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Sample records for mexican duck anas

  1. Updating movement estimates for American black ducks (Anas rubripes

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    Orin J. Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding migratory connectivity for species of concern is of great importance if we are to implement management aimed at conserving them. New methods are improving our understanding of migration; however, banding (ringing data is by far the most widely available and accessible movement data for researchers. Here, we use band recovery data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes from 1951–2011 and analyze their movement among seven management regions using a hierarchical Bayesian framework. We showed that black ducks generally exhibit flyway fidelity, and that many black ducks, regardless of breeding region, stopover or overwinter on the Atlantic coast of the United States. We also show that a non-trivial portion of the continental black duck population either does not move at all or moves to the north during the fall migration (they typically move to the south. The results of this analysis will be used in a projection modeling context to evaluate how habitat or harvest management actions in one region would propagate throughout the continental population of black ducks. This analysis may provide a guide for future research and help inform management efforts for black ducks as well as other migratory species.

  2. Novel duck parvovirus identified in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), China.

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    Li, Chuanfeng; Li, Qi; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-10-01

    An unknown infectious disease in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) characterized by short beak and strong growth retardation occurred in China during 2015. The causative agent of this disease, tentatively named duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (DSBDS), as well as the evolutionary relationships between this causative agent and all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses were clarified by virus isolation, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, analysis of nuclear acid type, (RT-)PCR identification, whole genome sequencing, and NS1 protein sequences-based phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the causative agent of DSBDS is closely related with the goose parvovirus-like virus, which is divergent from all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses and should be a novel duck parvovirus (NDPV). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sublethal effects of cadmium ingestion on mallard ducks. [Anas platyrhynchos

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    Di Giulio, R T; Scanlon, P F

    1984-11-01

    Juvenile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) drakes were fed diets containing 0, 50, 150, or 450 ppM cadmium for 42 +/- 1 days in order to assess the impacts of cadmium ingestion on energy metabolism and tissue metal concentrations in this species. Most significant effects on energy metabolism were observed only in the 450 ppM group which displayed reduced body and liver weights, increased kidney weights, reduced liver aldolase activity, increased plasma concentrations of uric acid, decreased plasma triiodothyronine concentrations, and elevated adrenal weights and adrenal corticosterone concentrations. Ducks in the 150 ppM group displayed increased adrenal and kidney weights and elevated plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Among all treatments, increased cadmium and zinc concentrations in both livers and kidneys were dose-related; a similar trend was observed for copper concentrations in kidneys but not livers. Cadmium interference with carbohydrate metabolism in similar studies with mammals was more severe than that observed in mallards in the present study. 52 references, 6 tables.

  4. Characterization of duck (Anas platyrhynchos) MHC class Igene in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LIN ZHANG

    2017-06-17

    Jun 17, 2017 ... from Weishan Ma duck and Cherry Valley duck were cloned, and their characterization were investigated. The overall ... Then the first-strand cDNAs were syn- thesized ... opment, Tokyo, Japan) and DNAMAN demo software.

  5. Blood lead exposure concentrations in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the upper Texas coast

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    McDowell, Stephen K.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.; Hung, I-Kuai

    2015-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is a non-migratory waterfowl species dependent upon coastal marsh systems, including those on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex, and considered a regional indicator species of marsh habitat quality. Research from the early 1970s, 1990s, and early-2000s indicated that mottled ducks continued to exhibit elevated wing-bone lead (Pb) concentrations, decades after implementation of non-toxic shot regulations. However, wing-bone concentrations reflect lifetime accumulation of Pb, whereas blood Pb concentrations reflect more recent exposure. To identify current potentially relevant temporal windows of Pb exposure, we collected 260 blood samples from mottled ducks during summer (n=124) and winter (n=136) from 2010–2012 on the Texas Chenier Plain NWR Complex. We quantified baseline blood Pb concentrations for all ages of mottled ducks, and hypothesized that blood lead concentrations would remain elevated above background levels (200 µg L–1) despite the 1983 and 1991 lead shot bans. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from below detection limits to >12,000 µg L–1, where >200 µg L–1 was associated with exposure levels above background concentrations. Male mottled ducks had the greatest blood Pb concentrations (30 times greater than females) with concentrations greater during winter than summer. Likewise, the proportion of exposed (>200 µg L–1) females increased from 14%–47% from summer to winter, respectively. Regardless of sex, adult mottled duck blood Pb concentrations were five times greater than juveniles, particularly during winter. We identified five plausible models that influenced blood Pb levels where year, site, and interactions among age*sex*season and between age*season were included in the top-ranked models. Frequency of exposure was greatest during winter, increasing from 12% in summer to 55% in winter, indicating that a temporal exposure window to environmental Pb exists between nesting

  6. Histomorphological study of the parathyroid gland in female Kuttanad ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus

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    Firdous Ahmad Dar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present work was targeted to form the baseline data of normal morphological and histological picture of parathyroid gland in female Kuttanad ducks.Materials and Methods: A Histomorphological study of the parathyroid gland was carried out in twelve adult female Kuttanad ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus of 20 weeks of age. Birds reared semintensively were procured from Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Poultry and Duck Farm and sacrificed humanely. Glands were collected and gross parameters were recorded. The glands were fixed in 10 percent neutral buffered formalin. The small sized glands were processed as such by routine histological methods, paraffin blocks were prepared and sectioned to a thickness of 5µ. The tissues were stained by Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E for routine histological studies and Gomori's rapid one step trichrome method for connective tissue fibres. Micrometric parameters were recorded using ocular micrometer. Results: Parathyroid glands in Kuttanad ducks lay just caudal to the division of the innominate artery into the subclavian and common carotid arteries. Parathyroids were oval to spherical in shape, yellow in colour and smaller than thyroid gland of the representative sides. The arterial blood supply was from common carotid artery and blood from gland was drained directly into jugular vein. Although it lied close to the thyroid, thymus and ultimobranchial gland, parathyroid tissue did not merge to any of the above mentioned three glands. Parenchyma was composed irregular anatomizing cords of cells supplied by connective tissue stroma penetrated by blood capillaries. Parenchyma was predominantly made of lightly stained cell, the chief cell. The nuclei were round and contain one or two nucleoli. Oxyphil cells present in parathyroid glands of other mammals were not seen in the present study. Conclusion: Histomorphological features or characteristics of Parathyroid gland in Kuttanad duck were

  7. Experimental reintroduction reveals novel life-history variation in Laysan Ducks (Anas laysanensis)

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    Walters, Jeffrey R.; Reynolds, Michelle H.

    2013-01-01

    Subfossil remains indicate that the Laysan Duck (Anas laysanensis) formerly occurred throughout the Hawaiian archipelago, but for more than 150 years it has been confined to a single, small atoll in the northwestern chain, Laysan Island. In 2004–2005, 42 ducks were reintroduced from Laysan to Midway Atoll, where they exhibited variation in life history never observed on Laysan. On Laysan, females have never been observed to breed successfully at age 1 year and few attempt it, whereas on Midway, females routinely raised young at study; n = 21 and 19, respectively) and triple brooding has never been observed. Other novel life history on Midway included early cessation of parental care to renest. Altered life history on Midway is likely related to better feeding conditions and low population density compared with Laysan. An especially intriguing possibility is that the phenotypic plasticity observed represents exposure of hidden reaction norms evolved when the species inhabited a range of environments, but several alternative explanations exist. Future reintroductions of this species may provide opportunities to test hypotheses about mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity.

  8. The ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp. in Canada.

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    Zsuzsanna Papp

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus (AIV occurrence and transmission remain important wildlife and human health issues in much of the world, including in North America. Through Canada's Inter-Agency Wild Bird Influenza Survey, close to 20,000 apparently healthy, wild dabbling ducks (of seven species were tested for AIV between 2005 and 2011. We used these data to identify and evaluate ecological and demographic correlates of infection with low pathogenic AIVs in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp. across Canada. Generalized linear mixed effects model analyses revealed that risk of AIV infection was higher in hatch-year birds compared to adults, and was positively associated with a high proportion of hatch-year birds in the population. Males were more likely to be infected than females in British Columbia and in Eastern Provinces of Canada, but more complex relationships among age and sex cohorts were found in the Prairie Provinces. A species effect was apparent in Eastern Canada and British Columbia, where teal (A. discors and/or A. carolinensis were less likely to be infected than mallards (A. platyrhynchos. Risk of AIV infection increased with the density of the breeding population, in both Eastern Canada and the Prairie Provinces, and lower temperatures preceding sampling were associated with a higher probability of AIV infection in Eastern Canada. Our results provide new insights into the ecological and demographic factors associated with AIV infection in waterfowl.

  9. Mito-nuclear discord in six congeneric lineages of Holarctic ducks (genus Anas).

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    Peters, Jeffrey L; Winker, Kevin; Millam, Kendra C; Lavretsky, Philip; Kulikova, Irina; Wilson, Robert E; Zhuravlev, Yuri N; McCracken, Kevin G

    2014-06-01

    Many species have Holarctic distributions that extend across Europe, Asia and North America. Most genetics research on these species has examined only mitochondrial (mt) DNA, which has revealed wide variance in divergence between Old World (OW) and New World (NW) populations, ranging from shallow, unstructured genealogies to deeply divergent lineages. In this study, we sequenced 20 nuclear introns to test for concordant patterns of OW-NW differentiation between mtDNA and nuclear (nu) DNA for six lineages of Holarctic ducks (genus Anas). Genetic differentiation for both marker types varied widely among these lineages (idiosyncratic population histories), but mtDNA and nuDNA divergence within lineages was not significantly correlated. Moreover, compared with the association between mtDNA and nuDNA divergence observed among different species, OW-NW nuDNA differentiation was generally lower than mtDNA divergence, at least for lineages with deeply divergent mtDNA. Furthermore, coalescent estimates indicated significantly higher rates of gene flow for nuDNA than mtDNA for four of the six lineages. Thus, Holarctic ducks show prominent mito-nuclear discord between OW and NW populations, and we reject differences in sorting rates as the sole cause of the within-species discord. Male-mediated intercontinental gene flow is likely a leading contributor to this discord, although selection could also cause increased mtDNA divergence relative to weak nuDNA differentiation. The population genetics of these ducks contribute to growing evidence that mtDNA can be an unreliable indicator of stage of speciation and that more holistic approaches are needed for species delimitation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Mitochondrial D-loop analysis for uncovering the population structure and genetic diversity among the indigenous duck (Anas platyrhynchos) populations of India.

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    Gaur, Uma; Tantia, Madhu Sudan; Mishra, Bina; Bharani Kumar, Settypalli Tirumala; Vijh, Ramesh Kumar; Chaudhury, Ashok

    2018-03-01

    The indigenous domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) which is domesticated from Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) contributes significantly to poor farming community in coastal and North Eastern regions of India. For conservation and maintenance of indigenous duck populations it is very important to know the existing genetic diversity and population structure. To unravel the population structure and genetic diversity among the five indigenous duck populations of India, the mitochondrial D-loop sequences of 120 ducks were analyzed. The sequence analysis by comparison of mtDNA D-loop region (470 bp) of five Indian duck populations revealed 25 mitochondrial haplotypes. Pairwise F ST value among populations was 0.4243 (p land birds revealed introgression of the out group breed Khaki Campbell, which is used for breed improvement programs in India. The observations revealed very less selection and a single matrilineal lineage of indigenous domestic ducks.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of a Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Strain Isolated from a Clinically Healthy Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in Pakistan

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    Wajid, Abdul; Rehmani, Shafqat F.; Wasim, Muhammad; Basharat, Asma; Bibi, Tasra; Arif, Saima; Dimitrov, Kiril M.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) strain, duck/Pakistan/Lahore/AW-123/2015, isolated from apparently healthy laying ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) from the province of Punjab, Pakistan. The virus has a genome length of 15,192 nucleotides and is classified as member of subgenotype VIIi, class II. PMID:27469959

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of a Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Strain Isolated from a Clinically Healthy Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Wajid, Abdul; Rehmani, Shafqat F.; Wasim, Muhammad; Basharat, Asma; Bibi, Tasra; Arif, Saima; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) strain, duck/Pakistan/Lahore/AW-123/2015, isolated from apparently healthy laying ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) from the province of Punjab, Pakistan. The virus has a genome length of 15,192 nucleotides and is classified as member of subgenotype VIIi, class II.

  13. Normal xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) with reference to other anserine species

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    Smith, B. J. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh (United States); Smith, S. A.

    1991-03-15

    he purpose of this study was to provide a reference for xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic anatomy of the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) as a representative of the avian Order Anseriformes. The head, body, wing, and pelvic limb of three adult birds were radiographed using xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Nine xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate normal anatomy. Selected views of other anseriform species were included to illustrate certain anatomical features unique to those species.

  14. Normal xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) with reference to other anserine species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.J.; Smith, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    he purpose of this study was to provide a reference for xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic anatomy of the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) as a representative of the avian Order Anseriformes. The head, body, wing, and pelvic limb of three adult birds were radiographed using xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Nine xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate normal anatomy. Selected views of other anseriform species were included to illustrate certain anatomical features unique to those species

  15. The improvement of eggs quality of Mojosari duck (Anas javanica with soybean husk fermentation using cellulolytic bacteria of Spodoptera litura

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    Sri Hidanah

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed to improve the quality of the eggs of Mojosari duck (Anas javanica through complete feeding containing soybean husk was fermented using cellulolytic bacteria of Spodoptera litura. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of three stages: The first stages, isolation and identification of cellulolytic bacteria from S. litura; the second stage, the fermentation of soybean husk through the application of bacterial cellulolytic isolate from the first stage; and the third stage, the application of the best complete feed formulation from the second stage to Mojosari duck. Results: There are four dominant bacteria: Bacillus sp., Cellulomonas sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Cytophaga sp. Furthermore, the best reduction of the crude fiber of soybean husks is the use of Cellulomonas sp. bacteria. The final of the study, the quality of the eggs of Anas javanica, was improved, as indicated by cholesterol decrease from the yolk without the decrease of egg weight and eggshell thickness, although the decrease in egg yolk color was inevitable. Conclusion: Soy husk fermentation using cellulolytic bacteria of S. litura was added to complete feeding can be performed to improve the quality of the eggs of Mojosari duck.

  16. Cranial joint histology in the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos): new insights on avian cranial kinesis.

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    Bailleul, Alida M; Witmer, Lawrence M; Holliday, Casey M

    2017-03-01

    The evolution of avian cranial kinesis is a phenomenon in part responsible for the remarkable diversity of avian feeding adaptations observable today. Although osteological, developmental and behavioral features of the feeding system are frequently studied, comparatively little is known about cranial joint skeletal tissue composition and morphology from a microscopic perspective. These data are key to understanding the developmental, biomechanical and evolutionary underpinnings of kinesis. Therefore, here we investigated joint microstructure in juvenile and adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos; Anseriformes). Ducks belong to a diverse clade of galloanseriform birds, have derived adaptations for herbivory and kinesis, and are model organisms in developmental biology. Thus, new insights into their cranial functional morphology will refine our understanding of avian cranial evolution. A total of five specimens (two ducklings and three adults) were histologically sampled, and two additional specimens (a duckling and an adult) were subjected to micro-computed tomographic scanning. Five intracranial joints were sampled: the jaw joint (quadrate-articular); otic joint (quadrate-squamosal); palatobasal joint (parasphenoid-pterygoid); the mandibular symphysis (dentary-dentary); and the craniofacial hinge (a complex flexion zone involving four different pairs of skeletal elements). In both the ducklings and adults, the jaw, otic and palatobasal joints are all synovial, with a synovial cavity and articular cartilage on each surface (i.e. bichondral joints) ensheathed in a fibrous capsule. The craniofacial hinge begins as an ensemble of patent sutures in the duckling, but in the adult it becomes more complex: laterally it is synovial; whereas medially, it is synostosed by a bridge of chondroid bone. We hypothesize that it is chondroid bone that provides some of the flexible properties of this joint. The heavily innervated mandibular symphysis is already fused in the

  17. DUCK (Anas platyrhincos Borneo CULTIVATIONIN HULU SUNGAI UTARA SOUTH KALIMANTAN (OVERVIEW OF MARKET, HUMAN RESOURCES AND FINANCING

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    Muhammad Riza Firdaus

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Given Alabio ducks ( Anas platyrinchos Borneo is a commodity that can be developed on wetlands , the study aims to illustrate the potential and development of duck farms that can be relied upon by the provincial government in making policies for the advancement of this duck commodities , especially in the aspect of  markets  ,  human  resources  ,  and  fi nancial  aspects  .  These  three  aspects have been given the results of several previous studies that the three aspects mentioned  this  is  still  an  issue  in  the  development  of  duck  and  production results  .  Hulu  Sungai  Utara  as  duck  production  centers  serve  as  a  test  site  . Qualitative  analysis  of  the  domain  and  toksonomi  method  used  as  a  tool  in analyzing the data of this study . The results show : First , aspects of fi nancing shows that the business is viable and profi table , especially on a large scale . Second , the market requires a lot of innovation in creating related products. Third , explain aspects of human resource regeneration is still a problem and also the managerial constraints such as planning , standardization and quality in all phases . Keywords: Ducks  Alabio,  Financial  Aspects,  Aspects  of  Market  and  Marketing,  Human Resource Aspects

  18. Plasma corticosterone and thyroxine concentrations during chronic ingestion of crude oil in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

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    Rattner, B.A.; Eastin, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    1. Blood samples were collected from mallard ducks after 6, 12, and 18 weeks of dietary exposure to mash containing 0.015%, 0.150%, and 1.500% crude oil.2. Plasma corticosterone concentrations in ducks fed mash containing 0.150% or 1.500% Alaskan Prudhoe Bay crude oil were uniformly depressed when compared to values in untreated control birds.3. Plasma thyroxine concentration was not altered in ducks chronically exposed to crude oil.4. The observed alteration in corticosterone concentration could reduce tolerance to temperature and dietary fluctuations in the environment.

  19. Notes on a Queer (Mexican Literature: The Case of Ana Clavel

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    Vinodh Venkatesh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present essay examines the place of Ana Clavel in critical studies on contemporary Mexican fiction. Instead of situating her production vis-à-vis female contemporaries in what has been labeled the Boom Femenino, I argue that Clavel’s novels embody the ethos of a queer literature. A queer literature unpacks, decenters, and disobeys norms of gender, sex, and sexuality, and favors the posing of questions versus the providing of neatly packaged answers. Moving away from the subject, it mobilizes these same actions towards the communal and the national. Queer literature moves against the conventions of narrative; it breaks through the limits of the textual to render insufficient the power of the word. By reading the author’s meditation on sex, gender, and sexuality (especially as they relate to the urban space in Cuerpo náufrago, the essay furthers that Clavel’s fiction may best be understood within a genealogy of queer Mexican texts.

  20. Unraveling molecular mechanistic differences in liver metabolism between lean and fat lines of Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica): a proteomic study.

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    Zheng, Aijuan; Chang, Wenhuan; Hou, Shuisheng; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Huiyi; Chen, Guilan; Lou, Ruiying; Liu, Guohua

    2014-02-26

    Duck is one of the major poultry meat sources for human consumption. To satisfy different eating habits, lean and fat strains of Pekin ducks have been developed. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular mechanistic differences in liver metabolism between two duck strains. The liver proteome of the Pekin duck lines was compared on days 1, 14, 28, and 42 posthatching using 2-DE based proteomics. There was a different abundance of 76 proteins in the livers of the two duck lines. Fat ducks strongly expressed proteins related to pathways of glycolysis, ATP synthesis, and protein catabolism, suggesting enhanced fat deposition rather than protein retention. In contrast, highly expressed proteins in lean ducks improved protein anabolism and reduced protein catabolism, resulting in an enhancement of lean meat deposition. Along with the decrease in fat deposition, the immune system of the lean duck strain may be enhanced by enhanced expression of proteins involved in stress response, immune defense, and antioxidant functions. These results indicate that selection pressure has shaped the two duck lines differently resulting in different liver metabolic capacities. These observed variations between the two strains at the molecular level are matched with physiological changes in growth performance and meat production. This information may have beneficial impacts in areas such as genetic modification through the manipulation of target proteins or genes in specific pathways to improve the efficiency of duck meat production. The objective of this study was to unravel molecular mechanistic differences in liver metabolism between lean and fat Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) strains. There was a different abundance of 76 proteins in the livers of the two duck lines. Enhanced protein expression in the fat ducks related to pathways of glycolysis, ATP synthesis and protein catabolism suggesting increased fat deposition rather than protein retention. In

  1. Monitoring responses to variation in food supply for a migratory waterfowl: American Black Duck (Anas rubripes) in winter.

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    Barboza, Perry S; Jorde, Dennis G

    2018-05-26

    Wintering Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) concentrate in wetlands along the Atlantic coast where natural and anthropogenic disturbances have increased over the last 50 years, a period in which the population of Black Ducks has declined. We studied the sensitivity of Black Ducks to perturbations in food supply that often result from disturbances by storms, predators, and people. In the paper, we characterize the responses of captive Black Ducks to shifts in food quality and availability during winter and apply those measures to a comparison of wild birds. Captive ducks that were fed intermittently (3 consecutive days/week) compensated for fasted days to achieve similar body mass and body fat to control birds that were fed every day on both animal- and plant-based diets. However, birds that were fed intermittently expended 15% more energy each day than controls when both groups were fed (536 vs. 464 kJ/kg 0.75 ), which indicates that variable food supply increases the costs of maintenance and thus reduces the number of birds that can be supported on the same resource of food without interruptions to foraging. Egg production was not affected by diet quality provided in spring or by the frequency of feeding during the preceding winter months. Black Ducks lost body fat through winter in captivity and in the wild. Fat stores of birds in New Jersey were greater than those of birds in Maine (13.3 vs. 8.3% of body mass) in January, which reflected the high energy demands of cold temperatures in Maine. Values for ∂ 15 N were greater in Maine than in New Jersey for both red blood cells and plasma, which indicated a consistent diet of marine invertebrates in Maine. Greater isotopic variation in red blood cells indicated that diets were more diverse in New Jersey than in Maine for both ∂ 15 N (9.7 ± 1.1 vs. 11.2 ± 0.4‰) and for ∂ 13 C (- 15.1 ± 2.2 vs. - 13.8 ± 1.4‰). Plasma ∂ 13 C was enriched over red blood cells in wild birds especially those

  2. Does access to open water affect the health of Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)?

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    O'Driscoll, K K M; Broom, D M

    2011-02-01

    Access to open water is considered good for the welfare of Pekin ducks. These studies investigated the effect that the type of water resource, provided over either straw bedding or a rubber mesh, had on measures of duck health. Pekin strain ducklings (n = 2,600) were managed in pens of 100 on straw over a solid concrete floor. In study 1, one of two water resources (nipple, n = 5 pens; wide-lip bell drinker, n = 5 pens), was located directly over the straw. In study 2, one of three water resources (narrow-lip bell drinker, n = 6 pens; trough, n = 5 pens; and bath, n = 5 pens) was located over a rubber mesh. On d 16, 24, 29, 35, and 43, (study 1) or d 21, 29, 35, and 43 posthatch (study 2), 10 birds were selected from each pen and weighed, and then feather hygiene, footpad dermatitis, eye health, gait score, and nostril condition scores were taken. Treatment had no effect on BW in either study, but in study 2, ducks in the open water treatments had higher scores (P blocked nostrils in the trough and bath treatments than in the narrow-lip bell drinker treatment in study 2 (P = 0.01). Provision of open water, particularly over a properly constructed drainage area, improved some aspects of duck health (improved feather hygiene and BW, and fewer dirty and blocked nostrils). However, further work is needed to investigate these treatments on a commercial scale.

  3. Humid microclimates within the plumage of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) can potentially facilitate long distance dispersal of propagules

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    Coughlan, Neil E.; Kelly, Tom C.; Davenport, John; Jansen, Marcel A. K.

    2015-05-01

    Birds as carriers of propagules are major agents in the dispersal of plants, animals, fungi and microbes. However, there is a lack of empirical data in relation to bird-mediated, epizoochorous dispersal. The microclimate found within the plumage likely plays a pivotal role in survival during flight conditions. To investigate the potential of epizoochory, we have analysed the microclimatic conditions within the plumage of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Under similar ambient conditions of humidity and temperature, a sample of mallards showed a consistent microclimatic regime with variation across the body surface. The highest (mean) temperature and specific humidity occurred between feathers of the postpatagium. The lowest humidity was found between feathers of the centre back and the lowest temperature in the crissum. Observed differences in plumage depth and density, and distance from the skin, are all likely to be determining factors of microclimate condition. Specific humidity found within the plumage was on average 1.8-3.5 times greater than ambient specific humidity. Thus, the plumage can supply a microclimate buffered from that of the exterior environment. Extrapolating survival data for Lemna minor desiccation at various temperature and humidity levels to the measured plumage microclimatic conditions of living birds, survival for up to 6 h can be anticipated, especially in crissum, crural and breast plumage. The results are discussed in the context of potential long distance epizoochorous dispersal by A. platyrhynchos and similar species.

  4. Interspecific hybridization contributes to high genetic diversity and apparent effective population size in an endemic population of mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula maculosa)

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    Peters, Jeffrey L.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Lavretsky, Philip; Rezsutek, Michael; Johnson, William P.; McCracken, Kevin G.

    2014-01-01

    Under drift-mutation equilibrium, genetic diversity is expected to be correlated with effective population size (Ne). Changes in population size and gene flow are two important processes that can cause populations to deviate from this expected relationship. In this study, we used DNA sequences from six independent loci to examine the influence of these processes on standing genetic diversity in endemic mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) and geographically widespread mallards (A. platyrhynchos), two species known to hybridize. Mottled ducks have an estimated census size that is about two orders-of-magnitude smaller than that of mallards, yet these two species have similar levels of genetic diversity, especially at nuclear DNA. Coalescent analyses suggest that a population expansion in the mallard at least partly explains this discrepancy, but the mottled duck harbors higher genetic diversity and apparent N e than expected for its census size even after accounting for a population decline. Incorporating gene flow into the model, however, reduced the estimated Ne of mottled ducks to 33 % of the equilibrium Ne and yielded an estimated Ne consistent with census size. We also examined the utility of these loci to distinguish among mallards, mottled ducks, and their hybrids. Most putatively pure individuals were correctly assigned to species, but the power for detecting hybrids was low. Although hybridization with mallards potentially poses a conservation threat to mottled ducks by creating a risk of extinction by hybridization, introgression of mallard alleles has helped maintain high genetic diversity in mottled ducks and might be important for the adaptability and survival of this species.

  5. Toxicity of Prudhoe Bay crude oil to mallard duck (Anas Platyrhynchos) embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusimbo, W.S.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis examined the rates and timing of mortality and hatchability of mallard duck embryos that have been exposed to Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO). The objective was to identify any pathological abnormalities that may suggest that the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a target organ of toxicity. The study involved the external application of PBCO to the eggshell to mimic the natural route of exposure. Embryo mortality was then determined at different days of incubation and the most sensitive age of incubation to oil was established. On the basis of initial results, the following 3 hypothesis were formulated: (1) the CAM is a target organ of oil toxicity, (2) injury to the CAM compromises its physiological role of calcium mobilization from the eggshell, and (3) oil exposure causes anemia and damage to red blood cells of mallard embryos. Data was compared with data reported in chicken embryos exposed to the same type of petroleum oil. It was shown that the toxic effects of PBCO to mallard duck embryos were similar to those found in chicken embryos. Oil-exposed embryos exhibited high mortality and reduced growth. Pathological changes in liver, kidneys and bursa of Fabricius, in oil-exposed mallard embryos were also similar to those of exposed chicken embryos. It was noted that this is the first study to recognize and describe pathological changes in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of avian embryos exposed to petroleum oil. Lesions in the CAM were found in areas right beneath the oil on the egg shell and in areas distant from any such direct contact, suggesting that direct contact with the oil was not the main cause of injury to the CAM. The occurrence of lesions in CAM were highest immediately following exposure to PBCO. The lesions observed suggest two different kids of toxic effects, lethal injury to cells in various tissues, and alteration in the timing of organ development. The author notes that more remains to be learned regarding the toxic effects of

  6. Urocortin-like immunoreactivity in the primary lymphoid organs of the duck (Anas platyrhynchos

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    A. De Luca

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Urocortin (UCN is a 40 aminoacid peptide which belongs to corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF family. This family of peptides stimulates the secretion of proopiomelanocortin (POMC-derived peptides, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, b-endorphin and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH in the pituitary gland. In the present study, using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, the distribution of UCN in the primary lymphoid organs of the duck was investigated at different ages. In the cloacal burse and thymus, Western blot demonstrated the presence of a peptide having a molecular weight compatible with that of the mammalian UCN. In the cloacal burse, immunoreactivity was located in the medullary epithelial cells and in the follicular associated and cortico-medullary epithelium. In the thymus, immunoreactivity was located in single epithelial cells. Double labelling immunofluorescence studies showed that UCN immunoreactivity completely colocalised with cytokeratin immunoreactivity in both the thymus and cloacal burse. Statistically significant differences in the percentage of UCN immunoreactivity were observed between different age periods in the cloacal burse. The results suggest that, in birds, urocortin has an important role in regulating the function of the immune system.

  7. Ultrastructural study of liver and lead tissue concentrations in young mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) after ingestion of single lead shot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, Alain; Fauconneau, Bernard; Plouzeau, Eric; Fernandez, Béatrice; Quellard, Nathalie; Levillain, Pierre; Guillard, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Lead (Pb) represents a serious threat to wildlife and ecosystems. The aim of this study was to examine the subcellular effects of dietary Pb pellet ingestion on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) livers. After ingestion of a single Pb shot (LS4 size class: 0.177 ± 0.03 g) in 41 mallard ducks (22 males and 19 females) versus 10 controls (5 males and 5 females), all 7-week old, a morphologic study was conducted by TEM (transmission electron microscopy) of liver at the subcellular level. The results in treated mallards showed at a magnification of 2500 X that hepatic parenchyma was altered as evidenced by intralysosomal electron-dense deposits, which are compatible with Pb deposits. Further, at a higher magnification (15,000 X) in both genders, deterioration of mitochondria was observed in which the crests and, to a lesser extent, outer membrane were lysed. While the rough endoplasmic reticulum was fragmented, intracytoplasmic electron-dense material compatible with Pb deposits was maximally visible, thereby underscoring the deeply destructive effect of this metal on the subcellular architecture of the liver. In addition, applying an optimized and validated method in a clean room using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ETAAS) with Zeeman background correction, the objective was to improve and refine certain indispensable measurements pertaining to Pb impregnation in tissues other than liver such as kidneys, bones, and feathers of mallards. Data demonstrated show that compared with controls, Pb accumulation increases significantly, not only in the liver (3-fold), but also in the bones and the feathers (14-fold). No significant difference was noted between males and females. Bearing in mind the marked subcellular toxicity attributed to Pb, this study reinforces present-day arguments advocating limitation of game consumption.

  8. Toxicity and hazard of vanadium to mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; McKernan, Moira A.; Eisenreich, Karen M.; Link, William A.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Hoffman, David J.; Knowles, K.A.; McGowan, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    A recent Canada goose (Branta canadensis) die-off at a petroleum refinery fly ash pond in Delaware was attributed to vanadium (V) toxicity. Because of the paucity of V toxicity data for wild birds, a series of studies was undertaken using the forms of V believed to have resulted in this incident. In 7-d single oral dose trials with mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos), the estimated median lethal dose (LD50) for vanadium pentoxide was 113 mg/kg body weight, while the LD50 for sodium metavanadate was 75.5 mg/kg. Sodium metavanadate was found to be even more potent (LD50 = 37.2 mg/kg) in male Canada geese. The most distinctive histopathological lesion of both forms of V was lympho-granulocytic enteritis with hemorrhage into the intestinal lumen. Vanadium accumulation in liver and kidney was proportional to the administered dose, and predictive analyses based on these data suggest that V concentrations of 10 μg/g dry weight (dw) in liver and 25 μg/g dw in kidney are associated with mortality (>90% confidence that exposure is >LD50) in mallards acutely exposed to sodium metavanadate. Chronic exposure to increasing dietary concentrations of sodium metavanadate (38.5 to 2651 ppm) over 67 d resulted in V accumulation in liver and kidney (25.2 and 13.6 μg/g dw, respectively), mild intestinal hemorrhage, blood chemistry changes, and evidence of hepatic oxidative stress in mallards, although some of these responses may have been confounded by food avoidance and weight loss. Dietary exposure of mallards to 250 ppm sodium metavanadate for 4 wk resulted in modest accumulation of V in liver and kidney (<5 μg/g dw) and mild intestinal hemorrhage. Based on these data and other observations, it is unlikely that chronic low-level dietary exposure to V poses a direct lethal hazard to wildlife. However, point sources, such as the V-laden fly ash pond encountered by geese at the petroleum refinery in Delaware, may pose a significant hazard to water birds.

  9. Tissue tropism of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in naturally infected mute swans (Cygnus Olor ), domestic geese (Aser Anser var. domestica), pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and mulard ducks ( Cairina moschata x anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeredi, Levente; Dán, Adám; Pálmai, Nimród; Ursu, Krisztina; Bálint, Adám; Szeleczky, Zsófia; Ivanics, Eva; Erdélyi, Károly; Rigó, Dóra; Tekes, Lajos; Glávits, Róbert

    2010-03-01

    The 2006 epidemic due to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 in Hungary caused the most severe losses in waterfowl which were, according to the literature at the time, supposed to be the most resistant to this pathogen. The presence of pathological lesions and the amount of viral antigen were quantified by gross pathology, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the organs of four waterfowl species [mute swans (n = 10), domestic geese (n = 6), mulard ducks (n = 6) and Pekin ducks (n = 5)] collected during the epidemic. H5N1 subtype HPAIV was isolated from all birds examined. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRRT-PCR) was also applied on a subset of samples [domestic geese (n = 3), mulard (n = 4) and Pekin duck (n = 4)] in order to compare its sensitivity with IHC. Viral antigen was detected by IHC in all cases. However, the overall presence of viral antigen in tissue samples was quite variable: virus antigen was present in 56/81 (69%) swan, 22/38 (58%) goose, 28/46 (61%) mulard duck and 5/43 (12%) Pekin duck tissue samples. HPAIV subtype H5N1 was detected by qRRT-PCR in all birds examined, in 19/19 (100%) goose, 7/28 (25%) mulard duck and 12/28 (43%) Pekin duck tissue samples. As compared to qRRTPCR, the IHC was less sensitive in geese and Pekin ducks but more sensitive in mulard ducks. The IHC was consistently positive above 4.31 log10 copies/reaction but it gave very variable results below that level. Neurotropism of the isolated virus strains was demonstrated by finding the largest amount of viral antigen and the highest average RNA load in the brain in all four waterfowl species examined.

  10. Cadmium and lead in tissues of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) using the Illinois River (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levengood, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Tissue lead and cadmium concentrations were examined in two common, widely distributed species of duck, utilizing a major river system. - Cadmium and lead concentrations were determined in the tissues of Mallards and Wood Ducks collected from two waterfowl management areas along the Illinois River, USA, during the autumn and late winter of 1997-1998. Lead concentrations in livers of Mallards were lower than previously reported, and, along with those in a small sample of Wood Duck livers, were within background levels (<2.0 μg/g wet weight). Mean concentrations of cadmium in the kidneys of Wood Ducks utilizing the Illinois River were four times greater than in after-hatch-year Mallards, and 14 times greater than in hatch-year Mallards. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidneys of Wood Ducks were comparable with those of specimens dosed with cadmium or inhabiting contaminated areas in previous studies. Wood Ducks utilizing wetlands associated with the Illinois River, and presumably other portions of the lower Great Lakes region, may be chronically exposed to cadmium

  11. Mortality in Laysan ducks (Anas laysanensis) by emaciation complicated by Echinuria uncinata on Laysan Island, Hawaii, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2004-01-01

    In November 1993, unusual mortality occurred among endangered Laysan ducks on Laysan Island, one of the remote refugia of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge (USA). Ten live ducks were emaciated, and blood samples documented anemia, heterophilia, and eosinophilia. Pathology in 13 duck carcasses revealed emaciation, marked thickening of the proventricular wall, abundant mucus, and nodules in the gastrointestinal tract. Histology revealed granulomata associated with nematodes in the proventriculus, small intestines, and body walls of nine of 10 ducks examined on histology. We suspect that low rainfall and low food abundance that year contributed to enhanced pathogenicity of parasite infection, either through increased exposure or decreased host resistance. Because the Laysan duck is found only on Laysan island and is critically endangered, translocation of this species to other islands is being considered. Given that we have not seen pathology associated with Echinuria spp. in native waterfowl on other Hawaiian Islands and given the parasite's potential to cause significant lesions in Laysan ducks, it will be important to prevent the translocation of Echinuria spp.

  12. THE USE OF Pomacea canaliculata SNAILS IN FEED TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF ALABIO DUCK (Anas plathyrinchos Borneo MEAT

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    A. Subhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to improve the physical and chemical quality of Alabio ducks which was fed with Pomacea canaliculata snails. Those ducks were raised intensively. There were nine treatments  included R0 (control feed, R1 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R2 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R3 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R4 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R5 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R6 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R7 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, and R8 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area. The variables observed included meat chemical and physical quality. A Completely Randomized Design was used in this study. Analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test were used to analyze data. The research results revealed that using Pomacea canaliculata snails in duck feed had a significant effect (P<0.05 towards the physical characteristics (water holding capacity, cooking loss, and tenderness, and chemical characteristics of Alabio duck meat (water, protein, collagen, fat, and cholesterol content. However, there was no significant effect towards meat pH. It can be concluded that using 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails in a mixture of Alabio duck feed decreased cooking loss and meat cholesterol content.

  13. SNPs in the 5'-regulatory region of the tyrosinase gene do not affect plumage color in ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N N; Hu, J W; Liu, H H; Xu, H Y; He, H; Li, L

    2015-12-29

    Tyrosinase, encoded by the TYR gene, is the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of melanin pigment. In this study, plumage color separation was observed in Cherry Valley duck line D and F1 and F2 hybrid generations of Liancheng white ducks. Gene sequencing and bioinformatic analysis were applied to the 5'-regulatory region of TYR, to explore the connection between TYR sequence variation and duck plumage color. Four SNPs were found in the 5'-regulatory region. The SNPs were in tight linkage and formed three haplotypes. However, the genotype distribution in groups with different plumage color was not significantly different, and there were no changes in the transcription factor binding sites between the different genotypes. In conclusion, these SNP variations may not cause the differences in feather color observed in this test group.

  14. Skin Colour, Abdominal Fat, and Carcass Fat of Male Alabio Duck (Anas plathyrhincos Borneo Fed Azolla Based Ration

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    R Samudera

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This was conducted to know the effect of Azzola usage in their dietary toward skin color abdomen fat and carcass fat of male Alabio duck. The subject of this research was male Alabio duck attain the age 3 weeks as number 80 tails, with average first body weight 390,82 ± 0,63 g.  The dietary contain 16% protein and 3000 kcal energy.  Observation parameters including abdomen fat percentage, carcass fat, and skin color. Complete Random Design (RAL consist of 4 treatments and 5 repeating was applied.  Each treatment unit consisted of 4 tails of male Alabio duck.  Set as treatment was levels of Azzola pinnata flour usage as much as 0 (A0; 7.5 (A2; 15 (A3; and 22.5% (A4.  The effect of treatment towards abdomen fat (A0, A1, A2, and A3 / 1.50; 1.41; 1.23; 0.92 %, carcass fat (A0, A1, A2, and A3 / 7.99; 7.53; 5.74; 5.25 %, and skin color (A0, A1, A2, and A3 / 2.66; 3.62; 3.94; 4.20.  this research showed result of that treatment influence was significantly difference (P < 0.05.   Conclusion of this research, that azolla usage within dietary is able to decrease abdomen fat degree and carcass fat, reform skin color, thus, produce yellow color or un-pale. (Animal Production 10(3: 164-167 (2008   Key Words: Alabio duck, azolla, skin color, abdomen fat, carcass fat

  15. Characterization of 35 novel microsatellite DNA markers from the duck (Anas platyrhynchos genome and cross-amplification in other birds

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    Xu Ke

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study duck microsatellites, we constructed a library enriched for (CAn, (CAGn, (GCCn and (TTTCn. A total of 35 pairs of primers from these microsatellites were developed and used to detect polymorphisms in 31 unrelated Peking ducks. Twenty-eight loci were polymorphic and seven loci were monomorphic. A total of 117 alleles were observed from these polymorphic microsatellite markers, which ranged from 2 to 14 with an average of 4.18 per locus. The frequencies of the 117 alleles ranged from 0.02 to 0.98. The highest heterozygosity (0.97 was observed at the CAUD019 microsatellite locus and the lowest heterozygosity (0.04 at the CAUD008 locus, and 11 loci had heterozygosities greater than 0.50 (46.43%. The polymorphism information content (PIC of 28 loci ranged from 0.04 to 0.88 with an average of 0.42. All the above markers were used to screen the polymorphism in other bird species. Two markers produced specific monomorphic products with the chicken DNA. Fourteen markers generated specific fragments with the goose DNA: 5 were polymorphic and 9 were monomorphic. But no specific product was detected with the peacock DNA. Based on sequence comparisons of the flanking sequence and repeat, we conclude that 2 chicken loci and 14 goose loci were true homologous loci of the duck loci. The microsatellite markers identified and characterized in the present study will contribute to the genetic map, quantitative traits mapping, and phylogenetic analysis in the duck and goose.

  16. Gait in ducks (Anas platyrhynchos and chickens (Gallus gallus – similarities in adaptation to high growth rate

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    B. M. Duggan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic selection for increased growth rate and muscle mass in broiler chickens has been accompanied by mobility issues and poor gait. There are concerns that the Pekin duck, which is on a similar selection trajectory (for production traits to the broiler chicken, may encounter gait problems in the future. In order to understand how gait has been altered by selection, the walking ability of divergent lines of high- and low-growth chickens and ducks was objectively measured using a pressure platform, which recorded various components of their gait. In both species, lines which had been selected for large breast muscle mass moved at a slower velocity and with a greater step width than their lighter conspecifics. These high-growth lines also spent more time supported by two feet in order to improve balance when compared with their lighter, low-growth conspecifics. We demonstrate that chicken and duck lines which have been subjected to intense selection for high growth rates and meat yields have adapted their gait in similar ways. A greater understanding of which components of gait have been altered in selected lines with impaired walking ability may lead to more effective breeding strategies to improve gait in poultry.

  17. Characterizing early embryonic development of Brown Tsaiya Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos in comparison with Taiwan Country Chicken (Gallus gallus domestics.

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    Chompunut Lumsangkul

    Full Text Available Avian embryos are among the most convenient and the primary representatives for the study of classical embryology. It is well-known that the hatching time of duck embryos is approximately one week longer than that of chicken embryos. However, the key features associated with the slower embryonic development in ducks have not been adequately described. This study aimed to characterize the pattern and the speed of early embryogenesis in Brown Tsaiya Ducks (BTD compared with those in Taiwan Country Chicken (TCC by using growth parameters including embryonic crown-tail length (ECTL, primitive streak formation, somitogenesis, and other development-related parameters, during the first 72 h of incubation. Three hundred and sixty eggs from BTD and TCC, respectively, were incubated at 37.2°C, and were then dissected hourly to evaluate their developmental stages. We found that morphological changes of TCC embryos shared a major similarity with that of the Hamburger and Hamilton staging system during early chick embryogenesis. The initial primitive streak in TCC emerged between 6 and 7 h post-incubation, but its emergence was delayed until 10 to 13 h post-incubation in BTD. Similarly, the limb primordia (wing and limb buds were observed at 51 h post-incubation in TCC embryos compared to 64 h post-incubation in BTD embryos. The allantois first appeared around 65 to 68 h in TCC embryos, but it was not observed in BTD embryos. At the 72 h post-incubation, 40 somites were clearly formed in TCC embryos while only 32 somites in BTD embryos. Overall, the BTD embryos developed approximately 16 h slower than the chicken embryo during the first 72 h of development. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to describe two distinct developmental time courses between TCC and BTD, which would facilitate future embryogenesis-related studies of the two important avian species in Taiwan.

  18. Characterizing early embryonic development of Brown Tsaiya Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in comparison with Taiwan Country Chicken (Gallus gallus domestics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsangkul, Chompunut; Fan, Yang-Kwang; Chang, Shen-Chang; Ju, Jyh-Cherng

    2018-01-01

    Avian embryos are among the most convenient and the primary representatives for the study of classical embryology. It is well-known that the hatching time of duck embryos is approximately one week longer than that of chicken embryos. However, the key features associated with the slower embryonic development in ducks have not been adequately described. This study aimed to characterize the pattern and the speed of early embryogenesis in Brown Tsaiya Ducks (BTD) compared with those in Taiwan Country Chicken (TCC) by using growth parameters including embryonic crown-tail length (ECTL), primitive streak formation, somitogenesis, and other development-related parameters, during the first 72 h of incubation. Three hundred and sixty eggs from BTD and TCC, respectively, were incubated at 37.2°C, and were then dissected hourly to evaluate their developmental stages. We found that morphological changes of TCC embryos shared a major similarity with that of the Hamburger and Hamilton staging system during early chick embryogenesis. The initial primitive streak in TCC emerged between 6 and 7 h post-incubation, but its emergence was delayed until 10 to 13 h post-incubation in BTD. Similarly, the limb primordia (wing and limb buds) were observed at 51 h post-incubation in TCC embryos compared to 64 h post-incubation in BTD embryos. The allantois first appeared around 65 to 68 h in TCC embryos, but it was not observed in BTD embryos. At the 72 h post-incubation, 40 somites were clearly formed in TCC embryos while only 32 somites in BTD embryos. Overall, the BTD embryos developed approximately 16 h slower than the chicken embryo during the first 72 h of development. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to describe two distinct developmental time courses between TCC and BTD, which would facilitate future embryogenesis-related studies of the two important avian species in Taiwan. PMID:29742160

  19. Differences in the detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in feather samples from 4-week-old and 24-week-old infected Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Roberta; Beato, Maria Serena; Mancin, Marzia; Rigoni, Michela; Tejeda, Aurora Romero; Maniero, Silvia; Capua, Ilaria; Terregino, Calogero

    2013-08-30

    Previous studies have reported the detection of H5N1 HPAI virus in feathers from ducks naturally and experimentally infected and suggested that feather calami (FC) could be used as diagnostic samples for the early detection of H5N1 HPAI infections. Ducks are readily infected with H5N1 HPAI viruses although the development of clinical signs and deaths were reported as age-related with younger birds being more susceptible. The correlation between age and virus localisation in FC of infected ducks has not been studied to date. In the present study juvenile (4-week-old) and adult (24-week-old) Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica) were infected experimentally with a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI virus (A/duck/Nigeria/1071-23/2007). Tracheal (Tr) and cloacal (Cl) swabs and FC were collected at 3, 5, 7 and 10 days post infection and tested by RRT-PCR and a double antibody sandwich-ELISA (DAS-ELISA) developed in house. Virus was detected in swabs and FC of challenged ducks with a higher rate of detection in juvenile ducks. In this age group virus was detected over a longer period of time in FC compared to swabs. Our study showed that FC samples collected from young ducks are a valid diagnostic specimen for H5N1 HPAI virus detection. The DAS-ELISA on FC proved to be a suitable alternative diagnostic test when molecular and/or virus isolation techniques are not available therefore it could be useful in the diagnosis of H5N1 HPAI infections in under-resourced countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Intra and extra hepathic biliary ducts of ducks (Anas boscas Vias biliares intra e extra-hepáticas de marreco-de-pequim (Anas boscas

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    Juarez Cezar Borges de Aquino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A study in 38 liver of adults ducks from Jundiaí, state of São Paulo, was developed. After injection of Neoprene latex 650 colored by green and fixation in aqueous 10% formalin, the material was dissected under dental loupe, photographed and sketched. The intra hepatic bile ducts of the left lobe showed up in 76.3% the samples consisting of three collecting ducts bile; and 23.7% of the cases, there was the presence of one collector originated from caudal segment, draining to the hepatic duodenal duct. In the right lobe, in 100% of samples, were four collecting duct segments: cranium medial superficial, cranium medial deep, lateral and caudal (ventral caudal. With regard to biliary extra hepatic in 36 samples(94.7% it was composed of three ducts visible in hepatic hilum: hepatic duodenal, hepatic cystic and cystic duodenal. In two samples (5.3% was not observed hepatic cystic duct. The hepatic duodenal ductand cystic duodenal duct in 100% of the samples, they reached the duodenum. In six samples (15.8 %, besides the hepatic cystic duct, the gallbladder was achieved directly by bile collecting ducts of the right lobe. The gallbladder was not achieved by hepatic cystic duct in two samples (5.3 %. As vias biliares intra e extra-hepáticas de 38 marrecos-de-pequim adultos, provenientes de Jundiaí,estado de São Paulo, após injeção de Neoprene Látex 650 corado de verde e fixação em solução aquosa de formol a 10%, foram dissecados sob lupa odontológica, fotografados e desenhados esquematicamente. A via biliar intra-hepática no lobo esquerdo mostrou-se constituída por três ductos coletores biliares em 76,3% das amostras e, em 23,7% dos casos, está presente um quarto coletor, originado no segmentocaudal, drenando para o ducto hepatoduodenal. No lobo direito, em 100% das amostras ocorreram quatro ductos coletores dos segmentos craniomedial superficial, craniomedial profundo, lateral e caudal (ventrocaudal. No que se refere à via biliar

  1. Microautoradiographic study of the distribution of methylmercuric(/sup 203/) chloride in the Mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pass, D A

    1975-01-01

    Following oral administration of CH/sub 3/ /sup 203/HgCl (an environmental pollutant) to adult Mallard ducks, a heavy concentration of labeled Hg was detected in the esophageal muscosa, liver and kidneys. The concentration of exposed Ag grains in other tissues was only slightly greater than that of the background. At a cellular level, a selective concentration of labeled Hg was seen only in the CNS, an accumulation being present in astrocytes in all regions of the brain and spinal cord and in ependymal cells. In 1 bird that received 0.684 mCi of /sup 203/Hg, a selective accumulation of Hg was present in the cytoplasm of brain and spinal cord neurons. The presence of CH/sub 3/HgCl in astrocytes may be related to functional changes in astrocytes.

  2. Efficacy of a Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus H5 Vaccine Against Challenge With H5N1 Clades 1.1.2 and 2.3.2.1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Domestic Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Kapczynski, Darrell R; DeJesus, Eric; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Tripodi, Astrid; Dunn, John R; Swayne, David E

    2016-03-01

    Domestic ducks are the second most abundant poultry species in many Asian countries and have played a critical role in the epizootiology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI).In this study, the protective efficacy of a live recombinant vector vaccine based on a turkey herpesvirus (HVT) expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI strain (A/Swan/Hungary/4999/ 2006) (rHVT-H5/2.2), given at 3 days of age, was examined in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus). The vaccine was given alone or in combination with an inactivated H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1 reverse genetic (rgGD/2.3.2.1) vaccine given at 16 days of age, either as a single vaccination or in a prime-boost regime. At 30 days of age, ducks were challenged with one of two H5N1 HPAI viruses: A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-2721/2013 (clade 1.1.2) or A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-1584/2012 (clade 2.3.2.1.C). These viruses produced 100% mortality in less than 5 days in nonvaccinated control ducks. Ducks vaccinated with the rgGD/2.3.2.1 vaccine, with or without the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine, were 90%-100% protected against mortality after challenge with either of the two H5N1 HPAI viruses. The rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine alone, however, conferred only 30% protection against mortality after challenge with either H5N1 HPAI virus; the surviving ducks from these groups shed higher amount of virus and for longer than the single-vaccinated rgGD/2.3.2.1 group. Despite low protection, ducks vaccinated with the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine and challenged with the clade 1.1.2 Vietnam virus had a longer mean death time than nonvaccinated controls (P = 0.02). A booster effect was found on reduction of virus shedding when using both vaccines, with lower oropharyngeal viral titers at 4 days after challenge with either HPAI virus (P study demonstrates the suboptimal protection with the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine given alone in Pekin ducks against H5N1 HPAI viruses and only a minor additive effect on virus shedding reduction when used with an inactivated vaccine in a

  3. Variations with age in the adrenocortical responses of Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) consuming petroleum-contaminated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorsline, J.; Holmes, W.N.

    1982-01-01

    Mallard ducks were fed ad libitum a diet containing 3 ml South Louisiana crude oil per 100 gm dry food. Plasma samples were analyzed for corticosterone by radioimmunoassay and hepatic mixed function oxidase activity was determined in microsomal fractions from liver homogenates. Results show that birds in each age group, whether consuming either uncontaminated or contaminated food, showed no significant changes in body weight during the ten-day experimental period. Also, no significant differences were detected between the rates of food consumption by birds in the various age groups. The similar levels of total hepatic mixed function oxidase activity induced by the similar volumes of crude oil consumed by the individuals in each age class strongly suggests that the declines inplasma corticosterone concentration occurred in response to similar levels of systemic contamination. Since the decreases were larger in the younger birds than in the older birds, age seems to have been an important factor determining the degree of hypoadrenocorticalism developed following their exposure to contaminated food

  4. A consensus approach to vertebrate de novo transcriptome assembly from RNA-seq data: Assembly of the duck (Anas platyrhynchos transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna eMoreton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For vertebrate organisms where a reference genome is not available, de novo transcriptome assembly enables a cost effective insight into the identification of tissue specific or differentially expressed genes and variation of the coding part of the genome. However, since there are a number of different tools and parameters that can be used to reconstruct transcripts, it is difficult to determine an optimal method. Here we suggest a pipeline based on (1 assessing the performance of three different assembly tools (2 using both single and multiple k-mer approaches (3 examining the influence of the number of reads used in the assembly (4 merging assemblies from different tools. We use an example dataset from the vertebrate Anas platyrhynchos domestica (Pekin duck. We find that taking a subset of data enables a robust assembly to be produced by multiple methods without the need for very high memory capacity. The use of reads mapped back to transcripts (RMBT and CEGMA (Core Eukaryotic Genes Mapping Approach provides useful metrics to determine the completeness of assembly obtained. For this dataset the use of multiple k-mers in the assembly generated a more complete assembly as measured by greater number of RMBT and CEGMA score. Merged single k-mer assemblies are generally smaller but consist of longer transcripts, suggesting an assembly consisting of fewer fragmented transcripts. We suggest that the use of a subset of reads during assembly allows the relatively rapid investigation of assembly characteristics and can guide the user to the most appropriate transcriptome for particular downstream use. Transcriptomes generated by the compared assembly methods and the final merged assembly are freely available for download at http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1032613.

  5. Susceptibility of Muscovy (Cairina Moschata) and mallard ducks (Anas Platyrhynchos) to experimental infections by different genotypes of H5N1 avian influenza viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuong, Do Quy; Dung, Nguyen Tien; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2011-01-01

    exposed to infection with H5N1. To do this, an experimental study on infections with different genotypes of H5N1 in mallards and Muscovy ducks have been conducted, where it was found that the mortality of the inoculated Muscovy ducks was at least 80%, regardless of the virus strain employed. In contrast...... in the brain. Due to their high susceptibility, it is unlikely that Muscovy ducks act as a silent reservoir. The virus strains used in this study, to a certain degree, differed in their virulence properties to the bird species in question.......It is a fact that in Viet Nam, Muscovy ducks are raised in large populations (approximately 8 million), usually kept in small flocks together with mallards and chickens. As a result, it is a great concern for epidemiologists to elucidate possible differences in relation to these species being...

  6. Haematological indicators in hybrid mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos with regard to the use of meal from whole white lupin seeds in their diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zapletal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to assess the effect of replacing soybean meal with the meal from whole white lupin seeds (Lupinus albus of the Zulika variety in diets on selected haematological indicators in 40-day-old fattened hybrid mallard ducks. A total of 180 Cherry Valley ducks were divided into three groups (E1, E2, and control. The control group was fed a diet containing soybean meal. Soybean meal replaced with 50% and 100% meal of white lupin seeds were used in group E1 and group E2, respectively. At the end of the fattening, 12 ducks (6 males and 6 females were randomly selected from each group for a haematological examination. From the result of this study, it is clear that the effect of the diet was found only on the slightly varying number of white blood cells and on the proportion of monocytes. Ducks of group E2 showed a slight increase in the total number of leukocytes which was accompanied by a decrease in the percentage share of monocytes (P < 0.05. Based on the results, it can be claimed that the replacement of soybean meal with meal from the Zulika variety of whole white lupin seeds in the diet did not have a negative effect on the determined blood indicators. Therefore, whole white lupin seeds were successfully used as the important protein component of the diet for fattening hybrid mallard ducks.

  7. Infection studies with two highly pathogenic avian influenza strains (Vietnamese and Indonesian) in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), with particular reference to clinical disease, tissue tropism and viral shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, John; Green, Diane J; Lowther, Sue; Klippel, Jessica; Burggraaf, Simon; Anderson, Danielle E; Wibawa, Hendra; Hoa, Dong Manh; Long, Ngo Thanh; Vu, Pham Phong; Middleton, Deborah J; Daniels, Peter W

    2009-08-01

    Pekin ducks were infected by the mucosal route (oral, nasal, ocular) with one of two strains of Eurasian lineage H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus: A/Muscovy duck/Vietnam/453/2004 and A/duck/Indramayu/BBVW/109/2006 (from Indonesia). Ducks were killed humanely on days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 after challenge, or whenever morbidity was severe enough to justify euthanasia. Morbidity was recorded by observation of clinical signs and cloacal temperatures; the disease was characterized by histopathology; tissue tropism was studied by immunohistochemistry and virus titration on tissue samples; and viral shedding patterns were determined by virus isolation and titration of oral and cloacal swabs. The Vietnamese strain caused severe morbidity with fever and depression; the Indonesian strain caused only transient fever. Both viruses had a predilection for a similar range of tissue types, but the quantity of tissue antigen and tissue virus titres were considerably higher with the Vietnamese strain. The Vietnamese strain caused severe myocarditis and skeletal myositis; both strains caused non-suppurative encephalitis and a range of other inflammatory reactions of varying severity. The principal epithelial tissue infected was that of the air sacs, but antigen was not abundant. Epithelium of the turbinates, trachea and bronchi had only rare infection with virus. Virus was shed from both the oral and cloacal routes; it was first detected 24 h after challenge and persisted until day 5 after challenge. The higher prevalence of virus from swabs from ducks infected with the Vietnamese strain indicates that this strain may be more adapted to ducks than the Indonesia strain.

  8. The effect of age on the pathogenesis of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally

    OpenAIRE

    L?ndt, Brandon Z.; N??ez, Alejandro.; Banks, Jill; Alexander, Dennis J.; Russell, Christine; Richard? L?ndt, Angela C.; Brown, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    Background? Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have recently displayed increased virulence for wild waterfowl. Objectives? To study the effect of host age on the shedding and tissue dissemination of a HPAI H5N1 virus in infected Pekin ducks. Methods? Pekin ducks in two age?matched groups (n?=?18), 8 and 12?weeks old (wo) were each infected with 106 EID50/0?1?ml of HPAI A/turkey/Turkey/1/05 (H5N1, clade 2?2). Each day for 5?days, birds were monitored clinically, and cloacal ...

  9. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of C/EBP α, β and δ in adipose-related tissues and adipocyte of duck (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiamin; Wang, Wanxia; Hu, Shenqiang; Wang, Yushi; Sun, Wenqiang; Hu, Jiwei; Gan, Xiang; Wang, Jiwen

    2018-07-01

    CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α, β, δ (C/EBP α, β, δ) are essential transcriptional factors in regulating adipose development. However, information about their sequence characteristics and functions during adipocyte development still remains scarce in birds. In present study, we found that duck C/EBP α, β, δ differed in their phosphorylation sites and low complexity regions (LCRs) among their orthologs and paralogs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that C/EBP α, β, δ had different evolutionary patterns, and each of duck C/EBP α, β, δ was strikingly diverged from orthologs of other Aves. Results of quantitative real-time PCR exhibited that C/EBP α, β, δ were all highly expressed in duck adipose tissues. Indeed, investigations of changes in both their mRNA levels and lipid droplet content during duck adipocytes differentiation showed that their expression profiles were closely related to cellular lipid accumulation. Furthermore, hierarchical clustering analysis of the C/EBPs and lipid metabolism-related genes expression profiles showed that C/EBP α was clustered with genes related to lipolysis, lipogenesis and fatty acid desaturation, whereas C/EBP β, δ were clustered with genes related to de novo lipogenesis and fatty acid elongation, which were different from mammals. In summary, C/EBP α, β, δ of duck differ from other species in their structures and have different effects on lipid metabolism during adipocytes differentiation. This research serve as a foundation for further investigations about avian C/EBP α, β, δ in adipocytes differentiation and adipose development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pathogenesis of highly pathogenic avian influenza A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 H5N1 in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löndt, Brandon Z; Nunez, Alejandro; Banks, Jill; Nili, Hassan; Johnson, Linda K; Alexander, Dennis J

    2008-12-01

    Asian H5N1 (hereafter referred to as panzootic H5N1) highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has caused large numbers of deaths in both poultry and wild-bird populations. Recent isolates of this virus have been reported to cause disease and death in commercial ducks, which has not been seen with other HPAI viruses. However, little is known about either the dissemination of this H5N1 within the organs or the cause of death in infected ducks. Nineteen 4-week-old Pekin ducks were infected with 10(6.7) median egg infectious doses of HPAI A/turkey/Turkey/1/05 (H5N1, clade 2.2) in 0.1ml via the intranasal and intraocular routes. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were taken daily before three animals were selected randomly and killed humanely for postmortem examination, when samples of tissues were taken for real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry. Clinical signs were first observed 4 days post infection (d.p.i.) and included depression, reluctance to feed, in-coordination and torticollis resulting in the death of all the birds remaining on 5d.p.i. Higher levels of virus shedding were detected from oropharyngeal swabs than from cloacal swabs. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry identified peak levels of virus at 2d.p.i. in several organs. In the spleen, lung, kidney, caecal tonsils, breast muscle and thigh muscle the levels were greatly reduced at 3d.p.i. However, the highest viral loads were detected in the heart and brain from 3d.p.i. and coincided with the appearance of clinical signs and death. Our experimental results demonstrate the systemic spread of this HPAI H5N1 virus in Pekin ducks, and the localization of virus in the brain and heart tissue preceding death.

  11. The effect of age on the pathogenesis of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löndt, Brandon Z; Núñez, Alejandro; Banks, Jill; Alexander, Dennis J; Russell, Christine; Richard-Löndt, Angela C; Brown, Ian H

    2010-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have recently displayed increased virulence for wild waterfowl. To study the effect of host age on the shedding and tissue dissemination of a HPAI H5N1 virus in infected Pekin ducks. Pekin ducks in two age-matched groups (n = 18), 8 and 12 weeks old (wo) were each infected with 10(6) EID(50)/0.1 ml of HPAI A/turkey/Turkey/1/05 (H5N1, clade 2.2). Each day for 5 days, birds were monitored clinically, and cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs collected, before three birds from each group were selected randomly for post-mortem examination. Tissue samples were collected for examination by real-time RT-PCR, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Severe clinical signs, including incoordination and torticollis were observed in the 8 wo group resulting in 100% mortality by 4 dpi. Mild clinical signs were observed in the 12 wo group with no mortality. Real-time RT-PCR and IHC results demonstrated the systemic spread of H5N1 virus in birds of both age groups. Higher levels of virus shedding were detected in oropharyngeal swabs than in cloacal swabs, with similar levels of shedding detected in both age groups. Variations in level and temporal dissemination of virus within tissues of older ducks, and the presence of the virus in brain and heart were observed, which coincided with the appearance of clinical signs preceding death in younger birds. These results are consistent with reports of natural infections of wild waterfowl and poultry possibly indicating an age-related association with dissemination and clinical outcome in ducks following infection with H5N1 HPAI virus.

  12. Will leaded young mallards take wing? Effects of a single lead shot ingestion on growth of juvenile game-farm Mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plouzeau, Eric; Guillard, Olivier; Pineau, Alain; Billiald, Philippe; Berny, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to monitor retention of a single ingested lead shot in young mallards, and to evaluate effect on growth in relation to lead shot size class during late wing growth and the first wing molt period (8 to 12 weeks old). Toxicological tests, radiography and biometric measurements were conducted on 51 juvenile Mallard ducks. Forty one of them were given per os a single lead shot in three different commercially available sizes: No. 2 (LS2), No. 4 (LS4) and No. 6 (LS6). Less than 20% of total lead shots were found on X-rays at Day 21 (D) and none remained at D28, with mean retention time in gizzard calculated 12.85 ± 1.34 days for all treated groups. Young ducks developed high blood lead levels for each LS treatment at D15 in males and females, the maximal values being for LS2 (297.00 ± 78.64 μg/100 mL and 483.14 ± 83.70 μg/100 mL, respectively (p < 0.001)). Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels increased at D15 with LS2 and LS4 in males and only with LS6 in females. Treated ducks developed no symptoms of plumbism except light diarrhea, and at D40, all mallards had survived. We found that LS2 pellets released more lead in gizzards and produced the highest levels of blood lead, suggesting that LS2 pellets are more likely to intoxicate mallards than smaller sizes. The biometric measurements performed showed no statistical difference in weight or bill and wing length between control and treated groups, a finding suggesting that absorption of a single lead shot by young Mallard ducks does not affect their development during the first wing molt period, and appears not to compromise the flight capacity of young (post-juvenile) mallards. However, younger mallards and/or effects on growth of exposure to more than a single-shot dose still need to be investigated. - Research highlights: → The mean lead shot retention time in the digestive tract is shorter than expected. → The lead intoxication at D15 and D30 is confirmed in all mallards. → Size-class no. 2 lead

  13. Will leaded young mallards take wing? Effects of a single lead shot ingestion on growth of juvenile game-farm Mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plouzeau, Eric, E-mail: biozones@orange.fr [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, USM505 Ecosystemes et interactions toxiques, 12 rue Buffon, CP39, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Guillard, Olivier, E-mail: o.guillard@chu-poitiers.fr [CHU Poitiers, Laboratoire de biochimie 86021 Poitiers (France); Pineau, Alain, E-mail: alain.pineau@univ-nantes.fr [Universite Nantes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Laboratoire de Toxicologie 44000 Nantes (France); Billiald, Philippe, E-mail: billiald@mnhn.fr [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, USM505 Ecosystemes et interactions toxiques, 12 rue Buffon, CP39, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Berny, Philippe, E-mail: p.berny@vetagro-sup.fr [Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Lyon, BP 83, 69280 Marcy L' Etoile (France)

    2011-05-15

    This study aims to monitor retention of a single ingested lead shot in young mallards, and to evaluate effect on growth in relation to lead shot size class during late wing growth and the first wing molt period (8 to 12 weeks old). Toxicological tests, radiography and biometric measurements were conducted on 51 juvenile Mallard ducks. Forty one of them were given per os a single lead shot in three different commercially available sizes: No. 2 (LS2), No. 4 (LS4) and No. 6 (LS6). Less than 20% of total lead shots were found on X-rays at Day 21 (D) and none remained at D28, with mean retention time in gizzard calculated 12.85 {+-} 1.34 days for all treated groups. Young ducks developed high blood lead levels for each LS treatment at D15 in males and females, the maximal values being for LS2 (297.00 {+-} 78.64 {mu}g/100 mL and 483.14 {+-} 83.70 {mu}g/100 mL, respectively (p < 0.001)). Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels increased at D15 with LS2 and LS4 in males and only with LS6 in females. Treated ducks developed no symptoms of plumbism except light diarrhea, and at D40, all mallards had survived. We found that LS2 pellets released more lead in gizzards and produced the highest levels of blood lead, suggesting that LS2 pellets are more likely to intoxicate mallards than smaller sizes. The biometric measurements performed showed no statistical difference in weight or bill and wing length between control and treated groups, a finding suggesting that absorption of a single lead shot by young Mallard ducks does not affect their development during the first wing molt period, and appears not to compromise the flight capacity of young (post-juvenile) mallards. However, younger mallards and/or effects on growth of exposure to more than a single-shot dose still need to be investigated. - Research highlights: {yields} The mean lead shot retention time in the digestive tract is shorter than expected. {yields} The lead intoxication at D15 and D30 is confirmed in all mallards

  14. Selection responses for the number of fertile eggs of the Brown Tsaiya duck (Anas platyrhynchos after a single artificial insemination with pooled Muscovy (Cairina moschata semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Jui

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A seven-generation selection experiment comprising a selected (S and a control (C line was conducted with the objective of increasing the number of fertile eggs (F of the Brown Tsaiya duck after a single artificial insemination (AI with pooled Muscovy semen. Both lines consisted of about 20 males and 60 females since parents in each generation and each female duck was tested 3 times, at 26, 29 and 32 weeks of age. The fertile eggs were measured by candling at day 7 of incubation. The selection criterion in the S line was the BLUP animal model value for F. On average, 24.7% of the females and 15% of the males were selected. The direct responses to the selection for F, and correlated responses for the number of eggs set (Ie, the number of total dead embryos (M, the maximum duration of fertility (Dm and the number of hatched mule ducklings (H were measured by studying the differences across the generations of selection between the phenotypic value averages in the S and C lines. The predicted genetic responses were calculated by studying the differences between the S and C lines in averaged values of five traits of the BLUP animal model. The selection responses and the predicted responses showed similar trends. There was no genetic change for Ie. After seven generations of selection, the average selection responses per generation were 0.40, 0.33, 0.42, 0.41 genetic standard deviation units for F, M, Dm, and H respectively. Embryo viability was not impaired by this selection. For days 2–8 after AI, the fertility rates (F/Ie were 89.2% and 63.8%, the hatchability rates (H/F were 72.5% and 70.6%, and (H/Ie were 64.7% and 45.1% in the S and C lines respectively. It was concluded that upward selection on the number of fertile eggs after a single AI with pooled Muscovy semen may be effective in ducks to increase the duration of the fertile period and the fertility and hatchability rates with AI once a week instead of twice a week.

  15. Identification and expression analysis of the interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 5 (IFIT5 gene in duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    Full Text Available The interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs protein family mediates antiviral effects by inhibiting translation initiation, cell proliferation, and migration in the interferon (IFN dependent innate immune system. Several members of this family, including IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3 and IFIT5, have been heavily studied in mammals. Avian species contain only one family member, IFIT5, and little is known about the role of this protein in birds. In this study, duck IFIT5 (duIFIT5 full-length mRNA was cloned by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE. Based on the sequence obtained, we performed a series of bioinformatics analyses, and found that duIFIT5 was most similar to homologs in other avian species. Also, duIFIT5 contained eight conserved TPR motifs and two conserved multi-domains (TPR_11 and TPR_12. Finally, we used duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DHV-1 and polyriboinosinicpolyribocytidylic acid (poly (I:C as a pathogen or a pathogen-associated molecular pattern induction to infect three-day-old domestic ducklings. The liver and spleen were collected to detect the change in duIFIT5 transcript level upon infection by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. DuIFIT5 expression rapidly increased after DHV-1 infection and maintained a high level, while the transcripts of duIFIT5 peaked at 8h after poly (I:C infection and then returned to normal. Taken together, these results provide a greater understanding of avian IFIT5.

  16. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Interferon-Induced Protein with Tetratricopeptide Repeats 5 (IFIT5) Gene in Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunyu; Su, Yanhui; Liu, Ran; Huang, Zhengyang; Li, Yang; Yu, Qingming; Chang, Guobin; Xu, Qi; Chen, Guohong

    2015-01-01

    The interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) protein family mediates antiviral effects by inhibiting translation initiation, cell proliferation, and migration in the interferon (IFN) dependent innate immune system. Several members of this family, including IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3 and IFIT5, have been heavily studied in mammals. Avian species contain only one family member, IFIT5, and little is known about the role of this protein in birds. In this study, duck IFIT5 (duIFIT5) full-length mRNA was cloned by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE). Based on the sequence obtained, we performed a series of bioinformatics analyses, and found that duIFIT5 was most similar to homologs in other avian species. Also, duIFIT5 contained eight conserved TPR motifs and two conserved multi-domains (TPR_11 and TPR_12). Finally, we used duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DHV-1) and polyriboinosinicpolyribocytidylic acid (poly (I:C)) as a pathogen or a pathogen-associated molecular pattern induction to infect three-day-old domestic ducklings. The liver and spleen were collected to detect the change in duIFIT5 transcript level upon infection by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). DuIFIT5 expression rapidly increased after DHV-1 infection and maintained a high level, while the transcripts of duIFIT5 peaked at 8h after poly (I:C) infection and then returned to normal. Taken together, these results provide a greater understanding of avian IFIT5. PMID:25816333

  17. LM and TEM study of the orthokeratinized and parakeratinized epithelium of the tongue in the domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skieresz-Szewczyk, Kinga; Jackowiak, Hanna; Ratajczak, Marlena

    2014-12-01

    The previous histological studies of the lingual mucosa in birds characterized two types of keratinized epithelium, i.e. orthokeratinized and parakeratinized. These epithelia are composed of three layers: basal, intermediate and keratinized. The present study showed detailed ultrastructural features of cells in particular layers of two types of keratinized epithelia on the tongue in the domestic duck and defined structural differences. TEM observations showed a gradual reduction in cell organelles in the following layers, at increasing amounts of keratin fibers. The characteristic feature of the ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium is the presence of sub-layers in the intermediate layer, i.e. the upper and lower part, which results from the different shape of cell nuclei and dye affinity of the cytoplasm. The keratinized layer of ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium is built of two types of cells such as electron dark and light cells, which undergo exfoliation. The basic difference between the keratinized epithelia is the presence of flattened cell nuclei in the keratinized layer of the parakeratinized epithelium. The differentiating feature is also an arrangement of keratin fibers in the cell cytoplasm of the keratinized layer. The analysis of the thickness of the epithelium and the keratinized layer, indicated differences between keratinized epithelia, which result from two variants of performing protective functions, either through a thick keratinized layer or by a higher epithelium. Differences in the ultrastructure of the ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium are associated with mechanical functions of the epithelium resulting from different forces acting on the tongue during feeding activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of mild cold stress on the survival of seawater-adapted mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) maintained on food contaminated with petroleum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, W.N.; Gorsline, J.; Cronshaw, J.

    1979-01-01

    (1) Seawater-adapted Mallard ducks maintained in the laboratory will freely consume food that has been contaminated with either any one of a variety of crude oils or a petroleum derivative such as No. 2 fuel oil. (2) During a 100-day experimental period total masses of petroleum equivalent to 50% of the mean body weight were consumed by some birds and many showed no apparent symptoms of distress. (3) The consumption of petroleum-contaminated food was frequently accompanied by a persistent hyperphagia but no clear patterns of change in body weight were associated with this condition. (4) Among those birds that survived the 100-day experimental period only small changes in mean body weight were observed between successive weighings and in most instances these represented less than 10% of the previously recorded weight. (5) In all groups, including those maintained on uncontaminated food, most of the mortality occurred following exposure to continuous mild cold stress. The total number of deaths in the groups given petroleum-contaminated food, however, was always higher than that among birds given uncontaminated food. (6) The spate of mortality that occurred in groups given petroleum-contaminated food usually occurred earlier, lasted longer, and involved more birds than it did among groups fed uncontaminated food. (7) The pattern of each episode of mortality was sometimes quantitatively related to the concentration of petroleum in the food and a striking range of relative toxicities were observed among the crude oils from different geographic regions. (8) Throughout the experiment, the mean body weight of the birds that died was always significantly less than that of the survivors in the same group; in all instances most of the loss in weight occurred during the 2 weeks preceding death. (9) Autopsy revealed that adrenal hypertrophy and lymphoepithelial involution were characteristic in all of the birds that died, suggesting that a high level of adrenocortical

  19. Pathogenesis of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 H5N1 in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally

    OpenAIRE

    Löndt , Brandon Z.; Nunez , Alejandro; Banks , Jill; Nili , Hassan; Johnson , Linda K; Alexander , Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Asian H5N1 (hereafter referred to as panzootic H5N1) highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has caused large numbers of deaths in both poultry and wild bird populations. Recent isolates of this virus have been reported to cause disease and death in commercial ducks, which has not been seen with other HPAI viruses. However, little is known about the dissemination of this H5N1 within the organs and the cause of death in infected ducks. Nineteen 4-week-old Pekin ducks...

  20. Ana Mendieta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Íñigo Clavo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente texto hace un recorrido sobre algunos asuntos tratados en la producción artística de Ana Mendieta a través de una única obra: La performance Body Prints. En contraposición con la limpieza minimalista y en contraposición también con la opaca y compleja retícula gestual de Pollock, Mendieta presenta su cuerpo desnudo impregnado de sangre. Tendida en el suelo es cubierta primero con una sábana blanca y luego con una negra hasta dejar su huella en ambas. Las dos sábanas manchadas de sangre nos remiten a la figura del sudario, elemento que Mendieta usó en varios trabajos durante los primeros setenta.The following text looks at some of Ana Mendietas' subject matters through her piece: The Body Prints. Mendieta presents her naked body ipregnated of blood in contrast to the minimal cleannes, and also in contrast to Pollocks opaque and complex gestures network. On the floor she is first covered with a white sheet and then with a black one until a trace of her figure is imprinted on the sheets. The two sheets remaind us the shrough figure, an element that Mendieta used in several pieces during the seventies. Analyzing this performance we recognize themes such as violence, birth and female identity claimed by the feminist theory of diference.

  1. Heavy metals in tissues of water fowl from the Chesapeake Bay, USA. [Clangula hyemalis; Melanitta deglandi; Anas platyrhynchos; Anas rubripes; Anas strepera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giulio, R; Scanlon, P F

    1984-01-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, lead, copper and zinc were measured in 774 livers, 266 kidneys and 271 ulnar bones from 15 species of ducks obtained from the Chesapeake Bay region. A major purpose of this study was to elucidate relationships between food habits and tissue accumulations of heavy metals in Chesapeake Bay water fowl. Liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium were highest among two carnivorous seaduck species, Clangula hyemalis and Melanitta deglandi. In contrast, lead concentrations in tissues were generally highest in largely herbivorous species, such as Anas platyrhynchos, Anas rubripes and Anas strepera. Spent shot may be an important source for tissue burdens of lead in these ducks. No marked trends were observed between food habits and tissue concentrations of the nutrient elements, copper and zinc.

  2. Determinants of breeding distributions of ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.H.; Grier, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The settling of breeding habitat by migratory waterfowl is a topic of both theoretical and practical interest. We use the results of surveys conducted annually during 1955-81 in major breeding areas to examine the factors that affect the distributions of 10 common North American duck species. Three patterns of settling are described: homing, opportunistic, and flexible. Homing is generally more pronounced among species that use more stable (more predictable) wetlands, such as the redhead (Aythya americana), canvasback (A. valisineria), lesser scaup (A. affinis), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), gadwall (Anas strepera), and northern shoveler (Anas clypeata). Opportunistic settling is more prevalent among species that use less stable (less predictable) wetlands, such as northern pintail (Anas acuta) and blue-winged teal (Anas discors). Flexible settling is exhibited to various degrees by most species.The 10 species are shown to fall along a natural ordination reflecting different life history characteristics. Average values of indices of r- and K-selection indicated that pintail, mallard, blue-winged teal, and shoveler have the most features associated with unstable or unpredictable environments. Gadwall, American wigeon (Anas americana), and green-winged teal (Anas crecca) were intermediate, and attributes of the diving ducks were associated with the use of stable or predictable environments.Some species--notably mallard, gadwall, blue-winged teal, redhead, and canvasback--tend to fill available breeding habitat first in the central portions of their range, and secondly in peripheral areas. Other species--American wigeon, green-winged teal, northern shoveler, northern pintail, and lesser scaup--fill their habitat in the order it is encountered during spring migration.Age and sex classes within species vary in their settling pattern. Some of this variation can be predicted from the mating systems of ducks in which breeding females, especially successful ones, have a

  3. Survey for West Nile virus antibodies in wild ducks, 2004-06, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Jankowski, Mark D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) in ducks has been reported in North America in isolated cases of mortality in wild waterbirds and following outbreaks in farmed ducks. Although the virus has been noted as an apparent incidental finding in several species of ducks, little is known about the prevalence of exposure or the outcome of infection with WNV in wild ducks in North America. From 2004–06, we collected sera from 1,406 wild-caught American Wigeon (Anas americana), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) ducks at national wildlife refuges (NWRs) in North Dakota and Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) at NWRs in South Carolina and Tennessee. We measured the prevalence of previous exposure to WNV in these ducks by measuring WNV antibodies and evaluated variation in exposure among species, age, and year. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of a commercial antibody to wild bird immunoglobulin in duck species that varied in their phylogenetic relatedness to the bird species the antibody was directed against. As determined by a screening immunoassay and a confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization assay, the prevalence of WNV antibody was 10%. In light of experimental studies that show ducks to be relatively resistant to mortality caused by WNV, the antibody prevalence we detected suggests that wild ducks may be less-frequently exposed to WNV than expected for birds inhabiting wetlands where they may acquire infection from mosquitoes.

  4. Inositol-P6 induced structural changes in duck major haemoglobin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bamiji Babalola

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... of duck (Anas platyrhinchos) have been carried out in the presence of ... dependence profile of the apparent second-order rate constant of both oxy- and ... Key words: 5,5‟-Dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoate), duck, haemoglobin, inositol-P6, sulphydryl group. ... Saigo, 1999), thereby making it possible to detect the.

  5. Duck plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, M.

    1999-01-01

    Duck plague is caused by a herpesvirus. Infection often results in an acute, contagious, and fatal disease. As with many other herpesviruses, duck plague virus can establish inapparent infections in birds that survive exposure to it, a state referred to as latency. During latency, the virus cannot be detected by standard methods for virus isolation. Studies of domestic species of waterfowl have detected multiple strains of the virus that vary in their ability to cause disease and death. Little is known about the response of wild waterfowl to strain differences.Duck plague outbreaks are thought to be caused when birds that carry the virus shed it through fecal or oral discharge, thus releasing the virus into food and water with which susceptible birds may have contact. Experimental studies have demonstrated spontaneous virus shedding by duck plague carriers during spring. Changes in the duration of daylight and onset of breeding are thought to be physiological stresses that stimulate virus shedding at this time of year. The carriers are immune to the disease, but the virus shed by them causes infection and disease among susceptible waterfowl. Bird-to-bird contact and contact with virus that has contaminated the environment perpetuate an outbreak. Scavenging and decomposition of carcasses of infected birds also contaminate the environment by releasing viruses from tissues and body fluids. Virus transmission through the egg has been reported, but the role of the egg in the disease cycle remains to be resolved.

  6. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  7. Nonbreeding duck use at Central Flyway National Wildlife Refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Kent; Davis, Craig A.; Harris, Grant; Haukos, David A.

    2018-01-01

    Within the U.S. portion of the Central Flyway, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service manages waterfowl on numerous individual units (i.e., Refuges) within the National Wildlife Refuge System. Presently, the extent of waterfowl use that Refuges receive and the contribution of Refuges to waterfowl populations (i.e., the proportion of the Central Flyway population registered at each Refuge) remain unassessed. Such an evaluation would help determine to what extent Refuges support waterfowl relative to stated targets, aid in identifying species requiring management attention, inform management targets, and improve fiscal efficiencies. Using historic monitoring data (1954–2008), we performed this assessment for 23 Refuges in Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska during migration and wintering months (October–March). We examined six dabbling ducks and two diving ducks, plus all dabbling ducks and all diving ducks across two periods (long-term [all data] and short-term [last 10 October–March periods]). Individual Refuge use was represented by the sum of monthly duck count averages for October–March. We used two indices of Refuge contribution: peak contribution and January contribution. Peak contribution was the highest monthly count average for each October–March period divided by the indexed population total for the Central Flyway in the corresponding year; January contribution used the January count average divided by the corresponding population index. Generally, Refuges in Kansas, Nebraska, and New Mexico recorded most use and contribution for mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Refuges along the Texas Gulf Coast recorded most use and contribution for other dabbling ducks, with Laguna Atascosa and Aransas (including Matagorda Island) recording most use for diving ducks. The long-term total January contribution of the assessed Refuges to ducks wintering in the Central Flyway was greatest for green-winged teal Anas creccawith 35%; 12–15% for American

  8. Lead level in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Macinic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on a hunting ground belonging to AJVPS Arad, county Arad. Lead (Pb was determined in Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos tissues (muscles and organs (liver, kidneys to see the contamination level of this tissues and organs and also the impact on humans health because in our days more and more wild game meat take a increasing percentage in humans food ratio. The Mallard is one of the most widespread duck species. Mallard has 50-62 cm length, 800-1400 g weight and lives about 11 years. It prefers rivers and shallow pounds with a lot of reed. It is a migratory species that is flying long distances to find food and unfrozen water, so it is a exposed to lead contamination that is under dust form in atmosphere. But another reason why lead level in Mallard can be higher that in other flying specie (pheasant, woodcock, quail, and pigeons are the lead shot shells that are used for duck hunting. It is known that the ducks can ingest these lead shot shells and so they are often exposed to lead intoxications. This is why in our days more ammunition for waterfowl are steel made or different type of alloys. Lead is known to be one of the most common pollutants with a large range of effects on human health: lead affects nervous system, digestive tract, kidneys, bones, enzymes. Lead has also mutagenic effect, carcinogenic effect, teratogenic effect.

  9. Sex determination of duck embryos: observations on syrinx development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Franson, J. Christian

    2013-01-01

    Ducks exhibit sexual dimorphism in vocal anatomy. Asymmetrical ossification of the syrinx (bulla syringealis) is discernable at about 10 days of age in male Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) embryos, but information is lacking on the early development of the bulla in wild ducks. To evaluate the reliability of this characteristic for sexing developing embryos, we examined the syrinx of dead embryos and compared results with molecular sexing techniques in high arctic nesting Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima). Embryos 8 days or older were accurately (100%) sexed based on the presence/absence of a bulla, 2 days earlier than Pekin duck. The use of the tracheal bulla can be a valuable technique when sex identification of embryos or young ducklings is required.

  10. Red fox predation on breeding ducks in midcontinent North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Alan B.; Allen, Stephen H.; Eberhardt, Robert T.

    1984-01-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) predation on nesting ducks was assessed by examining 1,857 adult duck remains found at 1,432 fox rearing dens from 1968 to 1973. Dabbling ducks were much more vulnerable to foxes than diving ducks. Dabbling ducks (1,798) found at dens consisted of 27% blue-winged teals (Anas discors), 23% mallards (A. platyrhynchos), 20% northern pintails (A. acuta), 9% northern shovelers (Spatula clypeata), 8% gadwalls (A. strepera), 3% green-winged teals (A. crecca), 2% American wigeons (A. americana), and 10% unidentified. Relative abundance of individual species and nesting chronology were the most important factors affecting composition of ducks taken by foxes. Seventy-six percent of 1,376 adult dabbling ducks and 40% of 30 adult diving ducks for which sex was determined were hens. In western North Dakota and western South Dakota, 65% of mallard and northern pintail remains found at dens were hens compared with 76% in eastern North Dakota and eastern South Dakota (P fox predation rates on ducks. Predation rate indices ranged from 0.01 duck/den in Iowa to 1.80 ducks/den in eastern North Dakota. Average annual predation rate indices for dabbling ducks in a 3-county intensive study area in eastern North Dakota were closely correlated with May pond numbers (r = 0.874, P foxes than hens of late nesting species. Predation rate indices were expanded to estimate total numbers of ducks taken by fox families during the denning season. Estimated numbers of dabbling ducks taken annually by individual fox families in 2 physiographic regions comprising the intensive study area ranged from 16.1 to 65.9. Predation was highest during wet years and lowest during dry years and averaged lower, but was more variable, in the region where tillage was greatest and wetland water levels were least stable. Predation in the intensive study area averaged 2.97 adult dabbling ducks/ km2/year and represented an estimated average annual loss of 13.5% of hen and 4.5% of drake

  11. Band reporting probablilities of mallards, American black ducks, and wood ducks in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrettson, Pamela R.; Raftovich, Robert V.; Hines, James; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of band reporting probabilities are used for managing North American waterfowl to convert band recovery probabilities into harvest probabilities, which are used to set harvest regulations. Band reporting probability is the probability that someone who has shot and retrieved a banded bird will report the band. This probability can vary relative to a number of factors, particularly the inscription on the band and the ease with which it can be reported. Other factors, such as geographic reporting region, and species and sex of the bird may also play a role. We tested whether reporting probabilities of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and American black ducks (black ducks; Anas rubripes) differed from those of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and whether band reporting varied geographically or by the sex of the banded bird. In the analysis of spatially comparable wood duck and mallard data, a band reporting probability of 0.73 (95% CI = 0.67–0.78) was appropriate for use across species, sex, and reporting region within the United States. In the black duck–mallard comparison, the band reporting probability of black ducks in Eastern Canada (0.50, 95% CI = 0.44–0.57) was lower than in the Eastern United States (0.73, 95% CI = 0.62–0.83). These estimates reflected an increase in overall band reporting probability following the addition of a toll-free telephone number to band inscriptions. Lower reporting in Eastern Canada may be because of cultural, linguistic, or logistical barriers.

  12. MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS OF FEMALE DUCK, MUSCOVY-DUCK AND MULE-DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Johari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of morphometrical measurements inthe female waterfowls. The animals used in this research were 90 ducks , 90 muscovy-ducks and 90mule-ducks in Bulukumba district of Brebes regency, Central Java, Indonesia. Parameters measuredwere maxilla length, neck length, body length, chest circumstance, wing length, chest length, femurlength and tibia length. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System ver. 9.1. Muscovyduckgenerally had the largest of size, followed by mule-duck and then duck. The most discriminantvariables were showed by chest length and chest circumstance. Muscovy-duck and mule-duck hadclosest genetic distance (3.974870 than both of the distance between duck and mule duck (14.10, andmuscovy-duck and duck (24.73. The smallest errorness level in grouping was showed in duck 1%followed by 2% in mule-duck and 3% in muscovy-duck.

  13. ANA (Antinuclear Antibody Test)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as ratios. For example, the result 1:320 means that one part blood sample was mixed with 320 parts of a diluting ... name "antinuclear". My doctor told me my ANA test is ... normal concentration of these antibodies. This is one of the tools in diagnosing lupus as well ...

  14. Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MACRA MACRAlerts MACRA FAQs MACRA Glossary MACRA Resources Position Statements Insurance Advocacy Current Issues Tools & Resources Practice Resources ... a medical or health condition. Resources Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA) in Spanish (Español) Download Print-Friendly PDF ... Join Donate © 2018 American College ...

  15. Mitochondrial D-loop sequence of domesticated waterfowl in Central Java: goose and muscovy duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, R.; Iswari, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to determine the genetic characterization of domesticated waterfowl (goose and Muscovy duck) in Central Java based on a D-loop mtDNA gene. The D-loop gene was amplified using PCR technique by specific primer and sequenced using dideoxy termination method. Multiple alignments of D-loop gene obtained were 710 nucleotides at position 74 to 783 at the 5’ end (for goose) and 712 nucleotides at position 48 to 759 at the 5’ end (for Muscovy duck). The results of the polymorphism analysis on D-loop sequences of muscovy duck produced 3 haplotypes. In the D-loop gene of goose does not show polymorphism, with substitution at G117A. Phylogenetic trees reconstructions of goose and Muscovy duck, which was collected during this research compared with another species from Anser, Chairina and Anas was generated 2 forms of clusters. The first group consists of all kind of Muscovy duck together with Chairina moschata and Anas, while the second group consists of all geese and Anser cygnoides the other. The determination of Muscovy duck and geese identity can be distinguished from the genetic marker information. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, it can be concluded that the Muscovy duck is closely related to Chairina moschata, while geese is closely related to Anser cygnoides.

  16. Temporal flexibility of reproduction in temperate-breeding dabbling ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, Gary L.

    2000-01-01

    I compared nesting intervals during three consecutive years in five species of temperate-nesting dabbling ducks (Mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], Northern Pintail [Anas acuta], Northern Shoveler [Anas clypeata], Blue-winged Teal [Anas discors], Gadwall [Anas strepera]) and assessed whether differences existed in timing of refractoriness. Most nesting by females of all five species ended by the summer solstice. Nesting ended earliest for Northern Shovelers and Northern Pintails and latest for Gadwalls. Some Mallards, Blue-winged Teal, and Gadwalls continued to nest into mid- and late summer, whereas Northern Shovelers and Northern pintails did not. Mallards, Blue-winged Teal, and Gadwalls accounted for 99% (81 of 82) of flightless broods resulting from nests initiated during mid- or late summer in North Dakota and 98% (58 of 59) of flightless juveniles shot on or after 1 October by a random sample of duck hunters from across the United States. Early cessation of breeding by Northern Shovelers may have evolved in response to the species' limited flexibility in diet. Photorefractory mechanisms that limit most breeding to spring presumably evolved in response to severe constraints on reproductive success when nesting continued through summer(e.g. mortality of late-hatched young and molting females due to low temperatures). Interspecific differences in photosensitivity may account for variation in timing of cessation of nesting in late spring, but controlled experiments are needed to assess the possible role of non-photic influences. My results suggest that the refractory mechanisms controlling length of the breeding in temperate-nesting dabbling ducks are more varied and complex than previously thought, with non-photic influences (e.g. water conditions, food availability, food quality) having a larger role than indicated by earlier research.

  17. Nonbreeding Duck Use and Management Contribution Trends for Central Flyway Refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Kent; Davis, Craig A.; Harris, Grant; Haukos, David A.

    2018-01-01

    Within the U.S. portion of the Central Flyway, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service manages waterfowl on numerous individual units (i.e., Refuges) within the National Wildlife Refuge System. Presently, the extent of waterfowl use that Refuges receive and the contribution of Refuges to waterfowl populations (i.e., the proportion of the Central Flyway population registered at each Refuge) remain unassessed. Such an evaluation would help determine to what extent Refuges support waterfowl relative to stated targets, aid in identifying species requiring management attention, inform management targets, and improve fiscal efficiencies. Using historic monitoring data (1954–2008), we performed this assessment for 23 Refuges in Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska during migration and wintering months (October–March). We examined six dabbling ducks and two diving ducks, plus all dabbling ducks and all diving ducks across two periods (long-term [all data] and short-term [last 10 October–March periods]). Individual Refuge use was represented by the sum of monthly duck count averages for October–March. We used two indices of Refuge contribution: peak contribution and January contribution. Peak contribution was the highest monthly count average for each October–March period divided by the indexed population total for the Central Flyway in the corresponding year; January contribution used the January count average divided by the corresponding population index. Generally, Refuges in Kansas, Nebraska, and New Mexico recorded most use and contribution for mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Refuges along the Texas Gulf Coast recorded most use and contribution for other dabbling ducks, with Laguna Atascosa and Aransas (including Matagorda Island) recording most use for diving ducks. The long-term total January contribution of the assessed Refuges to ducks wintering in the Central Flyway was greatest for green-winged teal Anas creccawith 35%; 12–15% for American

  18. Tissue distribution of metals in white-fronted geese and spot-billed ducks from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2013-07-01

    This study presents concentrations of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb and Cd in livers, kidneys, muscles and bones of white-fronted geese Anser albifrons (geese) and spot-billed ducks Anas poecilorhyncha (ducks). Iron in livers, kidneys and muscles, Zn in muscles, Mn and Cd in every tissue, Cu in livers, muscles and bones and Pb in bones differed between species, and there were significant differences among tissues in both species. Essential elements such as Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations were within the background levels. Lead concentrations in livers of 7 of 14 geese and 7 of 19 ducks and in bones of 4 of 19 ducks exceeded background concentrations for waterfowl (5 μg/g dw for the liver, 10 μg/g dw for the bone). Almost all samples of both species had the background Cd concentrations in the liver (33 of 33 geese and ducks) and kidney (14 geese and 18 ducks). Tissue concentrations of Cd were greater in geese than ducks. In contrast, tissue concentrations of Pb in bones were greater in ducks than in geese. These different trends for Cd and Pb reflect a short and/or long term difference in exposure and degree of accumulation of these metals.

  19. Quantifying changes and influences on mottled duck density in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth; Haukos, David A.; Walther, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the relative influence of environmental and intrinsic effects on populations is important for managing and conserving harvested species, especially those species inhabiting changing environments. Additionally, climate change can increase the uncertainty associated with management of species in these changing environments, making understanding factors affecting their populations even more important. Coastal ecosystems are particularly threatened by climate change; the combined effects of increasing severe weather events, sea level rise, and drought will likely have non-linear effects on coastal marsh wildlife species and their associated habitats. A species of conservation concern that persists in these coastal areas is the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula). Mottled ducks in the western Gulf Coast are approximately 50% below target abundance numbers established by the Gulf Coast Joint Venture for Texas and Louisiana, USA. Although evidence for declines in mottled duck abundance is apparent, specific causes of the decrease remain unknown. Our goals were to determine where the largest declines in mottled duck population were occurring along the system of Texas Gulf Coast National Wildlife Refuges and quantify the relative contribution of environmental and intrinsic effects on changes to relative population density. We modeled aerial survey data of mottled duck density along the Texas Gulf Coast from 1986–2015 to quantify effects of extreme weather events on an index to mottled duck density using the United States Climate Extremes Index and Palmer Drought Severity Index. Our results indicate that decreases in abundance are best described by an increase in days with extreme 1-day precipitation from June to November (hurricane season) and an increase in drought severity. Better understanding those portions of the life cycle affected by environmental conditions, and how to manage mottled duck habitat in conjunction with these events will likely be key to

  20. GAMBARAN PROFIL DARAH ITIK PEKING (ANAS PLATYRHYNCHOS SETELAH DIBERIKAN EKSTRAK AKUADES DAUN KEDONDONG PAGAR (LANNEA COROMANDELICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safrida Safrida

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study was designed to determine the effect aqueous extract of Lannea coromandelica leaf at concentrations of erythrocytes and leukocytes in peking duck (Anas platyrhynchos. Experimental design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD consisted of 3 experimental treatments, each consisted of 8 ducks i.e., P0 (control, P1 (given aqueous extract of Lannea coromandelica leaf as much as 780 mg / mL / day / kg body weight, P2 (given aqueous extract of Lannea coromandelica leaf as much as 1560 mg / mL / day / kg body weight. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The results showed that the aqueous extract of Lannea coromandelica significant effect (p <0.01 in concentrations of erythrocytes peking duck, but had no effect (P>  0.01 in concentrations of the leukocytes. Average erythrocytes in all treatments, 2081667-2300000 per mm 3. The average number of leukocytes in all treatments, 23175-23500 per mm3. It was concluded that the aqueous extract of Lannea coromandelica leaf have effect on the increase concentrations of erythrocytes peking duck (Anas platyrhynchos.

  1. High rates of conspecific brood parasitism revealed by microsatellite analysis in a diving duck, the common pochard Aythya ferina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťovíček, O.; Kreisinger, Jakub; Javůrková, V.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2013), s. 369-375 ISSN 0908-8857 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0303 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : intraspecific nest parasitism * mallards Anas platyrhynchos * extra-pair maternity * clutch size * wood ducks Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.235, year: 2013

  2. Food use and nutrition of black ducks nesting in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, K.J.; Owen, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Based on 32 adult black ducks (Anas rubripes) collected during the nesting seasons of 1974-76, the proportion of macro invertebrates (as aggregate [average] percent of dry weight) in the diet of males, egg-laying females, and postlaying females was 60, 75, and 55%, respectivey. Sample sizes were small, and the differences associated with sex and reproductive condition were not signficant. Molluscs, Isopods, ephemeropteran and odonate nymphs, and coleopteran, trichopteran, and dipteran larvae contributed 74% of the dry weight and 64% of the gross energy ingested. Data from proximate analyses of 9 invertebrate and 9 plant foods were combined with food habits data to estimate the nutrients available to breeding hens. We concluded that females with access to an adequate amount of natural food including invertebrates and the seeds and tubers of aquatic plants would obtain sufficient minerals, protein, and energy for reproduction. Food quality does not appear to limit the density of black ducks nesting in Maine.

  3. Wave energy absorption by ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Adi

    2017-01-01

    We study the absorption of wave energy by a single and multiple cam-shaped bodies referred to as ducks. Numerical models are developed under the assumptions of linear theory. We consider wave absorption by a single duck as well as by two lines of ducks meeting at an angle.

  4. Wave energy absorption by ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi

    2018-01-01

    We study the absorption of wave energy by a single and multiple cam-shaped bodies referred to as ducks. Numerical models are developed under the assumptions of linear theory. We consider wave absorption by a single duck as well as by two lines of ducks meeting at an angle....

  5. Irradiation studies of mallard duck eggs material containing Mirex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, R.H.; Grodner, R.M.; Graves, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Eggs containing Mirex (dodecachloropentacyclo[5.3.0.0 2 , 6 .0 3 , 9 .0 4 , 8 ]decane) from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhychos l.), fed diets with the insecticide incorporated at levels of 1 and 100 ppM for 25 weeks, were subjected to ultraviolet (uv) and γ irradiation. Seven derivatives were obtained on photolysis and eight derivatives were obtained from γ irradiation. Irradiation products appeared to be mono and dihydro derivatives of Mirex. Structural assignments for two monohydro derivatives and three dihydro derivatives were made on the basis of retention time and mass spectral data

  6. Transcriptome analysis of adiposity in domestic ducks by transcriptomic comparison with their wild counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Luo, J; Li, J X; Li, J J; Wang, D Q; Tian, Y; Lu, L Z

    2015-06-01

    Excessive adiposity is a major problem in the duck industry, but its molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Genetic comparisons between domestic and wild animals have contributed to the exploration of genetic mechanisms responsible for many phenotypic traits. Significant differences in body fat mass have been detected between domestic and wild ducks. In this study, we used the Peking duck and Anas platyrhynchos as the domestic breed and wild counterpart respectively and performed a transcriptomic comparison of abdominal fat between the two breeds to comprehensively analyze the transcriptome basis of adiposity in ducks. We obtained approximately 350 million clean reads; assembled 61 250 transcripts, including 23 699 novel ones; and identified alternative 5' splice sites, alternative 3' splice sites, skipped exons and retained intron as the main alternative splicing events. A differential expression analysis between the two breeds showed that 753 genes exhibited differential expression. In Peking ducks, some lipid metabolism-related genes (IGF2, FABP5, BMP7, etc.) and oncogenes (RRM2, AURKA, CYR61, etc.) were upregulated, whereas genes related to tumor suppression and immunity (TNFRSF19, TNFAIP6, IGSF21, NCF1, etc.) were downregulated, suggesting adiposity might closely associate with tumorigenesis in ducks. Furthermore, 280 576 single-nucleotide variations were found differentiated between the two breeds, including 8641 non-synonymous ones, and some of the non-synonymous ones were found enriched in genes involved in lipid-associated and immune-associated pathways, suggesting abdominal fat of the duck undertakes both a metabolic function and immune-related function. These datasets enlarge our genetic information of ducks and provide valuable resources for analyzing mechanisms underlying adiposity in ducks. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  7. Punnett and duck genetics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    25, 191–194; reprinted in this issue as a J. Genet. classic, pages 3–7) ... 1932, starts with Punnett explaining that he started his work on ducks as he was asked ... text of Punnett's later comments on genes and human mental disease. Punnett's ...

  8. Classical bile acids in animals, beta-phocaecholic acid in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsa, M; Klinot, J; Klinotová, E; Ubik, K; Kucera, K

    1989-01-01

    1. Bile samples of different animals were analysed and the percentage content of classical bile acids was determined. 2. Herbivorous birds mostly excreted a large proportion of chenodeoxycholic acid. 3. The anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) excreted deoxycholic acid most probably as a primary bile acid. 4. In the bile of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) a large amount of (23R)3 alpha, 7 alpha, 23-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oic acid (beta-phocaecholic acid) was found.

  9. Differences in pathogenicity, response to vaccination, and innate immune responses in different types of ducks infected with a virulent H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Caran; Wasilenko, Jamie; Adams, Sean C; Cardona, Carol J; To, Thanh Long; Nguyen, Tung; Spackman, Erica; Suarez, David L; Smith, Diane; Shepherd, Eric; Roth, Jason; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J

    2012-09-01

    In a previous study, we found clear differences in pathogenicity and response to vaccination against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI; HA dade 2.3.4) between Pekin (Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica) and Muscovy (Cairina moschata) ducks vaccinated using a commercial inactivated vaccine (Re-1). The objective of the present study was to further investigate the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses in different species of ducks by examining clinical signs and innate immune responses to infection with a different strain of H5N1 HPAI virus (HA clade 1) in two domestic ducks, Pekin and Muscovy, and one wild-type duck, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Protection conferred by vaccination using the Re-1 vaccine against infection with this virus was also compared between Pekin and Muscovy ducks. Differences in pathogenicity were observed among the virus-infected ducks, as the Muscovy ducks died 2 days earlier than did the Pekin and mallard ducks, and they presented more-severe neurologic signs. Conversely, the Pekin and mallard ducks had significantly higher body temperatures at 2 days postinfection (dpi) than did the Muscovy ducks, indicating possible differences in innate immune responses. However, similar expression of innate immune-related genes was found in the spleens of virus-infected ducks at this time point. In all three duck species, there was up-regulation of IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-6, CCL19, RIG-I, and MHC class I and down-regulation of MHC class II, but variable expression of IL-18 and TLR7. As in our previous study, vaccinated Muscovy ducks showed less protection against virus infection than did Pekin ducks, as evidenced by the higher mortality and higher number of Muscovy ducks shedding virus when compared to Pekin ducks. In conclusion, infection with an H5N1 HPAI virus produced a systemic infection with high mortality in all three duck species; however, the disease was more severe in Muscovy ducks, which also had a poor response to vaccination. The

  10. Mid-winter European dabbling duck distributions are not linked to species body mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Delany, Simon; Fox, Anthony David

    are likely to play a major role in determining the wintering distribution of short- to medium-distance migratory bird species and its inter-annual variability. As avian thermoregulatory costs scale allometrically with body size, we predicted that the mean mid-winter temperature experienced by six species...... of dabbling ducks wintering in Western Europe would be negatively correlated with body mass. We found no evidence for such a relationship in a large-scale analysis testing for a link between temperature and dabbling duck distributions, suggesting that other factors such as those related to feeding ecology......In order to understand the current changes and to predict future changes in wintering dabbling duck (Anas sp.) distributions in response to climate change, it is important to understand how species distribute themselves on a continental scale in response to temperature. Thermoregulatory costs...

  11. Central hydroelectric of Santa Ana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo A, German

    2000-01-01

    The paper is related to the construction of an alternating tunnel of conduction to take advantage of the available hydraulic load among the Wiesner Plant and Santa Ana's tanks and of Suba, works required to build a hydroelectric power station with a generation capacity of approximately of 12 MW

  12. Corneal Opacity in Domestic Ducks Experimentally Infected With H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y; Nakamura, K; Yamada, M; Mase, M

    2016-01-01

    Domestic ducks can be a key factor in the regional spread of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus in Asia. The authors performed experimental infections to examine the relationship between corneal opacity and H5N1 HPAI virus infection in domestic ducks (Anas platyrhyncha var domestica). A total of 99 domestic ducks, including 3 control birds, were used in the study. In experiment 1, when domestic ducks were inoculated intranasally with 2 H5N1 HPAI viruses, corneal opacity appeared more frequently than neurologic signs and mortality. Corneal ulceration and exophthalmos were rare findings. Histopathologic examinations of the eyes of domestic ducks in experiment 2 revealed that corneal opacity was due to the loss of corneal endothelial cells and subsequent keratitis with edema. Influenza viral antigen was detected in corneal endothelial cells and some other ocular cells by immunohistochemistry. Results suggest that corneal opacity is a characteristic and frequent finding in domestic ducks infected with the H5N1 HPAI virus. Confirming this ocular change may improve the detection rate of infected domestic ducks in the field. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Effect of species, breed and route of virus inoculation on the pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza (HPAI) viruses in domestic ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Swayne, David E; Smith, Diane; Shepherd, Eric

    2013-07-22

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to be a threat to poultry in many regions of the world. Domestic ducks have been recognized as one of the primary factors in the spread of H5N1 HPAI. In this study we examined the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses in different species and breeds of domestic ducks and the effect of route of virus inoculation on the outcome of infection. We determined that the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses varies between the two common farmed duck species, with Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) presenting more severe disease than various breeds of Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica ducks including Pekin, Mallard-type, Black Runners, Rouen, and Khaki Campbell ducks. We also found that Pekin and Muscovy ducks inoculated with two H5N1 HPAI viruses of different virulence, given by any one of three routes (intranasal, intracloacal, or intraocular), became infected with the viruses. Regardless of the route of inoculation, the outcome of infection was similar for each species but depended on the virulence of the virus used. Muscovy ducks showed more severe clinical signs and higher mortality than the Pekin ducks. In conclusion, domestic ducks are susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus infection by different routes of exposure, but the presentation of the disease varied by virus strain and duck species. This information helps support the planning and implementation of H5N1 HPAI surveillance and control measures in countries with large domestic duck populations.

  14. Lead poisoning in domestic ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rac, R; Crisp, C S

    1954-05-01

    The death of wild ducks, due to the ingestion of lead shop, occurs frequently and is well documented. This paper discusses the death of domestic ducks due to the ingestion of lead. It describes the symptoms, and pathology of the lead poisoning of a clutch of 11 ducklings which were being raised on a farm in Australia. 3 references, 1 table.

  15. MHC classⅠ gene in two duck lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    Weishan Ma duck (WS) is the eugenic endemic breed, one of the four famous ducks in China, as well Cherry Valley duck (CV) is the largest number of breeding variety. WS is egg strain and CV is meat type. The two duck lines mainly support the. Chinese waterfowl industry. In this study, MHC class Ⅰ genes of WS and CV ...

  16. Wetland dynamics influence mid-continent duck recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.; Pearse, Aaron T.; Szymankski, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Recruitment is a key factor influencing duck population dynamics. Understanding what regulates recruitment of ducks is a prerequisite to informed habitat and harvest management. Quantity of May ponds (MP) has been linked to recruitment and population size (Kaminski and Gluesing 1987, Raveling and Heitmeyer 1989). However, wetland productivity (quality) is driven by inter-annual hydrological fluctuations. Periodic drying of wetlands due to wet-dry climate cycles releases nutrients and increases invertebrate populations when wet conditions return (Euliss et al. 1999). Wetlands may also become wet or dry within a breeding season. Accordingly, inter-annual and intra-seasonal hydrologic variation potentially influence duck recruitment. Here, we examined influences of wetland quantity, quality, and intra-seasonal dynamics on recruitment of ducks. We indexed duck recruitment by vulnerability-corrected age ratios (juveniles/adult females) for mid-continent Gadwall (Anas strepera). We chose Gadwall because the majority of the continental population breeds in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), where annual estimates of MP exist since 1974. We indexed wetland quality by calculating change in MP (?MP) over the past two years (?MP = 0.6[MPt – MPt-1] + 0.4[MPt – MPt-2]). We indexed intra-seasonal change in number of ponds by dividing the PPR mean standardized precipitation index for July by MP (hereafter summer index). MP and ?MP were positively correlated (r = 0.65); therefore, we calculated residual ?MP (?MPr) with a simple linear regression using MP, creating orthogonal variables. Finally, we conducted a multiple regression to examine how MP, ?MPr, and summer index explained variation in recruitment of Gadwall from 1976–2010. Our model explained 67% of the variation in mid-continent Gadwall recruitment and all three hydrologic indices were positively correlated with recruitment (Figure 1). Type II semi-partial R2 estimates indicated that MP accounted for 41%, ?MPr

  17. The universe of ANA testing: a case for point-of-care ANA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Konstantin N; Rubin, Robert L

    2017-12-01

    Testing for total antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is a critical tool for diagnosis and management of autoimmune diseases at both the primary care and subspecialty settings. Repurposing of ANA from a test for lupus to a test for any autoimmune condition has driven the increase in ANA requests. Changes in ANA referral patterns include early or subclinical autoimmune disease detection in patients with low pre-test probability and use of negative ANA results to rule out underlying autoimmune disease. A positive result can lead to further diagnostic considerations. Currently, ANA tests are performed in centralized laboratories; an alternative would be ANA testing at the clinical point-of-care (POC). By virtue of its near real-time data collection capability, low cost, and ease of use, we believe the POC ANA has the potential to enable a new paradigm shift in autoimmune serology testing.

  18. Interspecies transmission and limited persistence of low pathogenic avian influenza genomes among Alaska dabbling ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Andrew B.; Pearce, John M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Meixell, Brandt; Runstadler, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    The reassortment and geographic distribution of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus genes are well documented, but little is known about the persistence of intact LPAI genomes among species and locations. To examine persistence of entire LPAI genome constellations in Alaska, we calculated the genetic identities among 161 full-genome LPAI viruses isolated across 4 years from five species of duck: northern pintail (Anas acuta), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American green-winged teal (Anas crecca), northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) and American wigeon (Anas americana). Based on pairwise genetic distance, highly similar LPAI genomes (>99% identity) were observed within and between species and across a range of geographic distances (up to and >1000 km), but most often between isolates collected 0–10 km apart. Highly similar viruses were detected between years, suggesting inter-annual persistence, but these were rare in our data set with the majority occurring within 0–9 days of sampling. These results identify LPAI transmission pathways in the context of species, space and time, an initial perspective into the extent of regional virus distribution and persistence, and insight into why no completely Eurasian genomes have ever been detected in Alaska. Such information will be useful in forecasting the movement of foreign-origin avian influenza strains should they be introduced to North America.

  19. Duck viral enteritis in domestic muscovy ducks in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, S.; Converse, K.A.; Hamir, A.N.; Eckroade, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Duck viral enteritis (DVE) outbreaks occurred at two different locations in Pennsylvania in 1991 and 1992. In the first outbreak, four ducks died out of a group of 30 domestic ducks; in the second outbreak, 65 ducks died out of a group of 114 domestic ducks, and 15 domestic geese died as well. A variety of species of ducks were present on both premises, but only muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) died from the disease. On necropsy, gross lesions included hepatomegaly with petechial hemorrhages, petechial hemorrhages in the abdominal fat, petechial hemorrhages on the epicardial surface of the heart, and multifocal to coalescing areas of fibrinonecrotic material over the mucosal surface of the trachea, esophagus, intestine, and cloaca. Histologically, the liver had random multifocal areas of necrosis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. DVE virus was isolated and identified using muscovy duck embryo fibroblast inoculation and virus neutralization. /// En dos sitios diferentes se presentaron brotes de enteritis viral de los patos en el estados de Pensilvania en los a??os 1991 y 1992. En el primer brote, cuatro de un lote de 30 patos murieron mientras que en el segundo brote murieron 65 patos de un lote de 114 patos y 15 gansos. En ambas localidades exist?-a una variedad de especies de patos, sin embargo, s??lamente los patos almizcleros (Cairina moschata) murieron. A la necropsia, las lesiones macrosc??picas incluyeron hepatomegalia con hemorragias petequiales, hemorragias petequiales en la grasa abdominal y en la superficie del epicardio, y ?!reas multifocales o coalescentes de material fibrinonecr??tico sobre la superficie de la mucosa de la tr?!quea, es??fago, intestino y cloaca. Histol??gicamente, el h?-gado mostraba ?!reas multifocales de necrosis y cuerpos de inclusi??n intranucleares eosinof?-licos en los hepatocitos. El virus de la enteritis viral de los patos fue aislado e identificado usando fibroblasto de embriones de pato almizclero

  20. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  1. Methylmercury: Second generation reproductive and behavioral effects of mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) whose parents were fed a diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury (equal to about 0.1 ppm mercury in a natural diet) also were fed a diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury beginning at 9 days of age and continuing through their reproductive season. Mercury in the eggs of treated hens averaged 0.86 ppm. Hens fed 0.5 ppm mercury made less efficient use of feed and laid a greater percentage of eggs outside nestboxes compared with controls. Hens fed mercury also produced fewer 1-week-old ducklings than did controls. There were no significant differences between controls and ducklings from parents fed 0.5 ppm mercury in approach responses to tape-recorded maternal calls, in avoidance of a frightening stimulus, or in open-field behavior. Ducklings from parents fed 0.5 pprn mercury did not grow as fast as did control ducklings.

  2. Comparative proteomic analysis of the hepatic response to heat stress in Muscovy and Pekin ducks: insight into thermal tolerance related to energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zeng

    Full Text Available The Pekin duck, bred from the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos in china, is one of the most famous meat duck species in the world. However, it is more sensitive to heat stress than Muscovy duck, which is believed to have originated in South America. With temperature raising, mortality, laying performance, and meat quality of the Pekin duck are severely affected. This study aims to uncover the temperature-dependent proteins of two duck species using comparative proteomic approach. Duck was cultured under 39°C ± 0.5°C for 1 h, and then immediately returned to 20°C for a 3 h recovery period, the liver proteins were extracted and electrophoresed in two-dimensional mode. After analysis of gel images, 61 differentially expressed proteins were detected, 54 were clearly identified by MALDI TOF/TOF MS. Of the 54 differentially expressed protein spots identified, 7 were found in both species, whereas 47 were species specific (25 in Muscovy duck and 22 in Pekin duck. As is well known, chaperone proteins, such as heat shock protein (HSP 70 and HSP10, were abundantly up-regulated in both species in response to heat stress. However, we also found that several proteins, such as α-enolase, and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, showed different expression patterns in the 2 duck species. The enriched biological processes were grouped into 3 main categories according to gene ontology analysis: cell death and apoptosis (20.93%, amino acid metabolism (13.95% and oxidation reduction (20.93%. The mRNA levels of several differentially expressed protein were investigated by real-time RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide insights into the differential expression of proteins following heat stress in ducks and enables better understanding of possible heat stress response mechanisms in animals.

  3. Mexican Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuzger, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    It was the complex and far-reaching transformation of the Mexican Revolution rather than the First World War that left its mark on Mexican history in the second decade of the 20th century. Nevertheless, although the country maintained its neutrality in the international conflict, it was a hidden theatre of war. Between 1914 and 1918, state actors in Germany, Great Britain and the United States defined their policies towards Mexico and its nationalist revolution with a view not only to improve...

  4. Ducks and passerines nesting in northern mixed-grass prairie treated with fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Todd A.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Madden, Elizabeth M.; Berkey, Gordon B.

    2011-01-01

    Prescribed fire is an important, ecology-driven tool for restoration of grassland systems. However, prescribed fire remains controversial for some grassland managers because of reported reductions in bird use of recently burned grasslands. Few studies have evaluated effects of fire on grassland bird populations in the northern mixed-grass prairie region. Fewer studies yet have examined the influence of fire on nest density or survival. In our review, we found no studies that simultaneously examined effects of fire on duck and passerine nesting. During 1998—2003, we examined effects of prescribed fire on the density of upland-nesting ducks and passerines nesting in north-central North Dakota, USA. Apparent nest densities of gadwall (Anas strepera), mallard (A. platyrhynchos), and all duck species combined, were influenced by fire history of study units, although the degree of influence was not compelling. Fire history was not related to nest densities of blue-winged teal (A. discors), northern shoveler (A. clypeata), or northern pintail (A. acuta); however, apparent nest densities in relation to the number of postfire growing seasons exhibited a strikingly similar pattern among all duck species. When compared to ducks, fire history strongly influenced apparent nest densities of clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), and bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus). For most species examined, apparent nest densities were lowest in recently burned units, increased during the second postfire growing season, and stabilized or, in some cases, decreased thereafter. Prescribed fire is critical for restoring the ecology of northern mixed-grass prairies and our findings indicate that reductions in nest densities are limited mostly to the first growing season after fire. Our results support the premise that upland-nesting ducks and several grassland passerine species are adapted to periodic fires occurring at a frequency similar to that

  5. Breeding biology of Mottled Ducks on agricultural lands in southwestern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, R.S.; Afton, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    Breeding biology of Anas fulvigula maculosa (Mottled Ducks) has been described in coastal marsh and associated habitats, but little information is available for agricultural habitats in Louisiana. We located nests to determine nest-initiation dates and clutch sizes during the primary breeding season (February-May) in 1999 (n = 29) and 2000 (n = 37) on agricultural lands in southwestern Louisiana. In 1999, 60% of located nests were initiated between 22 March and 10 April, whereas in 2000, only 22% of nests were initiated during the same time period. Average clutch size was 0.9 eggs smaller in 2000 than in 1999. Annual differences in reproductive parameters corresponded with extremely dry conditions caused by low rainfall before the laying period in 2000. Flooded rice fields appear to be important loafing and feeding habitat of Mottled Ducks nesting in agricultural lands, especially during drought periods when other wetland types are not available or where natural wetlands have been eliminated.

  6. Dietary calcium deficiency in laying ducks impairs eggshell quality by suppressing shell biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Fei; Tian, Zhi Mei; Zhang, Han Xing; Ruan, Dong; Li, Yan; Wang, Shuang; Zheng, Chun Tian; Lin, Ying Cai

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary calcium deficiency on the process of shell formation. Four hundred and fifty female ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) at 22 weeks were randomly assigned to three groups. Ducks were fed one of two calcium-deficient diets (containing 1.8% or 0.38% calcium, respectively) or a calcium-adequate control diet (containing 3.6% calcium) for 67 days (depletion period) and then all ducks were fed a calcium-adequate diet for an additional 67 days (repletion period). Compared with the calcium-adequate control, the average shell thickness, egg shell weight, breaking strength, mammillae density and mammillary knob thickness of shell from ducks that consumed the diet with 0.38% calcium were significantly decreased (Pducks fed 0.38% calcium but not 1.8% calcium. Plasma estradiol concentration was decreased by both of the calcium-deficient diets (Pstudy suggest that dietary calcium deficiency negatively affects eggshell quality and microarchitecture, probably by suppressing shell biomineralization. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Duckling survival, fecundity, and habitat selection of mottled duck broods on the upper Texas Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Elizabeth A.; Haukos, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the western Gulf Coast have exhibited a steep population decline since the mid 1990s. Low rates of breeding incidence and nest success have been implicated in this decline, but duckling survival and the habitat needs of broods have not been previously investigated in this region. We fitted mottled duck ducklings and adult females with radio transmitters and tracked broods to estimate duckling survival and brood habitat selection on the upper Texas Gulf Coast. Duckling survival to 30 days was high (range among models 0.354–0.567) compared to other dabbling duck species. Estimated fecundity was low, (range among models 0.398–0.634) however, indicating that overall reproductive output is low. Within coastal marsh, broods selected home ranges with more water cover and less upland and fresh marsh landcover than was available in the study area. Within coastal marsh home ranges, broods selected for water cover relative to other landcover types, and there was some evidence that broods avoided unvegetated landcover. Although high quality brood habitat is undeniably important, management efforts to increase mottled duck population growth on the western Gulf Coast may best be spent on increasing nesting habitat quality to increase nest success and breeding incidence.

  8. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of duck tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Lv, Chuanwei; Yue, Ruichao; Shi, Ying; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie; Liu, Sidang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of host age on the outcome of duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3, and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads, and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 days post infection (dpi) and some died at 5–7 dpi. Three weeks-old ducks showed similar but milder symptoms and no deaths. However, 7-weeks-old ducks showed only transient loss of appetite. Gross lesions gradually reduced in severity as ducks matured. One-week-old ducks showed endocardial hemorrhage, splenomegaly, swelling in the lymph follicles of the ileum, liver, and kidney swelling with degeneration, and meningeal hyperemia. Three-weeks-old ducks showed only mild pathological lesions. No visible lesions were observed in 7-weeks-old ducks. However, pathological histology analysis demonstrated all infected ducks displayed viral encephalitis. DTMUV could be detected in the brains of 1-week-old ducks as early as 1 dpi and virus titers of most organs in 1-week-old ducks were significantly higher than that of 3- and 7-weeks-old ducks at 3–5 dpi. The patterns of IFN-γ, IL-2, and serum neutralizing antibodies were similar, and there were significant difference between the youngest ducks and the older ducks at early infection stage (P ducks were similar from 9 to 17 dpi, reduced clearance of virus was observed in the youngest groups comparing with the other two groups, indicating that immune system maturity was more important than the presence of neutralizing antibody. In summary, this study demonstrates that viral pathogenesis is strongest in 1-week-old ducks and the age-related immune response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DTMUV in ducks. PMID:26106382

  9. Analysis of abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid residues in raw ducks and cooked ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongzhi; Zhang, Suzhen; Geng, Zhiming; Wang, Daoying; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Muhan; Bian, Huan; Xu, Weimin

    2014-10-01

    Rosin was once widely used for removal of duck feathers in China and is still being used secretly in some poultry processing enterprises. Abietic acid (AA) and dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) are the major compounds of rosin. In the present study, 90 duck samples were collected for investigation of AA and DHAA residues. Abietic acid and DHAA were simultaneously detected in 13 out 40 raw ducks, 8 out of 26 water-boiled salted ducks, and 7 out of 24 roasted ducks, respectively. In positive samples, averages of AA were significantly higher than those of DHAA in positive samples of the 3 types of ducks (P ducks were significantly higher than those in positive roasted ducks (P ducks were defeathered by means of rosin-containing defeathering agent, and cooking processes could reduce the AA and DHAA residues to some extent, but could not eliminate them completely. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Immune responses of ducks infected with duck Tembusu virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eLi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV can cause serious disease in ducks, characterized by reduced egg production. Although the virus has been isolated and detection methods developed, the host immune responses to DTMUV infection are unclear. Therefore, we systematically examined the expression of immune-related genes and the viral distribution in DTMUV-infected ducks, using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results show that DTMUV replicates quickly in many tissues early in infection, with the highest viral titers in the spleen 1 day after infection. Rig-1, Mda5, and Tlr3 are involved in the host immune response to DTMUV, and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (Il-1β, -2, -6, Cxcl8 and antiviral proteins (Mx, Oas, etc. are also upregulated early in infection. The expression of Il-6 increased most significantly in the tissues tested. The upregulation of Mhc-I was observed in the brain and spleen, but the expression of Mhc-II was upregulated in the brain and downregulated in the spleen. The expression of the interferons was also upregulated to different degrees in the spleen but that of the brain was various. Our study suggests that DTMUV replicates rapidly in various tissues and that the host immune responses are activated early in infection. However, the overexpression of cytokines may damage the host. These results extend our understanding of the immune responses of ducks to DTMUV infection, and provide insight into the pathogenesis of DTMUV attributable to host factors.

  11. Age-class separation of blue-winged ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, W.L.; Moore, J.L.; Twedt, D.J.; Mensik, John G.; Logerwell, E.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate determination of age is of fundamental importance to population and life history studies of waterfowl and their management. Therefore, we developed quantitative methods that separate adult and immature blue-winged teal (Anas discors), cinnamon teal (A. cyanoptera), and northern shovelers (A. clypeata) during spring and summer. To assess suitability of discriminant models using 9 remigial measurements, we compared model performance (% agreement between predicted age and age assigned to birds on the basis of definitive cloacal or rectral feather characteristics) in different flyways (Mississippi and Pacific) and between years (1990-91 and 1991-92). We also applied age-classification models to wings obtained from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service harvest surveys in the Mississippi and Central-Pacific flyways (wing-bees) for which age had been determined using qualitative characteristics (i.e., remigial markings, shape, or wear). Except for male northern shovelers, models correctly aged lt 90% (range 70-86%) of blue-winged ducks. Model performance varied among species and differed between sexes and years. Proportions of individuals that were correctly aged were greater for males (range 63-86%) than females (range 39-69%). Models for northern shovelers performed better in flyway comparisons within year (1991-92, La. model applied to Calif. birds, and Calif. model applied to La. birds: 90 and 94% for M, and 89 and 76% for F, respectively) than in annual comparisons within the Mississippi Flyway (1991-92 model applied to 1990-91 data: 79% for M, 50% for F). Exclusion of measurements that varied by flyway or year did not improve model performance. Quantitative methods appear to be of limited value for age separation of female blue-winged ducks. Close agreement between predicted age and age assigned to wings from the wing-bees suggests that qualitative and quantitative methods may be equally accurate for age separation of male blue-winged ducks. We interpret annual

  12. Blood parasites of wood ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Knisley, J.O.; Knipling, G.D.

    1971-01-01

    Examination of blood films from wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from several northeastern states revealed Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium and a typanosome. Haemoproteus occurred in all areas sampled and birds of the year from Massachusetts demonstrated the highest incidence during the last 2 weeks in August. Leucocytozoon was most prevalent in more northern areas. P. circumflexum and a trypanosome are reported for the first time from this host.

  13. Osmoregulatory function in ducks following ingestion of the organophosphorus insecticide fenthion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Fleming, W.J.; Murray, H.C.

    1983-01-01

    Salt gland function and osmoregulation in aquatic birds drinking hyperosmotic water has been suggested to be impaired by organophosphorus insecticides. To test this hypothesis, adult black ducks (Anas rubripes) were provided various regimens of fresh or salt (1.5% NaCl) water before, during, and after ingestion of mash containing 21 ppm fenthion. Ducks were bled by jugular venipuncture after I, 7. and 12 days of treatment, and were then killed. Brain and salt gland acetylcholinesterase activities were substantially inhibited (44-61% and 14-36%) by fenthion. However, salt gland weight and Na + -K + -ATPase activity, and plasma Na + , CI- , and osmolality, were uniformly elevated in all groups receiving salt water including those ingesting fenthion. In a second study, salt gland Na + -K + -ATPase activity in mallards (A. platyrhynchos) was not affected after in vitro incubation with either fenthion or fenthion oxon at concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 400 ?M, but was reduced in the presence of 40 and 400 ?M DDE (positive control). These findings suggest that environmentally realistic concentrations of organophosphorus insecticides do not markedly affect osmoregulatory function in adult black ducks.

  14. Use of no-till winter wheat by nesting ducks in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duebbert, H.F.; Kantrud, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Nesting of dabbling ducks (Anatinae) was studied in fields of no-till winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the prairie pothole region of North Dakota during 1984 and 1985. Total area of 59 fields searched in 1984 was 1,135 ha and total area of 70 fields searched in 1985 was 1,175 ha. Field sizes ranged from 3 ha to 110 ha. Nests of five duck species were found: blue-winged teal (Anas discors), 55 nests; northern pintail (A. acuta), 44; mallard (A. platyrhynchos), 29; gadwall (A. strepera), 15; and northern shoveler (A. clypeata), 8. The average number of nests found was 8/100 ha in 1984 and 6/100 ha in 1985. Nest success for all species averaged 26% in 1984 and 29% in 1985. Predation by mammals was the principal cause of nest destruction. No egg or hen mortality could be attributed to pesticide use. Only 6 of 151 nests (4%) were abandoned during the two years. We also found 29 nests of seven other ground-nesting bird species. The trend toward increased planting of no-till winter wheat in the prairie pothole region should benefit production of ducks and other ground-nesting birds.

  15. Geographic and temporal differences in band reporting rates for American black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, M.J.; Blandin, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    Recoveries of reward- and standard-banded American black ducks (Anas rubripes) were used to estimate band reporting rates and to investigate geographic and temporal variability in reporting rate for 1978-80. Reporting rates were higher close ( 20 km) to the parent banding site in 3 of 42 samples and were higher close to the nearest black duck banding site in 3 of 35 samples., Reporting rates were higher P 0.05) in Canada than in the Atlantic Flyway for the pre-huntIng season 1980-banded sample, but were otherwise similar among regions. Temporal differences over the duration of the study occured, but there were no consistent trends over time. The small number of rejections suggests that there is little evidence of differences in band reporting rate by proximity to banding sites, geographic location, or over time. Thus, the best estimate of band reporting rate for black ducks is a constant 0.43. This estimate should be used with caution, because we believe that it overestimates reporting rate due to the unknown proportion of reward bands found that were not reported.

  16. Nest-site selection and success of mottled ducks on agricultural lands in southwest Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, R.S.; Afton, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Listing of the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula maculosa) as a priority species in the Gulf Coast Joint Venture of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan, coupled with recent declines of rice (Oryza sativa) acreage, led us to investigate the nesting ecology of this species on agricultural lands in southwest Louisiana. We examined nest-site selection at macro- and microhabitat levels, nest success, causes of nest failures, and habitat features influencing nest success. We found that female mottled ducks preferred to nest in permanent pastures with knolls (53% of nests) and idle fields (22% of nests). Vegetation height was greater at nests than at random points within the same macrohabitat patch. Successful nests were associated with greater numbers of plant species, located farther from water, and associated with higher vegetation density values than were unsuccessful nests. We determined that mammalian predators caused most nest failures (77% of 52 unsuccessful nests). Our results suggest that nest success of mottled ducks on agricultural lands in southwest Louisiana could be improved by 1) locating large permanent pastures and idle fields near rice fields and other available wetlands, 2) managing plant communities in these upland areas to favor dense stands of perennial bunch grasses, tall composites, dewberry (Rubus trivialis), and other native grasses and forbs, and 3) managing cattle-stocking rates and the duration and timing of grazing to promote tall, dense stands of these plant taxa during the nesting season (March-June).

  17. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of Duck Tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Ning eLi; Chuanwei eLv; Ruichao eYue; Ying eShi; Sidang eLiu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of host age on the outcome of Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3 and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 day post infection (dpi) and some died at 5 –7 dpi. Three week old ducks showed...

  18. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of duck tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ning; Lv, Chuanwei; Yue, Ruichao; Shi, Ying; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie; Liu, Sidang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of host age on the outcome of duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3, and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads, and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 days post infection (dpi) and some died at 5–7 dpi. Three weeks-old ducks sho...

  19. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of Duck Tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of host age on the outcome of Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3 and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 day post infection (dpi and some died at 5 –7 dpi. Three week old ducks showed similar but milder symptoms and no deaths. However, 7-week-old ducks showed only transient loss of appetite. Gross lesions gradually reduced in severity as ducks matured. One week old ducks showed endocardial haemorrhage, splenomegaly, swelling in the lymph follicles of the ileum, liver and kidney swelling with degeneration, and meningeal hyperemia. Three week old ducks showed only mild pathological lesions. No visible lesions were observed in 7-week-old ducks. However, pathological histology analysis demonstrated all infected ducks displayed viral encephalitis. DTMUV could be detected in the brains of 1-week-old ducks as early as 1 dpi and virus titers of most organs in 1-week-old ducks were significantly higher than that of 3- and 7-week-old ducks at 3 –5 dpi. The patterns of IFN-γ, IL-2, and serum neutralizing antibodies were similar, and there were significant difference between the youngest ducks and the older ducks at early infection stage (P<0.05. More important is that although the antibody titers of all infected ducks were similar from 9 dpi to 17 dpi, reduced clearance of virus was observed in the youngest groups comparing with the other two groups, indicating that immune system maturity was more important than the presence of neutralizing antibody. In summary, this study demonstrates that viral pathogenesis is strongest in 1-week-old ducks and the age-related immune response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DTMUV in ducks.

  20. Blood parasites from California ducks and geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.

    1951-01-01

    Blood smears were procured from 1,011 geese and ducks of 19 species from various locations in California. Parasites were found in 28 individuals. The parasites observed included Haemoproteus hermani, Leucocytozoon simondi, microfilaria, Plasmodium relictum (=P. biziurae), and Plasmodium sp. with elongate gametocytes. This is the first report of a natural infection with a Plasmodium in North American wild ducks.

  1. Duck plague: carrier state and gross pathology in black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa, Jorge E.

    1975-01-01

    Duck plague (UP) is a highly fatal disease of ducks, geese, and swans (family Anatidae), produced by a reticulo-endotheliotrophic virus classified as a member of the Herpesvirus group. The disease was recognized in Europe in 1949. On the American continent, the disease was first diagnosed in the United States in 1967. Very little is known of DP virus ecology, particularly of the mechanisms of interepizootic survival and movement. The tendency of the IIerpesviruses to enter into a quiescent state after an overt or inapparent infection is a proven characteristic for most of the members of this group. Herpes simplex, which is the model of the Herpesviruses, is said to be the classical example of a persistent recurrent viral infection. Burnet and Williams (4) were the first to recognize this kind of relationship between herpes simplex and its host in 1939. Later, it was found that the reactivation of the virus can be brought on by a variety of stimuli either physiological (menstruation), pathological (anaphylactic shock), chemical (pesticides) or physical (sunburn). This same latency property has been proved for every member of this group of viruses which has been studied adequately, DP is among the few Herpesviruses for which the carrier state has not been demonstrated, but there is circumstantial evidence suggesting it. The carrier state for DP seems to be a likely explanation for the persistence and the particular pattern of movement of this disease.

  2. Failure to transmit avian vacuolar myelinopathy to mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, R.S.; Nutter, F.B.; Augspurger, T.; Rocke, T.E.; Thomas, N.J.; Stoskopf, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease that has been diagnosed in free-ranging birds in the southeastern United States. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leuocephalus), American coots (Fulica americana), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) have been affected. Previous investigations have not determined the etiology of this disease. In November and December 2002, we attempted to induce AVM in game-farmed mallards through four, 7-day exposure trials. Mallards were housed in six groups of eight, with two of these groups serving as controls. One group was housed with AVM-affected coots; one group was tube fed daily with water from the lake where affected coots were captured; one group was tube fed daily with aquatic vegetation (Hydrilla verticillata) from the same lake; and another group was tube fed daily with sediment from the lake. No ducks exhibited clinical neurologic abnormalities consistent with AVM and no evidence of AVM was present at histopathologic examination of brain tissue. Although limitations in sample size, quantity of individual doses, frequency of dose administration, duration of exposure, and timing of these trials restrict the interpretation of the findings, AVM was not readily transmitted by direct contact, water, hydrilla, or sediment in this investigation.

  3. Red fox prey demands and implications to prairie duck production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted during spring and summer with 33 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to determine prey demands, feeding characteristics, and growth rates using natural foods. Pups began eating prey the 4th week after birth. Then, prey consumption averaged 1.38 and 1.90 kg/pup/week for weeks 5-8 and 9-12 of the denning season respectively, and 2.54 kg/pup/week for the postdenning period. Feeding by adults averaged 2.25 kg/adult/week. Free water was not needed by either pups or adults. About 90 percent of the prey offered to pups on simulated natural diets was consumed, remains varied with prey availability and prey type. Prey biomass required by a typical fox family was estimated at 18.5 kg/km2 for the 12-week denning season and 2.4 kg/km2/week for the postdenning period. Because of the large prey demands, ducks could represent a small part of the foxes' diet and yet be of consequence to the productivity of particular species. An example is provided for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos).

  4. Experimental infection of duck origin virulent Newcastle disease virus strain in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yabin; Cheng, Xu; Liu, Mei; Shen, Xinyue; Li, Jianmei; Yu, Shengqing; Zou, Jianmin; Ding, Chan

    2014-07-17

    Newcastle disease (ND) caused by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an acute, highly contagious and fatal viral disease affecting most species of birds. Ducks are generally considered to be natural reservoirs or carriers of NDV while being resistant to NDV strains, even those most virulent for chickens; however, natural ND cases in ducks have been gradually increasing in recent years. In the present study, ducks of different breeds and ages were experimentally infected with duck origin virulent NDV strain duck/Jiangsu/JSD0812/2008 (JSD0812) by various routes to investigate the pathogenicity of NDV in ducks. Six breeds (mallard, Gaoyou, Shaoxing, Jinding, Shanma, and Pekin ducks) were infected intramuscularly (IM) with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50. Susceptibility to NDV infection among breeds varied, per morbidity and mortality. Mallard ducks were the most susceptible, and Pekin ducks the most resistant. Fifteen-, 30-, 45-, 60-, and 110-day-old Gaoyou ducks were infected with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50 either IM or intranasally (IN) and intraocularly (IO), and their disease development, viral shedding, and virus tissue distribution were determined. The susceptibility of ducks to NDV infection decreased with age. Most deaths occurred in 15- and 30-day-old ducklings infected IM. Ducks infected IN and IO sometimes exhibited clinical signs, but seldom died. Clinical signs were primarily neurologic. Infected ducks could excrete infectious virus from the pharynx and/or cloaca for a short period, which varied with bird age or inoculation route; the longest period was about 7 days. The rate of virus isolation in tissues from infected ducks was generally low, even in those from dead birds, and it appeared to be unrelated to bird age and infection route. The results confirmed that some of the naturally occurring NDV virulent strains can cause the disease in ducks, and that ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of ND. The

  5. Accuracy of aging ducks in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Waterfowl Parts Collection Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Richkus, Kenneth D.; Rohwer, Frank C.; Cox, Robert R.; Padding, Paul I.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducts an annual Waterfowl Parts Collection Survey to estimate composition of harvested waterfowl by species, sex, and age (i.e., juv or ad). The survey relies on interpretation of duck wings by a group of experienced biologists at annual meetings (hereafter, flyway wingbees). Our objectives were to estimate accuracy of age assignment at flyway wingbees and to explore how accuracy rates may influence bias of age composition estimates. We used banded mallards (Anas platyrhynchos; n = 791), wood ducks (Aix sponsa; n = 242), and blue-winged teal (Anas discors; n = 39) harvested and donated by hunters as our source of birds used in accuracy assessments. We sent wings of donated birds to wingbees after the 2002–2003 and 2003–2004 hunting seasons and compared species, sex, and age determinations made at wingbees with our assessments based on internal and external examination of birds and corresponding banding records. Determinations of species and sex of mallards, wood ducks, and blue-winged teal were accurate (>99%). Accuracy of aging adult mallards increased with harvest date, whereas accuracy of aging juvenile male wood ducks and juvenile blue-winged teal decreased with harvest date. Accuracy rates were highest (96% and 95%) for adult and juvenile mallards, moderate for adult and juvenile wood ducks (92% and 92%), and lowest for adult and juvenile blue-winged teal (84% and 82%). We used these estimates to calculate bias for all possible age compositions (0–100% proportion juv) and determined the range of age compositions estimated with acceptable levels of bias. Comparing these ranges with age compositions estimated from Parts Collection Surveys conducted from 1961 to 2008 revealed that mallard and wood duck age compositions were estimated with insignificant levels of bias in all national surveys. However, 69% of age compositions for blue-winged teal were estimated with an unacceptable level of bias. The low

  6. Avian Influenza Ecology in North Atlantic Sea Ducks: Not All Ducks Are Created Equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Eínar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jane; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology. PMID:26677841

  7. Avian influenza ecology in North Atlantic sea ducks: Not all ducks are created equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Einar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jnae; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology.

  8. Transcriptional Profiling Identifies Location-Specific and Breed-Specific Differentially Expressed Genes in Embryonic Myogenesis in Anas Platyrhynchos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Ping Zhang

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle growth and development are highly orchestrated processes involving significant changes in gene expressions. Differences in the location-specific and breed-specific genes and pathways involved have important implications for meat productions and meat quality. Here, RNA-Seq was performed to identify differences in the muscle deposition between two muscle locations and two duck breeds for functional genomics studies. To achieve those goals, skeletal muscle samples were collected from the leg muscle (LM and the pectoral muscle (PM of two genetically different duck breeds, Heiwu duck (H and Peking duck (P, at embryonic 15 days. Functional genomics studies were performed in two experiments: Experiment 1 directly compared the location-specific genes between PM and LM, and Experiment 2 compared the two breeds (H and P at the same developmental stage (embryonic 15 days. Almost 13 million clean reads were generated using Illumina technology (Novogene, Beijing, China on each library, and more than 70% of the reads mapped to the Peking duck (Anas platyrhynchos genome. A total of 168 genes were differentially expressed between the two locations analyzed in Experiment 1, whereas only 8 genes were differentially expressed when comparing the same location between two breeds in Experiment 2. Gene Ontology (GO and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways (KEGG were used to functionally annotate DEGs (differentially expression genes. The DEGs identified in Experiment 1 were mainly involved in focal adhesion, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and ECM-receptor interaction pathways (corrected P-value<0.05. In Experiment 2, the DEGs were associated with only the ribosome signaling pathway (corrected P-value<0.05. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm 15 of the differentially expressed genes originally detected by RNA-Seq. A comparative transcript analysis of the leg and pectoral muscles of two duck breeds not only

  9. The increase of Lactobacillus species in the gut flora of newborn broiler chicks and ducks is associated with weight gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Angelakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A bacterial role in the obesity pandemic has been suspected based on the ingestion of probiotics that can modify the gut flora. The objective of our study was to determine if increased Lactobacillus sp. in the gut flora of newborn broiler chicks and ducks could result in weight gain increase. METHODOLOGY: Female broiler chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus and ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica were separated into one control and two experimental groups, and inoculated once or twice with 4x10(10Lactobacillus spp. per animal in PBS, or with PBS alone. Fecal samples were collected before and at 24 hours, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 30 days after the inoculation. DNA was extracted from the stools, and qPCR assays were performed on a MX3000 system for the detection and quantification of Lactobacillus sp., Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, using a quantification plasmid. Animals were measured and sacrificed 60 days after the beginning of the experiment, and livers were collected and measured. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chicks inoculated once and twice with Lactobacillus weighed 10.2% (p = 0.0162 and 13.5% (p = 0.0064 more than the control group animals, respectively. Similarly, ducks inoculated once and twice weighed 7.7% (p = 0.05 and 14% (p = 0.035 more than those in the control group, respectively. Liver mass was also significantly higher in inoculated animals compared to the control group. Inoculation with Lactobacillus sp. increased the DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. and Firmicutes in the stools. Bacteroidetes remained stable, and only the second Lactobacillus sp. inoculation significantly decreased its population in chicks. The ratio of DNA copies of Firmicutes to those of Bacteroidetes increased to as much as 6,4 in chicks and 8,3 in ducks. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in the intestinal microbiota may precede weight increase, as we found that an increase of Lactobacillus sp. in newborn ducks and chicks preceded the development of weight gain.

  10. Identification and synthetic modeling of factors affecting American black duck populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Michael J.; Miller, Mark W.; Hines, James E.

    2002-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on factors potentially affecting the population status of American black ducks (Anas rupribes). Our review suggests that there is some support for the influence of 4 major, continental-scope factors in limiting or regulating black duck populations: 1) loss in the quantity or quality of breeding habitats; 2) loss in the quantity or quality of wintering habitats; 3) harvest, and 4) interactions (competition, hybridization) with mallards (Anas platyrhychos) during the breeding and/or wintering periods. These factors were used as the basis of an annual life cycle model in which reproduction rates and survival rates were modeled as functions of the above factors, with parameters of the model describing the strength of these relationships. Variation in the model parameter values allows for consideration of scientific uncertainty as to the degree each of these factors may be contributing to declines in black duck populations, and thus allows for the investigation of the possible effects of management (e.g., habitat improvement, harvest reductions) under different assumptions. We then used available, historical data on black duck populations (abundance, annual reproduction rates, and survival rates) and possible driving factors (trends in breeding and wintering habitats, harvest rates, and abundance of mallards) to estimate model parameters. Our estimated reproduction submodel included parameters describing negative density feedback of black ducks, positive influence of breeding habitat, and negative influence of mallard densities; our survival submodel included terms for positive influence of winter habitat on reproduction rates, and negative influences of black duck density (i.e., compensation to harvest mortality). Individual models within each group (reproduction, survival) involved various combinations of these factors, and each was given an information theoretic weight for use in subsequent prediction. The reproduction model with highest

  11. Determination of specificity and pattern of antinuclear antibodies (ana) in systemic rheumatic disease patients positive for ana testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, H.; Bashir, M.M.; Iqbal, W.

    2018-01-01

    To determine probability of finding antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) positive samples and associating ANA patterns with anti-ENA reactivities among a consecutive cohort of samples of systemic rheumatic disease patients referred for ANA testing. Study Design:Prospective cohort study. Place and Duration of Study:Immunology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January to June 2016. Methodology:All the samples referred for ANA testing with clinical suspicion of systemic rheumatic disease were included. After screening, ANA positive samples were subjected to anti-ENA antibodies testing (including anti-SSA, anti-SSB, anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anti-SCL-70 and anti-Jo-1 antibodies) and ANA pattern and titer determination. Results:Of 4,347 samples received, 397 were positive for ANA (9%). Of 397, 96 (24%) samples positive on ENA screen were tested for anti-ENA reactivity. Anti-SSA antibodies were found in 59 samples. Commonest ANA patterns were coarse and fine speckled (43 and 22 samples of 81 tested), while majority of samples carried ANA in titers of 1:40 and 1:80 (22 and 18 samples of 81 tested). No specific ANA pattern was associated with any particular anti-ENA reactivity. Conclusion:Among samples/patients referred for investigations of autoimmune disorders, probability of finding positive ANA is approximately 9%. Of these 9%, about 24% also show reactivity against ENA. Commonest ANA pattern is coarse speckled and majority of such patients carry ANA in titers ranging from 1:40 to 1:80. Commonest ENA reactivity was against SSA. (author)

  12. Mexican Parenting Questionnaire (MPQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgunseth, Linda C.; Ispa, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted in four phases and constructed a self-report parenting instrument for use with Mexican immigrant mothers of children aged 6 to 10. The 14-item measure was based on semistructured qualitative interviews with Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 10), was refined by a focus group of Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 5), and was…

  13. Optimization Technique in Scheduling Duck Tours

    OpenAIRE

    Norhazwani M. Y.; Khoo; C. F.; Hasrul Nisham R.

    2011-01-01

    Tourism industries are rapidly increased for the last few years especially in Malaysia. In order to attract more tourists, Malaysian Governance encourages any effort to increase Malaysian tourism industry. One of the efforts in attracting more tourists in Malacca, Malaysia is a duck tour. Duck tour is an amphibious sightseeing tour that works in two types of engines, hence, it required a huge cost to operate and maintain the vehicle. To other country, it is not so new but...

  14. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen, Z.; Naik, B. R.; Subramanyam, B. V.; Reddy, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7???1??C). ...

  15. U Portugalii dusha poeta / Ana Paula Zacarias ; interv. Aleksandr Shegedin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zacarias, Ana Paula

    2006-01-01

    Äsja avatud Portugali saatkonda juhtiv suursaadik Ana Paula Baptista Grade Zacarias jagab Portugali kogemusi seoses liitumisega Euroopa Liiduga. Eesti-Portugali suhted, suursaadiku esmamuljed Eestist

  16. Ana Maria Lorandi and the Ethnohistory's train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Ramos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2016 it was celebrated eighty years of the Dra. Ana María Lorandi, who dedicated over fifty years to academic research. This finds as active as ever, working on new projects and following the new generations of anthropologists interested in Ethnohistory. In writing this article, we think of honoring it by examining its contribution through three forms of action that she developed prominently: management, research and insertion into transnational networks. Throughout the text we proposed to recover his voice, trying to incorporate his vision of the history of scientific development in which played a key role.

  17. DNA vaccine-generated duck polyclonal antibodies as a postexposure prophylactic to prevent hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Brocato

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV is the predominant cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS in South America and the only hantavirus known to be transmitted person-to-person. There are no vaccines, prophylactics, or therapeutics to prevent or treat this highly pathogenic disease (case-fatality 35-40%. Infection of Syrian hamsters with ANDV results in a disease that closely mimics human HPS in incubation time, symptoms of respiratory distress, and disease pathology. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of two postexposure prophylaxis strategies in the ANDV/hamster lethal disease model. First, we evaluated a natural product, human polyclonal antibody, obtained as fresh frozen plasma (FFP from a HPS survivor. Second, we used DNA vaccine technology to manufacture a polyclonal immunoglobulin-based product that could be purified from the eggs of vaccinated ducks (Anas platyrhynchos. The natural "despeciation" of the duck IgY (i.e., Fc removed results in an immunoglobulin predicted to be minimally reactogenic in humans. Administration of ≥ 5,000 neutralizing antibody units (NAU/kg of FFP-protected hamsters from lethal disease when given up to 8 days after intranasal ANDV challenge. IgY/IgYΔFc antibodies purified from the eggs of DNA-vaccinated ducks effectively neutralized ANDV in vitro as measured by plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT. Administration of 12,000 NAU/kg of duck egg-derived IgY/IgYΔFc protected hamsters when administered up to 8 days after intranasal challenge and 5 days after intramuscular challenge. These experiments demonstrate that convalescent FFP shows promise as a postexposure HPS prophylactic. Moreover, these data demonstrate the feasibility of using DNA vaccine technology coupled with the duck/egg system to manufacture a product that could supplement or replace FFP. The DNA vaccine-duck/egg system can be scaled as needed and obviates the necessity of using limited blood products obtained from a small number of HPS survivors. This

  18. Body mass, wing length, and condition of wintering ducks relative to hematozoa infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph; Ramey, Andrew M.; Reeves, Andrew; Yee, Julie L.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack information regarding factors that may be reducing the positive response of waterfowl body condition to habitat improvements. Protozoan blood parasites (i.e., hematozoa) are commonly found in birds and have been related to reduced body mass, wing length, and body condition. We studied relationships between 12 measures of hematozoa infection and body mass, wing length, and body mass divided by wing length (i.e., body condition index [BCI]) of the five most common duck species (northern pintail [Anas acuta], mallard [A. platyrhynchos], green-winged teal [A. crecca], American wigeon [A. Americana], northern shoveler [A. clypeata]) wintering in the Central Valley of California during October 2006-January 2007. After accounting for variation due to species, age-sex cohort, Central Valley region, and month; wing length, body mass, and BCI were found to be negatively related to infection by Leucocytozoon and by "any hematozoa" but not related to infection by only Plasmodium or Haemoproteus, or coinfections of greater than one genera or parasite haplotype (albeit, few ducks had Plasmodium or Haemoproteus infection or coinfections). Evidence of a negative relationship with infection was stronger for body mass and BCI than for wing length and indicated that the relationships varied among species, age-sex cohorts, regions, and months. Compared to uninfected ducks, hematozoa-infected duck body mass, wing length, and BCI was -1.63% (85% CI = -2.79%- -0.47%), -0.12% (-0.41%- +0.17%), and -1.38% (-2.49%- -0.26%), respectively. Although, seemingly small, the -1.63% difference in body mass represents a large percentage (e.g., 38% for northern pintail) of the observed increase in wintering duck body mass associated with Central Valley habitat improvements. Because infection prevalence and relationship to body condition might change over time due to climate or other factors, tracking hematozoa infection prevalence might be important to inform and accurately

  19. Long-term monitoring of endangered Laysan ducks: Index validation and population estimates 1998–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Courtot, Karen; Brinck, Kevin W.; Rehkemper, Cynthia; Hatfield, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring endangered wildlife is essential to assessing management or recovery objectives and learning about population status. We tested assumptions of a population index for endangered Laysan duck (or teal; Anas laysanensis) monitored using mark–resight methods on Laysan Island, Hawai’i. We marked 723 Laysan ducks between 1998 and 2009 and identified seasonal surveys through 2012 that met accuracy and precision criteria for estimating population abundance. Our results provide a 15-y time series of seasonal population estimates at Laysan Island. We found differences in detection among seasons and how observed counts related to population estimates. The highest counts and the strongest relationship between count and population estimates occurred in autumn (September–November). The best autumn surveys yielded population abundance estimates that ranged from 674 (95% CI = 619–730) in 2003 to 339 (95% CI = 265–413) in 2012. A population decline of 42% was observed between 2010 and 2012 after consecutive storms and Japan’s To¯hoku earthquake-generated tsunami in 2011. Our results show positive correlations between the seasonal maximum counts and population estimates from the same date, and support the use of standardized bimonthly counts of unmarked birds as a valid index to monitor trends among years within a season at Laysan Island.

  20. Free inside: The Music Class at Santa Ana Jail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Joe

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings of the music class at the Santa Ana Jail in Santa Ana, California. It gives us insight into a jail system and a music class focused on helping inmates position themselves to become productive members of society. In this article I examine how the facility encourages inmates' good behaviour and why the music class…

  1. Factors affecting fat content in mottled ducks on the Upper Texas Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Brian; Haukos, David A.; Walther, Patrick; Conway, Warren C.

    2014-01-01

    Body condition, or an individual's ability to address metabolic needs, is an important measure of organism health. For waterfowl, body condition, usually some measure of fat, provides a useful proxy for assessing energy budgets during different life history periods and potentially is a measure of response to ecosystem changes. The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is relatively poorly studied in respect to these dynamics and presents a unique case because its non-migratory life-history strategy releases it from metabolic costs experienced by many related migratory waterfowl species. Additionally, as a species in decline and of conservation concern in many parts of its range, traditional methods of fat content estimation that involve destructive sampling are less viable. The goal of this study was to produce an equation for estimating fat content in mottled ducks using birds (n = 24) donated at hunter-check stations or collected by law enforcement efforts on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge Complex from 2005 - 2007. Morphometric measurements were taken, and ether extraction and fat removal was used to estimate percent body fat content and abdominal fat mass, respectively. A hierarchical simple linear regression modeling approach was used to determine external morphometrics that best predicted abdominal fat content. A ratio model based on body mass and a length metric (keel and wing chord length possessed equal model support) provided the best relationship with abdominal fat in sampled individuals. We then applied the regression equation to historical check station data to examine fluctuations in fat content over time; fat content or condition varied relatively little with the exception of years characterized by major disturbances. The mottled duck condition model created here can be used to better monitor population status and health without destructively sampling individuals.

  2. Serum C-reactive protein concentrations in Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers with immune-mediated rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Hanna Dorotea; Hillström, Anna; Kånåhols, Malin; Hagman, Ragnvi; Hansson-Hamlin, Helene

    2017-04-17

    Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers (NSDTRs) are a dog breed often affected by immune-mediated rheumatic disease (IMRD), a disorder characterised by chronic stiffness and joint pain. Most, but not all, dogs with IMRD, have antinuclear antibodies (ANA), which are also commonly present in the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The clinical and diagnostic findings of IMRD indicate that it is an SLE-related disorder. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute phase protein, is a quantitative marker of inflammation for many diseases and is used for diagnosing and monitoring systemic inflammation in both humans and dogs. However, in human SLE, CRP concentrations are often elevated but correlate poorly with disease activity; they can be low in individual patients with active disease. The aim of the study was to investigate CRP in a group of NSDTRs with the SLE-related disorder IMRD. The hypothesis was that CRP concentrations would be increased in dogs with IMRD compared to healthy dogs, but that the increase would be mild. Serum CRP concentrations were measured in 18 IMRD-affected NSDTRs and 19 healthy control NSDTRs using two different canine-specific CRP assays. Dogs with IMRD and ANA had higher CRP concentrations than the control dogs, but the concentrations were below the clinical decision limit for systemic inflammation for most of the IMRD dogs. These results indicate that CRP concentrations were increased in dogs with IMRD and ANA, but the increase was mild, similar to what has been observed in human SLE.

  3. Yellow Ducks Overboard! A Lesson in Geography and World Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Paul; Beauboeuf, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This lesson was inspired by the book, "10 Little Rubber Ducks" by Eric Carle, which discusses ocean pollution. The book was inspired by an incident in 1992: A shipping container tumbled into the North Pacific Ocean, broke open, and 28,800 little rubber ducks (and other plastic bath toys) were lost at sea. The ducks were manufactured in China, and…

  4. Quantitative feed restriction of Pekin breeder ducks during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hatchability of incubated duck eggs owing to restricted feed intake. ... Egg numbers, infertile eggs, fertile eggs, dead embryos, and duck- lings hatched were recorded for each of the 12 pens. At the same time as the six male and 24 female ducks were ..... treatment but thereafter there was a drop, even lower than the.

  5. Do All Ducks Lay Eggs? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Khemlani, Sangeet; Glucksberg, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Generics are statements such as "tigers are striped" and "ducks lay eggs". They express general, though not universal or exceptionless, claims about kinds (Carlson & Pelletier, 1995). For example, the generic "ducks lay eggs" seems true even though many ducks (e.g. the males) do not lay eggs. The universally quantified version of the statement…

  6. Seroprevalence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 subtype clade 2.3.2 on ducks and muscouvy ducks in small holders farm

    OpenAIRE

    Eny Martindah; Risa Indriani; S Wahyuwardani

    2015-01-01

    Seroprevalence studies of HPAI H5 subtype in ducks and muscouvy duck in smallholders farm was carried out in Serang and Tangerang District, Banten Province. The study comprised a serological survey to define the distribution and prevalence of HPAI H5 subtype infection on ducks and muscouvy ducks as well as attempted isolation of the virus from these species. Unit of sample in each stage was randomly choosen by multy stage random sample. Blood samples were taken from ducks and muscouvy ducks t...

  7. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canedo, Luis

    2008-01-01

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years

  8. The influence of choice feeding and cereal type (corn or triticale) during the finishing period on performance of mule ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, J; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Dubois, J P; Lavigne, F; Bijja, M; Molette, C

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this trial was to study the influence of choice feeding and cereal type (corn or triticale) during the finishing period on performance of ducks. In total, 624 one-day-old male mule ducks (Cairina moschata × Anas platyrhynchos) were divided into 3 groups differing in the diet they received between 56 and 84 d of age: a commercial complete pelleted diet (control group; AMEn 12.1 MJ/kg, CP 15%), or corn whole seeds (AMEn 14.4 MJ/kg, CP 7.3%) and protein-rich pellets (AMEn 9.9 MJ/kg, CP 22.7%) in 2 separated feeders [choice feeding with corn (CFC) group]; or triticale whole seeds (AMEn 13.0 MJ/kg, CP 10.5%) and protein-rich pellets (AMEn 11.2 MJ/kg, CP 19.5%) in 2 separated feeders [choice feeding with triticale (CFT) group]. From 85 to 96 d, 96 birds/group were overfed with corn. Feed intake (complete pellets or cereal and protein-rich pellets) per pen was measured at 60, 62, 65, 69, 78, and 84 d of age. Body weight and body traits were measured at 56 to 84 d of age. Over the entire period, from 56 to 84 d, the feed intake of the CFC group was 7% lower than the control group, and 5% lower than that in the CFT group (P = 0.002). Whatever the diet tested, at 56 and 84 d of age, the BW (4,099 and 4,779 g, P = 0.42 and P = 0.35, respectively) and the carcass traits (P > 0.05) of ducks were similar in the 3 groups. During and after overfeeding, the performances of the ducks were also similar (P > 0.05). The present results suggest that CFC during the finishing period is a solution to reduce the cost of diet destined to ducks. Indeed, using locally grown grains could reduce the economic and environmental impacts of duck feeding, reducing the transportation and crushing processes. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Measurement of Phenotype Characteristics of Sasak Ducks: Indian Runner Ducks of Lombok Island Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hasil Tamzil; Budi Indarsih

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the phenotype characteristics of Sasak ducks in Lombok Island. The study used 64 Sasak ducks at production stage which were kept intensively by small holder farmers. Observations on the characteristics of the feather color were carried out directly on each animal. The data observed were feather colors, beak color, and the color of the foot and shank, while the data on the size of the body that was observed were body weight, beak length, neck length, back ...

  10. Explanatory Emotion Talk in Mexican Immigrant and Mexican American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Christi A.

    2002-01-01

    Mother-child conversations during story-telling play were analyzed for patterns of emotion talk. Subjects were 48 Mexican immigrant and Mexican American mothers and their children aged 3-4. Contrary to previous findings, Mexican immigrant mothers used more explanations of emotions than labels. Mexican American mothers used both, equally. Results…

  11. The Mexican American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Helen

    The purpose of this paper, prepared for the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, is to indicate the types and ranges of problems facing the Mexican American community and to suggest ways in which these problems are peculiar to Mexican Americans. Specific examples are cited to illustrate major problems and personal experiences. Topics covered in the…

  12. Mexican Perspectives on Mexican-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    while serving in the United States military, working in the Bracero program and in American factories. By working with Americans, Mexicans learned that...Mexican government blames the problem on the United States. During the history of the Bracero Program (1942 -1964) 4.6 million Mexicans traveled to...and became familiar to Mexican migrants.ŕ The termination of the Bracero Program did not discourage Mexican agricultural workers from entering the

  13. Zeolite-like metal-organic frameworks with ana topology

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Mohideen, Mohamed Infas Haja; Adil, Karim; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Bhatt, Prashant M.; Shekhah, Osama; Chernikova, Valeriya

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure describe a zeolite-like metal-organic framework composition comprising a metal-organic framework composition with ana topology characterized by the formula [MIII(4, 5-imidazole dicarboxylic acid)2X

  14. ERP sistēmas ieviešana

    OpenAIRE

    Proskurins, Aleksandrs

    2008-01-01

    Šajā darbā tika apskatīta informācijas sistēmu klasifikācija, uzņēmuma resursu plānošanas sistēmas (ERP) definīcija un tās vieta IS klasifikācijā. Tika apskatīti ERP sistēmu ieviešanas teorētiskie aspekti, izstrādes un pielāgošanas specifika, kā arī tika izanalizēti vairāki ERP sistēmas ieviešanas projekti Latvijas uzņēmumos.

  15. Kukuļa izspiešanas nošķiršana no kukuļa pieprasīšanas

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanovs, Igors

    2015-01-01

    Bakalaura darbs ir veltīts divu kukuļņemšanas kvalificējošo pazīmju – kukuļa pieprasīšanas un kukuļa izspiešanas – izpētei un analīzei. Darba gaitā autors secina, ka praksē kriminālprocesa ietvaros ne vienmēr tiek visaptveroši analizēts jautājums, vai darbība, par kuru dots kukulis, bija likumīga vai nelikumīga, un vai valsts amatpersona apdraudēja personas likumīgās intereses vai nē, kas var novest pie kļūdainas noziedzīga nodarījuma kvalifikācijas. Ievērojot teorētiskās atziņas un apkopoto ...

  16. Caracterización molecular del pato criollo colombiano en cuatro departamentos Molecular characterization of the Colombian creole duck in four departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin Hernández

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 53 individuos de patos Muscovy de los departamentos de Caldas, Risaralda, Antioquia y Valle del Cauca con tres cebadores RAMs. Se generaron 71 loci polimórficos (61.2% con 0.19 de heterocigosidad. El cebador con mayor heterocigosidad fue CGA (0.23 y CA el de mayor loci polimórfico (76.1%. La técnica RAMs permitió diferenciar los géneros Anas y Cairina a un índice de similitud de 0.83. Con un índice de similitud del 0.894, los patos Muscovy formaron cinco grupos. El mejor cebador para diferenciar especies fue CCA (Fst= 0.274. La diferenciación genética en la muestra poblacional fue moderada (Fst= 0.2045.53 individuals of Muscovy ducks from Caldas, Risaralda, Antioquia and Valle del Cauca departments with three primers RAMs were evaluated. 71 polymorphic loci (61,2% were generated with 0.19 of heterocigozity. The primer with the highest heterocigozity was CGA (0.23 and CA had the highest polymorphic loci (76.1%. The RAMs technique allowed to discriminate Anas and Cairina genus with an index of similarity of 0.83. At a 0.894 of similarity index, the Muscovy ducks formed 5 groups. The best primer to discriminate species was CCA (Fst= 0.274. The genetic differentiation was moderate (Fst= 0.2045.

  17. The response of ducks to V4 Newcastle disease virus and its transmission to contact ducks and domestic chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Bouzari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infection of Muscovy ducks with V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus was undertaken to determine the response of the ducks to the virus and the possibility of virus transmission to ducks and chickens in village like conditions. Twelve ducks were randomly and equally divided into three groups of control, inoculated and in-contact. Additionally, the chickens were placed into two groups of four animals each, namely in-contact and control. The inoculated and in-contact ducks and in-contact chickens were kept together. The eye drop route was used for inoculation and hemagglutination inhibition (HI antibodies were measured for assessment of antibody response and cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were used for detection of the virus. The primary antibody response of inoculated ducks was very high and rapid (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 5.75 ± 0.50. The in-contact ducks showed antibody response with the same pattern but lower titers than the inoculated ducks (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 3.25 ± 1.70. The in-contact chickens showed a slight increase of HI antibody (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 2.25 ± 1.25 while the control chickens did not show any increase. The antibody response indicated the transmission of the virus to contact ducks and chickens. A single isolation of virus confirmed the ability of ducks to excrete the virus. It was concluded that the V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus was highly antigenic for ducks, and ducks can transmit it to other ducks and also in-contact chickens.

  18. The Mexican oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos-Giacoman, E.

    1991-01-01

    In the environment of growing domestic demand and enhanced international competitiveness, Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX)-the Mexican national oil company-faces the challenge of not only responding adequately to the rapid changes taking place in the Mexican economy, but making a significant contribution towards solid and stable growth. This paper reports that the relevant concern is how PEMEX is going to live up to these expectations. The Mexican oil industry, especially including the petrochemical sector, has great potential in terms of an ample domestic market as well as external foreign-currency-generating markets

  19. Efficient Strategy to Generate a Vectored Duck Enteritis Virus Delivering Envelope of Duck Tembusu Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV is a recently emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has resulted in a huge economic loss in the duck industry. However, no vaccine is currently available to control this pathogen. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against this pathogen should be determined. In this study, duck enteritis virus (DEV was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the envelope (E of DTMUV. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the SORF3 and US2 gene junctions of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE. The envelope (E gene of DTMUV was inserted into the C-KCE genome through the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC strategy, resulting in the recombinant vector, pBAC-C-KCE-E. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-E was generated by eliminating the BAC backbone. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis results indicated that the E proteins were vigorously expressed in C-KCE-E-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs. Duck experiments demonstrated that the insertion of the E gene did not alter the protective efficacy of C-KCE. Moreover, C-KCE-E-immunized ducks induced neutralization antibodies against DTMUV. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant C-KCE-E can serve as a potential bivalent vaccine against DEV and DTMUV.

  20. A multiplex PCR for detection of six viruses in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjuan; Zhu, Shanyuan; Hong, Weiming; Wang, Anping; Zuo, Weiyong

    2017-10-01

    In this study, six pairs of specific primers that can amplify DNA fragments of different sizes were designed and synthesized according to viral protein gene sequences published in GenBank. Then, a multiplex PCR method was established for rapid detection of duck hepatitis virus 1, duck plague virus, duck Tembusu virus, muscovy duck parvovirus, muscovy duck reovirus, and duck H9N2 avian influenza virus, and achieve simple and rapid detection of viral diseases in ducks. Single PCR was used to confirm primer specificity, and PCR conditions were optimized to construct a multiplex PCR system. Specificity and sensitivity assays were also developed. The multiplex PCR was used to detect duck embryos infected with mixed viruses and those with clinically suspected diseases to verify the feasibility of the multiplex PCR. Results show that the primers can specifically amplify target fragments, without any cross-amplification with other viruses. The multiplex PCR system can amplify six DNA fragments from the pooled viral genomes and specifically detect nucleic acids of the six duck susceptible viruses when the template amount is 10 2 copies/μl. In addition, the system can be used to detect viral nucleic acids in duck embryos infected with the six common viruses. The detection results for clinical samples are consistent with those detected by single PCR. Therefore, the established multiplex PCR method can perform specific, sensitive, and high-throughput detection of six duck-infecting viruses and can be applied to clinical identification and diagnosis of viral infection in ducks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Irradiation preservation study on Beijing roast duck by low dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiguo, Wang; Yongbao, Gu; Fengmei, Li [Beijing Normal Univ., BJ (China). Inst. of Low Energy Nuclear Physics; and others

    1989-02-01

    The irradiation technique combined with freezing has been used to control the microorganism in Beijing Roast Duck. Cobal-60 was chosen as {gamma}-ray source. The absorbed dose was 2 kGy on an average. After irrdiation, the microbe counts have reached the tolerable. Compared with untreated ducks, the irradiated ones showed no remarkable change in nutrition, chemistry, vitamin etc. It has been proved through test that the irradiated frozen Beijing Roast Duck is wholesome.

  2. Irradiation preservation study on Beijing roast duck by low dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weiguo; Gu Yongbao; Li Fengmei

    1989-01-01

    The irradiation technique combined with freezing has been used to control the microorganism in Beijing Roast Duck. Cobal-60 was chosen as γ-ray source. The absorbed dose was 2 kGy on an average. After irrdiation, the microbe counts have reached the tolerable. Compared with untreated ducks, the irradiated ones showed no remarkable change in nutrition, chemistry, vitamin etc. It has been proved through test that the irradiated frozen Beijing Roast Duck is wholesome

  3. Egg Production Potentials of Muscovy Ducks ( Cairina moschata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ducks in intensive management systems came into lay significantly (P<0.05) earlier, (IO, 203 days and IW, 207 days) than ducks in semi-intensive management system (248 days). Eggs from ducks in IO and IW were significantly (P<0.05) heavier (76.35 and 76.27g, respectively) than eggs from those in SI. Clutch sizes were ...

  4. Duck "beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome" disease complex: Interplay of novel goose parvovirus-related virus and duck circovirus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Li, J; Zhang, R; Chen, J; Wang, W; Lan, J; Xie, Z; Jiang, S

    2018-04-01

    As a newly emerged infectious disease, duck "beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS)" disease has caused huge economic losses to waterfowl industry in China since 2015. Novel goose parvovirus-related virus (NGPV) is believed the main pathogen of BADS disease; however, BADS is rarely reproduced by infecting ducks with NGPV alone. As avian circovirus infection causes clinical symptoms similar to BADS, duck circovirus (DuCV) is suspected the minor pathogen of BADS disease. In this study, an investigation was carried out to determine the coinfection of NGPV and DuCV in duck embryos and in ducks with BADS disease. According to our study, the coinfection of emerging NGPV and DuCV was prevalent in East China (Shandong, Jiangsu and Anhui province) and could be vertical transmitted, indicating their cooperative roles in duck BADS disease. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. A comparative study on radiosensitivity of neonatal ducks and chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Y.H.; Ogata, Kenji; Sugimura, Makoto

    1979-01-01

    Neonatal ducks and chickens are exposed to a wholebody X-irradiation ranging from 100 R to 3,000 R at a dose-rate of 185 R per min. Lethal doses to 50% in 30 days are estimated to be 500 R for the ducks, while 800 R for the chickens. The ducks appear to be much more radiosensitive than the chickens. Histopathological observations of various organs of the exposed specimens after death reveal remarkable alterations: Particularly lymphoid organs are affected much more in the ducks than in the chickens at lesser doses than 1,000 R. (author)

  6. Comparative study on radiosensitivity of neonatal ducks and chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Y H; Ogata, K; Sugimura, M [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1979-05-01

    Neonatal ducks and chickens are exposed to a wholebody X-irradiation ranging from 100 R to 3,000 R at a dose-rate of 185 R per min. Lethal doses to 50% in 30 days are estimated to be 500 R for the ducks, while 800 R for the chickens. The ducks appear to be much more radiosensitive than the chickens. Histopathological observations of various organs of the exposed specimens after death reveal remarkable alterations: Particularly lymphoid organs are affected much more in the ducks than in the chickens at lesser doses than 1,000 R.

  7. Ecology and conservation of North American sea ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, Jean-Pierre L.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Esler, Daniel N.; Eadie, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen a huge increase in the interest and attention directed toward sea ducks, the Mergini tribe. This has been inspired, in large part, by the conservation concerns associated with numerical declines in several sea duck species and populations, as well as a growing appreciation for their interesting ecological attributes. Reflecting the considerable research recently conducted on this tribe, Ecology and Conservation of North American Sea Ducks examines the 15 extant species of sea ducks from North America.

  8. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, Z; Naik, B R; Subramanyam, B V; Reddy, P M

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). Duck meat sausages were prepared by utilizing raw and partially cooked duck meat with addition of soy flour at 10% level as a binder. Different quality characteristics like physical and chemical characteristics, proximate composition, and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated. Cooking loss of partially cooked meat sausages was lower than raw duck meat sausages, whereas emulsion stability and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of raw duck meat sausages were lesser than partially cooked meat sausages. Cooking loss and emulsion stability decreased in both types of meat sausages, while, 2-TBA values increased as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent moisture content of raw duck meat sausages was higher than partially cooked meat sausages, which decreased in both types of meat sausages as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent crude protein (CP) and percent ether extract (EE) content of partially cooked duck meat sausages were higher than raw duck meat sausages. Regardless of type of meat used, refrigerated storage of sausages increased CP and EE up to 10th day but decreased upon further storage up to 14th day. Organoleptic scores for raw duck meat sausages were higher than partially cooked duck meat sausages and all the scores decreased with an increase in the storage period. However the scores were within the acceptable limits. The findings prove that, duck meat can be effectively acclaimed as an alternative avenue to meet the escalating

  9. OPEC ducks quota issue amid glut worries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries has ducked the question of reestablishing quotas despite the looming prospect of a second quarter oil price slide. OPEC ministers meeting in Vienna late last month approved continuing free-for-all production in the first quarter and ordered the ministerial monitoring committee to tackle the question of second quarter production levels when it meets in Geneva Feb. 12. Oil markets responded to the lack of action by dropping futures prices

  10. Carcass yields of two different strains of ducks raised in different altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillak, St. Y. F. G.; Mulyantini, N. G. A.; Sipahelut, G. M.; Lole, U. R.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if there is a difference in performance and carcass yield between ducks of two different strains raised in different altitude. Ducks different strains (Muscovy vs Pekin ducks) and they raised either in high or low altitude (high altitude which was between 500 and 1000m vs low altitude which was below 500m). All ducks were given one of two different diet s and provided water ad libitum. The diets were: 1) commercial diet, and 2) local diet. There were three replicate per treatment and there were 5 ducks per replication. Ducks from each strain were standardized to a similar weight. The results show that Pekin ducks carcass performance was significantly better than Muscovy ducks. Ducks given diet 2 had significantly (Pabdominal fat percentage in Pekin ducks is significantly (Pabdominal fat percentage in Muscovy ducks.

  11. Intermittent fasting during winter and spring affects body composition and reproduction of a migratory duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, Dennis G.

    2002-01-01

    We compared food intake, body mass and body composition of male and female black ducks (Anas rubripes) during winter (January-March). Birds were fed the same complete diet ad libitum on consecutive days each week without fasting (control; nine male; nine female) or with either short fasts (2 day.week-1; nine male; nine female), or long fasts (4 day.week-1; eleven male; twelve female). We continued treatments through spring (March-May) to measure the effect of intermittent fasts on body mass and egg production. Daily food intake of fasted birds was up to four times that of unfasted birds. Weekly food intake of males was similar among treatments (364 g.kg-1.week-1) but fasted females consumed more than unfasted females in January (363 g.kg-1.week-1 vs. 225 g.kg-1.week-1). Although both sexes lost 10-14% body mass, fasted females lost less mass and lipid than unfasted females during winter. Total body nitrogen was conserved over winter in both sexes even though the heart and spleen lost mass while the reproductive tract and liver gained mass. Intermittent fasting increased liver, intestinal tissue and digesta mass of females but not of males. Fasting delayed egg production in spring but did not affect size, fertility or hatching of the clutch. Females on long fasts were still heavier than controls after laying eggs. Thus black ducks combine flexibility of food intake with plasticity of digestive tract, liver and adipose tissue when food supply is interrupted during winter. Females modulate body mass for survival and defer reproduction when food supply is interrupted in spring.

  12. Seasonal carcass composition and energy balance of female black ducks in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, K.J.; Stone, T.L.; Owen, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Female Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) collected in Maine during the summer, fall, and winter of 1974-1976 showed significant seasonal variation in body weight, nonfat dry weight, gizzard and pectoral muscle weight, and fat, moisture, and protein content. Variation of body weight within and among seasons was correlated more strongly with carcass protein content, and with fat content during seasons of heavy lipid deposition, than with three structural size variables (culmen, tarsus, and sternum). Regression equations including fat and protein as independent variables accounted for 80-90% of the annual and seasonal variation in body weight; structural size variables alone accounted for less than 30%. Immature females averaged 54 and 99 g lighter, and carried 54 and 59 g less fat than adults during the fall and winter. Ducks of both age classes lost weight in December and January. Adult and immature females metabolized 59 and 64 g of fat and 17 and 25 g of protein in winter compared with 46 g of fat during the nesting season. Nutrient reserves are thus equally as important for the winter survival of these birds as for successfurl eproduction. Seasonal changes in carcass composition suggest that (1) fat deposited in late fall provides an energy reserve during winter, (2) a reduction in lean weight during winter may lower daily energy requirements and increase the effective amount of energy reserves, and (3) declining body weights during late winter may be an endogenous rhythm that reflects a shift in the expected benefits of an energy reserve compared to the costs of carrying additional weight,

  13. Stāstu stāstīšanas izmantošana lasīšanas veicināšanas pasākumos

    OpenAIRE

    Mežjāne, Signe

    2014-01-01

    Bakalaura darba mērķis ir noskaidrot, vai stāstu stāstīšana ir efektīvs lasīšanas veicināšanas paņēmiens bērniem. Pētījuma problēma ir mūsdienu bērnu nevēlēšanās lasīt, lasīšanu varētu veicināt stāstu stāstīšana bibliotēkās. Darbā tiek analizēts stāstu stāstīšanas process atbilstoši bērnu vecumposmam, izmantojot dažādus runas stilus. Teorētiskā bāze ir balstīta uz Lasītāja reakcijas kritikas teoriju un Runas darbības teoriju. Galvenie pētījuma uzdevumi ir noskaidrot, vai Latvijas bibliotē...

  14. Evaluating predictors of local dabbling duck abundance during migration: Managing the spectrum of conditions faced by migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Kevin; Crimmins, Shawn M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Tavernia, Brian G.; Lyons, James E.

    2015-01-01

    The development of robust modelling techniques to derive inferences from large-scale migratory bird monitoring data at appropriate scales has direct relevance to their management. The Integrated Waterbird Management and Monitoring programme (IWMM) represents one of the few attempts to monitor migrating waterbirds across entire flyways using targeted local surveys. This dataset included 13,208,785 waterfowl (eight Anas species) counted during 28,000 surveys at nearly 1,000 locations across the eastern United States between autumn 2010 and spring 2013 and was used to evaluate potential predictors of waterfowl abundance at the wetland scale. Mixed-effects, log-linear models of local abundance were built for the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways during spring and autumn migration to identify factors relating to habitat structure, forage availability, and migration timing that influence target dabbling duck species abundance. Results indicated that migrating dabbling ducks responded differently to environmental factors. While the factors identified demonstrated a high degree of importance, they were inconsistent across species, flyways and seasons. Furthermore, the direction and magnitude of the importance of each covariate group considered here varied across species. Given our results, actionable policy recommendations are likely to be most effective if they consider species-level variation within targeted taxonomic units and across management areas. The methods implemented here can easily be applied to other contexts, and serve as a novel investigation into local-level population patterns using data from broad-scale monitoring programmes.

  15. Northern Pintail (Anas acuta survival, recovery, and harvest rates derived from 55 years of banding in Prairie Canada, 1960-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake A. Bartzen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Northern Pintail (Anas acuta; hereafter pintail experienced a significant population decline in North America in the 1980s but did not rebound to the previous population level the way that other prairie dabbling duck species (Anas spp. did once habitat conditions improved. Although the population decline occurred throughout the breeding range of pintails, the decline was most pronounced and sustained in Prairie Canada, i.e., southern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Thus, we estimated and examined annual survival, recovery, and harvest rates of pintails banded in Prairie Canada from 1960-2014. Annual survival rates varied by sex but were relatively high compared to those of other dabbling duck species and increased slightly over the study period to end at 0.64 ± 0.13 (SE and 0.74 ± 0.10 for females and males, respectively. Recovery and harvest rates varied over time but generally declined in the 1980s and increased from the early 1990s until the end of the study period. There was no clear evidence that hunting bag limit restrictions affected annual survival, recovery, or harvest rates. In addition, we could find no compelling evidence that harvest mortality was substantially additive to nonharvest mortality for pintails. However, we could not definitively ascertain the effects of the restrictions, and we suggest that a trial basis of liberalized hunting bag limits would do much to improve the understanding of harvest and population dynamics of pintails and pose little risk to the population. Based on our results, we believe that measures other than harvest restrictions will likely have to be taken to elevate the pintail population to the North American Waterfowl Management Plan objective.

  16. Furagīna polimorfo formu iegūšana un raksturošana

    OpenAIRE

    Brovkina, Jūlija

    2013-01-01

    Bakalaura darba ietvaros iegūtas piecas farmaceitiski aktīvās vielas furazidīna polimorfās formas, kuras raksturotas ar pulvera rentgendifraktometrijas un termiskās analīzes metodēm. Darbā izmantotas vairākas polimorfo formu iegūšanas metodes: pārkristalizācija no dažādiem šķīdinātājiem, kristalizācija ar pH maiņu, solvātu desolvatācija un termiskā apstrāde. Pētīta iegūto polimorfo formu savstarpējā relatīvā stabilitāte, kā arī stabilitāte paaugstinātā temperatūrā un mitrumā....

  17. Susceptibility of Duck and Turkey to servere hypercapnic hypoxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritzen, M.A.; Lambooij, E.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Stegeman, J.A.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Large groups of poultry, including ducks and turkeys, are killed for disease control purposes with CO2. In this study, we examined the physiological reaction of White Pekin ducks and turkeys to increasing CO2 concentrations. Additionally, we examined the suitability of killing both species with

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of duck interleukin-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) belonging to the Th17 family is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated T cells. A 1034-bp cDNA encoding duck IL-17 (duIL-17) was cloned from ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes of ducks. The encoded protein, predicted to consisted of 169 amino acids, displayed a molec...

  19. Pig-duck-fish-azolla integration in La Union, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Gavina, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Three studies on pig-duck-fish-azolla integration were conducted simultaneously in La Union, Philippines. Growth performance of pigs and ducks as affected by different levels of azolla meal in their feed, and that of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under varying stocking rates are presented and discussed.

  20. Assessing genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of duck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the maternal genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of Nigerian duck populations were assessed. A total of 591 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region of 87 indigenous ducks from two populations in Nigeria were analyzed. Seven haplotypes and 70 polymorphic sites were ...

  1. Interactions between nesting pileated woodpeckers and wood ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Clifford E. Shackelford; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    2001-01-01

    We observed interactions between a nesting pair of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) and what appeared to be four pairs of wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Wood ducks regularly approached and attempted to enter an active pileated woodpecker nest cavity that contained three fully feathered young pileated woodpeckers. The male...

  2. Zeolite-like metal-organic frameworks with ana topology

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2017-04-20

    Embodiments of the present disclosure describe a zeolite-like metal-organic framework composition comprising a metal-organic framework composition with ana topology characterized by the formula [MIII(4, 5-imidazole dicarboxylic acid)2X(solvent)a]n wherein MIII comprises a trivalent cation of a rare earth element, X comprises an alkali metal element or alkaline earth metal element, and solvent comprises a guest molecule occupying pores. Embodiments of the present disclosure describe a method of separating paraffins comprising contacting a zeolite-like metal-organic framework with ana topology with a flow of paraffins, and separating the paraffins by size.

  3. Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H7N1) Transmission Between Wild Ducks and Domestic Ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, O. R.; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Handberg, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virological investigation in a mixed flock of ducks and geese following detection of avian influenza virus antibodies in domestic geese. Low pathogenic H7N1 was found in both domestic and wild birds, indicating that transmission of virus was likely to have taken place...

  4. Arginine affects appetite via nitric oxide in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Hou, S S; Huang, W; Xu, T S; Rong, G H; Xie, M

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the mechanism by which arginine regulates feed intake in Pekin ducks. In experiment 1, one hundred forty-four 1-d-old male Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens of 8 birds per pen. Birds in each group were fed a corn-corn gluten meal diet containing 0.65, 0.95, and 1.45% arginine. Ducks fed the diet containing 0.65% arginine had lower feed intake and plasma nitric oxide level (P ducks were allotted to 1 of 2 treatments. After 2 h fasting, birds in the 2 groups were intraperitoneally administrated saline and l-NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester HCl (L-NAME) for 3 d, respectively. Feed intake (P study implied that arginine modifies feeding behavior possibly through controlling endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide in Pekin ducks. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. The Ratios of Pre-emulsified Duck Skin for Optimized Processing of Restructured Ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Yun; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Ahn, Kwang-Il; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of duck ham formulated with duck skin through the pre-emulsification process. The experiments to investigate the quality characteristics of duck ham were carried out to measure proximate composition, cooking loss, emulsion stability, pH, color, texture profile analysis, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics. Duck ham was prepared with various ratios of duck skin in pre-emulsion as follows: Control (duct skin 30%), T1 (duck skin 20% + pre-emulsified duck skin 10%), T2 (duck skin 15% + pre-emulsified duck skin 15%), T3 (duck skin 10% + pre-emulsified duck skin 20%), and T4 (pre-emulsified duck skin 30%). As the ratio of duck skin to pre-emulsified skin changed, the quality of duck ham in terms of moisture content, fat content, cooking loss, emulsion stability, lightness, textural analysis, apparent viscosity, and overall acceptability changed. The moisture content of T2 was the highest ( p ham and 1:1 ratio of duck skin and pre-emulsified skin was the proper ratio to improve the quality characteristics of duck ham.

  6. Effects of dietary vanadium in mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Dieter, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    Adult mallard ducks fed 0, 1, 10, or 100 ppm vanadyl sulfate in the diet were sacrificed after 12 wk on treatment; tissues were analyzed for vanadium. No birds died during the study and body weights did not change. Vanadium accumulated to higher concentrations in the bone and liver than in other tissues. Concentrations in bones of hens were five times those in bones of drakes, suggesting an interaction between vanadium and calcium mobilization in laying hens. Vanadium concentrations in most tissues were significantly correlated and increased with treatment level. Lipid metabolism was altered in laying hens fed 100 ppm vanadium. Very little vanadium accumulated in the eggs of laying hens.

  7. Shell thinning and reproductive impairment in black ducks after cessation of DDE dosage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; Stendell, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Captive black ducks (anas rubripes) were fed dietary DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] at 10 ppm (dry weight; about 2 ppm on a natural diet basis) for 2 breeding seasons, then untreated feed for 2 succeeding years. Residues of DDE in the carcasses of adults declined 90% during the 2-year clean-up period. Following 2 years of dietary DDE, mean residues in eggs reached 64.9 ppm. Even after 2 years on clean feed, DDE residues in the eggs averaged 6.2 ppm or 9.5% of the mean DDE level reached after 2 years on treated feed. Shells of eggs from treated hens were about 20% thinner than shells of eggs from controls. Stoppage of DDE dosage resulted in progressively thicker shells, yet even after 2 years on untreated feed hens laid eggs with shells about 10% thinner than control hens. After DDE was removed from the diet, DDE residues in the eggs decreased, shell thickness increased, and reproductive success improved. Hens previously exposed to DDE, but then fed clean feed for 2 years, still produced significantly fewer surviving ducklings than did control hens.

  8. Developing and Validating a Santa Ana Wildfire Threat Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, S. B.; Rolinski, T.; DAgostino, B.; Vanderburg, S.; Fovell, R. G.; Cao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Santa Ana winds, common to southern California during the fall through spring, are a type of katabatic wind that originates from a direction generally ranging from 360°/0° to 100° and is usually accompanied by very low humidity. Since fuel conditions tend to be driest from late September through the middle of November, Santa Ana winds occurring during this period have the greatest potential to produce large, devastating fires when an ignition occurs. Such catastrophic fires occurred in 1993, 2003, 2007, and 2008. Because of the destructive nature of these fires, there has been a growing desire to categorize Santa Ana wind events in much the same way that tropical cyclones have been categorized. The Santa Ana Wildfire Threat index (SAWT) is an attempt to categorize such events with respect to fire activity, based on surface wind velocity, dew point depression, and forecasted fuel conditions. The index, a USDA Forest Service product, was developed by the Forest Service in collaboration with San Diego Gas and Electric Utility (SDG&E), the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at UCLA, The Desert Research Institute (DRI), and Vertum Partners. The methodology behind the SAWT index, along with the index itself will be presented in detail. Also, there will be a discussion on the construction of a 30-year climatology of the index, which includes various meteorological and fuel parameters. We will demonstrate the usefulness of the index as another decision support tool for fire agencies and first responders, and how it could assist the general public and private industry in the preparation of critical Santa Ana wind events.

  9. What's Values Got to Do with It? Thriving among Mexican/Mexican American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Consoli, Melissa L.; Llamas, Jasmín; Consoli, Andrés J.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined traditional Mexican/Mexican American and perceived U.S. mainstream cultural values as predictors of thriving. One hundred twenty-four (37 men, 87 women) self-identified Mexican/Mexican American college students participated in the study. The traditional Mexican/Mexican American cultural values of family support and religion…

  10. Multiple losses of flight and recent speciation in steamer ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Tara L.; Letts, Brandon; Shapiro, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Steamer ducks (Tachyeres) comprise four species, three of which are flightless. The flightless species are believed to have diverged from a flying common ancestor during the Late Pleistocene; however, their taxonomy remains contentious. Of particular interest is the previously unstudied population of flying steamer ducks in the Falkland Islands. We present the first genetic data from this insular population, and illustrate that the flying and flightless steamer ducks on the Falkland Islands are genetically indistinguishable, in contrast to their traditional classification as separate species. The three species that reside in continental South America form a genetically distinct lineage from the Falkland Island ducks. The Falkland steamer ducks diverged from their continental relatives 2.2–0.6 million years ago, coincident with a probable land bridge connecting the Falkland Islands to the mainland. The three continental species share a common ancestor approximately 15 000 years ago, possibly owing to isolation during a recent glacial advance. The continental steamer duck species are not reciprocally monophyletic, but show some amount of genetic differentiation between them. Each lineage of Tachyeres represents a different stage between flight and flightlessness. Their phylogenetic relationships suggest multiple losses of flight and/or long-term persistence of mixed-flight capability. As such, steamer ducks may provide a model system to study the evolution of flightlessness. PMID:22319122

  11. Properties of duck meat sausages supplemented with cereal flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H S; Ali, M S; Jeong, J Y; Moon, S H; Hwang, Y H; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2009-07-01

    Duck meat sausages were prepared using 10% beef fat (FDS) and 10% hydrated cereal flours including rice (RDS), wheat, corn, millet, and barley to replace fat. Control duck sausages (DS) were also prepared only with duck meat and duck meat plus 10% beef fat. Results showed that protein and fat contents significantly decreased and total expressible fluid reduced with the addition of cereal flours in duck sausage batters. The FDS had higher fat content and lower pH compared with others. Duck sausages with 10% supplemented wheat flour showed the lowest cooking loss among sausages and had similar redness and chroma values to FDS and DS. Texture analysis indicated that hardness of duck sausage significantly decreased when cereal flours and beef fat were added. In particular, RDS showed the lowest values for all texture measurements compared with others. Result of moisture absorption capacity suggested that the decrease in hardness in RDS was due to higher moisture retention for rice flour treatment. Sensory evaluation indicated that DS had significantly lower overall acceptability than RDS, due to its off-flavor, whereas RDS had higher overall acceptability than DS.

  12. Population estimates and monitoring guidelines for endangered Laysan Teal, Anas Laysanensis, at Midway Atoll: Pilot study results 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Laniawe, Leona

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimates of population size are often crucial to determining status and planning recovery of endangered species. The ability to detect trends in survival and population size over time enables conservation managers to make effective decisions for species and refuge management. During 2004–2007, the translocated population of endangered Laysan Teal (Anas laysanensis; also Laysan Duck) was fitted with radio transmitters providing known (―gold standard‖) measures of survival and reproduction. However, as the population grew, statistically rigorous monitoring protocols were needed that were less labor intensive than radio telemetry. A population die-off and alarmingly high number of carcasses (181) were recorded during a botulism epizootic in August–October 2008, which further reinforced the need for effective monitoring protocols since this endangered species is vulnerable to catastrophic population declines. In fall 2008, we initiated a pilot study using standardized surveys with uniquely marked birds to monitor abundance and estimate the population growth rate of the reintroduced Laysan Teal. Since few birds carried marks (leg bands) after the 2008 botulism die-off (only about 15% of the population), and standardized surveys were not yet implemented, the magnitude of the die-off on the population size was unknown.

  13. Metodiskā darba organizēšana un izvērtēšana skolā.

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubovska, Solvita

    2010-01-01

    Maģistra darbā „Metodiskā darba organizēšana un izvērtēšana skolā” aplūkoti jautājumi par metodiskā darba organizēšanu valsts, pašvaldības un skolas līmenī, kā arī metodisko komisiju darbības izvērtēšanu, balstoties uz skolu darba kvalitātes izvērtēšanu akreditācijas procesā. Maģistra darba mērķis ir izpētīt skolas metodiskā darba organizēšanas un izvērtēšanas iespējas, veidojot priekšlikumus darba uzlabošanai. Pētījuma ietveros tika izstrādāti skolas metodisko komisiju darbības izvērtēša...

  14. Molting characteristics of crossbreds between Alabio and Pekin ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanti T

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molting is a problem for duck farmers, during which the ducks stop laying eggs. Molting characteristics may be altered through crossing between non-molting to molting ducks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate molting characteristics of the crossing between Alabio and Pekin ducks. The materials used were 90 female AP (Alabio males x Pekin females and 90 female PA (Pekin males x Alabio females, 25 female Alabio and 25 female Pekin ducks. The ducks were housed in individual cages at the Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production, Ciawi Bogor. Variables measured were the length of molting and egg production in 30 weeks, data were analyzed using ANOVA and followed by the estimation of the value of heterosis. Result showed that the molting of Pekin ducks was 71.31±9.36 days, it was longer than Alabio, AP or PA ducks, which were respectively 42.44±8.59, 43.63±4.88 and 49.35±4.85 days (P<0.01. Egg production of Pekin duck (56.41±4.59 was significantly lower (P<0.01 than that of Alabio, AP or PA, which were 72.48±3.24, 83.75±1.39 and 76.12±1.68 respectively. The heterosis of molting period of AP was higher than that of PA (-23.29 vs -13.23%. The heterosis of egg production of AP was higher than PA (29.96 vs 18.12%. It is concluded that the AP crossbred could be utilized as the initial population to produce a superior line characterized by high egg production and controllable molting.

  15. Mexican Folkart for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Graciela; And Others

    Directions, suggested materials, and illustrations are given for making paper mache pinatas and masks, cascarones, Ojos de Dios, maracas, dresser scarf embroidery, burlap murals, yarn designs, paper plate trays, paper cut designs, the poppy, sarape aprons, and paper Mexican dolls. Filled with candy and broken, the pinata is used on most Mexican…

  16. Mexican Identification. Project Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Rita

    This document presents an outline and teacher's guide for a community college-level teaching module in Mexican identification, designed for students in introductory courses in the social sciences. Although intended specifically for cultural anthropology, urban anthropology, comparative social organization and sex roles in cross-cultural…

  17. Prolonged excretion of a low-pathogenicity H5N2 avian influenza virus strain in the Pekin duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Flores, José Manuel; Padilla-Noriega, Luis; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    H5N2 strains of low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) have been circulating for at least 17 years in some Mexican chicken farms. We measured the rate and duration of viral excretion from Pekin ducks that were experimentally inoculated with an H5N2 LPAIV that causes death in embryonated chicken eggs (A/chicken/Mexico/2007). Leghorn chickens were used as susceptible host controls. The degree of viral excretion was evaluated with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) using samples from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. We observed prolonged excretion from both species of birds lasting for at least 21 days. Prolonged excretion of LPAIV A/chicken/Mexico/2007 is atypical. PMID:23820212

  18. Replication cycle of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 in duck embryonic hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Fangke; Chen, Yun; Shi, Jintong; Ming, Ke; Liu, Jiaguo; Xiong, Wen; Song, Meiyun; Du, Hongxu; Wang, Yixuan; Zhang, Shuaibin; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2016-01-01

    Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is an important agent of duck viral hepatitis. Until recently, the replication cycle of DHAV-1 is still unknown. Here duck embryonic hepatocytes infected with DHAV-1 were collected at different time points, and dynamic changes of the relative DHAV-1 gene expression during replication were detected by real-time PCR. And the morphology of hepatocytes infected with DHAV was evaluated by electron microscope. The result suggested that the adsorption of DHAV-1 saturated at 90 min post-infection, and the virus particles with size of about 50 nm including more than 20 nm of vacuum drying gold were observed on the infected cells surface. What's more, the replication lasted around 13 h after the early protein synthesis for about 5 h, and the release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h. The replication cycle will enrich the data for DVH control and provide the foundation for future studies. - Highlights: • This is the first description of the replication cycle of DHAV-1. • Firstly find that DHAV-1 adsorption saturated at 90 min post-infection. • The replication lasted around 13 h after early protein synthesis for about 5 h. • The release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h.

  19. Replication cycle of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 in duck embryonic hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Fangke; Chen, Yun; Shi, Jintong; Ming, Ke; Liu, Jiaguo, E-mail: liujiaguo@njau.edu.cn; Xiong, Wen; Song, Meiyun; Du, Hongxu; Wang, Yixuan; Zhang, Shuaibin; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2016-04-15

    Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is an important agent of duck viral hepatitis. Until recently, the replication cycle of DHAV-1 is still unknown. Here duck embryonic hepatocytes infected with DHAV-1 were collected at different time points, and dynamic changes of the relative DHAV-1 gene expression during replication were detected by real-time PCR. And the morphology of hepatocytes infected with DHAV was evaluated by electron microscope. The result suggested that the adsorption of DHAV-1 saturated at 90 min post-infection, and the virus particles with size of about 50 nm including more than 20 nm of vacuum drying gold were observed on the infected cells surface. What's more, the replication lasted around 13 h after the early protein synthesis for about 5 h, and the release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h. The replication cycle will enrich the data for DVH control and provide the foundation for future studies. - Highlights: • This is the first description of the replication cycle of DHAV-1. • Firstly find that DHAV-1 adsorption saturated at 90 min post-infection. • The replication lasted around 13 h after early protein synthesis for about 5 h. • The release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h.

  20. MELLIPHEROUS TREES MONITORING FROM ANA LUGOJANA FORESTRY DEPARTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA PĂTRUICĂ

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study made by the purpose of seeing in whatmanner the mellipherous trees belonging to Ana Lugojana Departments ensuremaintenance and production harvesting for bee families from this area. The study wasmade during the period of May 2006 and April 2007, on a 12301 hectares area, inwhich we recorded: forestry mellipherous trees identification, the surface occupied byeach specie and the blooming period, data that we used to calculate the amount ofhoney that can be obtained and the number of bee families that can be kept in thearea, respectively. Analyzing the data, we concluded that forestry mellipherous treesfrom Ana Lugojana Forestry Departments can ensure in normal conditions,maintenance and production harvesting for 3239 bee families.

  1. Kukuļņemšanas un kukuļdošanas kvalifikācijas problēmas

    OpenAIRE

    Brauere, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    Bakalaura darba nosaukums ir „Kukuļņemšanas un kukuļdošanas kvalifikācijas problēmas”. Darba mērķis ir izpētīt normatīvos aktus, speciālo juridisko literatūru un judikatūru, nolūkā konstatēt problēmas kukuļņemšanas un kukuļdošanas kvalifikācijā. Lai sasniegtu šo mērķi, darbā tika aplūkota kukuļņemšanas un kukuļdošanas vēsturiskā attīstība, tādējādi sniedzot nelielu ieskatu par kukuļņemšanas un kukuļdošanas juridiskā pamata vēsturiskās attīstības posmiem no 19.gadsimta līdz mūsdienām. Darb...

  2. Lead shot pellets dispersed by hunters: ingested by ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danell, K [Univ. of Umea, Sweden; Andersson, A; Marcstrom, V

    1977-01-01

    Many of the lead pellets shot by waterfowl hunters over shores and waters fall on the feeding grounds of ducks and geese. These pellets, picked up and ingested by the birds, can remain in the gizzard where they are eroded by mechanical and chemical action. In some cases the bird absorbs enough lead to cause lead poisoning. This report describes the incidence of ingested lead shot pellets found in 928 ducks collected in Sweden during hunting season. Pellets were found in both dabbling and diving ducks and were present in birds from six of the eight localities sampled. Usually one or two pellets were found but some ducks contained up to 62 pellets. As the incidence of ingested pellets in the present study is approximately the same as that found in North America, where the annual duck loss due to lead poisoning is estimated to be 2 to 3 percent of the population, it may be assumed that lead poisoning is a mortality factor for Swedish ducks also.

  3. O outro de Ana Cristina Cesar: WW ou um qualquer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Cernicchiaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-784X.2010nesp3p176 Quem é Ana Cristina Cesar? A quem perguntar senão ao outro (como fazia Jacques Derrida ao gato1, a um outro, ao outro qualquer que somos nós seus leitores, estes que ela abraça e se joga aos pés; ao outro qualquer que são seus amigos: WW, KM, LM, Jack, Charles, Caio, Ângela, enfim, um índice onomástico inteiro. Aos outros seus conterrâneos, não só os do Rio de Janeiro, mas os da cidade dos poetas, Londres, Lisboa, Paris, Nova York, Belo Horizonte, São Paulo, etc, etc, etc. Ao outro suas personagens, suas máscaras, Ana C, ACC, Ana Cristina Cesar, o gato, a toalha, aquela que ouve Roberto Carlos, que assiste Casablanca, que briga com Freud, que conversa com uma amiga, que bate à porta de um amigo, que pega um táxi, que fuma debaixo da janela, “meio-bruxa, meia-fera”, a que tem sobressaltos, que escreve no automóvel, entre tantas outras que não são

  4. GPS sekošanas sistēma

    OpenAIRE

    Striževskis, Andrejs

    2011-01-01

    Šajā darbā ir izskatītas GPS sekošanas iespējas privātās lietošanas sfērā, aprakstītas kartogrāfijas un navigācijas teorētisko pamatu izvēlētās nodaļas un piedāvāts bezmaksas risinājums, kas dod iespēju izmantot sekošanai GPS ierīces ar datora palīdzību un interneta pieslēgumu bez papildus servisiem, kā arī veidot tam nolūkam navigācijas kartes, piesaistot rastra attēlus Zemes ģeogrāfisko koordinātu sistēmai ar polinomiālās transformācijas palīdzību. Atslēgvārdi: GPS sekošana, GIS, navigāc...

  5. Drosophila Ana1 is required for centrosome assembly and centriole elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurya, Saroj; Roque, Hélio; Novak, Zsofia A; Wainman, Alan; Aydogan, Mustafa G; Volanakis, Adam; Sieber, Boris; Pinto, David Miguel Susano; Raff, Jordan W

    2016-07-01

    Centrioles organise centrosomes and cilia, and these organelles have an important role in many cell processes. In flies, the centriole protein Ana1 is required for the assembly of functional centrosomes and cilia. It has recently been shown that Cep135 (also known as Bld10) initially recruits Ana1 to newly formed centrioles, and that Ana1 then recruits Asl (known as Cep152 in mammals) to promote the conversion of these centrioles into centrosomes. Here, we show that ana1 mutants lack detectable centrosomes in vivo, that Ana1 is irreversibly incorporated into centrioles during their assembly and appears to play a more important role in maintaining Asl at centrioles than in initially recruiting Asl to centrioles. Unexpectedly, we also find that Ana1 promotes centriole elongation in a dose-dependent manner: centrioles are shorter when Ana1 dosage is reduced and are longer when Ana1 is overexpressed. This latter function of Ana1 appears to be distinct from its role in centrosome and cilium function, as a GFP-Ana1 fusion lacking the N-terminal 639 amino acids of the protein can support centrosome assembly and cilium function but cannot promote centriole over-elongation when overexpressed. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Mākoņdatošanas izmantošana informātikas priekšmetā vidusskolā.

    OpenAIRE

    Jēkabsone, Kristīne

    2013-01-01

    Izanalizējot informātikas standartu vidusskolā izpētīta mākoņdatošanas izmantošanas iespējas vidusskolā. Veikta aptauja vidusskolas klases skolēnu vidū. Aplūkots vidusskolas izglītojamo pieejamais tehnoloģiju klāsts. Meklēta atbilde uz pētniecisko jautājumu: kādas ir mākoņdatošanas izmantošanas iespējas informātikas priekšmeta apguvē vidusskolā? Sniegti ieteikumi skolotājiem strādājot ar mākoņdatošanu. Atslēgas vārdi: informātika, mākoņdatošana, Google Drive, Skydrive, Dropbox....

  7. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  8. Duck enteritis virus glycoprotein D and B DNA vaccines induce immune responses and immunoprotection in Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Cao, Yongsheng; Cui, Lihong; Ma, Bo; Mu, Xiaoyu; Li, Yanwei; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Dan; Wei, Wei; Gao, Mingchun; Wang, Junwei

    2014-01-01

    DNA vaccine is a promising strategy for protection against virus infection. However, little is known on the efficacy of vaccination with two plasmids for expressing the glycoprotein D (gD) and glycoprotein B (gB) of duck enteritis virus (DEV) in inducing immune response and immunoprotection against virulent virus infection in Pekin ducks. In this study, two eukaryotic expressing plasmids of pcDNA3.1-gB and pcDNA3.1-gD were constructed. Following transfection, the gB and gD expressions in DF1 cells were detected. Groups of ducks were vaccinated with pcDNA3.1-gB and/or pcDNA3.1-gD, and boosted with the same vaccine on day 14 post primary vaccination. We found that intramuscular vaccinations with pcDNA3.1-gB and/or pcDNA3.1-gD, but not control plasmid, stimulated a high frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in Pekin ducks, particularly with both plasmids. Similarly, vaccination with these plasmids, particularly with both plasmids, promoted higher levels of neutralization antibodies against DEV in Pekin ducks. More importantly, vaccination with both plasmids significantly reduced the virulent DEV-induced mortality in Pekin ducks. Our data indicated that vaccination with plasmids for expressing both gB and gD induced potent cellular and humoral immunity against DEV in Pekin ducks. Therefore, this vaccination strategy may be used for the prevention of DEV infection in Pekin ducks.

  9. MORPHOLOGY AND GENETIC DIVERSITY OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA D-LOOP REGION USING PCR-RFLP ANALYSIS IN MAGELANG DUCK AND OTHER NATIVE DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Purwantini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the different of plumage colors on morphological diversityof Magelang duck and genetic diversity using PCR-RFLP mtDNA D-loop region analysis of Magelangduck and four others native duck population (Tegal, Mojosari, Bali and Alabio duck in Indonesia. Bloodsample was taken from 50 Magelang ducks and 20 of each native ducks. Morphological characteristicsof body measurement, production ability and egg quality of Magelang duck were analyzed usingCompletely Randomized Design with 11 plumage colors as treatments. PCR technique was administeredto amplify fragments in mtDNA D-loop region and PCR products were digested with endonucleaserestriction enzyme AluI and HaeIII. The result showed that morphology diversity of Magelang duck wasstatistically affected by different plumage colors. PCR-RFLP analysis using AluI and HaeIII restrictionenzyme resulted in six combinations of restriction fragment pattern shown in six haplotypes (A, B, C, D,E and F. Haplotype difference showed genetic diversity in the population of Magelang duck and theother native ducks. In conclusion, the different plumage colors affected morphology diversity ofMagelang duck. Genetic diversity of Indonesian native duck population could be identified by usingPCR-RFLP analysis on mtDNA D-loop region.

  10. Cross-sectional serosurvey of avian influenza antibodies presence in domestic ducks of Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, S; Lupiani, B; Budke, C M; Manandhar, S; Ivanek, R

    2014-09-01

    Kathmandu, Nepal has been classified as a high-risk area for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) by the Nepali Government. While ducks have an important role in the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV), including HPAI, seroprevalence of antibodies to AIV in domestic ducks of Kathmandu has never been assessed. The objectives of this study were (i) to estimate the prevalence of seroconversion to AIV in domestic ducks in major duck-raising areas of Kathmandu and (ii) to assess the effect of age, sex, presence of swine and the number of ducks on the farm on the carriage of antibodies to AIV in these ducks. From April through July of 2011, a cross-sectional study was conducted and a total of 310 ducks in the major duck-raising areas of Kathmandu were sampled. The estimated prevalence of AIV antibodies was 27.2% [95% confidence interval (CI): 24.6-29.5]. Of 62 enrolled farms, 42% had at least one seropositive duck. Half of the enrolled farms also kept pigs of which 52% had at least one seropositive duck. Bivariate analysis indicated association between ducks' seroconversion to AIV and their age, sex and farm size. However, the final multivariable model, after controlling for clustering of ducks within farms, identified age as the only significant risk factor. Based on this model, ducks older than 1 year of age were more likely to be seropositive compared to ducks ducks in the major duck-raising areas of Kathmandu and identify a high-risk group that can be targeted in surveillance activities. Future studies should be conducted to differentiate the subtypes of AIV present among domestic ducks in Kathmandu, with particular interest in the presence of HPAI viruses. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. The Characteristics of Meat Duck, Problems and Prevention of Off Flavor Due to Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procula R Matitaputty

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Source of poultry meat in Indonesia is currently dominated by chicken while local resources such as ducks have the potential to grow and be used as an alternative meat producer. Duck contribution towards the provision of a relatively small meat of 2.29%, compared with free-range chicken to reachs 20.33%. Sources of duck meat in Indonesia comes from local duck, and culled female ducks. Acceptance of most local duck meat is still relatively low, although in some areas local duck dishes are excellent. Meat ducks are generally less desirable, because taste and smell is different from chicken. Because consumers are not accustomed to the taste of typical meat, especially those that give the sensation of irregularities off meat – flavor or smell fishy/ rancid. Similarly, the color of duck meat is darker than that of chicken meat, high fat content of about 2.7 to 6.8%, which also influences consumer preferences. The high fat content, especially acid-unsaturated fatty acids in meat duck gives a tendency to produce off – flavors. Efforts to increase the consumption of duck meat should be based on the cause of the lack of acceptance by consumers. The smell of rancid meat duck is the most dominant cause of which is not liked by consumers. Efforts to reduce the off flavor of duck meat could be by adding antioxidant in feed stuffs.

  12. Treatment of duck house wastewater by a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor system for sustainable duck production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jung-Jeng; Huang, Jeng-Fang; Wang, Yi-Lei; Hong, Yu-Ya

    2018-06-15

    The objective of this study is trying to solve water pollution problems related to duck house wastewater by developing a novel duck house wastewater treatment technology. A pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system using different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) for treating duck house wastewater was developed and applied in this study. Experimental results showed that removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand in untreated duck house wastewater was 98.4, 98.4, 87.8, and 72.5% for the different HRTs of 5, 3, 1, and 0.5 d, respectively. In addition, removal efficiency of biochemical oxygen demand in untreated duck house wastewater was 99.6, 99.3, 90.4, and 58.0%, respectively. The pilot-scale SBR system was effective and deemed capable to be applied to treat duck house wastewater. It is feasible to apply an automatic SBR system on site based on the previous case study of the farm-scale automatic SBR systems for piggery wastewater treatment.

  13. Cloning, characterization and expression of Peking duck fatty acid synthase during adipocyte differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ding

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: We have successfully cloned and characterized Peking duck FAS. FAS was induced during adipocyte differentiation and by oleic acid treatment. These findings suggest that Peking duck FAS plays a similar role to mammalian FAS during adipocyte differentiation.

  14. Study on rural duck production systems in selected areas of Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanum, J.; Chwalibog, André; Huque, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate scavenging duck production systems in two regions (Netrokona Sadar Upazila and Sundargonj Upazila) of Bangladesh. Feeding systems and availability of feed for raising ducks, production performance of scaavenging ducks and profitability of raising...... ducks were evaluated. Information was collected from the farmers through a questionnaire. All the farmers of Sundargonj Upazila used mixed feed compund, but in Netrokona only 14% of farmers fed mixed feed to their ducks. The rest was either paddy or wheat alone or a mixture of both. Deshi (local) ducks...... were mostly used in Netrokona but in Sundargonj, farmers mostly raise exotic ducks. The farmers of Sundargonj area increased the amount of feed with the increase of age of their ducks, but the farmers of Netrokona decreased the amount of feed. The mortality rate in Netrokona was 27.1% but in Sundargonj...

  15. Economics of duck marketing in Oyo State | Saka | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics of duck marketing in Oyo State. ... The marketing survey involved 50 duck traders selected from Ibadan, Oyo and Ogbomoso. Majority (72%) of the marketers procured ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  16. Experimental reproduction of an Enterococcus cecorum infection in Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Arne; Metzner, Martin; Köhler-Repp, Dagmar; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2013-12-01

    Enterococcus cecorum (EC) was thus far only known as a pathogen for broilers and broiler breeders. Recently there was evidence of EC field outbreaks in Pekin duck flocks in Germany. In this study we experimentally reproduced an EC infection in Pekin ducks. At 12 days post hatch, groups of Pekin ducks were infected orally, via the thoracic air sac or intravenously with 1.5 × 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU) of EC per bird or via the air sac with 8.5 × 10(5) or 8.5 × 10(7) CFU per bird. Ducks of the intravenously infected group showed 100% mortality after 2 days post infection. The air sac inoculated high-dose group exhibited a mortality rate of 67%. Birds that were infected with 8.5 × 10(5) and 8.5 × 10(7) CFU showed 6.7% mortality after 7 days post infection. Dead birds displayed pneumonia, airsacculitis, pericarditis and splenitis and EC was re-isolated from these organs. Surviving birds of all groups apart from the orally infected ducks demonstrated clinical signs such as huddling, reduced mobility and diarrhoea. Furthermore, they showed gross pathological lesions including airsacculitis and splenitis and lower bodyweights than the control group at necropsy on days 7, 14 and 21 post infection. The present study clearly confirms that EC is pathogenic for Pekin ducks after experimental infection via the intravenous route or the respiratory tract. EC therefore has to be considered as an emerging avian pathogen not only in broilers but also in Pekin ducks.

  17. Differential gene expression analysis of in vitro duck hepatitis B virus infected primary duck hepatocyte cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issac Aneesh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human hepatitis B virus (HBV, a member of the hepadna viridae, causes acute or chronic hepatitis B, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV infection, a dependable and reproducible model for hepadna viral studies, does not result in HCC unlike chronic HBV infection. Information on differential gene expression in DHBV infection might help to compare corresponding changes during HBV infection, and to delineate the reasons for this difference. Findings A subtractive hybridization cDNA library screening of in vitro DHBV infected, cultured primary duck hepatocytes (PDH identified cDNAs of 42 up-regulated and 36 down-regulated genes coding for proteins associated with signal transduction, cellular respiration, transcription, translation, ubiquitin/proteasome pathway, apoptosis, and membrane and cytoskeletal organization. Those coding for both novel as well as previously reported proteins in HBV/DHBV infection were present in the library. An inverse modulation of the cDNAs of ten proteins, reported to play role in human HCC, such as that of Y-box binding protein1, Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase isoform 1B, ribosomal protein L35a, Ferritin, α-enolase, Acid α-glucosidase and Caspase 3, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, Filamin and Pyruvate dehydrogenase, was also observed in this in vitro study. Conclusions The present study identified cDNAs of a number of genes that are differentially modulated in in vitro DHBV infection of primary duck hepatocytes. Further correlation of this differential gene expression in in vivo infection models would be valuable to understand the little known aspects of the hepadnavirus biology.

  18. Epitope Identification and Application for Diagnosis of Duck Tembusu Virus Infections in Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxi Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV causes substantial egg drop disease. DTMUV was first identified in China and rapidly spread to Malaysia and Thailand. The antigenicity of the DTMUV E protein has not yet been characterized. Here, we investigated antigenic sites on the E protein using the non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs 1F3 and 1A5. Two minimal epitopes were mapped to 221LD/NLPW225 and 87YAEYI91 by using phage display and mutagenesis. DTMUV-positive duck sera reacted with the epitopes, thus indicating the importance of the minimal amino acids of the epitopes for antibody-epitope binding. The performance of the dot blotting assay with the corresponding positive sera indicated that YAEYI was DTMUV type-specific, whereas 221LD/NLPW225 was a cross-reactive epitope for West Nile virus (WNV, dengue virus (DENV, and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV and corresponded to conserved and variable amino acid sequences among these strains. The structure model of the E protein revealed that YAEYI and LD/NLPW were located on domain (D II, which confirmed that DII might contain a type-specific non-neutralizing epitope. The YAEYI epitope-based antigen demonstrated its diagnostic potential by reacting with high specificity to serum samples obtained from DTMUV-infected ducks. Based on these observations, a YAEYI-based serological test could be used for DTMUV surveillance and could differentiate DTMUV infections from JEV or WNV infections. These findings provide new insights into the organization of epitopes on flavivirus E proteins that might be valuable for the development of epitope-based serological diagnostic tests for DTMUV.

  19. BRS Ana: cultivar de batata de duplo propósito BRS ANA: A dual purpose potato cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arione da S Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O genótipo BRS Ana é uma nova cultivar de batata adequada para fritura à francesa, com potencial de processamento na forma de palitos pré-fritos congelados e de flocos, liberada em 2007. Foi desenvolvida pelo Programa de Melhoramento de Batata da Embrapa (Clima Temperado, Pelotas-RS, Transferência de Tecnologia - Escritório de Canoinhas-SC e Hortaliças, Brasília-DF, com base na aparência e rendimento de tubérculos, peso específico e qualidade de fritura. Os tubérculos têm película vermelha, levemente áspera, polpa branca, formato oval e olhos rasos. O potencial produtivo é alto. No ecossistema subtropical, apresentou maior produtividade (31,2 t ha-1 que as cultivares mais plantadas no país, quando cultivada no outono, e não diferiu na primavera. Em ecossistema tropical, plantio da seca, a cultivar BRS Ana foi tão produtiva (33,8 t ha-1 quanto as demais cultivares avaliadas. Produziu maior percentagem de tubérculos graúdos (55,6% e peso médio dos tubérculos (108,4 g que as testemunhas no outono do ecossistema subtropical. Em ambos os ecossistemas, a cultivar BRS Ana apresentou elevados valores de peso específico (1,086 e conteúdo de matéria seca (19,7%. Nos testes sensoriais mostrou-se adequada à fritura na forma de palitos, tanto no preparo doméstico, quanto na industrialização. É moderadamente suscetível à requeima (Phytophthora infestans e tem boa resistência à pinta-preta (Alternaria solani. A reação à podridão-mole (Pectobacterium sp. é similar à das cultivares mais plantadas. Apresenta baixa degenerescência de sementes por viroses, conferida pela resistência moderadamente alta ao PVY e baixa incidência do PLRV. Suscetibilidade a distúrbios de origem fisiológica nos tubérculos não tem sido observada. No ecossistema subtropical a tuberização é mais tardia na primavera, devendo portanto ser plantada mais cedo.The genotype BRS Ana is a new potato cultivar adequate for French fries, with

  20. Functional Characteristics of Spent Duck Meat for Use in Emulsion-Type Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Juni Sumarmono; Samsu Wasito

    2010-01-01

    Spent ducks produce nutritive meat; however the meat possesses undesirable characteristics such as strong odor and tough. Hence, appropriate yet simple processing technologies need to be developed in order to maximize the use of duck meat. The experiment was conducted to evaluate functional characteristics of spent duck meat as raw material for the production of emulsion-type meat products, such as nugget and sausage. Chilled carcasses of 96 spent ducks were deboned manually, then mixed thor...

  1. Kukuļņemšanas un kukuļdošanas noziedzīgo nodarījumu krimināltiesiskais raksturojums

    OpenAIRE

    Ozoliņš, Uldis

    2010-01-01

    . Kukuļņemšanas un kukuļdošanas noziedzīgo nodarījumu krimināltiesiskais raksturojums. Kukuļņemšana un kukuļdošana ir vieni no izplatītākajiem noziedzīgajiem nodarījumiem valsts institūciju dienestā. Diplomdarba aktualitāte ir saistīta ar to, ka jau vairākus gadus Latvijas sabiedrībā ir izvērsusies plaša diskusija par nepieciešamību efektīvi cīnīties ar kukuļošanas izskaušanu valsts amatpersonu darbībā. Šajā darbā tiek apskatīts kukuļņemšanas un kukuļdošanas starptautiskais r...

  2. Hacia una literatura de disidencia sexual en México con dos Bildungsromane bisexuales: Púrpura, de Ana García Bergua, y Fruta verde, de Enrique Serna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Patrick Bisbey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo propongo una lectura de las novelas mexicanas Púrpura, de Ana García Bergua, y Fruta verde, de Enrique Serna, como representaciones de la bisexualidad que se insertan en, y a la vez rompen con, una tradición literaria que retrata la homosexualidad masculina. Leo el empleo de la ironía y el performance de género en los textos como señalamiento de las contradicciones y dificultades sociales que conllevan la orientación bisexual. El diálogo de las obras con la tradición de la novela de formación problematiza la expresión de sexualidades no normativas y plantea una crítica de las identidades sexuales basadas en el binarismo hetero / homosexual. Sostengo que estas obras deben ser incluidas en y analizadas dentro de la tradición literaria mexicana que retrata sexualidades disidentes, entre las cuales la bisexualidad ha sido una identidad marginada. In this article I propose a reading of the Mexican novels Púrpura by Ana García Bergua and Fruta verde by Enrique Serna as portrayals of bisexuality that both form a part of and break with a literary tradition that portrays male homosexuality. I read the use of irony and gender performance in these texts as a signaling of the social contradictions and problems that come with the bisexual orientation. The dialogue of these works with the tradition of the novel of formation problematizes the expression of non-normative sexualities and critiques sexual identities based on the heter/homo binary. I argue that these works should be included in a Mexican literary tradition that represents dissident sexualities, among which bisexuality has been marginalized and underrepresented.

  3. Hydropericardium Hepatitis Syndrome Emerged in Cherry Valley Ducks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Dou, Y; Zheng, X; Tang, Y; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Wang, Z; Diao, Y

    2017-08-01

    Since June 2015, a highly pathogenic disease occurred in duck flocks in China, causing pericardial effusion, enlarged discoloured liver, renal enlargement and haemorrhagic lung with a mortality ranging from 5% to 20%. Previous study confirmed that Fowl adenovirus group C (FAdV-C) and some field FAdVs isolates had been identified as causative agents of hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome (HHS) in chickens and geese world widely. In this study, we firstly report the isolation of FAdV-C from ducks with HHS. The two isolates, designated as SDSX and SDJX, were separated from liver samples using 9-day-old SPF chicken embryos and could cause severe cytopathic effects in duck and chicken embryonic kidney cells. The entire ORF sequences of hexon gene of the two isolates were amplified, sequenced and analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Phylogenetic analysis of loop 1 sequences of hexon gene of FAdVs revealed that the two isolates were closely related to FAdV-C isolates, which could cause HHS in chickens. Experimental infection indicated that the isolate was high pathogenicity to 20-day-old ducks. Our study shows that the recently emerged HHS in ducks was caused by FAdV-C and may possess a potential risk to other poultry flocks. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Ultrasonic Technique for Predicting Grittiness of Salted Duck Egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erawan, S.; Budiastra, I. W.; Subrata, I. D. M.

    2018-05-01

    Grittiness of egg yolk is a major factor in consumer acceptance of salted duck egg product. Commonly, the grittiness level is determined by the destructive method. Salted egg industries need a grading system that can judge the grittiness accurately and nondestructively. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for determining grittiness of salted duck eggs nondestructively based on ultrasonic method. This study used 100 samples of salted duck eggs with 7,10,14 and 21 days of salting age. Velocity and attenuation were measured by an ultrasonic system at frequency 50 kHz, followed by physicochemical properties measurement (hardness of egg yolks and salt content), and organoleptic test. Ultrasonic wave velocity in salted duck eggs ranged from 620.6 m/s to 1334.6 m/s, while the coefficient of attenuation value ranged from – 0.76 dB/m to -0.51 dB/m. Yolk hardness was 2.68 N at 7 days to 5.54 N at 21 days of salting age. Salt content was 1.81 % at 7 days to 5.71 % at 21 days of salting age. Highest scores of organoleptic tests on salted duck eggs were 4.23 and 4.18 for 10 and 14 days of salting age, respectively. Discriminant function using ultrasonic velocity variables in minor and major diameter could predict grittiness with 95 % accuracy.

  5. An empirical evaluation of landscape energetic models: Mallard and American black duck space use during the non-breeding period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, William S.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Naylor, Luke W.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Humburg, Dale D.; Coluccy, John M.; Soulliere, G.

    2015-01-01

    Bird conservation Joint Ventures are collaborative partnerships between public agencies and private organizations that facilitate habitat management to support waterfowl and other bird populations. A subset of Joint Ventures has developed energetic carrying capacity models (ECCs) to translate regional waterfowl population goals into habitat objectives during the non-breeding period. Energetic carrying capacity models consider food biomass, metabolism, and available habitat to estimate waterfowl carrying capacity within an area. To evaluate Joint Venture ECCs in the context of waterfowl space use, we monitored 33 female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 55 female American black ducks (A. rubripes) using global positioning system satellite telemetry in the central and eastern United States. To quantify space use, we measured first-passage time (FPT: time required for an individual to transit across a circle of a given radius) at biologically relevant spatial scales for mallards (3.46 km) and American black ducks (2.30 km) during the non-breeding period, which included autumn migration, winter, and spring migration. We developed a series of models to predict FPT using Joint Venture ECCs and compared them to a biological null model that quantified habitat composition and a statistical null model, which included intercept and random terms. Energetic carrying capacity models predicted mallard space use more efficiently during autumn and spring migrations, but the statistical null was the top model for winter. For American black ducks, ECCs did not improve predictions of space use; the biological null was top ranked for winter and the statistical null was top ranked for spring migration. Thus, ECCs provided limited insight into predicting waterfowl space use during the non-breeding season. Refined estimates of spatial and temporal variation in food abundance, habitat conditions, and anthropogenic disturbance will likely improve ECCs and benefit conservation planners

  6. Late Holocene extinction of Finsch's duck (Chenonetta finschi), an endemic, possibly flightless, New Zealand duck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdaway, R.N.; Jones, M.D.; Beavan Athfield, N.R.

    2002-01-01

    Finsch's duck (Chenonetta finschi), an extinct, possibly flightless New Zealand endemic, was widely distributed and apparently abundant immediately before human settlement of New Zealand, but its bones have rarely been identified in archaeological sites. Its extinction has been variously attributed to habitat changes, predation by the introduced Pacific rat (Rattus exulans), and human predation. Discriminating between possible causes of its extinction hinges on determining the relative timing of phases of the extinction process and the arrival of rats and humans. Methodological problems of determining the time of extinction of fossil species are reviewed. Bayesian statistical analysis of a series of accelerator mass spectrometry 14 C ages on gelatin from Finsch's duck bones from non-cultural deposits suggests that the species began to decline before widespread Polynesian settlement and that it was much reduced in range and numbers by the time extensive human predation and habitat alteration began. Possible causes of its extinction after Polynesian settlement are discussed. (author). 90 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Divergence and gene flow in the globally distributed blue-winged ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Joel; Wilson, Robert E.; McCracken, Kevin G.; Cumming, Graeme; Joseph, Leo; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Peters, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    The ability to disperse over long distances can result in a high propensity for colonizing new geographic regions, including uninhabited continents, and lead to lineage diversification via allopatric speciation. However, high vagility can also result in gene flow between otherwise allopatric populations, and in some cases, parapatric or divergence-with-gene-flow models might be more applicable to widely distributed lineages. Here, we use five nuclear introns and the mitochondrial control region along with Bayesian models of isolation with migration to examine divergence, gene flow, and phylogenetic relationships within a cosmopolitan lineage comprising six species, the blue-winged ducks (genus Anas), which inhabit all continents except Antarctica. We found two primary sub-lineages, the globally-distributed shoveler group and the New World blue-winged/cinnamon teal group. The blue-winged/cinnamon sub-lineage is composed of sister taxa from North America and South America, and taxa with parapatric distributions are characterized by low to moderate levels of gene flow. In contrast, our data support strict allopatry for most comparisons within the shovelers. However, we found evidence of gene flow from the migratory, Holarctic northern shoveler (A. clypeata) and the more sedentary, African Cape shoveler (A. smithii) into the Australasian shoveler (A. rhynchotis), although we could not reject strict allopatry. Given the diverse mechanisms of speciation within this complex, the shovelers and blue-winged/cinnamon teals can serve as an effective model system for examining how the genome diverges under different evolutionary processes and how genetic variation is partitioned among highly dispersive taxa.

  8. Effects of mercury and selenium on glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress in mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.

    1998-01-01

    Earlier studies reported on the toxicity and related oxidative stress of different forms of Se, including seleno-D,L-methionine, in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). This study compares the effects of Se (seleno-D,L-methionine) and Hg (methylmercury chloride) separately and in combination. Mallard drakes received one of the following diets: untreated feed (controls), or feed containing 10 ppm Se, 10 ppm Hg, or 10 ppm Se in combination with 10 ppm Hg. After 10 weeks, blood, liver, and brain samples were collected for biochemical assays. The following clinical and biochemical alterations occurred in response to mercury exposure: hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations decreased; activities of the enzymes glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (plasma and liver), glutathione-S-transferase (liver), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) (liver and brain) decreased; hepatic oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration increased relative to reduced glutathione (GSH); and lipid peroxidation in the brain was evident as detected by increased thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS). Effects of Se alone included increased hepatic GSSG reductase activity and brain TBARS concentration. Se in combination with Hg partially or totally alleviated effects of Hg on GSH peroxidase, G-6-PDH, and GSSG. These findings are compared in relation to field observations for diving ducks and other aquatic birds. It is concluded that since both Hg and excess Se can affect thiol status, measurement of associated enzymes in conjunction with thiol status may be a useful bioindicator to discriminate between Hg and Se effects. The ability of Se to restore the activities of G-6-PDH, GSH peroxidase, and glutathione status involved in antioxidative defense mechanisms may be crucial to biological protection from the toxic effects of methyl mercury.

  9. Mexican renewable electricity law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C. [Institute of Engineering of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Edificio 12 Bernardo Quintana, Piso 3, Cubiculo 319, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, CP 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  10. Mexican renewable electricity law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  11. Live Attenuated Vaccine based on Duck Enteritis Virus against Duck Hepatitis A Virus Types 1 and 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As causative agents of duck viral hepatitis, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1 and type 3 (DHAV-3 causes significant economic losses in the duck industry. However, a licensed commercial vaccine that simultaneously controls both pathogens is currently unavailable. Here, we generated DEV recombinants (rC-KCE-2VP1 containing both VP1 from DHAV-1 (VP1/DHAV-1 and VP1 from DHAV-3 (VP1/DHAV-3 between UL27 and UL26. A self-cleaving 2A-element of FMDV was inserted between the two different types of VP1, allowing production of both proteins from a single open reading frame. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis results demonstrated that both VP1 proteins were robustly expressed in rC-KCE-2VP1-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts. Ducks that received a single dose of rC-KCE-2VP1 showed potent humoral and cellular immune responses and were completely protected against challenges of both pathogenic DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 strains. The protection was rapid, achieved as early as three days after vaccination. Moreover, viral replication was fully blocked in vaccinated ducks as early as one week post-vaccination. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant rC-KCE-2VP1 is potential fast-acting vaccine against DHAV-1 and DHAV-3.

  12. The preliminary study on peculiar flavor from irradiated dried duck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zongju; Chen Zongdao; Xu Denyi

    1992-01-01

    Peculiar flavor may be induced from irradiative preservation of meat with higher dose. The study on the irradiation of dried duck indicated that peculiar flavor is produced by a threshold of 1.5 kGy and intensifies with the increase of dose. The flavor primarily comes from muscle of dried duck especially from its water soluble protein. With the increase of dose, volatile carbonyl compounds, amines and sulfur compounds increased significantly. Paper chromatography analysis shows that two new volatile carbonyl compounds (R f =0.23 and 0.28) and a new volatile amine-propamine are induced by irradiation. This compounds may be the source of peculiar flavor in irradiated dried duck

  13. The preliminary study on peculiar flavor from irradiated dried duck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongju, Li; Zongdao, Chen; Denyi, Xu [Southwest Agricultural Univ., Chongqing, SC (China)

    1992-11-01

    Peculiar flavor may be induced from irradiative preservation of meat with higher dose. The study on the irradiation of dried duck indicated that peculiar flavor is produced by a threshold of 1.5 kGy and intensifies with the increase of dose. The flavor primarily comes from muscle of dried duck especially from its water soluble protein. With the increase of dose, volatile carbonyl compounds, amines and sulfur compounds increased significantly. Paper chromatography analysis shows that two new volatile carbonyl compounds (R[sub f] =0.23 and 0.28) and a new volatile amine-propamine are induced by irradiation. This compounds may be the source of peculiar flavor in irradiated dried duck.

  14. The impact of using lead pellets on lead contamination of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the degree of lead contamination in mallards in the Czech Republic as a result of using lead shots for wildfowling. Two sites used for mallard hunting were chosen, namely a flood-control reservoir in Moravia and a small fishpond in Bohemia. Lead concentrations were determined in the tissues of 20 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos raised at those standing open water sites (n = 10 at each site and killed there during the autumn hunting season with a steel shot. Control groups were made up of 20 mallards from the same breeding facility as experimental groups but raised in an enclosure without access to water (n = 10 at each site. Lead concentrations were determined in selected tissues (breast muscle, heart, liver, gizzard, kidney, feathers - quill base, lung, brain and humerus by high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed elevated lead concentrations in all tissues of mallards compared with control in the reservoir in Southern Moravia. The highest lead concentrations (mg/kg were found in the humerus (14.254 ± 4.525 and 5.083 ± 0.748 for experimental and control mallards, respectively. In contrast, lead concentrations in mallards from small fishpond in Southern Bohemia were lower compared to control. Similarly, the highest lead concentrations were found in the humerus (2.219 ± 0.349 and 8.930 ± 1.012 for experimental and control mallards, respectively. This study extends very limited information about lead contamination of wild ducks in the Czech Republic in connection with hunting activities.

  15. Evidence for the exchange of blood parasites between North America and the Neotropics in blue-winged teal (Anas discors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reed, John; Walther, Patrick; Link, Paul; Schmutz, Joel A.; Douglas, David C.; Stallknecht, David E.; Soos, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) are abundant, small-bodied dabbling ducks that breed throughout the prairies of the northcentral USA and central Canada and that winter in the southern USA and northern Neotropics. Given the migratory tendencies of this species, it is plausible that blue-winged teal may disperse avian pathogens, such as parasites causing avian malaria, between spatially distant areas. To test the hypothesis that blue-winged teal play a role in the exchange of blood parasites between North America and areas further south, we collected information on migratory tendencies of this species and sampled birds at spatially distant areas during breeding and non-breeding periods to diagnose and genetically characterize parasitic infections. Using a combination of band recovery data, satellite telemetry, molecular diagnostics, and genetic analyses, we found evidence for (1) migratory connectivity of blue-winged teal between our sampling locations in the Canadian prairies and along the US Gulf Coast with areas throughout the northern Neotropics, (2) parasite acquisition at both breeding and non-breeding areas, (3) infection of blue-winged teal sampled in Canada and the USA withPlasmodium parasite lineages associated with the Neotropics, and (4) infection of blue-winged teal with parasites that were genetically related to those previously reported in waterfowl in both North America and South America. Collectively, our results suggest that blue-winged teal likely play a role in the dispersal of blood parasites between the Neotropics and North America, and therefore, the targeting of this species in surveillance programs for the early detection of Neotropical-origin avian pathogens in the USA may be informative.

  16. Development of an indirect ELISA with epitope on nonstructural protein of Muscovy duck parvovirus for differentiating between infected and vaccinated Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B; Ma, J-Z; Yu, T-F; Shao, S-L; Li, M; Fan, X-D

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) based on epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE), which is on nonstructural protein of Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV). Sera (100) from negative and vaccinated Muscovy ducks were compared with infected sera (240) to establish the cut-off value of this i-ELISA. There was a significant difference between the positive and negative populations (P ducks from Muscovy ducks vaccinated with inactivated virus. In this study, we developed an i-ELISA based on epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE), which is on nonstructural protein of MDPV. This i-ELISA could be used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating infected Muscovy ducks from Muscovy ducks vaccinated with inactivated virus. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Modelling the distribution of domestic ducks in Monsoon Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bockel, Thomas P.; Prosser, Diann; Franceschini, Gianluca; Biradar, Chandra; Wint, William; Robinson, Tim; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Domestic ducks are considered to be an important reservoir of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), as shown by a number of geospatial studies in which they have been identified as a significant risk factor associated with disease presence. Despite their importance in HPAI epidemiology, their large-scale distribution in Monsoon Asia is poorly understood. In this study, we created a spatial database of domestic duck census data in Asia and used it to train statistical distribution models for domestic duck distributions at a spatial resolution of 1km. The method was based on a modelling framework used by the Food and Agriculture Organisation to produce the Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, and relies on stratified regression models between domestic duck densities and a set of agro-ecological explanatory variables. We evaluated different ways of stratifying the analysis and of combining the prediction to optimize the goodness of fit of the predictions. We found that domestic duck density could be predicted with reasonable accuracy (mean RMSE and correlation coefficient between log-transformed observed and predicted densities being 0.58 and 0.80, respectively), using a stratification based on livestock production systems. We tested the use of artificially degraded data on duck distributions in Thailand and Vietnam as training data, and compared the modelled outputs with the original high-resolution data. This showed, for these two countries at least, that these approaches could be used to accurately disaggregate provincial level (administrative level 1) statistical data to provide high resolution model distributions.

  18. Reciprocal crosses between Alabio and Mojosari ducks : early egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H Prasetyo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available alternative to increasing productivity and production efficiency. Crossbreeding has been used widely for increasing productivity, and in this experiment Alabio and Mojosari ducks were crossed reciprocally in order to evaluate their egg production and egg quality, when compared to their parental breeds. Four genotypes AA, AM, MA and MM were compared and each consisted of 50 layer ducks. Each animal was kept in individual cage, and individual egg production and egg quality were recorded. They were given layer feed containing 20% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg metabolisable energy. Results showed that the crossbred ducks (AM and MA laid eggs earlier than their parental breeds (AA and MM, and MA laid earlier than AM. The weight of first eggs of the crossbreeds did not differ significantly, AM was the same as MM and MA the same as AA. For the body weight at first lay, MA and AM weighed in between their parental breeds, AA was the heaviest and then followed by MA, AM and MM. For the 3-month egg production, MA ducks laid significantly more egg than the other 3 genotypes, and this is related to the age of first lay being the earliest. In terms of egg quality such as egg weight, yolk color, weight and thickness of shell, weight of the white and HU value, the crossbred ducks showed quality in between AA and MM. The AM ducks tended to be closer to MM and MA closer to AA, and this shows a strong influence of maternal effects. The average level of heterosis for weight of first egg is 2.41% and for 3-month egg production is 2.1%, but for MA cross the heterosis level is 11.69% for egg production. The overall results showed that crossbreeds between Alabio and Mojosari have the potential in improving production traits in the effort to increase productivity and production efficiency.

  19. Transfection of embryonated Muscovy duck eggs with a recombinant plasmid is suitable for rescue of infectious Muscovy duck parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianye; Huang, Yu; Ling, Jueyi; Wang, Zhixiang; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2017-12-01

    For members of the family Parvoviridae, rescue of infectious virus from recombinant plasmid is usually done in cultured cells. In this study, the whole genome of the pathogenic Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) strain YY was cloned into the pBluescript II (SK) vector, generating recombinant plasmid pYY. With the aid of a transfection reagent, pYY plasmid was inoculated into 11-day-old embryonated Muscovy duck eggs via the chorioallantoic membrane route, resulting in the successful rescue of infectious virus and death of the embryos. The rescued virus exhibited pathogenicity in Muscovy ducklings similar to that of its parental strain, as evaluated based on the mortality rate. The results demonstrate that plasmid transfection in embryonated Muscovy duck eggs is a convenient and efficacious method for rescue of infectious MDPV in comparison to transfection of primary cells, which is somewhat time-consuming and laborious.

  20. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwon Seo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market.

  1. Dažādu metožu izmantošana lasīšanas veicināšanai sākumskolā.

    OpenAIRE

    Lāce, Laimdota

    2006-01-01

    Darbā veikta lasīšanas veicināšanas metožu izpēte. Mērķis - noteikt šo metožu izmantošanas iespējas mācību procesā un noskaidrot skolēnu lasīšanas aktivitātes metožu mērķtiecīgas izmantošanas rezultātā pamatizglītības posmā no otrās līdz ceturtajai klasei. Tēmas aktualitāti pamato situācija, kāda izveidojusies, ja bērniem dažādu iemeslu dēļ zūd interese par grāmatu lasīšanu. Diplomdarba teorētiskajā daļā vispirms akcentēta lasīšanas nozīme bērna pasaules izziņas procesā, psihiskā lī...

  2. Prototype of A/Duck/Sukoharjo/Bbvw-1428-9/2012 subtipe H5N1 clade 2.3.2 as vaccine on local duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Indriani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A/Duck/Sukoharjo/Bbvw-1428-9/2012 virus subtipe H5N1 clade 2.3.2 as seed vaccine on local duck. AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 vaccine containing 256 HAU per dose was formulated using adjuvant ISA 71VG Montanide ™. Six groups of one day old local duck were used in this study. Three groups (10 ducks per group were vaccinated and 3 groups (9 duck per group were served control. Vaccination was conducted when the duck were three weeks old of age using single dose. Three weeks after vaccination when the duck were challenged either with HPAI H5N1 clade 2.3.2, or HPAI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 virus at dose 106 EID50/ 0.1 ml by drops intranasaly. Result showed that vaccination produced 100% protection compared to unvaccinated ducks againt HPAI subtipe H5N1 clade 2.3.2, and 100% protection againt HPAI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (A/ck/wj/Subang-29/2007 and A/ck/wj/Smi-Part/2006, while unvaccinated ducks showed virus shedding on day 3 post infection.

  3. RNA-seq comparative analysis of Peking ducks spleen gene expression 24 h post-infected with duck plague virulent or attenuated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Sun, Kunfeng; Zhu, Dekang; Chen, Shun; Liu, Mafeng; Zhao, XinXin; Chen, Xiaoyue

    2017-09-13

    Duck plague virus (DPV), a member of alphaherpesvirus sub-family, can cause significant economic losses on duck farms in China. DPV Chinese virulent strain (CHv) is highly pathogenic and could induce massive ducks death. Attenuated DPV vaccines (CHa) have been put into service against duck plague with billions of doses in China each year. Researches on DPV have been development for many years, however, a comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenicity of CHv strain and protection of CHa strain to ducks is still blank. In present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to analyze transcriptome profiling of duck spleens for the first time to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with the infection of CHv and CHa at 24 h. Comparison of gene expression with mock ducks revealed 748 DEGs and 484 DEGs after CHv and CHa infection, respectively. Gene pathway analysis of DEGs highlighted valuable biological processes involved in host immune response, cell apoptosis and viral invasion. Genes expressed in those pathways were different in CHv infected duck spleens and CHa vaccinated duck spleens. The results may provide valuable information for us to explore the reasons of pathogenicity caused by CHv strain and protection activated by CHa strain.

  4. Uzņēmuma "Starbucks" ieviešana un virzīšana Latvijas tirgū.

    OpenAIRE

    Bloka, Līva

    2014-01-01

    Uzņēmums „Starbucks” ir viens no pasaulē populārākajiem savas nozares uzņēmumiem un pastāv jau vairāk nekā 40 gadus. Lai gan tas uzsācis darbību jau 22 Eiropas valstīs, Latvija joprojām nav starp tām. Darba mērķis ir, pamatojoties uz teorētiskajiem aspektiem par uzņēmuma ieviešanu un virzīšanu jaunā tirgū un potenciālās mērķauditorijas aptaujas rezultātiem, noteikt uzņēmuma „Starbucks” ieviešanas un virzīšanas iespējas Latvijas tirgū. Pētījuma periods mārketinga ārējās vides faktoriem...

  5. Linking Canadian Harvested Juvenile American Black Ducks to Their Natal Areas Using Stable Isotope (δD, δ13C, and δ15N Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ashley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding source-sink dynamics of game birds is essential to harvest and habitat management but acquiring this information is often logistically and financially challenging using traditional methods of population surveys and banding studies. This is especially true for species such as the American Black Duck (Anas rubripes, which have low breeding densities and extensive breeding ranges that necessitate extensive surveys and banding programs across eastern North America. Despite this effort, the contribution of birds fledged from various landscapes and habitat types within specific breeding ranges to regional harvest is largely unknown but remains an important consideration in adaptive harvest management and targeted habitat conservation strategies. We investigated if stable isotope (δD, δ13C, δ15N could augment our present understanding of connectivity between breeding and harvest areas and so provide information relevant to the two main management strategies for black ducks, harvest and habitat management. We obtained specimens from 200 hatch-year Black Duck wings submitted to the Canadian Wildlife Service Species Composition Survey. Samples were obtained from birds harvested in Western, Central, and Eastern breeding/harvest subregions to provide a sample representative of the range and harvest rate of birds harvested in Canada. We sampled only hatch-year birds to provide an unambiguous and direct link between production and harvest areas. Marine origins were assigned to 12%, 7%, and 5% of birds harvested in the Eastern, Central, and Western subregions, respectively. In contrast, 32%, 9%, and 5% of birds were assigned, respectively, to agricultural origins. All remaining birds were assigned to nonagricultural origins. We portrayed probability of origin using a combination of Bayesian statistical and GIS methods. Placement of most eastern birds was western Nova Scotia, eastern New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and southern

  6. The liability of some haematological parameters in chickens and ducks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The liability of some haematological parameters in chickens and ducks. E.M. Smith, J Hattingh. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  7. Fish and harlequin ducks compete on breeding streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LeBourdais, S.V.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Esler, D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated interactions among harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus ( L., 1758)), fish, and their shared aquatic insect prey. We measured flow variability, benthic aquatic prey abundance, fish presence, and breeding density of harlequins on eight rivers in the Southern Coast Mountain Range

  8. 78 FR 10201 - Proposed Information Collection; Electronic Duck Stamp Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ..., Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) will ask the... refuges where admission is charged. Duck Stamps and products that bear stamp images are also popular... fee the State will charge for issuance of an electronic stamp. Description of the process the State...

  9. Estimation of L-threonine requirements for Longyan laying ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Fouad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective A study was conducted to test six threonine (Thr levels (0.39%, 0.44%, 0.49%, 0.54%, 0.59%, and 0.64% to estimate the optimal dietary Thr requirements for Longyan laying ducks from 17 to 45 wk of age. Methods Nine hundred Longyan ducks aged 17 wk were assigned randomly to the six dietary treatments, where each treatment comprised six replicate pens with 25 ducks per pen. Results Increasing the Thr level enhanced egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and the feed conversion ratio (FCR (linearly or quadratically; p<0.05. The Haugh unit score, yolk color, albumen height, and the weight, percentage, thickness, and breaking strength of the eggshell did not response to increases in the Thr levels, but the albumen weight and its proportion increased significantly (p<0.05, whereas the yolk weight and its proportion decreased significantly as the Thr levels increased. Conclusion According to a regression model, the optimal Thr requirement for egg production, egg mass, and FCR in Longyan ducks is 0.57%, while 0.58% is the optimal level for egg weight from 17 to 45 wk of age.

  10. Karyotype analysis in Machaerium lunatum (Linn. f.) Ducke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-11

    Dec 11, 2017 ... Ducke (syn. Drepanocarpus lunatus (Linn. f.) G.F.W. Mey) belongs to the family Fabaceae-Papilionaceae. (Hutchinson and Dalziel 1954). It has about 130 species distributed from Mexico to Argentina which are difficult to delimit taxonomically (Rudd 1987) and 150 species distributed from Mexico to South.

  11. Genetic Divergence in Ducks for Economic Traits | Kalita | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D2 Statistics was used to identify the genetic divergence in 4 groups of duck, namely Khaki Campbell (KC), Desi (D), Khaki Campbell x Desi (KC x D) and Desi x Khaki Campbell (D x KC) reared under rural conditions at the Siphajar, Darrang District, Assam, India. The study showed that both Khaki Campbell and Desi or ...

  12. The evaluation of domestic ducks as potential reservoir of avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation of domestic ducks as potential reservoir of avian influenza virus in post HPAI H5N1 outbreak area, Sunyani Municipality, Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. Vitus Burimuah, W.K. Ampofo, B Awumbila, N Yebuah, B.O. Emikpe, W Tasiame, R.D. Folitse ...

  13. Once Upon A Time There Was Ana Mendieta / Bir Ana Mendieta Varmış, Bir Ana Mendieta Yokmuş

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur BALKIR

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available New York Police Department received an emergency call on the 8th of September in 1985. On the opposite end, it was the famous minimalist artist Carl Andre pleading help for his wife who had fallen from their 34th floor apartment in Soho. The ambulance arrived at the location only to find Ana Mendieta’s lifeless body. There were no eyewitnesses. The neighbours’ gave statements of loud arguments coming from their apartment a few days prior to the event. Investigators took Carl Andre into the custody suspecting second-degree murder due to the injuries on Mendieta’s body and the position of the window. After a three-year trial, Andre’s lawyers presented a defence claiming that Mendieta is likely to have had a suicidal personality due to her art and her life story. The court eventually decided that Mendieta had committed suicide after examining her art, and acquitted Carl Andre of the murder case. Mendieta had turned the ‘void’ into an entity through digging the earth, and the court closed the void filling it with a ‘suicidal body’. The death of the artist and her subsequent non-existence, gives a connotative link to her art; centered on crucial questions about time, space, body, and identity, seemed to be the final addition to her famous ‘Silueta’ series. Cuban American performance artist, sculptor, painter, film maker Ana Mendieta analyzes the relation between the earth and spirit, and confronts us with painful questions like love, death and rebirth. Since the majority of her work consists of bodily performances, Mendieta questions the concept of ephemerality over the body, spirit and existence. Although her initial innovative and provocative performances were later replaced by her symbolic and transient work, the matters of body, time, space, and nature and their connectedness continued to become the main ingredients of Mendieta’s art. This paper will conceptually analyze Mendieta’s methods of expression in her constant

  14. Water and heat balances in Doñana wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ramos-Fuertes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main results of the study of water balance and surface heat balance in the Doñana marshlands. The study was based on a broad base of hydrometeorological data taken at 10 minute intervals from 2006 to 2011 by a network of six measuring stations located in areas of vegetation-free marsh. This information is used to characterize, at different time scales, the thermal behavior of the marsh by analyzing its hydrometeorology centering on the surface heat fluxes. Thus, we have modeled and analyzed the heat flux between the water and flooded soil and the processes of heat transfer between the water surface and the atmosphere. Special attention has been paid to evaporation, on which the marsh draining process depends.

  15. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Native Ducks and Commercial Meat-type Ducks Raised under Same Feeding and Rearing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Kwon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare carcass characteristics and physico-chemical meat quality in two different genotype ducks raised under identical feeding and rearing conditions. A total of ninety 1-d-old Korean native ducks (KND, n = 45 and commercial meat-type ducks (Grimaud, n = 45 were fed same experimental diets during 56 d and 42 d, respectively to obtain similar slaughter weights. The experimental diet for starter period contained 20% crude protein (CP and 2,900 kcal nitrogen corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn/kg of diet and that for grower period contained 17% CP and 3,050 TMEn/kg of diet. Average daily gain and feed efficiency of KND were inferior to those of commercial meat-type ducks (p<0.05. Carcass weight was not different between two genetically different ducks, but carcass yield of KND was significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of commercial meat-type ducks. There were no significant differences in cooking loss and pH of breast meat between two genetically different ducks, but water holding capacity of KND was significantly higher than that of commercial meat-type ducks. The linoleic acid and total polyunsaturated fatty acid of breast meat from KND were significantly higher (p<0.05 than the corresponding part from commercial meat-type ducks. Significant differences were detected in water holding capacity and the content of linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid, which were significantly higher in KND, whereas growth performance tended to be superior in commercial ducks. At the market weight, the meat from KND was judged to have better qualities with regard to higher water holding capacity and greater content of polyunsaturated fatty acid compare with meat from commercial meat-type duck.

  16. Evaluation of duck efficiency as a biocontrol agent on weed density and diversity in rice-duck farming (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of ducks number on weeds diversity and density in paddy fields, an experiment was conducted at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resource University during growing season of 2011-2012. Experiment was arranged in split plot based on complete randomized block design with four replications. Main factors were duck number at three levels (consisting of control, 400 and 800 ducks.ha-1 and sub plots were three contrast cultivars (including Tarom as a traditional, and Shirodi and Ghaem as improved cultivars. Results of ANOVA showed highly significant differences between ducks, cultivars and ducks × cultivar interaction in terms of weeds density including nutsedge (Cyperus spp. L., common Water-plantain (Alisma plantago-aquatica L., barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L., duckweed (Lemna minor L., azolla (Azolla pinata R.Br. and paddy yield. Accordingly, the lowest weed density and diversity were recorded at 800 and 400 ducks.ha-1, respectively. Among rice cultivars Tarom and Ghaem had the minimum and the maximum weeds density and diversity. The highest nutsedge density (67 plant.m-2 was related to Ghaem cultivar in control (without duck plots as much as 97% higher than 800 ducks.ha-1. Maximum paddy yield was observed in 800 ducks.ha-1 in Shirodi (5.3 t.ha-1, Ghaem (4.3 t.ha-1 and Tarom (3.6 t.ha-1 as much as 23, 7 and 20% higher than those cultivars in 400 ducks.ha-1, respectively. Finally, in the current research conditions using 800 ducks.ha-1and Tarom cultivar resulted the best performance because of the lowest weed diversity and density as compared to other treatments.

  17. Ana Carolina Escosteguy: Cenários dos estudos culturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Cristina Bueno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Autora do livro “Cartografia dos Estudos Culturais”, “Comunicação e recepção” (em coautoria com Nilda Jacks, “Leituras em comunicação, cultura e tecnologia”, além de coautora e organizadora em outras obras de referência sobre o tema cultura e comunicação no Brasil, Ana Carolina Escosteguy é hoje um dos nomes mais importantes quando se pensa em Estudos Culturais no país. Doutora em Ciências da Comunicação pela Universidade de São Paulo (2000, com pós-doutorado no CAMRI (Communication and Media Research Institute, associado ao Department of Journalism and Mass Communication da School of Media, Art and Design da University of Westminster (UK, Ana Carolina Escosteguy é professora titular da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS e bolsista produtividade em pesquisa do CNPq, desde março 2001. Nesta entrevista ela discute pontos sensíveis da área, entre eles o pouco destaque das pesquisas desse campo têm tido no Jornalismo, o fato de a base teórica ser bem mais ampla que os tradicionais estudos de recepção a que são comumente aproximados, não se nega a tratar das confusões com a folkcomunicação, bem como as próprios limites e intersecções desse campo de estudos. Durante esta conversa, aproveita para apontar as obras que considera essenciais para adentrar na área e mostra coragem e segurança para se colocar como uma pesquisadora que busca entender o tempo atual, as tecnologias e as rupturas a partir da perspectiva do usuário. Confiram:

  18. Viaje al palenque Caribe de Ana Mercedes Hoyos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Laverde Toscano

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Transitar por el camino de un artista consagrado despierta en el espectador diversos y entrañables sentimientos. Recorrer la obra de Ana Mercedes Hoyos nos enfrenta al proceso coherente y mesurado de una creadora que se apropió de la luz majestuosa para dar vida a objetos del entorno cotidiano. Objetos que danzan, dueños del movimiento y la sensualidad que los convierte en sagrados. El encuentro con un cuadro de esta artista se transforma así en un acto sublime de contemplación. Esta Maestra vive hoy en función de su trabajo las veinticuatro horas de cada día: sus viajes continuos tienen que ver siempre con sus labores artísticas en Nueva York, con sus exposiciones en los más disímiles puntos del planeta, con su anhelo ferviente de conocer lo que grandes maestros de la plástica universal muestran en famosos museos y galerías del mundo. Así preserva la riqueza de esa relación constante en su obra entre temáticas locales y estilos y lenguajes contemporáneos e internacionales. En Bogotá, la vida de Ana Mercedes Hoyos transcurre alderredor de su taller donde infatigablemente lleva al lienzo sólo algunos de los múltiples proyectos que invaden su creativa imaginación. Los pocos compromisos que acepta giran también en torno al trabajo, al igual que sus amigos con quienes comparte actividades y labores de su quehacer artístico. Al final, como ella afirma ... “todo se me vuelve el mismo cuento”.

  19. Indirect risk effects reduce feeding efficiency of ducks during spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behney, Adam C; O'Shaughnessy, Ryan; Eichholz, Michael W; Stafford, Joshua D

    2018-01-01

    Indirect risk effects of predators on prey behavior can have more of an impact on prey populations than direct consumptive effects. Predation risk can elicit more vigilance behavior in prey, reducing the amount of time available for other activities, such as foraging, which could potentially reduce foraging efficiency. Understanding the conditions associated with predation risk and the specific effects predation risk have on prey behavior is important because it has direct influences on the profitability of food items found under various conditions and states of the forager. The goals of this study were to assess how ducks perceived predation risk in various habitat types and how strongly perceived risk versus energetic demand affected foraging behavior. We manipulated food abundance in different wetland types in Illinois, USA to reduce confounding between food abundance and vegetation structure. We conducted focal-animal behavioral samples on five duck species in treatment and control plots and used generalized linear mixed-effects models to compare the effects of vegetation structure versus other factors on the intensity with which ducks fed and the duration of feeding stints. Mallards fed more intensively and, along with blue-winged teal, used longer feeding stints in open habitats, consistent with the hypothesis that limited visibility was perceived to have a greater predation risk than unlimited visibility. The species temporally nearest to nesting, wood ducks, were willing to take more risks for a greater food reward, consistent with an increase in a marginal value of energy as they approached nesting. Our results indicate that some duck species value energy differently based on the surrounding vegetation structure and density. Furthermore, increases in the marginal value of energy can be more influential than perceived risk in shaping foraging behavior patterns. Based on these findings, we conclude that the value of various food items is not solely

  20. Movement analysis of free-grazing domestic ducks in Poyang Lake, China: a disease connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J; Palm, Eric C; Takekawa, John Y; Zhao, Delong; Xiao, Xiangming; Li, Peng; Liu, Ying; Newman, Scott H

    2016-01-01

    Previous work suggests domestic poultry are important contributors to the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza throughout Asia. In Poyang Lake, China, domestic duck production cycles are synchronized with arrival and departure of thousands of migratory wild birds in the area. During these periods, high densities of juvenile domestic ducks are in close proximity to migratory wild ducks, increasing the potential for the virus to be transmitted and subsequently disseminated via migration. In this paper, we use GPS dataloggers and dynamic Brownian bridge models to describe movements and habitat use of free-grazing domestic ducks in the Poyang Lake basin and identify specific areas that may have the highest risk of H5N1 transmission between domestic and wild birds. Specifically, we determine relative use by free-grazing domestic ducks of natural wetlands, which are the most heavily used areas by migratory wild ducks, and of rice paddies, which provide habitat for resident wild ducks and lower densities of migratory wild ducks. To our knowledge, this is the first movement study on domestic ducks, and our data show potential for free-grazing domestic ducks from farms located near natural wetlands to come in contact with wild waterfowl, thereby increasing the risk for disease transmission. This study provides an example of the importance of movement ecology studies in understanding dynamics such as disease transmission on a complicated landscape.

  1. Movement analysis of free-grazing domestic ducks in Poyang Lake, China: A disease connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Palm, Eric C.; Takekawa, John Y.; Zhao, Delong; Xiao, Xiangming; Li, Peng; Liu, Ying; Newman, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests domestic poultry are important contributors to the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza throughout Asia. In Poyang Lake, China, domestic duck production cycles are synchronized with arrival and departure of thousands of migratory wild birds in the area. During these periods, high densities of juvenile domestic ducks are in close proximity to migratory wild ducks, increasing the potential for the virus to be transmitted and subsequently disseminated via migration. In this paper, we use GPS dataloggers and dynamic Brownian bridge models to describe movements and habitat use of free-grazing domestic ducks in the Poyang Lake basin and identify specific areas that may have the highest risk of H5N1 transmission between domestic and wild birds. Specifically, we determine relative use by free-grazing domestic ducks of natural wetlands, which are the most heavily used areas by migratory wild ducks, and of rice paddies, which provide habitat for resident wild ducks and lower densities of migratory wild ducks. To our knowledge, this is the first movement study on domestic ducks, and our data show potential for free-grazing domestic ducks from farms located near natural wetlands to come in contact with wild waterfowl, thereby increasing the risk for disease transmission. This study provides an example of the importance of movement ecology studies in understanding dynamics such as disease transmission on a complicated landscape.

  2. Live weight and body measurements of male and female native ducks raised in different raising systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Önk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine live weight and body measurements of male and female native ducks raised in different raising systems. One hundred and twenty native ducks (60 males, 60 females were used in the study. The ducks were raised in deep litter floor and cage systems. Live weight and body values were measured every two weeks, until they were 56 days old. Three-parameter logistic regression and Gompertz model were used to determine growth model of male and female ducks. Interactions of time-raising system and time-sex were statistically significant in terms of live weight. At the end of eight weeks, live weights of ducks raised in deep litter floor were higher than ducks raised in cage system. In addition, live weights of male ducks were higher than female ducks. Consequently, deep litter floor is more appropriate for live weight in native ducks. Accuracy rate of Three-parameter Logistic and Gompertz models for estimation of growth in ducks was between 0.91-0.95 and similar results were obtained from both models. The Gompertz model is appropriate for the data structure of this study because it contains fewer iterations than the Three-Parameter Logistic model.

  3. Who Is Spreading Avian Influenza in the Moving Duck Flock Farming Network of Indonesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Henning

    Full Text Available Duck populations are considered to be a reservoir of Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus H5N1 in some agricultural production systems, as they are able to shed the virus for several days without clinical signs. Countries endemically affected with HPAI in Asia are characterised by production systems where ducks are fed on post-harvest spilled rice. During this scavenging process it is common for ducks to come into contact with other duck flocks or wild birds, thereby providing opportunities for virus spread. Effective risk management for HPAI has been significantly compromised by a limited understanding of management of moving duck flocks in these countries, despite of a small number of recent investigations. Here, for the first time, we described the management of moving duck flocks and the structure of the moving duck flock network in quantitative terms so that factors influencing the risk of HPAIV transmission can be identified. By following moving duck flock farmers over a period of 6 months in Java, Indonesia, we were able to describe the movement of flocks and to characterise the network of various types of actors associated with the production system. We used these data to estimate the basic reproductive number for HPAI virus spread. Our results suggest that focussing HPAI prevention measures on duck flocks alone will not be sufficient. Instead, the role of transporters of moving duck flocks, hatcheries and rice paddy owners, in the spread of the HPAI virus needs to be recognised.

  4. Effects of Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of Chinese traditional food: roast duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiming; Xie, Fan; Zhou, Xiaoli; Wang, Yuqiang; Tang, Wen; Xiao, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Roast duck is one kind of representative roast food whose flavor is mainly produced by the Maillard reaction. However, some potentially toxic compounds are generated in the thermal process and are a potential health risk. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of the Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of a Chinese traditional food: roast duck. Ducks with different roasting times (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min) were analyzed. The 40 and 50 min roast ducks exhibited an acceptable degree of sensory attributes, but the 60 min roast duck showed the most abundant aroma compounds. Antioxidant activities were observed to increase with roasting, and the 60 min roast duck showed the highest antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenylpicryhydrazyl, 39.3 µmol Trolox g(-1) sample). The highest content of acrylamide (0.21 µg g(-1)) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.089 µg g(-1)) were detected in the 50 and 60 min roast duck extract, respectively. Furthermore, water extract from 60 min roast ducks manifested a higher lactose dehydrogenase release ratio (51.9%) and greatly increased cell apoptosis. The drastic Maillard reaction in duck induced by long roasting time could be advantageous for color, aroma and antioxidant activities in roast ducks, but might be not beneficial to health. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. ANA IIF Automation: Moving towards Harmonization? Results of a Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Van den Bremt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Our study aimed to investigate whether the introduction of automated anti-nuclear antibody (ANA indirect immunofluorescence (IIF analysis decreases the interlaboratory variability of ANA titer results. Method. Three serum samples were sent to 10 laboratories using the QUANTA-Lyser® in combination with the NOVA View®. Each laboratory performed the ANA IIF analysis 10x in 1 run and 1x in 10 different runs and determined the endpoint titer by dilution. One of the three samples had been sent in 2012, before the era of ANA IIF automation, by the Belgian National External Quality Assessment (EQA Scheme. Harmonization was evaluated in terms of variability in fluorescence intensity (LIU and ANA IIF titer. Results. The evaluation of the intra- and interrun LIU variability revealed a larger variability for 2 laboratories, due to preanalytical and analytical problems. Reanalysis of the EQA sample resulted in a lower titer variability. Diluted endpoint titers were similar to the estimated single well titer and the overall median titer as reported by the EQA in 2012. Conclusion. The introduction of automated microscopic analysis allows more harmonized ANA IIF reporting, provided that this totally automated process is controlled by a thorough quality assurance program, covering the total ANA IIF process.

  6. TRACES OF THE SHAMANISM IN DEVLET ANA NOVEL DEVLET ANA ROMANINDA ŞAMANİZM İZLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice İÇEL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Organization of the Ottoman States is subejct of the Devlet Ana novel. Organization within the scope of the novel, the Ottoman State, the period includes information about community social and cultural life. These data will be evaluated in terms of continuity of culture ın this article. Turks living in a cosmopolitan area, belonging to Islam despite the fact that many elements of shamanism, which is still reminiscent of the old belief systems. These elements are described in detail in the novel, the old Turkish culture. In this case, the understanding of the novel and the story of Kemal Tahir’s socialist approach to society as a social historian, is the main factor. Old traditions of Turkish life, customs, beliefs, practices and lifestyle in a contemporary poet Kemal Tahir in the context of the transfer function is installed. Devlet Ana, with all these features in the history of Turkish culture is a work that contains important data. Devlet Ana adlı roman Osmanlı Devleti’nin kuruluşunu konu almaktadır. Romanda Osmanlı Devleti’nin kuruluşu kapsamında, dönemin toplumunun sosyokültürel yaşantısı hakkında bilgiler de verilmektedir. Makale kapsamında bu veriler, kültürün devamlılığı açısından değerlendirilecektir. Kozmopolit bir bölgede yaşayan Türkler, İslamiyet’i kabul etmelerine rağmen eski inanış sistemlerinden gelen şamanizme ait birçok unsuru hâlâ yaşatmaktadır. Romanda eski Türk kültürüne ait olan bu unsurlar ayrıntısıyla işlenmiştir. Bu durumda Kemal Tahir’in toplumcu roman anlayışı ve hikâyesini anlattığı topluma bir sosyal tarihçi gibi yaklaşması başlıca etkendir. Eski Türk yaşantısına ait gelenekler, görenekler, inanışlar, pratikler ve yaşam tarzının aktarılması bağlamında Kemal Tahir, çağdaş bir ozan işlevini yüklenmiştir. Devlet Ana, tüm bu özellikleriyle Türk kültür tarihi açısından önemli verileri içeren bir eserdir.

  7. El Arte Culinario Mexicano (Mexican Culinary Art).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Michelle

    This unit in Mexican cooking can be used in Junior High School home economics classes to introduce students to Mexican culture or as a mini-course in Spanish at almost any level. It is divided into two parts. Part One provides historical background and information on basic foods, the Mexican market, shopping tips, regional cooking and customs.…

  8. Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) perspective: Harlequin duck population recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill: Progress, process, and constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Bowman, Timothy D.; Trust, Kimberly A.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Dean, Thomas A.; Jewett, Stephen C.; O'Clair, Charles E.; Holland-Bartels, Leslie E.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, we studied the status of recovery of harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) populations during 1995-1998. We evaluated potential constraints to full recovery, including (1) exposure to residual oil, (2) food limitation, and (3) intrinsic demographic limitations on population growth rates. In this paper, we synthesize the findings from our work and incorporate information from other harlequin duck research and monitoring programs to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the response of this species to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. We conclude that harlequin duck populations had not fully recovered by 1998. Furthermore, adverse effects continued as many as 9 years after the oil spill, in contrast to the conventional paradigm that oil spill effects on bird populations are short-lived. These conclusions are based on the findings that (1) elevated cytochrome P450 induction on oiled areas indicated continued exposure to oil in 1998, (2) adult female winter survival was lower on oiled than unoiled areas during 1995-1998, (3) fall population surveys by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game indicated numerical declines in oiled areas during 1995-1997, and (4) densities on oiled areas in 1996 and 1997 were lower than expected using models that accounted for effects of habitat attributes. Based on hypothesized links between oil contamination and demography, we suggest that harlequin duck population recovery was constrained primarily by continued oil exposure. Full population recovery also will be delayed by the time necessary for intrinsic population growth to allow return to pre-spill numbers following cessation of residual oil spill effects. Although not all wildlife species were affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and some others may have recovered quickly from any effects, harlequin duck life history characteristics and benthic, nearshore feeding habits make them susceptible to both initial

  9. Rakstīšanas procesa izmantošana angļu valodas mācīšanā

    OpenAIRE

    Zdanovska, Ināra

    2012-01-01

    Darbs veltīts rakstīšanas procesa izmantošanai angļu valodas mācīšanā pamatskolā. Izpētes mērķis ir izpētīt procesa rakstīšanas pieejas teorijas, procesa rakstīšanas modeļus, pielāgot piemērotāko modeli atbilstoši skolēnu vajadzībām un izmēģināt to angļu valodas stundās. Lai izpētītu adoptētā procesa rakstīšanas modeļa efektivitāti, tika pielietota atsevišķa gadījuma izpētes metode. Tā ietvēra adaptētā procesa rakstīšanas modeļa izmēģināšanu, skolēnu testēšanu, aptaujas, novērošanu, datu vākš...

  10. The estimation of genetic distance and discriminant variables on breed of duck (Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell, Mojosari and Pegagan) by morphological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    B Brahmantiyo; L.H Prasetyo; A.R Setioko; R.H Mulyono

    2003-01-01

    A study on morphological body conformation of Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell, Mojosari and Pegagan ducks was carried out to determine the genetic distance and discriminant variables. This research was held in Research Institute for Animal Production, Ciawi, Bogor using 65 Alabio ducks, 40 Bali ducks, 36 Khaki Campbell ducks, 60 Mojosari ducks and 30 Pegagan ducks. Seven different body parts were measured, they were the length of femur, tibia, tarsometatarsus, the circumference of tarsometatarsu...

  11. Spreading Of Avian Flu On Duck And Its Impact On Social Economy: Lesson Learnt From Avian Flu Cases On Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Nyak Ilham

    2013-01-01

    Bird flu disease that attacks duck dismissed the notion of duck immune to bird flu disease. Learning from the experience of bird flu disease that attacks poultry in the year of 2004-2005, necessary to measure the spread of disease prevention bird flu in ducks. This paper aims to describe the business and trade patterns of duck associated with the spread of avian influenza and predict the socio-economic impact of bird flu on duck farms in Indonesia. Duck rearing patterns mostly are in the e...

  12. Maternal transfer of dechloranes and their distribution among tissues in contaminated ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping-Fan; Yu, Lian-Lian; Li, Long; Zhang, Yun; Li, Xing-Hong

    2016-05-01

    The tissue concentrations of dechlorane plus and its analogues were determined in ducks collected from several e-waste recycling villages of Taizhou, China. Compared with the published literature, the relatively high concentrations of these compounds were detected in ducks, indicating serious DP contamination. Since both the duck meat and eggs were important components for diet, this result reminded us of keeping a watchful eye on human dietary exposure to DP and its analogues in this study area. The wet-weight concentrations of DP and its analogues were significantly related to tissue lipid content (p ducks. On the basis of lipid adjustment, the significantly lower levels in brain than those in liver and blood, displayed the occurrence of liver sequestration and blood-brain barrier to DP and its analogues in the duck (p ducks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Latvijas Komercbanku risku regulēšana un Bāzeles III ieviešanas ietekme uz Komercbanku darbību

    OpenAIRE

    Kudrjavceva, Anastasija

    2013-01-01

    Maģistra darba mērķis ir, pamatojoties uz ekonomiskās literatūras un darba autores veikto Latvijas komercbanku risku pārvaldīšanas politiku analīzi, izstrādāt priekšlikumus par Bāzeles III ieviešanu Latvijā, ka arī novērtēt tās ietekmi uz komercbanku darbību. Darbā tiek veikta Latvijas komercbanku risku pārvaldīšanas politiku atbilstības LR likumdošanai un starptautiskiem regulējumiem analīze. Autore izpēta un novērtē komercbanku risku pārvaldīšanas metožu priekšrocības un trūkumus. Tiek i...

  14. composition and size class structure of tree species in ihang'ana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nb

    Previous plant biodiversity studies in this ecosystem concentrated on large-sized Forest ... assess tree species composition, structure and diversity in Ihang'ana FR (2982 ha), one of the ..... Dombeya rotundifolia. (Hochst) ... Ficus lutea. Vahl.

  15. Missugused on teie kogemused väikeklassidega? / Villu Mengel, Ana Kontor, Katrin Betlem, Riina Kink

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Küsimusele vastasid Sikupilli keskkooli direktor Villu Mengel, Tartu hariduse tugiteenuste keskuse eripedagoog Ana Kontor, Tabasalu ühisgümnaasiumi õppejuht-sotsiaalpedagoog Katrin Betlem, Keila kooli põhikooli õppejuht Riina Kink

  16. Contract Audit Followup: Defense Contract Management Agency Santa Ana Office's Actions on Incurred Cost Audits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    This report addresses the DCMA Santa Ana District Office. DoD Directive 7640.2, "Policy for Follow-up on Contract Audit Reports," February 12, 1988, as amended August 16, 1995, implements OMB Circular A-50...

  17. Programmēšanas spēle "PyDrone"

    OpenAIRE

    Siliņš, Viesturs

    2010-01-01

    Darbā “Programmēšanas spēle “PyDrone”” ir dokumentēta atvērtā koda programmas PyDrone izstrāde. PyDrone ir programmēšanas spēle, kas paredzēta izklaidei un izglītošanai, spēles veidā iepazīstinot cilvēkus ar programmēšanu. Programma izstrādāta, izmantojot Python programmēšanas valodu. Programma izstrādāta, izmantojot spējo metodiku programmizstrādes principus. Atslēgvārdi: Python, spējās metodikas, programmēšanas spēle.

  18. Comparative Study on the Nutritional Value of Pidan and Salted Duck Egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, P; Kaewmanee, T; Benjakul, S; Baharin, B S

    2014-01-01

    Pidan and salted duck eggs are of nutritional rich alternative duck egg products which are predominantly consumed in China, Thailand, South Korea and other Chinese migrated countries. Both eggs are rich in proteins, lipids, unsaturated fatty acids and minerals. A Pidan whole egg contains 13.1% of protein, 10.7% of fat, 2.25% of carbohydrate and 2.3% of ash, whereas the salted duck egg contains 14% of protein, 16.6% of fat, 4.1% of carbohydrate and 7.5% of ash. The fresh duck egg contains a range of 9.30-11.80% of protein, 11.40-13.52% of fat, 1.50-1.74% of sugar and 1.10-1.17% of ash. Proteins, lipids, and ash contents are found to be greatly enhanced during the pickling and salting process of pidan and salted duck eggs. However, the alkaline induced aggregation of pidan leads to degradation and subsequent generation of free peptides and amino acids. Very few amino acids are found to be lost during the pickling and storage. However, no such losses of amino acids are reported in salted duck eggs during the salting process of 14 d. Phospholipids and cholesterol contents are lower in pidan oil and salted duck egg yolk oil. Thus, the pidan and salted duck eggs are nutritionally rich alternatives of duck egg products which will benefit the human health during consumption.

  19. AIDS in Mexican prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, J M; Roberts, J B

    1995-01-01

    The human rights organization Americas Watch, which toured Mexican prisons, reported in 1991 that all prisoners with HIV infection in the Mexico City area were housed in a single AIDS ward in Santa Marta Prison. In 1991, the 16-bed facility had 15 patients; in 1993, this number had increased by 5. In Mexico City, with 3 prisons holding over 2000 male adults each, there were only 20 known infected prisoners in the AIDS ward at Santa Marta. In 1991, authorities at Matamoros, in the state of Tamaulipas, insisted that none of their inmates had ever been diagnosed as infected with HIV. The prison physician at Reynosa indicated that only 2 inmates since 1985 had ever been diagnosed as infected. In 1992, the prison in Saltillo, in the state of Coahuila, reported that here had yet to be a single positive test for HIV. The prison at Reynosa held 1500 people and only 2 inmates were diagnosed as having AIDS between 1985 and 1991. Prisons at Matamoros and Saltillo held similar numbers but had no experience of infected inmates. A survey of 2 prisons in the state of Tamaulipas indicates that around 12% of the population may use IV drugs, and 9% indicate sharing needles. It is possible for prisoners to die of diseases like pneumonia, associated with AIDS, without the connection to AIDS being diagnosed. Each state, and possibly each prison in Mexico, has its own particular AIDS policies. Santa Marta was the single facility in Mexico City used to house AIDS-infected prisoners, who were segregated. Finally, the prison at Saltillo required all women entering the facility to have a medical examination, including a test for HIV. High-level prison personnel have demonstrated ignorance and fear of AIDS and intolerance of infected prisoners. Mexico must reassess the need to provide adequate medical care to offenders who are sick and dying behind bars.

  20. Mexican agencies reach teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Lemus, R; Beamish, J

    1992-08-01

    The Gente Joven project of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) trains young volunteers in 19 cities to spread messages about sexually transmitted diseases and population growth to their peers. They also distribute condoms and spermicides. It also uses films and materials to spread its messages. The project would like to influence young men's behavior, but the Latin image of machismo poses a big challenge. It would like to become more responsible toward pregnancy prevention. About 50% of adolescents have sexual intercourse, but few use contraceptives resulting in a high adolescent pregnancy rate. Many of these pregnant teenagers choose not to marry. Adolescent pregnancy leads to girls leaving school, few marketable skills, and rearing children alone. Besides women who began childbearing as a teenager have 1.5 times more children than other women. Male involvement in pregnancy prevention should improve these statistics. As late as 1973, the Health Code banned promotion and sales of contraceptives, but by 1992 about 50% of women of reproductive age use contraceptives. The Center for the Orientation of Adolescents has organized 8 Young Men's Clubs in Mexico City to involve male teenagers more in family planning and to develop self-confidence. It uses a holistic approach to their development through discussions with their peers. A MEXFAM study shows that young men are not close with their fathers who tend to exude a machismo attitude, thus the young men do not have a role model for responsible sexual behavior. MEXFAM's work is cut out for them, however, since the same study indicates that 50% of the young men believe it is fine to have 1 girlfriend and 33% think women should earn more than men. A teenager volunteer reports, however, that more boys have been coming to him for contraception and information than girls in 1992 while in other years girls outnumbered the boys.

  1. Microwave Irradiation of Nanohydroxyapatite from Chicken Eggshells and Duck Eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Adzliana Sajahan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to similarity in composition to the mineral component of bones and human hard tissues, hydroxyapatite with chemical formula Ca10(PO46(OH2 has been widely used in medical field. Both chicken and duck eggshells are mainly composed of calcium carbonate. An attempt has been made to fabricate nanohydroxyapatite (nHA by chicken (CES and duck eggshells (DES as calcium carbonate source (CaCO3. CES and DES were reacted with diammonium hydrogen [(NH42HPO4] solution and subjected to microwave heating at 15 mins. Under the effect of microwave irradiation, nHA was produced directly in the solution and involved in crystallographic transformation. Sample characterization was done using by X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  2. Identification of duck plague virus by polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, W.R.; Brown, Sean E.; Nashold, S.W.; Knudson, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting duck plague virus. A 765-bp EcoRI fragment cloned from the genome of the duck plague vaccine (DP-VAC) virus was sequenced for PCR primer development. The fragment sequence was found by GenBank alignment searches to be similar to the 3a?? ends of an undefined open reading frame and the gene for DNA polymerase protein in other herpesviruses. Three of four primer sets were found to be specific for the DP-VAC virus and 100% (7/7) of field isolates but did not amplify DNA from inclusion body disease of cranes virus. The specificity of one primer set was tested with genome templates from other avian herpesviruses, including those from a golden eagle, bald eagle, great horned owl, snowy owl, peregrine falcon, prairie falcon, pigeon, psittacine, and chicken (infectious laryngotracheitis), but amplicons were not produced. Hence, this PCR test is highly specific for duck plague virus DNA. Two primer sets were able to detect 1 fg of DNA from the duck plague vaccine strain, equivalent to five genome copies. In addition, the ratio of tissue culture infectious doses to genome copies of duck plague vaccine virus from infected duck embryo cells was determined to be 1:100, making the PCR assay 20 times more sensitive than tissue culture for detecting duck plague virus. The speed, sensitivity, and specificity of this PCR provide a greatly improved diagnostic and research tool for studying the epizootiology of duck plague. /// Se desarroll?? una prueba de reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa para detectar el virus de la peste del pato. Un fragmento EcoRI de 765 pares de bases clonado del genoma del virus vacunal de la peste del pato fue secuenciado para la obtenci??n de los iniciadores de la prueba de la reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa. En investigaciones de alineaci??n en el banco de genes ('GenBank') se encontr?? que la secuencia del fragmento era similar a los extremos 3a?? de un marco de lectura abierto

  3. Neoliberalism, Pro-ana/mia Websites, and Pathologizing Women: Using Performance Ethnography to Challenge Psychocentrism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole D Schott

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Key terms such as “pro-ana,” “pro-anorexia,” and “pro-ED” are searched for on the Internet over 13 million times annually. These searches lead to web pages and social media sites where pro-anorexia and “pro-bulimia” (pro-ana/mia contributors share weight-loss and exercise tips, “thinspiration” slogans, images and videos, and speak openly about their problems with eating and body image. In this article, we outline our initial research on online responses to pro-ana/mia, and describe how we used the data and analyses from this research to create a piece of research-informed theatre, or performance ethnography. The initial research identified a range of responses to pro-ana/mia that were aligned with either dominant or critical discourses on the causes of, and solutions for, pro-ana/mia. Our findings and analyses challenge media portrayals and medical approaches to pro-ana/mia phenomena, and support an alternative, critical analysis of how psychocentrism and neoliberalism foster social injustices for women and girls. Our work nurtures collective efforts to displace dominant ideologies and practices that have serious implications for the socio-cultural, economic, physical and mental health of women and their communities.

  4. El ayer, el hoy y el mañana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corredor Pardo Katya Anyud

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Culturalmente, el anciano de hoy en nuestra sociedad, o en las grandes urbes, es considerado algunas veces por los jóvenes como un ser extraño y desagradable, como punto de partida de los  valores transmitidos en la familia los cuales deben ser revaluados y nosotros, los ancianos del mañana con los ancianos de hoy, cambiar de adentro hacia fuera. A su vez, evitar la transmisión generacional de estos valores a nuestros hijos realizando un análisis retrospectivo de la vida; cuando bebes, se tiene conciencia del uno al otro, y los niños en edad preescolar empiezan a conseguir compañeros, pero el grupo de amigos se fortalece a partir de los cinco o siete años, con frecuencia se escucha hablar con nostalgia de la vida en el colegio. Este lugar común es grato y feliz, adornado con carcajadas y anécdotas que despiertan e incentivan la imaginación y la realidad creada a partir del propio yo social, individual y cultural.

  5. Migration strategy affects avian influenza dynamics in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Hill, Nichola J.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herring, Garth; Hobson, Keith; Cardona, Carol J.; Runstadler, Jonathan; Boyce, Walter M.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of pathogen transmission typically overlook that wildlife hosts can include both migrant and resident populations when attempting to model circulation. Through the application of stable isotopes in flight feathers, we estimated the migration strategy of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) occurring on California wintering grounds. Our study demonstrates that mallards- a principal host of avian influenza virus (AIV) in nature, contribute differently to virus gene flow depending on migration strategy. No difference in AIV prevalence was detected between resident (9.6%), intermediate-distance (9.6%) and long-distance migrants (7.4%). Viral diversity among the three groups was also comparable, possibly owing to viral pool mixing when birds converge at wetlands during winter. However, migrants and residents contributed differently to the virus gene pool at wintering wetlands. Migrants introduced virus from northern breeding grounds (Alaska and the NW Pacific Rim) into the wintering population, facilitating gene flow at continental scales, but circulation of imported virus appeared to be limited. In contrast, resident mallards acted as AIV reservoirs facilitating year-round circulation of limited subtypes (i.e. H5N2) at lower latitudes. This study supports a model of virus exchange in temperate regions driven by the convergence of wild birds with separate geographic origins and exposure histories.

  6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROLACTIN HORMONE LEVEL, MOLTING AND DUCK EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Susanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to obtain information on the mechanism of molting and the prolactin hormone levels affecting egg production. The study utilized AP (crossbred of Alabio ♂ with Peking ♀ and PA (crossbred of Peking ♂ and Alabio ♀ ducks with a total of 180 birds. The observed variables were the duration of cessation of egg production before and after molting, the prolactin hormone level in the period of molting, the egg production period before and after molting. The data was analyzed using ANOVA, regression and correlation. The results showed that AP crossbred had fewer molting (23.33% compared to PA (50.00%. The mechanism of molting is always preceded by cessation of egg production, molting and relaying. The prolactin hormone concentrations of AP and PA in the period before and after molting were significantly higher than in the period of molting. At the egg production period before molting, the prolactin hormone concentration of AP ducks was higher than the PA ducks. So that the egg production of AP before molting (0-16 weeks was higher than the PA. The egg production of AP was higher than PA, 256.66±6.00 vs 232.22±6.64 eggs for 48 weeks. So it can be concluded that the prolactin hormone affects the molting and egg production.

  7. Identification of double-yolked duck egg using computer vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma

    Full Text Available The double-yolked (DY egg is quite popular in some Asian countries because it is considered as a sign of good luck, however, the double yolk is one of the reasons why these eggs fail to hatch. The usage of automatic methods for identifying DY eggs can increase the efficiency in the poultry industry by decreasing egg loss during incubation or improving sale proceeds. In this study, two methods for DY duck egg identification were developed by using computer vision technology. Transmittance images of DY and single-yolked (SY duck eggs were acquired by a CCD camera to identify them according to their shape features. The Fisher's linear discriminant (FLD model equipped with a set of normalized Fourier descriptors (NFDs extracted from the acquired images and the convolutional neural network (CNN model using primary preprocessed images were built to recognize duck egg yolk types. The classification accuracies of the FLD model for SY and DY eggs were 100% and 93.2% respectively, while the classification accuracies of the CNN model for SY and DY eggs were 98% and 98.8% respectively. The CNN-based algorithm took about 0.12 s to recognize one sample image, which was slightly faster than the FLD-based (about 0.20 s. Finally, this work compared two classification methods and provided the better method for DY egg identification.

  8. La Artesania Mexicana (Mexican Handicrafts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Bettina

    This booklet contains instructions in English and Spanish for making eleven typical Mexican craft articles. The instructions are accompanied by pen-and-ink drawings. The objects are (1) "La Rosa" (The Rose); (2) "El Crisantemo" (The Chrysanthemum); (3) "La Amapola" (The Poppy); (4) "Ojos de Dios" (God's Eyes); (5) "Ojitos con dos caras" (Two-Sided…

  9. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  10. The Mexican Axolotl in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests and describes laboratory activities in which the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum Shaw) is used, including experiments in embryology and early development, growth and regeneration, neoteny and metamorphosis, genetics and coloration, anatomy and physiology, and behavior. Discusses care and maintenance of animals. (CS)

  11. Proverbs in Mexican American Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shirley L.

    1982-01-01

    Examines proverb use among 304 Mexican Americans (aged 16-85) of Los Angeles (California), assembling information on how or where particular proverbs were learned, with whom or what kind of individual their use is associated, the occasions on which they are used, and general attitudes toward the use of proverbs. (LC)

  12. Experimental susceptibility of Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) for West Nile virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Porter, Robert E.; Franson, J. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in a variety of wild ducks in the US, but little is known about the pathogenesis and outcome of exposure of the disease in these species. Previous experimental studies of WNV in ducks either have challenged a small number of ducks with WNV or have tested domesticated ducks. To determine susceptibility and immune response, we challenged 7-wk-old Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) with a 1999 American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) isolate of WNV. Wood Ducks were susceptible to infection with the virus, and, although clinical signs or mortality were not observed, microscopic lesions were noted, particularly in the heart and brain. West Nile virus viremia peaked on day 2 postinfection (pi) at 104.54 plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus/mL serum and WNV was shed orally (between 102and 102.9 PFU per swab) and cloacally. Specific anti-WNV antibody response was rapid, with anti-WNV IgM detected on day 3 pi followed on day 5 pi by anti-WNV IgG. Neutralizing antibodies were detected by plaque-reduction neutralization assay in one duck on day 4 pi, and in all sampled ducks on day 5. These results indicate that Wood Ducks are susceptible to WNV, but it is unlikely that significant WNV mortality events occur in Wood Ducks or that ducks play a significant role in transmission. However, WNV viremia was sufficient, in theory, to infect mosquitoes, and oral and cloacal shedding of the virus may increase the risk of infection to other waterbirds.

  13. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Levofloxacin in Healthy and Renal Damaged Muscovy Ducks following Intravenous and Oral Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Aboubakr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics aspects of levofloxacin were studied in healthy and experimentally renal damaged Muscovy ducks after single intravenous (IV and oral (PO dose of 10 mg kg−1 bwt. Following IV administration, elimination half-life (t1/2(β and mean residence time (MRT were longer in renal damaged ducks than in healthy ones. Total clearance (Cltot in renal damaged ducks (0.20 L kg−1 h−1 was significantly lower as compared to that in healthy ones (0.41 L kg−1 h−1. Following PO administration, the peak serum concentration (Cmax was higher in renal damaged than in healthy ducks and was achieved at maximum time (tmax of 2.47 and 2.05 h, respectively. The drug was eliminated (t1/2(el at a significant slower rate (3.94 h in renal damaged than in healthy ducks (2.89 h. The pharmacokinetic profile of levofloxacin is altered in renal damaged ducks due to the increased serum levofloxacin concentrations compared with that in clinically healthy ducks. Oral administration of levofloxacin at 10 mg kg−1 bwt may be highly efficacious against susceptible bacteria in ducks. Also, the dose of levofloxacin should be reduced in renal damaged ducks. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration revealed significantly higher values for Cmax/MIC and AUC/MIC ratios in renal damaged ducks than in healthy ones, indicating the excellent pharmacokinetic characteristics of levofloxacin in renal damaged ducks.

  14. Genomic characterization of H14 subtype Influenza A viruses in new world waterfowl and experimental infectivity in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Ramey

    Full Text Available Recent repeated isolation of H14 hemagglutinin subtype influenza A viruses (IAVs in the New World waterfowl provides evidence to suggest that host and/or geographic ranges for viruses of this subtype may be expanding. In this study, we used genomic analyses to gain inference on the origin and evolution of H14 viruses in New World waterfowl and conducted an experimental challenge study in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos to evaluate pathogenicity, viral replication, and transmissibility of a representative viral strain in a natural host species. Genomic characterization of H14 subtype IAVs isolated from New World waterfowl, including three isolates sequenced specifically for this study, revealed high nucleotide identity among individual gene segments (e.g. ≥95% shared identity among H14 HA gene segments. In contrast, lower shared identity was observed among internal gene segments. Furthermore, multiple neuraminidase subtypes were observed for H14 IAVs isolated in the New World. Gene segments of H14 viruses isolated after 2010 shared ancestral genetic lineages with IAVs isolated from wild birds throughout North America. Thus, genomic characterization provided evidence for viral evolution in New World waterfowl through genetic drift and genetic shift since purported introduction from Eurasia. In the challenge study, no clinical disease or lesions were observed among mallards experimentally inoculated with A/blue-winged teal/Texas/AI13-1028/2013(H14N5 or exposed via contact with infected birds. Titers of viral shedding for mallards challenged with the H14N5 IAV were highest at two days post-inoculation (DPI; however shedding was detected up to nine DPI using cloacal swabs. The distribution of viral antigen among mallards infected with H14N5 IAV was largely restricted to enterocytes lining the villi in the lower intestinal tract and in the epithelium of the bursa of Fabricius. Characterization of the infectivity of A/blue-winged teal/Texas/AI13

  15. Genomic characterization of H14 subtype influenza A viruses in New World waterfowl and experimental infectivity in mallards Anas platyrhynchos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Gonzalez-Reiche, Ana S.; Perez, Daniel R.; Stalknecht, David E.; Brown, Justin D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent repeated isolation of H14 hemagglutinin subtype influenza A viruses (IAVs) in the New World waterfowl provides evidence to suggest that host and/or geographic ranges for viruses of this subtype may be expanding. In this study, we used genomic analyses to gain inference on the origin and evolution of H14 viruses in New World waterfowl and conducted an experimental challenge study in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to evaluate pathogenicity, viral replication, and transmissibility of a representative viral strain in a natural host species. Genomic characterization of H14 subtype IAVs isolated from New World waterfowl, including three isolates sequenced specifically for this study, revealed high nucleotide identity among individual gene segments (e.g. ≥95% shared identity among H14 HA gene segments). In contrast, lower shared identity was observed among internal gene segments. Furthermore, multiple neuraminidase subtypes were observed for H14 IAVs isolated in the New World. Gene segments of H14 viruses isolated after 2010 shared ancestral genetic lineages with IAVs isolated from wild birds throughout North America. Thus, genomic characterization provided evidence for viral evolution in New World waterfowl through genetic drift and genetic shift since purported introduction from Eurasia. In the challenge study, no clinical disease or lesions were observed among mallards experimentally inoculated with A/blue-winged teal/Texas/AI13-1028/2013(H14N5) or exposed via contact with infected birds. Titers of viral shedding for mallards challenged with the H14N5 IAV were highest at two days post-inoculation (DPI); however shedding was detected up to nine DPI using cloacal swabs. The distribution of viral antigen among mallards infected with H14N5 IAV was largely restricted to enterocytes lining the villi in the lower intestinal tract and in the epithelium of the bursa of Fabricius. Characterization of the infectivity of A/blue-winged teal/Texas/AI13-1028/2013(H14N5) in

  16. Pārdošanas veicināšanas paņēmienu ietekme uz patērētājiem Latvijā un Beļģijā

    OpenAIRE

    Limane, Marianna

    2010-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „Pārdošanas veicināšanas paņēmienu ietekme uz patērētājiem Latvijā un Beļģijā”. Pārdošanas veicināšanas pasākumu izmantošana mērķtiecīgi palielinājusies kopš 1960tajiem gadiem un šobrīd tā ir kļuvusi par galveno mārketinga komunikāciju kompleksa sastāvdaļu. Izmantotās metodes kļūst arvien sarežģītākas un arvien vairāk uzņēmumu izprot labi izplānotu pārdošanas veicināšanas kampaņu nozīmību. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir izpētīt kuras no pārdošanas veicināšanas metodēm u...

  17. Spreading Of Avian Flu On Duck And Its Impact On Social Economy: Lesson Learnt From Avian Flu Cases On Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyak Ilham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bird flu disease that attacks duck dismissed the notion of duck immune to bird flu disease. Learning from the experience of bird flu disease that attacks poultry in the year of 2004-2005, necessary to measure the spread of disease prevention bird flu in ducks. This paper aims to describe the business and trade patterns of duck associated with the spread of avian influenza and predict the socio-economic impact of bird flu on duck farms in Indonesia. Duck rearing patterns mostly are in the extensive and semi-intensive system, that have large potential disease transmission occured between duck and wild. Illegal trade in the crossborder region and imports from countries that re-export it, ias alo become potential as well as the entry point to the bird flu virus in Indonesia. Ducks trade between regions by land transportation is difficult to control as well becomes the potential media to spread of the virus to a wider area. The economic impact of bird flu on duck business occured due to the death of ducks, decline in production and loss of job opportunities, while that on demand reduction was not significant. Small scale farmers that were bankrupt as a result of bird flu outbreaks may require technical assistance and access to capital for recovery. In the future, development of ducks business should be directed at duck farms into a semi-intensive and intensive system to facilitate the control of epidemic diseases

  18. Effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Wu, J L; Zhou, W D; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-01-01

    1. The effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy duck were evaluated. The objective of this research was to establish whether alfalfa meal can reduce fat content and improve carcase quality of Muscovy duck. Animal products with a high fat content present a risk factor for many diseases. Reducing fat content in poultry products is an important goal for the poultry industry. 2. A total of 240 14-d-old white Muscovy ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 5 weeks. Growth performances were recorded and carcase characteristics and lipid parameters were analysed. 3. Results showed that 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal in diet had no significant effects on growth performance of Muscovy ducks from 14 to 49 d of age. Ducks given 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher dressing percentage and lower abdominal fat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. Ducks given 9% alfalfa meal had higher breast meat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. The concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and free fatty acid in serum of ducks fed on alfalfa meal decreased. Alfalfa meal in the diet decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits of Muscovy duck. 4. The study showed that dietary alfalfa meal decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits, without an adverse effect on performance.

  19. Effects of alfalfa meal on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Wu, J L; Jiang, Y Q

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of alfalfa meal diets on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing egg-type ducks. A total of 128 healthy 7-week-old female egg-type Shaoxing ducks were selected and randomly assigned into four dietary treatments: 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal for 8 weeks. Each treatment consisted of four replicates of eight ducks each. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to characterize the microbiota. The results showed that the DGGE fingerprints of the V6-V8 fragments of the 16S rRNA from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher microbiota species richness than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal was significantly higher than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p 0.05), and the 3-9% alfalfa meal did not affect the growth performance of the growing egg-type ducks. The proliferation of T and B lymphocytes was significantly greater (p ducks. Dietary alfalfa meal supplementation increases intestinal microbial community diversity and improves of the immune response growing egg-type ducks. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Lead exposure affects health indices in free-ranging ducks in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Beldomenico, Pablo M; Marchese, Krysten; Romano, Marcelo; Caselli, Andrea; Correa, Ana I; Uhart, Marcela

    2015-05-01

    Numerous experiments under controlled conditions and extensive investigation of waterfowl die-offs have demonstrated that exposure to lead from spent gunshot is highly detrimental to the health of waterfowl. However, few studies have focused on examining the more subtle sub-lethal effects of lead toxicity on ducks in non-experimental settings. In our study, the health of ducks exposed to varying amounts of lead under natural conditions was assessed by correlating individual lead exposure with relevant indices of health. Based on hunter-killed wild ducks in Argentina, we measured spleen mass, body condition, examined bone marrow smears, and determined Ca and P in bone tissue. In free-ranging live-trapped ducks we determined basic hematology and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Using multivariate analyses, we found that, when controlling for the potential confounding effect of site type, year, duck species, body mass and age, lead levels in the liver were negatively associated with body condition and spleen mass. Spleen mass was also lower in ducks with higher lead levels in their bones. In live ducks, high blood lead levels were associated with low packed cell volume and red cell morphologic abnormalities. These findings suggest that, despite the lack of recorded lead-induced mortality in the region, lead exposure results in less conspicuous but still significant impacts on the health of ducks, which could have serious implications for their conservation. Moreover, this evidence further supports the need for urgently banning lead shot in the region.

  1. Sentinel model for influenza A virus monitoring in free-grazing ducks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyapisitsopa, Supanat; Chaiyawong, Supassama; Nonthabenjawan, Nutthawan; Jairak, Waleemas; Prakairungnamthip, Duangduean; Bunpapong, Napawan; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) can cause influenza in birds and mammals. In Thailand, free-grazing ducks are known IAV reservoirs and can spread viruses through frequent movements in habitats they share with wild birds. In this study, the sentinel model for IAV monitoring was conducted over 4 months in two free-grazing duck flocks. IAV subtypes H4N6 (n=1) and H3N8 (n=5) were isolated from sentinel ducks at the ages of 13 and 15 weeks. Clinical signs of depression and ocular discharge were observed in the infected ducks. Phylogenetic analysis and genetic characterization of the isolated IAVs indicated that all Thai IAVs were clustered in the Eurasian lineage and pose low pathogenic avian influenza characteristics. Serological analysis found that antibodies against IAVs could be detected in the ducks since 9-weeks-old. In summary, our results indicate that the sentinel model can be used for IAV monitoring in free-grazing duck flocks. Since free-grazing ducks are potential reservoirs and transmitters of IAVs, routine IAV surveillance in free-grazing duck flocks can be beneficial for influenza prevention and control strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective efficacy of an inactivated vaccine against H9N2 avian influenza virus in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Qiaoyang; Shen, Weixia; Liu, Qinfang; Rong, Guangyu; Chen, Lin; Li, Xuesong; Chen, Hongjun; Yang, Jianmei; Li, Zejun

    2015-09-17

    Wild ducks play an important role in the evolution of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). Domestic ducks in China are known to carry and spread H9N2 AIVs that are thought to have contributed internal genes for the recent outbreak of zoonotic H7N9 virus. In order to protect animal and public health, an effective vaccine is urgently needed to block and prevent the spread of H9N2 virus in ducks. We developed an inactivated H9N2 vaccine (with adjuvant Montanide ISA 70VG) based on an endemic H9N2 AIV and evaluated this vaccine in ducks. The results showed that the inactivated H9N2 vaccine was able to induce a strong and fast humoral immune response in vaccinated ducks. The hemagglutination inhibition titer in the sera increased fast, and reached its peak of 12.3 log2 at 5 weeks post-vaccination in immunized birds and remained at a high level for at least 37 weeks post-vaccination. Moreover, viral shedding was completely blocked in vaccinated ducks after challenge with a homologous H9N2 AIV at both 3 and 37 weeks post-vaccination. The results of this study indicate that the inactivated H9N2 vaccine induces high and prolonged immune response in vaccinated ducks and are efficacious in protecting ducks from H9N2 infection.

  3. Effects of ACTH, capture, and short term confinement on glucocorticoid concentrations in harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, P.B.; Hollmén, Tuula E.; Atkinson, S.; Mashburn, K.L.; Tuomi, P.A.; Esler, Daniel N.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Rizzolo, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about baseline concentrations of adrenal hormones and hormonal responses to stress in sea ducks, although significant population declines documented in several species suggest that sea ducks are exposed to increased levels of environmental stress. Such declines have been observed in geographically distinct harlequin duck populations. We performed an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge to evaluate adrenal function and characterize corticosterone concentrations in captive harlequin ducks and investigated the effects of capture, surgery, and short term confinement on corticosterone concentrations in wild harlequin ducks. Harlequin ducks responded to the ACTH challenge with an average three-fold increase in serum corticosterone concentration approximately 90 min post injection, and a four- to five-fold increase in fecal glucocorticoid concentration 2 to 4 h post injection. Serum corticosterone concentrations in wild harlequin ducks increased within min of capture and elevated levels were found for several hours post capture, indicating that surgery and confinement maintain elevated corticosterone concentrations in this species. Mean corticosterone concentrations in wild harlequin ducks held in temporary captivity were similar to the maximum response levels during the ACTH challenge in captive birds. However, large variation among individuals was observed in responses of wild birds, and we found additional evidence suggesting that corticosterone responses varied between hatch year and after hatch year birds.

  4. Epidemiologic Investigation of Riemerella anatipestifer in a Commercial Duck Company by Serotyping and DNA Fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    A commercial duck company that raises approximately two million Pekin ducks per year experienced an outbreak of Riemerella anatipestifer(RA)on nine farms over a one year period. Due to concerns that the bacteria was being spread from farm to farm, an investigation using serotyping and DNA fingerprin...

  5. [Nitrogen cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during double cropping rice growth season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Sui, Peng; Gao, Wang-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Raising duck in paddy rice field is an evolution of Chinese traditional agriculture. In May-October 2010, a field experiment was conducted in a double cropping rice region of Hunan Province, South-central China to study the nitrogen (N) cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during early rice and late rice growth periods, taking a conventional paddy rice field as the control. Input-output analysis method was adopted. The N output in the early rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 239.5 kg x hm(-2), in which, 12.77 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks, and the N output in the late rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 338.7 kg x hm(-2), in which, 23.35 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks. At the present N input level, there existed soil N deficit during the growth seasons of both early rice and late rice. The N input from duck sub-system was mainly from the feed N, and the cycling rate of the duck feces N recycled within the system was 2.5% during early rice growth season and 3.5% during late rice growth season. After late rice harvested, the soil N sequestration was 178.6 kg x hm(-2).

  6. Transmission dynamics of the recently-identified BYD virus causing duck egg-drop syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen K Vaidya

    Full Text Available Baiyangdian (BYD virus is a recently-identified mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes severe disease in ducks, with extremely rapid transmission, up to 15% mortality within 10 days and 90% reduction in egg production on duck farms within 5 days of infection. Because of the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses, the characterization of BYD virus and its epidemiology are important public health concerns. Here, we develop a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of this novel virus. We validate the model against BYD outbreak data collected from duck farms in Southeast China, as well as experimental data obtained from an animal facility. Based on our model, the basic reproductive number of BYD virus is high (R(0 = 21 indicating that this virus is highly transmissible, consistent with the dramatic epidemiology observed in BYDV-affected duck farms. Our results indicate that younger ducks are more vulnerable to BYD disease and that ducks infected with BYD virus reduce egg production (to about 33% on average for about 3 days post-infection; after 3 days infected ducks are no longer able to produce eggs. Using our model, we predict that control measures which reduce contact between mosquitoes and ducks such as mosquito nets are more effective than insecticides.

  7. Comparative effects of fumonisins on sphingolipid metabolism and toxicity in ducks and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlasher, Emad; Geng, Xiuyu; Nguyen, Ngoc Thanh Xuan; Tardieu, Didier; Bailly, Jean-Denis; Auvergne, Alain; Guerre, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    Fumonisins (FBs) are mycotoxins that are found worldwide in maize and maize products. Their main toxic effects have been well characterized in poultry, but differences between species have been demonstrated. Ducks appeared very sensitive to toxicity, whereas turkeys are more resistant. At the same time, alterations of sphingolipid metabolism, with an increase of the concentration of the free sphinganine (Sa) in serum and liver, have been demonstrated in the two species, but the link between the toxicity of FBs and Sa accumulation remains difficult to interpret. The aim of the present work was to compare the effects of FBs (10 mg FB1 + FB2/kg body weight) on sphingolipid metabolism in ducks and turkeys. Growth, feed consumption, and serum biochemistry were also investigated to evaluate toxicity. The main results showed that FBs increased Sa concentrations in liver and serum in ducks and turkeys, but these accumulations were not directly correlated with toxicity. Sa accumulation was higher in the livers of turkeys than in ducks, whereas Sa levels were higher in the sera of ducks than in turkeys. Hepatic toxicity was more pronounced in ducks than in turkeys and accompanied a decrease of body weight and an increase of serum biochemistry in ducks but not in turkeys. So, although FBs increase Sa concentration in the livers of both species, this effect is not directly proportional to toxicity. The mechanisms of FB toxicity and/or the mechanisms of protection of ducks and turkeys to the Sa accumulation within the liver remain to be established.

  8. 78 FR 14413 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LUCKY DUCK; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LUCKY DUCK; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... should refer to docket number MARAD-2013-0019. Written comments may be submitted by hand or by mail to... LUCKY DUCK is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``The vessel is to be operated as a sailing...

  9. A polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of virulent and attenuated strains of duck plague virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liji; Xie, Zhixun; Huang, Li; Wang, Sheng; Huang, Jiaoling; Zhang, Yanfang; Zeng, Tingting; Luo, Sisi

    2017-11-01

    Sequence analysis of duck plague virus (DPV) revealed that there was a 528bp (B fragment) deletion within the UL2 gene of DPV attenuated vaccine strain in comparison with field virulent strains. The finding of gene deletion provides a potential differentiation test between DPV virulent strain and attenuated strain based on their UL2 gene sizes. Thus we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting to the DPV UL2 gene for simultaneous detection of DPV virulent strain and attenuated strain, 827bp for virulent strain and 299bp for attenuated strain. This newly developed PCR for DPV was highly sensitive and specific. It detected as low as 100fg of DNA on both DPV virulent and attenuated strains, no same size bands were amplified from other duck viruses including duck paramyxovirus, duck tembusu virus, duck circovirus, Muscovy duck parvovirus, duck hepatitis virus type I, avian influenza virus and gosling plague virus. Therefore, this PCR assay can be used for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of DPV virulent and attenuated strains affecting ducks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Characterization of a non-pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus isolated from a migratory duck flying from Siberia in Hokkaido, Japan, in October 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamatsu Masatoshi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs of domestic poultry and wild birds has spread to more than 60 countries in Eurasia and Africa. It is concerned that HPAIVs may be perpetuated in the lakes in Siberia where migratory water birds nest in summer. To monitor whether HPAIVs circulate in migratory water birds, intensive surveillance of avian influenza has been performed in Mongolia and Japan in autumn each year. Until 2008, there had not been any H5N1 viruses isolated from migratory water birds that flew from their nesting lakes in Siberia. In autumn 2009, A/mallard/Hokkaido/24/09 (H5N1 (Mal/Hok/24/09 was isolated from a fecal sample of a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos that flew from Siberia to Hokkaido, Japan. The isolate was assessed for pathogenicity in chickens, domestic ducks, and quails and analyzed antigenically and phylogenetically. Results No clinical signs were observed in chickens inoculated intravenously with Mal/Hok/24/09 (H5N1. There was no viral replication in chickens inoculated intranasally with the isolate. None of the domestic ducks and quails inoculated intranasally with the isolate showed any clinical signs. There were no multiple basic amino acid residues at the cleavage site of the hemagglutinin (HA of the isolate. Each gene of Mal/Hok/24/09 (H5N1 is phylogenetically closely related to that of influenza viruses isolated from migratory water birds that flew from their nesting lakes in autumn. Additionally, the antigenicity of the HA of the isolate was similar to that of the viruses isolated from migratory water birds in Hokkaido that flew from their northern territory in autumn and different from those of HPAIVs isolated from birds found dead in China, Mongolia, and Japan on the way back to their northern territory in spring. Conclusion Mal/Hok/24/09 (H5N1 is a non-pathogenic avian influenza virus for chickens, domestic ducks, and quails, and is antigenically and genetically

  11. Development and evaluation of the mallard duck as a model to investigate the immunotoxicity of environmental chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowles, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize the mallard duck (Anas platyrhyncos) as a model for evaluating the immunotoxic effects of environmental chemicals. A battery of immunotoxicity tests was validated for the mallard, including natural killer cell (NKC) activity, lymphocyte mitogenesis, antibody titers to sheep erythrocytes, peripheral differential leukocyte counts, macrophage phagocytosis and prostaglandin-E[sub 2] (PGE2) production. To investigate potential hormonal-immune axes, dexamethasone (DEX), methimazole, and thyroxine (T4) were used to study the influence of glucocorticoid excess, hypo-, and hyperthyroidism on immunity, respectively. Subsequently, the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, Aroclor 1254) on immune, endocrine, and hepatic cytochrome-P450 function were evaluated and interpreted using results from the endocrine/immune studies. Results of these studies showed that antibody production was susceptible to suppression by DEX at doses which also caused significant changes in clinical plasma biochemistry values. NKC activity was enhanced by exposure to DEX in vivo, a phenomenon due to the inhibition of PGE2 production by adherent peripheral blood cells by DEX and mimicked in vitro with addition of indomethacin or DEX. Macrophage phagocytosis was significantly suppressed by DEX in vitro. Macrophage production of PGE2 ex vivo was suppressed in birds treated with DEX. In contrast to DEX, T4 or methimazole treatment elicited only slight physiologic changes in plasma albumin and cholesterol levels. No immune/thyroid axis was observed in mallards. Exposure to Aroclor 1254 induced significant hepatic microsomal ethoxy- and pentoxy-resorufin-O-deethylase activities in addition to increasing total cytochrome P450 content, but did not affect immune function, plasma corticosterone, or clinical biochemistry values. Total triiodothyronine, but not T4, was dose-dependently suppressed by PCB treatment.

  12. Hydrophobic duck feathers and their simulation on textile substrates for water repellent treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuyang; Chen Xianqiong; Xin, J H

    2008-01-01

    Inspired by the non-wetting phenomena of duck feathers, the water repellent property of duck feathers was studied at the nanoscale. The microstructures of the duck feather were investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging method through a step-by-step magnifying procedure. The SEM results show that duck feathers have a multi-scale structure and that this multi-scale structure as well as the preening oil are responsible for their super hydrophobic behavior. The microstructures of the duck feather were simulated on textile substrates using the biopolymer chitosan as building blocks through a novel surface solution precipitation (SSP) method, and then the textile substrates were further modified with a silicone compound to achieve low surface energy. The resultant textiles exhibit super water repellent properties, thus providing a simple bionic way to create super hydrophobic surfaces on soft substrates using flexible material as building blocks

  13. Effect of Housing System, Slaughter Age and Sex on Slaughter and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrnčár

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of housing system slaughterage and sex on performance and carcass parameters of broiler ducks. Theexperiment was carried out in half-operation conditions experimental base ofDepartment of Poultry Science and Small Animal Husbandry of Slovak Universityof Agriculture in Nitra. A total of 60 one day old ducklings (type Peking DuckWhite were randomly divided to 2 housing groups: three-floor cage system anddeep litter system, both under uniform microclimate conditions. The housingsystem, slaughter age and sex significantly affected the slaughter weights ofbroiler ducks in 49 and 56 day of fattening. The results of this study showed the influenceof housing system, sex and slaughter age on slaughter and carcass parameters.The slaughter and carcass parameters were statistically higher (P0.05. The some slaughterand carcass parameters of male ducks were statistically higher (P<0.05 comparedwith female ducks.

  14. Ana3 is a conserved protein required for the structural integrity of centrioles and basal bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Naomi R; Dobbelaere, Jeroen; Wainman, Alan; Gergely, Fanni; Raff, Jordan W

    2009-11-02

    Recent studies have identified a conserved "core" of proteins that are required for centriole duplication. A small number of additional proteins have recently been identified as potential duplication factors, but it is unclear whether any of these proteins are components of the core duplication machinery. In this study, we investigate the function of one of these proteins, Drosophila melanogaster Ana3. We show that Ana3 is present in centrioles and basal bodies, but its behavior is distinct from that of the core duplication proteins. Most importantly, we find that Ana3 is required for the structural integrity of both centrioles and basal bodies and for centriole cohesion, but it is not essential for centriole duplication. We show that Ana3 has a mammalian homologue, Rotatin, that also localizes to centrioles and basal bodies and appears to be essential for cilia function. Thus, Ana3 defines a conserved family of centriolar proteins and plays an important part in ensuring the structural integrity of centrioles and basal bodies.

  15. Effects of Alfalfa Meal on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Tract Development of Growing Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Jiang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05. ii Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05. iii Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05. Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05. This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  16. Local Duck Fanning At Paddy Three Times Planting Areas ("IP Padi 300"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setioko A.R

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of duck husbandry in Indonesia is still run traditionally, herded in rice field or in the swampy area. This kind of husbandry seemed to be much preferred by farmers as they thought it was a simple and did not need high skill and high capital "IP padi 300" was a term of rice planting system tree times instead of twice in a year. This kind of changing might have significantly affected duck faming. The objective of the study was to observe the interactively effect of "IP padi 300" to duck husbandry at the same area. Two locations were choosen (Subang, West Jawa and Pemalang, Central Java with 5 farmers at each location to be involved in the study. As many as 1200 laying pullet ducks were distributed to 10 farmers at two locations. The farmers were suggested to raise laying ducks with their own systems (fully intensive, semi intensive and fully herded and were observed for 6 months. Biota was observed on both field and in the crop of the laying ducks. There was an interactive effect of "IP padi 300" and the duck farming on the same area. The availability of feed was increased on the "IP padi 300", which gave benefit to duck farming especially fue herded system, not to go far from owner's home base. Whilst the benefit to "IP padi 300" was assumed to the reduction of pest and desease, which was frequently attacked the rice field. The production of egg from herded duck was very fluctuative due to the movement and feed availability in the rice field. Field biota in Subang and Pemalang was very much the same in profile, although "golden snail" was only found in Subang. Ducks' crop content seemed to be very much similar with the profile of field biota, although rice grain was the most in the crop. Thus, it was found that field biota was not reduced by "IP padi 300", in fact it was rather increased.

  17. Efeito de diferentes reguladores de crescimento na regeneração in vitro de pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke Effect of differents growth regulators in vitro propagation of Aniba rosaeodora Ducke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyana Silva Jardim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer um protocolo para a regeneração in vitro de pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke, utilizando brotações apicais e segmentos nodais inoculados em meio de cultura com distintas concentrações de diferentes reguladores de crescimento. Explantes esterilizados com soluções de benomyl (4,0 g.L-1 por 24 horas e hipoclorito de sódio a 20% + tween 20 por 20 minutos, foram submetidos a um experimento de indução de broto, raiz e calo em meio MS1 acrescido de 30g.L-1 de sacarose e 9g.L-1 de agar, suplementado com BAP (0,0 e 4,0 mg.L-1, ANA, AIA e 2,4-D (0,0; 3,0 e 6,0 mg.L-1, e suas respectivas combinações. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 7 X 2, com 14 tratamentos e 15 repetições cada, onde foram analisados o número médio de brotos, raízes e calo. Após 90 dias, os resultados mostraram que a presença de auxinas é fundamental para a formação dos parâmetros induzidos nos explantes de pau-rosa. O meio de cultura contendo 4,0 mg.L-1 de BAP + 6,0 mg.L-1 de AIA apresentou a melhor média para a brotação com 2,13 brotos/explante. Para o enraizamento o meio contendo 3,0 mg.L-1 de ANA foi o mais eficiente, apresentando uma média de 2,53 raízes/explante. Em relação à indução de calo, todos os tratamentos apresentaram calogênese, porém o meio suplementado com 4,0 mg.L-1 de BAP + 6,0 mg.L-1 de 2,4-D, apresentou a melhor média, 1,67 calos/explante.The objective of this work was to establish a protocol for in vitro regeneration of rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke, using apical and nodal segments inoculated in culture medium with various concentrations of growth regulators. Explants disinfected with solutions of benomyl (4,0 g.L-1 for 24 hours and sodium hipoclorite in 20% + tween 20 for 20 minutes were submitted in an experiment of shoot, root and callus induction in MS medium, with 30 g.L-1 of sucrose and 9,0 g.L-1 of agar added with the growth regulators

  18. New tariffs confuse Mexican market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeyman, M.

    1992-01-01

    Indelpro - the Grupo Alfa/Himont joint venture 150,000-m.t./year polypropylene (PP) plant in Altamira, Mexico - has been working to find its place in the Mexican market since coming onstream in March. At the same time, that market has been complicated by the imposition of import and export tariffs by the U.S. Department of Commerce early this fall. Commerce's accession to a 10% ad valorem tax on US PP exports to Mexico surprised some industry observers. The tariff is scheduled to be phased out within 10 years and is partly countermanded by a 5% tariff over a five-year period on Mexican PP exports to the US. But some market analysts say the arrangement is baffling

  19. NAFTA and the Mexican Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-04

    its loans. Then President Miguel de la Madrid took steps to open and liberalize the Mexican economy and initiated procedures to replace import...capita income in countries. 24 Lessons from NAFTA, 2005. 25 Economia , “NAFTA and Convergence in North America: High Expectations, Big Events, Little Time...Easterly, Norbert Fiess, and Daniel Lederman, Economia , “NAFTA and Convergence in North America: High Expectations, Big Events, Little Time,” Fall 2003. The

  20. Salted and preserved duck eggs: a consumer market segmentation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jennifer; Wiseman, Kelleen; Cheng, K M

    2015-08-01

    The combination of increasing ethnic diversity in North America and growing consumer support for local food products may present opportunities for local producers and processors in the ethnic foods product category. Our study examined the ethnic Chinese (pop. 402,000) market for salted and preserved duck eggs in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. The objective of the study was to develop a segmentation model using survey data to categorize consumer groups based on their attitudes and the importance they placed on product attributes. We further used post-segmentation acculturation score, demographics and buyer behaviors to define these groups. Data were gathered via a survey of randomly selected Vancouver households with Chinese surnames (n = 410), targeting the adult responsible for grocery shopping. Results from principal component analysis and a 2-step cluster analysis suggest the existence of 4 market segments, described as Enthusiasts, Potentialists, Pragmatists, Health Skeptics (salted duck eggs), and Neutralists (preserved duck eggs). Kruskal Wallis tests and post hoc Mann-Whitney tests found significant differences between segments in terms of attitudes and the importance placed on product characteristics. Health Skeptics, preserved egg Potentialists, and Pragmatists of both egg products were significantly biased against Chinese imports compared to others. Except for Enthusiasts, segments disagreed that eggs are 'Healthy Products'. Preserved egg Enthusiasts had a significantly lower acculturation score (AS) compared to all others, while salted egg Enthusiasts had a lower AS compared to Health Skeptics. All segments rated "produced in BC, not mainland China" products in the "neutral to very likely" range for increasing their satisfaction with the eggs. Results also indicate that buyers of each egg type are willing to pay an average premium of at least 10% more for BC produced products versus imports, with all other characteristics equal. Overall

  1. Foraging flight distances of wintering ducks and geese: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Johnson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The distance covered by foraging animals, especially those that radiate from a central area when foraging, may affect ecosystem, community, and population dynamics, and has conservation and landscape planning implications for multiple taxa, including migratory waterfowl. Migrating and wintering waterfowl make regular foraging flights between roosting and feeding areas that can greatly impact energetic resources within the foraging zone near roost sites. We reviewed published studies and gray literature for one-way foraging flight distances (FFDs of migrating and wintering dabbling ducks and geese. Thirty reviewed studies reported FFDs and several reported values for multiple species or locations. We obtained FFD values for migration (n = 7 and winter (n = 70. We evaluated the effects of body mass, guild, i.e., dabbling duck or goose, and location, i.e., Nearctic or Palearctic, on FFDs. We used the second-order Akaike's Information Criterion for model selection. We found support for effects of location and guild on FFDs. FFDs of waterfowl wintering in the Nearctic (7.4 ± 6.7 km, mean ± SD; n = 39 values were longer than in the Palearctic (4.2 ± 3.2 km; n = 31 values. The FFDs of geese (7.8 ± 7.2 km, mean ± SD; n = 24 values were longer than FFDs of dabbling ducks (5.1 ± 4.4 km, mean ± SD; n = 46 values. We found mixed evidence that distance flown from the roost changed, i.e., increased or decreased, seasonally. Our results can be used to refine estimates of energetic carrying capacity around roosts and in biological and landscape planning efforts.

  2. Sediment Dynamics Affecting the Threatened Santa Ana Sucker in the Highly-modified Santa Ana River and Inset Channel, Southern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minear, J. T.; Wright, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the sediment dynamics of the low-flow channel of the Santa Ana River that is formed by wastewater discharges and contains some of the last remaining habitat of the Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae). The Santa Ana River is a highly-modified river draining the San Bernardino Mountains and Inland Empire metropolitan area east of Los Angeles. Home to over 4 million people, the watershed provides habitat for the federally-threatened Santa Ana Sucker, which presently reside within the mainstem Santa Ana River in a reach supported by year-round constant discharges from water treatment plants. The nearly constant low-flow wastewater discharges and infrequent runoff events create a small, approximately 8 m wide, inset channel within the approximately 300 m wide mainstem channel that is typically dry except for large flood flows. The sediment dynamics within the inset channel are characterized by constantly evolving bed substrate and sediment transport rates, and occasional channel avulsions. The sediment dynamics have large influence on the Sucker, which rely on coarse-substrate (gravel and cobble) for their food production. In WY 2013 through the present, we investigated the sediment dynamics of the inset channel using repeat bathymetric and substrate surveys, bedload sampling, and discharge measurements. We found two distinct phases of the inset channel behavior: 1. 'Reset' flows, where sediment-laden mainstem discharges from upstream runoff events result in sand deposition in the inset channel or avulse the inset channel onto previously dry riverbed; and 2. 'Winnowing' flows, whereby the sand within the inset channel is removed by clear-water low flows from the wastewater treatment plant discharges. Thus, in contrast to many regulated rivers where high flows are required to flush fine sediments from the bed (for example, downstream from dams), in the Santa Ana River the low flows from wastewater treatment plants serve as the flushing

  3. The Growth of Protein Crystals Using McDUCK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Felicia; Wilson, Lori; Nadarajah, Arunan; Pusey, Marc

    1998-01-01

    Most of the current microgravity crystal growth hardware is optimized to produce crystals within the limited time available on orbit. This often results in the actual nucleation and growth process being rushed or the system not coming to equilibrium within the limited time available. Longer duration hardware exists, but one cannot readily pick out crystals grown early versus those which nucleated and grew more slowly. We have devised a long duration apparatus, the Multi-chamber Dialysis Unit for Crystallization Kinetics, or McDUCK. This apparatus-is a series of protein chambers, stacked upon a precipitant reservoir chamber. All chambers are separated by a dialysis membrane, which serves to pass small molecules while retaining the protein. The volume of the Precipitant chamber is equal to the sum of the volumes of the protein chamber. In operation, the appropriate chambers are filled with precipitant solution or protein solution, and the McDUCK is placed standing upright, with the precipitant chamber on the bottom. The precipitant diffuses upwards over time, with the time to reach equilibration a function of the diffusivity of the precipitant and the overall length of the diffusion pathway. Typical equilibration times are approximately 2-4 months, and one can readily separate rapid from slow nucleation and growth crystals. An advantage on Earth is that the vertical precipitant concentration gradient dominates that of the solute, thus dampening out solute density gradient driven convective flows. However, large Earth-grown crystals have so far tended to be more two dimensional. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of lysozyme crystals grown in McDUCK have indicated that the best, and largest, come from the middle chambers, suggesting that there is an optimal growth rate. Further, the improvements in diffraction resolution have been better signal to noise ratios in the low resolution data, not an increase in resolution overall. Due to the persistently large crystals

  4. Two-Dimensional Zymography of Proteases from Steatotic Duck Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkesman, Jeff; Padrón, María Fernanda; Kurz, Liliana; Rémignon, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    Protease activity present in liver cells with steatosis can be electrophoretically characterized. Zymographic techniques allow semi-quantitative results, successfully detecting cathepsin and metalloprotease activity using polyacrylamide gels copolymerized with gelatin and quantified by densitometry. By using specific inhibitors, the identity of the proteases can be confirmed. 2D zymography allows the determination of both M r. and pI of the metalloprotease and cathepsin activity present in the homogenates. The analysis of liver proteases activities in force fed ducks may elucidate the mechanisms behind steatosis development.

  5. Archiving California’s historical duck nesting data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Brady, Caroline; Eadie, John M.; Yarris, Greg S.

    2015-07-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the California Waterfowl Association (CWA) and other organizations, have compiled large datasets on the nesting ecology and management of dabbling ducks and associated upland nesting birds (Northern Harriers [Circus cyaneus], Short-eared Owls [Asio flammeus], Ring-necked Pheasants [Phasianus colchicus], and American Bitterns [Botaurus lentiginosus]) throughout California on Federal Refuges, State Wildlife Areas, and private lands, some participating in State and Federal habitat programs. These datasets encompass several long-term monitoring programs at multiple sites throughout California, and include data from more than 26,000 nests and span nearly 30 years.

  6. Kriminālprocesa izbeigšana kriminālvajāšanā

    OpenAIRE

    Vāķis, Andris

    2010-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „Kriminālprocesa izbeigšana kriminālvajāšanā”. Darba mērķis ir noskaidrot un izpētīt pastāvošās problēmas kriminālprocesu izbeigšanas atbilstošo normu piemērošanu kriminālvajāšanā. Darba mērķa sasniegšanai ir izmantota vēsturisko un salīdzinošo metožu, normatīvo aktu un pirmstiesas procesa pabeigšanas veidu, jēdziena, vispārīgo un īpašo pamatu izpēte, statistikas dati. Bakalaura darba apjoms ir 50.lpp. un 2. pielikumi. Darbā izmantoti Latvijas Republikas un s...

  7. Recursos de agua de la Comarca de Doñana

    OpenAIRE

    Custodio Gimena, Emilio; Dolz Ripolles, Josep; Manzano Arellano, María del Sol

    2005-01-01

    La designación de Doñana estuvo inicialmente limitada a las áreas de arenas que rodean por el Oeste y Noroeste a las Marismas del Guadalquivir. Siendo de difícil habilitabilidad y escasa productividad agrícola y pecuaria, fueron utilizadas como áreas de caza de las familias nobles y para apacentar ganado. Con la creación de la Reserva Biológica de Doñana y del Parque Nacional de Doñana el nombre fue difundiéndose y haciéndose cada vez más un genérico del área que rodea la Marisma, de la pr...

  8. Disease dynamics and bird migration--linking mallards Anas platyrhynchos and subtype diversity of the influenza A virus in time and space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Gunnarsson

    Full Text Available The mallard Anas platyrhynchos is a reservoir species for influenza A virus in the northern hemisphere, with particularly high prevalence rates prior to as well as during its prolonged autumn migration. It has been proposed that the virus is brought from the breeding grounds and transmitted to conspecifics during subsequent staging during migration, and so a better understanding of the natal origin of staging ducks is vital to deciphering the dynamics of viral movement pathways. Ottenby is an important stopover site in southeast Sweden almost halfway downstream in the major Northwest European flyway, and is used by millions of waterfowl each year. Here, mallards were captured and sampled for influenza A virus infection, and positive samples were subtyped in order to study possible links to the natal area, which were determined by a novel approach combining banding recovery data and isotopic measurements (δ(2H of feathers grown on breeding grounds. Geographic assignments showed that the core natal areas of studied mallards were in Estonia, southern and central Finland, and northwestern Russia. This study demonstrates a clear temporal succession of latitudes of natal origin during the course of autumn migration. We also demonstrate a corresponding and concomitant shift in virus subtypes. Acknowledging that these two different patterns were based in part upon different data, a likely interpretation worth further testing is that the early arriving birds with more proximate origins have different influenza A subtypes than the more distantly originating late autumn birds. If true, this knowledge would allow novel insight into the origins and transmission of the influenza A virus among migratory hosts previously unavailable through conventional approaches.

  9. Effects of different wavelengths of light on the biology, behavior, and production of grow-out Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C L; Colton, S; Haas, R; Rice, M; Porter, A; Schenk, A; Meelker, A; Fraley, S M; Fraley, G S

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has shown that red light conditions may improve growth and decrease aggressive behaviors in chickens and turkeys; however, more recent studies suggest that blue-green light may improve production of broilers over red light. To date, no research has been conducted to examine whether different wavelengths of light have an impact on production in the Pekin duck. To determine this, we raised Pekin ducks under aviary conditions that were similar to standard commercial barns. The ducks were kept in 3 different pens: red light (approximately 625 nm), blue light (approximately 425 nm), and white light. Light sources in each pen were standardized to produce a peak energy at 1.6 × 10³ μM photons/m²/s at the level of the ducks' heads. Ducks were given ad libitum access to water and commercial duck diet, and were housed on pine shavings at a density of 0.43 m²/duck. Ducks were evaluated weekly for BW and condition and a subjective measure of the duck's anxiety levels was determined. We found that ducks housed under blue light had significantly (P study (processing age; 35 d). Unlike ducks housed under red or white light, ducks housed in the blue pen showed a higher level of anxiety; while evaluators were in the pen a majority of them began panting, they were much less inquisitive than other ducks, they took longer to exhibit normal social behavior once evaluation was completed, and they frequently "swarmed" when no people were present. There were no differences in any measurements between the red and white-lighted pens. These data suggest that unlike the chicken, blue lights may be inappropriate for raising Pekin ducks in a commercial setting. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Thinking like a duck: fall lake use and movement patterns of juvenile ring-necked ducks before migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Charlotte L; Fieberg, John; Scharenbroich, Christopher; Herwig, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    The post-fledging period is one of the least studied portions of the annual cycle in waterfowl. Yet, recruitment into the breeding population requires that young birds have sufficient resources to survive this period. We used radio-telemetry and generalized estimating equations to examine support for four hypotheses regarding the drivers of landscape scale habitat use and movements made by juvenile ring-necked ducks between the pre-fledging period and departure for migration. Our response variables included the probability of movement, distances moved, and use of different lake types: brood-rearing lakes, staging lakes, and lakes with low potential for disturbance. Birds increased their use of staging areas and lakes with low potential for disturbance (i.e., without houses or boat accesses, >100 m from roads, or big lakes with areas where birds could sit undisturbed) throughout the fall, but these changes began before the start of the hunting season and their trajectory was not changed by the onset of hunting. Males and females moved similar distances and had similar probabilities of movements each week. However, females were more likely than males to use brood-rearing lakes later in the fall. Our findings suggest juvenile ring-necked ducks require different lake types throughout the fall, and managing solely for breeding habitat will be insufficient for meeting needs during the post-fledging period. Maintaining areas with low potential for disturbance and areas suitable for staging will ensure that ring-necked ducks have access to habitat throughout the fall.

  11. Stavovi hrvatskih građana prema kulturnim različitostima

    OpenAIRE

    Mesić, Milan; Bagić, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Članak se temelji na dijelu rezultata reprezentativnoga nacionalnog ispitivanja stavova hrvatskih građana o kulturnim različitostima u hrvatskome društvu. Terensko anketiranje provedeno je metodom osobnog intervjua u kućanstvu ispitanika, u okviru omnibus istraživanja. Pod kulturnim različitostima autori misle na nacionalne manjine i vjerske zajednice. U tom smislu Hrvatska je, poput većine zemalja suvremenoga svijeta, kulturno heterogena politička zajednica. Stoga će odnos njezinih građana p...

  12. Rapid determination of {sup 90}Sr in urine samples using AnaLig Sr-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilohuscin, J.; Dulanska, S.; Gardonova, V. [Univerzita Komenskeho, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra jadrovej chemie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    This work describes the use of IBC's AnaLig Sr-01 molecular recognition technology product to effectively and selectively pre-concentrate, separate and recover strontium from urine samples. This method uses two-stage columns separation consisting of two different commercial products Eichrom's Pre-filter Material and AnaLig Sr-01 column from IBC Advanced Technologies. This method does not involve co-precipitation of strontium as phosphates and oxalates from urine samples. The new rapid method separates strontium-90 with high chemical recovery (authors)

  13. 241-AN-A valve pit manifold valves and position indication acceptance test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VANDYKE, D.W.

    1999-08-25

    This document describes the method used to test design criteria for gear actuated ball valves installed in 241-AN-A Valve Pit located at 200E Tank Farms. The purpose of this procedure is to demonstrate the following: Equipment is properly installed, labeled, and documented on As-Built drawings; New Manifold Valves in the 241-AN-A Valve Pit are fully operable using the handwheel of the valve operators; New valve position indicators on the valve operators will show correct valve positions; New valve position switches will function properly; and New valve locking devices function properly.

  14. Uz grafiem balstītie darbu plānošanas algoritmi

    OpenAIRE

    Magdaļenoka, Māra

    2017-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā aprakstīti divu veidu grafi (disjunktīvais grafs un divpusējais grafs), kurus izmanto general shop problēmu atrisināšanai. Darbā tika aplūkotas open shop un job shop problēmas, kuru atrisinājuma iegūšanai ar grafu palīdzību tika izmantotas loku krāsošanas, divpusējās saskaņošanas un bootleneck metodes.

  15. Veinte años de investigaciones alrededor de Doñana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arambarri, Pablo

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Not available.La rotura de la balsa de decantado de lodos de la empresa Boliden-Apirsa en Aznalcóllar ha demostrado que el Parque Nacional de Doñana está indefenso ante accidentes de gran calibre, que deben prevenirse. Doñana no puede permanecer aislada ni ajena al territorio que la rodea, pero sí debe estar protegida por suficientes medios descontaminantes, sistemas de alarma en tiempo real, planes de emergencia operativos y estudios y proyectos I+D como sean necesarios para evitar percances como el ocurrido, que ponen en terrible peligro su propia existencia.

  16. An "ethics of the self" in the novel-cronicle-journal-short story Ana de Amsterdam, by Ana Cássia Rebelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Reichert Coelho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a Reading of the relations between the plurality of Genres collected by Ana Cássia Rebelo, a writer with roots in Portugal, Goa and Moçambique at the same time, in the book Ana de Amsterdam, and the themes dealt. As theoretical bias, we approached to Agamben, Gumbrecht and Barthes. As method, we chose the inductive perspective. As main theoretical notions, we adopted “the ethics of the self”, the production of presence and biografeme. After the mentioned effort, we concluded that boredom insulated from anguish, produced in the core of the Contemporary world, affects the narrator in such a deep way that compels her to take a strong position and highlight her privacy in an obscene way. It allows her to frame her own “self” as a mosaic of Genres and Themes, arised from the relation between the body as materiality and the subjective experience of Reading and Writing.

  17. Business opportunities in the Mexican dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Armenta Gutierrez, B.M.; Poelarends, J.J.; Valk, van der O.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the Mexican and Dutch business opportunities in the dairy industry in Mexico. The report discusses first the external environment of the Mexican dairy sector: the economic developments, the country's overall competitiveness, and the economic and agricultural policies. Next, it

  18. Stress Resilience among Border Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern; Dugas, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors distinguishing Mexican American women living near the U.S.-Mexican border who are resilient to the experience of stress from those who are not. The study sample consisted of 418 participants ranging in age from 20 to 61 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of…

  19. Mexican Women, Migration and Sex Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Reynaldo; Dexter, Bryan

    1985-01-01

    Compares Mexican women involved in migration to understand how their sex roles and status have been affected. Uses data from two separate studies: ethnography on migrants' wives left at home in a Mexican village and a survey of unauthorized immigrants in the Los Angeles area. (SA)

  20. A Turnover Model for the Mexican Maquiladoras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertz, Carl P.; Stevens, Michael J.; Campion, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    From interviews with 47 Mexican maquiladora workers, a model of voluntary turnover was created and compared with models from the United States, Canada, England, and Australia. Despite similarities, the cultural and economic environment affected the precise content of antecedents in the Mexican model. (Contains 63 references.) (SK)

  1. Body-mass, survival, and pairing consequences of winter-diet restriction in wood ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarest, D.W.; Kaminski, R.M.; Brennan, L.A.; Boyle, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    We conducted feeding experiments with captive, wild-strain wood ducks (Aix sponsa) during winters 1990-91 and 1991-92 to test effects of increasing levels of food restriction on body mass dynamics, mortality, and pair formation. Male and female wood ducks fed restricted diets (i.e., 5, 10, 15, or 20% less food [g] than consumed on the previous day by a control group fed ad libitum) weighed less (P ??? 0.037) than birds fed ad libitum; those on 15 and 20% restricted diets weighed least. Increased mortality and decreased pair formation occurred only within the 20% restricted group (P ??? 0.049). We concluded that food restriction ranging between 15 and 20% of ad libitum intake may signify a threshold above which survival and reproduction of captive wood ducks may be impaired. Because energy costs of free living are greater than in captivity, a lower threshold may exist for wild wood ducks. Research is needed to validate the threshold theory for free-ranging wood ducks and other waterfowl, and to evaluate its potential application for conservation of winter foraging habitat. Conservation of bottomland hardwood ecosystems, which provide important foraging habitat for migrating and wintering wood ducks, should be encouraged to prevent potential negative effects on wood duck life-cycle events.

  2. Death feigning by ducks in response to predation by red foxes (Vulpes fulva)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Eberhardt, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    Predation by captive red foxes (Vulpes fulva) on approximately 50 ducks comprised of five species was observed in tests conducted at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, North Dakota. Most ducks were attacked from a rear or lateral position and seized in the cervical or thoracic region. All birds became immobile (death-feigned) immediately when seized and with few exceptions remained motionless during prey-handling and for varying lengths of time thereafter. Initial death feints lasted from 20 sec to 14 min. Recovery was delayed by tactile, visual and, possibly, auditory cues from the foxes. Death-feigning birds appeared alert and often took advantage of escape opportunities. Twenty-nine birds survived initial capture and handling by the foxes. Naive foxes were wary of ducks during initial confrontations, but experienced foxes showed little hesitation in attacking them. After capture, most ducks were taken alive to lay-down sites where they were mouthed and often killed. Then the ducks were usually cached or taken to dens or pups. Several birds were cached alive. Red foxes appear to have adapted to the escape of death-feigning ducks by learning to kill some birds soon after capture and by the evolution of an appendage-severing behavior. Death feigning appears to be a highly developed antipredator behavior of ducks that facilitates the escape of some birds after capture by red foxes.

  3. Optimizing the Performance of Solo Duck Wave Energy Converter in Tide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinming Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The high efficiency performance of the Edinburgh Duck wave energy converter (WEC in 2D regular wave tests makes it a promising wave energy conversion scheme. A solo Duck WEC will be able to apply the point absorber effect to further enhance its performance. Since released degree of freedom will decrease the efficiency, a Duck WEC with fixed pitching axis will be a better option. However, for fixed supported WECs, tide is a non-ignorable consideration. In this paper, a movable mass method is utilized in the whole tidal range to not only balance the Duck to appropriate beak angles, but also follow the variation of hydrodynamic coefficients to keep cancelling the reactance of the system impedance so that complex conjugate control can be realized to optimize the power capture performance of the Duck WEC in tide. Results show that the beak angle should be adjusted to as large a value as possible so that the response amplitude of the Duck at maximum relative capture width will be reasonable small, and the lowest weight of the movable mass is found when its designed position locates at the center of the Duck profile.

  4. Science foundation Chapter 5 Appendix 5.1: Case study diving ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Yarris, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    Diving ducks are the most abundant group of waterfowl that overwinter in the open bays and ponds of San Francisco Bay (SFB). Species within this group are primarily benthivores that dive to obtain their macroinvertebrate prey in bottom sediments, although at times they may eat plant matter or forage in the water column. These migratory species include bay ducks (lesser scaup Aythya affinis, greater scaup A. marila, canvasback A. valisineria), sea ducks (surf scoter Melanitta perspicillata and bufflehead Bucephala albeola), and a stiff-tailed duck (ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis). These species vary from largest to smallest body mass: canvasback, greater scaup, surf scoter, lesser scaup, ruddy duck, and bufflehead. Their breeding grounds range from Central Valley grasslands, intermountain wetlands, prairie potholes, boreal forest, and Arctic tundra. Their wintering populations in SFB are most abundant between October and April, and SFB comprises up to 50% of the number counted during midwinter surveys on the lower Pacific coast. Species are found in all SFB regions, but greater scaup and surf scoter are most often seen in subtidal to intertidal waters and are not commonly found in baylands. In contrast, ruddy duck and bufflehead populations are most abundant in baylands, particularly in managed ponds. Canvasbacks are commonly found at estuaries or creek mouths.

  5. Phylogenetic and pathogenic characterization of novel adenoviruses from long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Katrina; Skerratt, Lee; Franson, J. Christian; Hollmen, Tuula E.

    2015-01-01

    Novel adenoviruses were isolated from a long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis) mortality event near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in 2000. The long-tailed duck adenovirus genome was approximately 27 kb. A 907 bp hexon gene segment was used to design primers specific for the long-tailed duck adenovirus. Nineteen isolates were phylogenetically characterized based on portions of their hexon gene and 12 were most closely related to Goose adenovirus A. The remaining 7 shared no hexon sequences with any known adenoviruses. Experimental infections of mallards with a long-tailed duck reference adenovirus caused mild lymphoid infiltration of the intestine and paint brush hemorrhages of the mucosa and dilation of the intestine. This study shows novel adenoviruses from long-tailed ducks are diverse and provides further evidence that they should be considered in cases of morbidity and mortality in sea ducks. Conserved and specific primers have been developed that will help screen sea ducks for adenoviral infections.

  6. Detection and molecular characterization of J subgroup avian leukosis virus in wild ducks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangwei; Liu, Lanlan; Hao, Ruijun; Han, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    To assess the status of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) in wild ducks in China, we examined samples from 528 wild ducks, representing 17 species, which were collected in China over the past 3 years. Virus isolation and PCR showed that 7 ALV-J strains were isolated from wild ducks. The env genes and the 3'UTRs from these isolates were cloned and sequenced. The env genes of all 7 wild duck isolates were significantly different from those in the prototype strain HPRS-103, American strains, broiler ALV-J isolates and Chinese local chicken isolates, but showed close homology with those found in some layer chicken ALV-J isolates and belonged to the same group. The 3'UTRs of 7 ALV-J wild ducks isolates showed close homology with the prototype strain HPRS-103 and no obvious deletion was found in the 3'UTR except for a 1 bp deletion in the E element that introduced a binding site for c-Ets-1. Our study demonstrated the presence of ALV-J in wild ducks and investigated the molecular characterization of ALV-J in wild ducks isolates.

  7. Evaluation of chlorpyrifos transferred from contaminated feed to duck commodities and dietary risks to Chinese consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Ji, Xiaofeng; He, Liang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Wei, Wei; Qiang, Mingrong; Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Yuwei

    2015-06-03

    The present study describes chlorpyrifos residues in duck commodities through the duck food chain, transfer factors, and dietary risks to Chinese consumers. After duck feeding experiments with pellet feed that lasted for 42 days, chlorpyrifos residues found in all samples collected from the ducks on maximum estimated dose group (3.20 mg/kg level) were from chlorpyrifos had a low persistency in duck meat and metabolism organs. The chronic exposure assessment revealed that only 0.034-0.150% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI; 0-0.01 mg/kg/bw/day) of chlorpyrifos was consumed via the duck commodities for different age and gender groups in China. The acute exposure assessments of different age and gender groups were only 0.019-0.082% of the acute reference dose (ARfD; 0-0.1 mg/kg/bw). The results show that the single dietary exposure risk of chlorpyrifos raised by the intake of duck commodities was quite low in China.

  8. Advertising displays of male Musk Ducks indicate population subdivision across the Nullarbor Plain of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, K.G.; Fullagar, P.J.; Slater, E.C.; Paton, D.C.; Afton, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic advertising displays (n=75) of male Musk Ducks Biziura lobata were analysed at ten widely spaced geographic localities in South Australia, Victoria, and Western Australia. Vocalisations differed in a fixed, non-overlapping pattern between allopatric Musk Duck populations in southeastern and southwestern Australia. These findings suggest that Musk Duck populations are subdivided by the Nullarbor Plain, the arid treeless desert at the head of the Great Australian Bight. Three vocalisations performed by male Musk Ducks not previously reported in the literature were documented also. Vocalisations of captive Musk Ducks collected from different geographic regions (southeast and southwest) differed between regions from which captives originally were collected and were unlike those performed by wild birds. Based on calls of immature Musk Ducks, acoustic variation within regional populations and the apparent inability of captive Musk Ducks reared in isolation to develop the wild type adult call, regional dialects seemingly are acquired in a social context by repeated observance of adult males and some combination of social imprinting, learning, or practice.

  9. Duck egg-drop syndrome caused by BYD virus, a new Tembusu-related flavivirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingliang Su

    Full Text Available Since April 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in China. A new virus, named BYD virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. The virus was re-isolated from the affected ducks and replicated well in primary duck embryo fibroblasts and Vero cells, causing the cytopathic effect. The virus was identified as an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus with a size of approximately 55 nm in diameter. Genomic sequencing of the isolated virus revealed that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus, with 87-91% nucleotide identity of the partial E (envelope proteins to that of Tembusu virus and 72% of the entire genome coding sequence with Bagaza virus, the most closely related flavivirus with an entirely sequenced genome. Collectively our systematic studies fulfill Koch's postulates, and therefore, the causative agent of the duck egg drop syndrome occurring in China is a new flavivirus. Flavivirus is an emerging and re-emerging zoonotic pathogen and BYD virus that causes severe egg-drop, could be disastrous for the duck industry. More importantly its public health concerns should also be evaluated, and its epidemiology should be closely watched due to the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses.

  10. Hemato-biochemical and pathological changes on avian influenza in naturally infected domestic ducks in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam A. Mahmoud

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Few studies have been made in regard to avian influenza (AI in ducks, thus the aim of this work was planned to investigate the hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in domestic Egyptian ducks naturally infected with AI. Materials and Methods: 30 duck from private backyards 3-month-old 15 were clinically healthy (Group 1 and the other fifteen (Group 2 were naturally diseased with AI (H5N1. The disease was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction as H5N1. Results: Duck showed cyanosis, subcutaneous edema of head and neck with nervous signs (torticollis. Hematological studies revealed a microcytic hypochromic anemia. Biochemical studies revealed a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and globulin concentration with significant increase of activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, Υ-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactic acid dehydrogenase and creatine phsphokinase. Prominent increase in creatinine and uric acid in addition to hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia were significantly detected in the infected ducks. Histopathological finding confirm these investigations. Conclusion: The highly pathogenic AIV (A/H5N1 became more severe infectious to ducks than before and causes nervous manifestations and blindness which were uncommon in ducks. Besides the significant increases of hepatic enzymes, brain, heart, and renal markers as a response to virus damage to these organs.

  11. Morphometric Traits of Muscovy Ducks from Two Agro Ecological Zones of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubu, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation between Muscovy ducks from the guinea savannah and rainforest zones of Nigeria was examined using multivariate discriminant analysis. Data comprised eight morphometric traits measured in a total of 435 adult ducks randomly selected in the two agro-ecological zones. Common descriptive statistics showed that ducks from the rainforest zone had higher (P< 0.05 body weight, foot length and thigh circumference, while their guinea savannah counterparts were longer (P< 0.05 in the neck. Stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that foot length, neck length, thigh circumference and body length were more effective in discriminating between the duck populations. The low Mahalanobis distance of 3.39, as revealed by the canonical discriminant analysis, is an indication of high gene flow between ducks from the two agro-ecological zones. The cluster analysis also revealed the homogeneity of the genetic identity of the duck populations. The present information will be the basis for further characterization, conservation and sustainable genetic improvement strategies for indigenous ducks.

  12. Effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on growth performance in Muscovy ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sheng-Qiu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary Bacillus subtilis natto could affect growth performance of Muscovy ducks. A total of 120 hundred Muscovy ducks at the age of 1 day were randomly assigned to four groups (30 Muscovy ducks/group, and fed with diets supplemented with 0% (control group, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% Bacillus subtilis natto, respectively during the 6-week feeding period. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency of Muscovy ducks were significantly improved by the dietary addition of Bacillus subtilis natto, and the results were more significant in 0.4% dietary Bacillus subtilis natto treatment group; Also, Bacillus subtilis natto reduced Escherichia coli and Salmonella colonies, and increased lactobacilli population in the ileum and the cecum. Biochemical parameters, including total protein, GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, GPT (glutamic pyruvic transaminase, AKP (alkaline phosphatase, triiodothyronine (T3 and tetraiodothyronine (T4 contents (pBacillus subtilis natto was added to the diets (p0.05. The results of the present study indicate that diets with 0.4% Bacillus subtilis natto improved the growth performance of Muscovy ducks by increasing the absorption of protein, simulating hormone secretion, suppressing harmful microflora, and improving the duodenal structure and immune functions of Muscovy ducks. It is suggested that Bacillus subtilis natto is a potential candidate to be used use as a probiotic to improve the growth performance of Muscovy ducks.

  13. Nest crypsis, reproductive value of a clutch and escape decisions in incubating female mallards Anas platyrhynchos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Albrecht, Tomáš; Klvaňa, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 8 (2004), s. 603-613 ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093403; GA AV ČR IAB6130001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : ducks * behavior * reproduction Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.474, year: 2004

  14. Characterization of nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2014-05-01

    The nasal mucosa is involved in immune defense, as it is the first barrier for pathogens entering the body through the respiratory tract. The nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), which is found in the mucosa of the nasal cavity, is considered to be the main mucosal immune inductive site in the upper respiratory tract. NALT has been found in humans and many mammals, which contributes to local and systemic immune responses after intranasal vaccination. However, there are very few data on NALT in avian species, especially waterfowl. For this study, histological sections of the nasal cavities of Cherry Valley ducks were used to examine the anatomical location and histological characteristics of NALT. The results showed that several lymphoid aggregates are present in the ventral wall of the nasal cavity near the choanal cleft, whereas several more lymphoid aggregates were located on both sides of the nasal septum. In addition, randomly distributed intraepithelial lymphocytes and isolated lymphoid follicles were observed in the regio respiratoria of the nasal cavity. There were also a few lymphoid aggregates located in the lamina propria of the regio vestibularis, which was covered with a stratified squamous epithelium. This study focused on the anatomic and histological characteristics of the nasal cavity of the duck and performed a systemic overview of NALT. This will be beneficial for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and the development of effective nasal vaccines for waterfowls. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A comparison of long bone development in historical and contemporary ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wyhe, R C; Applegate, T J; Lilburn, M S; Karcher, D M

    2012-11-01

    The selection for growth and carcass traits in poultry meat species has contributed to increased interest in understanding and characterizing skeletal growth as the birds struggle to balance skeletal development with increased BW and muscle mass. The objective of this study was to compare the physical characteristics and mineralization of the tibia and femur from commercial Pekin ducks representing circa 1993 and 2010 commercial strains. In 1993, the femur and tibia were collected from 8 ducks at 11 ages between 11 and 53 d. A similar study was done in 2010 in which the femur and tibia were collected from 8 ducks at 12 sample ages between 10 and 49 d. All bones were weighed and the length and width at 50% of length were measured. Each bone was subsequently cut into epiphyseal (top 25% of length) and diaphyseal (midregion at 50% of length) sections. Each bone segment was extracted with ether, hot weighed, and ashed. The 2010 contemporary ducks reached market weight faster than the 1993 ducks. Therefore, statistical comparisons were made at common BW as well as at common ages. The mean tibia length of the 2010 duck was 0.75 cm greater (P ducks. The percentage epiphyseal ash in the femur was 10% lower (P ducks but there were no significant differences by 18 d of age. The lower epiphyseal ash values at both younger ages and smaller BW in the 2010 contemporary ducks suggests that it is critical to monitor those factors that influence bone mineralization in contemporary ducklings that can achieve market BW at earlier chronological ages.

  16. Penggantian Sebagian Ransum Komersial dengan Polar dan Aditif Duck mix terhadap Komposisi Fisik Karkas Itik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Siti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The substitution a part of commercial feed with pollard and duck mix additive on duck carcass physic composition ABSTRACT. The aim of this experiment was to study pollard optimum levels with additive complex mineral vitamin on the carcass physic composition Balinese male duck age 10 weeks, was carried out at Jl. Binginambe, Kediri village, Tabanan Regency. The design which used in this experiment a completely randomized design Those four treatments were ration contain 100% commercial feed (A; ration with 85% commercial feed + 15% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (B; ration with 70% commercial feed + 30% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (C; ration with 55% commercial feed + 45% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (D, respectively. The variables which measured were carcass weight, carcass percent, and carcass physic composition. The result of this experiment showed that the substitution commercial feed with pollard from 15-45% and duck mix were not significant (P >0.05 decrease carcass percent, carcass bone percent than treatment A. Meat percent on treatment B 1.81% non significant (P>0.05 increase than treatment A, but C and D treatments 2.63% and 4.87% significantly increase than treatment A. Subcutan fat on C and D treatments 6.72% and 6.67% significant lower (P <0.05 than treatment A, and D treatment 4.91% significant lower than treatment B. From the result of this experiment can be concluded that substitution pollard from 15%-45% with additive 0.3% duck mix were decrease carcass percent and bone carcass percent, but substitution pollard 30% and 45% can increase meat carcass percent and decrease fat Balinese male duck age 10 weeks.

  17. Nodokļu apiešanas ierobežošanas ietekme uz mūsdienu globālo ekonomiku

    OpenAIRE

    Goluboviča, Maija

    2015-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „Nodokļu apiešanas ierobeţošanas ietekme uz mūsdienu globālo ekonomiku”. Darba mērķis ir izpētīt valsts iejaukšanās ekonomikā ar nodokļu politiku ietekmi uz tautsaimniecību un izstrādāt potenciālo scenāriju kapitāla kustībai pēc automātiskās informācijas apmaiľas nodokļu jautājumos ieviešanas. Bakalaura darbs sastāv no trim daļām. Pirmajā daļā tiek pētīta publiskā sektora ekonomikas teorētiskai aspekti un teorijas attīstība, kā arī taksācijas, kā publ...

  18. Izpildes pamatrādītāju modelēšana un implementēšanas iespējas

    OpenAIRE

    Kalniņa, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Nozīmīga loma organizācijas darbības uzlabošanā un novērtēšanā ieņem izpildes pamatrādītāji. Tie palīdz novērtēt organizācijas darbību mērot nodefinētos mērķus tādā veidā nosakot vai nodefinētie mērķi tiek sasniegti. Lai novērtētu organizācijas darbību, nepieciešams izveidot indikatoru modeli. Maģistra darbā “Izpildes pamatrādītāju modelēšana un implementēšanas iespējas” apskatītas literatūrā pieejamās izpildes pamatrādītāju modeļa izveidošanas metodes un izveidots indikatoru modelis izmantoj...

  19. SIA "Statoil Fuel & Retail Latvia" komunikācijas sociālajos medijos; klientu uzrunāšana un uzklausīšana

    OpenAIRE

    Černova, Egita

    2013-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā "SIA "Statoil Fuel & Retail Latvia" komunikācijas sociālajos medijos; klientu uzrunāšana un uzklausīšana" tika pētīta uzņēmuma komunikācija sociālajos tīklos - komunicēšanas veids, identificējot sociālo tīklu lietotāju viedokli par to. Darba mērķis izpētīt „Statoil” komunikāciju sociālajos medijos un secinājumus piedāvāt kā ierosinājumus uzņēmuma komunikācijas pilnveidošanai. Darba teorētisko daļu veido nodaļas par Gruniga sabiedrisko attiecību komunikācijas modeļiem, so...

  20. Pārdošanas veicināšana kā patērētāju uzvedības un lēmumu pieņemšanas ietekmētājs Latvijas pārtikas mazumtirdzniecības nozarē.

    OpenAIRE

    Afoņičeva, Oksana

    2016-01-01

    Maģistra darba: “Pārdošanas veicināšana kā patērētāju uzvedības un lēmumu pieņemšanas ietekmētājs Latvijas pārtikas mazumtirdzniecības nozarē” mērķis ir, izvērtējot pārdošanas veicināšanas ietekmi uz patērētāju uzvedību, lēmuma pieņemšanas procesu un uz patērētāju lojalitātes veidošanu, rast priekšlikumus pārdošanas veicināšanas iespējām pārtikas produktu zīmoliem. Darbs sastāv no četrām nodaļām- divām teorētiskajām, analītiskās un empīriskās. Pirmā izvirzītā hipotēze tiek apstiprināta, pama...

  1. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi

    2014-01-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. - Highlights: • We describe the accumulation and elimination of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks. • The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks was tissue-specific. • The elimination of PCDD/Fs in tissues of mule ducks was congener-specific. • The

  2. Ecology of fall-migrating ducks in central Illinois: A radar perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Benjamin J.

    Research from the last two decades has elucidated the importance of migration in the annual cycle of ducks, but many aspects of migration ecology remain poorly understood due to the difficulty of investigating movements that occur over large spatial scales, at substantial heights and at night. Weather surveillance radar (WSR) offers a unique tool for observing movements of birds aloft, but until now has been used primarily to address questions only relevant to broad taxonomic groups. Using thermal infrared imaging, portable radar, and natural history, I ground-truthed WSR echoes originating from a complex of wetlands in the central Illinois River valley to develop a technique for identifying and enumerating ducks as they emigrated from this important stopover area. With this technique, I quantified duck emigrations during 7 falls (1996, 1997, 2003, and 2005-2008). I used WSR-derived estimates of annual turnover in combination with aerial inventory estimates of duck use to estimate the average amount of time ducks spent at my study site during fall (stopover duration). The mean stopover duration estimate of 11 days (SD = 4 days) was much shorter than a historical estimate (28 days) that has been use for regional waterfowl conservation planning. I also regressed average annual stopover duration estimates against an index of annual foraging habitat quality and found a strong, positive relationship (r2 = 0.71), suggesting ducks assessed local habitat conditions and adjusted time spent at the site. Weather influences the timing of migration in many avian taxa, but this relationship is poorly understood for ducks. An evaluation of competing models including 15 years of data indicated following winds aloft, no precipitation, less cloud cover, decreasing temperatures, increasing barometric pressure and date best predicted emigration (R2 = 0.52). Based on this model, the odds of a duck emigration occurring when winds were following and precipitation was absent were 13.2 to

  3. MARKETING STRATEGY FOR START UP BUSINESS OF BROILER PEKING DUCK FARM WITH ECO-GREEN INTEGRATED

    OpenAIRE

    Silitonga N.; Syah T.Y.R.; Erni N.

    2018-01-01

    The increasing number and the rate of Banten population growth from year to year make it as a potential market which is quite large for the development of broiler duck farming business in the future. In this case, intensive system broiler Peking duck farming which is integrated, economic, and eco-green intensive, eco-green commonly utilizes Azolla microphylla and flour of pluchea leaves and other germ plasmas as the feed supplements. As a company in Peking duck farming with Eco Green concept,...

  4. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ting-Wei, E-mail: M10126010@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jai-Wei, E-mail: joeylee@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Liu, Hsueh-Yen, E-mail: M9926012@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wei-Hsiao, E-mail: M10126011@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Chu, Chun-Yen, E-mail: cychu@mail.npust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Animal Vaccine Technology, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lin, Sheng-Lun, E-mail: sllin100@csu.edu.tw [Supermicro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Center for General Education, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Chang-Chien, Guo Ping, E-mail: guoping@csu.edu.tw [Supermicro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Department of Cosmetics and Fashion styling, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Yu, Chi, E-mail: chiyu@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. - Highlights: • We describe the accumulation and elimination of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks. • The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks was tissue-specific. • The elimination of PCDD/Fs in tissues of mule ducks was congener-specific. • The

  5. Characterization of Mexican zeolite minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez C, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    50% of the Mexican territory is formed by volcanic sequences of the Pliocene type, which appear extensively in the northwest states (Sonora, Sinaloa, Chihuahua, Durango) and west of Mexico (Jalisco and Nayarit), in central Mexico (Zacatecas, Guanajuato, San Luis Potosi, Queretaro, Hidalgo) and south of Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca); therefore, it is to be expected that in our country big locations of natural zeolites exist in its majority of the clinoptilolite type. The present study was focused toward the characterization of two Mexican natural zeolite rocks presumably of the clinoptilolite and filipsite types, one of them comes from the state of Chihuahua and the other of a trader company of non metallic minerals, due that these materials are not characterized, its are not known their properties completely and therefore, the uses that can be given to these materials. In this investigation work it was carried out the characterization of two Mexican zeolite rocks, one coming from the Arroyo zone, municipality of La Haciendita, in the state of Chihuahua; and the other one was bought to a trader company of non metallic minerals. The two zeolites so much in their natural form as conditioned with sodium; they were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum and elementary microanalysis (EDS), surface area analysis (BET), thermal gravimetric analysis. To differentiate the heulandite crystalline phase of the other clinoptilolite rock, its were carried out thermal treatments. The quantification of Al, Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe was carried out in solution, by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy and the quantity of Si was determined by gravimetry. The zeolite rocks presented for the major part the crystalline heulandite and clinoptilolite phases for the most part, and it was found that the zeolite coming from the state of Chihuahua possesses a bigger content of heulandite and the denominated filipsite it is really a zeolite

  6. Novel genetic markers of the carbonic anhydrase II gene associated with egg production and reproduction traits in Tsaiya ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M-T; Cheng, Y-S; Huang, M-C

    2013-02-01

    In our previous cDNA microarray study, we found that the carbonic anhydrase II (CA2) gene is one of the differentially expressed transcripts in the duck isthmus epithelium during egg formation period. The aim of this study was to identify the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CA2 gene of Tsaiya ducks. The relationship of SNP genotype with egg production and reproduction traits was also investigated. A total of 317 ducks from two lines, a control line with no selection and a selected line, were employed for testing. Three SNPs (C37T, A62G and A65G) in the 3'-untranslated region of the CA2 gene were found. SNP-trait association analysis showed that SNP C37T and A62G were associated with duck egg weight besides fertility. The ducks with the CT and AG genotypes had a 1.46 and 1.62 g/egg lower egg weight as compared with ducks with the CC and AA genotypes, respectively (p ducks with CT and AG genotypes had 5.20% and 4.22% higher fertility than those with CC and AA genotypes, respectively (p duck fertility, and the diplotype H1H4 was dominant for duck fertility. These findings might provide the basis for balanced selection and may be used in marker-assisted selection to improve egg weight and fertility simultaneously in the Tsaiya ducks. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Genomic and pathogenic analysis of a Muscovy duck parvovirus strain causing short beak and dwarfism syndrome without tongue protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiuling; Huang, Yu; Wan, Chunhe; Fu, Guanghua; Qi, Baomin; Cheng, Longfei; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Liu, Rongchang; Chen, Zhenhai

    2017-12-01

    In 2008, clinical cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) caused by Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) infection were found in mule duck and Taiwan white duck farms in Fujian, China. A MDPV LH strain causing duck SBDS without tongue protrusion was isolated in this study. Phylogenetic analysis show that the MDPV LH strain was clustered together with other MDPV strains, but divergent from GPV isolates. Two major fragment deletions were found in the inverted terminal repeats (ITR) of MDPV LH similar to the ones in the ITR of MDPV GX5, YY and SAAS-SHNH strains. To investigate the pathogenicity of the MDPV LH strain, virus infection of young mule ducks was performed. The infected ducks showed SBDS symptoms including retard growth and shorten beaks without tongue protrusion. Atrophy of thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius was identified in the infected ducks. The results show that MDPV LH strain is moderately pathogenic to mule duck, leading to occurrence of SBDS. As far as we know, it is the first study showing that SBDS without tongue protrusion, and atrophy of thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius possibly associated with immunosuppression were found in the MDPV-infected ducks. The established duck-MDPV-SBDS system will help us to further work on the virus pathogenesis and develop efficacious vaccine against MDPV infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Trade patterns facilitating highly pathogenic avian influenza virus dissemination in the free-grazing layer duck system in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A; Dinh, T X; Han, T A; Do, D V; Nhu, T V; Pham, L T; Nguyen, T T T; Newman, S; Häsler, B; Pfeiffer, D U; Vergne, T

    2018-04-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to threaten smallholder poultry producers in several South-east Asian countries, including Vietnam. In particular, the free-grazing duck system has been repeatedly highlighted as a major risk factor for HPAI outbreaks. Free-grazing ducks, which scavenge on rice paddies after the harvest, account for a large proportion of the duck population in Vietnam and the wider South-east Asian region. However, the structure and dynamics of the free-grazing duck production from farm to consumption has not been described for Vietnam. In this study, we used a value chain approach to provide a complete picture of the actors involved in the production and marketing of free-grazing duck eggs and spent layer ducks, as well as to investigate the governance structure of this food system. Group interviews and key informant interviews were conducted in two provinces located in the Mekong River Delta (MRD) and the Red River Delta (RRD). The results presented here highlight similarities and differences in farming and trade practices between the two provinces. The trade of spent layer ducks involved large volumes of live ducks being sent to China and Cambodia for consumption, generating a substantial risk of transboundary spread of pathogens, including HPAI viruses. We describe the major role of "duck yards", which act as hubs in the northbound trade of spent layer ducks. These yards should be considered as essential links in the value chain of spent layer ducks when considering HPAI surveillance and control. The veterinary authorities are only marginally involved in the value chain activities, and their influence could be strengthened by increasing surveillance activities for instance in duck yards. Last, we discuss the dynamics of the duck value chain and further implications for future HPAI management policies. © 2017 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. The Chicana Subject in Ana Castillo's Fiction and the Discursive Zone of Chicana/o Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Benjamin D.

    2007-01-01

    In the world of Chicana fiction, Ana Castillo has achieved the kind of status Maxine Hong Kingston has attained within Asian American discourse. Castillo's work is popular not only with the general reading public but in many academic circles as well. What sets Castillo apart from so many other Chicana fiction writers is that she is also a…

  10. O jogo do mestre e da discípula segundo Ana Hatherly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Alexandre Barros Teixeira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O Mestre, de Ana Hatherly (1963, é um romance construído numa estrutura similar à dos jogos, com uma ordem, objetivos e regras específicas. Este artigo faz uma análise do caráter lúdico daobra a partir das formulações teóricas de Johan Huizinga.

  11. Entrevista a Ana González, la @DoctoraJomeini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrión Jiménez, Andoni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este número de la Revista ENE, me han encargado hacer una entrevista a la Ana González Duque, una anestesista canaria (ella a veces se denomina Anestesioblasta a la que muchos de los lectores de esta revista y usuarios habituales de la web social sanitaria no reconocerán por ese nombre

  12. 75 FR 38441 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for Santa Ana Sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ...) point sources of pollution including the Santa Ana Regional Interceptor line; (5) recreational... source pollution and off-highway vehicle recreation comprise the remaining approximate 10 percent of post... (98 ha) 0 ac (0 ha) 947 ac (383 ha) 1,189 ac (481 ha) Creeks Subunit 3B: Gold, Delta, and Stone Los...

  13. Forecast skill of synoptic conditions associated with Santa Ana winds in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Jones; Francis Fujioka; Leila M.V. Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Santa Ana winds (SAW) are synoptically driven mesoscale winds observed in Southern California usually during late fall and winter. Because of the complex topography of the region, SAW episodes can sometimes be extremely intense and pose significant environmental hazards, especially during wildfire incidents. A simple set of criteria was used to identify synoptic-scale...

  14. Review of "Crítica e Tradução" by Ana Cristina Cesar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Regina Guimarães Barboza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The text presents a review on the book of essays "Crítica e Tradução" by Ana Cristina Cesar. Counting her publications in magazines and her academic productions, besides her works in translation, the volume brings has a interesting perspective on culture, cinema, literature and translation according to the researches of the author.

  15. Dāvināšana kā patērēšanas kultūras iezīme. Parfimērijas iegādes ietekmējošie faktori

    OpenAIRE

    Liepiņa, Krista

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darba “Dāvināšana kā patērēšanas kultūras iezīme. Parfimērijas iegādes ietekmējošie faktori” mērķis ir izpētīt, kas ir patērēšana un kas ietekmē patērētāju uzvedību ikdienā, kā arī svētku laikā, lēmuma pieņemšanas procesā, izvēloties preces dāvināšanas mērķim, nevis personīgai lietošanai. Darba teorētiskajā daļā apskatītas tādu jēdzienu teorētiskie aspekti kā patērēšana un patērniecība, patērēšanas kultūra, patērētāju uzvedība, patērētāju identitāte, kā arī tiek apskatīta dāvanu dāv...

  16. New dinosaur fossils from ANA locality, Arcillas de Morella Formation (Aptian, Lower Cretaceous, Cinctorres, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Cubedo, A.; de Santisteban, C.; Suñer, M.; Galobart, A.

    2009-04-01

    Ana is one of the several dinosaur bone sites located in the Arcillas de Morella Formation (Aptian, Lower Cretaceous; eastern Iberian Chain, Spain). This site was discovered in 1998, but it remained unexcavated until 2002, when a palaeontologist team formed by members of the Institut Paleontología Miquel Crusafont from Sabadell and the Grup Guix from Vila-real unearthed the first fossil from the locality. Nowadays there are five hundred fossils collected, including vertebrate and invertebrate species. Dinosaur bones (Theropoda and Ornithopoda) are abundant in this assemblage and in the last field season bones determined as Sauropoda were found. Taxonomically, Ana is dominated by disarticulated remains of Ornithopoda, which are usually fragmentary and abraded. Many of the elements may have been reworked (spatial averaging and/or time averaging), and the fossil concentration constitutes an autochthonous to parautochthonous association, in a spatial sense. The remains found in the Ana fossils site are placed in sandstones and limes containing marine autochthonous fauna. These deposits were formed during the transgressive infilling of an incised valley. Sedimentological features indicate that fossils were finally deposited in starved shallow estuarine environment. Mineralogically, the sediment including the fossils contains grains of quartz, illite/mica, kaolinite/clorite, K-feldspar and plagioclase, distributed in two mainly grain populations, a silty-clay and a coarse sand size grain, indicating that the sediments were bedded in a low-medium energy depositional environment. Nowadays we identified in Ana, teeth of Theropoda indet. and Baryonychinae indet., and bones of Iguanodon sp. Herein, we report new fossil findings from Ana site. These materials have been determined as Iguanodontia, Titanosauriformes and Theropoda. These new findings will help to understand the dinosaur fauna present in the Lower Cretaceous of Els Ports (Castellón, Spain). Acknowledgments This

  17. Growth Performance of Pekin Ducks Fed with Golden Snail and Fresh Banana Peelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance and economics of feeding confined Pekin ducks with three different levels of golden snail fresh meat and banana peelings in equal percentage for replacing 50 %, 70 % or 90 % of the commercial feed of the diet was studied. Body weight gains and feed consumption of ducks, cost of feed and profit above feed and stock cost different significantly among treatments. Feed conversion varied during the first month of feeding but became comparable after the second month. Ducks fed the diet with 45 % banana peel and 45 % golden snail meat gave the best performance, were the most economical and yielded the highest profit. Snail meat and banana peeling utilization as replacement to commercial diet for ducks is advantageaous in terms of growth performance and cost benefit.

  18. Inheritance patterns of enzymes and serum proteins of mallard-black duck hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R.P.; Meritt, D.W.; Block, S.B.; Cole, M.A.; Sulkin, S.T.; Lee, F.B.; Henny, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1976, a breeding program was used to produce hybrids of black ducks and mallards for the evaluation of inheritance patterns of serum proteins and serum, liver and muscle enzymes. In addition to the crosses designed to produce hybrids, a series of matings in 1975 and 1976 were designed to evaluate inheritance patterns of a hybrid with either a black duck or mallard. At the F1 level, hybrids were easily distinguished using serum proteins. However, once a hybrid was crossed back to either a mallard or black duck, only 12?23% of the progeny were distinguishable from black ducks or mallards using serum proteins and 23?39% using esterases. Muscle, serum and liver enzymes were similar between the two species.

  19. Harlequin duck capture and EROD activity data from Prince William Sound, Alaska, 2011, 2013, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data set includes capture information and ethoxyresorufin­O­deethylase (EROD) activity results for harlequin ducks sampled during March 2011, 2013, and 2014 in...

  20. Physicochemical properties of meat of ducks of mulberries in modern technologies of meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Galin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the chemical composition of mullards duck meat in comparison with the ducks of the Beijingg white breed and musk ducks. The chemical analysis results allow us to note the high moisture content for mullard duck meat. The low fat content for white and red mullard duck meat opens up wide opportunities for the development of an assortment of meat products with a functional orientation. The limited amino acids are determined. The total number of essential amino acids in the mullard duck meat is higher than in musk (by 1.02 g / 100 g protein and Beijingg (by 0.86 g / 100 g protein, which indicates a higher biological value. The limiting amino acid is methionine and cysteine. The article presents the results of the raw material aroma assessment using the "MAG 8" - "electronic nose" analyzer. The content of easily volatile compounds in the equilibrium gas phase for samples of muscle and fat tissue from ducks of different breeding was compared and evaluated. The most informative in the matrix are sensors with films of polydiethylene glycol succinate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol PEG-2000, 18-crown-6, trioctylphosphine oxidase, which show maximum sensitivity to polar and nitrogen-containing compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons. This is explained by the fact that the easily volatile fraction of both meat and fat of the samples under study is represented by a variety of organic compounds of different concentrations. Such a variety of substances can be perceived by tasters as "a noticeable smell, difficult". In accordance with the results obtained, we concluded that the aroma of muscle and fat tissue of mulard ducks is more intense, more saturated than the Beijingg duck. The obtained data on the chemical composition indicate possible dietary properties of meat of ducks of mullards. The rich, pronounced aroma of muscle and fatty tissue causes high organoleptic parameters of the finished product, which is

  1. Campylobacter jejuni colonization and population structure in urban populations of ducks and starlings in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vathsala; Stevenson, Mark; Marshall, Jonathan; Fearnhead, Paul; Holland, Barbara R; Hotter, Grant; French, Nigel P

    2013-08-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and the population structure of C. jejuni in European starlings and ducks cohabiting multiple public access sites in an urban area of New Zealand. The country's geographical isolation and relatively recent history of introduction of wild bird species, including the European starling and mallard duck, create an ideal setting to explore the impact of geographical separation on the population biology of C. jejuni, as well as potential public health implications. A total of 716 starling and 720 duck fecal samples were collected and screened for C. jejuni over a 12 month period. This study combined molecular genotyping, population genetics and epidemiological modeling and revealed: (i) higher Campylobacter spp. isolation in starlings (46%) compared with ducks (30%), but similar isolation of C. jejuni in ducks (23%) and starlings (21%), (ii) significant associations between the isolation of Campylobacter spp. and host species, sampling location and time of year using logistic regression, (iii) evidence of population differentiation, as indicated by FST , and host-genotype association with clonal complexes CC ST-177 and CC ST-682 associated with starlings, and clonal complexes CC ST-1034, CC ST-692, and CC ST-1332 associated with ducks, and (iv) greater genetic diversity and genotype richness in ducks compared with starlings. These findings provide evidence that host-associated genotypes, such as the starling-associated ST-177 and ST-682, represent lineages that were introduced with the host species in the 19th century. The isolation of sequence types associated with human disease in New Zealand indicate that wild ducks and starlings need to be considered as a potential public health risk, particularly in urban areas. © 2013 The Authors. Microbiology Open published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Study of formation of green eggshell color in ducks through global gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fa Qiong; Li, Ang; Lan, Jing Jing; Wang, Yue Ming; Yan, Mei Jiao; Lian, Sen Yang; Wu, Xu

    2018-01-01

    The green eggshell color produced by ducks is a threshold trait that can be influenced by various factors, such as hereditary, environment and nutrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic regulation of the formation of eggs with green shells in Youxian ducks. We performed integrative analysis of mRNAs and miRNAs expression profiling in the shell gland samples from ducks by RNA-Seq. We found 124 differentially expressed genes that were associated with various pathways, such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter and solute carrier supper family pathways. A total of 31 differentially expressed miRNAs were found between ducks laying green eggs and white eggs. KEGG pathway analysis of the predicted miRNA target genes also indicated the functional characteristics of these miRNAs; they were involved in the ABC transporter pathway and the solute carrier (SLC) supper family. Analysis with qRT-PCR was applied to validate the results of global gene expression, which showed a correlation between results obtained by RNA-seq and RT-qPCR. Moreover, a miRNA-mRNA interaction network was established using correlation analysis of differentially expressed mRNA and miRNA. Compared to ducks that lay white eggs, ducks that lay green eggs include six up-regulated miRNAs that had regulatory effects on 35 down-regulated genes, and seven down-regulated miRNAs which influenced 46 up-regulated genes. For example, the ABC transporter pathway could be regulated by expressing gga-miR-144-3p (up-regulated) with ABCG2 (up-regulated) and other miRNAs and genes. This study provides valuable information about mRNA and miRNA regulation in duck shell gland tissues, and provides foundational information for further study on the eggshell color formation and marker-assisted selection for Youxian duck breeding.

  3. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of formation of green eggshell color in ducks through global gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa Qiong Xu

    Full Text Available The green eggshell color produced by ducks is a threshold trait that can be influenced by various factors, such as hereditary, environment and nutrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic regulation of the formation of eggs with green shells in Youxian ducks. We performed integrative analysis of mRNAs and miRNAs expression profiling in the shell gland samples from ducks by RNA-Seq. We found 124 differentially expressed genes that were associated with various pathways, such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter and solute carrier supper family pathways. A total of 31 differentially expressed miRNAs were found between ducks laying green eggs and white eggs. KEGG pathway analysis of the predicted miRNA target genes also indicated the functional characteristics of these miRNAs; they were involved in the ABC transporter pathway and the solute carrier (SLC supper family. Analysis with qRT-PCR was applied to validate the results of global gene expression, which showed a correlation between results obtained by RNA-seq and RT-qPCR. Moreover, a miRNA-mRNA interaction network was established using correlation analysis of differentially expressed mRNA and miRNA. Compared to ducks that lay white eggs, ducks that lay green eggs include six up-regulated miRNAs that had regulatory effects on 35 down-regulated genes, and seven down-regulated miRNAs which influenced 46 up-regulated genes. For example, the ABC transporter pathway could be regulated by expressing gga-miR-144-3p (up-regulated with ABCG2 (up-regulated and other miRNAs and genes. This study provides valuable information about mRNA and miRNA regulation in duck shell gland tissues, and provides foundational information for further study on the eggshell color formation and marker-assisted selection for Youxian duck breeding.

  5. [Book review] Ducks, geese and swans of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, Gary L.

    1983-01-01

    This is the 3rd edition of the classic work "The Ducks, Geese and Swans of North America," which was first published in December 1942.  The original edition was authored by Francis C. Kortright with color plates by T. M. Shortt. An authoritative reference on North American waterfowl for many years, the book had become outdated as a result of major advances in the field of waterfowl biology. The need to update the 1st edition culminated in the publication in 1976 of a 2nd edition authored by Frank Bellrose. Readers interested in comparing features of the 1976 edition with other major recent works on North American waterfowl by P. A. Johnsgard and R. S. Palmer should read Weller (1977, Auk 94: 173).

  6. Modelling the distribution of chickens, ducks, and geese in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Wu, Junxi; Ellis, Erie C.; Gale, Fred; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Wint, William; Robinson, Tim; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Global concerns over the emergence of zoonotic pandemics emphasize the need for high-resolution population distribution mapping and spatial modelling. Ongoing efforts to model disease risk in China have been hindered by a lack of available species level distribution maps for poultry. The goal of this study was to develop 1 km resolution population density models for China's chickens, ducks, and geese. We used an information theoretic approach to predict poultry densities based on statistical relationships between poultry census data and high-resolution agro-ecological predictor variables. Model predictions were validated by comparing goodness of fit measures (root mean square error and correlation coefficient) for observed and predicted values for 1/4 of the sample data which were not used for model training. Final output included mean and coefficient of variation maps for each species. We tested the quality of models produced using three predictor datasets and 4 regional stratification methods. For predictor variables, a combination of traditional predictors for livestock mapping and land use predictors produced the best goodness of fit scores. Comparison of regional stratifications indicated that for chickens and ducks, a stratification based on livestock production systems produced the best results; for geese, an agro-ecological stratification produced best results. However, for all species, each method of regional stratification produced significantly better goodness of fit scores than the global model. Here we provide descriptive methods, analytical comparisons, and model output for China's first high resolution, species level poultry distribution maps. Output will be made available to the scientific and public community for use in a wide range of applications from epidemiological studies to livestock policy and management initiatives.

  7. Differential effects of coyotes and red foxes on duck nest success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Sargeant, A.; Grier, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Low recruitment rates prevail among ducks in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America, primarily because of high nest depredation rates. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a major predator of duck eggs, but fox abundance is depressed by coyotes (Canis latrans). We tested the hypothesis that nest success of upland-nesting ducks is higher in areas with coyotes than in areas with red foxes. We conducted the study during 1990-92 in uplands of 36 areas managed for nesting ducks in North Dakota and South Dakota. Overall nest success averaged 32% (95% CI = 25-40) on 17 study areas where coyotes were the principal canid and 17% (CI = 11-25) on 13 study areas where red foxes were the principal canid (P = 0.01). Both canids were common on 6 other areas, where nest success averaged 25% (CI = 13-47). Habitat composition, predator communities with the exception of canids, and species composition of duck nests in coyote and red fox areas were similar overall. Upon examining only nests with greater than or equal to 6 eggs on the last visit prior to hatch or depredation, we determined nests with evidence characteristic of fox predation accounted for 4% of depredated nests in coyote areas and 27% in fox areas (P = 0.001). An expanding coyote population is contributing to higher overall nest success. Management of coyotes may be an effective method for increasing duck nest success.

  8. Effects of dietary gossypol concentration on growth performance, blood profiles, and hepatic histopathology in meat ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q F; Yang, G L; Liu, G N; Wang, J P; Bai, S P; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Zhang, K Y

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of gossypol from cottonseed meal (CSM) on growth performance, blood biochemical profiles, and liver histopathology of ducks. A total of 900 1-d-old ducks were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 12 pens/treatment and 15 ducks/pen. The 5 experimental diets were formulated in such a way that 0% (a corn-soybean meal basal diet, diet 1), 25% (diet 2), 50% (diet 3), 75% (diet 4), and 100% (diet 5) of protein from soybean meal were replaced with that from CSM. All diets were formulated on a digestible amino acid basis. The experiment included 2 phases, the starter phase (1 to 3 wk) where the test diets contained graded levels of CSM and the growth phase (4 to 5 wk) where birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet to examine the recovery of ducks after CSM withdrawal. Dietary CSM and gossypol linearly (P ducks among all treatments. These results suggest that meat ducks' dietary TG and FG concentration should be lower than 928.9 and 77.2 mg/kg, respectively, during d 1 to 21 of age and that a 2-wk withdrawal of diets containing gossypol should be considered. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Comparative amino acid digestibility for broiler chickens and White Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, C; Adeola, O

    2013-09-01

    A total of 608 three-week-old male broiler chickens and White Pekin ducks were used in a 5-d trial to compare ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility of soybean meal (SBM) and canola meal (CM) using the regression method. A corn-casein-cornstarch-based diet was mixed to contain 15% CP. Cornstarch was replaced with test ingredient (SBM or CM) to contain 18 or 21% of CP in 4 other diets. A nitrogen-free diet (NFD) was used for standardization of apparent digestibility. Birds received a standard starter diet (23% CP) from d 0 to 14 posthatch and then 6 experimental diets for 5 d. On d 19 posthatch, birds were asphyxiated with CO(2), and digesta from the distal section of ileum was collected. The ileal digestibility of AA from the test ingredients was assessed by multiple linear regression analysis using data on daily apparent ileal digestible AA and total AA intakes. The basal endogenous losses of N and all AA for ducks were significantly higher than those for broilers. For ileal AA digestibility by regression of apparent digestible AA intake against AA intake, there was a higher (P ducks compared with broilers (P ducks, and Lys and Pro of broilers (P study showed that ducks have higher basal endogenous AA losses compared with broiler chickens as well as higher ileal Cys and Pro digestibility estimates derived from regression approach, indicating that data obtained from broilers should not be used to formulate diets for ducks.

  10. Infectious diseases, parasites, and biological toxins in sea ducks: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J. Christian

    2015-01-01

    This chapter addresses disease agents in the broad sense, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoan and helminth parasites, and biological toxins. Some of these agents are known to cause mortality in sea ducks, some are thought to be incidental findings, and the significance of others is yet poorly understood. Although the focus of the chapter is on free-living sea ducks, the study of disease in this taxonomic group has been relatively limited and examples from captive sea ducks and other wild waterfowl are used to illustrate the pathogenicity of certain diseases. Much of the early work in sea ducks consisted of anecdotal and descriptive reports of parasites, but it was soon recognized that diseases such as avian cholera, renal coccidiosis, and intestinal infections with acanthocephalans were causes of mortality in wild populations. More recently, adenoviruses, reoviruses, and the newly emergent Wellfleet Bay virus, for example, also have been linked to die-offs of sea ducks. Declining populations of animals are particularly vulnerable to the threats posed by disease and it is important that we improve our understanding of the significance of disease in sea ducks. To conclude, we offer our recommendations for future directions in this field.

  11. Inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus replication by mimic peptides in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongyu; Liu, Changhong; Yang, Ying; Zhu, Haihong; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jihong; Zhou, Linfu

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of specific mimic peptides targeting duck hepatitis B virus polymerase (DHBVP) on duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) replication in primary duck hepatocytes. Phage display technology (PDT) was used to screen for mimic peptides specifically targeting DHBVP and the associated coding sequences were determined using DNA sequencing. The selected mimic peptides were then used to treat primary duck hepatocytes infected with DHBV in vitro. Infected hepatocytes expressing the mimic peptides intracellularly were also prepared. The cells were divided into mimic peptide groups (EXP groups), an entecavir-treated group (positive control) and a negative control group. The medium was changed every 48 h. Following a 10-day incubation, the cell supernatants were collected. DHBV-DNA in the cellular nucleus, cytoplasm and culture supernatant was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Eight mimic peptides were selected following three PDT screening rounds for investigation in the DHBV-infected primary duck hepatocytes. The qPCR results showed that following direct treatment with mimic peptide 2 or 7, intracellular expression of mimic peptide 2 or 7, or treatment with entecavir, the DHBV-DNA levels in the culture supernatant and cytoplasm of duck hepatocytes were significantly lower than those in the negative control (Pmimic peptide 7 was lower than that in the other groups (Pmimic peptide 7 was significantly lower than that in the other groups (PMimic peptides specifically targeting DHBVP, administered directly or expressed intracellularly, can significantly inhibit DHBV replication in vitro .

  12. Transcriptome analysis of duck liver and identification of differentially expressed transcripts in response to duck hepatitis A virus genotype C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng; Lan, Daoliang; Zhang, Huanrong; Ma, Jing; Yue, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Duck is an economically important poultry and animal model for human viral hepatitis B. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying host-virus interaction remain unclear because of limited information on the duck genome. This study aims to characterize the duck normal liver transcriptome and to identify the differentially expressed transcripts at 24 h after duck hepatitis A virus genotype C (DHAV-C) infection using Illumina-Solexa sequencing. After removal of low-quality sequences and assembly, a total of 52,757 unigenes was obtained from the normal liver group. Further blast analysis showed that 18,918 unigenes successfully matched the known genes in the database. GO analysis revealed that 25,116 unigenes took part in 61 categories of biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions. Among the 25 clusters of orthologous group categories (COG), the cluster for "General function prediction only" represented the largest group, followed by "Transcription" and "Replication, recombination, and repair." KEGG analysis showed that 17,628 unigenes were involved in 301 pathways. Through comparison of normal and infected transcriptome data, we identified 20 significantly differentially expressed unigenes, which were further confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Of the 20 unigenes, nine matched the known genes in the database, including three up-regulated genes (virus replicase polyprotein, LRRC3B, and PCK1) and six down-regulated genes (CRP, AICL-like 2, L1CAM, CYB26A1, CHAC1, and ADAM32). The remaining 11 novel unigenes that did not match any known genes in the database may provide a basis for the discovery of new transcripts associated with infection. This study provided a gene expression pattern for normal duck liver and for the previously unrecognized changes in gene transcription that are altered during DHAV-C infection. Our data revealed useful information for future studies on the duck genome and provided new insights into the molecular

  13. Comportamiento del asma bronquial en adolescentes tratados en el Policlínico Universitario "Ana Betancourt" Course of bronchial asthma in adolescents seen in "Ana Betancourt" University Polyclinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de la Vega Pazitková

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el asma infantil representa una entidad que aún no ha logrado ser bien definida y delimitada, lo que establece variadas interpretaciones de su epidemiología, diagnóstico y, consecuentemente de su tratamiento. Objetivos: estimar la prevalencia global de asma en adolescentes tratados en consultorios médicos de familia del Policlínico Universitario "Ana Betancourt". Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal, que incluyó a 81 adolescentes de ambos sexos con edades entre 11 y 18 años, pertenecientes a dos consultorios médicos de familia del Grupo Básico de Trabajo No. 2, del Policlínico Universitario "Ana Betancourt", del municipio Playa, en el período comprendido entre enero de 2006 y enero de 2007. Como herramienta de trabajo se utilizó el cuestionario: The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, instrumento validado internacionalmente. Resultados: la cifra total de asmáticos ascendió a 52 adolescentes con un discreto predominio del sexo masculino y de los casos ligeros de la enfermedad, para una prevalencia global de 64,1 %. Se encontró un subregistro de 20,9 %. Conclusiones: en ambos consultorios se constata una elevada prevalencia de asma bronquial en la población de adolescentes con mayor afectación en los varones. Los pacientes exhiben mayoritariamente las formas ligeras de la enfermedad. Se encuentra un importante subregistro para el asma bronquial en los adolescentes tratados en el Policlínico Universitario "Ana Betancourt"Introduction: the bronchial asthma is a even defined entity establishing some interpretations of its epidemiology, diagnosis and consequently of its treatment. Objectives: to estimate the global prevalence of asthma in adolescents seen in family medical consulting rooms from "Ana Betancourt" University Polyclinic. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted including 81 adolescents of both sexes aged between 11 and 18 from family

  14. Pro-ana versus Pro-recovery: A Content Analytic Comparison of Social Media Users' Communication about Eating Disorders on Twitter and Tumblr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branley, Dawn B; Covey, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To compare how people communicate about eating disorders on two popular social media platforms - Twitter and Tumblr. Materials and Methods: Thematic analysis was conducted to characterize the types of communications posted, and a content analysis was undertaken of between-platform differences. Results: Three types of content (pro-ana, anti-ana, and pro-recovery) were posted on each platform. Overall, across both platforms, extreme pro-ana posts were in the minority compared to anti-ana and pro-recovery. Pro-ana posts (including 'thinspiration') were more common on Twitter than Tumblr, whereas anti-ana and pro-recovery posts were more common on Tumblr. Conclusion: The findings have implications for future research and health care relating to the treatment and prevention of eating disorders. Developers of future interventions targeting negative pro-ana content should remain aware of the need to avoid any detrimental impact on positive online support.

  15. Mexican participation in the AMS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Buenerd, M.; Cabrera, J. I.; Canizal, C.; Esquivel, O.; Núñez, R.; Plascencia, J. C.; Reyes, T.; Villoro, M. F.

    2001-05-01

    Optical characterization of hydrophobic silica aerogel SP-25 for the RICH, and a scheme to generate particle-ID conditions on TOF and Tracker amplitude data are reported, as part of a Mexican effort to contribute to the AMS Project. .

  16. Mammagraphy Use by Older Mexican American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Jean

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of mammographic screening in older Mexican- American women, particularly the influence of strong family relationships on promoting screening behavior...

  17. Impact of curcumin supplementation in monochromatic light on lipid serum profile of sexually mature female Magelang ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kasiyati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of curcumin supplementation inexpose monochromatic light on serum lipid concentrations of sexually mature female magelang duck. One hundred and ninety two female magelang ducks were assigned into a completely randomized design with a 4×4 factorial arrangement and each experimental unit was repeated 3 times, each with 4 female magelang ducks. The first factor was dose of curcumin supplementation consisted of 4 levels i.e., 0, 9, 18, and 36 mg/duck/day. The second factor was the color of monochromatic light consisted of 4 levels i.e., white, red, green, and blue colors. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. The result showed that serum concentrations of triglyceride, cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, and low density lipoprotein (LDL were lower (P<0.05 while high density lipoprotein (HDL were higher (P<0.05 in experimental ducks supplemented with a curcumin dose of 36 mg/duck/day in variety of monochromatic light colors compared to control experimental ducks without curcumin supplementation. The curcumin doses of 18 or 36 mg/duck/day within red, green, or blue light had the potential to modulate lipid metabolism, as indicated by the increased serum concentration of HDL and the decreased serum concentrations of triglyceride, cholesterol, VLDL, and LDL of the experimental female magelang ducks.

  18. Examination of Growth Hormone (GH) Gene Polymorphism and its Association with Body Weight and Selected Body Dimensions in Ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurowski, Artur; Frieske, Anna; Kokoszynski, Dariusz; Mroczkowski, Sławomir; Bernacki, Zenon; Wilkanowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess the polymorphism in intron 2 of the GH gene and its association with some morphological traits (body weight--BW, length of trunk with neck--LTN, length of trunk--LT, chest girth--CG, length of breast bone--LBB, length of shank--LS). Polymorphism in intron 2 of the GH gene was evaluated for four duck populations (Pekin ducks AF51, Muscovy ducks from a CK and CRAMMLCFF mother and Mulard ducks). Genetic polymorphism was determined with the PCR-RFLP method using the BsmFI restriction enzyme. In the studied duck sample two alleles (GH(C) and GH(T)) and three genotypes (GH/TT, GH/CT, GH/CC) were found at locus GH/BsmFI. In both groups of Muscovies and in Mulards the dominant allele was GH(T). On the contrary in Pekin ducks AF51, the frequency of both alleles was found to be similar. The most frequent genotype in the examined ducks was GH/TT. In Pekin ducks AF51 three genotypes were observed, while in Mulard ducks and in male Muscovy ducks from a mother marked as CK, two genotypes (GH/TT and GH/CT) were identified. Muscovy duck females from a CK mother and all males and females of Muscovy duck from a CRAMMLCFF mother were monomorphic with only the GH/TTgenotype detected. The results showed that males of Pekin duck AF51 with the GH/TT genotype were characterized by higher (P ducks AF51, this same trend was observed; individuals with GH/TT genotype were superior (P ducks with the GH/TT genotype were distinguished by higher values of all evaluated traits compared to ducks with GH/CT and GH/CC genotypes, however most of the recorded differences were not significant. The only trait markedly impacted (P < 0.05) by the polymorphism of the GH gene intron 2 was the LS value in males.

  19. Is ability to hepatic steatosis influenced by age at the beginning of the overfeeding period in Muscovy and Pekin ducks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrin, P; Bernadet, M D; Sannier, M; Baéza, E

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of species (Muscovy and Pekin ducks) and age at the beginning of the overfeeding period on fatty liver production, carcass composition and lipid and moisture content of the liver and breast muscle. We reared four groups of 40 ducks per species for the study, starting at 2-week intervals in order to have four different ages together at the beginning of the overfeeding period (10, 12, 14 and 16 weeks). At the end of the overfeeding period, all ducks were slaughtered. Our results confirmed the high levels of difference in carcass composition and lipid content in the plasma, liver and breast muscle between Muscovy and Pekin ducks at all ages. Pekin ducks were not able to develop a high degree of hepatic steatosis, but had increased lipid storage in peripheral adipose and muscle tissues than Muscovy ducks. However, the fatty liver weight of Pekin ducks increased with age, with lipid deposition in the liver and peripheral tissues. The ability of Muscovy ducks to produce fatty livers remained unchanged with age in line, with lipid deposition in the liver and peripheral tissues. The sites of lipid deposition thus depend on species and not on the physiological maturity of ducks.

  20. Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J.; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.

  1. The estimation of genetic distance and discriminant variables on breed of duck (Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell, Mojosari and Pegagan by morphological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Brahmantiyo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on morphological body conformation of Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell, Mojosari and Pegagan ducks was carried out to determine the genetic distance and discriminant variables. This research was held in Research Institute for Animal Production, Ciawi, Bogor using 65 Alabio ducks, 40 Bali ducks, 36 Khaki Campbell ducks, 60 Mojosari ducks and 30 Pegagan ducks. Seven different body parts were measured, they were the length of femur, tibia, tarsometatarsus, the circumference of tarsometatarsus, the length of third digits, wing and maxilla. General Linear Models and simple discriminant analysis were used in this observation (SAS package program. Male and female Pegagan ducks had morphological size bigger than Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell and Mojosari ducks. Khaki Campbell ducks were mixed with Bali ducks (47.22% and Pegagan ducks from isolated location in South Sumatera were lightly mixed with Alabio and Bali. Mahalanobis genetic distance showed that Bali and Khaki Campbell ducks, also, Alabio and Mojosari ducks had similarity, with genetic distance of 1.420 and 1.548, respectively. Results from canonical analysis showed that the most discriminant variables were obtained from the length of femur, tibia and third digits.

  2. NAFTA: The Mexican Economy, and Undocumented Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    NAFTA contributed to modest increases in Mexican formal employment since 1994. Since employment constitutes one of the chief factors affecting poverty...any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NAFTA , the Mexican Economy, and Undocumented Migration 5a

  3. Generational Variations in Mexican-Origin Intermarriage

    OpenAIRE

    Cedillo, Rosalio

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines intermarriage across generations of the Mexican-origin population in order to better understand how this population is incorporating in U.S. society, and looks at parental migration status and parental nativity as factors that may impede or facilitate intermarriage incorporation. Using data from the Immigration and Intergenerational Mobility in Metropolitan Los Angeles (IIMMLA) survey the research shows that: the majority of intermarriages among the Mexican-origin ...

  4. Locomotion of Mexican jumping beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Daniel M; K Lal, Ishan; Leamy, Michael J; Hu, David L

    2012-01-01

    The Mexican jumping bean, Laspeyresia saltitans, consists of a hollow seed housing a moth larva. Heating by the sun induces movements by the larva which appear as rolls, jumps and flips by the bean. In this combined experimental, numerical and robotic study, we investigate this unique means of rolling locomotion. Time-lapse videography is used to record bean trajectories across a series of terrain types, including one-dimensional channels and planar surfaces of varying inclination. We find that the shell encumbers the larva's locomotion, decreasing its speed on flat surfaces by threefold. We also observe that the two-dimensional search algorithm of the bean resembles the run-and-tumble search of bacteria. We test this search algorithm using both an agent-based simulation and a wheeled Scribbler robot. The algorithm succeeds in propelling the robot away from regions of high temperature and may have application in biomimetic micro-scale navigation systems. (paper)

  5. Mexican gems as thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin N, J.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of using naturally ocurring mexican gems as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) was investigated. Twelve types of gems were irradiated with X and gamma rays in order to determinate their dosimetric properties. Three of these gems showed favorable thermoluminescent characteristics compared with commercial thermoluminescent dosimeters. The plots of their thermoluminescent response as a function of gamma dose are straight lines on full log paper in the dose range 10 -2 to 10 2 Gy. The energy dependence is very strong to low energies of the radiation. Their fading was found to be about 5%/yr. and they may be annealed as reused without loss in sensitivity. Therefore, these gems can be used as X and gamma radiation dosimeters. (author)

  6. THE DIGESTIBILITY OF NUTRIENTS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS AND SOURCES OF LIPIDS IN DUCK DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Yu. Sychov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of digestibility of nutrients in ducklings was performed by use of feed contained the lipids from different levels and sources. Experimental studies were conducted in terms of problem research laboratory of feed additives of National Agriculture University of Ukraine. The material for scientific experiments was the ducklings of cross STAR 53 H.Y. Experiment was carried out by group-analog method. We determined the optimal content of crude fat in fodder of young ducks at the first stage of experiment and the best source of lipids at second stage. We increased the crude fat in duckling feed by the introduction of sunflower oil at first stage. The amount of fat in the duck feed was 5% in control group and this were 3% and 7% in group II and III. The ducks from experimental groups received feed with sunflower oil at the second stage of experiment, the ducks of group II and III obtained feed from soya, rapeseed, and palm fat. Feeding the ducks was done per group twice per day – in morning and evening. It was registered that the feeding of 8-14 days ducks by food with crude fat of 7% plausible increased the digestibility of protein by 3.2%, of fat by 5.1%, and nitrogen-free extractives matters by 2.7%. At the same time the use of feed for 36-42 days ducks with crude fat of 7% allows to get the best results with the more higher level of protein and fat digestibility by 4.9% and 4.8% respectively. The use of feed with the addition of soybean oil for duck feeding have a positive effect towards increasing the level of digestibility of organic matter, protein, fat, and fiber in all the duck age groups. At the same time the use of feed containing palm oil reduces the digestibility of fat by 4,1-6,7%  compared to control group, that obtained feed with sunflower oil . We confirmed the prospect of further research in order to to establish the optimal ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the diet of ducks and to determine their

  7. Fair Start Program: Outreach to Mexican and Mexican American Farmworker Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters-Smith, Carol; Larner, Mary

    This presentation describes a home visiting health education program serving Mexican and Mexican-American migrant farmworkers in Florida. The purposes of the program were to educate farmworker families about pregnancy, childbirth, nutrition, and child development, and to encourage the use of preventive health care services. Home visitors were…

  8. Portugali saadik : Venemaaga räägime kõigest / Ana Paula Zacarias ; interv. Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zacarias, Ana Paula

    2007-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu uue eesistujamaa Portugali suursaadik Eestis Ana Paula Zacarias Euroopa Liidu välispoliitika kujundamise põhimõtetest, suhetest Venemaaga, tööst EL-i põhiseaduslepingut asendava reformilepinguga

  9. The spectacle of conservation. Doñana National Park in Man and the Earth (1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Alcalá-Lorente

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 1970s, four documentaries about Doñana National Park were broadcast within the National Spanish Television series Man and the Earth, directed by Félix Rodríguez de la Fuente. Through the account of the Park’s life cycle –each chapter matched each one of the year’s seasons–, these chapters were a celebration of the struggle to conserve the natural heritage, whose meaning was established in relation to a beautifully-produced representation of both nature and the natural sciences. This paper analyzes how, in a quite complex historical and political context, and through the spectacle of the success and fragility of Doñana National Park, Rodríguez de la Fuente represented sensitivity towards nature and the natural heritage, acquired through the study of the natural sciences, as a key element of modernization.

  10. Intellectual Property as a Drive for Sustainable Medical Tourism – The Ana Aslan case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolos Mihaela Daciana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studies the way intellectual property rights may encourage sustainable medical tourism, meaning the advantages that a patent, traditional knowledge, a trademark, or other IP right may offer to a hospital in order to attract foreign patients. The analysis is done trough the Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics “Ana Aslan” case study, seen not from a medical point of view but from the perspective of the intellectual property importance for the development of medical tourism. The Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics “Ana Aslan” was founded in 1952 and become an international renowned center in the study and the diminishing of old age effects. Many celebrities (artist and state presidents came to receive treatment here, even though Romania had, at that time, a communist regime.

  11. Project W-314 241-AN-A valve pit upgrade acceptance for beneficial use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    1999-07-21

    This report identifies the responsibilities and requirements, applicable to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit Upgrades portion of Project W-314, for Acceptance for Beneficial Use in accordance with HNF-IP-0842, Vol IV, Sec 3.12. At project turnover, the end user accepts the affected Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) for beneficial use. This checklist is used to help the end user ensure that all documentation, training, and testing requirements are met prior to turnover. This checklist specifically identifies those items related to the upgrading of the 241-AN-A valve pit. The upgrades include: the installation of jumper/valve manifolds with position sensors, replacement pit leak detection systems, construction of replacement cover blocks, and electrical upgrades to support the instrumentation upgrades.

  12. Project W-314 241-AN-A valve pit upgrade acceptance for beneficial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    This report identifies the responsibilities and requirements, applicable to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit Upgrades portion of Project W-314, for Acceptance for Beneficial Use in accordance with HNF-IP-0842, Vol IV, Sec 3.12. At project turnover, the end user accepts the affected Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) for beneficial use. This checklist is used to help the end user ensure that all documentation, training, and testing requirements are met prior to turnover. This checklist specifically identifies those items related to the upgrading of the 241-AN-A valve pit. The upgrades include: the installation of jumper/valve manifolds with position sensors, replacement pit leak detection systems, construction of replacement cover blocks, and electrical upgrades to support the instrumentation upgrades

  13. Sol Ana Koroner Arter Çıkış Anomalisi Olan Hasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Duran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Koroner arter anomalilerinin anjiyografik insidansı %1,3’tür. Anjiyografik serilerde sol ana koroner arterin sağ sinüs Valsalva’dan orijin aldığı anomalilerin görülme sıklığı %0,019 kadar düşüktür. Bu hastalarda yine nadiren (%20 kadarında anjina pektoris, aritmi, senkop, kalp krizi ve ani ölüm gibi semptomlar görülür. Burada, sağ sinüs Valsalva’dan orijin alan sol ana koroner arter anomalisi gibi nadir bir vakayı sunmaktayız.

  14. Franšīzes izmantošanas iespējas un efektivitātes novērtēšana Baltijā

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Nadežda

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura tēma ir “Franšīzes izmantošanas iespējas un efektivitātes novērtēšana Baltijā”. Perspektīva biznesa attīstībā ir viens galvenajiem dzinējspēkiem, kurš motivē uzņēmējus, uzsākot savu darbību. Viens no mūsdienās plaši izmantojamajiem biznesa modeļiem ir franšīzes sistēma. Pasaulē bizness uz franšīzes pamata skaitās kā drošs, jo uzņēmējam ir spēja veiksmīgi attīstīt savu komercdarbību bez iepriekšējām zināšanām un pieredzi, jo franšīze paredz ne tikai gatavo biznesa rokasgrāmatu, bet a...

  15. Mārketinga stratēģijas izstrāde AS "Aldaris" pārdošanas palielināšana

    OpenAIRE

    Rabinoviča, Aļina

    2007-01-01

    Maģistra darbs ir uzrakstīts par tēmu „Mārketinga stratēģijas izstrāde AS pārdošanas palielināšanas nolūkā”. Tas ir veltīts Latvijas alus tirgus izpētei un AS „Aldaris” esošās mārketinga stratēģijas analīzei ieteikumu izstrādei tās pilnveidošanai. Maģistra darbā aplūkoti sekojoši jautājumi: •mūsdienu mārketinga instrumenti kā uzņēmuma tirdzniecības stratēģijas elements; •reklāmas īpatnības un tās veidi; •pieejas reklāmas budžeta noteikšanai; •Latvijas reklāmas tirgus; •Latv...

  16. Virtuālo komandu darba analīze un uzlabošana uzturēšanas projektos

    OpenAIRE

    Koncevičs, Rolands

    2006-01-01

    Arvien vairāk un vairāk uzņēmumiem saskaroties ar globāliem projektiem un ārpakalpojumu izmantošanu, tiek izmantotas virtuālās komandas, bet projektu vadīšana paliek lokālo projektu līmenī. Taču daudzi praktiķi uzskata, ka virtuāla produktu izstrāde ir ievērojami sarežģītāka, nekā vissarežģītākais projekts, kuru pārvalda organizācijas iekšienē. Šajā darbā autors pēta unikālas virtuālo projektu problēmas divos virtuālajos uzturēšanas projektos. Bakalaura darbs sastāv no piecām nodaļām. D...

  17. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano ( L. Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP, antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol, 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP, 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP, and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP. Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05. Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05. These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks.

  18. Influence of indoor microbial aerosol on the welfare of meat ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, G L; Wei, L M; Liu, Y Y; Liu, J Y; Wang, Y; Gao, J; Chai, T J; Cai, Y M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of microbial aerosols on ducks' welfare and provide information on which to establish microbial aerosol concentration standards for poultry. A total of 1800 1-d-old Cherry Valley ducks were randomly divided into 5 groups (A, B, C, D and E) with 360 ducks in each. To obtain objective data, each group had three replications. Different microbial aerosol concentrations in different groups were created by controlling ventilation and bedding cleaning frequency. Group A was the control group and hygienic conditions deteriorated progressively from group B to E. A 6-stage Andersen impactor was used to detect the aerosol concentration of aerobes, fungi, gram-negative bacteria and an AGI-30 microbial air sampler detected endotoxins. Physiological stress was evaluated in the ducks by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) values in serum. To assess the effects of bioaerosol factors, welfare indicators including fluctuating asymmetry (FA), appearance and gait as well as the Lactobacillus caecal concentration were evaluated. The data showed group D had already reached the highest limit of concentration of airborne aerobic bacteria, airborne fungi, airborne gram-negative bacteria and airborne endotoxin. The ducks in this group had significantly increased serum ACTH values and significantly decreased caecal lactobacilli concentration. Furthermore, appearance and gait scores, wing length and overall FA and caecal Lactobacillus concentration in this group were significantly increased at 6 and 8 weeks of age. In conclusion, high concentrations of microbial aerosol adversely affected the welfare of meat ducks. The microbial aerosol values in group D suggest a preliminary upper limit concentration of bioaerosols in ambient air for healthy meat ducks.

  19. Flow cytometric DNA analysis of ducks accumulating 137Cs on a reactor reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, L.S.; Dallas, C.E.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.; Evans, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to detect red blood cell (rbc) DNA abnormalities in male, game-farm mallard ducks as they ranged freely and accumulated 137Cs (radiocesium) from an abandoned nuclear reactor cooling reservoir. Prior to release, the ducks were tamed to enable recapture at will. Flow cytometric measurements conducted at intervals during the first year of exposure yielded cell cycle percentages of DNA (G0/G1, S, G2 + M phases) of rbc, as well as coefficients of variation (CV) in the G0/G1 phase. DNA histograms of exposed ducks were compared with two sets of controls which were maintained 30 and 150 miles from the study site. 137Cs live wholebody burdens were also measured in these animals in a parallel kinetics study, and an approximate steady-state equilibrium was attained after about 8 months. DNA histograms from 2 of the 14 contaminated ducks revealed DNA aneuploid-like patterns after 9 months exposure. These two ducks were removed from the experiment at this time, and when sampled again 1 month later, one continued to exhibit DNA aneuploidy. None of the control DNA histograms demonstrated DNA aneuploid-like patterns. There were no significant differences in cell cycle percentages at any time point between control and exposed animals. A significant increase in CV was observed at 9 months exposure, but after removal of the two ducks with DNA aneuploidy, no significant difference was detected in the group monitored after 12 months exposure. An increased variation in the DNA and DNA aneuploidy could, therefore, be detected in duck rbc using flow cytometric analysis, with the onset of these effects being related to the attainment of maximal levels of 137Cs body burdens in the exposed animals

  20. Quantitative transmission characteristics of different H5 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niqueux, Éric; Picault, Jean-Paul; Amelot, Michel; Allée, Chantal; Lamandé, Josiane; Guillemoto, Carole; Pierre, Isabelle; Massin, Pascale; Blot, Guillaume; Briand, François-Xavier; Rose, Nicolas; Jestin, Véronique

    2014-01-10

    EU annual serosurveillance programs show that domestic duck flocks have the highest seroprevalence of H5 antibodies, demonstrating the circulation of notifiable avian influenza virus (AIV) according to OIE, likely low pathogenic (LP). Therefore, transmission characteristics of LPAIV within these flocks can help to understand virus circulation and possible risk of propagation. This study aimed at estimating transmission parameters of four H5 LPAIV (three field strains from French poultry and decoy ducks, and one clonal reverse-genetics strain derived from one of the former), using a SIR model to analyze data from experimental infections in SPF Muscovy ducks. The design was set up to accommodate rearing on wood shavings with a low density of 1.6 ducks/m(2): 10 inoculated ducks were housed together with 15 contact-exposed ducks. Infection was monitored by RNA detection on oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs using real-time RT-PCR with a cutoff corresponding to 2-7 EID50. Depending on the strain, the basic reproduction number (R0) varied from 5.5 to 42.7, confirming LPAIV could easily be transmitted to susceptible Muscovy ducks. The lowest R0 estimate was obtained for a H5N3 field strain, due to lower values of transmission rate and duration of infectious period, whereas reverse-genetics derived H5N1 strain had the highest R0. Frequency and intensity of clinical signs were also variable between strains, but apparently not associated with longer infectious periods. Further comparisons of quantitative transmission parameters may help to identify relevant viral genetic markers for early detection of potentially more virulent strains during surveillance of LPAIV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneff, Mark D; Zimmerman, Guthrie S; Dwyer, Chris P; Fleming, Kathleen K; Padding, Paul I; Devers, Patrick K; Johnson, Fred A; Runge, Michael C; Roberts, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini). Sea ducks are popular game birds in North America, yet they are poorly monitored and their population dynamics are poorly understood relative to other North American waterfowl. There have been few attempts to assess the sustainability of harvest of North American sea ducks, and no formal harvest strategy exists in the U.S. or Canada to guide management. The popularity of sea duck hunting, extended hunting opportunity for some populations (i.e., special seasons and/or bag limits), and population declines have led to concern about potential overharvest. We used Monte Carlo simulation to contrast estimates of allowable harvest and observed harvest and assess risk of overharvest for 7 populations of North American sea ducks: the American subspecies of common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri), eastern and western populations of black scoter (Melanitta americana) and surf scoter (M. perspicillata), and continental populations of white-winged scoter (M. fusca) and long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis). We combined information from empirical studies and the opinions of experts through formal elicitation to create probability distributions reflecting uncertainty in the individual demographic parameters used in this assessment. Estimates of maximum growth (rmax), and therefore of allowable harvest, were highly uncertain for all populations. Long-tailed duck and American common eider appeared to be at high

  2. Tropism and infectivity of duck-derived egg drop syndrome virus in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kang

    Full Text Available Egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV can markedly decrease egg production in laying hens. Duck is the natural host of EDSV. EDSV derived from ducks abrogate egg drop in laying hens. We have previously confirmed that duck-derived EDSVs have a variety of replication activities in chick embryo liver (CEL cells. However, it is currently unclear whether duck-derived EDSV could display tropism and adaptation in laying hens. This study assessed whether duck-derived EDSV can adapt to laying hens, and estimated the inducing factors. Complete genome sequences of duck-derived EDSVs (D11-JW-012, D11-JW-017, and D11-JW-032 isolates with various replication efficiency in CEL cells and C10-GY-001 isolate causing disease in laying hens were analyzed to find their differences. Phylogenetic analysis of complete genome sequence revealed that C10-GY-001, D11-JW-032, and strain 127 virus as vaccine were clustered into the same group, with D11-JW-012 and D11-JW-017 clustered in another group. Comparison between D11-JW-012 isolate that poorly replicated and D11-JW-017 isolate that replicated well in CEL cells in same cluster revealed six amino acid differences on IVa2, DNA polymerase, endopeptidase, and DNA-binding protein. These amino acids might be key candidates enhancing cellular tropism in chicken. When the pathogenicities of these isolates in laying hens were compared, D11-JW-032 showed severe signs similar to 127 virus, D11-JW-017 showed intermediate signs, while D11-JW-012 showed almost no sign. Eleven amino acids differed between D11-JW-032 and D11-JW-017, and 17 amino acids were different between D11-JW-032 and D11-JW-012. These results suggest that EDSVs derived from ducks have various pathogenicities in laying hens. Key amino acid candidates might have altered their affinity to tropism of laying hens, causing difference pathogenicities.

  3. The status of sea ducks in the North Pacific Rim: Toward their conservation and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudie, R. Ian; Brault, Solange; Conant, Bruce; Kondratyev, Alexander V.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Vermeer, Kees; McCabe, Richard E.; Wadsworth, Kelly G.

    1994-01-01

    Sea ducks (tribe Mergini after Johnsgard 1960) are the most northerly distributed ducks, and species diversity is greatest in the North Pacific. They exploit a diversity of inshore and offshore marine habitats during the non-breeding season, and their use of habitat during breeding varies from coastal through freshwater wetlands of the tundra and taiga (Figure 1, Appendix 1). Non-breeding cohorts frequent marine habitats most of the year. Sea ducks thus are important indicators of the quality of freshwater and marine ecosystems of northern biomes.Of the 17 species discussed in this manuscript, at least 3 are reported to be declining (Appendix 2). However, the basis for many of those assessments is equivocal because there has been little effort to monitor populations. The efforts to more precisely assess their status point to catastrophic declines (Kertell 1991, Stehn et a 1993). Conservation problems related to sea ducks have a long history throughout the Holarctic. For example, the Labrador duck (Camptorhynchus labradorius) became extinct in 1875. (Phillips 1925); common eiders (Somateria mollissima) declined seriously throughout the northern hemisphere (Townsend 1914, Phillips 1925, Doughty 1979); harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) experienced declines in Iceland and Greenland (Gudmundsson1971, Salomonson 1950), and more recently have been designated endangered in eastern Canada (Committee On the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada 1990). In Russia, all species of eider and harlequin ducks have been closed to sport hunting since 1981, and the Chinese mergansers (Mergus squamatus) presently are extremely rare and fully protected, i.e. category one of the red book (Solomonov 1987).

  4. Isolation and characterization of a subtype C avian metapneumovirus circulating in Muscovy ducks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikai; Chen, Feng; Cao, Sheng; Liu, Jiajia; Lei, Wen; Li, Guangwei; Song, Yongfeng; Lu, Junpeng; Liu, Chuang; Qin, Jianping; Li, Haiyan

    2014-07-25

    Subtype C avian metapneumovirus (aMPV-C), is an important pathogen that can cause egg-drop and acute respiratory diseases in poultry. To date, aMPV-C infection has not been documented in Muscovy ducks in China. Here, we isolated and characterized an aMPV-C, designated S-01, which has caused severe respiratory disease and noticeable egg drop in Muscovy duck flocks in south China since 2010. Electron microscopy showed that the isolate was an enveloped virus exhibiting multiple morphologies with a diameter of 20-500 nm. The S-01 strain was able to produce a typical cytopathic effect (CPE) on Vero cells and cause death in 10- to 11-day-old Muscovy duck embryos. In vivo infection of layer Muscovy ducks with the isolate resulted in typical clinical signs and pathological lesions similar to those seen in the original infected cases. We report the first complete genomic sequence of aMPV-C from Muscovy ducks. A phylogenetic analysis strongly suggested that the S-01 virus belongs to the aMPV-C family, sharing 92.3%-94.3% of nucleotide identity with that of aMPV-C, and was most closely related to the aMPV-C strains isolated from Muscovy ducks in France. The deduced eight main proteins (N, P, M, F, M2, SH, G and L) of the novel isolate shared higher identity with hMPV than with other aMPV (subtypes A, B and D). S-01 could bind a monoclonal antibody against the F protein of hMPV. Together, our results indicate that subtype-C aMPV has been circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in South China, and it is urgent for companies to develop new vaccines to control the spread of the virus in China.

  5. Multielemental analysis by neutron activation of sediments in the Ana Maria Gulf, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Gandarias, D.; Calzavilla, R.; Garcia, G.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper general samples of marine sediments taken from six control stations of the Ana Maria Gulf (Cuba) were analyzed. For this purpose the thermal neutron activation analysis method was used. 18 elements were determinated. They are: Al, Ce, Co, Cs, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Mo, Mn, Rb, Sc, Ta, Th, Yb and Zn. The accuracy varied between 5 and 30% for all elements. 10 refs

  6. ANA Negative Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Leading to CTEPH, TTP-Like Thrombocytopenia, and Skin Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Changal, Khalid Hamid; Sofi, Fayaz; Altaf, Sheikh Shoaib; Raina, Adnan; Raina, Ab. Hameed

    2016-01-01

    SLE affects almost every organ system, with differing degrees of severity. During its clinical course periods of flares may alternate with periods of remission culminating in disease and therapy related damage. We describe a case of ANA negative SLE with severe thrombocytopenia, cutaneous vasculitis, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, and pulmonary artery hypertension. As there is no definitive cure for SLE the treatment lies in caring for the individual organ systems involved and simultaneo...

  7. ANA Negative Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Leading to CTEPH, TTP-Like Thrombocytopenia, and Skin Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Hamid Changal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SLE affects almost every organ system, with differing degrees of severity. During its clinical course periods of flares may alternate with periods of remission culminating in disease and therapy related damage. We describe a case of ANA negative SLE with severe thrombocytopenia, cutaneous vasculitis, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, and pulmonary artery hypertension. As there is no definitive cure for SLE the treatment lies in caring for the individual organ systems involved and simultaneously taking care of the patient as a whole.

  8. About identities and struggles: interview with ana maría spadafora

    OpenAIRE

    Bossi, Jesica

    2011-01-01

    Anthropologist Ana María Spadafora describes the current situation of indigenous communities in Argentina. She explains the meaning of “being Indian” and how processes of ethnic re-emergence have taken place in Argentina and elsewhere in the continent. The articulation between Positive Law and indigenous world view, and the effects of globalization on ethnic minorities are some of the issues covered.

  9. About Identities and Struggles: Interview with Ana María Spadafora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesica Bossi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropologist Ana María Spadafora describes the current situation of indigenous communities in Argentina. She explains the meaning of “being Indian” and how processes of ethnic re-emergence have taken place in Argentina and elsewhere in the continent. The articulation between Positive Law and indigenous world view, and the effects of globalization on ethnic minorities are some of the issues covered.

  10. Potential impacts of climate change on groundwater supplies to the Doñana wetland, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Christopher R.; Guardiola-Albert, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Climate change impacts on natural recharge and groundwater-wetland dynamics were investigated for the Almonte-Marismas aquifer, Spain, which supports the internationally important Doñana wetland. Simulations were carried out using outputs from 13 global climate models to assess the impacts of climate change. Reductions in flow from the aquifer to streams and springs flooding the wetland, induced by changes in recharge according to different climate projections, were modelled. The results proj...

  11. The aquatic systems of Doñana (SW Spain): watersheds and frontiers

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Martín, Laura; Reina Vázquez, Marta María; Martín Farfán, Gonzalo; Reyes Bárbara, Isabel; Arechederra, Arantza; León, D.; Toja Santillana, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Doñana includes an extraordinary variety of aquatic systems. They are broadly classified according to their location (on either aeolian sands or marshland) as their hydrology largely depends on the geomorphology of their basins. Their chemical composition is mainly influenced by rainfall, evaporative concentration, groundwater discharge, biogeochemical interactions at the sediment-water interface, and the quality composition of their watersheds. The influence of the watershed can be studie...

  12. Project W-314 specific test and evaluation plan for 241-AN-A valve pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system's performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP)

  13. Review of "Crítica e Tradução" by Ana Cristina Cesar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Regina Guimarães Barboza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2017v37n2p270 The text presents a review on the book of essays "Crítica e Tradução" by Ana Cristina Cesar. Counting her publications in magazines and her academic productions, besides her works in translation, the volume brings has a interesting perspective on culture, cinema, literature and translation according to the researches of the author.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships and pathogenicity variation of two Newcastle disease viruses isolated from domestic ducks in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yinfeng; Li, Yanling; Yuan, Runyu; Li, Xianwei; Sun, Minhua; Wang, Zhaoxiong; Feng, Minsha; Jiao, Peirong; Ren, Tao

    2014-08-12

    Newcastle disease (ND) is an OIE listed disease caused by virulent avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) strains, which is enzootic and causes large economic losses in the poultry sector. Genotype VII and genotype IX NDV viruses were the predominant circulating genotype in China, which may possibly be responsible for disease outbreaks in chicken flocks in recent years. While ducks and geese usually have exhibited inapparent infections. In the present study, we investigate the complete genome sequence, the clinicopathological characterization and transmission of two virulent Newcastle disease viruses, SS-10 and NH-10, isolated from domestic ducks in Southern China in 2010. F, and the complete gene sequences based on phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that SS-10 (genotype VII) and NH-10 (genotype IX) belongs to class II. The deduced amino acid sequence was (112)R-R-Q-K/R-R-F(117) at the fusion protein cleavage site. Animal experiment results showed that the SS-10 virus isolated from ducks was highly pathogenic for chickens and geese, but low pathogenic for ducks. It could be detected from spleen, lung, kidney, trachea, small intestine, bursa of fabricius, thymus, pancreas and cecal tonsils, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and could transmit to the naive contact birds. Moreover, it could transmit to chickens, ducks and geese by naive contact. However, the NH-10 virus isolated from ducks could infect some chickens, ducks and geese, but only caused chickens to die. Additionally, it could transmit to the naive contact chickens, ducks, and geese. The two NDV isolates exhibited different biological properties with respect to pathogenicity and transmission in chickens, ducks and geese. Therefore, no species-preference exists for chicken, duck or goose viruses and more attention should be paid to the trans-species transmission of VII NDVs between ducks, geese and chickens for the control and eradication of ND.

  15. SIA "Valrito" apgrozījuma palielināšana

    OpenAIRE

    Lazdiņš, Ivars

    2014-01-01

    Maģistra darba mērķis ir izpētīt SIA „Valrito” attīstības iespējas, piedāvājot savam klientam iegādāties jaunu, līdz šim nepiedāvātu produktu līdz 2015. gadam, pielietojot projekta vadīšanas metodes.Darbs ietver uzņēmuma veikalu „Gustiņš” noieta tirgus, produktu un pakalpojumu piedāvājuma, un finanšu rādītāju izpēti, un analīzi. Risinājuma piedāvājumu, kura realizācijai par pamatu tiks ņemts jauna produkta ražošanas uzsākšana.Darba pētījuma ietvaros tiek definēta sekojoša problēma: Uzņēmums ...

  16. Doñana y su entorno: Conservación y explotación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Rubio Recio

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Tanto río de tinta sobre Doñana y tantas palabras, noticias, pareceres, opinio­nes y declaraciones de gentes de las más diversa condición, no están haciendo sino sembrar confusión . Y no digamos nada de la presencia de gobernantes y políticos, -alguna sospechosamente asidua- que se arroban y extasian en el secarral o humedal doñanero, sobre todo si está la televisión o la prensa delante. Doñana para esas personas es sólo fuente de imagen , porque Doñana , como muy acertadamente expresó Aquilino Duque al titular su libro sobre el Parque Nacio­nal que se asienta sobre dicho lugar, es un mito y como tal se explota. En el fondo, no se si será una manifestación de "si aquí se invitaba a los Reyes de España y a otras gentes de la nobleza, en otras épocas, -denostadas, eso sí-, ¿por qué no voy a venir yo?-".

  17. Project W-314 specific test and evaluation plan for 241-AN-A valve pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system's performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a ''lower tier'' document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP) This STEP encompasses all testing activities required to demonstrate compliance to the project design criteria as it relates to the modifications of the AN-A valve pit. The Project Design Specifications (PDS) identify the specific testing activities required for the Project. Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities), Factory Acceptance Tests (FATs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Acceptance Tests (CATs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). It should be noted that POTPs are not required for testing of the modifications to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit. The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation

  18. Evaluation of the RapID-ANA system for identification of anaerobic bacteria of veterinary origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adney, W S; Jones, R L

    1985-12-01

    This study evaluated the ability of the RapID-ANA system (Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Inc., Atlanta, Ga.) to accurately identify a spectrum of freshly isolated veterinary anaerobes. A total of 183 isolates were tested and included 7 Actinomyces spp., 53 Bacteroides spp., 32 Clostridium spp., 2 Eubacterium spp., 65 Fusobacterium spp., 1 Peptococcus spp., 22 Peptostreptococcus spp., and 1 Propionibacterium spp. All isolates were initially identified by conventional biochemical testing and gas-liquid chromatography of short-chain fatty acid metabolites. Additional tests were performed as required by the RapID-ANA system. Of these isolates, 81.4% were correctly identified to the genus level, including 59.6% to the species level, 14.2% were incorrectly identified at the genus level, and 4.4% were not identified. Initially, 20.2% of the strains were not identified because the microcodes were not in the code book. The majority of the incorrect identifications were caused by the misidentification of Fusobacterium spp. as Bacteroides spp. Errors also occurred when veterinary anaerobes not included in the data base were assigned an identification from the existing data base. The RapID-ANA system appears to be a promising new method for rapid identification of veterinary anaerobes; however, further evaluation with an extended data base is needed before the system can accurately identify all clinically significant anaerobes.

  19. STAT4 gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility and ANA status in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshita, Satoru; Umemura, Takeji; Nakamura, Minoru; Katsuyama, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Soichiro; Kimura, Takefumi; Morita, Susumu; Komatsu, Michiharu; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Yoshizawa, Kaname; Ishibashi, Hiromi; Tanaka, Eiji; Ota, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies suggest that genetic factors contribute to primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) susceptibility. Although several reports have demonstrated that the interleukin (IL) 12 signaling pathway is involved in PBC pathogenesis, its precise genetic factors have not been fully clarified. Here, we performed an association analysis between IL12A, IL12RB, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) genetic variations and susceptibility to PBC. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 395 PBC patients and 458 healthy subjects of Japanese ethnicity and evaluated for associations with PBC susceptibility, anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) status, and anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA) status. We detected significant associations with PBC susceptibility for several STAT4 SNPs (rs10168266; P = 9.4 × 10(-3), rs11889341; P = 1.2 × 10(-3), rs7574865; P = 4.0 × 10(-4), rs8179673; P = 2.0 × 10(-4), and rs10181656; P = 4.2 × 10(-5)). Three risk alleles (rs7574865; P = 0.040, rs8179673; P = 0.032, and rs10181656; P = 0.031) were associated with ANA status, but not with AMA positivity. Our findings confirm that STAT4 is involved in PBC susceptibility and may play a role in ANA status in the Japanese population.

  20. STAT4 Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Susceptibility and ANA Status in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Joshita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association studies suggest that genetic factors contribute to primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC susceptibility. Although several reports have demonstrated that the interleukin (IL 12 signaling pathway is involved in PBC pathogenesis, its precise genetic factors have not been fully clarified. Here, we performed an association analysis between IL12A, IL12RB, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4 genetic variations and susceptibility to PBC. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped in 395 PBC patients and 458 healthy subjects of Japanese ethnicity and evaluated for associations with PBC susceptibility, anti-nuclear antibody (ANA status, and anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA status. We detected significant associations with PBC susceptibility for several STAT4 SNPs (rs10168266; P=9.4×10-3, rs11889341; P=1.2×10-3, rs7574865; P=4.0×10-4, rs8179673; P=2.0×10-4, and rs10181656; P=4.2×10-5. Three risk alleles (rs7574865; P=0.040, rs8179673; P=0.032, and rs10181656; P=0.031 were associated with ANA status, but not with AMA positivity. Our findings confirm that STAT4 is involved in PBC susceptibility and may play a role in ANA status in the Japanese population.

  1. The first whole genome sequence and pathogenicity characterization of a fowl adenovirus 4 isolated from ducks associated with inclusion body hepatitis and hydropericardium syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Liu, Linlin; Wang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yanping; Qi, Xiaole; Liu, Changjun; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei; Cui, Hongyu

    2017-10-01

    In June 2015, an infectious disease with high prevalence causing severe hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) first appeared in duck farms of northeast China. The disease showed high morbidity of 35% and mortality of 15% in a commercial duck farm with 200,000 45-day-old ducks. One strain of hypervirulent fowl adenovirus serotype 4 was identified and designated as HLJDAd15. The whole genome of the duck isolate was sequenced and found to contain the same large deletions as a genotype that has become prevalent in chickens in China recently, indicating that this disease might be transmitted from chickens to ducks. The pathogenicity of HLJDAd15 was evaluated in SPF chickens and ducks. The results showed that chickens were more susceptible to this new genotype of fowl adenovirus, and it was more difficult to infect ducks than chickens with the duck origin virus. Thus, it appears that this severe HPS in ducks is far more likely to have been transmitted from chickens to ducks than from ducks to ducks. Therefore, transmission from chickens to ducks constitutes a threat to the duck farming industry, and this transmission route is a very important consideration for the prevention and control of the new genotype of fowl adenovirus. This is the first whole genome sequence of a FAdV-4 isolated from ducks, and this information is important for understanding the molecular characteristics and evolution of aviadenoviruses. The potential risks of infection with this new hypervirulent FAdV-4 genotype in chickens and ducks urgently require an effective vaccine.

  2. Contrasting nest survival patterns for ducks and songbirds in northern mixed-grass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Todd; Shaffer, Terry L.; Madden, Elizabeth M.; Nenneman, Melvin P.

    2017-01-01

    Management actions intended to protect or improve habitat for ducks may benefit grassland-nesting passerines, but scant information is available to explore this assumption. During 1998–2003, we examined nest survival of ducks and songbirds to determine whether effects of prescribed fire and other habitat features (e.g., shrub cover and distance to habitat edges) were similar for ducks and passerines breeding in North Dakota. We used the logistic-exposure method to estimate survival of duck and songbird nests (n = 3,171). We used an information-theoretic approach to identify factors that most influenced nest survival. Patterns of nest survival were markedly different between taxonomic groups. For ducks, nest survival was greater during the first postfire nesting season (daily survival rate [DSR] = 0.957, 85% CI = 0.951–0.963), relative to later postfire nesting seasons (DSR = 0.946, 85% CI = 0.942–0.950). Furthermore duck nest survival and nest densities were inversely related. Duck nest survival also was greater as shrub cover decreased and as distance from cropland and wetland edges increased. Passerines had lower nest survival during the first postfire nesting season (DSR = 0.934, 85% CI = 0.924–0.944), when densities also were low compared to subsequent postfire nesting seasons (DSR = 0.947, 85% CI = 0.944–0.950). Parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) reduced passerine nest survival and this effect was more pronounced during the first postfire nesting season compared to subsequent nesting seasons. Passerine nest survival was greater as shrub cover decreased and perhaps for more concealed nests. Duck and songbird nest survival rates were not correlated during this study and for associated studies that examined additional variables using the same dataset, suggesting that different mechanisms influenced their survival. Based on our results, ducks should not be considered direct surrogates for passerines

  3. Two Decades of Mexican Particle Physics at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, R.

    2003-01-01

    This report is a view from Fermilab of Mexican particle physics at the Laboratory since about 1980; it is not intended to be a history of Mexican particle physics: that topic is outside the expertise of the writer. The period 1980 to the present coincides with the growth of Mexican experimental particle physics from essentially no activity to its current state where Mexican groups take part in experiments at several of the world's major laboratories

  4. Effect of dietary energy and protein content on growth and carcass traits of Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q F; Cherry, P; Doster, A; Murdoch, R; Adeola, O; Applegate, T J

    2015-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary energy and protein concentrations on growth performance and carcass traits of Pekin ducks from 15 to 35 d of age. In experiment 1, 14-d-old ducks were randomly assigned to 3 dietary metabolizable energy (11.8, 12.8, and 13.8 MJ/kg) and 3 crude protein concentrations (15, 17, and 19%) in a 3×3 factorial arrangement (6 replicate pens; 66 ducks/pen). Carcass characteristics were evaluated on d 28, 32, and 35. In Experiment 2, 15-d-old ducks (6 replicate cages; 6 ducks/cage) were randomly allotted to the 9 diets that were remixed with 0.5% chromic oxide. Excreta were collected from d 17 to 19, and ileal digesta was collected on d 19 to determine AMEn and amino acid digestibility. In Experiment 1, there were interactions (Pducks were fed a high dietary AMEn (13.75 MJ/kg) and high CP (19%, 1.21% SID Lys). These results provide a framework for subsequent modeling of amino acid and energy inputs and the corresponding outputs of growth performance and carcass components. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  5. Feeding Diets Containing Different Forms of Duckweed on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was undertaken to study the feeding effect of diets containing different forms of duckweed for local ducks on their productive performance and egg quality or egg yolk pigmentation. A total of 90 birds of 24 wk old ducks were randomly divided into 18 experimental units of 2.0 x 1.0 m2 of cages. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design (3 treatments with 6 replicates, 5 birds each. There were 3 dietary treatments, namely P1= ducks fed a complete diet containing 20 % of dried duckweed and given in the form of dry-mash; P2= a complete diet in P1 but it was offered in wet form (slurry; and P3= ducks were offered basal diet in the form of dry-mash and fresh duckweed was offered separately ad libitum. Diets were formulated to have similar nutritional contents. Feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and egg yolk pigmentation were measured. The result of the study showed that these three parameters were affected by the feeding different forms of duckweed. Feeding diet with fresh duckweed brought about the best pigmentation than did the dry one. Fresh duckweed offers a promise as a potential feedstuff for ducks and has a good implication in reducing feed processing cost.

  6. Nutritive Value of Fermented Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes Leaf with Aspergillus niger in Tegal Duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Mangisah

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Two steps of experiment were conducted to evaluate the proximate composition and nutritive value of fermented water hyacinth leaf (WHL with Aspergillus niger in Tegal duck. Twenty two heads of eight-week Tegal ducks with an average body weight of 1202.55 + 111.14 g were used in this experiment. There were two treatments namely: non-fermented (NFWH and fermented with Aspergillus niger (FWHAN. Each treatment was replicated 10 times. Data gathered were analyzed using t-student test. The proximate composition between NFWH and FWHAN showed an increase in crude protein/CP (11.44 vs 16.09% and ash (12.76 vs 22.37% but a decrease in crude fiber/CF (21.51 vs 16.62% and nitrogen free extract/NFE (53.20 vs 43.59%. The nutritive value of diet for eight-week Tegal ducks showed that fermentation of WHL with Aspergillus niger significantly increased CP digestibility, true metabolizable energy (TME and nitrogen retention (NR, but not for CF digestibility. It could be concluded that fermentation of WHL with Aspergillus niger increases the nutrient quality and the nutritive value of diet for eight-week Tegal ducks in term of CP digestibility, TME and NR. (Animal Production 12(2: 100-104 (2010Key Words: water hyacinth leaf, fermentation, Aspergillus niger, biological value, Tegal ducks

  7. QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE EVALUATION OF NUGGETS PREPARED FROM SPENT DUCK AND SPENT HEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare the quality of nuggets prepared from spent hen and duck meat. The cooked nuggets were analyzed for pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA, tyrosine value (TV, moisture, fat, protein, total plate count (TPC and sensory evaluations. Nuggets prepared from spent hen meat showed significantly higher (p<0.05 moisture content however pH, fat and protein content were significantly higher (p<0.05 in duck nuggets. TBA values, TVs and (TPC were highest in duck nuggets but were within the acceptable level up to 7th day of refrigerated storage (4±1°C in both types of nuggets. Both nuggets maintain their sensory quality up to 7th day of refrigeration storage but spent hen nuggets were preferred by consumers compared to nuggets prepared from spent duck meat. Result of the study indicated that, despite the comparative differences among these nuggets, spent duck and hen meat could be used for preparation of nutritionally rich and acceptable nuggets.

  8. DNA microarray global gene expression analysis of influenza virus-infected chicken and duck cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh V. Kuchipudi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article pertain to the article by Kuchipudi et al. (2014 titled “Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Chickens But Not Ducks Is Associated with Elevated Host Immune and Pro-inflammatory Responses” [1]. While infection of chickens with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 virus subtypes often leads to 100% mortality within 1 to 2 days, infection of ducks in contrast causes mild or no clinical signs. The rapid onset of fatal disease in chickens, but with no evidence of severe clinical symptoms in ducks, suggests underlying differences in their innate immune mechanisms. We used Chicken Genechip microarrays (Affymetrix to analyse the gene expression profiles of primary chicken and duck lung cells infected with a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI H2N3 virus and two HPAI H5N1 virus subtypes to understand the molecular basis of host susceptibility and resistance in chickens and ducks. Here, we described the experimental design, quality control and analysis that were performed on the data set. The data are publicly available through the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEOdatabase with accession number GSE33389, and the analysis and interpretation of these data are included in Kuchipudi et al. (2014 [1].

  9. THE EFFECT OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS DIETARY LEVEL ON EGG PRODUCTION OF THE BANTUL LOCAL DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sasongko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of various calcium and phosphorus levels on theproduction performance of Bantul Duck. A total of 270 female ducks, 26 weeks age, were used in thestudy with a 3x3 factorial treatment, which is a combination of three levels of Ca: 3.75; 3.25 and 2.75%and three levels of P: 0.45, 0.35 and 0.25%. Each treatment occupied three replication cages, each ofwhich consisted of 10 ducks. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks.. Data recorded were: (a feedintake (g/duck/day, (b egg production (% HDA, and (c feed conversion. All quantitative dataobtained during the study were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA using SPSS computerprogram. The results of the variables recorded did not show significantly difference. Increasing Ca levelon feed showed an increasing trend of egg production. The average feed consumption ranged at 151-159g/duck/day; egg production was 75-84%, and the feed conversion was 184-212 g/egg.

  10. THE EFFECT OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS DIETARY LEVEL ON EGG PRODUCTION OF THE BANTUL LOCAL DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sasongko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of various calcium and phosphorus levels on the production performance of Bantul Duck. A total of 270 female ducks, 26 weeks age, were used in the study with a 3x3 factorial treatment, which is a combination of three levels of Ca: 3.75; 3.25 and 2.75% and three levels of P: 0.45, 0.35 and 0.25%. Each treatment occupied three replication cages, each of which consisted of 10 ducks. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks.. Data recorded were: (a feed intake (g/duck/day, (b egg production (% HDA, and (c feed conversion. All quantitative data obtained during the study were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA using SPSS computer program. The results of the variables recorded did not show significantly difference. Increasing Ca level on feed showed an increasing trend of egg production. The average feed consumption ranged at 151-159 g/duck/day; egg production was 75-84%, and the feed conversion was 184-212 g/egg.

  11. Mechanism and capacities of reducing ecological cost through rice-duck cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Pan; Huang, Huang; Liao, Xiaolan; Fu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Huabin; Chen, Aiwu; Chen, Can

    2013-09-01

    Rice-duck cultivation is the essence of Chinese traditional agriculture. A scientific assessment of the mechanism and its capacity is of theoretical significance and practical value in improving modern agricultural technology. The duck's secretions, excreta and their treading, pecking and predation decrease the occurrence of plant diseases, pests and weeds, enrich species diversity and improve the field environment. The rice-duck intergrowth system effectively prevents rice planthoppers and rice leafhoppers. The control effects can be up to 98.47% and 100% respectively; it also has effects on the control of Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas and the rice leafrollers. Notable control results are found on sheath blight, while the effects on other diseases are about 50%. Harm from weeds is placed under primary control; prevention of weeds is sequenced by broadleaf weeds > sedge weeds > Gramineae weeds. Contents of soil organic matter, N, P and K are improved by the system; nutrient utilization is accelerated, resulting in decreased fertilizer application. Greenhouse gas emissions are reduced by 1-2% and duck fodder is saved in this system. There is also an obvious economic benefit. Compared to conventional rice cultivation, rice-duck cultivation shows great benefits to ecologic cost and economic income. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Los rostros de Ana: Tres comentarios sobre Darío Morales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Marcelo Velázquez Sabogal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente escrito es una aproximación a la obra del artista colombiano Darío Morales desde la perspectiva dialéctica “vida-muerte”, alentada por el acontecimiento de lo ambiguo y sus implicaciones en la deconstrucción de una corporeidad estable regida por parámetros sociales, jurídicos y biológicos que desembocan en la caracterización de un “otro” en el cual se encuentran figuras como el anormal, el incorregible, el monstruo. Desde ellos pretendo trazar un punto de vista sobre aquellos Rostros de Ana donde se manifiestan figuras como el onanista y la vampira, para desembocar en un comentario que amplíe el espectro de sentido alrededor la obra del artista cartagenero. Palabras claves Cuerpo ambiguo, vida-muerte, sagrado-profano, onanismo. Ñawekuna kai warmi Ana Sutipa: Kimsa pariai ksi runa Dario Morales Sugllapi Kai kilkai kame ñalla regcha kai tacha runa colombiano Dario Morales Kilkakasina rimangapa “ kausai- wamui” aida chingapa kaikuna Mana allilla llugsichu tukuikunamanda icharichu llanga “sug manda” Kaipe turrerreme ¡ kauancheme man aillakaska, man allilla rurasla! Kirú. Kaipi pudenchi kauanga imasami kauacheca kai warme Ana paipa ñawekuna Kai ruraikuna sutikame onanista Chasallata vampira, Kaiwa munakume Allilla intendechengapa imasame parlaku sug iacha Cartagenero. Ima suti Rimai Simi: Cuerpo ambiguo, kaugsai, muerte, sagrado - profano, onanismo. The Faces of Ana: Three Comments on Dario Morales Abstract This paper is an approach to the work of Colombian artist Dario Morales from the perspective of the dialectic of “life and death”, encouraged by the occurrence of the ambiguous and its implications for the deconstruction of a stable corporeality governed by social, legal and biological parameters that lead to the characterization of an “other”, in which figures such as the abnormal, the incorrigible, the monster are to be found. From them, I intend to plot a point of view on those faces of Ana

  13. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinheng; Zhong, Yangjin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Huanmin; Chen, Feng; Chen, Weiguo; Xie, Qingmei

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The results of the analyses were in conformity with AdV properties. The full genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The new isolate (named CH-GD-12-2014) shared over 91% sequence identity with duck AdV-2 representing the species Duck aviadenovirus B. The most important distinguishing feature between the two DAdV strains was the presence of a second fiber gene in the Chinese isolate. Phylogeny reconstruction confirmed the affiliation of the virus with goose and duck AdVs in the genus Aviadenovirus. Experimental infection resulted in embryo death, and intramuscular inoculation provoked morbidity and mortality among ducks and chickens. - Highlights: • A duck adenovirus type 3 was isolated and the complete genome of DAdV-3 was obtained. • Physicochemical properties and electron microscopy were researched. • Pathogenicity of duck adenovirus type 3 was researched.

  14. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinheng [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Zhong, Yangjin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Liu, Yang [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); Zhang, Huanmin [USDA, Agriculture Research Service, Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Chen, Feng [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); Chen, Weiguo [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Xie, Qingmei, E-mail: qmx@scau.edu.cn [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The results of the analyses were in conformity with AdV properties. The full genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The new isolate (named CH-GD-12-2014) shared over 91% sequence identity with duck AdV-2 representing the species Duck aviadenovirus B. The most important distinguishing feature between the two DAdV strains was the presence of a second fiber gene in the Chinese isolate. Phylogeny reconstruction confirmed the affiliation of the virus with goose and duck AdVs in the genus Aviadenovirus. Experimental infection resulted in embryo death, and intramuscular inoculation provoked morbidity and mortality among ducks and chickens. - Highlights: • A duck adenovirus type 3 was isolated and the complete genome of DAdV-3 was obtained. • Physicochemical properties and electron microscopy were researched. • Pathogenicity of duck adenovirus type 3 was researched.

  15. The Birth of a research animal. Ibsen's The Wild Duck and the origin of a new animal science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, H.A.E.

    2000-01-01

    What role does the wild duck play in Ibsen's famous drama? I argue that, besides mirroring the fate of the human cast members, the duck is acting as animal subject in a quasi-experiment, conducted in a private setting. Analysed from this perspective, the play allows us to discern the epistemological

  16. A Feasibility Study of Sustainable Distributed Generation Technologies to Improve the electrical System on the Duck Valley Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman Atkins, Shoshone-Paiute; Mark Hannifan, New West Technologies

    2005-06-30

    A range of sustainable energy options were assessed for feasibility in addressing chronic electric grid reliability problems at Duck Valley IR. Wind power and building energy efficiency were determined to have the most merit, with the Duck Valley Tribes now well positioned to pursue large scale wind power development for on- and off-reservation sales.

  17. Establishment of an H6N2 Influenza Virus Lineage in Domestic Ducks in Southern China ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K.; Bahl, J.; Fan, X. H.; Vijaykrishna, D.; Cheung, C. L.; Webby, R. J.; Webster, R. G.; Chen, H.; Smith, Gavin J. D.; Peiris, J. S. M.; Guan, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple reassortment events between different subtypes of endemic avian influenza viruses have increased the genomic diversity of influenza viruses circulating in poultry in southern China. Gene exchange from the natural gene pool to poultry has contributed to this increase in genetic diversity. However, the role of domestic ducks as an interface between the natural gene pool and terrestrial poultry in the influenza virus ecosystem has not been fully characterized. Here we phylogenetically and antigenically analyzed 170 H6 viruses isolated from domestic ducks from 2000 to 2005 in southern China, which contains the largest population of domestic ducks in the world. Three distinct hemagglutinin lineages were identified. Group I contained the majority of isolates with a single internal gene complex and was endemic in domestic ducks in Guangdong from the late 1990s onward. Group II was derived from reassortment events in which the surface genes of group I viruses were replaced with novel H6 and N2 genes. Group III represented H6 viruses that undergo frequent reassortment with multiple virus subtypes from the natural gene pool. Surprisingly, H6 viruses endemic in domestic ducks and terrestrial poultry seldom reassort, but gene exchanges between viruses from domestic ducks and migratory ducks occurred throughout the surveillance period. These findings suggest that domestic ducks in southern China mediate the interaction of viruses between different gene pools and facilitate the generation of novel influenza virus variants circulating in poultry. PMID:20463062

  18. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The ...

  19. Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Eliseo

    Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

  20. Los Dos Mundos: Rural Mexican Americans, Another America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard

    This book explores race relations between Mexican Americans and Anglo Americans in "Middlewest," a fictitious name for an actual rural Idaho community with the highest proportion of Mexican Americans in the state. Many Mexican Americans in this predominantly agricultural area are current or former migrant workers. The first chapter…

  1. Feeding ducks, bacterial chemotaxis, and the Gini index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaudecerf, François J.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2015-08-01

    Classic experiments on the distribution of ducks around separated food sources found consistency with the "ideal free" distribution in which the local population is proportional to the local supply rate. Motivated by this experiment and others, we examine the analogous problem in the microbial world: the distribution of chemotactic bacteria around multiple nearby food sources. In contrast to the optimization of uptake rate that may hold at the level of a single cell in a spatially varying nutrient field, nutrient consumption by a population of chemotactic cells will modify the nutrient field, and the uptake rate will generally vary throughout the population. Through a simple model we study the distribution of resource uptake in the presence of chemotaxis, consumption, and diffusion of both bacteria and nutrients. Borrowing from the field of theoretical economics, we explore how the Gini index can be used as a means to quantify the inequalities of uptake. The redistributive effect of chemotaxis can lead to a phenomenon we term "chemotactic levelling," and the influence of these results on population fitness are briefly considered.

  2. Breeding ecology of the redhead duck in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokemoen, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    The habits of the redhead duck (Aythya americana) were studied in the Flathead Valley of western Montana in 1960 and 1961 to determine their habitat preferences in this pothole breeding ground. The 2,600-acre study area, surrounding the Ninepipe Reservoir, contained 686 potholes. Redheads usually were paired by the time they arrived on the study area in March. The average density of redhead breeding pairs was 25 pairs per square mile. For all spring activities except nesting, the birds used large, deep, open potholes or breeding-pair potholes. The several breeding-pair potholes and the nesting pothole utilized by the pair comprised their home range. Starting in late April, the pairs moved about the home range as the hens selected nesting sites, usually in the dense emergent vegetation of small, shallow potholes. Hard-stem bulrush (Scirpus acutus) and cat-tail (Typha latifolia) were preferred nesting cover. Redhead nesting success was only 15 percent, a low rate apparently caused by degenerate nesting behavior complicated by high redhead density, a lack of suitable nest hosts, and certain habitat deficiencies. By late June most drakes and unsuccessful hens had moved from the potholes to nearby reservoirs. All successful hens led their newly hatched broods from the nesting potholes to larger brood potholes and many eventually moved to the reservoir. By mid-July virtually all redheads had moved from the potholes to the reservoirs, where they remained until fall migration.

  3. Duck Valley Habitat Enhancement and Protection, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, Guy; Pero, Vincent (Shoshone-Paiute Nation, Duck Valley Indian Reservation, Owyhee, NV)

    2000-01-01

    The Duck Valley Indian Reservations' Habitat Enhancement project is an ongoing project designed to enhance and protect the critical riparian areas, natural springs, and native fish spawning areas on the Reservation. The project was begun in 1997 with the hiring of a fisheries biologist and the creation of a new department for the Tribes. The project's goals are to protect and enhance the springs, Owyhee River, its tributaries, and to develop a database that can be used by other fisheries professionals which includes information on water quality and fish composition, health, abundance, and genetic makeup. One habitat portion of the project is a focus on protection the numerous springs that provide clean, cool water to the Owyhee River. This will be accomplished through enclosure fences of the spring heads and water troughs to provide clean cool drinking water for wildlife and livestock. Another habitat portion of the project involves protecting headwater areas of streams with native fish populations. This is accomplished through enclosure fencing and riparian plantings on any eroded or degraded banks in the enclosure area. Finally, we monitor and evaluate the areas protected and enhanced. This is accomplished through biological sampling for temperature, Oxygen, sedimentation, and measurements of water depth, bank height and undercut, and width of stream. With the habitat and biological indices we will be able to evaluate how well protective measures are doing, and where to focus future efforts.

  4. Mexican energy policy and sustainability indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinbaum-Pardo, Claudia; Ruiz-Mendoza, Belizza Janet; Rodríguez-Padilla, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    The authors analyze the Mexican energy policy taking as reference the methodological framework for sustainable energy development proposed by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. This methodology takes eight related indicators to the social, environmental and economic dimensions in order to calculate a general sustainability indicator for the energy sector. In this methodology, the weight of each dimension is different; namely, the social and environmental issues have less relevance than the economic issues. The authors use this methodology because government institutions as the Department of Energy and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources have used some indicators from such a methodology to propose plans, programs, projects and bills. Authors know of the existence of other methodologies about sustainability. Nonetheless, opting for the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean's methodology is convenient because this organization is a respectable authority for civil servants from the Mexican institutions. Our objective is just to contrast the sustainability grade of the energy sector between 1990 and 2008 for Mexico whose government started reforms in the 1990s. It concludes that those reforms did not bring about a higher sustainability level for the energy sector. - Highlights: ► We used the OLADE, CEPAL and GTZ's methodology to calculate sustainability indicators for the Mexican energy sector. ► We studied the Mexican energy policy from 1990 to date and presented it. ► Currently, the Mexican energy sector is less sustainable than in 1990.

  5. Genetic characterization of a potentially novel goose parvovirus circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao; Cheng, Xiao-Xia; Chen, Shao-Ying; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Chen, Shi-Long; Lin, Feng-Qiang; Li, Zhao-Long

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel goose parvovirus (MDGPV/PT) isolated from an affected Muscovy duck in Fujian Province, China. In this study, the NS1 sequence analyses indicated a close genetic relationship between MDGPV/PT and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) strains, although MDGPV/DY, which was isolated from a Muscovy duck in 2006 in Sichuan Province, could be divided into GPV-related groups. Phylogenetic analysis showed that except for differences in the NS1 gene, MDGPV strains PT and DY are closely related to a parvovirus that infects domestic waterfowls. This is the first demonstration of recombination between goose and Muscovy duck parvoviruses in nature, and MDGPV/PT might have led to the generation of a novel waterfowl parvovirus strain circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in China.

  6. The Effect of Zingiber Officinale Rosc in The Diets of Performance in Culled Layer Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjokorda Gede Belawa Yadnya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was design using a completely randomized block design (CRBD with four treatments. Treatment were diets without Zingiber officinale rosc (A, diets contain 2,91% Zingiber officinale Rosc  (B, diets contain 5,66%. Zingiber officinale Rosc (C, and diets contain 8,26% Zingiber officinale Rosc (D. Each treatment with five replicates, and each replicate consist four culled layer ducks. Variable observed were feed conversation ratio, carcass physical composition, and meat quality. It was concluded that present  Zingiber officinale Rosc in the diets could be improved of performance in culled layer ducks.   Keywords : Zingiber officinale Rosc, Culled layer ducks, and  meat qualit

  7. Effects of stocking density on growth performance, meat quality and tibia development of Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya Ru; Zhang, Lu Shuang; Wang, Zhong; Liu, Yang; Li, Fu Huang; Yuan, Jian Min; Xia, Zhao Fei

    2018-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of stocking density on performance, meat quality and tibia development in Pekin ducks reared on a plastic wire floor. A total of 372 healthy, 21-day-old, male ducks with similar body weight (BW) were randomly allotted to stocking densities of five (low), eight (medium) and 11 (high) birds/m 2 . Each group had six replicates. Results showed that compared with the low density group, medium and high stocking density caused a decrease in final BW at 42 days old, and in average daily gain, European performance index (p study, the stocking density of male Pekin ducks should be adjusted between five and eight birds/m 2 . © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Effect of Gamma Radiation to the Content of Nutrition Duck Egg Environment Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutjipto; Yohannes Sardjono

    2007-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation dose of 0.7 kGy to the content of nutrition duck egg environment sample of Turi area, Bantul Yogyakarta has been studied. This research is conducted to determine the effect of gamma radiation 0.7 kGy to the nutrition duck egg which stored during 21 days. The grouped of some fresh duck egg sample to become 2 group. First group with 0 kGy (non irradiation) and the second group with 0.7 kGy dose. The irradiation sample was conducted at Kartini reactor Beamport. After the desired dose reached, the duck egg was lifted. Both irradiated and non irradiated duck egg then stored during 21 days. The research design used is Complete Block Random Device (RABL) with pattern factorial and restating as block. First factor : Dose of Irradiation (D) : D 1 = 0 kGy (non irradiation) and D 2 = 0.7 kGy. Second factors : stored time (P) : P 1 = 0 and day of P 2 = 21 days. The analysis of water content, total protein, dissolve protein, ash and fat was carried out. The research result shows that the gamma irradiation have no significant effect to the water content, total protein, dissolve protein, ash and fat both in white and also duck egg yolk for day of 0 (P> 0.05). For storage during 21 days, gamma radiation have significant effect to the water content, total protein, dissolve protein both in white and also duck egg yolk (P 0.05), because the irradiation process do not influence the availability of mineral in egg yolk and also have no significant effect to fat content (P> 0.05), because at the protein have compound which able to kill bacterium, so-called with lysozyme, besides high protein alkalinity which do not advantage growth of bacterium, so that during storage do not happened protein lipolysis by enzyme of lipase yielded by microbe. The effect of gamma radiation to the duck egg which stored during 21 days shows that the water content at white duck egg rising to 1.02 % wb, the protein total decreasing to 0.99 % db, the dissolve protein decreasing to 0

  9. Short beak and dwarfism syndrome of mule duck is caused by a distinct lineage of goose parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palya, Vilmos; Zolnai, Anna; Benyeda, Zsófia; Kovács, Edit; Kardi, Veronika; Mató, Tamás

    2009-04-01

    From the early 1970s to the present, numerous cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) have been reported in mule ducks from France. The animals showed strong growth retardation with smaller beak and tarsus. It was suggested that the syndrome was caused by goose parvovirus on the basis of serological investigation, but the causative agent has not been isolated and the disease has not so far been reproduced by experimental infection. The aim of the present study was to characterize the virus strains isolated from field cases of SBDS, and to reproduce the disease experimentally. Phylogenetic analysis proved that the parvovirus isolates obtained from SBDS of mule duck belonged to a distinct lineage of goose parvovirus-related group of waterfowl parvoviruses. The authors carried out experimental infections of 1-day-old, 2-week-old and 3-week-old mule ducks by the oral route with three different parvovirus strains: strain D17/99 of goose parvovirus from Derzsy's disease, strain FM of Muscovy duck parvovirus from the parvovirus disease of Muscovy ducks, and strain D176/02 isolated from SBDS of mule duck. The symptoms of SBDS of the mule duck could only be reproduced with the mule duck isolate (strain D176/02) following 1-day-old inoculation. Infection with a genetically different strain of goose parvovirus isolated from classical Derzsy's disease (D17/99) or with the Muscovy duck parvovirus strain (FM) did not cause any clinical symptoms or pathological lesions in mule ducks.

  10. Craniofacial Secular Change in Recent Mexican Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradley, Katherine; Stull, Kyra E; Hefner, Joseph T

    2016-01-01

    Research by economists suggests that recent Mexican migrants are better educated and have higher socioeconomic status (SES) than previous migrants. Because factors associated with higher SES and improved education can lead to positive secular changes in overall body form, secular changes in the craniofacial complex were analyzed within a recent migrant group from Mexico. The Mexican group represents individuals in the act of migration, not yet influenced by the American environment, and thus can serve as a starting point for future studies of secular change in this population group. The excavation of a historic Hispanic cemetery in Tucson, Arizona, also allows for a comparison between historic Hispanics and recent migrants to explore craniofacial trends over a broad time period, as both groups originate from Mexico. The present research addresses two main questions: (1) Are cranial secular changes evident in recent Mexican migrants? (2) Are historic Hispanics and recent Mexican migrants similar? By studying secular changes within a migrant population group, secular trends may be detected, which will be important for understanding the biological variation of the migrants themselves and will serve as a preliminary investigation of secular change within Mexican migrants. The comparison of a sample of recent Mexican migrants with a historic Hispanic sample, predominantly of Mexican origin, allows us to explore morphological similarities and differences between early and recent Mexicans within the United States. Vault and face size and a total of 82 craniofacial interlandmark distances were used to explore secular changes within the recent Mexican migrants (females, n = 38; males, n = 178) and to explore the morphological similarities between historic Hispanics (females, n = 54; males, n = 58) and recent migrants. Sexes were separated, and multivariate adaptive regression splines and basis splines (quadratic with one knot) were used to assess the direction and magnitude

  11. Movements and foraging effort of Steller's Eiders and Harlequin Ducks wintering near Dutch Harbor, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J.A.; Flint, Paul L.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the movements and foraging effort of radio-marked Steller's Eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to evaluate habitat quality in an area impacted by industrial activity near Dutch Harbor, Alaska. Foraging effort was relatively low, with Steller's Eiders foraging only 2.7 ± 0.6 (SE) hours per day and Harlequin Ducks 4.1 ± 0.5 hours per day. Low-foraging effort during periods of high-energetic demand generally suggests high food availability, and high food availability frequently corresponds with reductions in home range size. However, the winter ranges of Harlequin Ducks did not appear to be smaller than usual, with the mean range size in our study (5.5 ± 1.1 km2) similar to that reported by previous investigators. The mean size of the winter ranges of Steller's Eiders was similar (5.1 ± 1.3 km2), but no comparable estimates are available. Eutrophication of the waters near Dutch Harbor caused by seafood processing and municipal sewage effluent may have increased populations of the invertebrate prey of these sea ducks and contributed to their low-foraging effort. The threat of predation by Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) that winter near Dutch Harbor may cause Steller's Eiders and Harlequin Ducks to move further offshore when not foraging, contributing to an increase in range sizes. Thus, the movement patterns and foraging behavior of these ducks likely represent a balance between the cost and benefits of wintering in a human-influenced environment.

  12. Effect of cooking methods on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in chicken and duck breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, G Z; Wang, G Y; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2010-05-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), potent mutagens/carcinogens, are pyrolysis formed during the cooking of meat and fish. In the present study, the effects of various cooking methods, pan-frying, deep-frying, charcoal grilling and roasting on the formation of HAAs in chicken breast and duck breast were studied. The various HAAs formed during cooking were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that chicken breast cooked by charcoal grilling contained the highest content of total HAAs, as high as 112 ng/g, followed by pan-fried duck breast (53.3 ng/g), charcoal grilled duck breast (32 ng/g), pan-fried chicken breast (27.4 ng/g), deep-fried chicken breast (21.3 ng/g), deep-fried duck breast (14 ng/g), roasted duck breast (7 ng/g) and roasted chicken breast (4 ng/g). For individual HAA, the most abundant HAA was 9H-pyrido-[4,3-b]indole (Norharman), which was detected in charcoal grilled chicken breast at content as high as 32.2 ng/g, followed by 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[4,3-b] indole (Harman) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]pyridine(PhIP) at 32 and 31.1 ng/g in charcoal grilled chicken breast, respectively. The content of PhIP in pan-fried duck and chicken breast were 22 and 18.3 ng/g, respectively. Generally, the type and content of HAAs in cooked poultry meat varies with cooking method and cooking conditions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anemia and mechanism of erythrocyte destruction in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.

    1968-01-01

    In the anemia which accompanies infection by Leucocytozoon simondi in Pekin ducks there was a far greater loss of erythrocytes than could be accounted for as a result of direct physical rupture by the parasite. Erythrocyte loss began at the same time the 1st parasites appeared in the blood and was severest just prior to maximum parasitemia. Blood replacement and parasite loss occurred simultaneously. Examination of the spleen and bone marrow revealed that erythrophagocytosis was not the cause of anemia as reported for infections of Plasmodium, Babesia and Anaplasma. An anti-erythrocyte (A-E) factor was found in the serum of acutely infected ducks which agglutinated and hemolyzed normal untreated duck erythrocytes as well as infected cells. This A-E factor appeared when the 1st red cell loss was detected and reached its maximum titer just prior to the greatest red cell loss. Titers of the A-E factor were determined using normal uninfected erythrocytes at temperatures between 4 and 42 C. Cells agglutinated below 25 C and hemolyzed at 37 and 42 C. These results indicated that the A-E factor could be responsible for loss of cells other than those which were infected and could thus produce an excess loss of red cells. Attempts to implicate the A-E factor as an autoantibody were all negative. The A-E factor was present in the gamma fraction of acute serum but no anamnestic response could be detected when recovered ducks were reinfected. Anemia was never as severe in reinfections as in primary infections. The A-E factor also never reached as high a titer and was removed from the circulation very rapidly in reinfected ducks. It is concluded that red cell loss in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon disease results from intravascular hemolysis rather than erythrophagocytosis. The A-E factor responsible for hemolysis is more likely a parasite product rather than autoantibody.

  14. Nervios and dysphoria in Mexican American widows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, M; Portillo, C

    1989-01-01

    One hundred widows participating in experimental research entitled Efficacy of Support Groups for Mexican American Widows were studied to learn how they express the loss of their husbands. Mourning practices, acknowledged symptoms of dysphoria, and somatic reactions were studied to learn if the syndrome of nervios subsumes their reaction to bereavement. In addition, their responses to instruments designed to measure depression, the Spanish version of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, were examined for correlation with nervios and relationships to Mexican American acculturation. Nervios seems to be a manifestation of dysphoria rather than a specific syndrome for these women.

  15. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  16. Invisible Infantry: Mexicans in World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Plasencia de la Parra

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the  participation of Mexican  and  Mexican- American troops in the United States army during World War II. Recruiting, discrimination, their  role  in the  armed forces  and their reinsertion into society once the war ended, are examined. Special emphasis is placed  on the  Hispanics  fight for their  civil and political rights that was carried on very actively by many War veterans.

  17. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  18. A study on liquid lithium flow in rectangular duck perpendicular to a intense magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Xiuzhong; Chen Ke; Liu Yang; Zhang Qinshun

    2001-01-01

    A research on high-speed liquid-metal lithium flow through a non-expanding rectangular duck under uniform intense magnetic field is presented. A equations set with Poisson equation and Helmholtz equation, which control the electrical field and flow field respectively, has been deduced by analysis and PHsolver, a program to solve the equations set, has also been finished. The current density distribution and flow field in the non-expanding rectangular channel with intense magnetic field have been obtained from PHsolver by applying the wall-function in the boundary wall. The velocity profile in the duck appears M-shaped

  19. Sequence-specific inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus reverse transcription by peptide nucleic acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robaczewska, Magdalena; Narayan, Ramamurthy; Seigneres, Beatrice

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) appear as promising new antisense agents, that have not yet been examined as hepatitis B virus (HBV) inhibitors. Our aim was to study the ability of PNAs targeting the duck HBV (DHBV) encapsidation signal epsilon to inhibit reverse transcription (RT...... in primary duck hepatocytes (PDH). RESULTS: Both PNAs reproducibly inhibited DHBV RT in a dose-dependent manner with IC(50) of 10nM, whereas up to 600-fold higher concentration of S-ODNs was required for similar inhibition. The PNA targeting the bulge and upper stem of epsilon appeared as more efficient RT...

  20. Profilicollis botulus (Van Cleave, 1916) from diving ducks and shore crabs of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, H L

    1989-02-01

    Adults of Profilicollis botulus were found in 6 species of diving ducks in British Columbia including 3 new hosts: common goldeneye, Bucephala clangula (L.); Barrow's goldeneye, B. islandica (Gmelin); and greater scaup, Aythya marila (L.). The identification of the species was verified by the examination of co-types and specimens from eider ducks, Somateria mollissima (L.), from Scotland and oldsquaw, Clangula hyemalis (L.), from New Brunswick. Cystacanths from the hairy shore crab, Hemigrapsus oregonensis (Dana), were similar in morphology to those from Carcinus maenas (L.) from Scotland.

  1. Biodiesel production by transesterification of duck tallow with methanol on alkali catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyong-Hwan [Center for Functional Nano Fine Chemicals, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea); Kim, Jin [Center for Functional Nano Fine Chemicals, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea)]|[Department of Advanced Chemicals Graduate School, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea); Lee, Ki-Young [Center for Functional Nano Fine Chemicals, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea)]|[Department of Applied Chemical Engineering and The Research Institute for Catalysis, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    Duck tallow was employed as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel by transesterification with methanol. The content of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was evaluated on various alkali catalysts during transesterification. The composition and chemical properties of the FAME were investigated in the raw duck tallow and the biodiesel products. The major constituent in the biodiesel product was oleic acid. The FAME content was 97% on KOH catalyst in the reaction. It was acceptable for the limit of European biodiesel qualities for BD100. Acid value, density, and kinematic viscosity of the biodiesel products also came up to the biodiesel qualities. (author)

  2. Functional Characteristics of Spent Duck Meat for Use in Emulsion-Type Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Sumarmono

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Spent ducks produce nutritive meat; however the meat possesses undesirable characteristics such as strong odor and tough. Hence, appropriate yet simple processing technologies need to be developed in order to maximize the use of duck meat. The experiment was conducted to evaluate functional characteristics of spent duck meat as raw material for the production of emulsion-type meat products, such as nugget and sausage. Chilled carcasses of 96 spent ducks were deboned manually, then mixed thoroughly and ground using a 5 mm diameter grinding plate. The ground meat was divided into 4 batches (group of treatments; one batch was treated with iced tap water (M1, one batch with 0.1% NaCl solution (M2, one batch with 0.5% NaHCO3 solution (M3, and one batch was left as is as control (M4. Variables measured were water holding capacity (WHC, pH, emulsion capacity and stability of the meat; and firmness and tenderness of the meat gel. Results showed that M1 meat has significantly higher WHC (less percentage of free water than control (M4, whereas M2 and M3 meat has similar WHC to control. Processing caused the ground duck meat to have significantly higher pH than control. The highest meat pH was observed in M3, followed by M2, M1 and control. Processing duck meat with iced tap water, NaCl or NaHCO3 produced significantly more tender meat gel compared to untreated meat (as is. Tenderness of meat gel of M3 was the most tender followed by M2 and M1. Similar results for meat gel firmness were observed. No significant differences were observed in term of emulsion capacity (expressed as ml oil/gr protein and ml oil/gr fresh meat, emulsion stability (expressed as ml oil and total liquid released per 100 gr emulsion, and cooking recovery (%. The study reported in this paper offers simple processing technologies to improve functional characteristics of spent duck meat to be use as raw material for the production of emulsion type meat products. (Animal Production 12

  3. Carbonate deposition on tail feathers of ruddy ducks using evaporation ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, N.H.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    Substantial carbonate deposits were observed on rectrices of Ruddy Ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) collected during 1982-1984 on evaporation ponds in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Carbonate deposits were composed of about 75% aragonite and 25% calcite, both polymorphous forms of CaCO3. Significantly more carbonate deposits were observed on Ruddy Ducks as length of exposure to agricultural drain water increased, during the 1983-1984 field season when salt concentrations in the ponds were higher, and in certain evaporation-pond systems.

  4. Tetovēšanas tradīcija Ķīnas vēsturē

    OpenAIRE

    Zolotarjova, Anastasija

    2012-01-01

    Šī bakalaura darba nosaukums ir „Tetovēšanas tradīcija Ķīnas vēsturē”. Tetovēšanas tradīcijai ir sena vēsture. Ķīnas teritoriju apdzīvojošās tautas jau kopš senatnes izmantoja tetovēšanu dažādiem nolūkiem – kā aizsargu no ļaunajiem gariem, kā dekoru, kā soda veidu, kā atpazīšanas zīmi un zvēresta nodošanai. Izpētītas arī mūsdienu Ķīnas mazākumtautību tetovēšanas tradīcijas. Darba mērķis ir seno Ķīnas tautu un mūsdienu Ķīnas mazākumtautību tradīciju un tetovēšanas iemeslu izpēte, kā arī i...

  5. Audiomagnetotelluric exploration across the Waíanae Range, Óahu, Hawaíi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, T. D.; Thomas, D. M.; Wallin, E.; Winchester, C.; Sinton, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) method is capable of providing direct evidence of a geothermal resource within the extinct Waíanae volcano, Óahu, Hawaíi. Geothermal systems are becoming an increasingly important energy source worldwide. With electric energy costs in Hawaíi the most expensive in the US (30.54 cents/kWh), it is important to investigate the potential of local geothermal resources. Slightly elevated temperature and chloride concentrations, measured in the 1970's at wells in the upper Lualualei Valley indicate the possibility of a geothermal resource. Previous geophysical investigations: self-potential, rotating quadripole resistivity, and shallow soil temperature surveys in the caldera measured low resistivity values. Resistivity is related to rock characteristics (e.g., porosity, saturation, salinity, temperature, chemistry, and the presence of weathered minerals). We are investigating the area further using the AMT method. We have collected profiles of AMT measurements across the Lualualei Valley and the Waíanae caldera boundary. Anthropogenic noise and access in this area is problematic. Electrical noise, originating from power lines along roads and very low frequency radio towers in the vicinity, add noise to the data. Limited access to sites on military lands inhibit data collection. However, preliminary results show that we have successfully imaged the expected higher resistivity values as our profiles cross the mountains bounding the caldera. As data continue to be collected across the Waíanae Caldera and Range and we begin modeling our data in two dimensions, we expect to be able to identify water table elevations, detect lateral variability between salt and fresh water saturation, estimate thickness of the freshwater lens and depth to the transition zone, image fault structures at the caldera boundary, and with enough sensitivity to conductivity, we can identify regions of elevated temperature.

  6. The Smell of Memories. A Mexican Migrant’s Search for Emotional Sustainability through Mexican Films.

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Coronado

    2011-01-01

    For more than 10 years living as a Mexican migrant, between two countries (Mexico and Australia), two cities (Mexico City and Sydney), and two social worlds (Mexican and multicultural Australian ‘families-friends’), I have been immersed in a systematic process of self observation and self reflection on my life in my country of destination. During this time I have explored my memories of place and their relationship with my emotional experiences, looking for strategies to continue to be connec...

  7. Gale Digital Collections: Ray Abruzzi Interviewed by Luisa Calè and Ana Parejo Vadillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Abruzzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This interview addresses the commercial dimensions of the nineteenth-century digital archive. Luisa Calè and Ana Parejo Vadillo ask Ray Abruzzi, Vice President and Publisher for 'Gale Digital Collections' at Gale, about the company’s origins, its commercial approach to digital collections, and the challenges of digitization. In the context of the open access movement, the architecture of participation, and crowdsourcing, Abruzzi discusses how the company works with academic partners and interfaces with other digital libraries and platforms.

  8. La triada infancia-orfandad-guerra en Los Mercaderes, de Ana María Matute

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio Rodríguez, Ana María

    2017-01-01

    Los Mercaderes, de Ana María Matute, se abre con "Primera memoria" y, a lo largo de la década de los sesenta, sigue con "Los soldados lloran de noche" y, finalmente, "La trampa". Sin embargo, la interrupción en trama y estructura que supone la segunda entrega hizo que buena parte de la crítica pusiese en duda la condición de trilogía de Los mercaderes. El presente trabajo tiene por objeto tomar como referencia tres temas fundamentales en estas novelas y en la narrativa matuteana —la infancia,...

  9. Snježana Malić-Limari, MSc in Natural Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Jelaska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Snježana Malić-Limari successfully defended her Master’s thesis Evaluation of Medvednica Nature Park with Respect to Land Cover, Landform and Visitor System at the Faculty of Science of the University of Zagreb on November 23, 2009. The Master’s thesis was evaluated by the following Committee: Prof. Dr. Božena Mitić, Assist. Prof. Dr. Sven Jelaska (mentor and Prof. Dr. Sanja Tišma, Institute for International Relations.

  10. The ethical and poetic reason in the poems of Ana Martins Marques

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrani, Anélia Montechiari

    2015-01-01

    Na obra da jovem poeta mineira Ana Martins Marques, autora de A vida submarina e Da arte das armadilhas, a sensibilidade feminina e a disciplina estética são marcas significativas. Ler seus poemas, especialmente seus metapoemas, e a arquitetura de seus textos faz-nos situar a novíssima poesia brasileira na atualidade do século XXI, de modo a refletir sobre o papel, o valor e o lugar da poesia na contemporaneidade, como potência e busca de significados em que confluem a razão ética e a poética...

  11. RURAL CHURCHES, „PEARLS” OF RURAL ARCHITECTURE IN CRIȘANA AND MARAMUREȘ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru ILIEȘ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania in general and in particular Crişana and Maramureș wooden churches are identifies of local identity. Using specific tools and methods used in geographical but complementary fields, in conjunction with an interdisciplinary architectural heritage element are analyzed wooden churches as tourist planning perspective. Each „land" and ethnographic area of the Tisa and Mureș north to south has a specific fingerprint identifiable architectural style of these „pearls" of Romanian folk architecture. This diversity is an element of favorable effects on tourism diversification and increasing the attractiveness of a region or locality.

  12. Increased water contamination and grow-out Pekin duck mortality when raised with water troughs compared to pin-metered water lines using a United States management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, A.; Porter, A. L.; Alenciks, E.; Frazier, K.; Best, A. A.; Fraley, S. M.; Fraley, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy has developed as to whether or not pin-metered water lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks. We hypothesized that water troughs would show improved duck body conditions and environmental quality compared to pin-metered water lines. To test this hypothesis, we housed ducks in 2 barns, one with water lines and one with water troughs. Water troughs were constructed to meet RSPCA guidelines for number and density of ducks and with recently described verandas. Ducks were divided into 4 pens per barn (n = 1,000 ducks/pen). The study was then repeated (n = 8 pens per water source) in a cross-over design so the barns each contained the opposite water source to the first experiment. We scored the ducks’ body condition using an established scoring rubric and analyzed using SAS Proc GLM-Mix as binomial data. Ducks housed with water troughs showed higher (thus worse condition; P duck mortality using a Student t test for both water sources each week. We found that the water troughs showed higher iron (P Ducks housed with water troughs used greater (P = 0.001) volumes of water compared to ducks housed with water lines. Ducks with water troughs also showed a greater percent (P = 0.008) mortality at all ages compared to ducks with water lines. These data suggest that water troughs may not be beneficial for duck welfare and could adversely impact both environment and duck or human health. PMID:26769272

  13. Subjective Social Status, Mental and Psychosocial Health, and Birth Weight Differences in Mexican-American and Mexican Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-12-01

    Recent Mexican immigrant women on average have an unexpectedly low incidence of low birth weight (LBW). Birth weights decline and LBW incidence increases in post-immigrant generations. This pilot project tested the hypothesis that subjective social status (SSS) of pregnant women predicts variation in birth weight between Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women. 300 low-income pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women in South Texas were surveyed for SSS, depression, pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress and self-esteem and subsequent birth weight. No significant difference in SSS levels between pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women were found. However, SSS better predicted variation in birth weight across both groups than mental and psychosocial health variables. Results suggest distinct relationships among SSS, mental and psychosocial health that could impact birth weight. They underscore the relevance of a multilevel, biopsychosocial analytical framework to studying LBW.

  14. Establishment of a rice-duck integrated farming system and its effects on soil fertility and rice disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Qing; Hu, Xue-Feng; Cheng, Chang; Luo, Zhi-Qing; Luo, Fan

    2015-04-01

    Rice-duck integrated farming is an ecological farming system newly established in some areas of southern China . It was reported that the ducks walking around the paddy fields is beneficial to control weed hazards and reduce rice pests and diseases. To study and evaluate the effects of the rice-duck integrated farming on soil fertility and rice disease control, a field experiment of rice cultivation was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai in 2014. It includes a treatment of raising ducks in the fields and a control without ducks. The treatment was implemented by building a duck coop nearby the experimental fields and driving 15 ducks into a plot at daytime since the early stage of rice growth. Each plot is 667 m2 in area. The treatment and control were replicated for three times. No any herbicides, pesticides, fungicides and chemical fertilizers were applied during the experiment to prevent any disturbance to duck growing and rice weed hazards and disease incidences from agrochemicals. The results are as follows: (1) The incidences of rice leaf rollers (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and stem borers treated with ducks, 0.45%and 1.18% on average, respectively, are lower than those of the control, 0.74% and 1.44% on average, respectively. At the late stage of rice growth, the incidence of rice sheath blight treated with ducks, 13.15% on average, is significantly lower than that of the control, 16.9% on average; and the incidence of rice planthoppers treated with ducks, 11.3 per hill on average, is also significantly lower than that of the control, 47.4 per hill on average. (2) The number of weeds in the plots treated with ducks, 8.3 per m2 on average, is significantly lower than that of the control, 87.5 m2 on average. (3) Raising ducks in the fields could also enhance soil enzyme activity and nutrient status. At the late stage of rice growth, the activities of urease, phosphatase, sucrase and catalase in the soils treated with ducks are 1.39 times, 1.40 times, 1

  15. Effects of different rearing systems on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and serum biochemical parameters of Chaohu ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Ah Kan Razafindrabe, Richard-Hermann; Chen, Kaikai; Zhao, Xiaohui; Yang, Lei; Wang, Li; Chen, Xingyong; Jin, Sihua; Geng, Zhaoyu

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted using a total of 360 22-day-old Chaohu ducks to evaluate the effect of rearing system on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and serum parameters of male and female Chaohu ducks. The birds were divided and raised in separate pens according to sex and rearing system, with three replicate pens of 30 male or 30 female ducks per pen for each rearing system. The rearing systems consisted of a floor rearing system (FRS) and a net rearing system (NRS). Results showed that ducks raised in NRS had better growth performance, whereas, ducks raised in FRS exhibited better carcass traits and meat color, and lower intramuscular fat. For the serum parameters, NRS significantly decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol content, and enhanced total protein and triacylglycerol contents. Male ducks had lower abdominal fat percentage, and higher growth performance and shear force, but there were no other significant differences between sexes. No rearing system × sex interaction was observed in the present study, revealing that rearing system had the same effect on both sexes. In conclusion, NRS was beneficial to the growth performance of Chaohu ducks, whereas this system had some negative effects on carcass traits, meat quality and serum profiles. © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Isolation and Genomic Characterization of a Duck-Origin GPV-Related Parvovirus from Cherry Valley Ducklings in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Dou, Yanguo; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Zhenjie; Zheng, Xiaoqiang; Niu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Jing; Yu, Xianglong; Diao, Youxiang

    2015-01-01

    A newly emerged duck parvovirus, which causes beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS) in Cherry Valley ducks, has appeared in Northern China since March 2015. To explore the genetic diversity among waterfowl parvovirus isolates, the complete genome of an identified isolate designated SDLC01 was sequenced and analyzed in the present study. Genomic sequence analysis showed that SDLC01 shared 90.8%-94.6% of nucleotide identity with goose parvovirus (GPV) isolates and 78.6%-81.6% of nucleotide identity with classical Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of 443 nucleotides (nt) of the fragment A showed that SDLC01 was highly similar to a mule duck isolate (strain D146/02) and close to European GPV isolates but separate from Asian GPV isolates. Analysis of the left inverted terminal repeat regions revealed that SDLC01 had two major segments deleted between positions 160-176 and 306-322 nt compared with field GPV and MDPV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of Rep and VP1 encoded by two major open reading frames of parvoviruses revealed that SDLC01 was distinct from all GPV and MDPV isolates. The viral pathogenicity and genome characterization of SDLC01 suggest that the novel GPV (N-GPV) is the causative agent of BADS and belongs to a distinct GPV-related subgroup. Furthermore, N-GPV sequences were detected in diseased ducks by polymerase chain reaction and viral proliferation was demonstrated in duck embryos and duck embryo fibroblast cells.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIAL LOAD OF SAUSAGES PREPARED FROM DIFFERENT COMBINATION OF SPENT DUCK AND SPENT HEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to assess the microbial load of sausages prepared from different combination of spent duck and spent hen meat. The combination are 100% spent duck (T1, 75%+ 25% spent duck and spent hen (T2, 50%+50% spent duck and spent hen (T3, 25%+75% spent duck and spent hen (T4 and 100% spent hen (T5. All the samples of different combination were subjected to total plate count (TPC, total psychrophilic count (TPSC and total Coliform count (TCC. Mean of TPC for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 were 4.69, 4.62, 4.60, 4.49 and 4.46 log 10 CFU/gm respectively, while mean TPSC were 4.46, 4.46, 4.43, 4.36 and 4.36 log CFU/gm respectively There were no significant (p<0.05 difference between the different group of combination of sausages for TPS as well as TPSC but varies significantly (p<0.05 from 14th day of storage in both cases. The coliform group of bacteria will not be detected in any combination of sausages. It is concluded that microbial load of sausage prepared from spent duck is high and it is decreases as the percentage of duck meat decreases but, the upper limit of bacteria in each group of sausages is within limit and hence it is safe for human consumption.

  18. Mexican-Americans in the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, Ernesto; And Others

    With findings as presented in this 1969 book, a 2-year field study conducted by a 3-member team analyzed the economic, cultural, political, and educational conditions of Mexican Americans in the Southwest (California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Texas) with some reference to braceros and the situation in Mexico. An overview of 8 geographic…

  19. Barreda, Vasconcelos, and Mexican Educational Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirius, John

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the contributions to Mexican education of Gabino Barredas' positivism between 1867-1898 and the contributions of Jose Vasconcelos during the 1920s. Discusses the secondary curriculum reforms of Barreda's era and the vocational education and the education for women and adults during the Vasconcelos era. (SB)

  20. Weight Preoccupation in Female Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Jorgensen, Layne; Semper, Tom; Vincent, Vern

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the contribution of body size, self-esteem, age, mainstream acculturation, and athletic status to concern or preoccupation about weight among female Mexican American adolescents. Students had low acculturation, high body fatness, and moderate self-esteem. There was little difference between athletes and non-athletes. Greater body size…