SD Bioline RDT (84.4% at IgM and 83.3% at IgG) in Korea. The retrospective diagnosis of ImmuneMed RDT exhibits 94.0% identity with enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using South India patient serum samples. These results suggest that this RDT can replace other diagnostic tests and is applicable for global diagnosis of scrub typhus. This rapid and accurate diagnosis will be beneficial for diagnosing and managing scrub typhus.

  7. A Systematic Review of Mortality from Untreated Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Taylor

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus, a bacterial infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is increasingly recognized as an important cause of fever in Asia, with an estimated one million infections occurring each year. Limited access to health care and the disease's non-specific symptoms mean that many patients are undiagnosed and untreated, but the mortality from untreated scrub typhus is unknown. This review systematically summarizes the literature on the untreated mortality from scrub typhus and disease outcomes.A literature search was performed to identify patient series containing untreated patients. Patients were included if they were symptomatic and had a clinical or laboratory diagnosis of scrub typhus and excluded if they were treated with antibiotics. The primary outcome was mortality from untreated scrub typhus and secondary outcomes were total days of fever, clinical symptoms, and laboratory results. A total of 76 studies containing 89 patient series and 19,644 patients were included in the final analysis. The median mortality of all patient series was 6.0% with a wide range (min-max of 0-70%. Many studies used clinical diagnosis alone and had incomplete data on secondary outcomes. Mortality varied by location and increased with age and in patients with myocarditis, delirium, pneumonitis, or signs of hemorrhage, but not according to sex or the presence of an eschar or meningitis. Duration of fever was shown to be long (median 14.4 days Range (9-19.Results show that the untreated mortality from scrub typhus appears lower than previously reported estimates. More data are required to clarify mortality according to location and host factors, clinical syndromes including myocarditis and central nervous system disease, and in vulnerable mother-child populations. Increased surveillance and improved access to diagnostic tests are required to accurately estimate the untreated mortality of scrub typhus. This information would facilitate reliable quantification of

  8. A Systematic Review of Mortality from Untreated Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew J; Paris, Daniel H; Newton, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus, a bacterial infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is increasingly recognized as an important cause of fever in Asia, with an estimated one million infections occurring each year. Limited access to health care and the disease's non-specific symptoms mean that many patients are undiagnosed and untreated, but the mortality from untreated scrub typhus is unknown. This review systematically summarizes the literature on the untreated mortality from scrub typhus and disease outcomes. A literature search was performed to identify patient series containing untreated patients. Patients were included if they were symptomatic and had a clinical or laboratory diagnosis of scrub typhus and excluded if they were treated with antibiotics. The primary outcome was mortality from untreated scrub typhus and secondary outcomes were total days of fever, clinical symptoms, and laboratory results. A total of 76 studies containing 89 patient series and 19,644 patients were included in the final analysis. The median mortality of all patient series was 6.0% with a wide range (min-max) of 0-70%. Many studies used clinical diagnosis alone and had incomplete data on secondary outcomes. Mortality varied by location and increased with age and in patients with myocarditis, delirium, pneumonitis, or signs of hemorrhage, but not according to sex or the presence of an eschar or meningitis. Duration of fever was shown to be long (median 14.4 days Range (9-19)). Results show that the untreated mortality from scrub typhus appears lower than previously reported estimates. More data are required to clarify mortality according to location and host factors, clinical syndromes including myocarditis and central nervous system disease, and in vulnerable mother-child populations. Increased surveillance and improved access to diagnostic tests are required to accurately estimate the untreated mortality of scrub typhus. This information would facilitate reliable quantification of DALYs and

  9. Predictors of acute myocarditis in complicated scrub typhus: an endemic province in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jung Yeon; Kang, Ki-Woon; Moon, Kyung Min; Kim, Jongwoo; Choi, Yu Jeong

    2018-03-01

    Scrub typhus is known as a self-limited infectious disease. Cardiac complication is uncommon and usually not life-threatening. Until now, few cases of fulminant myocarditis by scrub typhus have been reported. So, we investigated incidence and predictors of acute myocarditis in severe scrub typhus. We retrospectively reviewed 89 patients among 91 scrub typhus confirmed patients who examined an echocardiogram and cardiac biomarkers from 2005 to 2015 in the intensive care unit at our hospital. We excluded two patients who didn't have electrocardiography. Patients were divided into two groups and compared between scrub typhus with (n = 13) and without (n = 76) acute myocarditis. Age, sex, and underlying diseases were similar between the groups. The existence of eschar and duration of general ache and fever were similar between the groups. However, patients with acute myocarditis had more elevated total bilirubin, high incidence of ST elevations and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) than those without acute myocarditis. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the PAF was a predictor of myocarditis with a sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 84%. Predictive power of combination of ST-segment elevation and PAF was significantly associated with myocarditis in the multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 11.7; p = 0.041) and area under the curve was 0.947 (95% CI, 0.878 to 0.983; p scrub typhus may be more common than previously reported. Patients with high bilirubin and PAF are at increased risk of acute myocarditis with scrub typhus. These patients warrant closer follow-up and echocardiogram would be needed.

  10. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canedo, Luis

    2008-01-01

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years

  11. Genotyping of the human papilloma virus in a group of Mexican women treated in a highly specialist hospital: Multiple infections and their potential transcendence in the current vaccination programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Morelos, Pablo; Uribe-Jiménez, Arizbett; Bandala, Cindy; Poot-Vélez, Albros; Ornelas-Corral, Nora; Rodríguez-Esquivel, Miriam; Valdespino-Zavala, Mariana; Taniguchi, Keiko; Marrero-Rodríguez, Daniel; López-Romero, Ricardo; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2017-10-11

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is one of the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical cancer and its precursor lesions. It has been reported that HPV16 and 18 types cover approximately 70% of cervical cancer worldwide; however, significant variation in percentages of HPV infections could be related to specific populations. Purified DNA of 67 cervical samples were analyzed by Linear Array® HPV genotyping kit. These analyzed samples correspond to 19 cervical tumors, 15 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 20 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 13 cervical samples without injury were studied, all of them previously diagnosed. In general, 16 different HPV types were found with differences in their frequencies, cervical invasive cancer being the richest in HPV sequences, followed by the low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and then high-grade lesions. HPV16 was the most frequently distributed type in neoplastic lesions of the cervix, followed by the HPV52, suggesting viral type variability, probably associated to the geographical region studied. The results could indicate variability in HPV presence in Mexico, underlining the important role for HPV52 among others in the Mexican population. This would also potentially have an impact on the current anti-HPV vaccination schemes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Typhus Exanthematicus in Romania During the Second World War (1940-1945) Reflected by Romanian Medical Journals of the Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeican, Ionuţ Isaia; Botiş, Florin Ovidiu; Gheban, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a picture of exanthematic Typhus in Romania during the Second World War: epidemiological aspects of this disease in the inner zone and in the zone of military operations, as well as information about the diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of the Typhus in our country during this period.

  13. Scrub typhus re-emergence in India: Contributing factors and way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Jai; Prakash, John Antony Jude

    2018-06-01

    Scrub typhus is a mite borne infectious disease which has re-emerged in India in the 3rd millennium after years of quiescence. In this review, the authors hypothesize the various factors responsible for resurgence of this disease. The main drivers that could have contributed to the upsurge in scrub typhus cases in past two decades are changes in land use land cover (LULC) and urbanisation which are; as a result of the population explosion, causing a strain on sanitation and also increased diversion of forest land for agricultural use. In addition, the availability of better tests, changes in antimicrobial use, climate change also could have impacted the epidemiology, which is showing an upward trend as is evidenced by increasing reports and concomitant publications from India on scrub typhus. Scrub typhus cases are supposed to increase in the coming years as factors like global warming, urbanisation, changes in LULC and rise in AMR (anti-microbial resistance) will be difficult or impossible to control. Therefore, increasing awareness of public and health care professionals regarding scrub typhus coupled with availability of rapid diagnostic assays and implementation of appropriate treatment protocols for control of AFI (acute febrile illness) especially at the community level will help mitigate the scenario in the long run. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Clinical significance of NGAL and KIM-1 for acute kidney injury in patients with scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, In O; Shin, Sung Hye; Cho, A Young; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Chang, Mi Yok; Lee, Kwang Young

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical significance of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) for acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with scrub typhus. From 2014 to 2015, 145 patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus. Of these, we enrolled 138 patients who were followed up until renal recovery or for at least 3 months. We measured serum and urine NGAL and KIM-1 levels and evaluated prognostic factors affecting scrub typhus-associated AKI. Of the 138 patients, 25 had scrub typhus-associated AKI. The incidence of AKI was 18.1%; of which 11.6%, 4.3%, and 2.2% were classified as risk, injury, and failure, respectively, according to RIFLE criteria. Compared with patients in the non-AKI group, patients in the AKI group were older and showed higher total leukocyte counts and hypoalbuminemia or one or more comorbidities such as hypertension (72% vs 33%, pscrub typhus-associated AKI.

  15. [Spatial analysis of autumn-winter type scrub typhus in Shandong province, 2006-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Bi, Z W; Kou, Z Q; Zheng, L; Zhao, Z T

    2016-05-01

    To discuss the spatial-temporal distribution and epidemic trends of autumn-winter type scrub typhus in Shandong province, and provide scientific evidence for further study for the prevention and control of the disease. The scrub typhus surveillance data during 2006-2014 were collected from Shandong Disease Reporting Information System. The data was analyzed by using software ArcGIS 9.3(ESRI Inc., Redlands, CA, USA), GeoDa 0.9.5-i and SatScan 9.1.1. The Moran' s I, log-likelihood ratio(LLR), relative risk(RR)were calculated and the incidence choropleth maps, local indicators of spatial autocorrelation cluster maps and space scaning cluster maps were drawn. A total of 4 453 scrub typhus cases were reported during 2006-2014, and the annual incidence increased with year. Among the 17 prefectures(municipality)in Shandong, 13 were affected by scrub typhus. The global Moran's I index was 0.501 5(Pscrub typhus in Shandong. Since 2006, the epidemic area of the disease has expanded and the number of high-risk areas has increased. Moreover, the eastward moving and periodically expanding trends of high-risk clusters were detected.

  16. Effects of clarithromycin treatment in scrub typhus in children: comparison with chloramphenicol and azithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min; Kim, June; Jo, Dae Sun

    2017-04-01

    Chloramphenicol and tetracycline are not recommended for treating scrub typhus in pediatric patients because of potential side effects, such as aplastic anemia or tooth discoloration. While clarithromycin has recently been used in adults, few reports have been published on its effects in pediatric patients. We report the clinical profiles of pediatric scrub typhus and the effects of clarithromycin on scrub typhus in children. We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 56 children with scrub typhus who were admitted between 2004 and 2013 to Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Korea. Cases were divided into 3 groups based on thetreatment drug (chloramphenicol, azithromycin, and clarithromycin). We compared their clinical manifestations and laboratory findings. All patients exhibited fever and rash. Other common clinical manifestations were eschars (66%), lymphadenopathy (48%), upper respiratory symptoms (42%), abdominal pain (32%), and hepatosplenomegaly (14%). Elevated levels of C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rates, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase were detected in 95%, 96%, 84%, and 77% of patients, respectively. Additionally, decreased platelet and white blood cell levels were observed in 43% and 36% of patients, respectively. There were no statistical differences between the treatment groups in mean age ( P =0.114) or sex ( P =0.507). However, time to defervescence after the treatments differed significantly, being the shortest in the clarithromycin group ( P =0.019). All patients recovered without complications related to the disease or drugs. Clarithromycin was as effective as chloramphenicol and azithromycin in pediatric scrub typhus patients and may be used as a first-line treatment drug.

  17. Chest radiographic findings of tsutsugamushi disease and murine typhus in Chunchon

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    Kim, Heung Chul; Han, Tae Giun; Jang, Won Ho; Hwang, Woo Chul; Park, Man Soo; Lee, Myoung Gu; Kim, Yoon Won [School of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Choong Ki [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    To evaluate the chest radiographic findings of rickettsial disease including murine typhus and tsutsugamushi disease in Chunchon. Chest radiographic films of 81 cases diagnosed as rickettsial disease(55 cases of tsutsugamushi disease, 26 cases of murine typhus) by immunofluorescence test were retrospectively analyzed. Main serotypes of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were Gilliam and Karp. Incidence rate of tsutsugamushi disease was 2.1 times greater than that of murine typhus. Chest radiographs were abnormal in 63.6% of tsutsugamushi disease, and in 30.8% of murine typhus. Radiographic findings were Kerly's B line, reticulonodular densities, hilar enlargement, pleural effusion, and splenomegaly in both entities, but pulmonary consolidation was only found in tsutsugamushi disease. The patients with the abnormal radiographic findings were statistically well correlated with cardiomegaly ({rho} < 0.01) and azygos engorgement ({rho} < 0.05), as compared to the patients with normal radiographic findings. Radiographic findings of both murine typhus and tsutsugamushi disease were interstitial pattern. But the chest radiographs in patients with tsutsugamushi disease showed more severe pattern with higher rate of abnormality.

  18. Chest radiographic findings of tsutsugamushi disease and murine typhus in Chunchon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heung Chul; Han, Tae Giun; Jang, Won Ho; Hwang, Woo Chul; Park, Man Soo; Lee, Myoung Gu; Kim, Yoon Won; Park, Choong Ki

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the chest radiographic findings of rickettsial disease including murine typhus and tsutsugamushi disease in Chunchon. Chest radiographic films of 81 cases diagnosed as rickettsial disease(55 cases of tsutsugamushi disease, 26 cases of murine typhus) by immunofluorescence test were retrospectively analyzed. Main serotypes of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were Gilliam and Karp. Incidence rate of tsutsugamushi disease was 2.1 times greater than that of murine typhus. Chest radiographs were abnormal in 63.6% of tsutsugamushi disease, and in 30.8% of murine typhus. Radiographic findings were Kerly's B line, reticulonodular densities, hilar enlargement, pleural effusion, and splenomegaly in both entities, but pulmonary consolidation was only found in tsutsugamushi disease. The patients with the abnormal radiographic findings were statistically well correlated with cardiomegaly (ρ < 0.01) and azygos engorgement (ρ < 0.05), as compared to the patients with normal radiographic findings. Radiographic findings of both murine typhus and tsutsugamushi disease were interstitial pattern. But the chest radiographs in patients with tsutsugamushi disease showed more severe pattern with higher rate of abnormality

  19. Chest radiographic findings of tsutsugamushi disease and murine typhus in Chunchon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heung Chul; Han, Tae Giun; Jang, Won Ho; Hwang, Woo Chul; Park, Man Soo; Lee, Myoung Gu; Kim, Yoon Won [School of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Choong Ki [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    To evaluate the chest radiographic findings of rickettsial disease including murine typhus and tsutsugamushi disease in Chunchon. Chest radiographic films of 81 cases diagnosed as rickettsial disease(55 cases of tsutsugamushi disease, 26 cases of murine typhus) by immunofluorescence test were retrospectively analyzed. Main serotypes of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were Gilliam and Karp. Incidence rate of tsutsugamushi disease was 2.1 times greater than that of murine typhus. Chest radiographs were abnormal in 63.6% of tsutsugamushi disease, and in 30.8% of murine typhus. Radiographic findings were Kerly's B line, reticulonodular densities, hilar enlargement, pleural effusion, and splenomegaly in both entities, but pulmonary consolidation was only found in tsutsugamushi disease. The patients with the abnormal radiographic findings were statistically well correlated with cardiomegaly ({rho} < 0.01) and azygos engorgement ({rho} < 0.05), as compared to the patients with normal radiographic findings. Radiographic findings of both murine typhus and tsutsugamushi disease were interstitial pattern. But the chest radiographs in patients with tsutsugamushi disease showed more severe pattern with higher rate of abnormality.

  20. Explanatory Emotion Talk in Mexican Immigrant and Mexican American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Christi A.

    2002-01-01

    Mother-child conversations during story-telling play were analyzed for patterns of emotion talk. Subjects were 48 Mexican immigrant and Mexican American mothers and their children aged 3-4. Contrary to previous findings, Mexican immigrant mothers used more explanations of emotions than labels. Mexican American mothers used both, equally. Results…

  1. Assessing Disparities of Dengue Virus Transmission Risk across the US-Mexican Border Using a Climate Driven Vector-Epidemiological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Cory; Monaghan, Andrew; Quattrochi, Dale; Crosson, William; Hayden, Mary; Ernst, Kacey

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease reemerging throughout much of the tropical Americas. Dengue virus transmission is explicitly influenced by climate and the environment through its primary vector, Aedes aegypti. Temperature regulates Ae. aegypti development, survival, and replication rates as well as the incubation period of the virus within the mosquito. Precipitation provides water for many of the preferred breeding habitats of the mosquito, including buckets, old tires, and other places water can collect. Although transmission regularly occurs along the border region in Mexico, dengue virus transmission in bordering Arizona has not occurred. Using NASA's TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite for precipitation input and Daymet for temperature and supplemental precipitation input, we modeled dengue transmission along a US-Mexico transect using a dynamic dengue transmission model that includes interacting vector ecology and epidemiological components. Model runs were performed for 5 cities in Sonora, Mexico and southern Arizona. Employing a Monte Carlo approach, we performed ensembles of several thousands of model simulations in order to resolve the model uncertainty arising from using different combinations of parameter values that are not well known. For cities with reported dengue case data, the top model simulations that best reproduced dengue case numbers were retained and their parameter values were extracted for comparison. These parameter values were used to run simulations in areas where dengue virus transmission does not occur or where dengue fever case data was unavailable. Additional model runs were performed to reveal how changes in climate or parameter values could alter transmission risk along the transect. The relative influence of climate variability and model parameters on dengue virus transmission is assessed to help public health workers prepare location specific infection prevention strategies.

  2. The Mexican American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Helen

    The purpose of this paper, prepared for the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, is to indicate the types and ranges of problems facing the Mexican American community and to suggest ways in which these problems are peculiar to Mexican Americans. Specific examples are cited to illustrate major problems and personal experiences. Topics covered in the…

  3. Mexican Perspectives on Mexican-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    while serving in the United States military, working in the Bracero program and in American factories. By working with Americans, Mexicans learned that...Mexican government blames the problem on the United States. During the history of the Bracero Program (1942 -1964) 4.6 million Mexicans traveled to...and became familiar to Mexican migrants.ŕ The termination of the Bracero Program did not discourage Mexican agricultural workers from entering the

  4. STATUS OF SCRUB TYPHUS RESEARCH IN INDONESIA (Based on published reports

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    Lim Boo Liat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus merupakan penyakit yang endemis di Indonesia. Akan tetapi laporan mengenai hal tersebut sangat sedikit. Penelusuran hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebelum tahun 1945 pernah dilaporkan hasil isolasi Rickettsia tsutsugamushi dari penderita demam di beberapa tempat di Indonesia. Setelah tahun 1970 beberapa penelitian seroepidemiologi dilakukan di beberapa daerah di Indonesia terutama daerah transmigrasi dengan hasil prevalensi antibodi terhadap scrub typhus tertinggi di daerah Biak dan Owi, Irian Jaya dan yang terendah di Flores dan Jakarta. Selain itu dilakukan pula penelitian mengenai vektor scrub typhus dan hospesnya dengan hasil di­temukannya 7 species tungau Leptotrombidium termasuk 2 jenis yang merupakan vektor. Saran untuk penelitian di masa yang akan datang diberikan dalam laporan ini.

  5. BIONOMIK TUNGAU VEKTOR SCRUB TYPHUS DAN HOSPESNYA DI DAERAH TRANSMIGRASI KUMPEH, JAMBI

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    Ima Nurisa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study on bionomics of scrub typhus vector and its host species was conducted in a transmigration scheme of Kumpeh, Jambi, Sumatera. Ten species of trombiculid mites were collected from 6 species of rats and 2 species of squirrels. Leptotrombidium (L. deliense, a known vectorof scrub typhus vector elsewhere, was found mostly on Rattus tiomanicus. This rat species was widely distributed in forest, disturbed land and cultivated land habitations found in the study area. Chigger infestations on R. tioma­nicus trapped in disturbed land were 63.6% — 81.8%. The average number of chigger collected from disturbed land was highest in December, from forest habitation was in October and from the cultivated land habitation was in November. Rattus tiomanicus was found to be a potential rat species for main­taining the natural cycle of scrub typhus in the study area.

  6. Scrub typhus in Uttarakhand & adjoining Uttar Pradesh: Seasonality, clinical presentations & predictors of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Anurag; Kaushik, Reshma; Kaushik, Rajeev Mohan; Sharma, Anita; Ahmad, Sohaib; Dhar, Minakshi; Mittal, Garima; Khanduri, Sushant; Pant, Priyannk; Kakkar, Rajesh

    2016-12-01

    Scrub typhus is a re-emerging mite-borne rickettsiosis, which continues to be underdiagnosed, with lethal consequences. The present study was conducted to determine the seasonality, clinical presentation and predictors of mortality in patients with scrub typhus at a tertiary care teaching hospital in northern India. Scrub typhus was suspected in patients attending the hospital as per the standard case definition and serological evidence was obtained by performing an IgM ELISA. A total of 284 patients with scrub typhus from urban and rural areas were seen, predominantly from July to November. The most common clinical presentation was a bilateral community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), which resembled pneumonia due to atypical pathogens and often progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). An acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI) or a febrile illness associated with altered sensorium, aseptic meningitis, shock, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding or jaundice was also seen. Eschars were seen in 17 per cent of patients, and thrombocytopenia, transaminitis and azotaemia were frequent. There were 24 deaths (8.5%) caused predominantly by ARDS and multi-organ dysfunction. The mortality in patients with ARDS was high (37%). ARDS [odds ratio (OR)=38.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.93, 147.71] and acute kidney injury (OR=8.30, 95% CI: 2.21, 31.21) were the major predictors of death. The present findings indicate that scrub typhus may be considered a cause of CAP, ARDS, AUFI or a febrile illness with multisystem involvement, in Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh, especially from July to November. Empiric therapy of CAP may include doxycycline or azithromycin to ensure coverage of underlying unsuspected scrub typhus.

  7. Clinico - Laboratory Profile of Scrub Typhus - An Emerging Rickettsiosis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Dinesh Kumar; Arunagirinathan, Arul Kumaran; Kumar, Revathi Krishna; Raghavendran, V D

    2016-11-01

    To study the clinical and laboratory profile of pediatric scrub typhus in rural south India. This is a descriptive study of the clinical and laboratory features of 117 children with IgM ELISA proven scrub typhus out of 448 children, who were admitted in the Pediatric ward of a tertiary care hospital, during the study period of November 2014 through March 2015. Fever was present in all 117 children, with mean duration of fever at admission as 9 d. Gastrointestinal tract was the most commonly affected system, seen in 51 % of children. Cough (82 %), myalgia (70 %), vomiting (68 %), headache (45 %) and pain abdomen (42 %) were the most common symptoms of scrub typhus. Hepatomegaly (70), splenomegaly (53 %), pallor (50 %) and eschar (41 %) were the common clinical findings in children with scrub typhus. Out of 49 children with eschar, 32 were associated with regional lymphadenopathy, which was commonly seen in axillary, neck and groin regions. Leucocytosis (50 %), anemia (56 %), increased SGOT / SGPT (47 %), thrombocytopenia (41 %), hypoalbuminemia (40 %) and hyponatremia (40 %) were the common lab features. Shock (46 %), myocarditis (24 %) and pneumonia (16 %) were the common complications seen in these children. This study showed that early treatment for scrub typhus results in a good outcome in terms of early recovery and nil mortality. Regional lymphadenopathy is a marker of hidden or developing eschar. Total count and differential count should be interpreted on the background of the duration of fever. Since IgM ELISA, which is diagnostic of scrub typhus may not be widely available, any febrile child coming from rural area with hepatosplenomegaly, pallor, eschar, generalised / regional lymphadenopathy, anemia, leucocytosis, thrombocytopenia and increased Aspartate transaminase (AST) /Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) should be started on empirical Doxycycline or Azithromycin in order to prevent life threatening complications secondary to delay in

  8. Use of Multiplex Real-Time PCR To Diagnose Scrub Typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantibhedhyangkul, Wiwit; Wongsawat, Ekkarat; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk; Waywa, Duangdao; Saenyasiri, Nuttawut; Suesuay, Jintapa; Thipmontree, Wilawan; Suputtamongkol, Yupin

    2017-05-01

    Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi , is a common cause of acute undifferentiated febrile illness in the Asia-Pacific region. However, its nonspecific clinical manifestation often prevents early diagnosis. We propose the use of PCR and serologic tests as diagnostic tools. Here, we developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay using hydrolysis (TaqMan) probes targeting O. tsutsugamushi 47-kDa, groEL , and human interferon beta (IFN-β gene) genes to improve early diagnosis of scrub typhus. The amplification efficiency was higher than 94%, and the lower detection limit was 10 copies per reaction. We used a human gene as an internal DNA quality and quantity control. To determine the sensitivity of this PCR assay, we selected patients with confirmed scrub typhus who exhibited a clear 4-fold increase in the level of IgG and/or IgM. The PCR assay result was positive in 45 of 52 patients, indicating a sensitivity of 86.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74.2 to 94.4). The PCR assessment was negative for all 136 non-scrub typhus patients, indicating a specificity of 100% (95% CI: 97.3 to 100). In addition, this test helped diagnose patients with inconclusive immunofluorescence assay (IFA) results and using single blood samples. In conclusion, the real-time PCR assay proposed here is sensitive and specific in diagnosing scrub typhus. Combining PCR and serologic tests will improve the diagnosis of scrub typhus among patients presenting with acute febrile illness. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Scrub typhus in Uttarakhand & adjoining Uttar Pradesh: Seasonality, clinical presentations & predictors of mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Bhargava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Scrub typhus is a re-emerging mite-borne rickettsiosis, which continues to be underdiagnosed, with lethal consequences. The present study was conducted to determine the seasonality, clinical presentation and predictors of mortality in patients with scrub typhus at a tertiary care teaching hospital in northern India. Methods: Scrub typhus was suspected in patients attending the hospital as per the standard case definition and serological evidence was obtained by performing an IgM ELISA. Results: A total of 284 patients with scrub typhus from urban and rural areas were seen, predominantly from July to November. The most common clinical presentation was a bilateral community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, which resembled pneumonia due to atypical pathogens and often progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. An acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI or a febrile illness associated with altered sensorium, aseptic meningitis, shock, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding or jaundice was also seen. Eschars were seen in 17 per cent of patients, and thrombocytopenia, transaminitis and azotaemia were frequent. There were 24 deaths (8.5% caused predominantly by ARDS and multi-organ dysfunction. The mortality in patients with ARDS was high (37%. ARDS [odds ratio (OR=38.29, 95% confidence interval (CI: 9.93, 147.71] and acute kidney injury (OR=8.30, 95% CI: 2.21, 31.21 were the major predictors of death. Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings indicate that scrub typhus may be considered a cause of CAP, ARDS, AUFI or a febrile illness with multisystem involvement, in Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh, especially from July to November. Empiric therapy of CAP may include doxycycline or azithromycin to ensure coverage of underlying unsuspected scrub typhus.

  10. TNF, IL6, and IL1B Polymorphisms Are Associated with Severe Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in the Mexican Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramírez, Román Alejandro; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; Quintana-Carrillo, Roger; Camarena, Ángel Eduardo; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypercytokinemia is the main immunopathological mechanism contributing to a more severe clinical course in influenza A (H1N1) virus infections. Most patients infected with the influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus had increased systemic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines; including interleukin IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). We propose that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter regions of pro-inflammatory genes are associated with the severity of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus infection. Methods 145 patients with influenza A (H1N1) (pA/H1N1), 133 patients with influenza-like illness (ILI), and 360 asymptomatic healthy contacts (AHCs) were included. Eleven SNPs were genotyped in six genes (TNF, LT, IL1B, IL6, CCL1, and IL8) using real-time PCR; the ancestral genotype was used for comparison. Genotypes were correlated with 27 clinical severity variables. Ten cytokines (GM-CSF, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-5, and IL-4) were measured on a Luminex 100. Results The IL6 rs1818879 (GA) heterozygous genotype was associated with severe influenza A (H1N1) virus infection (odds ratio [OR] = 5.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.05–11.56), and two IL1B SNPs, rs16944 AG and rs3136558 TC, were associated with a decreased risk of infection (OR = 0.52 and OR = 0.51, respectively). Genetic susceptibility was determined (pA/H1N1 vs. AHC): the LTA rs909253 TC heterozygous genotype conferred greater risk (OR = 1.9), and a similar association was observed with the IL1B rs3136558 CC genotype (OR = 1.89). Additionally, severely ill patients were compared with moderately ill patients. The TNF-238 GA genotype was associated with an increased risk of disease severity (OR = 16.06, p = 0.007). Compared with ILIs, patients with severe pA/H1N1 infections exhibited increased serum IL-5 (p <0.001) and IL-6 (p  =  0.007) levels. Conclusions The TNF gene was associated with disease severity, whereas IL1B and IL6 SNPs were

  11. TNF, IL6, and IL1B Polymorphisms Are Associated with Severe Influenza A (H1N1 Virus Infection in the Mexican Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Alejandro García-Ramírez

    Full Text Available Hypercytokinemia is the main immunopathological mechanism contributing to a more severe clinical course in influenza A (H1N1 virus infections. Most patients infected with the influenza A (H1N1 pdm09 virus had increased systemic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines; including interleukin IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α. We propose that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the promoter regions of pro-inflammatory genes are associated with the severity of influenza A (H1N1 pdm09 virus infection.145 patients with influenza A (H1N1 (pA/H1N1, 133 patients with influenza-like illness (ILI, and 360 asymptomatic healthy contacts (AHCs were included. Eleven SNPs were genotyped in six genes (TNF, LT, IL1B, IL6, CCL1, and IL8 using real-time PCR; the ancestral genotype was used for comparison. Genotypes were correlated with 27 clinical severity variables. Ten cytokines (GM-CSF, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-5, and IL-4 were measured on a Luminex 100.The IL6 rs1818879 (GA heterozygous genotype was associated with severe influenza A (H1N1 virus infection (odds ratio [OR] = 5.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.05-11.56, and two IL1B SNPs, rs16944 AG and rs3136558 TC, were associated with a decreased risk of infection (OR = 0.52 and OR = 0.51, respectively. Genetic susceptibility was determined (pA/H1N1 vs. AHC: the LTA rs909253 TC heterozygous genotype conferred greater risk (OR = 1.9, and a similar association was observed with the IL1B rs3136558 CC genotype (OR = 1.89. Additionally, severely ill patients were compared with moderately ill patients. The TNF-238 GA genotype was associated with an increased risk of disease severity (OR = 16.06, p = 0.007. Compared with ILIs, patients with severe pA/H1N1 infections exhibited increased serum IL-5 (p <0.001 and IL-6 (p  =  0.007 levels.The TNF gene was associated with disease severity, whereas IL1B and IL6 SNPs were associated with influenza A (H1N1 virus

  12. Clinical and paraclinical profile, and predictors of outcome in 90 cases of scrub typhus, Meghalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivarajan, Sunuraj; Shivalli, Siddharudha; Bhuyan, Debomallya; Mawlong, Michael; Barman, Rittwick

    2016-10-05

    India is an integral component of "tsutsugamushi triangle" which depicts a part of the globe endemic to scrub typhus. Owing to frequent outbreaks witnessed in different parts of the country in the recent past, scrub typhus is described as a re-emerging infectious disease in India. The present study aimed to study the clinical and paraclinical profile, complications and predictors of outcome among 90 cases of scrub typhus diagnosed in a hospital of north-eastern India from Sept 2011 to Aug 2012. A longitudinal study was conducted in a hospital of Meghalaya, India between Sept 2011 and Aug 2012. Diagnosis of scrub typhus was arrived by SD BIOLINE tsutsugamushi (solid phase immunochromatographic assay) rapid diagnostic test for antibodies (IgM, IgG or IgA). Descriptive analyses of age, gender, geographic area, symptoms and signs, treatment, laboratory findings, complications, and outcome were conducted. Relative risk (RR) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) was computed for Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS) and mortality. Binary logistic regression was applied to the significant correlates (P scrub typhus. As many as 662 clinically suspected scrub typhus patients were tested and 90 (13.6 %) were diagnosed to have scrub typhus. Out of 90 patients, 52.2 % (n = 47) were males and their mean (SD) age was 36.29 (13.38) years. Fever of 1.5 mg/dl, and transaminase (AST, ALT or both) >500 U/L were associated with MODS (P 3 mg/dl was also associated with MODS (P 1.5 mg/dl was a predictor of MODS (OR: 76.1, 95 % CI: 4.9-1175.6) and mortality (OR: 18.03, 95 % CI: 1.38-235.1). In this study setting, approximately one-seventh (13.6 %) of the acute undifferentiated febrile illness were due to scrub typhus. Systemic complications were common (33.3 %). Serum creatinine >1.5 mg/dl was a predictor of MODS and mortality.

  13. Scrub typhus causing neonatal hepatitis with acute liver failure-A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajpayee, Shailja; Gupta, R K; Gupta, M L

    2017-05-01

    Neonatal hepatitis with acute liver failure due to varied etiology including various infections is reported in the past. Scrub typhus as a cause of neonatal hepatitis has rarely been reported in literature. A high index of clinical suspicion is required for early diagnosis and timely treatment. Severity and prognosis of the disease varies widely because several different strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi exist with different virulence. Delayed diagnosis can result in complication and significant morbidity and mortality. Here, we report three cases of neonatal hepatitis with acute liver failure caused by scrub typhus to increase awareness.

  14. Detection of a typhus group Rickettsia in Amblyomma ticks in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Sanchez, Aaron; Bouyer, Donald H; Alcantara-Rodriguez, Virginia; Mafra, Claudio; Zavala-Castro, Jorge; Whitworth, Ted; Popov, Vsevolod L; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Walker, David H

    2005-12-01

    The state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico has had outbreaks of typhus group rickettsiosis, most recently recognized in 1997. Evaluation of the sera of 345 patients with a dengue-like illness revealed that 25.5% had antibodies reactive with typhus group rickettsiae and 16% had antibodies to Rickettsia parkeri. Rickettsiae were detected by PCR and shell-vial isolations in the field-collected Amblyomma ticks. Molecular characterization by DNA sequence analysis of the gltA, ompB, and 17-kDa gene identified the organisms to be R. prowazekii.

  15. Pregnancy outcome in relation to treatment of murine typhus and scrub typhus infection: a fever cohort and a case series analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose McGready

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of published reports on pregnancy outcome following scrub and murine typhus despite these infections being leading causes of undifferentiated fever in Asia. This study aimed to relate pregnancy outcome with treatment of typhus.Data were analyzed from: i pregnant women with a diagnosis of scrub and/or murine typhus from a fever cohort studies; ii case series of published studies in PubMed using the search terms "scrub typhus" (ST, "murine typhus" (MT, "Orientia tsutsugamushi", "Rickettsia tsutsugamushi", "Rickettsia typhi", "rickettsiae", "typhus", or "rickettsiosis"; and "pregnancy", until February 2014 and iii an unpublished case series. Fever clearance time (FCT and pregnancy outcome (miscarriage and delivery were compared to treatment. Poor neonatal outcome was a composite measure for pregnancies sustained to 28 weeks or more of gestation ending in stillbirth, preterm birth, or delivery of a growth restricted or low birth weight newborn.There were 26 women in the fever cohort. MT and ST were clinically indistinguishable apart from two ST patients with eschars. FCTs (median [range] hours were 25 [16-42] for azithromycin (n=5, 34 [20-53] for antimalarials (n=5 and 92 [6-260] for other antibiotics/supportive therapy (n=16. There were 36.4% (8/22 with a poor neonatal outcome. In 18 years, 97 pregnancies were collated, 82 with known outcomes, including two maternal deaths. Proportions of miscarriage 17.3% (14/81 and poor neonatal outcomes 41.8% (28/67 were high, increasing with longer FCTs (p=0.050, linear trend. Use of azithromycin was not significantly associated with improved neonatal outcomes (p=0.610.The published ST and MT world literature amounts to less than 100 pregnancies due to under recognition and under diagnosis. Evidence supporting the most commonly used treatment, azithromycin, is weak. Collaborative, prospective clinical trials in pregnant women are urgently required to reduce the burden of adverse maternal and

  16. ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS AS AN UNUSUAL PRESENTATION OF SCRUB TYPHUS: A REPORT OF TWO CASES AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenphak, Sirima; Rattanawong, Pattara; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus rarely presents with acute cholecystitis. We present 2 cases of scrub typhus with cholecystitis. The first patient is a 62 year old female who presented to the hospital with fever and body aches for 1 week and right upper quadrant abdominal pain for 3 days. She gave a history of an insect bite 2 weeks previously. She was diagnosed as having acute cholecystitis and underwent cholecystectomy. She continued with fever post-operatively and physical examination revealed an eschar. She had an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) performed that revealed a high IgM titer for Orientia tsutsugamushi. She was diagnosed as having scrub typhus, treated with doxycycline and she recovered completely. The second patient also presented to the hospital with a 1 week history of fever and upper quadrant abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with having cholecystitis. Her symptoms did not improve with intravenous antibiotics and further investigation revealed elevated titers for O. tsutsugamushi and Leptospira interrogans. She was diagnosed as having a co-infection of scrub typhus and leptospirosis and treated with doxycycline. She recovered completely. Patients from scrub typhus endemic regions who present with acute cholecystitis but do not respond to traditional treatment should be tested for scrub typhus and leptospirosis and should have a careful admission physical examination looking for eschar formation, since scrub typhus may present with acute cholecystitis.

  17. The Mexican oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos-Giacoman, E.

    1991-01-01

    In the environment of growing domestic demand and enhanced international competitiveness, Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX)-the Mexican national oil company-faces the challenge of not only responding adequately to the rapid changes taking place in the Mexican economy, but making a significant contribution towards solid and stable growth. This paper reports that the relevant concern is how PEMEX is going to live up to these expectations. The Mexican oil industry, especially including the petrochemical sector, has great potential in terms of an ample domestic market as well as external foreign-currency-generating markets

  18. Coincidence between geographical distribution of Leptotrombidium scutellare and scrub typhus incidence in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yul Roh

    Full Text Available To clarify the geographical distribution of scrub typhus vectors in Korea, a survey of larval trombiculid mites was conducted from 2005 to 2007 by collecting wild small mammals twice a year (spring and autumn at 24 sites nationwide. A total of 67,325 mites representing 4 genera and 14 species were collected from 783 trapped rodents, corresponding to a chigger index (number of chigger mites per rodent of 86.0. The predominant mite species were Leptotrombidium pallidum (52.6%, Leptotrombiduim scutellare (27.1%, Leptotrombidium palpale (8.2%, Leptotrombidium orientale (5.6%, and Neotrombicula tamiyai (1.7%. However, the proportions of L. scutellare in southern areas, including endemic provinces such as Jeollabuk-Do (34.3%, Jeollanam-Do (49.0%, and Gyeongsangnam-Do (88%, were relatively higher than in central Korean regions where L. pallidum was predominant. In autumn, the ratio of L. scutellare increased to 42% while the ratio of L. pallidum decreased. The geographical distribution map of the L. scutellare chigger index was identical to the incidence pattern of scrub typhus, whereas those of overall mites and L. pallidum showed no relationship with case incidence patterns. Distribution mapping analysis shows an identical geographical distribution of L. scutellare and epidemic incidence of scrub typhus in South Korea. L. pallidum could be another vector at all other parts of the Korean peninsula, including the eastern and northern regions that have a low level of scrub typhus incidence.

  19. Comparison of minocycline and azithromycin for the treatment of mild scrub typhus in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Minxing; Wang, Ting; Yuan, Xiaoyu; Du, Weiming; Lin, Miaoxin; Shen, Yanbo

    2016-09-01

    Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, has recently emerged in northern China where the disease had not been known to exist. Although doxycycline and azithromycin are the recommended agents for the treatment of scrub typhus, clinical responses depend both on the susceptibilities of various O. tsutsugamushi strains and the severity of the disease. A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients diagnosed with mild scrub typhus from August 2013 to January 2016 in the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, northern China. A total of 40 patients who received minocycline treatment and 34 patients who received azithromycin treatment were included in the analysis. All patients except one defervesced within 120 h after initiating antimicrobial therapy. Kaplan-Meier curves in association with log-rank test showed that the median time to defervescence was significantly shorter for the minocycline-treated group than the azithromycin-treated group (P = 0.003). There were no serious adverse events during treatment. No relapse occurred in either group during the 1-month follow-up period. In conclusion, both minocycline and azithromycin are effective and safe for the treatment of mild scrub typhus, but minocycline is more active than azithromycin against O. tsutsugamushi infection acquired in northern China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical profile and outcome of children with scrub typhus from Chennai, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Ramaswamy; Suresh, Natarajan; Pratyusha, L L; Janakiraman, Lalitha; Manickam, Mani; Andal, A

    2018-06-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. We prospectively studied the clinico-laboratory profile and outcome of 358 children aged 1 day to 18 years diagnosed with scrub typhus from Chennai, South India. All children (100%) had fever. Eschar was seen in 67%. All children were treated with oral doxycycline and those with complications were treated with intravenous chloramphenicol/azithromycin. Rapid defervescence (within 48 h) after initiation of doxycline was seen in 306 (85%) and 52 (14.5%) developed complications. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that children who had an elevated aspartate amino transferase (> 120 IU/L) and the presence of thrombocytopenia (platelet count less than 1 lac cells/mm 3 ) at admission had high risk of developing complications. The overall mortality rate in this series was 0.8%. Our 4-year study highlights the clinico-laboratory profile of Scrub typhus in children from Chennai, South India. Early recognition and prompt treatment reduces the complication and mortality. What is Known: • Scrub typhus is endemic to tsutsugamushi triangle, a geographical triangle extending from northern Japan in the east to Pakistan and Afghanistan in the west and northern Australia in the south. • There is paucity of data regarding its clinico-laboratory profile in neonates as well as its predictors of outcome. What is New: • Children who had an elevated AST and the presence of thrombocytopenia at admission had high risk of developing complications.

  1. Diagnostic evaluation of rapid tests for scrub typhus in the Indian population is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2016-05-12

    Owing to frequent outbreaks witnessed in different parts of the country in the recent past, scrub typhus is being described as a re-emerging infectious disease in India. Differentiating scrub typhus from other endemic diseases like malaria, leptospirosis, dengue fever, typhoid, etc. is difficult due to overlapping clinical features and a lower positivity for eschars in Asian populations. Hence, the diagnosis heavily relies on laboratory tests. Costs and the need of technical expertise limit the wide use of indirect immunoperoxidase or immunofluorescence assays, ELISA and PCR. The Weil-Felix test is the most commonly used and least expensive serological test, but lacks both sensitivity and specificity. Hence, the diagnosis of scrub typhus is often delayed or overlooked. With due consideration of the cost, rapidity, single test result and simplicity of interpretation, rapid diagnostic tests have come into vogue. However, evaluation of rapid diagnostic tests for scrub typhus in the Indian population is needed to justify or discourage their use. Research studies are needed to find the most suitable test in terms of the rapidity of the result, simplicity of the procedure, ease of interpretation and cost to be used in the Indian populace.

  2. Rapid increase of scrub typhus incidence in Guangzhou, southern China, 2006-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Sun (Ye); Wei, Y.-H. (Yue-Hong); Yang, Y. (Yang); Ma, Y. (Yu); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); H.-W. Yao (Hong-Wu); Huang, Y. (Yong); Ma, M.-J. (Mai-Juan); K. Liu (Kun); Li, X.-N. (Xiao-Ning); X. Li (Xinlou); Zhang, W.-H. (Wen-Hui); Fang, L.-Q. (Li-Qun); Yang, Z.-C. (Zhi-Cong); Cao, W.-C. (Wu-Chun)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In the last decade, scrub typhus (ST) has been emerging or re-emerging in some areas of Asia, including Guangzhou, one of the most affected endemic areas of ST in China. Methods: Based on the data on all cases reported in Guangzhou from 2006 to 2014, we characterized the

  3. Diagnostic performance of serological tests to detect antibodies against acute scrub typhus infection in central India

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    Kiran Pote

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differentiating scrub typhus from other acute febrile illness is difficult due to non specificity of clinical symptoms and relative absence of eschar in Indian population. The diagnosis thus relies mainly on laboratory tests. Antibody based serological tests are mainstay of scrub typhus diagnosis. Here, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of IgM ELISA, IgM IFA and ICT to detect antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi in acute serum of febrile patients. Methodology: The serum samples from 600 randomly selected patients suffering from acute undifferentiated fever were tested by all the three tests mentioned above. We used latent class analysis to generate unbiased results as all the tests for scrub typhus diagnosis are imperfect and none of them can be considered as reference standard. Results: We found that IgM ELISA with cutoff titer 0.5 OD has high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 99.9% and specificity 99.15 than IgM IFA (sensitivity 96.8% and specificity 99.7% for scrub typhus diagnosis. ICT used in our study had very high specificity 100% but low sensitivity (38% which would limit its use for acute serum samples. ICT being a screening or point of care test, has to be more sensitive while some compromise with specificity is affordable. Hence, optimal cutoff for ICT should be evaluated under different settings. Conclusion: IgM ELISA being simple and affordable could be an alternative diagnostic test to IgM IFA which is subjective and costly.

  4. Diagnostic performance of serological tests to detect antibodies against acute scrub typhus infection in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pote, Kiran; Narang, Rahul; Deshmukh, Pradeep

    2018-01-01

    Differentiating scrub typhus from other acute febrile illness is difficult due to non specificity of clinical symptoms and relative absence of eschar in Indian population. The diagnosis thus relies mainly on laboratory tests. Antibody based serological tests are mainstay of scrub typhus diagnosis. Here, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of IgM ELISA, IgM IFA and ICT to detect antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi in acute serum of febrile patients. The serum samples from 600 randomly selected patients suffering from acute undifferentiated fever were tested by all the three tests mentioned above. We used latent class analysis to generate unbiased results as all the tests for scrub typhus diagnosis are imperfect and none of them can be considered as reference standard. We found that IgM ELISA with cutoff titer 0.5 OD has high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 99.9% and specificity 99.15) than IgM IFA (sensitivity 96.8% and specificity 99.7%) for scrub typhus diagnosis. ICT used in our study had very high specificity 100% but low sensitivity (38%) which would limit its use for acute serum samples. ICT being a screening or point of care test, has to be more sensitive while some compromise with specificity is affordable. Hence, optimal cutoff for ICT should be evaluated under different settings. IgM ELISA being simple and affordable could be an alternative diagnostic test to IgM IFA which is subjective and costly.

  5. Nursing typhus victims in the Second World War, 1942-1944: a discussion paper.

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    Brooks, Jane

    2014-07-01

    This article explores the care British nurses provided to victims of typhus during the Second World War. Typhus is associated with poverty and overcrowding. During wars in the pre-antibiotic era, civilians were particularly susceptible to epidemics, which military governments feared would spread to their troops. This discussion paper draws on archival data from three typhus epidemics in the Second World War to examine the expert work of British nurses in caring for victims during these potential public health disasters. The published sources for the paper include material from nursing and medical journals published between 1940-1947. Archival sources come from the National Archives in Kew, the Wellcome Library and the Army Medical Services Museum, between 1943-1945. Of particular interest is the correspondence with Dame Katharine Jones from nurses on active service overseas. Whilst epidemics of typhus are now rare, nurses in the present day may be required to care for the public in environments of extreme poverty and overcrowding, where life-threatening infectious diseases are prevalent. This article has demonstrated that it is possible for expert and compassionate nursing to alleviate suffering and prevent death, even when medical technologies are unavailable. Expert and compassionate care, adequate nutrition and hydration and attention to hygiene needs are crucial when there are limited pharmacological treatments and medical technologies available to treat infectious diseases. The appreciation of this could have implications for nurses working in current global conflicts. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Scrub typhus masquerading as HELLP syndrome and puerperal sepsis in an asymptomatic malaria patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Habib Md Reazaul; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis; Kakati, Sonai Datta; Borah, Tridip Jyoti; Yunus, Md

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus and malaria can involve multiple organ systems and are notoriously known for varied presentations. However, clinical malaria or scrub typhus is unusual without fever. On the other hand, altered sensorium with or without fever, dehydration, hemorrhage and hemolysis may lead to low blood pressure. Presence of toxic granules and elevated band forms in such patients can even mimic sepsis. When such a patient is in the peripartum period, it creates a strong clinical dilemma for the physician especially in unbooked obstetric cases. We present such a case where a 26-year-old unbooked female presented on second postpartum day with severe anemia, altered sensorium, difficulty in breathing along with jaundice and gum bleeding without history of fever. Rapid diagnostic test for malaria was negative and no eschar was seen. These parameters suggested a diagnosis of HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet) syndrome with or without puerperal sepsis. Subsequently she was diagnosed as having asymptomatic malaria and scrub typhus and responded to the treatment of it. The biochemical changes suggestive of HELLP syndrome also subsided. We present this case to emphasize the fact that mere absence of fever and eschar does not rule out scrub typhus. It should also be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with symptoms and signs suggesting HELLP syndrome. Asymptomatic malaria can complicate case scenario towards puerperal sepsis by giving false toxic granules and band form in such situations.

  7. Scrub typhus in rural Rajasthan and a review of other Indian studies.

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    Masand, Rupesh; Yadav, Ritesh; Purohit, Alok; Tomar, Balvir Singh

    2016-05-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness which has been reported from various parts of India with Rajasthan recently joining the list of affected states. To report a series of paediatric scrub typhus cases from rural Rajasthan. Retrospective review of children with scrub typhus admitted to the wards and paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a tertiary-care hospital. The study was undertaken over an 8-month period from May to December 2013. All patients with a clinical presentation and/or serological confirmation of scrub typhus who tested negative for malaria, enteric fever, dengue, leptospirosis and urinary tract infection (UTI) were included. A range of investigations were undertaken including IgM-ELISA for scrub typhus, followed by appropriate medical management. Thirty patients satisfied the inclusion criteria. The mean (SD, range) age of the patients was 8·56 (3·43, 3-16) years. The most common clinical features were fever (n = 30, 100%), headache (n = 20, 66%), myalgia (n = 15, 50%), hepatosplenomegaly (n = 18, 60%) and pallor (n = 5, 16%). Typical features such as eschar and rash were observed in only one (3·3%) and three (10%) patients, respectively; none had generalised lymphadenopathy or conjunctival congestion. IgM-ELISA for scrub typhus was positive in 28 patients (93·3%) and 27 responded to doxycycline within 24-72 hours. One of the three patients who required PICU support responded to intravenous chloramphenicol and, of the other two (6·6%), one died of acute respiratory distress syndrome and the other owing to acute renal failure. A high index of suspicion is essential for early diagnosis and prevention of complications in scrub typhus together with prompt referral from rural areas to a higher centre. Awareness of the disease manifestations may further help to prevent excessive investigations in patients presenting with non-specific febrile illness and reduce the economic burden to the family and society in resource

  8. Tsutsugamushi Disease (Scrub Typhus) Meningoencephalitis in North Eastern India: A Prospective Study.

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    Sharma, S R; Masaraf, H; Lynrah, K G; Lyngdoh, M

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus is rampant in northern, eastern, and southern India. Central nervous system involvement in the form of meningitis or meningoencephalitis is common in scrub typhus. As specific laboratory methods remain inadequate or inaccessible in developing countries, prompt diagnosis is often difficult. The aim of this study was to characterize neurological complications in scrub typhus from northeastern region of India. We did a prospective study of scrub meningoencephalitis at North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Medical Sciences among patients admitted to hospital between October 2009 and November 2011. The diagnosis was made based on the clinical pictures, presence of an eschar, and a positive Weil-Felix test (WFT) with a titer of >1:160 and if required a positive scrub IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lumbar puncture was performed in patients with headache, nuchal rigidity, altered sensorium or cranial nerve deficits, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain performed if needed. Twenty-three patients of scrub typhus meningitis that were serologically confirmed were included in the study. There were 13 males and 10 females. Fever ≥1 week was the most common manifestation (39.1%). Interestingly, none had an eschar. Median cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell count, lymphocyte percentage, CSF protein, CSF glucose/blood glucose, CSF ADA were 17 cells/μL, 90%, 86 mg/dL, 0.6605 and 3.6 U/mL, respectively. All patients were treated with doxycycline. There was no mortality in our study. Absence of Eschar does not rule out scrub typhus. Clinical features and CSF findings can mimic tuberculous meningitis so misdiagnosis may lead to unwarranted prolonged empirical antituberculous therapy in cases of lymphocytic meningoencephalitis. Delay in treatment can be potentially fatal. WFT still serves as a useful and affordable diagnostic tool for this disease in resource-poor countries.

  9. Scrub typhus caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi Kawasaki-related genotypes in Shandong Province, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyan; Bi, Zhenwang; Kou, Zengqiang; Yang, Huili; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Shoufeng; Meng, Xiangpeng; Zheng, Li; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Hui; Zhao, Zhongtang

    2015-03-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus, is an obligate intracellular bacterium and characterized by dramatic genetic diversity. To elucidate the genotypes of O. tsutsugamushi populating in patients in Shandong Province, a new epidemic zone in China, we sequenced partial of the 56-kDa type-specific antigen gene (TSA) and identified the genotypes of 43 O. tsutsugamushi samples from human patients confirmed with scrub typhus from 2010 to 2013. All of the 43 sequences are in the same clade, 39 of them are in one branch and the other four sequences, nominated as SH1002, SH1306, SH1309, and SH1307 are in four separate branches. To clarify the clinical characterizations caused by Kawasaki-related genotypes, we studied the clinical profiles of these 43 scrub typhus patients. Most patients (88.1%) were farmers lived in rural areas. They presented with fever (100.0%), headache (79.1%), dizziness (32.6%), generalized myalgia (48.8%), fatigue (53.5%), anorexia (53.5%), facial flushing (23.3%), conjunctival congestion (11.6%), skin rashes (58.1%) and lymphadenopathy (23.3%). Eschar (97.7%) was quite common in patients, which provided doctors with a luminous clue for diagnosis of scrub typhus. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 23.1% of patients, and three patients (7.0%) had bronchopneumonia. There was no death report in Shandong Province during the study period. The present study provides beneficial data for clinical, serological, and molecular diagnosis of scrub typhus infections, and also provides foundations for subsequent studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical significance of NGAL and KIM-1 for acute kidney injury in patients with scrub typhus.

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    In O Sun

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical significance of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1 for acute kidney injury (AKI in patients with scrub typhus.From 2014 to 2015, 145 patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus. Of these, we enrolled 138 patients who were followed up until renal recovery or for at least 3 months. We measured serum and urine NGAL and KIM-1 levels and evaluated prognostic factors affecting scrub typhus-associated AKI.Of the 138 patients, 25 had scrub typhus-associated AKI. The incidence of AKI was 18.1%; of which 11.6%, 4.3%, and 2.2% were classified as risk, injury, and failure, respectively, according to RIFLE criteria. Compared with patients in the non-AKI group, patients in the AKI group were older and showed higher total leukocyte counts and hypoalbuminemia or one or more comorbidities such as hypertension (72% vs 33%, p<0.01, diabetes (40% vs 14%, p<0.01, or chronic kidney disease (32% vs 1%, p<0.01. In addition, serum NGAL values (404± 269 vs 116± 78 ng/mL, P<0.001, KIM-1 values (0.80± 0.52 vs 0.33± 0.68 ng/mL, P<0.001, urine NGAL/creatinine values (371± 672 vs 27± 39 ng/mg, P<0.001 and urine KIM-1/creatinine values (4.04± 2.43 vs 2.38± 1.89 ng/mg, P<0.001 were higher in the AKI group than in the non-AKI group. By multivariate logistic regression, serum NGAL and the presence of chronic kidney disease were significant predictors of AKI.Serum NGAL might be an additive predictor for scrub typhus-associated AKI.

  11. Clinical Profile of Scrub Typhus in Pregnancy in Sub-Himalayan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ritesh; Thakur, Surinder; Bhawani, Rajesh; Kanga, Anil; Ranjan, Asha

    2016-10-01

    Scrub typhus is rare in pregnancy, but it has now become an important cause of febrile illness in pregnancy in sub-Himalayan region of India. Only a few case reports have been published so far, and they show adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. No consensus has been reached till now regarding treatment. All the pregnant patients irrespective of period of gestation admitted with febrile illness with positive IgM ELISA for scrub typhus with or without eschar were included. The clinical profile was observed using a detailed history of symptoms, travel, recreation, agricultural activities, treatment record prior to admission, and a detailed examination, and the treatment outcome was noted. Fever workup including cultures, CXR, CSF analysis, serology for scrub was done. IgM scrub typhus was done by kit method manufactured by InBios Intertational, Inc. We observed in total 14 pregnant patients out of which eight were in the the second trimester and six were in the third trimester. The clinical features of the disease observed for pregnant females were the same as for nonpregnant females. There was no difference in the severity of scrub typhus between pregnant and nonpregnant women. No mortality was found in these patients. On follow-up, they had normal peripartum and postpartum periods. All were treated with azithromycin 500 mg once a day for 5 days. Although rare, scrub typhus should be considered in differential diagnosis of fever in pregnant patients especially in scrub season. Azithromycin should be the drug of choice in pregnancy as it has no adverse effect on fetus and pregnancy outcome.

  12. Increased level and interferon-γ production of circulating natural killer cells in patients with scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Ji; Jin, Hye-Mi; Cho, Young-Nan; Kim, Seong Eun; Kim, Uh Jin; Park, Kyung-Hwa; Jang, Hee-Chang; Jung, Sook-In; Kee, Seung-Jung; Park, Yong-Wook

    2017-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are essential immune cells against several pathogens. Not much is known regarding the roll of NK cells in Orientia tsutsugamushi infection. Thus, this study aims to determine the level, function, and clinical relevance of NK cells in patients with scrub typhus. This study enrolled fifty-six scrub typhus patients and 56 health controls (HCs). The patients were divided into subgroups according to their disease severity. A flow cytometry measured NK cell level and function in peripheral blood. Circulating NK cell levels and CD69 expressions were significantly increased in scrub typhus patients. Increased NK cell levels reflected disease severity. In scrub typhus patients, tests showed their NK cells produced higher amounts of interferon (IFN)-γ after stimulation with interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 relative to those of HCs. Meanwhile, between scrub typhus patients and HCs, the cytotoxicity and degranulation of NK cells against K562 were comparable. CD69 expressions were recovered to the normal levels in the remission phase. This study shows that circulating NK cells are activated and numerically increased, and they produced more IFN-γ in scrub typhus patients.

  13. Increased level and interferon-γ production of circulating natural killer cells in patients with scrub typhus.

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    Seung-Ji Kang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are essential immune cells against several pathogens. Not much is known regarding the roll of NK cells in Orientia tsutsugamushi infection. Thus, this study aims to determine the level, function, and clinical relevance of NK cells in patients with scrub typhus.This study enrolled fifty-six scrub typhus patients and 56 health controls (HCs. The patients were divided into subgroups according to their disease severity. A flow cytometry measured NK cell level and function in peripheral blood. Circulating NK cell levels and CD69 expressions were significantly increased in scrub typhus patients. Increased NK cell levels reflected disease severity. In scrub typhus patients, tests showed their NK cells produced higher amounts of interferon (IFN-γ after stimulation with interleukin (IL-12 and IL-18 relative to those of HCs. Meanwhile, between scrub typhus patients and HCs, the cytotoxicity and degranulation of NK cells against K562 were comparable. CD69 expressions were recovered to the normal levels in the remission phase.This study shows that circulating NK cells are activated and numerically increased, and they produced more IFN-γ in scrub typhus patients.

  14. Etiologies of Acute Undifferentiated Fever and Clinical Prediction of Scrub Typhus in a Non-Tropical Endemic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ho-Chul; Chon, Sung-Bin; Oh, Won Sup; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Ho-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus usually presents as acute undifferentiated fever. This cross-sectional study included adult patients presenting with acute undifferentiated fever defined as any febrile illness for ≤ 14 days without evidence of localized infection. Scrub typhus cases were defined by an antibody titer of a ≥ fourfold increase in paired sera, a ≥ 1:160 in a single serum using indirect immunofluorescence assay, or a positive result of the immunochromatographic test. Multiple regression analysis identified predictors associated with scrub typhus to develop a prediction rule. Of 250 cases with known etiology of acute undifferentiated fever, influenza (28.0%), hepatitis A (25.2%), and scrub typhus (16.4%) were major causes. A prediction rule for identifying suspected cases of scrub typhus consisted of age ≥ 65 years (two points), recent fieldwork/outdoor activities (one point), onset of illness during an outbreak period (two points), myalgia (one point), and eschar (two points). The c statistic was 0.977 (95% confidence interval = 0.960–0.994). At a cutoff value ≥ 4, the sensitivity and specificity were 92.7% (79.0–98.1%) and 90.9% (86.0–94.3%), respectively. Scrub typhus, the third leading cause of acute undifferentiated fever in our region, can be identified early using the prediction rule. PMID:25448236

  15. Surveillance of potential hosts and vectors of scrub typhus in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Lee, Pei-Lung; Chen, Chun-Hsung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-12-01

    Scrub typhus is a lethal infectious disease vectored by larval trombiculid mites (i.e. chiggers) infected with Orientia tsutsugamushi (OT) and recent decades have witnessed an emergence of scrub typhus in several countries. Identification of chigger species and their vertebrate hosts is fundamental for the assessment of human risks to scrub typhus under environmental changes, but intensive and extensive survey of chiggers and their hosts is still lacking in Taiwan. Chiggers were collected from shrews and rodents in nine counties of Taiwan and were assayed for OT infections with nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR products were further sequenced to reveal probable OT strains. Rodents were assessed for OT exposure by immunofluorescent antibody assay. Lastly, incidence rate of scrub typhus in each county was associated with loads and prevalence of chigger infestations, seropositivity rate in rodents, and OT positivity rate in chiggers. Rattus losea was the most abundant (48.7% of 1,285 individuals) and widespread (occurred in nine counties) small mammal species and hosted the majority of chiggers (76.4% of 128,520 chiggers). Leptotrombidium deliense was the most common (64.9% of all identified chiggers) and widespread (occurred in seven counties) chigger species but was replaced by Leptotrombidium pallidum or Leptotrombidium scutellare during the cold seasons in two counties (Matsu and Kinmen) where winter temperatures were lower than other study sites. Seropositivity rate for OT exposure in 876 assayed rodents was 43.0% and OT positivity rate in 347 pools of chiggers was 55.9%, with 15 OT strains identified in the 107 successfully sequenced samples. Incidence rate of scrub typhus was positively correlated with chigger loads, prevalence of chigger infestations, seropositivity rate but not OT positivity rate in chiggers. Our study reveals R. losea as the primary host for chiggers and there exists a geographical and seasonal variation in chigger species in

  16. Evidencia de orígenes filogenéticos diferentes de dos aislamientos mexicanos del virus del mosaico de la caña de azúcar (SCMV Evidence of different phylogenetic origins of two mexican Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV isolates

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    Giovanni Chaves-Bedoya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis molecular del cistrón, que codifica para la proteína de la cubierta del virus del mosaico de la caña de azúcar (SCMV reportado en la base de datos del banco de genes (GenBank, reveló la presencia de 45 nucleótidos adicionales que codifican para quince aminoácidos, en la región amino de la secuencia de la proteína de la cubierta del aislamiento mexicano identificado con el número de acceso GU474635. El análisis BLAST indicó que esta característica particular también está presente en el aislamiento D00949, reportado en 1991 en Estados Unidos. El análisis filogenético de 185 secuencias de la proteína de la cubierta de SCMV reportadas de Asia, áfrica, Brasil y Argentina, entro otros, sugiere diferentes orígenes filogeográficos de los aislamientos mexicanos. El aislamiento mexicano GU474635 es filogenéticamente más cercano a aislamientos de SCMV de Brasil y de EE.UU., mientras que secuencias de la proteína de la cubierta del virus SCMV reportadas en China y Alemania son filogenéticamente más cercanas al aislamiento mexicano EU091075. Las características particulares que comparten aislamientos virales de tres países del continente americano, a saber, EE.UU., México y Brasil, sugieren un bajo control fitosanitario en el intercambio de material vegetal.The molecular analysis of the Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV for coat protein cistron reported in the public GenBank database, revealed the presence of 45 additional nucleotides coding for 15 amino acids in the N-terminal region of the coat protein sequence of the mexican isolate GU474635. BLAST analysis indicates this particular feature is also present in the coat protein sequence identified with the accession number D00949 reported in the USA in 1991. Phylogenetic analysis of 185 SCMV coat protein sequences reported from Asia, Africa, Brazil and Argentina among others, suggest a putative different phylogeographical origin of the mexican SCMV isolates. Coat protein

  17. Prevalence of scrub typhus in pyrexia of unknown origin and assessment of interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma levels in scrub typhus-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Meher; Sultan, Asfia; Chowdhry, Madhav; Azam, Mohd; Khan, Fatima; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Haris M

    2018-01-01

    Scrub typhus is lesser known cause of fever of unknown origin in India. Even if there have been reports documenting the prevalence of scrub typhus in different parts of India, it is still an unknown entity, and clinicians usually do not consider it as differential diagnosis. The present study was performed to document the prevalence of scrub typhus among febrile patients in western part of Uttar Pradesh and to assess the clinical profile of infected patients on the one hand and knowledge, attitude, and practices among clinicians on the other. A total of 357 adult patients with fever of more than 5-day duration were recruited. All patients underwent complete physical examination, and detailed clinical history was elicited as per predesigned pro forma. After primary screening to rule out malaria, enteric fever, and leptospirosis infection, secondary screening for scrub typhus was done by rapid screen test and IgM ELISA. Scrub typhus infection was positive in 91 (25.5%) cases. The most common symptoms among the patients were fever (100%), pain in abdomen (79.1%), pedal edema 56 (61.5%), rash 44 (48.3%), headache 44 (48.3%), vomiting 42 (46.1%), constipation 33 (36.2%), cough 28 (30.7%), and lymphadenopathy 20 (21.9%). The median values of interleukin-8, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in healthy controls were 15.54 pg/ml, 7.77 pg/ml, and 54.1 pg/ml, respectively, while the median values of these cytokines in scrub typhus-positive patients were 21.04 pg/ml, 8.74 pg/ml, and 73.8 pg/ml, respectively. Our results highlight that scrub typhus infection is an important cause of pyrexia of unknown origin, and active surveillance is necessary to assess the exact magnitude and distribution of the disease.

  18. What's Values Got to Do with It? Thriving among Mexican/Mexican American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Consoli, Melissa L.; Llamas, Jasmín; Consoli, Andrés J.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined traditional Mexican/Mexican American and perceived U.S. mainstream cultural values as predictors of thriving. One hundred twenty-four (37 men, 87 women) self-identified Mexican/Mexican American college students participated in the study. The traditional Mexican/Mexican American cultural values of family support and religion…

  19. Outbreak of scrub typhus in the North East Himalayan region-Sikkim: An emerging threat

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    S Gurung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness that is known to be endemic in the South East Asian countries and the Western Pacific region. We here report an outbreak in the tiny Himalayan state of Sikkim. Patients with pyrexia of unknown origin were evaluated. They were screened by Weil-Felix test and the rapid immunochromatographic method. Samples that were positive by either Weil-Felix agglutination test or by rapid immunochromatography were confirmed by IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. A total 204 samples were screened. Sixty-three patients were confirmed positive among which 42 were male and 21 were female. Effective management and early administration of antibiotics will help prevent the complications and mortality associated with scrub typhus.

  20. Indian tick typhus presenting with gangrene: a case report from an urban slum of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Singh, Raghvendra; Yadav, Mukesh

    2014-01-01

    Indian Tick Typhus has been rarely reported in children from Delhi. A 10-y-old male child from Delhi presented with fever, non specific gastrointestinal symptoms, petechial rash and gangrene of all the toes. Possibility of rickettsial infection was entertained after the child failed to improve with best of the antibiotics. Sample for serology for rickettsial infection was sent and Doxycycline was started empirically. He became afebrile within 72 h of starting Doxycycline. Later, diagnosis of Indian Tick Typhus was confirmed on the basis of IgM positivity against Rickettsia conori. Possibility of rickettsial infection should be entertained in children with history of fever and skin rash, especially if the child fails to improve with a course of antibiotics and common infectious etiologies have been ruled out.

  1. Mexican Folkart for Children.

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    Dominguez, Graciela; And Others

    Directions, suggested materials, and illustrations are given for making paper mache pinatas and masks, cascarones, Ojos de Dios, maracas, dresser scarf embroidery, burlap murals, yarn designs, paper plate trays, paper cut designs, the poppy, sarape aprons, and paper Mexican dolls. Filled with candy and broken, the pinata is used on most Mexican…

  2. Mexican Identification. Project Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Rita

    This document presents an outline and teacher's guide for a community college-level teaching module in Mexican identification, designed for students in introductory courses in the social sciences. Although intended specifically for cultural anthropology, urban anthropology, comparative social organization and sex roles in cross-cultural…

  3. Cytokine Network in Scrub Typhus: High Levels of Interleukin-8 Are Associated with Disease Severity and Mortality

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    Astrup, Elisabeth; Janardhanan, Jeshina; Otterdal, Kari; Ueland, Thor; Prakash, John A. J.; Lekva, Tove; Strand, Øystein A.; Abraham, O. C.; Thomas, Kurien; Damås, Jan Kristian; Mathews, Prasad; Mathai, Dilip; Aukrust, Pål; Varghese, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is endemic in the Asia-Pacific region. Mortality is high if untreated, and even with treatment as high as 10–20%, further knowledge of the immune response during scrub typhus is needed. The current study was aimed at comparing plasma levels of a variety of inflammatory mediators in scrub typhus patients and controls in South India in order to map the broader cytokine profile and their relation to disease severity and clinical outcome. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined plasma levels of several cytokines in scrub typhus patients (n = 129) compared to healthy controls (n = 31) and infectious disease controls (n = 31), both in the acute phase and after recovery, by multiplex technology and enzyme immunoassays. Scrub typhus patients were characterized by marked changes in the cytokine network during the acute phase, differing not only from healthy controls but also from infectious disease controls. While most of the inflammatory markers were raised in scrub typhus, platelet-derived mediators such as RANTES were markedly decreased, probably reflecting enhanced platelet activation. Some of the inflammatory markers, including various chemokines (e.g., interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant peptide-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β) and downstream markers of inflammation (e.g., C-reactive protein and pentraxin-3), were also associated with disease severity and mortality during follow-up, with a particular strong association with interleukin-8. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that scrub typhus is characterized by a certain cytokine profile that includes dysregulated levels of a wide range of mediators, and that this enhanced inflammation could contribute to disease severity and clinical outcome. PMID:24516677

  4. Cytokine network in scrub typhus: high levels of interleukin-8 are associated with disease severity and mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Astrup

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is endemic in the Asia-Pacific region. Mortality is high if untreated, and even with treatment as high as 10-20%, further knowledge of the immune response during scrub typhus is needed. The current study was aimed at comparing plasma levels of a variety of inflammatory mediators in scrub typhus patients and controls in South India in order to map the broader cytokine profile and their relation to disease severity and clinical outcome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined plasma levels of several cytokines in scrub typhus patients (n = 129 compared to healthy controls (n = 31 and infectious disease controls (n = 31, both in the acute phase and after recovery, by multiplex technology and enzyme immunoassays. Scrub typhus patients were characterized by marked changes in the cytokine network during the acute phase, differing not only from healthy controls but also from infectious disease controls. While most of the inflammatory markers were raised in scrub typhus, platelet-derived mediators such as RANTES were markedly decreased, probably reflecting enhanced platelet activation. Some of the inflammatory markers, including various chemokines (e.g., interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant peptide-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β and downstream markers of inflammation (e.g., C-reactive protein and pentraxin-3, were also associated with disease severity and mortality during follow-up, with a particular strong association with interleukin-8. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that scrub typhus is characterized by a certain cytokine profile that includes dysregulated levels of a wide range of mediators, and that this enhanced inflammation could contribute to disease severity and clinical outcome.

  5. Cytokine network in scrub typhus: high levels of interleukin-8 are associated with disease severity and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Elisabeth; Janardhanan, Jeshina; Otterdal, Kari; Ueland, Thor; Prakash, John A J; Lekva, Tove; Strand, Øystein A; Abraham, O C; Thomas, Kurien; Damås, Jan Kristian; Mathews, Prasad; Mathai, Dilip; Aukrust, Pål; Varghese, George M

    2014-02-01

    Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is endemic in the Asia-Pacific region. Mortality is high if untreated, and even with treatment as high as 10-20%, further knowledge of the immune response during scrub typhus is needed. The current study was aimed at comparing plasma levels of a variety of inflammatory mediators in scrub typhus patients and controls in South India in order to map the broader cytokine profile and their relation to disease severity and clinical outcome. We examined plasma levels of several cytokines in scrub typhus patients (n = 129) compared to healthy controls (n = 31) and infectious disease controls (n = 31), both in the acute phase and after recovery, by multiplex technology and enzyme immunoassays. Scrub typhus patients were characterized by marked changes in the cytokine network during the acute phase, differing not only from healthy controls but also from infectious disease controls. While most of the inflammatory markers were raised in scrub typhus, platelet-derived mediators such as RANTES were markedly decreased, probably reflecting enhanced platelet activation. Some of the inflammatory markers, including various chemokines (e.g., interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant peptide-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β) and downstream markers of inflammation (e.g., C-reactive protein and pentraxin-3), were also associated with disease severity and mortality during follow-up, with a particular strong association with interleukin-8. Our findings suggest that scrub typhus is characterized by a certain cytokine profile that includes dysregulated levels of a wide range of mediators, and that this enhanced inflammation could contribute to disease severity and clinical outcome.

  6. An Intradermal Inoculation Mouse Model for Immunological Investigations of Acute Scrub Typhus and Persistent Infection.

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    Lynn Soong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a neglected tropical disease, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, a Gram-negative bacterium that is transmitted to mammalian hosts during feeding by Leptotrombidium mites and replicates predominantly within endothelial cells. Most studies of scrub typhus in animal models have utilized either intraperitoneal or intravenous inoculation; however, there is limited information on infection by the natural route in murine model skin or its related early host responses. Here, we developed an intradermal (i.d. inoculation model of scrub typhus and focused on the kinetics of the host responses in the blood and major infected organs. Following ear inoculation with 6 x 104 O. tsutsugamushi, mice developed fever at 11-12 days post-infection (dpi, followed by marked hypothermia and body weight loss at 14-19 dpi. Bacteria in blood and tissues and histopathological changes were detected around 9 dpi and peaked around 14 dpi. Serum cytokine analyses revealed a mixed Th1/Th2 response, with marked elevations of MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3 and IL-10 at 9 dpi, followed by increased concentrations of pro-inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ, G-CSF, RANTES/CCL5, KC/CCL11, IL-1α/β, IL-2, TNF-α, GM-CSF, as well as modulatory cytokines (IL-9, IL-13. Cytokine levels in lungs had similar elevation patterns, except for a marked reduction of IL-9. The Orientia 47-kDa gene and infectious bacteria were detected in several organs for up to 84 dpi, indicating persistent infection. This is the first comprehensive report of acute scrub typhus and persistent infection in i.d.-inoculated C57BL/6 mice. This is a significant improvement over current murine models for Orientia infection and will permit detailed studies of host immune responses and infection control interventions.

  7. Determination of cutoff of ELISA and immunofluorescence assay for scrub typhus

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    Nitin Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common method employed for diagnosis of scrub typhus is serology. It is widely known that demonstration of ≥4-fold rise in titers of antibody in paired sera is required for diagnosis. However, for guidance of initial treatment, there is a need for rapid diagnosis at the time of admission. Therefore, there is a need for standardized region specific cutoff titers at the time of admission. Materials and Methods: A total of 258 patients of all age groups with clinically suspected scrub typhus over a period of 24 months (October 2013-October 2015 were enrolled. Serum samples of these patients were subjected to immunofluorescent antibody (IFA for immunoglobulin M (IgM (Fuller Labs, USA with dilutions of 1:64, 1:128, 1:256, and 1:512. Serum samples of all 258 patients were subjected to IgM ELISA (Inbios Inc., USA. Any patient with response to antibiotics within 48 h accompanied by either presence of an eschar or positivity by polymerase chain reaction was taken as positive. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was drawn to generate cutoff for these tests. Results: A total of 20 patients were diagnosed as cases of scrub typhus. The ROC curve analysis revealed a cutoff optical density value of 0.87 with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 94.12%, respectively. ROC curve analysis of IFA revealed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 93.5%, respectively at 1:64 dilution. Conclusion: Considering cost constraints, centers in and around New Delhi region can use the cutoffs we determined for the diagnosis of scrub typhus.

  8. Clinical profile and improving mortality trend of scrub typhus in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, George M; Trowbridge, Paul; Janardhanan, Jeshina; Thomas, Kurien; Peter, John V; Mathews, Prasad; Abraham, Ooriapadickal C; Kavitha, M L

    2014-06-01

    Scrub typhus, a bacterial zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, may cause multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and is associated with significant mortality. This study was undertaken to document the clinical and laboratory manifestations and complications and to study time trends and factors associated with mortality in patients with scrub typhus infection. This retrospective study, done at a university teaching hospital, included 623 patients admitted between 2005 and 2010 with scrub typhus. The diagnosis was established by a positive IgM ELISA and/or pathognomonic eschar with PCR confirmation where feasible. The clinical and laboratory profile, course in hospital, and outcome were documented. Factors associated with mortality were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The most common presenting symptoms were fever (100%), nausea/vomiting (54%), shortness of breath (49%), headache (46%), cough (38%), and altered sensorium (26%). An eschar was present in 43.5% of patients. Common laboratory findings included elevated transaminases (87%), thrombocytopenia (79%), and leukocytosis (46%). MODS was seen in 34% of patients. The overall case-fatality rate was 9.0%. Features of acute lung injury were observed in 33.7%, and 29.5% required ventilatory support. On multivariate analysis, shock requiring vasoactive agents (relative risk (RR) 10.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2-25.7, p<0.001), central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction (RR 5.1, 95% CI 2.4-10.7, p<0.001), and renal failure (RR 3.6, 95% CI 1.7-7.5, p=0.001) were independent predictors of mortality. Over 4 years, a decreasing trend was observed in the mortality rate. Scrub typhus can manifest with potentially life-threatening complications such as lung injury, shock, and meningoencephalitis. MODS occurred in a third of our patients. The overall case-fatality rate was 9%, with shock, renal failure, and CNS associated with a higher mortality. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by

  9. An outbreak investigation of scrub typhus in Western Province, Solomon Islands, 2014

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    Michael Marks

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the etiology and risk factors of undifferentiated fever in a cluster of patients in Western Province, Solomon Islands, May 2014. Methods: An outbreak investigation with a case control study was conducted. A case was defined as an inpatient in one hospital in Western Province, Solomon Islands with high fever (> 38.5 °C and a negative malaria microscopy test admitted between 1 and 31 May 2014. Asymptomatic controls matched with the cases residentially were recruited in a ratio of 1:2. Serum samples from the subjects were tested for rickettsial infections using indirect micro-immunofluorescence assay. Results: Nine cases met the outbreak case definition. All cases were male. An eschar was noted in five cases (55%, and one developed pneumonitis. We did not identify any environmental factors associated with illness. Serum samples of all five follow-up cases (100% had strong-positive IgG responses to scrub typhus. All but one control (10% had a moderate response against scrub typhus. Four controls had low levels of antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsia, and only one had a low-level response to typhus group rickettsia. Discussion: This outbreak represents the first laboratory-confirmed outbreak of scrub typhus in the Western Province of Solomon Islands. The results suggest that rickettsial infections are more common than currently recognized as a cause of an acute febrile illness. A revised clinical case definition for rickettsial infections and treatment guidelines were developed and shared with provincial health staff for better surveillance and response to future outbreaks of a similar kind.

  10. Differences in agricultural activities related to incidence of scrub typhus between Korea and Japan

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    Chang-Jin Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to establish a basis for improving or strengthening the preventive strategy against scrub typhus in Korea by comparing and analyzing the difference of prevention behaviors contributing to the occurrence of scrub typhus in Japan and Korea. METHODS The survey was carried out in Jeollabuk-do, which is a high risk and high incidence area, and Fukuoka Prefecture, which is a high risk and low incidence area. The study included 406 Korean farmers and 216 Japanese farmers. Data were collected through face-to-face surveys by interviewers who had completed standardized education. RESULTS Korean farmers have a higher percentage of agricultural working posture that involved contact with weeds than Japanese farmers (p<0.05. The frequency and proportion of weeding were lower in Korean farmers than in Japanese farmers (p<0.05. The level of knowledge about scrub typhus was significantly higher among Korean farmers than among Japanese farmers (p<0.05. Mostly, the behavior of agriculture work was more appropriate for Japanese farmers than for Korean farmers (p<0.05. The total average level of agricultural work was lower in Korea than in Japan, lower in men than women, and lower in part-time farmers than full-time farmers (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that it is reasonable to develop and provide a program that can improve the level of preventive behavior taking into consideration the characteristics of the subject in order to reduce the incidence of diseases in high-risk areas for scrub typhus.

  11. Clinical Predictors of Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndromes in Pediatric patients with Scrub Typhus.

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    Zhao, Dongying; Zhang, Yongjun; Yin, Zhaoqing; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Defeng; Zhou, Qun

    2017-06-01

    Scrub typhus can produce multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Early recognition of the patients at risk of MODS would be helpful in providing timely management and reducing the mortality. In all, 449 children with scrub typhus were enrolled at three hospitals in Yunnan, China from January 2010 to January 2015. The patients' clinical status of organ system dysfunction was evaluated on the day of discharge from hospital by using standard criteria. The patients were classified into MODS present (64 cases, 14.3%) or MODS absent (385 cases, 85.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the prognostic factors for MODS included skin rash (odds ratio, OR = 3.3, p = 0.037), time interval form treatment to defervescence (OR = 1.2, p = 0.035), hemoglobin (OR = 0.54, p = 0.041), platelet counts (OR = 0.06, p scrub typhus, our study provides clinicians with important information to improve the clinical monitoring and prognostication of MODS. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Scrub Typhus in Northeastern Thailand: Eschar Distribution, Abnormal Electrocardiographic Findings, and Predictors of Fatal Outcome.

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    Thipmontree, Wilawan; Tantibhedhyangkul, Wiwit; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk; Wongsawat, Ekkarat; Waywa, Duangdao; Suputtamongkol, Yupin

    2016-10-05

    Scrub typhus is endemic in Thailand. Of the 495 patients with acute undifferentiated fever studied in Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand, from June 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012, 146 patients (29.5%) had confirmed scrub typhus. The majority of cases were male, farmers, with the mean (±standard deviation) age of 54.1 ± 15.2 years. A total of 59 patients (40.4%) had eschar lesion. The commonest sites for an eschar in male patients were the perineum, inguinal, and buttock area; whereas in females, it was the head and neck area. Abnormal electrocardiogram was found in 39 of 79 patients (49.4%) with sinus tachycardia being the most frequent finding (17, 21.5%). A total of 73 patients (50%) had at least one complication. Myocarditis was the cause of complete heart block in a scrub typhus patient, and he fully recovered after receiving intravenous chloramphenicol treatment. The case fatality rate was 6.2% (nine deaths).The independent predictors for fatal outcome were age over 65 years (odds ratio [OR] = 14.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26-166.44, P = 0.03), acute kidney injury (OR = 12.75, 95% CI = 1.77-92.07, P = 0.01), and hyperbilirubinemia (OR = 24.82, 95% CI = 2.12-286.61, P = 0.01). Early diagnosis and prompt appropriate treatment can improve the patient's outcome. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. Scrub Typhus: A Clinico-Laboratory Differentiation of Children with and without Meningitis.

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    Bhat, Nowneet Kumar; Pandita, Neerul; Saini, Manju; Dhar, Minakshi; Ahmed, Sohaib; Shirazi, Nadia; Wasim, Sanober; Shirke, Rupali; Chandar, Vipan

    2016-06-01

    Neurological involvement in the form of meningitis or meningoencephalitis, although well documented in scrub typhus, has not been extensively studied in the pediatric population. We report the clinical and laboratory profile of 96 children with scrub typhus and compared those with and without meningitis. Twenty seven (28%) children had clinical and laboratory evidence of meningitis. The most frequent presenting features were fever (100%), meningeal signs (66.6%), nausea and vomiting (56.3%), seizures (55.5%) and altered sensorium (51.8%). The children with meningitis presented early and had significantly lower respiratory and renal impairments when compared with the non-meningitis group. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed elevated total leukocyte count (86.73 ± 94.50 cells/mm(3)), mononuclear pleocytosis (lymphocyte percentage of 76.85 ± 15.86), elevated proteins (108.33 ± 52.63 mg%) and normal CSF glucose (64.18 ± 15.92 mg%). We conclude that meningitis is a common and early complication of childhood scrub typhus. The CSF reveals a lymphocytic pleocytosis, raised proteins and a normal glucose level. These children respond promptly to appropriate antibiotics as do children without meningitis. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A case-control study of risk factors associated with scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

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    Yanning Lyu

    Full Text Available To investigate the risk factors of scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China, a case-control study was carried out. Cases (n = 56 were defined as persons who were diagnosed by PCR and serological method within three years. Three neighborhood control subjects were selected by matching for age and occupation. Living at the edge of the village, living in the houses near grassland, vegetable field or ditch, house yard without cement floor, piling weeds in the house or yard, all of these were risk factors for scrub typhus infection. Working in vegetable fields and hilly areas, and harvesting in autumn posed the highest risks, with odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of 3.7 (1.1-11.9, 8.2 (1.4-49.5, and 17.2 (5.1-57.9, respectively. These results would be useful for the establishment of a detail control strategy for scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

  15. Clinical significance of hypoalbuminemia in outcome of patients with scrub typhus

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    Kwon Keun-Sang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to investigate the clinical significance of hypoalbuminemia as a marker of severity and mortality in patients with Scrub typhus. Methods The patients with scrub typhus were divided into two groups based on the serum albumin levels; Group I (serum albumin Results Of the total 246 patients who underwent the study, 84 patients (34.1% were categorized as Group I and 162 patients were (65.9% as Group II. Group I showed significantly higher incidence of confusion (24.6% vs. 5.3%, p p = 0.002, pleural effusion (22.8% vs. 11.1%, p = 0.03, arrhythmia (12.3% vs. 2.6%, p = 0.008 and non-oliguric acute renal failure (40.4% vs. 11.1%, p p p = 0.012, and higher hospital cost compared to Group II. Conclusions This study showed hypoalbuminemia in scrub typhus was closely related to the frequency of various complication, longer hospital stay, consequently the higher medical cost, necessitating more efficient management of patients, including medical resources.

  16. A Review of Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi and Related Organisms: Then, Now, and Tomorrow

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    Alison Luce-Fedrow

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus and the rickettsial diseases represent some of the oldest recognized vector-transmitted diseases, fraught with a rich historical aspect, particularly as applied to military/wartime situations. The vectors of Orientia tsutsugamushi were once thought to be confined to an area designated as the Tsutsugamushi Triangle. However, recent reports of scrub typhus caused by Orientia species other than O. tsutsugamushi well beyond the limits of the Tsutsugamushi Triangle have triggered concerns about the worldwide presence of scrub typhus. It is not known whether the vectors of O. tsutsugamushi will be the same for the new Orientia species, and this should be a consideration during outbreak/surveillance investigations. Additionally, concerns surrounding the antibiotic resistance of O. tsutsugamushi have led to considerations for the amendment of treatment protocols, and the need for enhanced public health awareness in both the civilian and medical professional communities. In this review, we discuss the history, outbreaks, antibiotic resistance, and burgeoning genomic advances associated with one of the world’s oldest recognized vector-borne pathogens, O. tsutsugamushi.

  17. Increased endothelial and macrophage markers are associated with disease severity and mortality in scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterdal, Kari; Janardhanan, Jeshina; Astrup, Elisabeth; Ueland, Thor; Prakash, John A J; Lekva, Tove; Abraham, O C; Thomas, Kurien; Damås, Jan Kristian; Mathews, Prasad; Mathai, Dilip; Aukrust, Pål; Varghese, George M

    2014-11-01

    Scrub typhus is endemic in the Asia-Pacific region. Mortality is high even with treatment, and further knowledge of the immune response during this infection is needed. This study was aimed at comparing plasma levels of monocyte/macrophage and endothelial related inflammatory markers in patients and controls in South India and to explore a possible correlation to disease severity and clinical outcome. Plasma levels of ALCAM, VCAM-1, sCD163, sCD14, YKL-40 and MIF were measured in scrub typhus patients (n = 129), healthy controls (n = 31) and in infectious disease controls (n = 31), both in the acute phase and after recovery, by enzyme immunoassays. Patients had markedly elevated levels of all mediators in the acute phase, differing from both healthy and infectious disease controls. During follow-up levels of ALCAM, VCAM-1, sCD14 and YKL-40 remained elevated compared to levels in healthy controls. High plasma ALCAM, VCAM-1, sCD163, sCD14, and MIF, and in particular YKL-40 were all associated with disease severity and ALCAM, sCD163, MIF and especially YKL-40, were associated with mortality. Our findings show that scrub typhus is characterized by elevated levels of monocyte/macrophage and endothelial related markers. These inflammatory markers, and in particular YKL-40, may contribute to disease severity and clinical outcome. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chest radiographic findings of scrub typhus: an analysis of 160 cases occurred in Ulsan area

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    Kim, Ok Hwa; Oh, Dong Heon; Kim, Ki Sung; Woo, Je Ho; Kwon, Jung Hyeok [Dong Kang General Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-03-15

    Scrub typhus (Tsutsugamushi disease) is an acute febrile systemic illness caused by Rickettsia Tsutsugamushi that is transmitted to humans by the bite of larval-stage trombiculid mites (chiggers). The authors analyzed chest radiographic findings of scrub typhus in 160 patients in Ulsan area. One hundred and eight (67.5%) of 160 patients showed abnormal findings which included lung lesions in 108 patients (67.5%), cardiomegaly in 37 patients (23.1%), lymphadenopathy in 25 patients (15.6%) and pleural effusion in 11 patients (6.9%). Among the lung lesions, interstitial patterns were seen in 107 patients (66.9%), mostly fine or medium reticulonodular, and air-space patterns in 14 patients (8.8%) and combined interstitial and air-space patterns in 13 patients (8.1%). Sixty-four patients (40%) had combined chest radiographic findings. The typical chest radiographic findings of scrub typhus would be helpful in evaluation of the causes of acute febrile illness that occur during late fall in the endemic area.

  19. Lysis of cells infected with typhus group rickettsiae by a human cytotoxic T cell clone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, M.; Robbins, F.; Hartzman, R.J.; Dasch, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cytolytic human T cells clones generated in response to the intracellular bacterium Rickettsia typhi were characterized. Growing clones were tested for their ability to proliferate specifically in response to antigens derived from typhus group rickettsiae or to lyse targets infected with R. typhi or Rickettsia prowazekii, as measured by 51 Cr-release from target cells. Two clones were able to lyse targets infected with typhus group rickettsiae. One of these clones was more fully characterized because of its rapid growth characteristics. This cytolytic clone was capable of lysing an autologous infected target as well as a target matched for class I and II histocompatibility leukocyte antigens (HLA). It was not capable, however, of lysing either a target mismatched for both class I and II HLA or a target partially matched for class I HLA. In addition, the clone exhibited specificity in that it was able to lyse an autologous target infected with typhus group rickettsiae, but did not lyse an autologous target infected with an antigenically distinct rickettsial species, Rickettsia tsutsugamushi. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that cells infected with intracellular bacteria can be lysed by human cytotoxic T lymphocytes

  20. Chest radiographic findings of scrub typhus: an analysis of 160 cases occurred in Ulsan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Oh, Dong Heon; Kim, Ki Sung; Woo, Je Ho; Kwon, Jung Hyeok

    1993-01-01

    Scrub typhus (Tsutsugamushi disease) is an acute febrile systemic illness caused by Rickettsia Tsutsugamushi that is transmitted to humans by the bite of larval-stage trombiculid mites (chiggers). The authors analyzed chest radiographic findings of scrub typhus in 160 patients in Ulsan area. One hundred and eight (67.5%) of 160 patients showed abnormal findings which included lung lesions in 108 patients (67.5%), cardiomegaly in 37 patients (23.1%), lymphadenopathy in 25 patients (15.6%) and pleural effusion in 11 patients (6.9%). Among the lung lesions, interstitial patterns were seen in 107 patients (66.9%), mostly fine or medium reticulonodular, and air-space patterns in 14 patients (8.8%) and combined interstitial and air-space patterns in 13 patients (8.1%). Sixty-four patients (40%) had combined chest radiographic findings. The typical chest radiographic findings of scrub typhus would be helpful in evaluation of the causes of acute febrile illness that occur during late fall in the endemic area

  1. Differences in agricultural activities related to incidence of scrub typhus between Korea and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chang-Jin; Oh, Gyung-Jae; Kang, Gong-Unn; Lee, Jeong Mi; Lee, Da-Un; Nam, Hae-Sung; Ryu, So Yeon; Lee, Young-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a basis for improving or strengthening the preventive strategy against scrub typhus in Korea by comparing and analyzing the difference of prevention behaviors contributing to the occurrence of scrub typhus in Japan and Korea. The survey was carried out in Jeollabuk-do, which is a high risk and high incidence area, and Fukuoka Prefecture, which is a high risk and low incidence area. The study included 406 Korean farmers and 216 Japanese farmers. Data were collected through face-to-face surveys by interviewers who had completed standardized education. Korean farmers have a higher percentage of agricultural working posture that involved contact with weeds than Japanese farmers (pwork was more appropriate for Japanese farmers than for Korean farmers (pwork was lower in Korea than in Japan, lower in men than women, and lower in part-time farmers than full-time farmers (p<0.05). This study suggests that it is reasonable to develop and provide a program that can improve the level of preventive behavior taking into consideration the characteristics of the subject in order to reduce the incidence of diseases in high-risk areas for scrub typhus.

  2. [Spatio-temporal distribution of scrub typhus and related influencing factors in coastal beach area of Yancheng, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y Z; Li, F; Xu, H; Huang, L C; Gu, Z G; Sun, Z Y; Yan, G J; Zhu, Y J; Tang, C

    2016-02-01

    In order to provide better programs on monitoring, early warning and prevention of Scrub Typhus in the coastal beach area, temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of scrub typhus were summarized. Relationships between temporal-spatial clustering of Scrub Typhus, meteorological factors, rodent distribution and the biological characteristics in coastal beach area of Yancheng city, were studied. Reports on network-based Scrub Typhus epidemics and information on population, weather situation through monitoring those stations, from 2005 to 2014 were collected and processed, in the coastal beach area of Yancheng city. Distribution, density of the population concerned and seasonal fluctuation on rodents were monitored in coastal beach area, from April 2011 to December, 2013. METHODS as descriptive statistics, space-time permutation scantistics, autocorrelation and Cross-correlation analysis etc, were used to analyze the temporal-spatial distribution of Scrub Typhus and correlation with rodent distribution, density fluctuation and meteorological indexes. Zero-inflated Pearson (ZIP) regression model was contributed according to the distribution of related data. All methods were calculated under Excel 2003, SPSS 16.0, Mapinfo 11.0, Satscan 9.0 and Stata/SE 10.0 softwares. (1) The incidence of Scrub Typhus was gradually increasing and the highest incidence of the year was seen in 2014, as 5.81/10 million. There was an autumn peak of Scrub typhus, with the highest incidence rate as 12.02/10 million in November. The incidence rate of Scrub typhus appeared high in Binhai, Dafeng and Xiangshui, with the average incidence rates appeared as 3.30/10 million, 3.21/10 million and 2.79/10 million, respectively. There were 12 towns with high incidence rates in the coastal beach area, with incidence rate showed between 4.41/10 and 10.03/10 million. (2) There were three incidence clusters of Scrub typhus seen in 25 towns, between October 2012 and November 2012 in Dongtai, Dafeng

  3. Renal Manifestation in Scrub Typhus during a Major Outbreak in Central Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedhain, A; Bhattarai, G R

    2017-01-01

    Renal involvement and acute kidney injury (AKI) are common clinical manifestations seen in scrub typhus, a vector-borne tropical disease. There are no data on renal manifestation in scrub typhus in Nepal. We conducted a prospective study to analyze the incidence, urinary abnormalities, course, severity, outcome, and the predictors of AKI in patients with scrub typhus during a major outbreak in Central Nepal. Total 1398 patients admitted with acute febrile illness were subjected for Scrub Typhus Detect™ Immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test, of which 502 (35.90%) patients tested positive and were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 30.37 ± 18.81 years (range, 1-79 years) with 26.29% in the pediatric age group. Female-to-male ratio was 1.26:1. Mean duration of fever was 6.8 ± 3.1 days. Mean IgM ELISA value for scrub typhus was 2.17 ± 1.70 without difference in AKI and non-AKI groups (2.17 ± 1.76 vs. 2.16 ± 1.62; P = 0.94). Urinary abnormalities were seen in 42.3% of patients. Mean serum creatinine was 1.37 ± 0.69 mg/dl with significant difference in two groups (1.85 ± 0.87 vs. 1.03 ± 0.17; P = 0.003). AKI was seen in 35.8% of patients with majority having Stage 1 AKI (68.3%) followed by Stage 2 (34.1%) and Stage 3 (1.2%). Hemodialysis was required for 3.94% of patients. In 54% of patients, AKI occurred in fifth and sixth day of fever. ICU admission was required for 18.73% of patients and 8.57% required ventilator support. Mortality rate was 1.79%, which was higher among patients with AKI (2.96% vs. 1.0%; P = 0.106). Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of pneumonia, shock, and acute respiratory distress syndrome predicted the development of AKI.

  4. Renal manifestation in scrub typhus during a major outbreak in central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sedhain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal involvement and acute kidney injury (AKI are common clinical manifestations seen in scrub typhus, a vector-borne tropical disease. There are no data on renal manifestation in scrub typhus in Nepal. We conducted a prospective study to analyze the incidence, urinary abnormalities, course, severity, outcome, and the predictors of AKI in patients with scrub typhus during a major outbreak in Central Nepal. Total 1398 patients admitted with acute febrile illness were subjected for Scrub Typhus Detect™ Immunoglobulin M (IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test, of which 502 (35.90% patients tested positive and were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 30.37 ± 18.81 years (range, 1–79 years with 26.29% in the pediatric age group. Female-to-male ratio was 1.26:1. Mean duration of fever was 6.8 ± 3.1 days. Mean IgM ELISA value for scrub typhus was 2.17 ± 1.70 without difference in AKI and non-AKI groups (2.17 ± 1.76 vs. 2.16 ± 1.62; P = 0.94. Urinary abnormalities were seen in 42.3% of patients. Mean serum creatinine was 1.37 ± 0.69 mg/dl with significant difference in two groups (1.85 ± 0.87 vs. 1.03 ± 0.17; P = 0.003. AKI was seen in 35.8% of patients with majority having Stage 1 AKI (68.3% followed by Stage 2 (34.1% and Stage 3 (1.2%. Hemodialysis was required for 3.94% of patients. In 54% of patients, AKI occurred in fifth and sixth day of fever. ICU admission was required for 18.73% of patients and 8.57% required ventilator support. Mortality rate was 1.79%, which was higher among patients with AKI (2.96% vs. 1.0%; P = 0.106. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of pneumonia, shock, and acute respiratory distress syndrome predicted the development of AKI.

  5. Scrub typhus point-of-care testing: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Kartika Saraswati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosing scrub typhus clinically is difficult, hence laboratory tests play a very important role in diagnosis. As performing sophisticated laboratory tests in resource-limited settings is not feasible, accurate point-of-care testing (POCT for scrub typhus diagnosis would be invaluable for patient diagnosis and management. Here we summarise the existing evidence on the accuracy of scrub typhus POCTs to inform clinical practitioners in resource-limited settings of their diagnostic value.Studies on POCTs which can be feasibly deployed in primary health care or outpatient settings were included. Thirty-one studies were identified through PubMed and manual searches of reference lists. The quality of the studies was assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2. About half (n = 14/31 of the included studies were of moderate quality. Meta-analysis showed the pooled sensitivity and specificity of commercially available immunochromatographic tests (ICTs were 66.0% (95% CI 0.37-0.86 and 92.0% (95% CI 0.83-0.97, respectively. There was a significant and high degree of heterogeneity between the studies (I2 value = 97.48%, 95% CI 96.71-98.24 for sensitivity and I2 value = 98.17%, 95% CI 97.67-98.67 for specificity. Significant heterogeneity was observed for total number of samples between studies (p = 0.01, study design (whether using case-control design or not, p = 0.01, blinding during index test interpretation (p = 0.02, and QUADAS-2 score (p = 0.01.There was significant heterogeneity between the scrub typhus POCT diagnostic accuracy studies examined. Overall, the commercially available scrub typhus ICTs demonstrated better performance when 'ruling in' the diagnosis. There is a need for standardised methods and reporting of diagnostic accuracy to decrease between-study heterogeneity and increase comparability among study results, as well as development of an affordable and accurate antigen-based POCT to tackle the

  6. Epidemic characteristics and spatio-temporal patterns of scrub typhus during 2006-2013 in Tai'an, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L; Yang, H-L; Bi, Z-W; Kou, Z-Q; Zhang, L-Y; Zhang, A-H; Yang, L; Zhao, Z-T

    2015-08-01

    Tai'an, a famous cultural tourist district, is a new endemic foci of scrub typhus in northern China. Frequent reports of travel-acquired cases and absence of effective vaccine indicated a significant health problem of scrub typhus in Tai'an. Thus, descriptive epidemiological methods and spatial-temporal scan statistics were used to describe the epidemic characteristics and detect the significant clusters of the high incidence of scrub typhus at the town level in Tai'an. Results of descriptive epidemiological analysis showed a total of 490 cases were reported in Tai'an with the annual average incidence ranging from 0·48 to 2·27/100 000 during 2006-2013. Females, the elderly and farmers are the high-risk groups. Monthly changes of scrub typhus cases indicated an obvious epidemic period in autumn. Spatial-temporal distribution analysis, showed significant clusters of high incidence mainly located in eastern and northern Tai'an. Our study suggests that more effective, targeted measures for local residents should be implemented in the eastern and northern areas of Tai'an in autumn. Meanwhile, it may prove beneficial for health policy makers to advise travellers to take preventive measures in order to minimize the risk of infection of scrub typhus in Tai'an.

  7. The Correlation of Endoscopic Findings and Clinical Features in Korean Patients with Scrub Typhus: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Dong-Min; Yun, Na Ra; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Man Woo

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi-induced systemic vasculitis, but the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract and the endoscopic findings associated with scrub typhus are not well understood. We performed a prospective study and recommend performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for all possible scrub typhus patients, regardless of gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms, endoscopic findings and clinical severity based on organ involvement and ICU admission were analyzed. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred in up to 76.4% of scrub typhus patients. The major endoscopic findings were ulcers (43/127, 33.9%). Interestingly, 7.1% (9/127) of the patients presented with esophageal candidiasis. There was no correlation between the presence or absence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the endoscopic grade (P = 0.995). However, there was a positive correlation between the clinical severity and the endoscopic findings (P = 0.001). Sixty-three percent of the patients presented with erosion or ulcers on prospectively performed endoscopic evaluations, irrespective of gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms did not reflect the need for endoscopy. Scrub typhus patients could have significant endoscopic abnormalities even in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms.

  8. Molecular characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi serotypes causing scrub typhus outbreak in southern region of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, K; Kumar, E; Kalawat, Usha; Kumar, B Siddhartha; Chaudhury, A; Gopal, D V R Sai

    2016-10-01

    Scrub typhus is a vector-borne zoonotic infection caused by Orientiatsutsugamushi. Local epidemiology of the circulating serotypes of scrub typhus is not available from most parts of India. We conducted this study for the diagnosis of scrub typhus using IgM ELISA and to detect O. tsutsugamushi serotypes circulating in southern Andhra Pradesh, India. Samples were collected from patients clinically suspected to have scrub typhus and were subjected to IgM ELISA to measure IgM antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed targeting strain-specific regions in ELISA-positive samples. Of a total of 663 samples, 258 (38.91%) were found to be positive by IgM ELISA. Serotypes could be detected in 230 (34.69%) samples only. Only two serotypes, Karp and Kawasaki, were found in the serum samples, with the former being predominant. The dual infection of Karp and Kawasaki serotypes was found in seven patients. Other serotypes such as Gilliam, Kuroki and Kato were not detected in the samples. The nested PCR products proved useful in presumptively identifying the endemic O. tsutsugamushi serotypes. The present study could be significant in understanding scrub typhus epidemiology in this region.

  9. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  10. Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Orientia tsutsugamushi from patients with scrub typhus in 3 regions of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, George M; Janardhanan, Jeshina; Mahajan, Sanjay K; Tariang, David; Trowbridge, Paul; Prakash, John A J; David, Thambu; Sathendra, Sowmya; Abraham, O C

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus, an acute febrile illness that is widespread in the Asia-Pacific region, is caused by the bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, which displays high levels of antigenic variation. We conducted an investigation to identify the circulating genotypes of O. tsutsugamushi in 3 scrub typhus-endemic geographic regions of India: South India, Northern India, and Northeast India. Eschar samples collected during September 2010-August 2012 from patients with scrub typhus were subjected to 56-kDa type-specific PCR and sequencing to identify their genotypes. Kato-like strains predominated (61.5%), especially in the South and Northeast, followed by Karp-like strains (27.7%) and Gilliam and Ikeda strains (2.3% each). Neimeng-65 genotype strains were also observed in the Northeast. Clarifying the genotypic diversity of O. tsutsugamushi in India enhances knowledge of the regional diversity among circulating strains and provides potential resources for future region-specific diagnostic studies and vaccine development.

  11. Burden of Disease Measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years and a Disease Forecasting Time Series Model of Scrub Typhus in Laiwu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liang, Si-Yuan; Wang, Xian-Jun; Li, Xiu-Jun; Wu, Yan-Ling; Ma, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background Laiwu District is recognized as a hyper-endemic region for scrub typhus in Shandong Province, but the seriousness of this problem has been neglected in public health circles. Methodology/Principal Findings A disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) approach was adopted to measure the burden of scrub typhus in Laiwu, China during the period 2006 to 2012. A multiple seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model (SARIMA) was used to identify the most suitable forecasting model for scrub typhus in Laiwu. Results showed that the disease burden of scrub typhus is increasing yearly in Laiwu, and which is higher in females than males. For both females and males, DALY rates were highest for the 60–69 age group. Of all the SARIMA models tested, the SARIMA(2,1,0)(0,1,0)12 model was the best fit for scrub typhus cases in Laiwu. Human infections occurred mainly in autumn with peaks in October. Conclusions/Significance Females, especially those of 60 to 69 years of age, were at highest risk of developing scrub typhus in Laiwu, China. The SARIMA (2,1,0)(0,1,0)12 model was the best fit forecasting model for scrub typhus in Laiwu, China. These data are useful for developing public health education and intervention programs to reduce disease. PMID:25569248

  12. Dissemination of Orientia tsutsugamushi and inflammatory responses in a murine model of scrub typhus.

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    Christian A Keller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Central aspects in the pathogenesis of scrub typhus, an infection caused by Orientia (O. tsutsugamushi, have remained obscure. Its organ and cellular tropism are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinetics of bacterial dissemination and associated inflammatory responses in infected tissues in an experimental scrub typhus mouse model, following infection with the human pathogenic strain Karp. We provide a thorough analysis of O. tsutsugamushi infection in inbred Balb/c mice using footpad inoculation, which is close to the natural way of infection. By a novel, highly sensitive qPCR targeting the multi copy traD genes, we quantitatively monitored the spread of O. tsutsugamushi Karp from the skin inoculation site via the regional lymph node to the internal target organs. The highest bacterial loads were measured in the lung. Using confocal imaging, we also detected O. tsutsugamushi at the single cell level in the lung and found a predominant macrophage rather than endothelial localization. Immunohistochemical analysis of infiltrates in lung and brain revealed differently composed lesions with specific localizations: iNOS-expressing macrophages were frequent in infiltrative parenchymal noduli, but uncommon in perivascular lesions within these organs. Quantitative analysis of the macrophage response by immunohistochemistry in liver, heart, lung and brain demonstrated an early onset of macrophage activation in the liver. Serum levels of interferon (IFN-γ were increased during the acute infection, and we showed that IFN-γ contributed to iNOS-dependent bacterial growth control. Our data show that upon inoculation to the skin, O. tsutsugamushi spreads systemically to a large number of organs and gives rise to organ-specific inflammation patterns. The findings suggest an essential role for the lung in the pathogenesis of scrub typhus. The model will allow detailed studies on host-pathogen interaction and provide further

  13. A rapid, sensitive and reliable diagnostic test for scrub typhus in China

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    Zhang Lijuan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the performances for detection of IgM and IgG antibodies to Orientia. tsutsugamushi (Ot using a gold conjugate-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT. Materials and Methods: The RDT employing mixture recombinant 56-kDa proteins of O. tsutsugamushi and the mIFA assay was performed on 33 patients from Fujian and Yunnan province respectively and 94 positive sera (36 from Hainan province and 58 from Jiangsu province from convalescent stages of the patients with scrub typhus respectively and 82 negative sera from healthy farmers from Anhui province and Beijing City respectively in 2009. A comparison of the RDT and mIFA assay was performed by using the c2 test and the P level of ≤0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Among these 94 positive sera from convalescent stages of the illness and 82 sera from control farmers, the specificity of RDT was 100% for both IgM and IgG tests. In 33 cases with scrub typhus, 5 cases were positively detected earlier by RDT than by mIFA for the IgM test, and 2 cases were positive for the IgG test. The sensitivities of RDT were 93.9% and 90.9% for IgM and IgG, respectively. Considering IgM and IgG together, the sensitivity was 100%. The geometric mean titre (GMT of IFA and the RDT assay in diluted sera from confirmed cases were 1:37 versus 1:113 respectively (P<0.001 for IgM test and 1:99 versus 1:279 respectively (P<0.016 for IgG. Conclusions: The RDT was more sensitive than the traditional IFA for the early diagnosis of scrub typhus and was particularly suitable for use in rural areas.

  14. Scrub typhus in South India: clinical and laboratory manifestations, genetic variability, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, George M; Janardhanan, Jeshina; Trowbridge, Paul; Peter, John V; Prakash, John A J; Sathyendra, Sowmya; Thomas, Kurien; David, Thambu S; Kavitha, M L; Abraham, Ooriapadickal C; Mathai, Dilip

    2013-11-01

    This study sought to document the clinical and laboratory manifestations, genetic variability, and outcomes of scrub typhus, an often severe infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, in South India. Patients admitted to a large teaching hospital with IgM ELISA-confirmed scrub typhus were evaluated. Clinical examination with a thorough search for an eschar, laboratory testing, chest X-ray, and outcome were documented and analyzed. Additionally, a 410-bp region of the 56-kDa type-specific antigen gene of O. tsutsugamushi was sequenced and compared with isolates from other regions of Asia. Most of the 154 patients evaluated presented with fever and non-specific symptoms. An eschar was found in 86 (55%) patients. Mild hepatic involvement was seen in most, with other organ involvement including respiratory, cardiovascular, and renal. Multi-organ dysfunction was noted in 59 (38.3%), and the fatality rate was 7.8%. Hypotension requiring vasoactive agents was found to be an independent predictor of mortality (p<0.001). The phylogeny of 26 samples showed 17 (65%) clustering with the Kato-like group and eight (31%) with the Karp-like group. The presentation of scrub typhus can be variable, often non-specific, but with potentially severe multi-organ dysfunction. Prompt recognition is key to specific treatment and good outcomes. Further study of the circulating strains is essential for the development of a successful vaccine and sensitive point-of-care testing. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gamma-irradiated scrub typhus immunogens: broad-spectrum immunity with combinations of rickettsial strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, G.H. Jr.; Osterman, J.V.

    1979-01-01

    Scrub typhus immunogens were prepared from Rickettsia tsutsugamushi strains Karp, Kato, Gilliam, Kostival, and Buie by exposing frozen infected yolk sac suspensions to 300 krad of gamma radiation. Mouse protection tests showed that each of the irradiated immunogens protected C3H/HeDub mice against high challenge levels of Karp and Gilliam, but that none of these single-strain immunogens were capable of protecting against all five of the challenge strains. Broad-spectrum protection was achieved by using combinations of three strains of irradiated rickettsiae in a vaccination regimen of three injections at 5-day intervals

  16. Sacral Herpes Zoster Associated with Voiding Dysfunction in a Young Patient with Scrub Typhus

    OpenAIRE

    Hur, Jian

    2015-01-01

    When a patient presents with acute voiding dysfunction without a typical skin rash, it may be difficult to make a diagnosis of herpes zoster. Here, we present a case of scrub typhus in a 25-year-old man with the complication of urinary dysfunction. The patient complained of loss of urinary voiding sensation and constipation. After eight days, he had typical herpes zoster eruptions on the sacral dermatomes and hypalgesia of the S1-S5 dermatomes. No cases of dual infection with varicella zoster...

  17. Mexican renewable electricity law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C. [Institute of Engineering of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Edificio 12 Bernardo Quintana, Piso 3, Cubiculo 319, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, CP 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  18. Mexican renewable electricity law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  19. Differences in the clinical presentation and the frequency of complications between elderly and non-elderly scrub typhus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi-Ok; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Uh Jin; Ahn, Joon Hwan; Kang, Seung-Ji; Jang, Hee-Chang; Jung, Sook-In; Park, Kyung-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Age can affect the clinical features and severity of infectious disorders, such as scrub typhus. We performed this study to examine differences between elderly and non-elderly scrub typhus patients, and to identify risk factors predictive of disease outcomes. This retrospective study included patients admitted to a tertiary hospital with scrub typhus between 2001 and 2011. A total of 615 patients were enrolled in this study, 328 of which were >65 years of age. Of the elderly patients, 46.0% (151/328) experienced at least one complication compared to only 23.0% (66/287) in younger patients. A linear trend was observed between age and complication rates (p=0.002). The most common complication in elderly patients was acute kidney injury (75, 22.9%). Treatment failure was reported in 10 elderly patients (3.0%) compared to one non-elderly patient (0.3%). Mental confusion and dyspnea of clinical manifestations at admission were common in elderly patients. Frequency of fever, rash, and eschar were similar in both groups. The following four factors were significantly associated with severe scrub typhus in elderly patients: (1) white blood cell (WBC) counts>10,000/mm(3) (OR=2.569, CI=1.298-5.086), (2) MDRD GFR10 points (OR=3.304, CI=1.793-60.87). Complications and mortality were more common in elderly patients, often associated with delays in diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential expression of interferon-gamma and interferon-gamma-inducing cytokines in Thai patients with scrub typhus or leptospirosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chierakul, Wirongrong; de Fost, Maaike; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Limpaiboon, Roongreung; Dondorp, Arjen; White, Nicholas J.; van der Poll, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-gamma plays an important role in the induction of a type 1 immune response against intracellular pathogens. We compared the plasma levels of IFN-gamma and IFN-gamma-inducing cytokines in adult Thai patients with scrub typhus, caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of a loop-mediated isothermal PCR assay for detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi during acute Scrub Typhus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Daniel H; Blacksell, Stuart D; Nawtaisong, Pruksa; Jenjaroen, Kemajittra; Teeraratkul, Achara; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Kantipong, Pacharee; Day, Nicholas P J

    2011-09-01

    There is an urgent need to develop rapid and accurate point-of-care (POC) technologies for acute scrub typhus diagnosis in low-resource, primary health care settings to guide clinical therapy. In this study we present the clinical evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal PCR assay (LAMP) in the context of a prospective fever study, including 161 patients from scrub typhus-endemic Chiang Rai, northern Thailand. A robust reference comparator set comprising following 'scrub typhus infection criteria' (STIC) was used: a) positive cell culture isolate and/or b) an admission IgM titer ≥1∶12,800 using the 'gold standard' indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and/or c) a 4-fold rising IFA IgM titer and/or d) a positive result in at least two out of three PCR assays. Compared to the STIC criteria, all PCR assays (including LAMP) demonstrated high specificity ranging from 96-99%, with sensitivities varying from 40% to 56%, similar to the antibody based rapid test, which had a sensitivity of 47% and a specificity of 95%. The diagnostic accuracy of the LAMP assay was similar to realtime and nested conventional PCR assays, but superior to the antibody-based rapid test in the early disease course. The combination of DNA- and antibody-based detection methods increased sensitivity with minimal reduction of specificity, and expanded the timeframe of adequate diagnostic coverage throughout the acute phase of scrub typhus.

  2. Clinical characteristics of the autumn-winter type scrub typhus cases in south of Shandong province, northern China

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    Min Jing-Si

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Before 1986, scrub typhus was only found endemic in southern China. Because human infections typically occur in the summer, it is called "summer type". During the autumn-winter period of 1986, a new type of scrub typhus was identified in Shandong and northern Jiangsu province of northern China. This newly recognized scrub typhus was subsequently reported in many areas of northern China and was then called "autumn-winter type". However, clinical characteristics of associated cases have not been reported. Methods From 1995 to 2006, all suspected scrub typhus cases in five township hospitals of Feixian county, Shandong province were enrolled. Indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA was used as confirmatory serodiagnosis test. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR connected with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and sequence analyses were used for genotyping of O. tsutsugamushi DNAs. Clinical symptoms and demography of confirmed cases were analyzed. Results A total of 480 scrub typhus cases were confirmed. The cases occurred every year exclusively between September and December with a peak occurrence in October. The case numbers were relatively higher in 1995, 1996, 1997, and 2000 than in other years. 57.9% of cases were in the group aged 21–50. More cases occurred in male (56% than in female (44%. The predominant occupational group of the cases was farmers (85.0%. Farm work was reported the primary exposure to infection in 67.7% of cases. Fever, rash, and eschar were observed in 100.0%, 90.4%, and 88.5% of cases, respectively. Eschars formed frequently on or around umbilicus, abdomen areas, and front and back of waist (34.1% in both genders. Normal results were observed in 88.7% (WBC counts, 84.5% (PLT counts, and 89.7% (RBC counts of cases, respectively. Observations from the five hospitals were compared and no significant differences were found. Conclusion The autumn-winter type scrub typhus in northern China occurred

  3. Jakub Penson and his studies on acute renal failure during typhus epidemics in Warsaw Ghetto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Boleslaw

    2004-01-01

    In the Warsaw Ghetto established by the German Nazis as a special district for Polish Jews in 1940 there were two typhus epidemics. Many patients affected by this disease (1500 during the first and 6500 during second epidemic) were treated at The Department of Infectious Disease of Czyste Hospital headed by Dr Jakub Penson--a Polish physician of Jewish origin. A heroic group of 20 physicians not only treated patients in these tragic circumstances, but also performed in defiance of Nazi prohibition, scientific studies on the clinical course of typhus with special attention on hyperazotemia and renal complication. The results of their observations were presented in 1941-42 during clinical meetings in Czyste Hospital and later published by Penson in 1946 in the Polish Physicians Weekly. Among other clinical statements a description of acute renal failure of extrarenal origin, caused by dehydration and toxic influence of primary disease seems the most important one. It has to be taken into account that acute renal failure appearing during Crush Syndrome was described by Bywaters in 1941. Jakub Penson survived the German Nazi occupation and later become a head of the Internal Medicine Department in Gdansk Medical University and one of the precursors of clinical nephrology in Poland.

  4. [Little known activity of the Czestochowa typhus Institute in 1943 and 1944].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramowicz, P; Fijałek, J; Lutrzykowski, A

    1996-01-01

    In 1921 Prof. Rudolf Weigl started manufacturing on an industrial scale a typhus vaccine. Until the beginning of World War Two he organised five companies called Weigl Institute. During the Soviet occupation the Lvov plant became the Lvov Sanitary and Bacteriological Institute and after the town was taken over by the German Army on 1st July 1941, Prof. Weigl became a head of research of the Military Typhus Institute. It consisted of four sections for manufacturing the vaccine. All the produce was mainly despatched to the Russian front and only very little reached the civilians. In November and December 1943 the plant was moved to Czestochowa into a main building in Wilsona str. and two four storey others in Jasnogórska str. Its head became a German doctor Mozer (witness test). It is difficult to state numbers the plant employed there being no data left but according to employees still alive there must have been about a hundred lab. staff and two hundred feeders. The plant was divided into "breeding", "preparatory" and "liofilisation" sections. "The breeding" was for feeders and breeding lice. Cages containing about 30,000 lice were fastened to voluntary feeders for each feeding. Next "loaders" covered a so-called key board with 20 insects and infectors introduced and pressurised solution containing live rickets into a louse intestine. After a six or seven day passage, lice ware dried and their intestines prepared to produce liofilizeate all the staff and their families were inoculated. ...

  5. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus and HIV infection among injection drug users in two Mexican cities bordering the U.S Prevalencia de los virus de la hepatitis C y de la inmunodeficiencia humana entre usuarios de drogas intravenosas, en dos ciudades mexicanas fronterizas con los Estados Unidos de America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Faye White

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of the hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV infection and associated risk behaviors among injection drug users (IDUs in two northern Mexican cities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between February and April 2005, IDUs were recruited in Tijuana (N=222 and Ciudad Juarez (N=206 using respondent-driven sampling (RDS, a chain referral sampling approach. Interviewer-administered questionnaires assessed drug-using behaviors during the prior six months. Venous blood was collected for immunoassays to detect HIV and HCV antibodies. For HIV, Western blot or immunofluorescence assay was used for confirmatory testing. Final HCV antibody prevalence was estimated using RDS adjustments. RESULTS: Overall, HCV and HIV prevalence was 96.0% and 2.8%, respectively, and was similar in both cities. Most IDUs (87.5% reported passing on their used injection equipment to others, and 85.9% had received used equipment from others. CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevalence was relatively high given the prevalence of HIV in the general population, and HCV prevalence was extremely high among IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez. Frequent sharing practices indicate a high potential for continued transmission for both infections. HCV counseling and testing for IDUs in Mexico and interventions to reduce sharing of injection equipment are needed.OBJETIVO: Estimar las prevalencias de los virus de hepatitis C (VHC y de VIH y los comportamientos de riesgo asociados con ellos, entre usuarios de drogas inyectables (UDI en dos ciudades del norte de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre febrero y abril de 2005, se reclutaron UDIs en Tijuana (N=222 y en Ciudad Juárez (N=206, mediante un método de muestreo llamado en inglés "respondent-driven sampling" (RDS, lo cual es un sistema basado en cadenas de referencia. Los participantes contestaron una encuesta aplicada por entrevista, la cual indagó acerca de los comportamientos en el uso de drogas durante los seis meses previos. Una

  6. Immune thrombocytopenia with multi-organ dysfunction syndrome as a rare presentation of scrub typhus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittyachen, Abraham M; Abraham, Saramma P; Krishnamoorthy, Smitha; Vijayan, Anuroopa; Kokkat, Jayamohan

    2017-10-06

    Scrub typhus is an acute infectious illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. It is endemic to a part of the world known as the "tsutsugamushi triangle". Humans are accidental hosts in this zoonotic disease. About a third of patients admitted with scrub typhus have evidence of multi-organ dysfunction. Multi-organ dysfunction secondary to scrub typhus carries a high mortality rate. We report a 65-year old lady who was admitted in a Tertiary Care Center in the state of Kerala in India, with 7 day history of fever, myalgia and reduced urine output. Head to foot examination revealed the presence of an eschar on her chest. One week prior to the onset of her illness she had gone trekking through a hilly forest area. She was clinically suspected to have scrub typhus, which was later confirmed with laboratory tests. She developed multi-organ dysfunction syndrome secondary to this illness. Though there was an improvement in the multi-organ dysfunction, thrombocytopenia alone failed to improve. Bone marrow study was done which was suggestive of immune thrombocytopenia. Patient was given a course of steroids with which the thrombocytopenia improved. Failure of platelet count to normalize even after there has been a general improvement of other markers of multi-organ dysfunction in scrub typhus should prompt the clinician to consider other potential causes of thrombocytopenia. An unusual finding as this calls for further research to understand the molecular mechanisms behind such an event. Further, considering the close similarity in clinical presentation of several tropical illnesses, meticulous history taking and a detailed physical examination needs to be emphasized.

  7. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory profile of scrub typhus cases detected by serology and RT-PCR in Kumaon, Uttarakhand: a hospital-based study.

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    Rawat, Vinita; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashok; Saxena, Sandip R; Varshney, Umesh; Kumar, Mukesh

    2018-04-01

    We analysed the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory data of the 168 scrub typhus cases confirmed by a combination of any one of the following: real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and/or immunofluorescence assay (IFA) (IgM and/or IgG). The peak season for scrub typhus was from July to October. By multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, the risk of scrub typhus was about four times in those working in occupation related to forest work. Major clinical manifestations were fever (100%), myalgia (65%), cough (51%) and vomiting (46%); major complications were meningitis/meningoencephatilitis (12.5%) and multi-organ failure (MOF) and pneumonia (5.3% each). Laboratory investigations revealed raised aminotranferase levels and thrombocytopenia in most confirmed cases. We conclude that scrub typhus is an important cause of febrile illness in the Kumaon hills of Uttarakhand where this disease had not previously been considered to exist.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi from Rodents Captured following a Scrub Typhus Outbreak at a Military Training Base, Bothong District, Chonburi Province, Central Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Rodkvamtook, Wuttikon; Ruang-areerate, Toon; Gaywee, Jariyanart; Richards, Allen L.; Jeamwattanalert, Pimmada; Bodhidatta, Dharadhida; Sangjun, Noppadon; Prasartvit, Anchana; Jatisatienr, Araya; Jatisatienr, Chaiwat

    2011-01-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi, an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of scrub typhus, a vector-borne disease transmitted by infected chiggers (trombiculid mite larvae). In 2002, an outbreak of scrub typhus occurred among Royal Thai Army troops during the annual field training at a military base in Bothong district, Chonburi province, central Thailand. This report describes the outbreak investigation including its transmission cycle. Results showed that 33.9% of 17...

  9. Serosurveillance of Scrub Typhus in Small Mammals Collected from Military Training Sites near the DMZ, Northern Gyeonggi-do, Korea, and Analysis of the Relative Abundance of Chiggers from Mammals Examined

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Korean J Paras/to/. Vol. 48, No. 3: 237-243, September 2010 DOl: JO.J3471kjp.2010.48.J.237 Serosurveillance of Scrub Typhus in Small Mammals...65th Medical BrigadeAJSAMEDDAC-Korea, Unit# 15281, APO AP 96205-5281, USA Abstract: Comprehensive quarterly serosurveillance on scrub typhus in small...rarely observed (prevalence < 1 0%). In contrast to previous surveys, higher chigger indices of the primary scrub typhus vectors, L. pallidum (165.4

  10. The Epidemiology and Characteristics of Q fever and Co-infections with Scrub Typhus, Murine Typhus or Leptospirosis in Taiwan: A Nationwide Database Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C-H; Sun, W; Lee, C-H; Lin, J-N; Liao, M-H; Liu, S-S; Chang, T-Y; Tsai, K-F; Chang, Y-C; Lin, H-H; Chen, Y-H

    2017-11-01

    Q fever (QF) is a worldwide zoonosis associated with outbreaks. Only a few nationwide studies regarding the surveillance and epidemiology of human QF have been reported. Although QF is endemic in Taiwan, a nationwide database investigation of the epidemiology and characteristics of QF and its associations with scrub typhus (ST), murine typhus (MT) and leptospirosis (LS) has never been reported. We analysed nationwide databases of suspected QF, ST, MT and LS cases from October 2007 to December 2014 obtained from the Centers for Disease Control, Taiwan. A total of 468 (4.2%) QF cases were identified among 11 109 suspected QF cases. QF cases were mainly distributed in the southern and Kaohsiung-Pingtung regions but rarely in the eastern region. Compared to non-QF cases, QF cases had significantly higher percentages of males (88.7 versus 66.2%) and high-risk occupations (farming, animal husbandry or veterinary medicine) (16.2 versus 10.5%). But the percentages of specific animal contact, including cattle (0.6 versus 0.8%) and goats (0.9 versus 1.0%), were low in both. The majority of suspected QF cases (89.4%) were simultaneously suspected with ST, MT or LS, and the combinations of suspected diseases differed between regions. The number of suspected QF cases from the eastern region decreased since 2009, which was not observed in other regions. A total of 1420 (12.8%) cases had confirmed diseases, including QF (453, 4.1%), QF+ST (7, 0.06%), QF+MT (4, 0.04%), QF+LS (4, 0.04%), MT (186, 1.7%), ST (545, 4.9%), ST+LS (11, 0.1%) and LS (210, 1.9%). Compared to cases of unknown disease, QF cases had larger percentages of high-risk occupations (16.2 versus 9.6%) but similar histories of animal contact (29.8 versus 25.1%). QF is an endemic disease in southern Taiwan. It is difficult to differentiate QF from ST, MT or LS only by high-risk occupations and history of animal contact, and co-infection of QF with these diseases should be considered. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Co-infection of scrub typhus and leptospirosis in patients with pyrexia of unknown origin in Longding district of Arunachal Pradesh in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkakoty, Biswajyoti; Jakharia, Aniruddha; Biswas, Dipankar; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus and leptospirosis are bacterial zoonotic disease causing high morbidity and mortality. The seasonal outbreak of pyrexia is common in Arunachal Pradesh (AP); many times the disease remains undiagnosed. An outbreak of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) occurred in Longding district of Arunachal Pradesh in 2013, with 108 deaths, which was investigated to elucidate the cause of illness. Blood samples from the affected region with acute pyrexia were collected, and screened for the malaria parasite, scrub typhus IgM and leptospira IgM. Scrub typhus IgM was reactive in 97% (30/31), and 25% (8/31) cases were co-infected with leptospira. Incidentally, scrub typhus reactive (67%) and leptospira co-infection (62.7%) were higher in females. Record of previous 3 years (2011-2013) from Longding, Community Health Centre showed an increase in indoor pyrexia cases by 2-fold or more during October and November. The present study is the first report of co-infection of scrub typhus with leptospirosis from Northeast India. Medical officers in this region should take scrub typhus and leptospirosis in their differential diagnosis of patients with PUO for early diagnosis and effective treatment.

  12. Activation, Impaired Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Production, and Deficiency of Circulating Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells in Patients with Scrub Typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Ji; Jin, Hye-Mi; Won, Eun Jeong; Cho, Young-Nan; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Kee, Hae Jin; Ju, Jae Kyun; Kim, Jung-Chul; Kim, Uh Jin; Jang, Hee-Chang; Jung, Sook-In; Kee, Seung-Jung; Park, Yong-Wook

    2016-07-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells contribute to protection against certain microorganism infections. However, little is known about the role of MAIT cells in Orientia tsutsugamushi infection. Hence, the aims of this study were to examine the level and function of MAIT cells in patients with scrub typhus and to evaluate the clinical relevance of MAIT cell levels. Thirty-eight patients with scrub typhus and 53 health control subjects were enrolled in the study. The patients were further divided into subgroups according to disease severity. MAIT cell level and function in the peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry. Circulating MAIT cell levels were found to be significantly reduced in scrub typhus patients. MAIT cell deficiency reflects a variety of clinical conditions. In particular, MAT cell levels reflect disease severity. MAIT cells in scrub typhus patients displayed impaired tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production, which was restored during the remission phase. In addition, the impaired production of TNF-α by MAIT cells was associated with elevated CD69 expression. This study shows that circulating MAIT cells are activated, numerically deficient, and functionally impaired in TNF-α production in patients with scrub typhus. These abnormalities possibly contribute to immune system dysregulation in scrub typhus infection.

  13. El Arte Culinario Mexicano (Mexican Culinary Art).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Michelle

    This unit in Mexican cooking can be used in Junior High School home economics classes to introduce students to Mexican culture or as a mini-course in Spanish at almost any level. It is divided into two parts. Part One provides historical background and information on basic foods, the Mexican market, shopping tips, regional cooking and customs.…

  14. Scrub typhus meningoencephalitis, a diagnostic challenge for clinicians: A hospital based study from North-East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M D Jamil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS involvement is a known complication of scrub typhus which range from mild meningitis to frank meninigoencephalitis.Aims and objectives: To study the clinical feature, laboratory parameters and response to treatment of scrub typhus meningitis/meningoencephalitis.Methods and Materials: This is a hospital based prospective observational study from North Eastern India. Diagnosis was based on clinical features and positive serological test (Weil's Felix test and IgM antibody card test.Results: 13 patients of scrub typhus with features of meningitis/meningoencephalitis were included. The mean duration of fever before presentation was 5.61±3.08 days and 4 (30.76 % patients had eschar. Altered sensorium, headache, seizure and meningeal sign were present in 13 (100%, 13 (100%, 6 (46.15% and 10 (76.92% patients respectively. Mean CSF protein, glucose and Adenosine deaminase was 152.16±16.88mg/dl, 55.23±21.7mg/dl, and 16.98±7.37U/L respectively. Mean total count of CSF leukocyte and lymphocyte percentage was 46.07±131 cell/cumm and 98.66±3.09% respectively. Tablet doxycycline with or without injection azithromycin was used and that shows good response 15.38% of patients died and all of them had multi organ dysfunction. Conclusion: Meningoencephalitis is a common manifestation of scrub typhus and diagnosis requires high degree of clinical suspicion which if diagnosed early and specific treatment started, patients usually recover completely with few complications.

  15. AIDS in Mexican prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, J M; Roberts, J B

    1995-01-01

    The human rights organization Americas Watch, which toured Mexican prisons, reported in 1991 that all prisoners with HIV infection in the Mexico City area were housed in a single AIDS ward in Santa Marta Prison. In 1991, the 16-bed facility had 15 patients; in 1993, this number had increased by 5. In Mexico City, with 3 prisons holding over 2000 male adults each, there were only 20 known infected prisoners in the AIDS ward at Santa Marta. In 1991, authorities at Matamoros, in the state of Tamaulipas, insisted that none of their inmates had ever been diagnosed as infected with HIV. The prison physician at Reynosa indicated that only 2 inmates since 1985 had ever been diagnosed as infected. In 1992, the prison in Saltillo, in the state of Coahuila, reported that here had yet to be a single positive test for HIV. The prison at Reynosa held 1500 people and only 2 inmates were diagnosed as having AIDS between 1985 and 1991. Prisons at Matamoros and Saltillo held similar numbers but had no experience of infected inmates. A survey of 2 prisons in the state of Tamaulipas indicates that around 12% of the population may use IV drugs, and 9% indicate sharing needles. It is possible for prisoners to die of diseases like pneumonia, associated with AIDS, without the connection to AIDS being diagnosed. Each state, and possibly each prison in Mexico, has its own particular AIDS policies. Santa Marta was the single facility in Mexico City used to house AIDS-infected prisoners, who were segregated. Finally, the prison at Saltillo required all women entering the facility to have a medical examination, including a test for HIV. High-level prison personnel have demonstrated ignorance and fear of AIDS and intolerance of infected prisoners. Mexico must reassess the need to provide adequate medical care to offenders who are sick and dying behind bars.

  16. Mexican agencies reach teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Lemus, R; Beamish, J

    1992-08-01

    The Gente Joven project of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) trains young volunteers in 19 cities to spread messages about sexually transmitted diseases and population growth to their peers. They also distribute condoms and spermicides. It also uses films and materials to spread its messages. The project would like to influence young men's behavior, but the Latin image of machismo poses a big challenge. It would like to become more responsible toward pregnancy prevention. About 50% of adolescents have sexual intercourse, but few use contraceptives resulting in a high adolescent pregnancy rate. Many of these pregnant teenagers choose not to marry. Adolescent pregnancy leads to girls leaving school, few marketable skills, and rearing children alone. Besides women who began childbearing as a teenager have 1.5 times more children than other women. Male involvement in pregnancy prevention should improve these statistics. As late as 1973, the Health Code banned promotion and sales of contraceptives, but by 1992 about 50% of women of reproductive age use contraceptives. The Center for the Orientation of Adolescents has organized 8 Young Men's Clubs in Mexico City to involve male teenagers more in family planning and to develop self-confidence. It uses a holistic approach to their development through discussions with their peers. A MEXFAM study shows that young men are not close with their fathers who tend to exude a machismo attitude, thus the young men do not have a role model for responsible sexual behavior. MEXFAM's work is cut out for them, however, since the same study indicates that 50% of the young men believe it is fine to have 1 girlfriend and 33% think women should earn more than men. A teenager volunteer reports, however, that more boys have been coming to him for contraception and information than girls in 1992 while in other years girls outnumbered the boys.

  17. Incidence, risk factors and clinical outcomes of acute kidney injury associated with scrub typhus: a retrospective study of 510 consecutive patients in South Korea (2001-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyungo; Jang, Ha Nee; Lee, Tae Won; Cho, Hyun Seop; Bae, Eunjin; Chang, Se-Ho; Park, Dong Jun

    2017-03-15

    Renal involvement in scrub typhus ranges from simple urinary abnormalities to acute kidney injury (AKI) leading to death. This study evaluated the incidence, predictors and prognosis of AKI associated with scrub typhus according to the RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage kidney disease) criteria. We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of patients diagnosed with scrub typhus from January 2001 to November 2013 in Gyeongsang National University Hospital. During the study period, 510 patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus and the incidence of AKI was 35.9%. There were 132 (25.9%) patients at risk, 37 (7.3%) with injury and 14 (2.7%) with failure. In comparison with the non-AKI group, the AKI group was older (73.9 vs 63.4 years, pscrub typhus. Our current results suggest that the presence of underlying CKD, older age, lower serum albumin level and time to hospital presentation after symptom onset were important risk factors to determine occurrence of AKI. Whether earlier diagnosis and treatment in patients with the above risk factors reduce the incidence and severity of AKI deserves to be investigated. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Scrub Typhus - A Major Cause of Pediatric Intensive Care Admission and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome: A Single-Center Experience from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Prabahs Prasun; Roy, Joydeb; Saha, Agnisekhar

    2018-02-01

    Scrub typhus has been globally recognized as an emerging infectious disease contributing significantly to pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) and a potential cause of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS). We studied the incidence of scrub typhus as a cause of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission and MODS in our hospital and its clinical and laboratory characteristics to measure the incidence of MODS caused by scrub typhus. This study was done in a pediatric teaching hospital in Kolkata, India. Records of patients admitted with PUO from March 2012 to December 2015 were reviewed. Rathi-Goodman-Aghai scoring system was used to identify potential ST patients and confirmed by serological testing. Clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and treatment response were noted of those needing PICU admissions. Ninety-seven cases of scrub typhus have been identified during that period. PICU admission was needed in 30 of them (31%) which contributed 8.43% of total PICU admissions. Among these 30 patients, 16 (53%) developed MODS which contributed 18.29% of total MODS admitted in PICU. Septic shock was the most common manifestation in as many as 18 (60%) patients followed by encephalopathy in 13 (43%). Patients were treated with either doxycycline alone or in combination with azithromycin. Mean time to complete defervescence was 32 h after first dose of doxycycline. The outcome was excellent without a single mortality. Scrub typhus is an important cause of MODS in this part of the world, especially in fevers associated with features as identified and not responding to conventional antibiotics.

  19. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, TLR4 and heat shock protein 70 genes and susceptibility to scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Jeshina; Joseph Martin, Sherry; Astrup, Elisabeth; Veeramanikandan, R; Aukrust, Pål; Abraham, Ooriapadickal C; Varghese, George M

    2013-11-01

    Scrub typhus is a highly prevalent bacterial infection in India and South Asia that is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. The innate immune response to infections is modulated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs). This study was done to assess the prevalence and possible association of TLR and HSP polymorphisms in scrub typhus. TLR4 Asp299Gly, TLR4 Thr399Ile, TLR2 Arg753Gln and HSP70-2 A1267G are single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that may modulate their activities, and these SNPs were assessed in 137 scrub typhus patients and 134 controls by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism. We found that the two TLR4 mutations, TLR4 D299G and TLR4T399I, were present in 19.5% and 22% of the study population, respectively, and was in significant linkage disequilibrium with a D' of 0.8. The TLR2 mutation was found to be rare, whereas the HSP A>G mutation was very common (77.5%). Compared with the controls, the prevalence of heterozygous genotype of the TLR4D299G SNP, but not any of the other SNPs, was significantly higher among scrub typhus patients. Further studies using a larger sample size and more candidate genes may better enable in determining the role of these associations in susceptibility and severity of scrub typhus.

  20. La Artesania Mexicana (Mexican Handicrafts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Bettina

    This booklet contains instructions in English and Spanish for making eleven typical Mexican craft articles. The instructions are accompanied by pen-and-ink drawings. The objects are (1) "La Rosa" (The Rose); (2) "El Crisantemo" (The Chrysanthemum); (3) "La Amapola" (The Poppy); (4) "Ojos de Dios" (God's Eyes); (5) "Ojitos con dos caras" (Two-Sided…

  1. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  2. The Mexican Axolotl in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests and describes laboratory activities in which the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum Shaw) is used, including experiments in embryology and early development, growth and regeneration, neoteny and metamorphosis, genetics and coloration, anatomy and physiology, and behavior. Discusses care and maintenance of animals. (CS)

  3. Proverbs in Mexican American Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shirley L.

    1982-01-01

    Examines proverb use among 304 Mexican Americans (aged 16-85) of Los Angeles (California), assembling information on how or where particular proverbs were learned, with whom or what kind of individual their use is associated, the occasions on which they are used, and general attitudes toward the use of proverbs. (LC)

  4. Scrub typhus complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure; an unrecognized alarming entity in central India: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrish Saxena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is an acute infectious illness, distributed throughout the Asia Pacific rim. In India, it has been reported from northern, eastern, and southern India. However, cases of scrub typhus have not been well-documented from Vidarbha, an eastern region of Maharashtra state in central India. We report two cases of complicated scrub typhus from Vidarbha region. These cases admitted in unconscious state with 8-10 days history of fever, body ache, cough, and progressive breathlessness. The diagnosis in both cases was based on presence of eschar, a positive Weil-Felix test, and a positive rapid diagnostic test (immunochromatographic assay. Both cases were complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS and multiorgan failure. Both of them presented in their 2 nd week of illness and died during the hospital course in spite of intensive supportive care. The main cause of mortality was delayed referral leading to delay in diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus infection and TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL polymorphisms in Mexican population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-García, Guadalupe; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; García-Ramírez, Román Alejandro; Camarena, Ángel; Ramirez-Venegas, Alejandra; Castillejos-López, Manuel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Martha; González-Bonilla, César; Grajales-Muñíz, Concepción; Borja-Aburto, Víctor; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2012-11-13

    Some patients have a greater response to viral infection than do others having a similar level of viral replication. Hypercytokinemia is the principal immunopathological mechanism that contributes to a severer clinical course in cases of influenza A/H1N1. The benefit produced, or damage caused, by these cytokines in severe disease is not known. The genes that code for these molecules are polymorphic and certain alleles have been associated with susceptibility to various diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine whether there was an association between polymorphisms of TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL1 and the infection and severity of the illness caused by the pandemic A/H1N1 in Mexico in 2009. Case-control study. The cases were patients confirmed with real time PCR with infection by the A/H1N1 pandemic virus. The controls were patients with infection like to influenza and non-familial healthy contacts of the patients with influenza. Medical history and outcome of the disease was registered. The DNA samples were genotyped for polymorphisms TNF rs361525, rs1800629, and rs1800750; LTA rs909253; IL1B rs16944; IL6 rs1818879; IL8 rs4073; and CCL1 rs2282691. Odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. The logistic regression model was adjusted by age and severity of the illness in cases. Infection with the pandemic A/H1N1 virus was associated with the following genotypes: TNF rs361525 AA, OR = 27.00; 95% CI = 3.07-1248.77); LTA rs909253 AG (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.82-10.32); TNF rs1800750 AA (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.48-12.64); additionally, LTA rs909253 AG showed a limited statistically significant association with mortality (p = 0.06, OR = 3.13). Carriers of the TNF rs1800629 GA genotype were associated with high levels of blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.05); those of the TNF rs1800750 AA genotype, with high levels of creatine phosphokinase (p=0.05). The IL1B rs16944 AA genotype was associated with an elevated number of

  6. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus infection and TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL polymorphisms in Mexican population: a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Some patients have a greater response to viral infection than do others having a similar level of viral replication. Hypercytokinemia is the principal immunopathological mechanism that contributes to a severer clinical course in cases of influenza A/H1N1. The benefit produced, or damage caused, by these cytokines in severe disease is not known. The genes that code for these molecules are polymorphic and certain alleles have been associated with susceptibility to various diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine whether there was an association between polymorphisms of TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL1 and the infection and severity of the illness caused by the pandemic A/H1N1 in Mexico in 2009. Methods Case–control study. The cases were patients confirmed with real time PCR with infection by the A/H1N1 pandemic virus. The controls were patients with infection like to influenza and non-familial healthy contacts of the patients with influenza. Medical history and outcome of the disease was registered. The DNA samples were genotyped for polymorphisms TNF rs361525, rs1800629, and rs1800750; LTA rs909253; IL1B rs16944; IL6 rs1818879; IL8 rs4073; and CCL1 rs2282691. Odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. The logistic regression model was adjusted by age and severity of the illness in cases. Results Infection with the pandemic A/H1N1 virus was associated with the following genotypes: TNF rs361525 AA, OR = 27.00; 95% CI = 3.07–1248.77); LTA rs909253 AG (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.82–10.32); TNF rs1800750 AA (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.48–12.64); additionally, LTA rs909253 AG showed a limited statistically significant association with mortality (p = 0.06, OR = 3.13). Carriers of the TNF rs1800629 GA genotype were associated with high levels of blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.05); those of the TNF rs1800750 AA genotype, with high levels of creatine phosphokinase (p=0.05). The IL1B rs16944 AA genotype was associated

  7. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus infection and TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL polymorphisms in Mexican population: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-García Guadalupe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some patients have a greater response to viral infection than do others having a similar level of viral replication. Hypercytokinemia is the principal immunopathological mechanism that contributes to a severer clinical course in cases of influenza A/H1N1. The benefit produced, or damage caused, by these cytokines in severe disease is not known. The genes that code for these molecules are polymorphic and certain alleles have been associated with susceptibility to various diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine whether there was an association between polymorphisms of TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL1 and the infection and severity of the illness caused by the pandemic A/H1N1 in Mexico in 2009. Methods Case–control study. The cases were patients confirmed with real time PCR with infection by the A/H1N1 pandemic virus. The controls were patients with infection like to influenza and non-familial healthy contacts of the patients with influenza. Medical history and outcome of the disease was registered. The DNA samples were genotyped for polymorphisms TNF rs361525, rs1800629, and rs1800750; LTA rs909253; IL1B rs16944; IL6 rs1818879; IL8 rs4073; and CCL1 rs2282691. Odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI were calculated. The logistic regression model was adjusted by age and severity of the illness in cases. Results Infection with the pandemic A/H1N1 virus was associated with the following genotypes: TNF rs361525 AA, OR = 27.00; 95% CI = 3.07–1248.77; LTA rs909253 AG (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.82–10.32; TNF rs1800750 AA (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.48–12.64; additionally, LTA rs909253 AG showed a limited statistically significant association with mortality (p = 0.06, OR = 3.13. Carriers of the TNF rs1800629 GA genotype were associated with high levels of blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.05; those of the TNF rs1800750 AA genotype, with high levels of creatine phosphokinase (p=0.05. The IL1B rs16944 AA

  8. The Diversity and Geographical Structure of Orientia tsutsugamushi Strains from Scrub Typhus Patients in Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh

    Full Text Available Orientia tsutsugamushi is the causative agent of scrub typhus, a disease transmitted by Leptotrombidium mites which is responsible for a severe and under-reported public health burden throughout Southeast Asia. Here we use multilocus sequence typing (MLST to characterize 74 clinical isolates from three geographic locations in the Lao PDR (Laos, and compare them with isolates described from Udon Thani, northeast Thailand. The data confirm high levels of diversity and recombination within the natural O. tsutsugamushi population, and a rate of mixed infection of ~8%. We compared the relationships and geographical structuring of the strains and populations using allele based approaches (eBURST, phylogenetic approaches, and by calculating F-statistics (FST. These analyses all point towards low levels of population differentiation between isolates from Vientiane and Udon Thani, cities which straddle the Mekong River which defines the Lao/Thai border, but with a very distinct population in Salavan, southern Laos. These data highlight how land use, as well as the movement of hosts and vectors, may impact on the epidemiology of zoonotic infections.

  9. Host defenses in experimental scrub typhus: effect of sublethal gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of sublethal gamma radiation on inbred mice chronically infected with scrub typhus rickettsiae was examined. Inbred mice which have been inoculated with Gilliam or Karp strain of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi by the subcutaneous route harbored the infection for at least one year. Irradiation of these animals at 12 or 52 weeks post inoculation at normally sublethal levels induced a significantly higher percentage of rickettsemic mice (recrudescence) than in the unirradiated similarly infected control animals. In addition, sublethal irradiation at 12 weeks also induced a quantitative increase in total rickettsiae. Homologous antibody titers to the rickettsiae were examined for five weeks following irradiation to determine the role of the humoral response in radiation induced recrudescence. Modification of recrudescence was investigated using radioprotective drugs. The expected results of this investigation supported the conclusion that the recrudescence of a chronic rickettsial infection in the appropriate host following immunological impairment due to battlefield or clinical exposure to gamma radiation can result in an acute, possibly lethal rickettsemia

  10. Effect of sublethal gamma radiation on host defenses in experimental scrub typhus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.J.; Rees, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of sublethal gamma radiation on inbred mice chronically infected with scrub typhus rickettsiae was examined. Inbred mice which were inoculated with the Gilliam or Karp strain of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi by the subcutaneous route harbored the infection for at least 1 year. Irradiation of these animals at 12 or 52 weeks postinoculation with normally sublethal levels induced a significantly higher percentage of rickettsemic mice (recrudescence) than was seen in the unirradiated, similarly infected control animals. In addition, sublethal irradiation at 12 weeks induced a quantitative increase in total rickettsiae. Homologous antibody titers to the rickettsiae were examined for 5 weeks after irradiation to determine the role of the humoral response in radiation-induced recrudescence. Unirradiated, infected mice showed consistent titers of about 320 throughout the 5-week observation period, and the titer was not affected by exposure of up to 500 rads of gamma radiation. Drug dose-dependent radioprotection and modification of recrudescence was noted in infected, irradiated mice treated with the antiradiation compound S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethyl phosphorothioic acid. The results of this investigation supported the conclusion that the recrudescence of a chronic rickettsial infection in the appropriate host after immunological impairment due to gamma radiation can result in an acute, possibly lethal rickettsemia

  11. New tariffs confuse Mexican market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeyman, M.

    1992-01-01

    Indelpro - the Grupo Alfa/Himont joint venture 150,000-m.t./year polypropylene (PP) plant in Altamira, Mexico - has been working to find its place in the Mexican market since coming onstream in March. At the same time, that market has been complicated by the imposition of import and export tariffs by the U.S. Department of Commerce early this fall. Commerce's accession to a 10% ad valorem tax on US PP exports to Mexico surprised some industry observers. The tariff is scheduled to be phased out within 10 years and is partly countermanded by a 5% tariff over a five-year period on Mexican PP exports to the US. But some market analysts say the arrangement is baffling

  12. NAFTA and the Mexican Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-04

    its loans. Then President Miguel de la Madrid took steps to open and liberalize the Mexican economy and initiated procedures to replace import...capita income in countries. 24 Lessons from NAFTA, 2005. 25 Economia , “NAFTA and Convergence in North America: High Expectations, Big Events, Little Time...Easterly, Norbert Fiess, and Daniel Lederman, Economia , “NAFTA and Convergence in North America: High Expectations, Big Events, Little Time,” Fall 2003. The

  13. Business opportunities in the Mexican dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Armenta Gutierrez, B.M.; Poelarends, J.J.; Valk, van der O.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the Mexican and Dutch business opportunities in the dairy industry in Mexico. The report discusses first the external environment of the Mexican dairy sector: the economic developments, the country's overall competitiveness, and the economic and agricultural policies. Next, it

  14. Stress Resilience among Border Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern; Dugas, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors distinguishing Mexican American women living near the U.S.-Mexican border who are resilient to the experience of stress from those who are not. The study sample consisted of 418 participants ranging in age from 20 to 61 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of…

  15. Mexican Women, Migration and Sex Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Reynaldo; Dexter, Bryan

    1985-01-01

    Compares Mexican women involved in migration to understand how their sex roles and status have been affected. Uses data from two separate studies: ethnography on migrants' wives left at home in a Mexican village and a survey of unauthorized immigrants in the Los Angeles area. (SA)

  16. A Turnover Model for the Mexican Maquiladoras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertz, Carl P.; Stevens, Michael J.; Campion, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    From interviews with 47 Mexican maquiladora workers, a model of voluntary turnover was created and compared with models from the United States, Canada, England, and Australia. Despite similarities, the cultural and economic environment affected the precise content of antecedents in the Mexican model. (Contains 63 references.) (SK)

  17. Mathematical Modeling for Scrub Typhus and Its Implications for Disease Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyung Duk; Cho, Sung Il

    2018-03-19

    The incidence rate of scrub typhus has been increasing in the Republic of Korea. Previous studies have suggested that this trend may have resulted from the effects of climate change on the transmission dynamics among vectors and hosts, but a clear explanation of the process is still lacking. In this study, we applied mathematical models to explore the potential factors that influence the epidemiology of tsutsugamushi disease. We developed mathematical models of ordinary differential equations including human, rodent and mite groups. Two models, including simple and complex models, were developed, and all parameters employed in the models were adopted from previous articles that represent epidemiological situations in the Republic of Korea. The simulation results showed that the force of infection at the equilibrium state under the simple model was 0.236 (per 100,000 person-months), and that in the complex model was 26.796 (per 100,000 person-months). Sensitivity analyses indicated that the most influential parameters were rodent and mite populations and contact rate between them for the simple model, and trans-ovarian transmission for the complex model. In both models, contact rate between humans and mites is more influential than morality rate of rodent and mite group. The results indicate that the effect of controlling either rodents or mites could be limited, and reducing the contact rate between humans and mites is more practical and effective strategy. However, the current level of control would be insufficient relative to the growing mite population. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  18. Outcome of Intravenous Azithromycin Therapy in Patients with Complicated Scrub Typhus Compared with That of Doxycycline Therapy Using Propensity-Matched Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi-Ok; Jang, Hee-Chang; Kim, Uh Jin; Ahn, Joon Hwan; Kang, Seung-Ji; Jung, Sook-In; Shin, Hee-Young

    2014-01-01

    There are no well-matched, controlled studies comparing azithromycin with doxycycline for the treatment of complicated scrub typhus. A retrospective propensity score-matched case-control study was performed for patients who presented with complicated scrub typhus and were treated with doxycycline or azithromycin between 2001 and 2011. Data on comorbidities, clinical manifestations, laboratory studies, treatments, and outcomes were extracted for analysis. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of the azithromycin-treated group (n = 73) were compared to those of the doxycycline-treated group (n = 108). Of 181 patients, 73 from each group were matched by propensity scores. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the matched groups. The treatment success and survival rates were not significantly different (89% [65/73 patients] versus 96% [70/73 patients] and 96% [70/73 patients] versus 96% [70/73 patients], respectively [P > 0.05]). No difference was observed in the time to defervescence or length of hospital stay between the two groups (P > 0.05). In complicated scrub typhus patients (n = 181), multivariate analysis showed that only APACHE II score was an independent risk factor for mortality (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 1.56; P scrub typhus. PMID:24366734

  19. Otalgia and eschar in the external auditory canal in scrub typhus complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Sung-Yuan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scrub typhus, a mite-transmitted zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is an endemic disease in Taiwan and may be potentially fatal if diagnosis is delayed. Case presentations We encountered a 23-year-old previously healthy Taiwanese male soldier presenting with the right ear pain after training in the jungle and an eleven-day history of intermittent high fever up to 39°C. Amoxicillin/clavulanate was prescribed for otitis media at a local clinic. Skin rash over whole body and abdominal cramping pain with watery diarrhea appeared on the sixth day of fever. He was referred due to progressive dyspnea and cough for 4 days prior to admission in our institution. On physical examination, there were cardiopulmonary distress, icteric sclera, an eschar in the right external auditory canal and bilateral basal rales. Laboratory evaluation revealed thrombocytopenia, elevation of liver function and acute renal failure. Chest x-ray revealed bilateral diffuse infiltration. Doxycycline was prescribed for scrub typhus with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure. Fever subsided dramatically the next day and he was discharged on day 7 with oral tetracycline for 7 days. Conclusion Scrub typhus should be considered in acutely febrile patients with multiple organ involvement, particularly if there is an eschar or a history of environmental exposure in endemic areas. Rapid and accurate diagnosis, timely administration of antibiotics and intensive supportive care are necessary to decrease mortality of serious complications of scrub typhus.

  20. Elevated levels of von Willebrand factor and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) are associated with disease severity and clinical outcome of scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongliu; Ning, Zong; Qiu, Ying; Liao, Yuanli; Chang, Haihua; Ai, Yuanyuan; Wei, Yinghua; Deng, Yiming; Shen, Ying

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether von Willebrand factor (vWF) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) are associated with the severity and clinical outcome of scrub typhus and to seek novel biomarkers for surveillance and prediction of the prognosis of this infection. Serum concentrations of vWF and HMGB1 were measured twice by ELISA for scrub typhus patients (n=103), once prior to doxycycline therapy and then on day 7 of doxycycline therapy; concentrations were measured once for healthy controls (n=32). Among the total 103 patients enrolled, 38 had disease complicated by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Serum concentrations of vWF and HMGB1 were significantly higher in all the patients than in the healthy controls, both prior to doxycycline treatment and on day 7 of doxycycline treatment (pscrub typhus (area under the curve (AUC)=0.864, p=0.001, and AUC=0.862, p=0.001, respectively). Elevated levels of vWF and HMGB1 are associated with the severity and clinical outcome of scrub typhus. These represent possible new biomarkers for use in the assessment and prognostic prediction of this infection. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of life stages of Leptotrombidium imphalum and Leptotrombidium chiangraiensis (Acari: Trombiculidae) uninfected and infected with the scrub typhus rickettsia, Orientia tsustugamushi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptotrombidium chiangraiensis Tanskul and Linthicum and Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean are important vectors of scrub typhus in ricefield habitats in northern Thailand. The developmental biology of all stages of the life cycle of two generations of mites infected with Orientia tsutsug...

  2. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  3. Characterization of Mexican zeolite minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez C, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    50% of the Mexican territory is formed by volcanic sequences of the Pliocene type, which appear extensively in the northwest states (Sonora, Sinaloa, Chihuahua, Durango) and west of Mexico (Jalisco and Nayarit), in central Mexico (Zacatecas, Guanajuato, San Luis Potosi, Queretaro, Hidalgo) and south of Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca); therefore, it is to be expected that in our country big locations of natural zeolites exist in its majority of the clinoptilolite type. The present study was focused toward the characterization of two Mexican natural zeolite rocks presumably of the clinoptilolite and filipsite types, one of them comes from the state of Chihuahua and the other of a trader company of non metallic minerals, due that these materials are not characterized, its are not known their properties completely and therefore, the uses that can be given to these materials. In this investigation work it was carried out the characterization of two Mexican zeolite rocks, one coming from the Arroyo zone, municipality of La Haciendita, in the state of Chihuahua; and the other one was bought to a trader company of non metallic minerals. The two zeolites so much in their natural form as conditioned with sodium; they were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum and elementary microanalysis (EDS), surface area analysis (BET), thermal gravimetric analysis. To differentiate the heulandite crystalline phase of the other clinoptilolite rock, its were carried out thermal treatments. The quantification of Al, Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe was carried out in solution, by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy and the quantity of Si was determined by gravimetry. The zeolite rocks presented for the major part the crystalline heulandite and clinoptilolite phases for the most part, and it was found that the zeolite coming from the state of Chihuahua possesses a bigger content of heulandite and the denominated filipsite it is really a zeolite

  4. Abundance & distribution of trombiculid mites & Orientia tsutsugamushi, the vectors & pathogen of scrub typhus in rodents & shrews collected from Puducherry & Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candasamy, Sadanandane; Ayyanar, Elango; Paily, Kummankottil; Karthikeyan, Patricia Anitha; Sundararajan, Agatheswaran; Purushothaman, Jambulingam

    2016-12-01

    Human cases of scrub typhus are reported every year from Puducherry and adjoining areas in southern India. However, information on the presence of causative agent, Orientia tsutsugamushi, and its vectors is lacking. Hence, the objective of the study was to find out the vector as well as pathogen distribution in rodents and shrews present in the scrub typhus-reported areas in southern India. Trombiculid mites were collected by combing rats and shrews collected using Sherman traps and identified to species level following standard taxonomical keys. The serum samples of the animals were used for Weil-Felix test and the clots containing blood cells were used for DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 181 animals comprising four rodent species and one shrew species were collected from 12 villages. High proportion of chiggers was collected from the shrew, Suncus murinus (79.1%) and Rattus rattus (47.6%). A total of 10,491 trombiculid mites belonging to nine species were collected. Leptotrombidium deliense, the known vector of scrub typhus pathogen, was the predominant species (71.0%) and the chigger (L. deliense) index was 41.1 per animal. Of the 50 animals screened for the pathogen, 28 showed agglutination against OX-K in Weil-Felix test indicating the presence of antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus. PCR carried out with the DNA extracted from blood samples of two of the animals were positive for GroEl gene of O. tsutsugamushi. L. deliense index was well above the critical limit of chigger load, indicating that all the villages were receptive for high risk of transmission of scrub typhus to human. Pathogen positivity was higher among animals collected from villages recorded for higher chigger indices due to active transmission between the chigger mites and reservoir host animals. The results are suggestive of routine vector/pathogen surveillance at hot spots to initiate timely preventive measures.

  5. The timing is never right: Mexican views of condom use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiston, C; Gordon, A

    2000-06-01

    Unprotected sex is a critical issue in the Hispanic community, with the incidence of new Hispanic acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases three times that of non-Hispanic Whites. The researchers used focus groups to examine: (a) whether newly immigrated Mexican men and women in the Southeast United States discussed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention with each other, and (b) how condom use was discussed. For the women, communication was safe sex, and for the men, trust was safe sex. Both communication and trust were dependent on timing in the relationship. Participants could not discuss condoms in a new or established relationship because of issues of trust. This study highlights the complexity of HIV/STD prevention and suggests that trust and timing should be considered within the cultural context of condom introduction.

  6. Mexican participation in the AMS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Buenerd, M.; Cabrera, J. I.; Canizal, C.; Esquivel, O.; Núñez, R.; Plascencia, J. C.; Reyes, T.; Villoro, M. F.

    2001-05-01

    Optical characterization of hydrophobic silica aerogel SP-25 for the RICH, and a scheme to generate particle-ID conditions on TOF and Tracker amplitude data are reported, as part of a Mexican effort to contribute to the AMS Project. .

  7. Mammagraphy Use by Older Mexican American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Jean

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of mammographic screening in older Mexican- American women, particularly the influence of strong family relationships on promoting screening behavior...

  8. NAFTA: The Mexican Economy, and Undocumented Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    NAFTA contributed to modest increases in Mexican formal employment since 1994. Since employment constitutes one of the chief factors affecting poverty...any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NAFTA , the Mexican Economy, and Undocumented Migration 5a

  9. Generational Variations in Mexican-Origin Intermarriage

    OpenAIRE

    Cedillo, Rosalio

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines intermarriage across generations of the Mexican-origin population in order to better understand how this population is incorporating in U.S. society, and looks at parental migration status and parental nativity as factors that may impede or facilitate intermarriage incorporation. Using data from the Immigration and Intergenerational Mobility in Metropolitan Los Angeles (IIMMLA) survey the research shows that: the majority of intermarriages among the Mexican-origin ...

  10. Locomotion of Mexican jumping beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Daniel M; K Lal, Ishan; Leamy, Michael J; Hu, David L

    2012-01-01

    The Mexican jumping bean, Laspeyresia saltitans, consists of a hollow seed housing a moth larva. Heating by the sun induces movements by the larva which appear as rolls, jumps and flips by the bean. In this combined experimental, numerical and robotic study, we investigate this unique means of rolling locomotion. Time-lapse videography is used to record bean trajectories across a series of terrain types, including one-dimensional channels and planar surfaces of varying inclination. We find that the shell encumbers the larva's locomotion, decreasing its speed on flat surfaces by threefold. We also observe that the two-dimensional search algorithm of the bean resembles the run-and-tumble search of bacteria. We test this search algorithm using both an agent-based simulation and a wheeled Scribbler robot. The algorithm succeeds in propelling the robot away from regions of high temperature and may have application in biomimetic micro-scale navigation systems. (paper)

  11. Mexican gems as thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin N, J.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of using naturally ocurring mexican gems as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) was investigated. Twelve types of gems were irradiated with X and gamma rays in order to determinate their dosimetric properties. Three of these gems showed favorable thermoluminescent characteristics compared with commercial thermoluminescent dosimeters. The plots of their thermoluminescent response as a function of gamma dose are straight lines on full log paper in the dose range 10 -2 to 10 2 Gy. The energy dependence is very strong to low energies of the radiation. Their fading was found to be about 5%/yr. and they may be annealed as reused without loss in sensitivity. Therefore, these gems can be used as X and gamma radiation dosimeters. (author)

  12. Fair Start Program: Outreach to Mexican and Mexican American Farmworker Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters-Smith, Carol; Larner, Mary

    This presentation describes a home visiting health education program serving Mexican and Mexican-American migrant farmworkers in Florida. The purposes of the program were to educate farmworker families about pregnancy, childbirth, nutrition, and child development, and to encourage the use of preventive health care services. Home visitors were…

  13. Dose-response model of murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi: time post inoculation and host age dependency analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamrakar Sushil B

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rickettsia typhi (R. mooseri is the causative agent of murine typhus. It is one of the most widely distributed flea-borne diseases with a relatively mild febrile initial illness with six to 14 days of incubation period. The bacterium is gram negative and an obligate intracellular pathogen. The disease is transmitted to humans and vertebrate host through fleabites or via contact with infected feces. This paper develops dose-response models of different routes of exposure for typhus in rodents. Methods Data from published articles were analyzed using parametric dose-response relationship models. Dose-response relationships were fit to data using the method of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE. Results Dose-response models quantifying the effects of different ages of rats and time post inoculation in BALB/c mice were analyzed in the study. Both the adult rats (inoculated intradermally and newborn rats (inoculated subcutaneously were best fit by exponential models and both distributions could be described by a single dose-response relationship. The BALB/C mice inoculated subcutaneously were best fit by Beta-Poisson models. The time post inoculation analysis showed that there was a definite time and response relationship existed in this case. Conclusions Intradermally or subcutaneously inoculated rats (adult and newborn models suggest that less than 1 plaque-forming unit (PFU (1.33 to 0.38 in 95% confidence limits of the pathogen is enough to seroconvert 50% of the exposed population on average. For the BALB/c mouse time post inoculation model, an average dose of 0.28 plaque-forming units (PFU (0.75 to 0.11 in 95% confidence limits will seroconvert 50% of the exposed mice.

  14. Murine (endemic typhus in Brazil: case report and review Tifo murino (endêmico no Brasil: relato de caso e revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz J. Silva

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Murine typhus has been increasingly recognized worldwide and is becoming a relevant differential diagnosis in febrile conditions. In Brazil, murine typhus has never received much attention. We present a recently diagnosed case and a literature review that suggests that the disease could be more prevalent in Southeastern Brazil than acknowledged until now.O tifo murino tem sido reconhecido com freqüência crescente em todo o mundo e vem se tornando um relevante diagnóstico diferencial de quadros febris. No Brasill, o tifo murino nunca mereceu grande atenção. Descrevemos um caso clínico e fazemos revisão da literatura que sugere que a doença poderia ser mais prevalente no sudeste brasileiro do que reconhecido até então.

  15. Discrimination of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) strains using Mexican ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... wood, with formation of invaginations under depressed on the sur- face of sapwood (Salibe, 1977) ... The other fractions are round by defect or excess. ELISA. ELISA serologic test of CTV detection was carried out by utilisation.

  16. Discrimination of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) strains using Mexican ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... little damage to severe decline, especially on trees gra- fted on sour ... The damages and losses caused by ... Stem pitting indicates projections of bark in ... evaluation of stem-pitting reaction level after having removed the.

  17. Two Decades of Mexican Particle Physics at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, R.

    2003-01-01

    This report is a view from Fermilab of Mexican particle physics at the Laboratory since about 1980; it is not intended to be a history of Mexican particle physics: that topic is outside the expertise of the writer. The period 1980 to the present coincides with the growth of Mexican experimental particle physics from essentially no activity to its current state where Mexican groups take part in experiments at several of the world's major laboratories

  18. Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Eliseo

    Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

  19. Los Dos Mundos: Rural Mexican Americans, Another America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard

    This book explores race relations between Mexican Americans and Anglo Americans in "Middlewest," a fictitious name for an actual rural Idaho community with the highest proportion of Mexican Americans in the state. Many Mexican Americans in this predominantly agricultural area are current or former migrant workers. The first chapter…

  20. Mexican energy policy and sustainability indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinbaum-Pardo, Claudia; Ruiz-Mendoza, Belizza Janet; Rodríguez-Padilla, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    The authors analyze the Mexican energy policy taking as reference the methodological framework for sustainable energy development proposed by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. This methodology takes eight related indicators to the social, environmental and economic dimensions in order to calculate a general sustainability indicator for the energy sector. In this methodology, the weight of each dimension is different; namely, the social and environmental issues have less relevance than the economic issues. The authors use this methodology because government institutions as the Department of Energy and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources have used some indicators from such a methodology to propose plans, programs, projects and bills. Authors know of the existence of other methodologies about sustainability. Nonetheless, opting for the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean's methodology is convenient because this organization is a respectable authority for civil servants from the Mexican institutions. Our objective is just to contrast the sustainability grade of the energy sector between 1990 and 2008 for Mexico whose government started reforms in the 1990s. It concludes that those reforms did not bring about a higher sustainability level for the energy sector. - Highlights: ► We used the OLADE, CEPAL and GTZ's methodology to calculate sustainability indicators for the Mexican energy sector. ► We studied the Mexican energy policy from 1990 to date and presented it. ► Currently, the Mexican energy sector is less sustainable than in 1990.

  1. Characterization of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) scrub typhus model: Susceptibility to intradermal challenge with the human pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi Karp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyakumthorn, Piyanate; Somponpun, Suwit J.; Im-erbsin, Rawiwan; Anantatat, Tippawan; Jenjaroen, Kemajittra; Dunachie, Susanna J.; Lombardini, Eric D.; Burke, Robin L.; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Jones, James W.; Mason, Carl J.; Richards, Allen L.; Day, Nicholas P. J.

    2018-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is an important endemic disease in tropical Asia caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi for which no effective broadly protective vaccine is available. The successful evaluation of vaccine candidates requires well-characterized animal models and a better understanding of the immune response against O. tsutsugamushi. While many animal species have been used to study host immunity and vaccine responses in scrub typhus, only limited data exists in non-human primate (NHP) models. Methodology/Principle findings In this study we evaluated a NHP scrub typhus disease model based on intradermal inoculation of O. tsutsugamushi Karp strain in rhesus macaques (n = 7). After an intradermal inoculation with 106 murine LD50 of O. tsutsugamushi at the anterior thigh (n = 4) or mock inoculum (n = 3), a series of time course investigations involving hematological, biochemical, molecular and immunological assays were performed, until day 28, when tissues were collected for pathology and immunohistochemistry. In all NHPs with O. tsutsugamushi inoculation, but not with mock inoculation, the development of a classic eschar with central necrosis, regional lymphadenopathy, and elevation of body temperature was observed on days 7–21 post inoculation (pi); bacteremia was detected by qPCR on days 6–18 pi; and alteration of liver enzyme function and increase of white blood cells on day 14 pi. Immune assays demonstrated raised serum levels of soluble cell adhesion molecules, anti-O. tsutsugamushi-specific antibody responses (IgM and IgG) and pathogen-specific cell-mediated immune responses in inoculated macaques. The qPCR assays detected O. tsutsugamushi in eschar, spleen, draining and non-draining lymph nodes, and immuno-double staining demonstrated intracellular O. tsutsugamushi in antigen presenting cells of eschars and lymph nodes. Conclusions/Significance These data show the potential of using rhesus macaques as a scrub typhus model, for evaluation of correlates of

  2. Craniofacial Secular Change in Recent Mexican Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradley, Katherine; Stull, Kyra E; Hefner, Joseph T

    2016-01-01

    Research by economists suggests that recent Mexican migrants are better educated and have higher socioeconomic status (SES) than previous migrants. Because factors associated with higher SES and improved education can lead to positive secular changes in overall body form, secular changes in the craniofacial complex were analyzed within a recent migrant group from Mexico. The Mexican group represents individuals in the act of migration, not yet influenced by the American environment, and thus can serve as a starting point for future studies of secular change in this population group. The excavation of a historic Hispanic cemetery in Tucson, Arizona, also allows for a comparison between historic Hispanics and recent migrants to explore craniofacial trends over a broad time period, as both groups originate from Mexico. The present research addresses two main questions: (1) Are cranial secular changes evident in recent Mexican migrants? (2) Are historic Hispanics and recent Mexican migrants similar? By studying secular changes within a migrant population group, secular trends may be detected, which will be important for understanding the biological variation of the migrants themselves and will serve as a preliminary investigation of secular change within Mexican migrants. The comparison of a sample of recent Mexican migrants with a historic Hispanic sample, predominantly of Mexican origin, allows us to explore morphological similarities and differences between early and recent Mexicans within the United States. Vault and face size and a total of 82 craniofacial interlandmark distances were used to explore secular changes within the recent Mexican migrants (females, n = 38; males, n = 178) and to explore the morphological similarities between historic Hispanics (females, n = 54; males, n = 58) and recent migrants. Sexes were separated, and multivariate adaptive regression splines and basis splines (quadratic with one knot) were used to assess the direction and magnitude

  3. Nervios and dysphoria in Mexican American widows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, M; Portillo, C

    1989-01-01

    One hundred widows participating in experimental research entitled Efficacy of Support Groups for Mexican American Widows were studied to learn how they express the loss of their husbands. Mourning practices, acknowledged symptoms of dysphoria, and somatic reactions were studied to learn if the syndrome of nervios subsumes their reaction to bereavement. In addition, their responses to instruments designed to measure depression, the Spanish version of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, were examined for correlation with nervios and relationships to Mexican American acculturation. Nervios seems to be a manifestation of dysphoria rather than a specific syndrome for these women.

  4. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  5. Invisible Infantry: Mexicans in World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Plasencia de la Parra

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the  participation of Mexican  and  Mexican- American troops in the United States army during World War II. Recruiting, discrimination, their  role  in the  armed forces  and their reinsertion into society once the war ended, are examined. Special emphasis is placed  on the  Hispanics  fight for their  civil and political rights that was carried on very actively by many War veterans.

  6. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  7. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead ...

  8. Cascading effect of economic globalization on human risks of scrub typhus and tick-borne rickettsial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Huang, Jing-Lun; Shu, Pei-Yun; Lee, Pei-Lung; Kelt, Douglas A; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2012-09-01

    The increase in global travel and trade has facilitated the dissemination of disease vectors. Globalization can also indirectly affect vector-borne diseases through the liberalization of cross-border trade, which has far-reaching, worldwide effects on agricultural practices and may in turn influence vectors through the modification of the ecological landscape. While the cascading effect of economic globalization on vector-borne diseases, sometimes acting synergistically with regional agricultural policy, could be substantial and have significant economic, agricultural, and public health implications, research into this remains very limited. We evaluated how abandonment of rice paddies in Taiwan after joining the World Trade Organization, along with periodic plowing, an agricultural policy to reduce farm pests in abandoned fields can unexpectedly influence risks to diseases transmitted by ticks and chiggers (larval trombiculid mites), which we collected from their small-mammal hosts. Sampling was limited to abandoned (fallow) and plowed fields due to the challenge of trapping small mammals in flooded rice paddies. Striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius) are the main hosts for both vectors. They harbored six times more ticks and three times more chiggers in fallow than in plowed plots. The proportion of ticks infected with Rickettsia spp. (etiologic agent of spotted fever) was three times higher in fallow plots, while that of Orientia tsutsugamushi (scrub typhus) in chiggers was similar in both treatments. Fallow plots had more ground cover and higher vegetation than plowed ones. Moreover, ticks and chiggers in both field types were dominated by species known to infest humans. Because ticks and chiggers should exhibit very low survival in flooded rice paddies, we propose that farm abandonment in Taiwan, driven by globalization, may have inadvertently led to increased risks of spotted fever and scrub typhus. However, periodic plowing can unintentionally mitigate vector

  9. The Smell of Memories. A Mexican Migrant’s Search for Emotional Sustainability through Mexican Films.

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Coronado

    2011-01-01

    For more than 10 years living as a Mexican migrant, between two countries (Mexico and Australia), two cities (Mexico City and Sydney), and two social worlds (Mexican and multicultural Australian ‘families-friends’), I have been immersed in a systematic process of self observation and self reflection on my life in my country of destination. During this time I have explored my memories of place and their relationship with my emotional experiences, looking for strategies to continue to be connec...

  10. Subjective Social Status, Mental and Psychosocial Health, and Birth Weight Differences in Mexican-American and Mexican Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-12-01

    Recent Mexican immigrant women on average have an unexpectedly low incidence of low birth weight (LBW). Birth weights decline and LBW incidence increases in post-immigrant generations. This pilot project tested the hypothesis that subjective social status (SSS) of pregnant women predicts variation in birth weight between Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women. 300 low-income pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women in South Texas were surveyed for SSS, depression, pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress and self-esteem and subsequent birth weight. No significant difference in SSS levels between pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women were found. However, SSS better predicted variation in birth weight across both groups than mental and psychosocial health variables. Results suggest distinct relationships among SSS, mental and psychosocial health that could impact birth weight. They underscore the relevance of a multilevel, biopsychosocial analytical framework to studying LBW.

  11. Mexican-Americans in the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, Ernesto; And Others

    With findings as presented in this 1969 book, a 2-year field study conducted by a 3-member team analyzed the economic, cultural, political, and educational conditions of Mexican Americans in the Southwest (California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Texas) with some reference to braceros and the situation in Mexico. An overview of 8 geographic…

  12. Barreda, Vasconcelos, and Mexican Educational Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirius, John

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the contributions to Mexican education of Gabino Barredas' positivism between 1867-1898 and the contributions of Jose Vasconcelos during the 1920s. Discusses the secondary curriculum reforms of Barreda's era and the vocational education and the education for women and adults during the Vasconcelos era. (SB)

  13. Weight Preoccupation in Female Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Jorgensen, Layne; Semper, Tom; Vincent, Vern

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the contribution of body size, self-esteem, age, mainstream acculturation, and athletic status to concern or preoccupation about weight among female Mexican American adolescents. Students had low acculturation, high body fatness, and moderate self-esteem. There was little difference between athletes and non-athletes. Greater body size…

  14. New offshore platform in the Mexican Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beisel, T.

    1982-04-01

    After a construction period of only 10 months, the second steel Offshore platform was recently completed in the Mexican Gulf. The pattern for this structure was the Cognac platform. The erection of the new platform, called the 'Cerveza' platform, is described in the article.

  15. Conflict Resolution between Mexican Origin Adolescent Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Sarah E.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated correlates of adolescents' sibling conflict resolution strategies in 246, two-parent Mexican origin families. Specifically, we examined links between siblings' conflict resolution strategies and sibling dyad characteristics, siblings' cultural orientations and values, and sibling relationship qualities. Data were gathered during…

  16. The Mexican American Woman and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Guadalupe

    For a long time Chicanas have been self-denying, self sacrificing. Well, it is time that Mexican American women began thinking of themselves. It follows that if women love and cherish others, they must begin by loving and cherishing themselves. From the mental health perspective it is essential that they do so, not only for their sake, but for…

  17. Civic Engagement Patterns of Undocumented Mexican Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, William; Espinoza, Roberta; Ramos, Karina; Coronado, Heidi; Cortes, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the civic engagement of undocumented Mexican students. Civic engagement was defined as providing a social service, activism, tutoring, and functionary work. Survey data results (n = 126) suggest that despite high feelings of rejection because of their undocumented status, part-time employment, and household responsibilities,…

  18. Open Access to Mexican Academic Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adame, Silvia I.; Llorens, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the metadata harvester software development. This system provides access to reliable and quality educational resources, shared by Mexican Universities through their repositories, to anyone with Internet Access. We present the conceptual and contextual framework, followed by the technical basis, the results and…

  19. The Mexican-American and Dramatic Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Hector M.

    In the area of the arts, the Mexican American has discovered a rich cultural heritage which gives him a strong sense of pride and a deep feeling of satisfaction. A new interest in the literature of Mexico and the Southwestern states of Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and California has started the Chicano people reading classic and modern…

  20. Decision Profiles of Mexican-Descent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Georgianne

    An exploratory study of decision-making in families of Mexican heritage was carried out in Phoenix, Arizona. A Normative model of decision rationality and measurement (Family Problem Instrument-FPI) was adapted from previous research. Tape-recorded data were provided by 27 families. Husbands and wives responded separately to family decision…

  1. Prospective evaluation of commercial antibody-based rapid tests in combination with a loop-mediated isothermal amplification PCR assay for detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi during the acute phase of scrub typhus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksell, Stuart D; Paris, Daniel H; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Teeratakul, Achara; Kantipong, Pacharee; Day, Nicholas P J

    2012-03-01

    Samples from 160 prospectively recruited febrile patients with typhus-like illness in an area of Thailand (Chiang Rai, northern Thailand) where scrub typhus is endemic were used to evaluate the diagnostic capabilities of four rapid immunochromatographic tests (ICTs) for the detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi IgM and total antibodies during acute scrub typhus infection. Of the 160 cases, 54 (34%) had been confirmed to have scrub typhus using the reference scrub typhus infection criteria (STIC), i.e., positive cell culture isolation, an admission IgM antibody titer of ≥1:12,800, a 4-fold rising IgM antibody titer, and/or positivity for ≥2 out of 3 PCR gene targets). The ICTs gave the following sensitivities and specificities: the Panbio IgM ICT, 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33 to 60) and 95% (95% CI, 89 to 98), respectively; the Standard Diagnostics IgM ICT, 68% (95% CI, 60 to 75) and 73% (95% CI, 68 to 78), respectively; the AccessBio IgM ICT, 56% (95% CI, 48 to 63) and 90% (95% CI, 87 to 94), respectively; and the AccessBio total antibody ABt ICT, 61% (95% CI, 53 to 68) and 68% (95% CI, 63 to 73), respectively. An isothermal loop amplification (LAMP) PCR assay for scrub typhus demonstrated a sensitivity of 52% (95% CI, 38 to 66) and a specificity of 94% (95% CI, 88 to 98). This study has revealed the diagnostic limitations of antibody-based assays in an acute care setting. However, the combination of ICTs with LAMP usually increased sensitivity with a minimal reduction in specificity. The best combination, the Panbio IgM ICT and LAMP, resulted in a sensitivity of 67% (95% CI, 53 to 79) and a specificity of 91% (95% CI, 83 to 95). The combination of antibody-based assays with DNA- or antigen-based tests shows promise for improved diagnostic sensitivity.

  2. Structure of fumarate hydratase from Rickettsia prowazekii, the agent of typhus and suspected relative of the mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Isabelle; Subramanian, Sandhya; Olsen, Christian; Edwards, Thomas E.; Guo, Wenjin; Zhang, Yang; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Stewart, Lance J.; Myler, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Fumarate hydratase is an enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, one of the metabolic pathways characteristic of the mitochondria. The structure of R. prowazekii class II fumarate hydratase is reported at 2.4 Å resolution and is compared with the available structure of the human homolog. Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells that are the causative agents responsible for spotted fever and typhus. Their small genome (about 800 protein-coding genes) is highly conserved across species and has been postulated as the ancestor of the mitochondria. No genes that are required for glycolysis are found in the Rickettsia prowazekii or mitochondrial genomes, but a complete set of genes encoding components of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the respiratory-chain complex is found in both. A 2.4 Å resolution crystal structure of R. prowazekii fumarate hydratase, an enzyme catalyzing the third step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle pathway that ultimately converts phosphoenolpyruvate into succinyl-CoA, has been solved. A structure alignment with human mitochondrial fumarate hydratase highlights the close similarity between R. prowazekii and mitochondrial enzymes

  3. Infection of Rodents by Orientia tsutsugamushi, the Agent of Scrub Typhus in Relation to Land Use in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipong Chaisiri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between land use structures and occurrence of scrub typhus agent, Orientia tsutsugamushi infection in small wild mammals was conducted in three provinces of Thailand: Buriram, Loei, and Nan. Orientia tsutsugamushi detection was performed using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA amplicon sequencing approach using Miseq Illumina platform. In total, 387 animals (rodents and shrews were examined for the bacterium infection. The 16S rDNA sequences of the bacterium were found in nine animals from Bandicota savilei, Berylmys bowersi, Leopoldamys edwardsi, Rattus exulans, R. tanezumi, and Rattus sp. phylogenetic clade 3, yielding 2.3% infection rate, with two new rodent species infected by the bacterium in Thailand: B. bowersi and L. edwardsi. Using a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM and Random Forest analyses for investigating the association between human-land use and occurrence of the bacterium, forest habitat appeared as a strong explicative variable of rodent infection, meaning that O. tsutsugamushi-infected animals were more likely found in forest-covered habitats. In terms of public health implementation, our results suggest that heterogenous forested areas including forest-converted agricultural land, reforestation areas, or fallow are potential habitats for O. tsutsugamushi transmission. Further understanding of population dynamics of the vectors and their hosts in these habitats could be beneficial for the prevention of this neglected zoonotic disease.

  4. Racial Identity and Racial Treatment of Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Vilma; Telles, Edward

    2012-04-01

    How racial barriers play in the experiences of Mexican Americans has been hotly debated. Some consider Mexican Americans similar to European Americans of a century ago that arrived in the United States with modest backgrounds but were eventually able to participate fully in society. In contrast, others argue that Mexican Americans have been racialized throughout U.S. history and this limits their participation in society. The evidence of persistent educational disadvantages across generations and frequent reports of discrimination and stereotyping support the racialization argument. In this paper, we explore the ways in which race plays a role in the lives of Mexican Americans by examining how education, racial characteristics, social interactions, relate to racial outcomes. We use the Mexican American Study Project, a unique data set based on a 1965 survey of Mexican Americans in Los Angeles and San Antonio combined with surveys of the same respondents and their adult children in 2000, thereby creating a longitudinal and intergenerational data set. First, we found that darker Mexican Americans, therefore appearing more stereotypically Mexican, report more experiences of discrimination. Second, darker men report much more discrimination than lighter men and than women overall. Third, more educated Mexican Americans experience more stereotyping and discrimination than their less-educated counterparts, which is partly due to their greater contact with Whites. Lastly, having greater contact with Whites leads to experiencing more stereotyping and discrimination. Our results are indicative of the ways in which Mexican Americans are racialized in the United States.

  5. Trajectories of Mexican American and mainstream cultural values among Mexican American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P; Basilio, Camille D; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A; Liu, Yu; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2014-12-01

    Mexican Americans are one of the largest and fastest growing ethnic groups in the United States, yet we have limited knowledge regarding changes (i.e., developmental trajectories) in cultural orientation based upon their exposure to the Mexican American and mainstream cultures. We examined the parallel trajectories of Mexican American and mainstream cultural values in a sample of 749 Mexican American adolescents (49 % female) across assessments during the fifth grade (approximately 11 years of age), the seventh grade (approximately 13 years of age) and the tenth grade (approximately 16 years of age). We expected that these values would change over this developmental period and this longitudinal approach is more appropriate than the often used median split classification to identify distinct types of acculturation. We found four distinct acculturation trajectory groups: two trajectory groups that were increasing slightly with age in the endorsement of mainstream cultural values, one of which was relatively stable in Mexican American cultural values while the other was declining in their endorsement of these values; and two trajectory groups that were declining substantially with age in their endorsement of mainstream cultural values, one of which was also declining in Mexican American cultural values and the other which was stable in these values. These four trajectory groups differed in expected ways on a number of theoretically related cultural variables, but were not highly consistent with the median split classifications. The findings highlight the need to utilize longitudinal data to examine the developmental changes of Mexican American individual's adaptation to the ethnic and mainstream culture in order to understand more fully the processes of acculturation and enculturation.

  6. Exposure and risk factors to coxiella burnetii, spotted fever group and typhus group Rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae among volunteer blood donors in Namibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce H Noden

    Full Text Available The role of pathogen-mediated febrile illness in sub-Saharan Africa is receiving more attention, especially in Southern Africa where four countries (including Namibia are actively working to eliminate malaria. With a high concentration of livestock and high rates of companion animal ownership, the influence of zoonotic bacterial diseases as causes of febrile illness in Namibia remains unknown.The aim of the study was to evaluate exposure to Coxiella burnetii, spotted fever and typhus group rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae using IFA and ELISA (IgG in serum collected from 319 volunteer blood donors identified by the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia (NAMBTS. Serum samples were linked to a basic questionnaire to identify possible risk factors. The majority of the participants (64.8% had extensive exposure to rural areas or farms. Results indicated a C. burnetii prevalence of 26.1% (screening titre 1∶16, and prevalence rates of 11.9% and 14.9% (screening titre 1∶100 for spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsiae, respectively. There was a significant spatial association between C. burnetii exposure and place of residence in southern Namibia (P0.012, especially cattle (P>0.006, were also significantly associated with C. burnetii exposure. Males were significantly more likely than females to have been exposed to spotted fever (P<0.013 and typhus (P<0.011 group rickettsiae. Three (2.9% samples were positive for B. henselae possibly indicating low levels of exposure to a pathogen never reported in Namibia.These results indicate that Namibians are exposed to pathogenic fever-causing bacteria, most of which have flea or tick vectors/reservoirs. The epidemiology of febrile illnesses in Namibia needs further evaluation in order to develop comprehensive local diagnostic and treatment algorithms.

  7. The relationship between Mexican American cultural values and resilience among Mexican American college students: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Consoli, Melissa L; Llamas, Jasmin D

    2013-10-01

    The current study investigated the role of cultural values in the resilience of Mexican American college students. Utilizing mixed methodology, 124 self-identified Mexican American college students were asked to complete an online survey, including a demographic questionnaire, the Resilience Scale, Mexican American Cultural Values Scale, and 2 open-ended questions concerning overcoming adversity and cultural values. As hypothesized, Mexican American traditional cultural values (Familismo, Respeto, Religiosidad, and Traditional Gender Roles) predicted resilience, with Familismo accounting for the majority of the variance. Consensual qualitative research (Hill, Thompson, & Nutt Williams, 1997) was used to identify emergent domains and themes within the open-ended question responses. Traditional Mexican American Value themes included Familismo, Ethnic Identity, Religiosidad, Perseverance, and Respeto. Results highlight the important role that certain Mexican American cultural values play in providing strength for overcoming adversities.

  8. Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol production. ... Keywords: Lignocellulosic biomass, alkaline pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentable sugars, fermentation. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(31), pp.

  9. 3. Mexican school of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez L, E.R.; Hess, P.O.; Martinez Q, E.

    2002-01-01

    The III Mexican School of Nuclear Physics which is directed to those post graduate in Sciences and those of last semesters students of the Physics career or some adjacent career was organized by the Nuclear Physics Division of the Mexican Physics Society, carrying out at November 18-29, 2002 in the installations of the Institute of Physics and the Institute of Nuclear Sciences both in the UNAM, and the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). In this as well as the last version its were offered 17 courses, 9 of them including laboratory practices and the rest were of theoretical character only. This book treats about the following themes: Nuclear physics, Electrostatic accelerators, Cyclotrons, Thermonuclear reactions, Surface barrier detectors, Radiation detection, Neutron detection, Bonner sphere spectrometers, Radiation protection, Biological radiation effects, Particle kinematics, Nucleosynthesis, Plastics, Muons, Quadrupoles, Harmonic oscillators, Quantum mechanics among many other matters. (Author)

  10. Second Mexican School of Nuclear Physics: Notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, E.F.; Chavez L, E.R.; Hess, P.O.

    2001-01-01

    The II Mexican School of Nuclear Physics which is directed to those last semesters students of the Physics career or post-graduate was organized by the Nuclear Physics Division of the Mexican Physics Society, carrying out at April 16-27, 2001 in the installations of the Institute of Physics and the Institute of Nuclear Sciences, both in the UNAM, and the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). A first school of a similar level in Nuclear Physics, was carried out in Mexico at 1977 as Latin american School of Physics. This book treats about the following themes: Interactions of radiation with matter, Evaluation of uncertainty in experimental data, Particle accelerators, Notions of radiological protection and dosimetry, Cosmic rays, Basis radiation (environmental), Measurement of excitation functions with thick targets and inverse kinematics, Gamma ray technique for to measure the nuclear fusion, Neutron detection with Bonner spectrometer, Energy losses of alpha particles in nickel. It was held the practice Radiation detectors. (Author)

  11. Energy-urban transition: The Mexican case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez, Armando

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I present a study regarding the institutional conditions of Mexican cities based on a post-petroleum urban model that considers transport, architecture, urban planning and land use, renewable energy sources, energy saving and efficiency, and urban metabolism issues. The model was constructed with recommendations of authors and organizations that have analysed the energy dimension of cities under an energy-availability, environmental or petroleum-independent view. To make the study I sent a questionnaire to some local governments of all the country. The information indicates that Mexican cities do not have institutional conditions to manage the urban-energy transition that signify the end of cheap oil and the peak of world oil production.

  12. PEMEX: The Mexican state petroleum agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    An overview is presented of the Mexican state petroleum company PEMEX. The Mexican government created PEMEX through the expropriation of the largely foreign-dominated industry. Mexico is the world's fifth largest crude oil producer, and in 1992 PEMEX had proven reserves of 65.5 billion bbl, crude production of 2.668 million bbl/d, gas production of 3.6 billion cubic feet per day, refined product production of 1.57 million bbl/d and 18 million tonnes of petrochemical production per year. A background is presented of Mexico's economy, followed by discussion of PEMEX's market, the best sales prospects for foreign suppliers, a company profile, financial structure, exploration and production, refining, gas and basic petrochemicals, petrochemicals, transportation and distribution, research and development, recent activities, planned future activities, procurement, and market access. Extensive appendices supply relevant contacts and information. 30 tabs

  13. Electricity supply opportunities -- The Mexican door opens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    Anyone who assumes that the Mexican market for electrical capacity is just a matter of selling equipment and services is in for a shock. The astute neighbor to the south is exploring privatization in the power sector with a style and flair that is uniquely Mexican. While free market-market forces have, to some extent, already transformed the manner in which new generating capacity is added in the US, a Mexico equivalent will not develop over night. Mexico is no place for the faint of heart. You have to play hard in order to win against competition almost equivalent to that of the US market and have the staying power to be around long enough to reap the rewards. This work presents the author's views concerning the manner in which competition has been introduced within the electricity supply market of the neighbor to the south

  14. Higher risk for obesity among Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant children and adolescents than among peers in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Valero, María A; Bustamante-Montes, L Patricia; Hernández, Mike; Halley-Castillo, Elizabeth; Wilkinson, Anna V; Bondy, Melissa L; Olvera, Norma

    2012-08-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1,717 children and adolescents of Mexican origin ages 5-19 years living in Mexico and Texas to explore the influence of country of birth and country of longest residence on their overweight and obesity status. Descriptive statistics were used to compare demographic and anthropometric characteristics of participants born and raised in Mexico (Mexicans), born in Mexico and raised in the United States (Mexican immigrants), and born and raised in the United States (Mexican-Americans). Univariate and multivariate nominal logistic regression was used to determine the demographic predictors of obesity adjusted by country of birth, country of residence, age, and gender. Almost half (48.8%) of the Mexican-Americans and 43.2% of the Mexican immigrants had body mass index at the 85th percentile or above, compared to only 29.3% of the Mexicans (P obese than their Mexican peers [Mexican-Americans: odds ratio (OR) = 2.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-3.4); Mexican immigrants: OR = 2.2 (95% CI 1.6-3.0)]. In addition, males were more likely than females to be obese [OR = 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.1)], and adolescents 15-19 years of age were less likely than their younger counterparts [OR = 0.5 (95% CI 0.4-0.7)] to be obese. The high prevalence of obesity among children of Mexican origin in the United States is of great concern and underscores the urgent need to develop and implement obesity preventive interventions targeting younger children of Mexican origin, especially newly arrived immigrant children. In addition, future obesity research should take into consideration the country of origin of the study population to develop more culturally specific obesity interventions.

  15. Mexican Marine Corps in the Struggle for Scalable Security and Its Potential as a Guarantor of the Mexican Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    53 G. Elena. Presidente Peña pide a militares a participar en la transformación de México. 1...security of the government of Mexico and the Mexican people until the civilian police is able to do so. 1S. SUBJECT TERMS MAGTF Concept;Mexican...to contribute better to the safety and security of the government of Mexico and the Mexican people until the civilian police is able to do so

  16. Mexican Trends: The Next Five Years,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-12

    either Argentina (60%) or Chile (75%) and far higher than Brazil (26%), whose total debt was around the same size. Second, of the aggregate Mexican...liberalization policies in Brazil, Argentina, and Chile were hammered into place not by politicians and political parties but by technocrats and...accident that violence has exploded in three border cities ( Agua ; Prieta, Piedras Negras, and San Luis) where the opposition had access to the U.S. media

  17. Narcocultura: A Threat to Mexican National Security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Postcolony: The Zapatistas and Narcocultura,” PhD Essay , University of British Colombia: Department of Political Science, 2011, 18. 7 Rafael López...humorous lyrics or tones in some narcocorridos29 Edberg concludes by stating, “cultural images cross...provided inspiration for the lyrics of classical corridos.63 These original corridos became a source of Mexican national identity and a vehicle for

  18. The Mexican electricity industry - cogeneration potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroy, I.L.

    2000-01-01

    A brief history of Mexico's electric power industry is given. Diagrams show (i) the increase in primary energy production from 1990-1998; (ii) energy consumption by sector and (iii) the change in capacity between 1990 and 1998. The projected energy development for 1998-2007 is discussed. The Mexican government has chosen cogeneration to be an important contributor to future energy-efficient power production. Data on installed cogeneration capacity for years 2000 and 2001 are given according to sector

  19. 4. Mexican School of Nuclear Physics. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, E.F.; Hernandez, E.; Hirsch, J.

    2005-01-01

    The IV Mexican School of Nuclear Physics, organized by the Nuclear Physics Division of the Mexican Physics Society, takes place from June 27 to July 8, 2005 in the Nuclear Sciences and of Physics Institutes of the UNAM and in the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). This school, as the previous ones, it was guided the students of the last semesters of the career of Physics, of the Post grade of the same specialty, and of other adjacent careers. To give the students a current vision of some of the topics more important of the nuclear physics and their relationship with other near areas of the physics it was the objective of this School. The School covered a wide range of theoretical and experimental courses, imparted in its majority by Mexican expert professor-investigators in the matter to who we thank them the one effort and the quality of their presentations, reflected in the content of this document. The answer of the students to the convocation was excellent, 31 students presented application for admission coming from the following institutions: Meritorious Autonomous University de Puebla, National Institute of Nuclear Research, Technological Institute of Orizaba, National Polytechnic Institute, The University of Texas at Brownsville, Autonomous University of the State de Mexico, Autonomous University of the State of Morelos, Autonomous University of Baja California, Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi, University of Guadalajara, University of Guanajuato, National Autonomous University of Mexico, University of Texas, at El Paso and University Veracruzana. They were admitted to the 22 students with the higher averages qualifications of the list of applicants. The organizers of this school thank the financial support granted by the following sponsor institutions: Nuclear Sciences Institute, UNAM, Physics Institute of UNAM, Coordination of the Scientific Research UNAM, National Institute of Nuclear Research, Nuclear Physics Division of the Mexican

  20. 4. Mexican School of Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, E.F.; Hernandez, E.; Hirsch, J.G. -mail: svp@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-01-01

    The IV Mexican School of Nuclear Physics, organized by the Nuclear Physics Division of the Mexican Physics Society, taken place from June 27 to July 8, 2005 in the Institute of Nuclear Sciences and the Institute of Physics of the UNAM and in the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). This school, as the previous ones, it was guided to the students of the last semesters of the career of Physics, of the Post grade of the same specialty, and of other adjacent careers. To give the students a current vision of some of the topics more important of the nuclear physics and their relationship with other near areas of the physics it was the objective of this School. The School covered a wide range of theoretical and experimental courses, imparted in its majority by Mexican expert professor-investigators in the subject to whom we thank them the one effort and the quality of their presentations, reflected in the content of this document. The answer of the students to the convocation was excellent, 31 students presented application for admission coming from the following institutions: Meritorious Autonomous University of Puebla, National Institute of Nuclear Research, Technological Institute of Orizaba, National Polytechnic Institute, The University of Texas at Brownsville, Autonomous University of the State de Mexico, Autonomous University of the State of Morelos, Autonomous University of Baja California, Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi, University of Guadalajara, University of Guanajuato, National Autonomous University of Mexico, University of Texas, at El Paso and University Veracruzana. They were admitted to those 22 students with the higher averages qualifications of the list of applicants. The organizers of this school thank the financial support granted by the following sponsor institutions: Institute of Nuclear Sciences, UNAM, Institute of Physics, UNAM, Coordination of the Scientific Research, UNAM, National Institute of Nuclear Research, Nuclear

  1. New Mexicans debate nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepkowski, W.

    1979-01-01

    A brief survey of the background of the Waste Isolation Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad, New Mexico and the forces at play around WIPP is presented. DOE has plans to establish by 1988 an underground repository for nuclear wastes in the salt formations near Carlsbad. Views of New Mexicans, both pro and con, are reviewed. It is concluded that DOE will have to practice public persuasion to receive approval for the burial of wastes in New Mexico

  2. Type 2 diabetes mortality at Mexican borders

    OpenAIRE

    Manzanares Rivera, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract:Objective: To analyze type II diabetes mortality rates geographic distribution and evolution in time across both Mexican border regions during the period 1998-2013.Methods: The work is based on exploratory and inferential data analysis conducted using death reports from the national health information system. The analysis considers social determinants of health as a theoretical paradigm and includes microdata on consumption patterns at household level for the US-Mexico and Mexico- Gu...

  3. Epidemiologic Observations on Diarrhea Developing in U.S. and Mexican Students Living in Guadalajara, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson; DuPont; Mathewson

    1995-03-01

    Background: A previous study suggested that U.S. students who lived in Mexico for 1 year had a risk of diarrhea intermediate between the rate for newly arrived U.S. students and Mexican students; however, the study was not controlled for changes of risky behavior over time. Methods: An analysis of acute diarrhea occurring among U.S. and Mexican student groups living in Guadalajara, Mexico was conducted to explore the association of diarrhea developing during selected 28-day periods with length of residence, season, and risk factors such as locations of food consumption, consumption of tap water, unsafe ice, alcohol, and antibiotics. Results: Compared to U.S. and Mexican student groups, newly arrived U.S. college students in July had the highest rate of diarrhea (55%), highest enteropathogen isolation rate (46%), and most consumption of alcohol and antibiotics; they also ate most frequently at restaurants and in Mexican family homes. Compared to a 34% rate of diarrhea among newly arrived U.S. medical students in August, the rate was only 6% among established medical students in January. This drop in attack rate was attended by less tap water and unsafe ice consumption by established students in January compared to the habits of newly arrived students in January or August when risky behavior was otherwise similar among these groups. The role of tap water and unsafe ice in the acquisition of wintertime diarrhea is further supported by the relatively high 29% rate of diarrhea among U.S. medical students newly arrived in January, who also consumed more tap water and ice than established students in January. Enterotoxigenic E. coli disease was observed only during the summer months; whereas, Campylobacter jejuni disease and disease associated with no detected pathogen were more common in winter. Conclusions: These data imply that wintertime diarrhea in Guadalajara is more likely than summertime diarrhea to be waterborne and to be caused by agents such as viruses or

  4. Genetic analysis of Mexican Criollo cattle populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-Arvizu, R; Gayosso-Vázquez, A; Ramos-Kuri, M; Estrada, F J; Montaño, M; Alonso, R A

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic structure of Mexican Criollo cattle populations using microsatellite genetic markers. DNA samples were collected from 168 animals from four Mexican Criollo cattle populations, geographically isolated in remote areas of Sierra Madre Occidental (West Highlands). Also were included samples from two breeds with Iberian origin: the fighting bull (n = 24) and the milking central American Criollo (n = 24) and one Asiatic breed: Guzerat (n = 32). Genetic analysis consisted of the estimation of the genetic diversity in each population by the allele number and the average expected heterozygosity found in nine microsatellite loci. Furthermore, genetic relationships among the populations were defined by their genetic distances. Our data shows that Mexican cattle populations have a relatively high level of genetic diversity based either on the mean number of alleles (10.2-13.6) and on the expected heterozygosity (0.71-0.85). The degree of observed homozygosity within the Criollo populations was remarkable and probably caused by inbreeding (reduced effective population size) possibly due to reproductive structure within populations. Our data shows that considerable genetic differentiation has been occurred among the Criollo cattle populations in different regions of Mexico.

  5. The United Mexican States: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R; Aguirre, E J

    1988-09-01

    Although the popular North American opinion of Mexico is one that paints a picture of a poor, disadvantaged country, South America sees Mexico has a richer more prosperous nation. It is observed that only in the Latin American countries of Venezuela, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago do consumers have higher incomes than Mexican consumers. Moreover, while millions of Mexicans migrate to the United States to seek a better standard of living, several thousand Central American refugees illegally migrate to Mexico in search of a better life. This better life includes an increased age of lie expectancy from 51 years in the 1950s to 64 years in the late 1970s. There have also been improvements in health care and school enrollments and in the low cost availability of education. Tourism and the prospect of the manufacturing of energy are significant, positive factors working in favor of an improved Mexican economy and a higher overall quality of life. However, Mexico faces serious problems such as a mounting foreign debt. Also rising is Mexico's population which has doubled since 1964 and which continues to grow at a rate of 1.9%. Economic programs and reforms and family development planning have been instituted in response to the countries' current recession and population growth and have begun to show positive results.

  6. Participants in urban Mexican male homosexual encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, J M

    1971-12-01

    Preliminary data are presented on 53 urban Mexican males interviewed during 1970-1971 in a study of homosexual encounters in a large Mexican city. These data are compared with data from recent studies in the United States and England of male homosexual behavior. Although preliminary and limited, the Mexican data indicate that cultural factors are important determinants of life styles and sex practices of homosexual males. Forty-eight of the 53 (90%) preferred and usually practiced anal intercourse, four preferred oral contacts, and one preferred mutual masturbation. Interviewees were also grouped according to major type of sex activity during the first sustained year of homosexual activity after puberty. One intragroup comparison indicates significant differences between anal active and anal passive interviewees. For example, as children anal passive subjects had significantly more homosexual contacts with adults; they also considered themselves more effeminate and as children were more involved with female sex-typed activities. Comparison of data from the English and United States studies with the present data suggests that preference for a particular sexual technique is not as developed in the former two countries; when there is a preference, it is not usually for anal intercourse.

  7. National Mexican Tourism Policy and North American Second Homeowners In Mexico: Local Tourism Development and Mexican Identity (Chapter 6)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Helene Balslev

    2018-01-01

    . Still the Mexican state does not seize the second home owners as a resource and ‘producers’ rather only as consumers of different Mexican objects, food etc. The chapter addresses this research gap and proposes rather than only perceive North American second home owners as part of tourism development...... participate in reshaping and reconfigure public policy and Mexican culture/identity construction. The purpose of the chapter is to explore the role of the North American second home owners and their impact on the planning and regulation of Mexican state policies, and how they might reconfigure practices and...

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Mexican Hat, Utah, disposal site. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Mexican Hat disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  9. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is Found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  10. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, the ... not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. If you do decide to travel, first ...

  11. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding CDC Activities For Healthcare Providers Clinical Evaluation & Disease Sexual Transmission HIV Infection & Zika Virus Testing for Zika Test Specimens – At Time of Birth Diagnostic Tests Understanding Zika Virus Test Results ...

  12. Two Pathogens and One Disease: Detection and Identification of Flea-Borne Rickettsiae in Areas Endemic for Murine Typhus in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    EREMEEVA, MARINA E.; KARPATHY, SANDOR E.; KRUEGER, LAURA; HAYES, ERICA K.; WILLIAMS, ASHLEY M.; ZALDIVAR, YAMITZEL; BENNETT, STEPHEN; CUMMINGS, ROBERT; TILZER, ART; VELTEN, ROBERT K.; KERR, NELSON; DASCH, GREGORY A.; HU, RENJIE

    2018-01-01

    Results of an environmental assessment conducted in a newly emergent focus of murine typhus in southern California are described. Opossums, Didelphis virginiana Kerr, infested with cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis Buché, in the suburban area were abundant. Animal and flea specimens were tested for the DNA of two flea-borne rickettsiae, Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia felis. R. felis was commonly detected in fleas collected throughout this area while R. typhi was found at a much lower prevalence in the vicinity of just 7 of 14 case-patient homes identified. DNA of R. felis, but not R. typhi, was detected in renal, hepatic, and pulmonary tissues of opossums. In contrast, there were no hematologic polymerase chain reaction findings of R. felis or R. typhi in opossums, rats, and cats within the endemic area studied. Our data suggest a significant probability of human exposure to R. felis in the area studied; however, disease caused by this agent is not recognized by the medical community and may be misdiagnosed as murine typhus using nondiscriminatory serologic methods. PMID:23270180

  13. Lateral Flow Rapid Test for Accurate and Early Diagnosis of Scrub Typhus: A Febrile Illness of Historically Military Importance in the Pacific Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chien-Chung; Zhangm, Zhiwen; Weissenberger, Giulia; Chen, Hua-Wei; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2017-03-01

    Scrub typhus (ST) is an infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Historically, ST was ranked as the second most important arthropod-borne medical problem only behind malaria during World War II and the Vietnam War. The disease occurs mainly in Southeast Asia and has been shown to emerge and reemerge in new areas, implying the increased risk for U.S. military and civilian personnel deployed to these regions. ST can effectively be treated by doxycycline provided the diagnosis is made early, before the development of severe complications. Scrub Typhus Detect is a lateral flow rapid test based on a mixture of recombinant 56-kDa antigens with broad reactivity. The performance of this prototype product was evaluated against indirect immunofluorescence assay, the serological gold standard. Using 249 prospectively collected samples from Thailand, the sensitivity and specificity for IgM was found to be 100% and 92%, respectively, suggesting a high potential of this product for clinical use. This product will provide a user friendly, rapid, and accurate diagnosis of ST for clinicians to provide timely and accurate treatments of deployed personnel. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  14. Another Mexican birthweight paradox? The role of residential enclaves and neighborhood poverty in the birthweight of Mexican-origin infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osypuk, Theresa L; Bates, Lisa M; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores

    2010-02-01

    Examining whether contextual factors influence the birth outcomes of Mexican-origin infants in the US may contribute to assessing rival explanations for the so-called Mexican health paradox. We examined whether birthweight among infants born to Mexican-origin women in the US was associated with Mexican residential enclaves and exposure to neighborhood poverty, and whether these associations were modified by nativity (i.e. mother's place of birth). We calculated metropolitan indices of neighborhood exposure to Mexican-origin population and poverty for the Mexican-origin population, and merged with individual-level, year 2000 natality data (n=490,332). We distinguished between neighborhood exposure to US-born Mexican-origin population (i.e. ethnic enclaves) and neighborhood exposure to foreign-born (i.e. Mexico-born) Mexican-origin population (i.e. immigrant enclaves). We used 2-level hierarchical linear regression models adjusting for individual, metropolitan, and regional covariates and stratified by nativity. We found that living in metropolitan areas with high residential segregation of US-born Mexican-origin residents (i.e. high prevalence of ethnic enclaves) was associated with lower birthweight for infants of US-born Mexican-origin mothers before and after covariate adjustment. When simultaneously adjusting for exposure to ethnic and immigrant enclaves, the latter became positively associated with birthweight and the negative effect of the former increased, among US-born mothers. We found no contextual birthweight associations for mothers born in Mexico in adjusted models. Our findings highlight a differential effect of context by nativity, and the potential health effects of ethnic enclaves, which are possibly a marker of downward assimilation, among US-born Mexican-origin women. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Perceived social stress, pregnancy-related anxiety, depression and subjective social status among pregnant Mexican and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in subjective social status, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and pregnancy-related anxiety between pregnant Mexican American and Mexican immigrant women. Three hundred pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in South Texas were surveyed for pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and subjective social status. Pregnant Mexican immigrant women had higher levels of pregnancy-related anxiety and lower levels of depression and perceived social stress than pregnant Mexican American women. Change in these variables among Mexican immigrant women was relatively linear as time of residence in the United States increased. Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women had significantly different correlations between subjective social status, self-esteem and perceived social stress. Results indicate that subjective social status is an important psychosocial variable among pregnant Hispanic women. Results contribute to ongoing efforts to provide culturally responsive prenatal psychosocial support services.

  16. Women's Networks and the Social Needs of Mexican Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mary I.

    1990-01-01

    Reports on the persistence of a two-tiered economic and political system that routinely excludes Mexican immigrants. Focuses on the predominantly female employees of a wholesale nursery in Carpinteria (California), who have adapted the Mexican tradition of "confianza"-based relationships to form networks that facilitate communication and…

  17. Losing American Students, Mexican Universities Struggle against a Scary Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Like most Mexicans, Eugenio Yarce has been deeply affected by the violence between drug cartels and the Mexican army, which has filled news coverage with accounts of kidnappings, assassinations, and torture. But for Mr. Yarce, deputy rector for outreach here at the private Autonomous Popular University of the State of Puebla, or Upaep, the…

  18. Mexican-Origin Women's Employment Instability. Working Paper No. 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Anda, Roberto M.

    This paper compares the causes and consequences of employment instability among Mexican-origin women, White women, and White men. Data came from the work experience supplement in the March 1995 file of the Current Population Survey for a sample that included 1,399 Mexican-origin women, 17,092 White women, and 24,440 White men. All were experienced…

  19. The Mexican American in Higher Education: Implications for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, William F.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Literature reviews suggest that Mexican-American students place more emphasis on cooperation and group than on individual achievement. Education may be enhanced when teachers reinforce "successful behavior." Problems may arise using U.S.-based theories of "democratic" leadership styles because Mexican-American culture places emphasis on…

  20. Mexican Art and Architecture Databases: Needs, Achievements, Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberena, Elsa

    At the international level, a lack of diffusion of Mexican art and architecture in indexes and abstracts has been detected. Reasons for this could be lack of continuity in publications, the use of the Spanish language, lack of interest in Mexican art and architecture, and sporadic financial resources. Nevertheless, even though conditions are not…

  1. Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research with Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    This is a description of the creation of a research methods tool, the "Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research With Mexican Americans." For conducting literature reviews of and planning mixed methods studies with Mexican Americans, it contains evaluative criteria calling for transformative mixed methods, perspectives…

  2. Storytelling in Mexican Homes: Connections between Oral and Literacy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    The study focuses on storytelling among Mexican families, documenting the frequency of storytelling in the homes of working- and middle-class Mexican families, the range of topics of the stories, characteristics and genres of stories, and intergenerational continuity of storytelling practices. Also examined are potential associations between…

  3. The Mexican Committee against Racism and What It Reveals about Relations between Mexican and American Jews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Katz Gugenheim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work reconstructs the origin, organization, development, and disappearance of the Mexican Committee against Racism (Comité Mexicano contra el Racismo, CMR, active in Mexico City from 1944 to 1946, inthe context of the relations between a leading Jewish organization in the United States and a Mexican Jewish institution. The CMR appears in historiography as a Mexican anti-fascist institution, but this research reveals that it was conceived, implemented, financed, and supervised by the American Jewish Committee (AJC, a Jewish social action organization based in the United States, with the aim of fighting against racist and anti-Semitic prejudices, creating a friendly climate towards Jewish-refugee immigration, and quelling anti-American feelings in Mexico. The AJC's involvement was kept a secret for Mexicans in general and for the Jewish community in Mexico. Drawing on archives in Mexico and the United States, this work details the reasons that led to its organization, describes its implementation, explains why the AJC's involvement was kept a secret, and why the CMR failed to prosper and eventually disappeared.

  4. Parental Factors Associated with Mexican American Adolescent Alcohol Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mogro-Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to further the understanding of how parenting and the relationship between the parent and the youth influence adolescent alcohol use in Mexican American families, with particular attention to acculturation. Results indicated that parental warmth is a strong factor in predicting adolescent alcohol use among Mexican adolescents. The parent-youth relationship played an important role in lowering alcohol use for Mexican American youth. Acculturation has an impact on the level of warmth, control, and the parent-youth relationship for Mexican American families. Findings indicate that there are unique family mechanisms for Mexican American families that should be considered when developing prevention and treatment options.

  5. [Dichotic perception of Mandarin third tone by Mexican Chinese learners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbin

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between the advantage ear (cerebral hemisphere) of Spanish-speaking Mexican learners and the third Chinese tone. Third tone Chinese vowel syllables were used as experimental materials with dichotic listening technology to test the Spanish-speaking Mexican Chinese learners (20-32 years old) who studied Chinese about 20 h. In terms of error rates to identify the third Chinese tone, the Spanish-speaking Mexican Chinese learners's reaction to the third tone suggested that their left ears were the advantageous ear (the right cerebral hemisphere) (Z=-2.091, P=0.036). The verbal information of tones influenced the perception of Mexican Chinese learners' mandarin tones. In the process of learning mandarin tones, Mexican Chinese learners gradually formed the category of tones.

  6. A forgotten chapter of Mexican technology and science: Luis Gutiérrez Villegas and poliomyelitis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Arellano, Antonio

    Two different types of vaccines were developed against poliomyelitis: The Salk vaccine using inactivated virus and the Sabin one, that was used later, after investigations assured its safety. The first one was made in Mexico with its own resources since 1957 thanks to the efforts of young researchers and technicians coordinated by Luis Gutiérrez-Villegas, M.D., who was a Clinical Pathologist, University Professor and President of the Mexican National Academy of Mexico. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud.

  7. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Mexican Hat Site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Mexican Hat site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.2 million tons of tailings at the Mexican Hat site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $15,200,000 for stabilization in place, to about $45,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 16 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Mexican Hat tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $115/lb of U 3 O 8 whether by heap leach or conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Mexican Hat tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive under present conditions

  8. Idioms of Distress Among Depressed White-Non-Mexican and Mexican-Origin Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Barker, Judith C; Unutzer, Jurgen; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Johnson, Megan Dwight; Tran, Cindy; Guarnaccia, Peter; Hinton, Ladson

    2015-09-01

    Older men are less likely than older women to receive depression treatment. Latino older men in particular have been found to have significantly lower rates of depression treatment than their white-non-Mexican (WNM) counterparts. Prior research has shown that men are less likely than women to express overt affect and/or report depression symptoms that may prompt primary care physicians' inquiry about depression. Previous studies have overlooked the idioms of distress common among older men. This study investigates: a) the range of idioms of distress that emerge in the narratives of depressed older men, and b) the use of these idioms among depressed WNM and Mexican-origin older men. The present report is based on qualitative data collected through the Men's Health and Aging Study (MeHAS), a mixed-method study of clinically depressed WNM and Mexican-origin older (65 and above) men recruited in primary care settings. Qualitative analysis of 77 interviews led to identification of idioms of distress and informed idiom categories. Study findings show that: a) both groups of men utilized a range of idioms of distress that met current DSM criteria for depression, b) both groups were also likely to utilize idioms that feel outside clinical depression criteria, and c) there were similarities as well as differences between WNM and Mexican-origin men. This study provides a larger vocabulary that clinicians might consider in recognizing depression and initiating depression care for older men from diverse ethnic backgrounds. This is important to improve depression care among older men in general and those of Mexican-origin in particular.

  9. Prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes among Mexican adults: findings from the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Wong, Rebeca; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Al Snih, Soham

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence and determinants of prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes among Mexican adults from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. We examined 2012 participants from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Measures included sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, central obesity, medical conditions, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and vitamin D. Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and self-reported diabetes. Prevalence of prediabetes, undiagnosed, and self-reported diabetes in this cohort was 44.2%, 18.0%, and 21.4%, respectively. Participants with high waist-hip ratio (1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-2.45) and high cholesterol (1.85, 95% CI = 1.36-2.51) had higher odds of prediabetes. Overweight (1.68, 95% CI = 1.07-2.64), obesity (2.38, 95% CI = 1.41-4.02), and high waist circumference (1.60, 95% CI = 1.06-2.40) were significantly associated with higher odds of having undiagnosed diabetes. Those residing in a Mexican state with high U.S. migration had lower odds of prediabetes (0.61, 95% CI = 0.45-0.82) and undiagnosed diabetes (0.53, 95% CI = 0.41-0.70). Those engaged in regular physical activity had lower odds of undiagnosed diabetes (0.74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.97). There is a high prevalence of prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes among Mexican adults in this subsample. Findings suggest the need for resources to prevent, identify, and treat persons with prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Mexican Hat site, Mexican Hat, Utah. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Mexican Hat site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.2 million tons of tailings at the Mexican Hat site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $15,200,000 for stabilization in place, to about $45,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 16 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Mexican Hat tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $115/lb of U 3 O 8 whether by heap leach or conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Mexican Hat tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive under present conditions

  11. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 among Hispanics in the USA: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, M; Romaguera, R A; Valentine, J; Tao, G

    2011-07-01

    To examine the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) among Hispanics in the USA, we used the cross-sectional, nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to compare the seroprevalence of HSV-2 between Hispanic persons of Mexican heritage and non-Mexican heritage aged 14-44 years, from survey years 2007-2008. The overall HSV-2 seroprevalence among Hispanics aged 14-44 years was 17.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.2, 20.1) in the USA. HSV-2 seroprevalence was significantly lower among Mexican Americans than among other Hispanics (11.7% vs. 27.8%, P heritage and non-Mexican heritage suggested that targeting specific subgroups of Hispanics for preventive interventions may be a strategy to reduce the transmission of HSV-2 and HIV among Hispanics in the USA.

  12. San Pedro Martir Telescope: Mexican design endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Ramirez, Gengis K.; Bringas-Rico, Vicente; Reyes, Noe; Uribe, Jorge; Lopez, Aldo; Tovar, Carlos; Caballero, Xochitl; Del-Llano, Luis; Martinez, Cesar; Macias, Eduardo; Lee, William; Carramiñana, Alberto; Richer, Michael; González, Jesús; Sanchez, Beatriz; Lucero, Diana; Manuel, Rogelio; Segura, Jose; Rubio, Saul; Gonzalez, German; Hernandez, Obed; García, Mary; Lazaro, Jose; Rosales-Ortega, Fabian; Herrera, Joel; Sierra, Gerardo; Serrano, Hazael

    2016-08-01

    The Telescopio San Pedro Martir (TSPM) is a new ground-based optical telescope project, with a 6.5 meters honeycomb primary mirror, to be built in the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Martir (OAN-SPM) located in Baja California, Mexico. The OAN-SPM has an altitude of 2830 meters above sea level; it is among the best location for astronomical observation in the world. It is located 1830 m higher than the atmospheric inversion layer with 70% of photometric nights, 80% of spectroscopic nights and a sky brightness up to 22 mag/arcsec2. The TSPM will be suitable for general science projects intended to improve the knowledge of the universe established on the Official Mexican Program for Science, Technology and Innovation 2014-2018. The telescope efforts are headed by two Mexican institutions in name of the Mexican astronomical community: the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica. The telescope has been financially supported mainly by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT). It is under development by Mexican scientists and engineers from the Center for Engineering and Industrial Development. This development is supported by a Mexican-American scientific cooperation, through a partnership with the University of Arizona (UA), and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO). M3 Engineering and Technology Corporation in charge of enclosure and building design. The TSPM will be designed to allow flexibility and possible upgrades in order to maximize resources. Its optical and mechanical designs are based upon those of the Magellan and MMT telescopes. The TSPM primary mirror and its cell will be provided by the INAOE and UA. The telescope will be optimized from the near ultraviolet to the near infrared wavelength range (0.35-2.5 m), but will allow observations up to 26μm. The TSPM will initially offer a f/5 Cassegrain focal station. Later, four folded Cassegrain and

  13. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among elderly Mexicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rodríguez, María Araceli; Yáñez-Velasco, Lucía; Carnevale, Alessandra; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Bernal, Demetrio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Rojas, Rosalba; Villa, Antonio; Tur, Josep A

    2017-11-01

    One of the most prevalent chronic diseases among elderly population is the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MetS and associated factors among Mexican elderly people. Cross-sectional survey carried out in Mexico (2007). A random sample (n=516) of the elderly population (≥65years; 277 female, 239 male) was interviewed. Anthropometric and analytical measurements, and a general questionnaire incorporating questions related to socio-demographic and life-style factors were used. MetS definition AHA/NHLBI/IDF was applied. The prevalence of MetS in the elderly (≥65years) was of 72.9% (75.7% men; 70.4% women). Participants with values above MetS cut-off points were 92.4% (hypertension), 77.8% (hypertriglyceridemia), 77.1% (low HDL-cholesterol), 71.1% (hyperglycaemia), and 65.4% (central obesity). People with MetS showed higher values of anthropometric and biochemical variables than those without MetS, except for the height, cholesterol and creatinine. Mid-high education level (9-12 years), no smokers and former smokers, and Central-Western inhabitants of Mexico were associated with MetS components. BMI status was the main determinant of MetS prevalence and MetS components. The reported prevalence of MetS among the elderly Mexican population was higher than those previously obtained in the geographical area, showing a major public health problem in Mexican elders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 60Co retention by Mexican montmorillonites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, G.; Martinez, V.; Bosch, P.; Bulbulian, S.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive elements may be retained by clays. The ability of natural Mexican clays to retain radioactive Co from aqueous solutions, is discussed. Experiments were performed with solutions containing labeled cobalt. The effect of contact time on Co 2+ retention was studied. It was found that the Co 2+ uptake value in dehydrated montmorillonites is between 0.30 and 0.70 meq g -1 of clay. A sorption sequence was obtained for the various clays. The samples were characterized, before and after cobalt exchange, by X-ray diffraction. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Women writers and the Mexican Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Niamh

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore how women are represented in novels written by women which have conflict as their central thematic concern. Consequently, it was necessary to examine the context in which these texts were written and how they compare to texts written by men based on the same period. As a result I studied the novela de la revolución as a genre in Mexico, accessing this material in Irish, British and Mexican libraries. Having established thematic predecessors, I approached t...

  16. Natural Variability of Mexican Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Herrera, Graciela; Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel; Kemper-Valverdea, N.

    The purpose of this paper was 1) to present a new algorithm for analyzing the forest fires, 2) to discuss the present understanding of the natural variability at different scales with special emphasis on Mexico conditions since 1972, 3) to analyze the internal and external factors affecting forest fires for example ENSO and Total Solar Irradiance, and 4) to discuss the implications of this knowledge, on research and on restoration and management methods, which purpose is to enhance forest biodiversity conservation. 5) We present an estimate of the Mexican forest fires for the next decade. These results may be useful to minimize human and economic losses.

  17. Usual Vitamin Intakes by Mexican Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza-Tobías, Andrea; Hernández-Barrera, Lucía; López-Olmedo, Nancy; García-Guerra, Armando; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Ramírez-Silva, Ivonne; Villalpando, Salvador; Carriquiry, Alicia; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    In the past several years, the consumption of high-energy, nutrient-poor foods has increased globally. Dietary intake data collected by the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2012 provide information to assess the quality of the Mexican diet and to guide food and nutrition policy. The aim was to describe the usual intake and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of vitamins for the overall Mexican population and by subgroups defined by sex, age, region, urban or rural areas, and socioeconomic status (SES). ENSANUT 2012 is a cross-sectional probabilistic survey representative of the Mexican population. Dietary information was collected by using the 24-h recall automated multiple-pass method (n = 10,096) with a repeated measurement on a subsample (n = 889) to permit adjustment for intraindividual variability with the use of the Iowa State University method. Mean usual intakes and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, and vitamins A, D, E, C, B-6, and B-12 were calculated for children aged 1-4 y (CH1-4y), children aged 5-11 y (CH5-11y), adolescents aged 12-19 y, and adults aged ≥20 y. In all of the age groups, prevalences of inadequate intakes of vitamins D and E were the highest (77-99% of adults and adolescents and 53-95% of CH5-11y and CH1-4y) and those of folate and vitamin A were intermediate (47-70% of adults and adolescents, 15-23% of CH5-11y and 8-13% of CH1-4y), whereas those of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamins B-6, B-12, and C were the lowest (0-37% of adults, 1-27% of adolescents, and 0-2.4% of CH5-11y and CH1-4y). With few exceptions, the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for vitamins were observed in the poorest populations (rural South region and the lowest tertile of SES). The intake of vitamins among Mexicans is inadequate overall. Information collected by ENSANUT can help target food assistance programs and develop strategies to prevent vitamin deficiencies. © 2016 American Society

  18. Mexican waves in an excitable medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, I; Helbing, D; Vicsek, T

    2002-09-12

    The Mexican wave, or La Ola, which rose to fame during the 1986 World Cup in Mexico, surges through the rows of spectators in a stadium as those in one section leap to their feet with their arms up, and then sit down again as the next section rises to repeat the motion. To interpret and quantify this collective human behaviour, we have used a variant of models that were originally developed to describe excitable media such as cardiac tissue. Modelling the reaction of the crowd to attempts to trigger the wave reveals how this phenomenon is stimulated, and may prove useful in controlling events that involve groups of excited people.

  19. Alcohol Use Disorders in National Samples of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans: The Mexican National Addiction Survey and the U.S. National Alcohol Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Lown, Anne; Ye, Yu; Robertson, Marjorie J.; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Greenfield, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The authors show associations between immigration and alcohol disorders using data from the 1995 and 2000 U.S. National Alcohol Surveys and the 1998 Mexico National Household Survey on Addictions. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 4.8% for the Mexicans, 4.2% for the Mexico-born immigrants, and 6.6% for the U.S.-born Mexican Americans. They…

  20. Points for Improvement in Mexican Legislation on Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel Sánchez, S.; Carreño Padilla, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to underline the specific points needed still to be improved on safeguards in the Mexican legal framework. The problem: Mexico proposed the Tlatelolco Treaty which was before the TNP. So the Mexican legislation on safeguards should to be one of the best around the world, but there are still points to be improved, such as a specific regulation on the topic. Justification: Remembering that the exact sciences need of the law in order to be applied in a desirable way. I mean, the safeguards could be well conceived and well worked from the physics and mathematics point of view, but in order to be followed in any country, it is necessary the right legal framework. Hypothesis: What has Mexico now in its legislation on safeguards and what remains to be done (what is pending in the Mexican legal scope of the safeguards)? Objectives: – To propose legal solutions to correct the weakness of the Mexican legal framework on Safeguards; taking into account my own experience drafting the Mexican regulation on safeguards from 2008 for the Mexican Government in my nuclear law firm “Martínez and Maciel”. – To propose a legal framework on safeguards for Mexico as it is understood by the IAEA. – To update the legal frame work on safeguards in Mexico linking it to the Back end of the spent fuel. (Considering that sooner or later the Mexican Government will have to define its politic on this topic). (author)

  1. General overview of the Mexican energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Jacome, D.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of Mexico's energy sector was presented, with particular focus on the natural gas and electricity sectors. Mexico ranks fifth in oil production, eighth in proven oil reserves, and fourteenth in natural gas reserves. In 1998, the energy sector generated 3.3 per cent of Mexico's gross domestic product (GDP), and oil accounted for 7.5 per cent of total exports. National production of natural gas has been forecasted to grow at a rate of 5.2 per cent annually over the next 10 years. This will be largely due to the increased demand for natural gas to produce electricity. The Mexican government has also taken initiatives to restructure the Mexican energy sector with particular focus on increasing the competitiveness of the electric power industry. Electricity demand is also expected to grow at a rate of 6 per cent annually over the next six years. The objectives of energy reform are to promote more investment from all sectors in order to strengthen the development of the electric power industry and to provide a reliable, high quality service at competitive prices. 9 figs

  2. Mexican registry of pulmonary hypertension: REMEHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval Zarate, Julio; Jerjes-Sanchez, Carlos; Ramirez-Rivera, Alicia; Zamudio, Tomas Pulido; Gutierrez-Fajardo, Pedro; Elizalde Gonzalez, Jose; Leon, Mario Seoane Garcia De; Gamez, Miguel Beltran; Abril, Francisco Moreno Hoyos; Michel, Rodolfo Parra; Aguilar, Humberto Garcia

    REMEHIP is a prospective, multicentre registry on pulmonary hypertension. The main objective will be to identify the clinical profile, medical care, therapeutic trends and outcomes in adult and pediatric Mexican patients with well-characterized pulmonary hypertension. REMEHIP a multicenter registry began in 2015 with a planned recruitment time of 12 months and a 4-year follow-up. The study population will comprise a longitudinal cohort study, collecting data on patients with prevalent and incident pulmonary hypertension. Will be included patients of age >2 years and diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension by right heart catheterization within Group 1 and Group 4 of the World Health Organization classification. The structure, data collection and data analysis will be based on quality current recommendations for registries. The protocol has been approved by institutional ethics committees in all participant centers. All patients will sign an informed consent form. Currently in Mexico, there is a need of observational registries that include patients with treatment in the everyday clinical practice so the data could be validated and additional information could be obtained versus the one from the clinical trials. In this way, REMEHIP emerges as a link among randomized clinical trials developed by experts and previous Mexican experience. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. [Mexican] Private-sector petroleum companies and agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    An overview is presented of the Mexican petroleum sector. The sector is largely controlled by the state company PEMEX and is not completely open to foreign participation and supply, however the trend towards privatization and open competition, combined with the drive for competitiveness of PEMEX operations in particular, is creating market opportunities for foreign suppliers of petroleum equipment and services. Detailed profiles are provided of 50 Mexican companies and their primary products and services, specific areas of expertise, client base, international experience, interest in Canada, other relevant information, and a contact person. A less detailed list is also provided of additional Mexican contacts, petroleum industry associations and chambers of commerce

  4. Personality traits associated with success in Mexican exporter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Leticia Gil Gaytan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to identify the personality traits associated with success in exporting by Mexican entrepreneurs in the Guadalajara metropolitan area. The main justification for carrying out this study is Mexico’s need to reduce its current dependence on manufacturing exports using foreign investment and increase the exports of Mexican companies. According to this study, there is association between export success and personality traits in successful Mexican exporters. With the spread of these findings, it is expected that both universities and business organizations will consider these results when selecting students for programs related to international venture.

  5. Problems Faced by Mexican Asylum Seekers in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    J. Anna Cabot

    2014-01-01

    Violence in Mexico rose sharply in response to President Felipe Calderón’s military campaign against drug cartels which began in late 2006. As a consequence, the number of Mexicans who have sought asylum in the United States has grown significantly. In 2013, Mexicans made up the second largest group of defensive asylum seekers (those in removal proceedings) in the United States, behind only China (EOIR 2014b). Yet between 2008 and 2013, the grant rate for Mexican asylum seekers in immigration...

  6. Strong interferon-gamma mediated cellular immunity to scrub typhus demonstrated using a novel whole cell antigen ELISpot assay in rhesus macaques and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manutsanun Sumonwiriya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a febrile infection caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, which causes significant morbidity and mortality across the Asia-Pacific region. The control of this vector-borne disease is challenging due to humans being dead-end hosts, vertical maintenance of the pathogen in the vector itself, and a potentially large rodent reservoir of unclear significance, coupled with a lack of accurate diagnostic tests. Development of an effective vaccine is highly desirable. This however requires better characterization of the natural immune response of this neglected but important disease. Here we implement a novel IFN-γ ELISpot assay as a tool for studying O. tsutsugamushi induced cellular immune responses in an experimental scrub typhus rhesus macaque model and human populations. Whole cell antigen for O. tsutsugamushi (OT-WCA was prepared by heat inactivation of Karp-strain bacteria. Rhesus macaques were infected intradermally with O. tsutsugamushi. Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from infected (n = 10 and uninfected animals (n = 5 were stimulated with OT-WCA, and IFN-γ secreting cells quantitated by ELISpot assay at five time points over 28 days. PBMC were then assayed from people in a scrub typhus-endemic region of Thailand (n = 105 and responses compared to those from a partially exposed population in a non-endemic region (n = 14, and to a naïve population in UK (n = 12. Mean results at Day 0 prior to O. tsutsugamushi infection were 12 (95% CI 0-25 and 15 (2-27 spot-forming cells (SFC/106 PBMC for infected and control macaques respectively. Strong O. tsutsugamushi-specific IFN-γ responses were seen post infection, with ELISpot responses 20-fold higher than baseline at Day 7 (mean 235, 95% CI 200-270 SFC/106 PBMC, 105-fold higher at Day 14 (mean 1261, 95% CI 1,097-1,425 SFC/106 PBMC, 125-fold higher at Day 21 (mean 1,498, 95% CI 1,496-1,500 SFC/106 PBMC and 118-fold higher at

  7. Strong interferon-gamma mediated cellular immunity to scrub typhus demonstrated using a novel whole cell antigen ELISpot assay in rhesus macaques and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumonwiriya, Manutsanun; Paris, Daniel H; Sunyakumthorn, Piyanate; Anantatat, Tippawan; Jenjaroen, Kemajittra; Chumseng, Suchintana; Im-Erbsin, Rawiwan; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Jintaworn, Suthatip; Blacksell, Stuart D; Chowdhury, Fazle R; Kronsteiner, Barbara; Teparrukkul, Prapit; Burke, Robin L; Lombardini, Eric D; Richards, Allen L; Mason, Carl J; Jones, James W; Day, Nicholas P J; Dunachie, Susanna J

    2017-09-01

    Scrub typhus is a febrile infection caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, which causes significant morbidity and mortality across the Asia-Pacific region. The control of this vector-borne disease is challenging due to humans being dead-end hosts, vertical maintenance of the pathogen in the vector itself, and a potentially large rodent reservoir of unclear significance, coupled with a lack of accurate diagnostic tests. Development of an effective vaccine is highly desirable. This however requires better characterization of the natural immune response of this neglected but important disease. Here we implement a novel IFN-γ ELISpot assay as a tool for studying O. tsutsugamushi induced cellular immune responses in an experimental scrub typhus rhesus macaque model and human populations. Whole cell antigen for O. tsutsugamushi (OT-WCA) was prepared by heat inactivation of Karp-strain bacteria. Rhesus macaques were infected intradermally with O. tsutsugamushi. Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from infected (n = 10) and uninfected animals (n = 5) were stimulated with OT-WCA, and IFN-γ secreting cells quantitated by ELISpot assay at five time points over 28 days. PBMC were then assayed from people in a scrub typhus-endemic region of Thailand (n = 105) and responses compared to those from a partially exposed population in a non-endemic region (n = 14), and to a naïve population in UK (n = 12). Mean results at Day 0 prior to O. tsutsugamushi infection were 12 (95% CI 0-25) and 15 (2-27) spot-forming cells (SFC)/106 PBMC for infected and control macaques respectively. Strong O. tsutsugamushi-specific IFN-γ responses were seen post infection, with ELISpot responses 20-fold higher than baseline at Day 7 (mean 235, 95% CI 200-270 SFC/106 PBMC), 105-fold higher at Day 14 (mean 1261, 95% CI 1,097-1,425 SFC/106 PBMC), 125-fold higher at Day 21 (mean 1,498, 95% CI 1,496-1,500 SFC/106 PBMC) and 118-fold higher at Day 28

  8. A cross-over in Mexican and Mexican-American fertility rates: Evidence and explanations for an emerging paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Heuveline

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Against a backdrop of two new developments in the fertility behavior of the Mexican- Origin population in the U.S., the present discussion will update contemporary Mexican-Origin fertility patterns and address several theoretical weaknesses in the current approach to minority group fertility. Data come from six national surveys (three from Mexico and three from the U.S. that cover a twenty-five year period (1975-2000. The findings demonstrate dramatic decreases in the fertility rates in Mexico at the same time that continuous increases have been documented in the fertility rates of third-or-later generation Mexican-Americans in the U.S., particularly at younger ages. These changes necessitate a reexamination of the ubiquitous theory that Mexican pronatalist values are responsible for the high fertility rates found within the Mexican-Origin population in the U.S. Instead, they point to the increasing relevance of framing the fertility behavior of the Mexican-Origin population within a racial stratification perspective that stresses the influence of U.S. social context on fertility behavior. As a step in this direction, the analysis examines fertility patterns within the Mexican-Origin population in the U.S. Special attention is given to the role of nativity/generational status in contributing to within group differences.

  9. The Mexican Revolution and health care or the health of the Mexican Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, J J

    1985-01-01

    Despite a victorious social revolution, a self-proclaimed "revolutionary" government, and a significant post-war economic growth, Mexico has not achieved a just or equitable social system. The Mexican Revolution led to the emergence of a new bureaucratic class whose "trickle-down" development strategy sacrificed social welfare to capital accumulation. Mexican morbidity and mortality patterns resemble those of more impoverished developing nations without revolutionary experience. The patterns of health care in Mexico reflect inequities and contradictions in the society and economy at large and flow from the erosion of the egalitarian aims of the revolution concomitant with the expansion of capitalism and the concentration of the benefits of "modernization" in the hands of privileged elites. Mexico's health problems are symptomatic of a general socio-economic malaise which questions the legitimacy of the Revolution.

  10. Reproductive habitus, psychosocial health, and birth weight variation in Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-08-01

    The Latina Paradox, or persistent, unexplained variation in low birth weight rates in recently immigrated Mexican women and the trend toward higher rates in subsequent generations of Mexican American women, is most often attributed to unidentified sociocultural causes. We suggest herein that different disciplinary approaches can be synthesized under the constructs of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to identify influences of sociocultural processes on birth weight. Reproductive habitus are "modes of living the reproductive body, bodily practices, and the creation of new subjects through interactions between people and structures" (Smith-Oka, 2012: 2276). Subjective social status infers comparison of self to others based on community definitions of status or socioeconomic status (Adler 2007). We present results from a prospective study of low-income Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women from south Texas that tested the ability of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to elucidate the Latina Paradox. We hypothesized that reproductive habitus between Mexican immigrant women and Mexican American women inform different subjective social statuses during pregnancy, and different subjective social statuses mediate responses to psychosocial stressors known to correlate with low birth weight. Six hundred thirty-one women were surveyed for psychosocial health, subjective social status, and reproductive histories between 2011 and 2013. Eighty-three women were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 for status during pregnancy, prenatal care practices, and pregnancy narratives and associations. Birth weight was extracted from medical records. Results were mixed. Subjective social status and pregnancy-related anxiety predicted low birth weight in Mexican immigrant but not Mexican American women. Mexican immigrant women had significantly lower subjective social status scores but a distinct reproductive habitus that could explain improved psychosocial

  11. Diabetes is more lethal in Mexicans and Mexican Americans compared to non-Hispanic Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kelly J; Gonzalez, Maria Elena; Lopez, Ruy; Haffner, Steve M; Stern, Michael P; Gonzalez-Villalpando, Clicerio

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the mortality risk associated with diabetes in the Mexico City Diabetes Study (MCDS) and the San Antonio Heart Study (SAHS). Methods Prospective cohorts conducted 1990-2007 in MCDS and 1979-2000 in SAHS. Mortality risk was examined using Cox proportional hazard models in 1,402 non-Hispanic whites (NHW), 1,907 U.S.-born Mexican Americans (MA), 444 Mexican-born MA, 2,281 Mexico City residents (MCR) between the ages of 35 and 64. Results Age- and sex-adjusted mortality HRs comparing U.S.-born MA, Mexican-born MA and MCR to NHW were 1.09 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.37), 1.23 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.76) and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.23), respectively, in non-diabetic individuals; in contrast, mortality risk varied in diabetic individuals with respective HRs of 1.77 (95% CI: 1.20, 2.61), 1.08 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.97) and 2.27 (95% CI: 1.53, 3.35) (interaction p-value=0.0003). Excluding Mexican-born MA and non-diabetic individuals, controlling for medication use, insulin use, fasting glucose levels and duration of diabetes explained a significant proportion of the mortality differential (HRs relative to NHW were 1.31 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.98) in U.S.-born MA and 1.38 (95% CI: 0.89, 2.12) in MCR). Conclusions This study provides evidence that diabetes is more lethal in U.S.-born MA and MCR than in NHW. PMID:21840730

  12. The Smell of Memories. A Mexican Migrant’s Search for Emotional Sustainability through Mexican Films.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Coronado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For more than 10 years living as a Mexican migrant, between two countries (Mexico and Australia, two cities (Mexico City and Sydney, and two social worlds (Mexican and multicultural Australian ‘families-friends’, I have been immersed in a systematic process of self observation and self reflection on my life in my country of destination. During this time I have explored my memories of place and their relationship with my emotional experiences, looking for strategies to continue to be connected with my country of origin and my people. In this process I discovered films were especially significant in sustaining me emotionally. I benefited from the memory associations triggered by representations of Mexico in films produced by Mexicans or by filmmakers from other nationalities. By reflecting on my responses to those films, in this paper I explore how representations of their country of origin can impact on migrants’ emotional life. Using autoethnography, examining my own subjectivity as a way to arrive at a deeper grasp of these processes, I analyse the roles played by different senses in the process of recollection and in the emotional effects produced, which come to embody the experience. My particular focus in this article is the sense of smell triggered by complex interactions within the sensorium while watching films, producing associations and feelings through which I re-live my memories and maintain my emotional sustainability.

  13. Phytophthora viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Schmallenberg Virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    explore the potential of this infection crossing the species barrier and thereby .... The virus targets mainly the brain of the unborn animal resulting in neurological ... The virus is located in the blood of the adult infected animal or in the central ...

  15. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Zika Virus Credit: NIAID A female Aedes mosquito. This type of mosquito can transmit Zika, ... transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Zika virus can be transmitted from an infected pregnant woman ...

  16. CHANDIPURA VIRUS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CHANDIPURA VIRUS. First isolated from a village called Chandipura near Nagpur in 1965 in India. Belongs to rhabdoviridae family. Used as a Model System to study RNA virus multiplication in the infected cell at molecular level. Notes:

  17. Opportunities - oil and gas development in the Mexican market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This review of business opportunities is intended as a guide for Alberta companies who are interested in investing or otherwise participating in the Mexican oil and gas industry. The guide provides a brief summary of Mexico, its political, legal and economic system, a brief review of the Mexican oil and gas industry, environmental legislation, the financial institutions, labour/management relations and overseas trade relations. Opportunities for Alberta firms in the Mexican resources industry are identified. Steps to follow for anyone contemplating business with Pemex, the state-owned oil company, are outlined and sources of assistance available to Alberta companies are reviewed. There are various lists of private consultants, Canadian banks in Mexico, accounting firms, customs brokers, freight forwarders and tips on Canadian and Mexican sources of financing. There is also a summary of commercial regulations between Pemex and its suppliers, and an organization chart of the Exploration and Production Branch of Petroleos Mexicanos. tabs., figs

  18. FastStats: Health of Mexican American Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button NCHS Home Health of Mexican American Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Source: Summary Health Statistics Tables for the U.S. Population: National Health Interview Survey, 2015, Table P-1c [ ...

  19. Mexican immigration and the port-of-entry school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, R; Bryan, D; Mclean-bardwell, C; Gomez, F

    1989-01-01

    The results of an immigrant student census in a California port-of-entry school district are used to describe the educational backgrounds of Mexican immigrant students and to distinguish types of Mexican immigrant students by school entry patterns. Interviews with recently arrived Mexican immigrant parents reveal the educational and occupational expectations they hold for their children in the US. The study findings are used as a basis for raising policy questions and generating research issues. The most notable observation from the study is that the children of Mexican immigrants in La Entrada do not migrate once they are in school. Parents may be migrating back and forth between the US and Mexico, but children once in La Entrada do not leave the school to return to school in Mexico. The study suggests that the parents of immigrant students do not know how the US educational system works but they are interested in helping teachers educate their children.

  20. B Physics at the D0 experiment A Mexican review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Cruz-Burelo, E.

    2010-01-01

    On April of 1992 a Mexican group from Cinvestav officially joined the D0 experiment, one of the two experiments in the Tevatron collider at Fermilab. The seed for this experimental group on high energy physics from Cinvestav was planted in Mexico in some measure by Augusto Garcia, to whom this workshop is in memorial. Augusto's efforts and support to groups dedicated to this area was clear and important. Some of these seeds have given origin to today's established Mexican groups on experimental high energy physics, one example of this is the Mexican group at D0. I present here a short review of some of the D0 results on which the Mexican group has contributed, emphasizing the last decade, which I have witnessed.

  1. United States -- Mexican joint ventures: A case history approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, N.L.; Chidester, R.J.; Hughes, K.R.; Fowler, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    Because the Mexican government has encouraged investment in Mexico by increasing the percentage of ownership of a Mexican business that a US company can hold, joint ventures are more attractive now than they had been in the past. This study provides preliminary information for US renewable energy companies who are interested in forming a joint venture with a Mexican company. This report is not intended to be a complete reference but does identifies a number of important factors that should be observed when forming a Mexican joint venture: (1)Successful joint ventures achieve the goals of each partner. (2)It is essential that all parties agree to the allocation of responsibilities. (3)Put everything in writing. (4)Research in depth the country or countries in which you are considering doing business.

  2. The Food Environment in an Urban Mexican American Community

    OpenAIRE

    Lisabeth, Lynda D; Sánchez, Brisa N; Escobar, James; Hughes, Rebecca; Meurer, William J; Zuniga, Belinda; Garcia, Nelda; Brown, Devin L; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether ethnic composition of neighborhoods is associated with number and type of food stores in an urban, Mexican American US community. Data were from a commercial food store data source and the US Census. Multivariate count models were used to test associations with adjustment for neighborhood demographics, income, and commercialization. Neighborhoods at the 75th percentile of percent Mexican American (76%) had nearly four times the number of convenience stor...

  3. Patterns of contraceptive use among Mexican-origin women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari White

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Mexican women in the United States (US have higher rates of fertility compared to other ethnic groups and women in Mexico. Whether variation in women's access to family planning services or patterns of contraceptive use contributes to this higher fertility has received little attention. OBJECTIVE We explore Mexican women's contraceptive use, taking into account women's place in the reproductive life course. METHODS Using nationally representative samples from the US (National Survey of Family Growth and Mexico (Encuesta National de la Dinámica Demográfica, we compared the parity-specific frequency of contraceptive use and fertility intentions for non-migrant women, foreign-born Mexicans in the US, US-born Mexicans, and whites. RESULTS Mexican women in the US were less likely to use IUDs and more likely to use hormonal contraception than women in Mexico. Female sterilization was the most common method among higher parity women in both the US and Mexico, however, foreign-born Mexicans were less likely to be sterilized, and the least likely to use any permanent contraceptive method. Although foreign-born Mexicans were slightly less likely to report that they did not want more children, differences in method use remained after controlling for women's fertility intentions. CONCLUSIONS At all parities, foreign-born Mexicans used less effective methods. These findings suggest that varying access to family planning services may contribute to variation in women's contraceptive use. COMMENTS Future studies are needed to clarify the extent to which disparities in fertility result from differences in contraceptive access.

  4. Family Structure and Family Processes in Mexican American Families

    OpenAIRE

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct,...

  5. MEXICAN DRUG CARTELS AND TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS, A NEW ALLIANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Nevertheless, existing studies provide little evidence to support the claim that a risk of collaboration exists between Mexican cartels and...of Defense (DoD) nor Department of Homeland Security (DHS) have a published definition for cartel. For purposes of this study it is important to note...commodities and real estate. According to National Drug Intelligence Center, Mexican and Colombian cartels launder between $18- $39 billion annually.15

  6. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures: The Case of Mexican Avocados

    OpenAIRE

    Bakshi, Nishita

    2003-01-01

    This thesis examines the effects on demand, supply, imports, and prices of partial easing of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) barriers to trade in the U.S. market in the case of Mexican avocados. The SPS Agreement plays a role in the avocado market studied here through its implications for negotiations between countries that have not utilized the formal channels of the WTO for resolving disputes. A quarantine in place from 1914 until very recently banned entry of Mexican avocados into the...

  7. Health perceptions of Mexican American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Cindy

    2002-07-01

    This article describes the health perceptions of a sample of moderately to highly acculturated Mexican American women. Using an ethnographic design, the author interviewed 13 women to determine their health perceptions. The interviews were guided by the domains of health described in the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of health. Three broad categories of health perceptions were identified: the physical body, the emotional component, and finding balance. With the addition of a spiritual component, the WHO definition was a useful tool for uncovering health perceptions. The process of in-depth ethnographic interviewing provided a contextual view of health in which the complexity of intrafamilial relationships was revealed, as were the importance of spirituality as a coping mechanism and the perception of health as an integrated, holistic experience.

  8. Area selection for conservation of Mexican mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez, L. B.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Three sets of priority cells for mammal conservation in Mexico were identified using distributional data. A complementarity approach was implemented through linear integer programming. The minimum set of sites required for the representation of each mammal species varied between 38 (5.4% grid cells for at least one occurrence, 110 (15.6% grid cells for at least three occurrences, and 173 (24.5% grid cells for at least five occurrences. The complementary analyses mainly highlighted three regions of particular concern for mammal conservation in Mexico: (i the trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and natural provinces of the Pacific Coast, (ii Sierra Madre del Sur and the Highlands of Chiapas, and (iii the northern portion of the Sierra Madre Occidental. The results reported here did not indicate absolute priority locations for conservation activities, but rather identified locations warranting further investigation at finer resolutions more appropriate to such activity

  9. [First Mexican Consensus of Vaccination in Adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Caro-López, Elizabeth; Guerrero-Almeida, María de Lourdes; Dehesa-Violante, Margarita; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; García-Lara, Juan Miguel; Medina-López, Zaira; Báez-Saldaña, Renata; Díaz-López, Elsa; Avila-Fematt, Flor Maria de Guadalupe; Betancourt-Cravioto, Miguel; Garcia-Garcia, Lourdes

    2017-03-01

    For years our efforts have been focused on vaccination during childhood. Today we know that this is not enough to ensure health in the rest of the life. Childhood is as important as any other stage and, therefore, vaccination must be permanent and differentiated, according to our age, throughout life. Introducing a life course perspective in vaccination programs, with emphasis on adult vaccination, particularly in older adults, offers us the opportunity to review the performance of health programs, actions, and services in the field of immunization, as well as strengthening health promotion actions. In this context, the first Mexican Consensus on Adult Vaccination was carried out in a joint effort of the National Institute of Geriatrics, bringing together a group of specialists who worked on three central objectives: establishing vaccination guidelines throughout the life course, with emphasis on new vaccines; defining priority groups according to their risk factors; and contributing to the effort to promote healthy aging.

  10. Religiosity and Migration Aspirations among Mexican Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Ayers, Stephanie L

    2015-02-01

    International migration has become an important topic of discussion from a policy and humanitarian perspective. Part of the debate includes a renewed interest in understanding the factors that influence decisions about migration to the US among Mexican youth still residing in their country of origin. The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge specifically about internal and external religiosity and their influence on youths' migration aspirations. The data for this study were collected in 2007 from students enrolled in an alternative high school program located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico. The findings indicated that as external religiosity increases, the desire to work or live in the USA decreases. Furthermore, as internal religiosity increases, the desire to work or live in the USA and plans to migrate increase. The results are interpreted and discussed in light of previous research on religious and cultural norm adherence.

  11. Mexican geothermal development and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, J.M.E.V.

    1998-01-01

    Geothermics in Mexico started in 1954, by drilling the first geothermal well in Pathe, State of Hidalgo, which reached a depth of 237 meters. In 1959 electrical generation from geothermal origin began, with an installed capacity of 3.5 MW. From 1959 to 1994 Mexico increased its installed capacity to 753 MW, by developing three geothermal fields: Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, and Los Humeros. Currently, 177 wells produce steam at a rate of 36 tons per hour (t/h) each. Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE, Federal Commission of Electricity) has planned to increase the geothermal-electric installed capacity through construction and installation of several projects. Repowering of operating units and development of new geothermal zones will also allow Mexican geothermal growth

  12. [Characterization of Mexican households with food insecurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Méndez-Gómez Humarán, Ignacio; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    To describe the sociodemographic and health characteristics associated with food insecurity (FI) in Mexican households. The study included information about 40 809 households from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. The Latin American and Caribbean Scale Food Safety (ELCSA) was used to categorize households in terms of food insecurity. Classification and regression trees were used to identify the most significant characteristics in households with high prevalence of FI. The characteristics associated with higher prevalence of FI in homes were: lowest quintiles of welfare status, lack of education or walking or moving disability of household head, and not receiving money from social programmes, pension or remittances. Monitoring of the factors that favor the presence of FI is required to detect social groups being excluded from the right to food.

  13. Caloric beverage consumption patterns in Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Juan A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico has seen a very steep increase in child obesity level. Little is known about caloric beverage intake in this country as well as all other countries outside a few high income countries. This study examines overall patterns and trends in all caloric beverages from two nationally representative surveys from Mexico. Methods The two nationally representative dietary intake surveys (1999 and 2006 from Mexico are used to study caloric beverage intake in 17, 215 children. The volume (ml and caloric energy (kcal contributed by all beverages consumed by the sample subjects were measured. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. Results The trends from the dietary intake surveys showed very large increases in caloric beverages among pre-school and school children. The contribution of whole milk and sugar-sweetened juices was an important finding. Mexican pre-school children consumed 27.8% of their energy from caloric beverages in 2006 and school children consumed 20.7% of their energy from caloric beverages during the same time. The three major categories of beverage intake are whole milk, fruit juice with various sugar and water combinations and carbonated and noncarbonated sugared-beverages. Conclusion The Mexican government, greatly concerned about obesity, has identified the large increase in caloric beverages from whole milk, juices and soft drinks as a key target and is initiating major changes to address this problem. They have already used the data to shift 20 million persons in their welfare and feeding programs from whole to 1.5% fat milk and in a year will shift to nonfat milk. They are using these data to revise school beverage policies and national regulations and taxation policies related to an array of less healthful caloric beverages.

  14. PROFAM expands Mexican family planning clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Mexico's private, nonprofit social marketing company, known as PROFAM, intends to expand its family planning clinics to marginal urban areas. The clinics are part of PROFAM's push to diversify social marketing outlets for contraceptive products and other birth control methods. PROFAM expects to establish 3 new clinics, possibly including a pregnancy test laboratory, a small 1-doctor clinic, and a large clinic housing an operating room. 1 clinic will be located outside the Mexico City area, the program's traditional boundaries. The company currently runs 2 small clinics and a pregnancy testing laboratory in Ciudad Netzahualcoyti, a community of 3.5 million on Mexico City's outskirts. PROFAM recently obtaine d government approval to sell condoms in food stores, which should increase distribtuion and sales. Currently, the company sells over 1 million high quality, lubricated condoms each month, accounting for over half of the Mexican market. Distribution covers 85% of the country's drugstore. Program setbacks occurred in 1981, when the Mexican government cancelled PROFAM's sales permits for all contraceptive products except condoms. Cancelled products included an oral contraceptive and 3 vaginal spermicides. These 4 products had provided nearly 100,000 couple years of protection in 1979 and an estimated 120,000 CYP 1980. During 1979 and 1980, condoms provided about 27,000 and 60,000 CYP, respectively. PROFAM had relied heavily on the pill and spermicides because its early studies showed condoms had a negative image in Mexico, due largely to the product's association with extramarital affairs. To counter this, PROFAM launched a widespread, free product sampling program in 1979, along with a continuing educational and advertising drive. Subsequent consumer surveys revealed a marked increase in product acceptance, with PROFAM's condom becoming the most widely known brand available in Mexico.

  15. Problems Faced by Mexican Asylum Seekers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anna Cabot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Violence in Mexico rose sharply in response to President Felipe Calderón’s military campaign against drug cartels which began in late 2006. As a consequence, the number of Mexicans who have sought asylum in the United States has grown significantly. In 2013, Mexicans made up the second largest group of defensive asylum seekers (those in removal proceedings in the United States, behind only China (EOIR 2014b. Yet between 2008 and 2013, the grant rate for Mexican asylum seekers in immigration court fell from 23 percent to nine percent (EOIR 2013, 2014b. This paper examines—from the perspective of an attorney who represented Mexican asylum seekers on the US-Mexico border in El Paso, Texas—the reasons for low asylum approval rates for Mexicans despite high levels of violence in and flight from Mexico from 2008 to 2013. It details the obstacles faced by Mexican asylum seekers along the US-Mexico border, including placement in removal proceedings, detention, evidentiary issues, narrow legal standards, and (effectively judicial notice of country conditions in Mexico. The paper recommends that asylum seekers at the border be placed in affirmative proceedings (before immigration officials, making them eligible for bond. It also proposes increased oversight of immigration judges.

  16. Weight status of Mexican immigrant women: a comparison with women in Mexico and with US-born Mexican American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia D; Ritterman-Weintraub, Miranda L; Fernald, Lia C H; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha

    2013-09-01

    We assessed the association between birthplace, residence, or years in the United States and actual weight (body mass index), perceived weight accuracy, or provider screens for overweight or obesity among Mexican immigrant women. We used linked data from Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves 2001-2006 and 2006 National Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey to compare 513 immigrants with 9527 women in Mexico and 342 US-born Mexican American women. Immigrants were more likely than women in Mexico to be obese and to perceive themselves as overweight or obese after adjustment for confounders. Recent immigrants had similar weight-related outcomes as women in Mexico. Immigrants were less likely to be obese than were US-born Mexican Americans. Within the overweight or obese population, reported provider screens were higher among immigrants than among women in Mexico, but lower than among US-born Mexican Americans. US residency of at least 5 years but less than 20 years and reporting insufficient provider screens elevated obesity risk. Mexican-origin women in the United States and Mexico are at risk for overweight and obesity. We found no evidence of a "healthy immigrant" effect.

  17. Obesity and central adiposity in Mexican adults: results from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquera, Simón; Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Hernández-Barrera, Lucía; Flores, Mario; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramón; Kanter, Rebecca; Rivera, Juan A

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central adiposity in Mexico, and to explore trends compared to the previous Mexican National Health Survey (ENSA 2000) and to Mexican-Americans. The Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) was used to describe overweight, obesity and central adiposity. Trends over time were assessed using the ENSA 2000 and by comparing the ENSANUT 2006 results to those of Mexican-Americans using the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000 and 2005-2006. A total of 33023 adults > 20 years old were included; 39.7% were found to be overweight and 29.9% were found to be obese; 75.9% of all adults had abdominal obesity. In Mexico between 2000 and 2006, the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults increased approximately 12%. Mexican-Americans showed a higher prevalence of morbid obesity compared to native Mexicans. Mexico has experienced a rapid increase in the number of adults who have experienced excess weight gain between the years 2000 and 2006.

  18. Familism, machismo and child rearing practices among Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez, E G

    1981-09-01

    Mexican Americans form the 2nd largest minority group in the US. Fertility is 50% higher than in any other ethnic group. Income levels are inordinately low. In 1970, 42% of Mexican Americans were indigent, making approxiamtely 4200 annually. The Mexican American poor can be categorized into newly arrived aliens or 2nd or 3rd generation American citizens. In the 1st instance, the couple is young and English is not spoken. 2nd or 3rd generation Mexican Americans speak English. The persistent socioeconomic status of the Mexican American relates directly to the level of education. 52% of all Mexican Americans do not finish high school. Paz and Remos described the Mexican in terms of Adler's inferiority model. Murillo stated that to an individual, the family--whether nuclear or extended--is the center of life. The inherent responsibility is that the individual behave properly lest the family be disgraced. The family provides emotional and material security. Familism was seen as a deterrant to utilization of health care services, although some studies claim opposing views. Familism and occupational stability related positively to seeking medical care when ill. Hayden believed that supreme male dominance, individualism, pride, wife beating, aversion to contraceptives, and other characteristics were attributable to machismo. A predominant pattern in Mexican American culture is that of elders' ordering young men and women to establish obedience and male dominance. The husband represents authority and the wife-mother maintains a role of complete devotion to her husband and children. Role differentiation is taught implicitly and explicitly from infancy. Studies on the psychological differences between the sexes indicated that females were oppressed and had lower self esteem than males. 18-24 year old Mexican Americans are becoming less insistent upon strict separation of sex roles and are beginning to reject the traditional Mexican notion of masculine superiority. The word

  19. Georeferenced Population Datasets of Mexico (GEO-MEX): Raster Based GIS Coverage of Mexican Population

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Raster Based GIS Coverage of Mexican Population is a gridded coverage (1 x 1 km) of Mexican population. The data were converted from vector into raster. The...

  20. Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeep, A B; Jadi, R S; Mishra, A C

    2009-11-01

    Ganjam virus (GANV), a member of genus Nairovirus of family Bunyavirdae is of considerable veterinary importance in India. Though, predominantly tick borne, GANV was also isolated from mosquitoes, man and sheep. Neutralizing and complement fixing antibodies to GANV have been detected in animal and human sera collected from different parts of the country. Thirty three strains of GANV have been isolated from India, mainly from Haemaphysalis ticks. The virus replicated in certain vertebrate and mosquito cell lines and found pathogenic to laboratory animals. One natural infection and five laboratory-acquired infections in men were also reported. GANV is antigenically related to Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) of Africa, which is highly pathogenic for sheep and goats causing 70-90 per cent mortality among the susceptible population. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated that GANV is an Asian variant of NSDV and both these viruses are related to the dreaded Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) group viruses. The versatility of the virus to replicate in different arthropod species, its ability to infect sheep, goat and man makes it an important zoonotic agent.

  1. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Mexican Hat, Utah, disposal site. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Mexican Hat disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the disposal site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Mexican Hat disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct types of activities: (1) site inspections to identify potential threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) monitoring of selected seeps to observe changes in flow rates and water quality. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSPC documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished

  3. Deconstructive humour: subverting Mexican and Chicano stereotypes in ‘Un Día Sin Mexicanos’

    OpenAIRE

    Barrow, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    a long time, US cinema developed unshakeable stereotypes of Mexican ‘otherness’, with characters of Mexican cultural and ethnic heritage stigmatised as criminals or as sensual objects of desire. Filmmakers in Mexico, meanwhile, treated Mexican Americans as misfits who belonged nowhere, or ignored them and their complex experience completely. The emergence of a distinct ‘Chicano cinema’ in the 1960s allowed for the development of a more powerful set of images of Mexican Americans, exploiting t...

  4. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan Virus Disease Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for ... Virus Disease Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan virus is a tickborne flavivirus that is ...

  5. Dictionaries of Mexican Sexual Slang for NLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Villarejo-Martínez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this paper the creation of two relevant resources for the double entendre and humour recognition problem in Mexican Spanish is described: a morphological dictionary and a semantic dictionary. These were created from two sources: a corpus of albures (drawn from “Antología del albur” book and a Mexican slang dictionary (“El chilangonario”. The morphological dictionary consists of 410 forms of words that corresponds to 350 lemmas. The semantic dictionary consists of 27 synsets that are associated to lemmas of morphological dictionary. Since both resources are based on Freeling library, they are easy to implement for tasks in Natural Language Processing. The motivation for this work comes from the need to address problems such as double entendre and computational humour. The usefulness of these disciplines has been discussed many times and it has been shown that they have a direct impact on user interfaces and, mainly, in human-computer interaction. This work aims to promote that the scientific community generates more resources about informal language in Spanish and other languages.  Spanish Abstract: En este artículo se describe la creación de dos recursos relevantes para el reconocimiento del doble sentido y el humor en el español mexicano: un diccionario morfológico y un diccionario semántico. Éstos fueron creados a partir de dos fuentes: un corpus de albures (extraídos del libro "Antología del albur" y un diccionario de argot mexicano ("El chilangonario". El diccionario morfológico consiste en 410 formas de palabras que corresponden a 350 lemas. El diccionario semántico consiste en 27 synsets que están asociados a lemas del diccionario morfológico. Puesto que ambos recursos están basados en la biblioteca Freeling, son fáciles de implementar en tareas de Procesamiento del Lenguaje Natural. La motivación de este trabajo proviene de la necesidad de abordar problemas como el doble sentido y el humor

  6. Communication Interface for Mexican Spanish Dysarthric Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Bonilla-Enriquez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La disartria es una discapacidad motora del habla caracterizada por debilidad o poca coordinación de los músculos del habla. Esta condición puede ser causada por un infarto, parálisis cerebral, o por una lesión severa en el cerebro. Para mexicanos con esta condición hay muy pocas, si es que hay alguna, tecnologías de asistencia para mejorar sus habilidades sociales de interacción. En este artículo presentamos nuestros avances hacia el desarrollo de una interfazde comunicación para hablantes con disartria cuya lengua materna sea el español mexicano. La metodología propuesta depende de (1 diseño especial de un corpus de entrenamiento con voz normal y recursos limitados, (2 adaptación de usuario estándar, y (3 control de la perplejidad del modelo de lenguaje para lograr alta precisión en el Reconocimiento Automático del Habla (RAH. La interfaz permite al usuario y terapéuta el realizar actividades como adaptación dinámica de usuario, adaptación de vocabulario, y síntesis de texto a voz. Pruebas en vivo fueron realizadas con un usuario con disartria leve, logrando precisiones de 93%-95% para habla espontánea.Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder due to weakness or poor coordination of the speechmuscles. This condition can be caused by a stroke, cerebral palsy, or by a traumatic braininjury. For Mexican people with this condition there are few, if any, assistive technologies to improve their social interaction skills. In this paper we present our advances towards the development of a communication interface for dysarthric speakers whose native language is Mexican Spanish. We propose a methodology that relies on (1 special design of a training normal-speech corpus with limited resources, (2 standard speaker adaptation, and (3 control of language model perplexity, to achieve high Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR accuracy. The interface allows the user and therapist to perform tasks such as dynamic speaker adaptation, vocabulary

  7. The Mexican Health Paradox: Expanding the Explanatory Power of the Acculturation Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horevitz, Elizabeth; Organista, Kurt C.

    2013-01-01

    The Mexican health paradox refers to initially favorable health and mental health outcomes among recent Mexican immigrants to the United States. The subsequent rapid decline in Mexican health outcomes has been attributed to the process of acculturation to U.S. culture. However, the construct of acculturation has come under significant criticism…

  8. Contact with the Dead, Religion, and Death Anxiety among Older Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if contact with the dead is associated with lower death anxiety among older Mexican Americans. The data come from a nationwide survey of older Mexican Americans (N = 1,005). The study model specifies that (a) older Mexican Americans who have experienced contact with the dead are more likely to see the…

  9. Contemporary Fertility Patterns and First-Birth Timing among Mexican-Origin Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Christie D.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines first-birth timing among Mexican women in the United States over two birth cohorts. Currently, Mexican women are one of a small group that maintains above-replacement fertility in the United States, contributing to both Mexican population growth and overall national population growth. Yet, the fertility timing of Mexican…

  10. "American" Abjection: "Chicanos," Gangs, and Mexican/Migrant Transnationality in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Genova, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Crime and street violence often evoke racialized discourses about urban space. In this ethnographic research in Chicago, however, the disdain that many Mexican migrants articulated about street gangs principally concerned issues "internal" to the Mexican/Chicano community, notably a profound ambivalence about U.S.-born Mexicans and a…

  11. Parents' Promotion of Psychological Autonomy, Psychological Control, and Mexican-American Adolescents' Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Mexican-American adolescents are at an elevated risk for adjustment difficulties. In an effort to identify parenting practices that can affect the adjustment of Mexican-American youth, the current study examined parents' promotion of psychological autonomy and parents' psychological control as perceived by Mexican-American early adolescents, and…

  12. Positive pregnancy outcomes in Mexican immigrants: what can we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robin L

    2004-01-01

    To provide an integrated review of the literature of potential explanations for better than expected pregnancy outcomes in Mexican immigrants, focusing on socioeconomics, social support, desirability of pregnancy, nutrition, substance use, religion, acculturation, and prenatal care. Computerized searches of MEDLINE and CINAHL databases, as well as reference lists from published articles on low birth weight and prematurity in immigrants and acculturation in immigrants from January 1989 to December 2002. Search terms were Mexican immigrant women, childbearing, and pregnancy outcome, and only English-language articles were reviewed. Literature was selected from refereed publications in the areas of nursing, medicine, public health, family, and sociology. Data were extracted using keywords pertinent to pregnancy outcome in Mexican immigrants. Despite having many of the risk factors for poor pregnancy outcomes, Mexican immigrants have superior birth outcomes when compared to U.S.-born women. Social support, familism, healthy diet, limited use of cigarettes and alcohol, and religion may play a role in improved outcomes. The superior outcomes diminish with the process of acculturation as the individual adapts to her new culture. Low birth weight and prematurity are public health concerns in the United States. Through further study of the factors that lead to superior birth outcomes among Mexican immigrant women, rates of low birth weight and prematurity in the United States may be reduced.

  13. Mobility and International Collaboration: Case of the Mexican Scientific Diaspora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Marmolejo-Leyva

    Full Text Available We use a data set of Mexican researchers working abroad that are included in the Mexican National System of Researchers (SNI. Our diaspora sample includes 479 researchers, most of them holding postdoctoral positions in mainly seven countries: USA, Great Britain, Germany, France, Spain, Canada and Brazil. Their research output and impact is explored in order to determine their patterns of production, mobility and scientific collaboration as compared with previous studies of the SNI researchers in the periods 1991-2001 and 2003-2009. Our findings confirm that mobility has a strong impact on their international scientific collaboration. We found no substantial influence among the researchers that got their PhD degrees abroad from those trained in Mexican universities. There are significant differences among the areas of knowledge studied: biological sciences, physics and engineering have better production and impact rates than mathematics, geosciences, medicine, agrosciences, chemistry, social sciences and humanities. We found a slight gender difference in research production but Mexican female scientists are underrepresented in our diaspora sample. These findings would have policy implications for the recently established program that will open new academic positions for young Mexican scientists.

  14. Mobility and International Collaboration: Case of the Mexican Scientific Diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo-Leyva, Rafael; Perez-Angon, Miguel Angel; Russell, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We use a data set of Mexican researchers working abroad that are included in the Mexican National System of Researchers (SNI). Our diaspora sample includes 479 researchers, most of them holding postdoctoral positions in mainly seven countries: USA, Great Britain, Germany, France, Spain, Canada and Brazil. Their research output and impact is explored in order to determine their patterns of production, mobility and scientific collaboration as compared with previous studies of the SNI researchers in the periods 1991-2001 and 2003-2009. Our findings confirm that mobility has a strong impact on their international scientific collaboration. We found no substantial influence among the researchers that got their PhD degrees abroad from those trained in Mexican universities. There are significant differences among the areas of knowledge studied: biological sciences, physics and engineering have better production and impact rates than mathematics, geosciences, medicine, agrosciences, chemistry, social sciences and humanities. We found a slight gender difference in research production but Mexican female scientists are underrepresented in our diaspora sample. These findings would have policy implications for the recently established program that will open new academic positions for young Mexican scientists.

  15. The Mexican mesozoic uranium province: its distribution and metallogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazan B, S.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of uranium scattered in sedimentary terrains of the continental jurassic such as those found in the Tlaxiaco-Guerrero Basin encourage the outlook for uncovering extensive new deposits of strato-bound uranium belonging to the Mexican mesozoic in other structurally similar intercratonic basins. Stratographic and paleographic structural references define the simultaneous evolution of five sedimentary basins during the Mexican geotechtonic cycle: 1. the Tlaxiaco-Guerrero basin, 2. the Huayacocotla basin, 3. the Gulf of Sabinas basin, 4. the Chihuahua basin and 5. the Sonora basin. From the various lithostratographic formations in them we favourably infer the presence of intermountainous mesozoic concentrations of uranium sediments leached from crystalline precambric packets and from nevadian plutonites and volcanic rocks. During the metallogeny process described under the techtonic evolution of the Mexican structural belt, the presence is established of extensive terciary hydrothermal uranium deposits in the districts of Aldama, Chihuahua; Coneto-El Rodeo, Durango; Vizarron de Montes, Queretaro; Tlaucingo, Puebla; Los Amoles, Sonora; El Picacho, Sonora; Amalia Margarita, Coahuila; etc., scattered in sandstones and sinters of the continental mesozoic and shifted during the postorogenic phase of the Mexican geotectonic cycle. The extensive mesozoic province defined within the Mexican territory favourable to large deposits of uranium, scattered and strato-bound in triassic, jurassic and cretaceous sandstone and sinters, could resolve future demands for energetics within a modified philosophy and resourceful policy of regional mining. (author)

  16. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and Mexican nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Allison

    2011-03-01

    In the context of nurse migration, experts view trade agreements as either vehicles for facilitating migration or as contributing to brain-drain phenomena. Using a case study design, this study explored the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the development of Mexican nursing. Drawing results from a general thematic analysis of 48 interviews with Mexican nurses and 410 primary and secondary sources, findings show that NAFTA changed the relationship between the State and Mexican nursing. The changed relationship improved the infrastructure capable of producing and monitoring nursing human resources in Mexico. It did not lead to the mass migration of Mexican nurses to the United States and Canada. At the same time, the economic instability provoked by the peso crisis of 1995 slowed the implementation of planned advances. Subsequent neoliberal reforms decreased nurses' security as workers by minimizing access to full-time positions with benefits, and decreased wages. This article discusses the linkages of these events and the effects on Mexican nurses and the development of the profession. The findings have implications for nursing human resources policy-making and trade in services.

  17. Economic reform, energy, and development: the case of Mexican manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, Francisco; Gallagher, K.P.

    2005-01-01

    Given increasing concern over global climate change and national security there is a burgeoning interest in examining the relationship between economic growth and energy use in developed and developing countries. More specifically, decoupling energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) has fast come to be seen as in the interests of national economies and the world as a whole. Recent attention has been paid to the dramatic decreases in the energy intensity of the Chinese economy, which fell by 55% between 1975 and 1995. Do other developing economies follow similar trajectories? This paper examines the energy intensity of the Mexican economy for the period 1988-1998. Although the long-term trend in Mexican energy intensity is rising, the energy intensity of the Mexican economy began to decline in 1988. This paper explores the factors that have contributed to this reduction. Diminishing Mexican energy use per unit of GDP has been driven by significant decreases in industrial energy intensity. We show that these changes have resulted from changes in the composition of Mexican industrial structure, and technological change

  18. [Mexican National Consensus on Assisted Reproduction Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kably Ambe, Alberto; López Ortiz, Carlos Salazar; Serviere Zaragoza, Claudio; Velázquez Cornejo, Gerardo; Pérez Peña, Efrain; Santos Haliscack, Roberto; Luna Rojas, Martha; Valerio, Emilio; Santana, Héctor; Gaviño Gaviño, Fernando

    2012-09-01

    It is estimated that 15% of couples living in industrialized countries are infertile, ie have failed to conceive, reproductive age, after 12 months ormore of regular intercourse without contraception. During the past decade has increased the demand for fertility treatments because they believe are moreeffective now. To unify the therapeutic approach and service to patients and set a precedent for a Mexican Official Standard respect and support for the legislation of these procedures. Consensus by technical experts group panel with the participation of 34 national centers accredited for use in assisted reproduction. He organized seven workshops with the following themes: 1) selection of patients for assisted reproduction treatment, 2) schemes controlled ovarian stimulation for assisted reproduction techniques of high complexity, 3) preparation and egg retrieval technique, 4) transferembryo; 5) luteal phase supplementation; 6) indications and techniques of cryopreservation and 7) informed consent. Each table had a coordinator who wrote and presented the findings to the full, it made a number of observations until they reached unanimity of criteria, which are reflected in this document. Patient selection for assisted reproduction techniques is the first step of the process. Proper selection lead to success, in the same way that a bad pick up for failure. In the case of egg donation the most important recommendation is that only one to two embryos transferred in order to reduce multiple pregnancy rates and maintaining high pregnancy rates.

  19. Mexican demand for US natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanter, M.A.; Kier, P.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study describes the Mexican natural gas industry as it exists today and the factors that have shaped the evolution of the industry in the past or that are expected to influence its progress; it also projects production and use of natural gas and estimates the market for exports of natural gas from the United States to Mexico. The study looks ahead to two periods, a near term (1993--1995) and an intermediate term (1996--2000). The bases for estimates under two scenarios are described. Under the conservative scenario, exports of natural gas from the United States would decrease from the 1992 level of 250 million cubic feet per day (MMCF/d), would return to that level by 1995, and would reach about 980 MMCF/D by 2000. Under the more optimistic scenario, exports would decrease in 1993 and would recover and rise to about 360 MMCF/D in 1995 and to 1,920 MMCF/D in 2000

  20. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio [Comision Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas.

  1. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas

  2. The boson and the Mexican hat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, Gilles; Spiro, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This document contains a brief presentation and the table of contents of a book in which the authors who reports the evolutions of the contemporary astrophysics theories, and the scientific, technological and human adventure of the CERN until the discovery of the Higgs boson by means of the LHC. The Mexican hat is the name given to the mechanism by which the boson reports the origin of the elementary particle masses. The first part reports the boson genealogy: the law of universal gravitation, the relativity and the limits of the rational mechanics, quantum mechanics, and particle physics at the end of the 1960's. The second part addresses the necessary existence of the boson: quantum electrodynamics, from the quark model to quantum chromo-dynamics, from intermediate bosons to the Brout, Englert and Higgs boson, the standard cosmology model. The third part deals with the perspectives opened by the existence and evidence of the boson: the search for physics theory and models beyond standard models

  3. Cobalt 60 cation exchange with mexican clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava Galve, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Mexican clays can be used to remove radioactive elements from contaminated aqueous solutions. Cation exchange experiments were performed with 60 Co radioactive solution. In the present work the effect of contact time on the sorption of Co 2+ was studied. The contact time in hydrated montmorillonite was from 5 to 120 minutes and in dehydrated montmorillonite 5 to 1400 minutes. The Co 2+ uptake value was, in hydrated montmorillonite, between 0.3 to 0.85 m eq/g and in dehydrated montmorillonite, between 0.6 to 1.40 m eq/g. The experiments were done in a pH 5.1 to 5.7 and normal conditions. XRD patterns were used to characterize the samples. The crystallinity was determined by X-ray Diffraction and it was maintained before and after the cation exchange. DTA thermo grams showed the temperatures of the lost humidity and crystallization water. Finally, was observed that dehydrated montmorillonite adsorb more cobalt than hydrated montmorillonite. (Author)

  4. Cytotoxic activity of four Mexican medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Avila, Elisa; Espejo-Serna, Adolfo; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco; Velasco-Lezama, Rodolfo

    2009-01-01

    Ibervillea sonorae Greene, Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché, Tagetes lucida Cav and Justicia spicigera Scheltdd are Mexican native plants used in the treatment of different illnesses. The ethanolic extract of J. spicigera and T. lucida as well as aqueous extracts from I. sonorae, C. ficifolia, T. lucida and J. spicigera were investigated using sulforhodamine B assay. These extracts were assessed using two cell line: T47D (Human Breast cancer) and HeLa (Human cervix cancer). Colchicine was used as the positive control. Data are presented as the dose that inhibited 50% control growth (ED50). All of the assessed extracts were cytotoxic (ED50 < 20 microg/ml) against T47D cell line, meanwhile only the aqueous extract from T. lucida and the ethanolic extract from J. spicigera were cytotoxic to HeLa cell line. Ethanolic extract from J. spicigera presented the best cytotoxic effect. The cytotoxic activity of J. spicigera correlated with one of the popular uses, the treatment of cancer.

  5. Tobacco brand preference among Mexican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joshua H; Hall, P Cougar; Page, Randy M; Trinidad, Dennis R; Lindsay, Gordon B

    2012-01-01

    Advertising plays a major role in smoking behavior and forming brand preferences. Additionally, the most advertised tobacco brands have also been the most preferred. Maintaining brand loyalty in Latin America remains a priority for the tobacco industry. The purpose of this study was to explore tobacco brand preference trends from 2003 to 2006, and explore marketing and advertising factors that might be associated with these trends. Data for this study came from Mexican adolescents residing in cities that participated in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in both 2003 and 2006 and reported smoking either Marlboro or Camel cigarettes in the past 30 days. Respondents reported the brand name of their preferred cigarette during the past 30 days. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine differences by brand preference and exposure to tobacco marketing and advertising, which was assessed using six items. In 2003, most adolescents preferred Marlboro. By 2006, older boys preferred Camel cigarettes to Marlboro, while girls' preference for Camel was similar to their preference for Marlboro. Adolescents that preferred Camel cigarettes in 2003 also reported greater exposure to tobacco marketing and advertising. Findings indicate that there are ongoing shifts in youth brand preference in Mexico, and that these shifts might be related to marketing and advertising practices. There is an ongoing need for monitoring marketing and advertising practices in an effort to protect adolescents from tobacco company exploits.

  6. Resegmentation in the Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarski, Nadine; Olsson, Lennart

    2014-02-01

    The segmental series of somites in the vertebrate embryo gives rise to the axial skeleton. In amniote models, single vertebrae are derived from the sclerotome of two adjacent somites. This process, known as resegmentation, is well-studied using the quail-chick chimeric system, but the presumed generality of resegmentation across vertebrates remains poorly evaluated. Resegmentation has been questioned in anamniotes, given that the sclerotome is much smaller and lacks obvious differentiation between cranial and caudal portions. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence that resegmentation does occur in a species of amphibian. Fate mapping of individual somites in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) revealed that individual vertebrae receive cells from two adjacent somites as in the chicken. These findings suggest that large size and segmentation of the sclerotome into distinct cranial and caudal portions are not requirements for resegmentation. Our results, in addition to those for zebrafish, indicate that resegmentation is a general process in building the vertebral column in vertebrates, although it may be achieved in different ways in different groups. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mexican demand for US natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanter, M.A.; Kier, P.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study describes the Mexican natural gas industry as it exists today and the factors that have shaped the evolution of the industry in the past or that are expected to influence its progress; it also projects production and use of natural gas and estimates the market for exports of natural gas from the United States to Mexico. The study looks ahead to two periods, a near term (1993--1995) and an intermediate term (1996--2000). The bases for estimates under two scenarios are described. Under the conservative scenario, exports of natural gas from the United States would decrease from the 1992 level of 250 million cubic feet per day (MMCF/d), would return to that level by 1995, and would reach about 980 MMCF/D by 2000. Under the more optimistic scenario, exports would decrease in 1993 and would recover and rise to about 360 MMCF/D in 1995 and to 1,920 MMCF/D in 2000.

  8. The Binational Civic and Political Engagement of Mexican Migrant Hometown Associations and Federations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xóchitl Bada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the history and current situation of Mexican hometown associations (HTAs in the United States with a special emphasis on Chicago-based Mexican hometown associations and federations. It presents empirical evidence of new forms of binational engagement among Mexican migrant communities in the United States leading to the creation of a Mexican migrant civil society.

  9. Espanol mexicano y espanol chicano: Problemas y propuestas fundamentales (Mexican Spanish and Chicano Spanish: Fundamental Problems and Proposals).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Margarita

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the rise of Mexican Spanish as a distinct variety of Spanish and describes the regional and social dialects of contemporary Mexican Spanish. Although countless similarities exist between Mexican Spanish and the Chicano Spanish spoken in the southwestern United States, Mexican Spanish shows greater variability. (GR)

  10. Moving In and Out of Bilingualism: Investigating Native Language Maintenance and Shift in Mexican-Descent Children. Research Report: 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease-Alvarez, Lucinda

    A study investigated patterns and influences in Mexican-American children's Spanish language maintenance and shift toward English dominance or monolingualism. Subjects were 64 Mexican-descent children, ages 8-9, of varying immigration backgrounds (Mexican-born, U.S.-born of Mexican-born parents, U.S.-born of U.S.-born parents), and their families…

  11. Ebola Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Rangare Lakshman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The disease Ebola takes its name from the Ebola River situated near a village in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the disease first appeared in 1976. It is caused by a virus from the Filoviridae family (filovirus. The present outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD concerns four countries in West Africa, namely Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria till date. Further to widespread transmission of the disease, it has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organisation on 8 August 2014. As of 4 August 2014, countries have reported 1,711 cases (1,070 confirmed, 436 probable, 205 suspect, including 932 deaths. This review paper enlightens about the awareness of Ebola virus and its preventive measures. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 296-305

  12. Mexican experience on migration and development 1990-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo García Zamora

    Full Text Available After 40 years of a long rising emigration from Mexico to the United States, the number of Mexicans increased to 12 million in 2006, while the increased input of remittances reached $26 million dollars in 2007. Yet, the increasing migration and remittances mainly in Zacatecas and Michoacan states do not achieve economic and social development because of the persistent backwardness, unemployment and marginalization. It demands the need for new Policies of Development, Migration and Human Rights that allow exercising the right to not emigrate in a medium term. Positive products of this long migration are the Mexican Migrant Clubs and their Federations that elaborated the concrete development proposals. Whereas, the possibility that these proposals can become a Development, Migration and Human Rights, Comprehensive and Long Term State Policy will depend on the capacity and participation of Mexican Civil Society and the Transnational Communities in both countries.

  13. Acculturation and Life Satisfaction Among Immigrant Mexican Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio F. Marsiglia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The numbers of Mexican Americans living in the United States, many of whom are first generation immigrants, are increasing. The process of immigration and acculturation can be accompanied by stress, as an individual attempts to reconcile two potentially competing sets of norms and values and to navigate a new social terrain. However, the outcomes of studies investigating the relationship between levels of acculturation and well-being are mixed. To further investigate the dynamic of acculturation, this article will address the impact of acculturation and familismo, on reported life satisfaction and resilience among Mexican American adults living in the Southwest (N=307, the majority (89% of which are immigrants. The findings indicate that bilingual individuals report significantly higher levels of life satisfaction and resilience than their Spanish-speaking counterparts do. Speaking primarily English only predicted higher levels of resilience but not life satisfaction. Implications for social work practice with Mexican American immigrants are discussed.

  14. Men of Mexican Origin Who Abuse Women: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Liendo, Nora; Matthews, Debra W; Gilroy, Heidi; Nava, Angeles; Gangialla, Christyn

    2018-03-01

    Current literature indicates that intimate partner violence is a complex phenomenon that exists worldwide. However, little is known about why some men of Mexican origin abuse women. This descriptive study was conducted to understand the experiences of men of Mexican origin who abuse their intimate partners. A qualitative research design was used to conduct this study in a south Texas border community adjacent to the United States-Mexico border. This study builds on existing research and furthers the knowledge related to the factors contributing to intimate partner violence, including cultural factors. The results also reinforce the negative impacts of intimate partner violence on children and the family structure. Further research is needed to support the development of a culturally appropriate prevention and intervention program for men of Mexican origin who abuse women and their families.

  15. [Observational study of craniofacial growth and development in Mexican children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijikami, T K; Cedeño Pacheco, E

    1991-01-01

    The election of a investigation about craniofacial growing and development in Mexican children, was done due to a lack of national information in this rubric and as a fundamental part of the "growing and development in the scholastic" module of the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, which work hypothesis was that "craniofacial growing and development in Mexican, 6 to 12 children in Xochimilco area are due to nutritional deficiency, second dentition eruption delay and dental maloclution "which was totality confirmed in a 100 Mexican facial characteristic children field work study, with cephalometric studies which permit to determine the craniofacial growing standard. This study was corroborated with a 40 children, 4 years later follow up.

  16. Volunteer work in the church among older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Hayward, R David

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that influence the amount of volunteer work that older Mexican Americans perform in the place where they worship. The relationship between religion and volunteering is viewed from a social identity perspective. Data from a nationally representative sample of older Mexican Americans suggest that Evangelical/Pentecostal church members spend more time performing volunteer work at church than older Mexican Americans who affiliate with other denominations. Moreover, the findings indicate that the difference in the amount of volunteering between the two groups can largely be explained by differences in the nature of the spiritual support that Evangelical/Pentecostal receive from their fellow church members as well as depth of their commitment to their faith.

  17. Identifying Strategic Groups: An Assessment in Mexican Franchises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesario Armando Flores Villanueva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of strategic groups in the franchising sector has been previously documented in the context of different countries. Our proposal is the franchise industry in Mexico should be formed by groups of differentiated franchisors. The identification and analysis of the different strategic groups formed in the franchise system of the Mexican market is the objective of this research. Our evaluation was performed using the factor analysis technique in a sample of 167 franchises of national origin. Seven strategic dimensions supported by the theory of scarce resources and agency theory make up the existence of differentiated groups of franchisors in the Mexican market. Our research confirmed the identification of five strategic groups called: rapid growth, converters, experienced and international franchisors, high entry fees and expensive conservatives, which use differentiated strategies to compete in the Mexican market.

  18. Scale and scope economies in Mexican private medical units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Jorge; Prior, Diego

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate technical efficiency and potential presence of scale and scope economies in Mexican private medical units (PMU) that will improve management decisions. We used data envelopment analysis methods with inputs and outputs for 2 105 Mexican PMU published in 2010 by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía from the "Estadística de Unidades Médicas Privadas con Servicio de Hospitalización (PEC-6-20-A)" questionnaire. The application of the models used in the paper found that there is a marginal presence of economies of scale and scope in Mexican PMU. PMU in Mexico must focus to deliver their services on a diversified structure to achieve technical efficiency.

  19. Scale and scope economies in Mexican private medical units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Keith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate technical efficiency and potential presence of scale and scope economies in Mexican private medical units (PMU that will improve management decisions. Materials and methods. We used data envelopment analysis methods with inputs and outputs for 2 105 Mexican PMU published in 2010 by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía from the “Estadística de Unidades Médicas Privadas con Servicio de Hospitalización (PEC-6-20-A” questionnaire. Results. The application of the models used in the paper found that there is a marginal presence of economies of scale and scope in Mexican PMU. Conclusions. PMU in Mexico must focus to deliver their services on a diversified structure to achieve technical efficiency.

  20. Training in the Mexican company: a study of job training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Lilia Sapién Aguilar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The processes of training and instruction in a medium-sized Mexican company are not being understood as an investment that contributes to business success.The aim of this study was to analyze these processes. The methodological approach was exploratory and descriptive with a non-experimental or ex post facto design. The Mexican Business Information System was consulted and 17 medium-sized companies in the industrial sector were randomly chosen. The results indicated that in the median Mexican company decisive actions must be taken in order to achieve that training and instruction are no longer seen as an unnecessary expense. They need to be understood as the best investment one can make in human resources. Therefore, training and instruction must become a part of the work culture of any organization.

  1. A review of the Mexican national innovation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Rullán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Governments and business leaders are increasingly aware of the role that innovation plays in economic growth, development and competitiveness. There are imperative challenges for Latin American countries, among them, poverty, social inclusion, sustainable development, climate change, natural disasters, productivity, improve the quality of education and health. Innovations are essential to drive economic growth and prosperity in the region. According to the Global Innovation Index (2015, Mexico is ranked 57th. Most of the research on innovation performance is mostly focused on technological innovation. Therefore, the main variables used, such as patents and number of scientific publications, do not always reflect the other types of innovations (i.e. business model, organizational, etc. that are developing in emerging markets. The aim of this paper is to analyze the Mexican innovation system using a broad concept with a focus on other types of innovation including cultural aspects to identify the main characteristics that distinguish and determine how innovation in Mexico is formed. Although the Mexican government has improved its institutional structure for innovation and its support policies, they need to evaluate programs and adjust incentive schemes based on performance to improve their innovation policy. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the Mexican National Innovation System using a broad concept with a focus on other types of innovation and including cultural aspects to identify some of the main characteristics that determine how innovation in Mexico is formed. Design/methodology/approach – The national innovation systems framework is used to review the Mexican innovation policy.A review of relevant literature on national innovation systems and Mexican innovation policies with data from the Global Innovation Index and INEGI were used for this paper. Findings – Higher private investment in R&D is needed to enhance

  2. Employer Sanctions and the Wages of Mexican Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brownell

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wage differences between authorized and unauthorized Mexican immigrants can be explained by human capital factors prior to the 1986 passage of employer sanctions, which prohibited knowingly hiring unauthorized aliens. However, a significant post-1986 wage differential has been interpreted as employers “passing along” expected costs of sanctions through lower wages for unauthorized immigrants. I test this explanation using administrative data on employer sanctions enforcement, finding employer sanctions enforcement levels are related to Mexican immigrants’ wages but have no statistically significant differential effect based on legal status. Estimated savings to employers due to the pay gap are orders of magnitude larger than actual fines.

  3. Social and cultural influences among Mexican border entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Bretones, Francisco; Cappello, Héctor M; Garcia, Pedro A

    2009-06-01

    Social and cultural conditions (including U.S. border and inland influence, role models within the family, and educational background) which affect locus of control and achievement motivation among Mexican entrepreneurs were explored among 64 selected entrepreneurs in two Mexican towns, one on the Mexico-U.S. border, the other located inland. Analyses showed that the border subsample scored higher on External locus of control; however, in both subsamples the father was an important element in the locus of control variable and the entrepreneur status. No statistically significant mean difference was noted for achievement motivation. Practical applications and limitations are discussed.

  4. Immigration and Wage Dynamics: Evidence from the Mexican Peso Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Monras , Joan

    2015-01-01

    How does the US labor market absorb low-skilled immigration? I address this question using the 1995 Mexican Peso Crisis, an exogenous push factor that raised Mexican migration to the US. In the short run, high-immigration states see their low-skilled labor force increase and native low-skilled wages decrease, with an implied local labor demand elasticity of -.7. Internal relocation dissipates this shock spatially. In the long run, the only lasting consequences are for low-skilled natives who ...

  5. Study protocol: intervention in maternal perception of preschoolers' weight among Mexican and Mexican-American mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Peña, Yolanda; He, Meizi; Sosa, Erica T; Avila-Alpirez, Hermelinda; Trejo-Ortiz, Perla M

    2018-05-30

    Childhood obesity is a public health issue negatively affecting children's physical and psychosocial health. Mothers are children's primary caregivers, thus key players in childhood obesity prevention. Studies have indicated that mothers underestimate their children's weight. If mothers are unaware of their children's weight problem, they are less likely to participate in activities preventing and treating excess weight. The "Healthy Change" intervention is designed to change maternal perception of child's weight (MPCW) through peer-led group health education in childcare settings. The "Healthy Change" is a multicenter two-arm randomized trial in four centers. Three centers are in Mexican States (Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, and Zacatecas). The fourth center is in San Antonio, Texas, USA. A total of 360 mother-child pairs (90 pairs per center) are to be randomly and evenly allocated to either the intervention or the control group. Intervention group will receive four-session group obesity prevention education. Control group will receive a four-session personal and food hygiene education. The education is delivered by trained peer-mother promotoras. Data will be collected using questionnaires and focus groups. The primary outcome is a change in proportion of mothers with accurate MPCW. Secondary outcomes include change in maternal feeding styles and practices, maternal self-efficacy and actions for managing child excessive weight gain. McNemar's Test will be used to test the primary outcome. The GLM Univariate procedure will be used to determine intervention effects on secondary outcomes. The models will include the secondary outcome measures as the dependent variables, treatment condition (intervention/control) as the fixed factor, and confounding factors (e.g., mother's education, children's gender and age) as covariates. Sub-analyses will be performed to compare intervention effects on primary and secondary outcomes between the samples from Mexico and Texas, USA

  6. Development of the Mexican electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escofet, A.

    1981-06-01

    In 1980 Mexico had a population of 68 million, mostly concentrated in a few cities with many other areas being practically unpopulated. The country is semi-industrialized, and in order to achieve better standards of living, economic growth will have to continue at about 7.5 percent or more, particularly if the population continues to increase at 2.9 percent per year. The total installed electrical capacity at the end of 1980 was 14 600 MW; the per capita consumption of electricity was 910 KWh. The present government has as a goal an 8 percent annual growth rate in gross domestic product until 1995, resulting in forecast of a 12.5 percent growth rate in the electric sector to about 410 TWh per year. Hydroelectric power could be used to produce 80 TWh a year by 2000 if capacity were quadrupled. The use of coal for the production of electricity is beginning, and it is planned to generate 40 TWh a year from this source by 2000. Geothermal power should yield 20 TWh by then. A goal has been set of 20 000 MW of installed nuclear capacity by the end of the century; this would produce about 130 TWh, leaving some 280 TWh to be generated by oil or gas. The planned nuclear program must include the development of a strong Mexican nuclear industry, so that in 20 years 80 percent of the nuclear plant components could be locally produced. Ultimately it is hoped that Mexico will have the capability of installing, with its own resources, five or six large nuclear plants per year

  7. The Mexican consensus on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Sánchez, R; Icaza-Chávez, M E; Bielsa-Fernández, M V; Gómez-Escudero, O; Bosques-Padilla, F; Coss-Adame, E; Esquivel-Ayanegui, F; Flores-Rendón, Á R; González-Martínez, M A; Huerta-Iga, F; López-Colombo, A; Méndez-Gutiérrez, T H; Noble-Lugo, A; Nogueira-de Rojas, J R; Raña-Garibay, R H; Remes-Troche, J M; Roesch-Dietlen, F; Schmulson, M J; Soto-Pérez, J C; Tamayo, J L; Uscanga, L F; Valdovinos, M Á; Valerio-Ureña, J; Zavala-Solares, M R

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication in 2009 of the Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome of the Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología (2009 Guidelines), there have been significant advances in our knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease. To present a consensus review of the most current knowledge of IBS, updating the 2009 Guidelines by incorporating new internationally published scientific evidence, with a special interest in Mexican studies. The PubMed literature from January 2009 to March 2015 was reviewed and complemented through a manual search. Articles in English and Spanish were included and preference was given to consensuses, guidelines, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Statements referring to the different aspects of the disease were formulated and voted upon by 24 gastroenterologists employing the Delphi method. Once a consensus on each statement was reached, the quality of evidence and strength of recommendation were determined through the GRADE system. Forty-eight statements were formulated, updating the information on IBS and adding the complementary data that did not appear in the 2009 Guidelines regarding the importance of exercise and diet, diagnostic strategies, and current therapy alternatives that were analyzed with more stringent scientific vigor or that emerged within the last 5 years. We present herein a consensus review of the most relevant advances in the study of IBS, updating and complementing the 2009 Guidelines. Several studies conducted in Mexico were included. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. SARS virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... consequence.Protein spike similar. HE gene absent. 2787 nucleotides. Largest genome. Jumps species by genetic deletion. < 300 compounds screened. Glycyrrhizin (liquorics/mullatha) seems attractive. Antivirals not effective. Vaccines – animal model only in monkeys. Killed corona or knockout weakened virus as targets.

  9. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat Disposal Site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSP (based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program), documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished

  10. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Mexican Hat uranium mill tailings site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    This document assesses the environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action at the Mexican Hat uranium mill tailings site located on the Navajo Reservation in southern Utah. The site covers 235 acres and contains 69 acres of tailings and several of the original mill structures. Remedial action must be performed in accordance with standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Navajo Nation. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings within the present tailings site by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated soils into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier of compacted earth would be constructed over the pile, and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document. 240 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs

  11. "Ganando Confianza": Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we…

  12. Determinants of Coping Responses among Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship of perceived stress, self-esteem, acculturation, and gender to the coping response of Mexican American adolescents. Data from self-report surveys indicated that adolescents had relatively high perceived stress levels, low acculturation, and a moderate self-esteem, with no significant gender differences. Self-esteem was…

  13. Interparental Relations, Maternal Employment, and Fathering in Mexican American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formoso, Diana; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Barrera, Manuel, Jr.; Dumka, Larry E.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined independent and interactive relations between the interparental relationship and maternal employment in predicting fathering within low-income, Mexican American two-parent families (N = 115). Interparental conflict was negatively related to quality fathering, and these relations were noted only for single-earner families. The…

  14. Family Stress and Coping for Mexican Origin Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Freda F.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Fernandez, Aida Cristina; Millsap, Roger E.; Dumka, Larry E.

    2011-01-01

    Family-related stressors pose special challenges for adolescents of Mexican origin, given traditional cultural norms that compel youths to get involved with family problems despite their limited ability to effect change. The current study examines the prospective effects of coping strategies (i.e., active, distraction, avoidance, support-seeking,…

  15. A Mexican American Woman Encounters Sociology: An Autobiographical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Norma

    1988-01-01

    Describes the author's experience of teaching bilingual educators. Identifies the bureaucratic structure of the school and the Mexican American culture as the two problem areas focused upon during the course. Concludes that her major areas of research interest in sociology are a direct product of her ethnicity, work experience, and this…

  16. Detecting Diabetic Blindness in Low-Income Mexican Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast features Kenny Mendoza-Herrera, a former graduate student at the National Institute of Public Health of Mexico and one of the winners of PCD's 2017 Student Research Paper Contest. Kenny answers questions about his winning research and what impact his study has on the prevention of diabetic blindness and public health, particularly for Mexican adults.

  17. Prevalence of Bruxism among Mexican Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Perez, Ruben; Lopez-Morales, Patricia; Borges-Yanez, S. Aida; Maupome, Gerardo; Pares-Vidrio, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of bruxism in a Mexican community of children with Down syndrome, and to evaluate bruxism's relationship with age, sex, intellectual disability level, and type of chromosomal abnormality of trisomy 21. Using a cross-sectional design, 57 boys and girls (3 to 14 years old) were examined. Three approaches…

  18. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of some Mexican medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bustos, E; Velazquez, C; Garibay-Escobar, A; García, Z; Plascencia-Jatomea, M; Cortez-Rocha, M O; Hernandez-Martínez, J; Robles-Zepeda, R E

    2009-12-01

    In Mexico about 4,000 plant species have some medicinal use. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six Mexican medicinal plants against fungi and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methanolic extracts were prepared from the Mexican medicinal plants Amphypteringium adstrigens, Castella tortuosa, Coutarea latiflora, Ibervillea sonorae, Jatropha cuneata, and Selaginella lepidophylla. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the plants were determined by the broth microdilution method and the radial growth inhibition assay, respectively. All Mexican plants tested showed antimicrobial activity. Among the six plant extracts analyzed, J. cuneata showed the highest growth-inhibitory activity against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (J. cuneata > A. adstrigens > C. latiflora > C. tortuosa > I. sonorae approximately S. lepidophylla). Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus were the most susceptible bacteria to plant extracts. Complete inhibition of S. flexneri growth was observed with J. cuneata methanolic extract at 90 microg/mL. This plant extract also showed the strongest antifungal activity against Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus niger. Our data suggest that the medicinal plants tested have important antimicrobial properties. This is the first report describing the antimicrobial activities of several of the Mexican medicinal plants used in this study.

  19. Production of both esters and biogas from Mexican poppy | Singh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper details a dynamic evaluation of a procedure for extracting both, ester and biogas from seeds and waste of Mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana) using simple and inexpensive technique. Results showed that A. mexicana seed contains 30% oil. Through the process of transestrification, oil extracted from seed, ...

  20. Machismo sustains health and illness beliefs of Mexican American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobralske, Mary

    2006-08-01

    To inform nurse practitioners (NPs) about Mexican American men's health and illness beliefs and the ways in which these are influenced by their masculine identity and how they view themselves as men in their culture. The data sources used were based on a selected review of the literature about Mexican American men's health and illness beliefs and the concept of machismo. Several studies, including the author's study on Mexican American men's healthcare-seeking beliefs and behaviors and experience in providing primary health care to men across cultures, contributed new data. The meaning of manhood in the Mexican American culture is critical in understanding how men perceive health and illness and what they do when they are ill. Machismo enhances men's awareness of their health because they have to be healthy to be good fathers, husbands, brothers, sons, workers, and community members. Pain and disability are motivating factors in finding ways to regain their health. Men's health beliefs across cultures need further investigation by nurse researchers and NPs. How culture influences healthcare delivery to men should be better understood. If NPs are aware of men's views on masculinity, they are better prepared to understand and assist men in becoming more aware of their health status and to seek health care when appropriate.

  1. Exploratory Talk, Argumentation and Reasoning in Mexican Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Drummond, Sylvia; Zapata, Margarita Peon

    2004-01-01

    The study analyses the effects of training primary school children in the use of a linguistic tool called "Exploratory Talk" (ET) on their capacity for argumentation. ET allows for reasoned confrontation and negotiation of points of view, making the reasoning visible in the talk. Eighty-eight Mexican children from the 5th and 6th grades…

  2. The Attitudes of Mexican Parents Toward School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Earl J.; Rodriquez, Margarita

    1978-01-01

    Surveys the attitudes of Mexican parents toward school discipline of primary-level children in terms of the following questions: 1) will parents accept the use of corporal punishment in schools?, 2) what form of disciplinary measure will they accept or recommend?, 3) if parents accept corporal punishment, who will be the school disciplinarian, and…

  3. Attitudes toward Suicide among Mexican American and Anglo Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, George

    1981-01-01

    There were statistically significant differences between answers of 76 Anglo and 76 Mexican American youth on 35 of 100 opinion questionnaire items. Items centered on religion, psychopathology, aggression-impulsivity, acceptability of suicide, the "cry for help" dimension, and emotional impact. (Author/CM)

  4. Optimal transmission planning under the Mexican new electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenón, Eric; Rosellón, Juan

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses electricity transmission planning under the new industry and institutional structure of the Mexican electricity market, which has engaged in a deep reform process after decades of a state-owned-vertically-integrated-non-competitive-closed industry. Under this new structure, characterized by a nodal pricing system and an independent system operator (ISO), we analyze welfare-optimal network expansion with two modeling strategies. In a first model, we propose the use of an incentive price-cap mechanism to promote the expansion of Mexican networks. In a second model, we study centrally-planned grid expansion in Mexico by an ISO within a power-flow model. We carry out comparisons of these models which provide us with hints to evaluate the actual transmission planning process proposed by Mexican authorities (PRODESEN). We obtain that the PRODESEN plan appears to be a convergent welfare-optimal planning process. - Highlights: • We model transmission planning (PRODESEN) in the Mexican new electricity market. • We propose a first model with a price-cap mechanism to promote network expansion. • In a second power-flow model, we study centrally-planned grid expansions. • The PRODESEN appears to be a convergent welfare-optimal planning process. • Incentive regulation could further help to implement such an optimal process.

  5. Pandemics and networks : The case of the Mexican flu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omic, J.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2010-01-01

    The recent widespread of the new Mexican flu and SARS show the high dependency on contemporary traveling patterns. The air transport network is recognized as an important channel of epidemic propagation for different diseases. In order to predict epidemic spreading and the influence of protection

  6. Effects of Malathion Dust and Mexican Tea Powder ( Chenopodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was conducted in the laboratory at the Bako Agricultural Research Center, from January to July 2013. Combinations of different rates of Malathion and Mexican tea powder were evaluated against the maize weevil in no choice situations. The treatments were laid out in a randomized complete design with ...

  7. PROTEIN & SENSORY ANALYSIS TO CHARACTERIZE MEXICAN CHIHUAHUA CHEESES

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been established that native microflora in raw milk cheeses, including Queso Chihuahua, a Mexican cheese variety, contributes to the development of unique flavors through degradation of milk proteins resulting in the release of free amino acids and short peptides that influence the taste and ...

  8. Neighborhood Contexts, Fathers, and Mexican American Young Adolescents' Internalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The family stress model posits that contextual stressors, such as neighborhood danger, negatively influence youth adjustment, including internalizing symptoms, via disruptions in parenting and family processes. The current study examined a culturally and contextually modified family stress model in a diverse sample of Mexican-origin fathers and…

  9. Cultural and Contextual Influences on Parenting in Mexican American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Weaver, Scott R.; Nair, Rajni L.

    2009-01-01

    Family stress theory can explain associations between contextual stressors and parenting. The theory, however, has not been tested among Mexican Americans or expanded to include cultural-contextual risks. This study examined associations between neighborhood, economic, and acculturative stressors and parenting behaviors in a sample of 570…

  10. Good Mathematics Teaching from Mexican High School Students' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sierra, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a qualitative research that identifies the characteristics of good mathematics teaching from the perspective of Mexican high school students. For this purpose, the social representations of a good mathematics teacher and a good mathematics class were identified in a group of 67 students. In order to obtain information, a…

  11. Using Media Literacy to Explore Stereotypes of Mexican Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Lucila; dePyssler, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Examines media portrayals of Mexican immigrants, and interplay between these images and portrayals of U.S.-born Latinos. Argues that examining media images is imperative because the influence of media saturation is almost overwhelming. Suggests a media-literacy framework for developing abilities for interpreting media and giving students control…

  12. Parental Agency in Educational Decision Making: A Mexican American Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Margy

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: This article explores the experiences of one Mexican American family as they make a key curriculum choice for their 9-year-old son. Relatively little attention has been paid to parents' beliefs, attitudes, and, in particular, experiences as they actively engage in--and sometimes affect--their children's schooling. Parents'…

  13. The Free Trade Agreement and the Mexican health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, A C; Ortega, M E

    1992-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the probable implications for the Mexican health sector of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The authors argue that the FTA should be seen as part of neoliberal policies adopted by the Mexican government in 1983 that are based on large-scale privatization and deregulation of labor relations. In this general context the health sector, which traditionally has been dominated by public institutions, is undergoing a deep restructuring. The main trends are the decapitalization of the public sector and a selective process of privatization that tends to constitute the private health sector in a field of capital accumulation. The FTA is likely to force a change in Mexican health legislation, which includes health services in the public social security system and recognizes the right to health, and to accelerate selective privatization. The U.S. insurance industry and hospital corporations are interested in promoting these changes in order to gain access to the Mexican market, estimated at 20 to 25 million persons. This would lead to further deterioration of the public institutions, increasing inequalities in health and strengthening the private sector. The historical trend toward the integration of a National Health Service in Mexico would be interrupted in favor of formation of a dual private-public system.

  14. Evaluating the Success of Educational Policy in Mexican Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarra, Marti; Mar-Molinero, Cecilio; Rodríguez-Regordosa, Herberto

    2015-01-01

    State support in higher education (HE) is often justified on the grounds that HE is important for the development of the country. However, little analysis is normally done in order to assess the impact of education quality initiatives. The Mexican government has been engaging in a policy of HE quality improvement that can be traced to 1989. In…

  15. Implicit Race/Ethnic Prejudice in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Christelle Fabiola; Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Implicit race/ethnic prejudice was assessed using Spanish- and English-language versions of an Implicit Association Test that used Hispanic/Anglo first names and pleasant/unpleasant words as stimuli. This test was administered to a consecutive sample of Mexican American adults residing in the Rio Grande Valley region of Texas of whom about…

  16. Teaching Is Still an Art, Mexican Teachers Remind Us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Describes working with 14 Mexican English teachers for 2.5 years at an elementary school in Guadalajara to help them implement an effective whole language program. Describes how these teachers used models of rich language, familiar movies, drama creations, family stories, and their own artistic talents to enhance learning in their classrooms.…

  17. Newspaper Suppression During the Mexican War, 1846-1848.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Tom

    A number of scholars have found that wartime conditions often bring about conflict between the press and the military. This study documents the various incidents between the United States Army and various Mexican and United States newspaper editors that led to at least ten cases of newspaper suppression, the occasional use of prior censorship, and…

  18. Mexican Proverbs: The Philosophy, Wisdom and Humor of a People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Octavio A.

    Careful reading of proverbs can aid an individual to develop self-awareness by providing insights into what one cultural group considers desirable human behavior. Respect for the elderly can be taught to the young through the study of proverbs. Through their proverbs, the Mexicans reveal their friendliness, love of animals, sense of humor, and…

  19. Institutions in the Mexican coffee sector : changes and responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Padron, B.

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: Cooperation, contract arrangements, traders´ performance, market uncertainty, diversification, coffee, Mexico.

    The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the institutional environment prevailing in the Mexican coffee sector and its effect on the producers, traders and

  20. Writer Identity Construction in Mexican Students of Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The paper examines the connection between discursive and non-discursive features and the construction of writer identity. In particular, the paper compares and contrasts the writer identity development of two groups of undergraduate students of applied linguistics in the Mexican context, one made up of locally educated ones and the other composed…